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Sample records for archaeological grape seeds

  1. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Geuna, Filippo;

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce...

  2. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

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    Mariano Ucchesu

    Full Text Available The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC, allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  3. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

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    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  4. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

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    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  5. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

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    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  6. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

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    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  7. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

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    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  8. Effects of polyphenols from grape seeds on renal lithiasis.

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    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  9. Antioxidant effect of extract of the grape seed in streptozotocin

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    Yousof Doostar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder as old as mankind and its incidence is considered to be high all over the world. Oxidative stress is strongly associated with development and the complications of diabetes. Antioxidant agents, especially with the origin of plants, are of more importance in the treatment of diabetic complications. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extract of the grape seed on antioxidants status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Material and methods: In this laboratory experimental study which conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz research center. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups including healthy control group, healthy group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg, diabetic control group and diabetic group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg. The experimental rats were treated in related groups for 12 weeks and at the end of experiment serum level of malonaldehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured in red blood cells. Statistically, comparison of the groups was carried out using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p< 0.05. Results: Diabetic rats showed significant increase in the value of MDA and a decrease in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Oral administration of grape seed extract resulted in significant reduction in the level of MDA and significant increase in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetes and show the anti-oxidative effect of grape seed extract

  10. Antioxidant activity of white grape seed extracts on DPPH radicals

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    Ćetković Gordana S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition and antioxidant activity of grape seed extract (GSE obtained from red grape varietes are very well documented, in contrast to the white varietes. This paper presents the results of polyphenols content of ethyl acetate extract of grape seeds, obtained from two white grape varieties, Italian Riesling and Župljanka, and their antioxidant activity on the stable DPPH radical. The influence of the addition of GSE to raspberry juice on the DPPH radical was also examined. Content of total polyphenols in GSEs ranged between 81.6 and 82.8% (w/w, and the contetn of flavan-3-ols between 66.2 and 91.0% (w/w. HPLC results showed that the most abundant components in the extract were (+-catechin and (--epicatechin for both grape varieties. All tested GSEs exhibited good antioxidant activity. IC50 values for the GSEs of Italian Riesling and Župljanka were 0.79 and 0.95 mg sample/mg DPPH radical, respectivelly. Since the GSE of Italian Riesling possesed stronger antioxidant activity, it was used for further experiments. The IC50 value for raspberry juice was 4.18 mg raspberry juice/mg DPPH. The raspberry juice with addition of 0.60 μg/mL of GSE showed antioxidant activity of 39.2%. The same juice with the threefold concentration of vitamin C (1.81 μg/ml exhibited similar antioxidant activity (33.9%. Antioxidant activity of the same amount of juice without added antioxidants was lower (15.7%. The results showed that the GSE of white varietes could be considered as a good functional food ingredient.

  11. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

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    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  12. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

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    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  13. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

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    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  14. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

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    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  15. Influence of Drying Temperature on Total Phenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Seeds

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    Dilara Konuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed, which is an organic waste arise from production of wine, juice and molasses, is considered as a functional food ingredient in food formulations because of its rich content of bioactive compounds. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature on the bioactive compounds of grape seeds. In the study, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seeds that are dehydrated at different drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C were determined. When comparing the fresh grape seeds with the corresponding dehydrated samples, it was shown that the drying operation led to reduction of total phenolic contents and the total phenolic contents decreased with an increase of the drying temperature. According to ABTS radical scavenging method, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC was found to be highest for fresh grape seeds and presented lower values for grape seeds dried at three different temperatures. As a result of the study, it was demonstrated that grape seed is a powerful antioxidant source and it has still high antioxidant activity after drying process. However, drying at low temperatures was put forward to be advantageous in order to reduce the losses of phenolic components.

  16. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

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    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  17. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

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    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  18. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

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    Jochen Weiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w% was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%. Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%, whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%. The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  19. Physical and oxidative stability of uncoated and chitosan-coated liposomes containing grape seed extract.

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    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-08-20

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binit Shrestha; ML Srithavaj Theerathavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon

    2012-01-01

    To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora.Methods:The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results: Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S.aureus. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binit; Shrestha; M.L.Srithavaj; Theerathavaj; Sroisiri; Thaweboon; Boonyanit; Thaweboon

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora.Methods:The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus),Escherichia coli(E.coli),Candida albicans(C.albicans)and clinical strains of S.aureus,Klebsiella pneumonia(K.pneumonia)and Candida parapsilosis(C.parapsilosis)by disk diffusion test.Minimum inhibitory concentrations(MIC)and minimum cidal concentrations(MCC)were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method.The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol,and was tested for antimicrobial effects.Results:Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S.aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of1.25 mg/mL respectively.However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E.coli,K.pneumonia,C.parapsilosis and C.albicans.The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S.aureus.Conclusions:The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skinabutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

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    Bin Tian

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and

  3. The Antimicrobial Activity of Grape Seed Extract against Two Important Oral Pathogens

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    Mahkameh Mirkarimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial properties of plant extracts have shown promise for development of new drugs. This study was conducted to measure the antibacterial activity of grape (Vitis vinifera seed extract against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study the grape seed extract have been prepared with maceration method. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined by determining Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC using the macro dilution broth technique.Results: MIC and MBC for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was 3.84 mg/mL and 7.68 mg/mL respectively.There were not any inhibitory effects against Streptococcus mutans.Conclusion: The Grape seed extract has inhibitory and bactericidal effects against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. There were not any bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects against Streptococcus mutans.

  4. Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.

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    Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (ρ), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug.

  5. Grape seed extract prevents gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.

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    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Salama, Osama M

    2006-09-01

    The protection conferred by grape seed extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations have been evaluated in adult Swiss albino mice. The activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase), the levels of glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys homogenates, serum urea and creatinine were measured, and in addition the changes in kidney histology and bone marrow chromosomes were investigated. Gentamicin (80 mg/kg b.wt. intraperitoneally for 2 weeks) induced kidney damage as indicated from a pronounced changes in kidney histology, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine and MDA content in the kidney homogenate. While the activity of the antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase and the level of GSH were significantly decreased. Gentamicin induced genotoxicity indicated by increased the number of aberrant cells and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations (fragment, deletion and ring chromosome) and showed no effect on mitotic activity of the cell. Pretreatment with grape seed extract (7 days) and simultaneously (14 days) with gentamicin significantly protected the kidney tissue by ameliorating its antioxidant activity. Moreover, grape seed extract significantly protected bone marrow chromosomes from gentamicin induced genotoxicity by reducing the total number of aberrant cells, and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations. It could be concluded that grape seed extract acts as a potent antioxidant prevented kidney damage and genotoxicity of bone marrow cells.

  6. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

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    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  7. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis

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    Durham Paul L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorder, a chronic disease that affects 15% of the adult population, involves activation of trigeminal ganglion nerves and development of peripheral and central sensitization. Natural products represent an underutilized resource in the pursuit of safe and effective ways to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate effects of grape seed extract on neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis in response to persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d MegaNatural-BP grape seed extract for 14 days prior to bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint capsule. Results In response to grape seed extract, basal expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 was elevated in neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and expression of the glutamate aspartate transporter was increased in spinal glia. Rats on a normal diet injected with adjuvant exhibited greater basal levels of phosphorylated-p38 in trigeminal ganglia neurons and spinal neurons and microglia. Similarly, immunoreactive levels of OX-42 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes were greatly increased in response to adjuvant. However, adjuvant-stimulated levels of phosphorylated-p38, OX-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly repressed in extract treated animals. Furthermore, grape seed extract suppressed basal expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in spinal neurons. Conclusions Results from our study provide evidence that grape seed extract may be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for temporomandibular joint disorders by suppressing development of peripheral and central sensitization.

  8. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

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    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  9. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

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    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  10. Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

    2013-12-01

    Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (κ-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting κ-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing κ-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of κ-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity.

  11. Polyphenolic compounds in seeds from some grape cultivars grown in Serbia

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    DEJAN GOĐEVAC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed extracts from eight grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera growing in Serbia were screened for their polyphenolic composition by means of HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS analysis. The study revealed 34 phenolic compounds belonging to the following groups: flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. The quantities of the main constituents were determined using PDA/HPLC. Qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars were observed.

  12. An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from País grape seeds and skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Aspé, Estrella

    2015-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of País grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (penzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples.

  13. Study of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressing

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    Zuzana Jakubcová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment, we studied the antimicrobial and antioxidative effect of phytogenic additives. Three additives (grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressings were selected to be monitored. The extracts about concentrations of 1:3 and 1:5 were prepared from them. The monitoring of antimicrobial properties was focused on the pathogenic bacteria Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli causing a serious disease in avian species. The bacteria were prepared in the dilutions of 102, 104 and 106. The antimicrobial effect was observed in the inhibition zones. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method within the antioxidant analysis. Furthermore, the content of flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids and the total content of polyphenolic compounds was also determined. In the monitoring of the antimicrobial effect of grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressings at E. coli, a reduced growth of KTJ (colony forming units was observed in the disk area during the dilution of 106 and 104. Reduced growth of C. perfringens at a dilution of 106 was noticed using the extracts of grapevine seeds and grape pressings. Low reduced growth of C. perfringens at a dilution of 106 was found out using rosehip pressings. In a dilution of 102 and 104 in C. perfringens and 102 in E. Coli, a very low increase of KTJ was observed therefore the zones of inhibition were not possible to measure. In all monitored additives, the antimicrobial effect was proved. The additives reduced the growth of pathogenic E. coli and C. perfringens. Within the antioxidant analysis, the highest antioxidant activity was found out in grapevine seeds (7.021 g.L-1 GAE, which also contained the highest content of flavanols (3000 times higher than the rosehip pressings and 300 times higher than grapevine seeds pressings, hydroxycinnamic acids (1000 times higher than in grape pressings and 7600 times higher than in rosehip pressings and the total content of polyphenolic compounds (580 times

  14. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour).

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coating Enriched by Zataria Multiflora Essential Oil and Grape Seed Extract

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    Raeisi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The presence of pathogenicbacteria and the factors causing food spoilage are the greatchallenge for public health. Attention to natural additivesinstead of chemical preservatives resulted in conducting severalstudies on plant essential oil and extracts. We aimed atevaluating the antibacterial effect of carboxymethyl cellulosecoating enriched by Zataria multiflora essential oil and grapeseed extract on rainbow trout meat.Material and methods: In this study, two concentrations ofZataria multiflora essential oil (1% and 2% and twoconcentrations of grape seed extract (0.5% and 1% were usedboth alone and in combination with Carboxymethyl cellulosecoating. Antibacterial effect of these treatments was evaluatedby enumeration of bacteria in special culture media.Results: The results obtained in this study demonstrate thatZataria multiflora essential oil in combination with grape seedextract significantly can decrease the number of bacteria anddelay the spoilage of the samples (p<0.05.Conclusion: Coating enriched by Zataria multiflora and grapeseed extract can properly delay the growth of spoilagemicroorganisms and prolong the shelf life of meat products.Key words: Carboxymethyl cellulose coating, Zatariamultiflora essential oil, Grape seed extract, Microbial flora

  16. Thermal Stability Study of the Grape Seeds Extracts in the Aqueous Solutions

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    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of parameters the extraction process of grape seeds extracts on the bioactive compounds. The aqueous extracts were screened for total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content wich were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al (NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method while  their polyphenolic composition by means of HPLC-DAD- MS/ ESI(+ analysis. Total phenols content and flavonoid content varied between 37.835 and 31.830 mg GAE/g, 23.420 and 17.645 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Neagră seeds; between 24.265 and 27.065 mg GAE/g, 17.970 and 15.205 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Regală seeds. All extracts showed remarkable DPPH radical-scavenging activity ranging from 94.110 to 95.515%. The study revealed 14 phenolic compounds belonging to the following groups: flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Quantitative differences among the varieties and the level of temperature applied of  the extraction process were observed. The results suggested that the heat treatment of grape seeds liberated phenolic compounds having a significant effect in increasing the amounts of active when a 90°C extraction temperature was used.

  17. The effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.

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    Atasever, Ayhan; Yaman, Duygu

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage and on some serum biochemical parameters. Sixty male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into six groups (ten rats/group) and included the control group the group were given isotonic sodium chloride (1 mL/kg b.w) intraperitonealy (i.p.), group 2 the group treated i.p. injection of CCl4 (1.0 mL/kg b.w) in corn oil twice in the first week, Groups 3 and 4 injected with CCl4 as described for group 2 and the rats were orally given (100 mg/kg b.w) GSE and i.p. injected (10 μg/rat) with colchicine for four weeks, respectively and groups 5 and 6 were the grape seed and colchicine control groups in which rats were orally given grape seed (100 mg/kg b.w) and i.p. injected with colchicine (10 μg/rat), respectively. Anorexia, weight loss, motionlessness and hepatic colour variation at necropsy were observed in groups 2, 3, and 4. Hyperemia, focal bleeding, fat degeneration, changes ranging from degenerative to necrotic, increase in connective tissue elements, pronounced in portal sites in particular, and infiltration of lymphoid series cell observed in the livers of the rats in group 2, treated with CCl4. Histological hepatic changes in the rats in group 3 and 4 were similar to those in group 2. The levels of serum total protein, albumin and globulin decreased in groups 2, 3, and 4, compared with groups 1, 5 and 6; aspartate transaminase (ALT) activities increased. The lowest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were in groups 4 and 5. We concluded that GSE and colchicine have not sufficient ameliorative effects to CCl4 induced acute hepatic damage.

  18. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

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    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Bhavna; Vyas, Soham M; Shah, Nupur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as primary microorganisms which cause dental caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants and natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound. Aim To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. mutans. Materials and methods Grape seeds were extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus mutans strains were taken. To check the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked. Results Grape seed extract at higher concentration were found to be more potent against S. mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed extract. Conclusion Grape seed extract as a natural antimicrobial compound has inhibitory effect against S. mutans. How to cite this article Swadas M, Dave B, Vyas SM, Shah N. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):181-185. PMID:27843246

  20. Characterization of grape seed oil from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain

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    Bada, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the composition and characteristics of red grape seed oils (Vitis vinifera L from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain. Eight representative varieties of grape seed oils from the Spanish wine Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo and Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín and Verdejo were studied. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 13.89 to 10.18%, and the moisture was similar for all the seeds. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in all samples, representing around 78%, followed by oleic acid with a concentration close 16%, the degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 90%. β-sitosterol and α-tocopherol were the main sterol and tocopherol, reaching values of 77.31% and 3.82 mg·100 g−1 of oil, respectively. In relation to the tocotrienols, α-tocotrienol was the main tocotrienol and accounted for 13.18 mg·100 g−1 of oil.El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar la composición y características de aceites de semillas de uvas rojas (Vitis vinifera L de vinos con denominación de origen protegida (DOP de España. Ocho variedades representativas de aceites de semillas de uvas españolas Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo y Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín y Verdejo fueron estudiadas. Los contenidos en aceite de las semillas oscilaron entre 13.89 y 10.18%, la humedad fué similar para todas las semillas. El contenido en ácido linoléico fué alto en todos los aceites alcanzando un valor del 78%, seguido del ácido oléico con una concentración cercana al 16%, registrando un grado total de insaturación del 90%. b-sitosterol y α-tocoferol fué el principal esterol y tocoferol, alcanzado niveles del 77.31% y de un 3.82 mg·100 g−1 de aceite respectivamente. En relación a los tocotrienoles, α-tocotrienol fué el mayoritario con

  1. Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity

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    Isabelle Ky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI] were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70] for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively. These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW. Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  2. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin–Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured. PMID:28208630

  3. Exploring the Anticancer Activity of Grape Seed Extract on Skin Cancer Cell Lines A431

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    V. Mohansrinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grape seeds were extracted using ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by solvent-solvent extraction method. The phytochemical tests were performed to identify different phytochemical compounds present in the grape seed extract (GSE. Antibacterial activity of the GSE was determined using agar diffusion method against Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis was done to identify the presence of bioactive compounds and their functional groups. The GC-MS results revealed a total of four compounds, known to have potent activity against cancer cells, viz, squalene, the most potent compound found in ethyl acetate extract and diethyl phthalate, ethyl-9- cis -11- trans octadecadienoate and (R-(--14,-methyl-8-Hexadecyn-1-ol in petroleum ether extract. Cytotoxic activity of the GSE was observed against skin cancer cell lines A4321 using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC50 value of the GSE against A431 skin cancer cell line was 480 µg/mL. This is first such report against A4321 cell lines. The study gives the overall perception about importance of GSE in medicine and nutraceuticals purposes.

  4. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage.

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    Kurt, Şükrü

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages.

  5. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages. PMID:27433100

  6. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee

    2009-06-10

    Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values.

  7. Grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, enhance unsaturated fatty acids in the milk of Sarda dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correddu, F; Gaspa, G; Pulina, G; Nudda, A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone or in combination, on sheep milk fatty acids (FA) profile using 24 Sarda dairy ewes allocated to 4 isoproductive groups. Groups were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet including 300 g/d per animal of grape seed (GS), a diet including 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet including a mix of 300 g/d per animal of grape seed and 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with a 2-wk adaptation period and an 8-wk experimental period. Milk FA composition was analyzed in milk samples collected in the last 4 wk of the trial. The milk concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) decreased and that of unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (UFA, MUFA, and PUFA, respectively) increased in GS, LIN, and MIX groups compared with CON. The MIX group showed the lowest values of SFA and the highest of UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. Milk from ewes fed linseed (LIN and MIX) showed an enrichment of vaccenic acid (VA), oleic acid (OA), α-linolenic acid (LNA), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) compared with milk from the CON group. The GS group showed a greater content of milk oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) and tended to show a greater content of VA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA than the CON group. The inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, decreased the milk concentration of de novo synthesized FA C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0, with the MIX group showing the lowest values. In conclusion, grape seed and linseed could be useful to increase the concentration of FA with potential health benefits, especially when these ingredients are included in combination in the diet.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 on a diabetic pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenbin; Li, Baoying; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Fei; Cai, Qian; Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Mei; Gao, Haiqing

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased considerably in recent years, highlighting the importance of developing new therapeutic strategies. Insulin-resistance and gradual dysfunction of pancreatic islets are the mainstay in the progression of T2DM. Therefore, preserving the function of the pancreas may lead to new prospective approaches. Our previous studies suggested that grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2), a natural polyphenol product, exhibited protective effects on diabetic vasculopathy. However, effects of GSPB2 on a diabetic pancreas remain unknown. In this study, we provided strong evidence that GSPB2 exerted protective effects on a diabetic pancreas. GSPB2 attenuated the elevated body weights, food intake and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels in db/db mice (p pancreas while GSPB2 treatment notably attenuated these alterations (p pancreas and GSPB2 provides protective effects at least in part through anti-inflammation.

  9. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on peripheral nerves in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-pei; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Wei, Na; Wang, Wei-ling; Lu, Mei

    2008-08-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The aim of this study was to clarify whether grape seed proanthocyanidins extracts (GSPE) are therapeutic agents against DPN. In this study, we used streptozocin (STZ) to induce diabetic rats. GSPEs (250 mg/kg body weight/d) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 wk. Motor nerve conductive velocity (MNCV) and mechanical hyperalgesia were determined in the rats. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Light and electron microscopy were used to observe the changes of nerval ultrastructure.GSPE significantly increased the MNCV, mechanical hyperalgesia and SOD of diabetic rats (pnerval damage. This study may provide a new recognition of natural medicine for the treatment of DPN.

  10. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  11. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); AlMaadeed, Mariam A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Kalarikkal, Nandakumar, E-mail: nkkalarikkal@mgu.ac.in [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Thomas, Sabu, E-mail: sabupolymer@yahoo.com [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India)

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2 nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84 eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4 μg ml{sup −1} & 5 μg ml{sup −1} of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500 μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. - Highlights: • Grape seed extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • Detailed structural analysis of RGO was done. • Excellent antimicrobial activity with 4 and 5 μg ml{sup −1} was reported. • Anti-inflammatory activity of RGO was reported. • Excellent anti-cancer activity was reported with just 500 μg of RGO.

  12. Chemical characterization and phase behaviour of grape seed oil in compressed carbon dioxide and ethanol as co-solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmolin, Irede [Department of Food Engineering, School of Food Engineering, Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Mazutti, Marcio A. [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil); Batista, Eduardo A.C.; Meireles, M. Angela A. [Department of Food Engineering, School of Food Engineering, Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@uricer.edu.b [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium experimental results for the systems grape oil/carbon dioxide and (grape oil/carbon dioxide + ethanol). The oil was obtained by supercritical extraction from the grape seed residue from wine production. The static synthetic method using a variable-volume view cell was employed for obtaining the experimental bubble and dew (cloud) points transition data over the temperature range of (313.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 20.6 MPa. The experiments were carried out using (ethanol + CO{sub 2}) overall mass fractions ranging from 0.50 to 0.99, keeping a fixed ethanol to carbon dioxide molar ratio at 1:3. Results indicate the existence of complex phase behaviour for all temperatures investigated with the occurrence of vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapour-liquid-liquid phase transitions observed.

  13. Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of selected cold-pressed grape seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterodt, Herman; Slavin, Margaret; Whent, Monica; Turner, Ellen; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2011-09-15

    Cold-pressed chardonnay, muscadine, ruby red, and concord grape seed oils and their defatted flours were studied for their fatty acid composition, oxidative stability and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The phenolic profiles of the seed flours were also measured. The most abundant fatty acid in the oils was linoleic acid, ranging from 66.0g/100g of total fatty acids in ruby red seed oil to 75.3g/100g of total fatty acids in concord seed oil. The oils were also high in oleic acid and low in saturated fat. Ruby red grape seed oil recorded the highest oxidative stability index of 40h under the accelerated conditions. Total phenolic content (TPC) was up to 100 times lower in the oils than in the flours. Lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol levels were also measured. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 0.07 to 2.22mmol trolox equivalents (TE)/g of oil and 11.8 to 15.0mmol TE/g of flour. Oxidative stability of menhaden fish oil containing extracts of the seed flours was extended by up to 137%. HPLC analysis was conducted to determine the levels of free soluble, soluble conjugated and insoluble bound phenolics in the seed flours. The phenolic compounds analyzed included catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, quercetin, gallic acid, and procyanidins B1 and B2. Antiproliferative activity was tested against HT-29 colon cancer cells. All of the seed flours and muscadine seed oil registered significant (Puses for these seed oils and flours as dietary sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative agents for optimal health.

  14. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  15. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials suggest that providing grape seed and perhaps other CTs via drinking water may be a practical way to introduce CTs into sheep and cattle diets.

  16. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

  17. Grape Seed Procyanidins in Pre- and Mild Hypertension: A Registry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Belcaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a standardized grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE, Enovita to decrease blood pressure when associated with nondrug intervention (diet and lifestyle modifications was investigated in a controlled registry study involving 119 healthy, pre- and mildly hypertensive subjects. Two dosages of Enovita were evaluated (150 and 300 mg/die, using blood pressure and heart rate as the primary endpoints and complementing these observations with a laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF investigation of the microcirculation state and an evaluation of the plasma oxidative status. After four months of treatment, a statistically significant higher, and dose-dependent, improvement in all endpoints was observed in the treatment groups compared to that of the control, with blood pressure normalizing in 93% of the higher dosage (300 mg treatment group. Taken together, these observations suggest that GSPEs have beneficial cardiovascular effects that complement current intervention strategies in the hypertension area. The effect on blood pressure adds to the beneficial effects of GSPEs on the cardiovascular disease (CVD phenotype associated with the oxidation of membrane lipids (endothelial dysfunction, formation of oxidized LDL, and activation of phagocytic cells.

  18. Grape seed and skin extract protects against arsenic trioxide induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfaxi, Ichraf; Charradi, Kamel; Limam, Ferid; El May, Michèle Veronique; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-07-29

    Arsenic is a metalloid found in water, soil, and air from natural and anthropogenic sources, and is commonly found in inorganic as well as organic forms. The clinical use of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is limited by its cardiotoxic side effects. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a polyphenolic mixture with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of GSSE on arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and injury. Animals exposed to 2.5 mg/kg As2O3 for 21 days exhibited a relevant increase in heart lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation, and inflammation, as well as a drop in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In addition, As2O3 disturbed heart lipidemia and lipase activity, transition metals distribution and the associated enzymes, intracellular mediators such as calcium and the associated calpain activity, as well as myocardial architecture. Treatment with 4 g/kg GSSE protected against most of the deleterious effects provoked by As2O3. Our data suggest that GSSE has the potential to protect against As2O3-induced cardiotoxicity.

  19. Cardioprotective Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Chronic Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Razmaraii

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of grape seed extract (GSE as a powerful antioxidant in preventing adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX on heart function. Methods: Male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX (2 mg/kg/48h, for 12 days and GSE (100 mg/kg/24h, for 16 days plus DOX. Left ventricular (LV function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using echocardiography, electrocardiography and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological analysis and in vitro antitumor activity were also evaluated. Results: DOX induced heart damage in rats through decreasing the left ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of rise/decrease of LV pressure, ejection fraction, fractional shortening and contractility index as demonstrated by echocardiography, electrocardiography and hemodynamic parameters relative to control group. Our data demonstrated that GSE treatment markedly attenuated DOX-induced toxicity, structural changes in myocardium and improved ventricular function. Additionally, GSE did not intervene with the antitumor effect of DOX. Conclusion: Collectively, the results suggest that GSE is potentially protective against DOX-induced toxicity in rat heart and maybe increase therapeutic index of DOX in human cancer treatment.

  20. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Alleviates Arsenic-induced Oxidative Reproductive Toxicity in Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu Gang; GUO Shu Xia; DING Yu Song; NIU Qiang; XU Shang Zhi; PANG Li Juan; MA Ru Lin; JING Ming Xia; FENG Gang Ling; LIU Jia Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. Methods Sixty male Kunming mice received the following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control); arsenic trioxide (ATO; 4 mg/kg); GSPE (400 mg/kg); ATO+GSPE (100 mg/kg);ATO+GSPE (200 mg/kg) and ATO+GSPE (400 mg/kg). Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed and weighed, and the testis was examined for pathological changes. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) expression in the testis was detected by real-time PCR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. Results ATO-treated mice showed a significantly decreased sperm count and testis somatic index and activity levels of SOD, GSH, and T-AOC than control group. Compared to the ATO-treated group, ATO+GSPE group showed recovery of the measured parameters. Mice treated with ATO+high-dose GSPE showed the highest level of mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO, NQO1, and GST. Conclusion GSPE alleviates oxidative stress damage in mouse testis by activating Nrf2 signaling, thus counteracting arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

  1. Grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract as suppressors of bone destruction in inflammatory autoimmune arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Sil Park

    Full Text Available Chronic autoimmune inflammation, which is commonly observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, disrupts the delicate balance between bone resorption and formation causing thedestruction of the bone and joints. We undertook this study to verify the effects of natural grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, an antioxidant, on chronic inflammation and bone destruction. GSPE administration ameliorated the arthritic symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA, which are representative of cartilage and bone destruction. GSPE treatment reduced the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and osteoclast activity and increased differentiation of mature osteoblasts. Receptor activator of NFκB ligand expression in fibroblasts from RA patients was abrogated with GSPE treatment. GSPE blocked human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived osteoclastogenesis and acted as an antioxidant. GSPE improved the arthritic manifestations of CIA mice by simultaneously suppressing osteoclast differentiation and promoting osteoblast differentiation. Our results suggest that GSPE may be beneficial for the treatment of inflammation-associated bone destruction.

  2. Enhancing oxidative stability of sunflower oil during convective and microwave heating using grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  3. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on garlic-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Zouaoui, K; Ben Rayana, M C; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

    2012-08-01

    High garlic dose could exert adverse health properties and grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibit a variety of beneficial effects, even at high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of high garlic dose treatment on antioxidant status of the blood compartment and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered either with garlic extract (5 g/kg bw) or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily during one month. Plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. Data confirmed that high garlic dose induced anemia and a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein and antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Garlic also elevated intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and free iron whereas GSSE treatment counteracted almost all garlic deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes via the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties.

  4. Grape seed and skin extract mitigates garlic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlaoui-Gasmi, Sonia; Mokni, Meherzia; Limam, Nadia; N'guessan, Prudence; Carrier, Alice; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Aouani, Ezzedine; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2012-05-01

    Garlic is a commonly used spice in folk medicine that can exert adverse health effects when given at a high dose. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibits a variety of beneficial effects even at a high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxicity of high-dose garlic treatment on liver and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally administered either with garlic extract (5 g·(kg body weight)(-1)) or GSSE (500 mg·(kg body weight)(-1)) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for 1 month. Plasma and hepatic levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and transaminases and liver antioxidant status were evaluated. Data showed that a high garlic dose induced liver toxicity and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Garlic increased intracellular H(2)O(2) but decreased free iron and Ca(2+). GSSE alone or in co-treatment with garlic had the reverse effect and counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious impacts to near control levels. In conclusion, a high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, inducing Ca(2+) depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca(2+) repletion.

  5. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Rescues Rats from Steatosis: A Comparative and Combination Study with Metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Yogalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, a premorbid condition, lacks proper management owing to multitude of abnormalities. In this study, we compared the effects of a potent antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP, and an insulin sensitizer, metformin (MET, in high-fat-fructose-diet- (HFFD- induced albino Wistar rat model of NAFLD. Either GSP (100 mg/Kg b.w or MET (50 mg/Kg b.w or both were administered as therapeutic options. HFFD-fed rats showed abnormal plasma lipid profile, inflammation, and steatosis of the liver when examined by biochemical and histology techniques. Increased lipid storage, lipogenesis, and reduced lipolysis were evident from mRNA expression studies of hepatic lipid droplets (LD proteins, sterol regulatory element binding 1c (SREBP 1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α. GSP administration to HFFD-fed rats caused 69% reduction in hepatic TG levels, whereas MET caused only 23%. The combination treatment reduced TG levels by 63%. GSP reduced the mRNA expression of SREBP1c and LD proteins and increased that of PPAR-α more effectively compared to MET in HFFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Combination of MET and GSP improved the metabolism of lipids effectively, but the effect was not additive in restoring lipid levels.

  6. Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%.

  7. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  8. Comprehensiw utilization of grape seed after wine brewing%酿酒后葡萄籽综合利用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹磊

    2012-01-01

    酿制葡萄酒时,会产生大量的废弃物,其中包括葡萄籽.该文对酿酒后的副产品-葡萄籽的综合利用进行了综述,介绍了葡萄籽中葡萄籽油、多酚物质和蛋白质的提取及其应用技术.将葡萄籽进行合理开发利用,不仅可以避免环境污染,而且将增加葡萄酒的附加值.%Tons of wastes were produced after wine brewing such as grape seed. The comprehensive utilization of grape seed was summarized. This paper introduced the extraction and application of many functional components in grape seed such as grape seed oil, polyphenols and protein. Utilization of grape seed can avoid environmental pollution and increase the additional value of wine.

  9. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  10. Procyanidins from grape seeds protect against phorbol ester-induced oxidative cellular and genotoxic damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin LU; Wan-zhou ZHAO; Zai CHANG; Wen-xing CHEN; Lin LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of Vitis vinifera procyanidins (PAs) on carcinogen-induced oxidative stress.METHODS: The single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) was employed to detect DNA damage induced by the carcinogen phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The release of hydrogen peroxidase from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was assayed by the horseradish peroxidase-mediated oxidation of phenol red. The microplate assay was used to detect the presence of oxidative products by means of 2',7'-dichlorofiuorescindiacetate (DCFH-DA). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of liver mitochondria was assayed, based on the ability of SOD to inhibit the generation of superoxidate anions by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was determined by the thiobarbimric acid (TBA) assay. RESULTS: DNA of NIH3T3 cells was significantly damaged after addition of PMA. The length of the comet tail was observed ,while in normal cells the comet tail could not be observed. PAs showed significant protective effects on carcinogen PMA-induced DNA damage. Through assessment of DCFH-DA oxidation, PAs were shown to inhibit the PMA-induced release of hydrogen peroxide by PMNs, and to inhibit respiratory burst activity in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Ex vivo study showed that serum from rats administered with PAs displayed similar effects in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PAs suppressed liver mitochondrial lipid peroxidation induced by PMA. PAs protected the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA in liver mitochondria damaged by PMA. CONCLUSION: Dietary PAs from grape seeds protect against carcinogen-induced oxidative cellular and genotoxic damage.

  11. Dietary Feeding of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Intestinal Tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaiya Velmurugan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE against intestinal/colon cancer development are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated GSE efficacy against intestinal tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice. Female APCmin/+ mice were fed control or 0.5% GSE (wt/wt mixed AIN-76A diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, GSE feeding decreased the total number of intestinal polyps by 40%. The decrease in polyp formation in the small intestine was 42%, which was mostly in its middle (51% and distal (49% portions compared with the proximal one. GSE also decreased polyp growth where the number of polyps of 1 to 2 mm in size decreased by 42% and greater than 2 mm in size by 71%, without any significant change in polyps less than 1 mm in size. Immunohistochemical analyses of small intestinal tissue samples revealed a decrease (80%–86% in cell proliferation and an increase (four- to eight-fold in apoptosis. GSE feeding also showed decreased protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 (56%–64%, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS (58%–60%, and β-catenin (43%–59% but an increased Cip1/p21-positive cells (1.9- to 2.6-fold. GSE also decreased cyclin D1 and c-Myc protein levels in small intestine. Together, these findings show the chemopreventive potential of GSE against intestinal polyp formation and growth in APCmin/+ mice, which was accompanied with reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis together with down-regulation in COX-2, iNOS, β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression, but increased Cip1/p21. In conclusion, the present study suggests potential usefulness of GSE for the chemoprevention of human intestinal/colorectal cancer.

  12. Ovariectomy lowers urine levels of unconjugated (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their methylated metabolites in rats fed grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, John K; Peavy, Thomas R; Moore, Doyle R; Prasain, Jeevan; Barnes, Stephen; Kim, Helen

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Steroid hormones modulate expression of enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics, including dietary supplements. Half of the human population undergoes menopause, yet the effect of this age-related loss of ovarian steroid hormones on the metabolism of dietary supplements has yet to be determined. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a dietary supplement comprised of monomeric and oligomeric catechins and has health benefits in models of age-related diseases. We hypothesized that surgically-induced loss of ovarian hormones would increase methylation, glucuronidation, and/or sulfation of the grape seed polyphenols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Fourteen-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-OVX. At 17 weeks of age, SHRs were gavaged with vehicle (water) or GSE (300 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 6 days. Urinary excretion of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their metabolites was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although total urinary output of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and their methylated metabolites was unaffected by OVX, the amounts of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and their methylated metabolites that were not conjugated with glucuronic acid or sulfate were lowered by OVX. Specifically, urine from OVX SHRs administered GSE contained 30% higher proportions (91.8% vs. 62.3%) of glucuronidated (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin and glucuronidated methyl (+)-catechin and methyl (-)-epicatechin than urine from sham-OVX SHRs. However, there were no differences in urinary levels of total methylated or sulfated catechins in OVX SHRs. This is the first quantitative characterization of metabolites of grape seed polyphenols in a model of menopause; it indicates that ovariectomy causes either an increase in expression and/or activity of select uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase(s).

  13. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed: an experimental study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppula Sushruta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6 were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic, antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and

  14. Antioxidants from grape seed using supercritical carbon dioxide; Obtencion de antioxidantes a partir de pepitas de uva mediante extraccion con fluidas superciriticas, SFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acilu, M.; Berganza, J.; Brettes, P.

    2003-07-01

    The wine-producing industry produces large amount of solid waste annually. Grape seeds represent a large percentage of this solid waste, the production of vegetable oil and energy being the more usual added value. As it is known, grape seeds contain huge amounts of phenolic compounds and have been highly researched owing to their antoxidant properties. The aim of this article is to present the extraction results of these compounds from grape seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide. Before doing the final experiments in the pilot plant of supercritical fluids, the following variables were evaluated using analytical equipment: time extraction, pressure, temperature, amount, nature and method used for adding the modifiers, as well as pre-treatment and amount of raw material. The results showed that the recovery of phenolic compounds from real materials is lower than the recovery obtained with the standards, and that maximum extraction is achieved with monomeric compounds, mainly with epichatechin. (Author)

  15. [The effects of grape seed and coriander oil on biochemical parameters of oral fluid in patients with periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaishvili, M; Gogua, M; Franchuki, Q; Tufinashvili, T; Zurabashvili, D

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical changes that are taking place in patients with periodontitis 1 and 2 the quality of the individuals place in a laqtatdegidrogenazis, alkaline phosphatase activity increase and reduced activity amilazais. Therefore we can conclude that, there is an increase in superoxide substances, which causes an increase in the oral cavity patobakteriebis and quality of periodontitis. The grape seed and coriander oil is of vegetable origin and antioxidant drugs. Their action causes a statistically significant increase in the amilazis, alkaline phosphatase and laqtatdegidrogenazis reduction, while the latter leads pH - rate of return to oral fluid. It should be noted that the positive effect of coriander oil, but less effective.

  16. Changes of Flavan-3-ols with Different Degrees of Polymerization in Seeds of ‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ Grapes after Veraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavan-3-ols consist of flavan-3-ol monomers and polymers with different degrees of polymerization (DP. In this study, flavan-3-ol extracts from grape seeds were well separated into three fractions including monomers, oligomers (2 < DP < 10 and polymers (DP > 10, by means of normal-phase HPLC-MS. The different patterns of these three fractions were analyzed in three Vitis vinifera cultivars (‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ seeds from veraison to harvest. The results showed: (1 polymers were the main form of flavan-3-ols in grape seeds and monomers accounted for only a small proportion; (2 the contents of flavan-3-ol monomers in the seeds of three grape cultivars all exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with a little fluctuation, whereas the patterns of the change of contents of oligomers and polymers were extremely different among grape cultivars; the contents of flavan-3-ol oligomers were enhanced in the seeds of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, but were reduced in the other two cultivars; (3 with regard to the proportion of flavan-3-ols with a certain DP to total flavan-3-ols, both flavan-3-ol monomers and flavan-3-ols with low DP fell in proportion, while the flavan-3-ols with high DP increased correspondingly. These findings indicate that flavan-3-ol polymerization in developing seeds is variety-dependent and may be genetically regulated.

  17. 速溶葡萄籽粉的研制%Preparation of an Instant Grape Seeds Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文兵; 刘雪莲; 唐艳

    2012-01-01

    本研究以葡萄籽为原料生产速溶葡萄籽粉,为葡萄酒企业生产残渣的综合利用提供新途径.通过单因素试验研究烘烤温度、时间、抗氧化剂、增稠剂对速溶葡萄籽粉的影响,以正交试验优化最佳工艺配方.即葡萄籽的最佳烘烤温度为120℃,最佳的烘烤时间为40min;最佳的增稠剂为β-环状糊精,加入量为8%,葡萄糖加入量为2.2%,柠檬酸加入量为0.8%,蔗糖脂肪酸酯的加入量为0.14%.在此最佳工艺条件下所制备的葡萄籽粉香味浓郁,具有葡萄籽粉所特有的感官品质.%Using grape seed as raw material,an instant powder was produced to fund a new way of utilization of the byproducts from grape wine enterprises. According to single factors test of thickener, baking temperature, the number of perfume effect on instant grape seed powders, the results of orthogonal experiment showed that the best thickener was P-dextrin and its dosage was of 80 mg-g"'.The best baking temperature, baking time, glucose dosage, citric acid dosage and sucrose fatty acid ester were 120 ℃, 40 min, 2.2%, 0.8%, and 0.14%, respectively. Under these conditions, the best product was abundant in aroma with pleasing flavor of the raw material.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process.

  19. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS, and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE, were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS or in extract (LE to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  20. 葡萄籽中花色素的分离研究%Separation of Anthocyan from Grape Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温普红; 王晓玲; 杨得锁

    2001-01-01

    以葡萄籽为原料,甲醇做提取剂,冷浸12 h,70℃回流提取3次,每次2 h,合并提取液,减压浓缩至浸膏状,热水溶解,趁热过滤除杂,滤液用正丁醇萃取2次,萃取部分经减压浓缩,真空干燥,得花色素产品,经测定,花色素的质量分数可达90%以上。%The techniques of separation of anthocyan from grape seeds were srudied. The grape seeds after being soaked in cold methyl alcohol for 12 h were extracted under reflux 3 times (2 h each time) at 70 ℃. The raffmate was concentrated under vacuum into extract, which was then dissolved in boiling water and filtered. The filtrate was extracted 2 times by nbutanol. The extract was concentrated under vacuum, and then dried under vacuum to give the final product anthocyan.Purity of anthocyan was above 90%.

  1. Mechanism of diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) induced testicular damage and of grape seed extract-induced protection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kawi, Samraa H; Hashem, Khalid S; Abd-Allah, Saber

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) on testicular mitochondrial viability and lipid peroxidation as a possible novel mechanism of PEHP testicular toxicity and whether grape seed extract (GSE) beneficially influences the mitochondrial function in testes of rats exposed to diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). Sixty male albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 20): group I: was used as a control, group II: received diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) (500 mg/kg/day orally) alone for 30 days, and group III: received the same DEHP dose in combination with GSE (proanthocyanidins) (100 mg/kg body weight). DEHP administration significantly decreases the testicular mitochondrial viability, mRNA expression of androgen receptors (AR), testosterone hormone concentration, increases mRNA expression of INOS and as compared to control group. It also decreases reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, glutathione reductase (GR), super oxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase activities and increases lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA fragmentation%. In synchronization, a substantial decrease of testicular & epididymal weight and volume which accompanied by considerable alteration of semen character. Grape seed extract (GSE) alleviates the toxic effects of DEHP by increasing the mitochondrial viability, decreases the lipid peroxidation, and increases the testicular antioxidant activity. Our results were confirmed by histopathological and immunhistochemical studies.

  2. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; de Alencar, Severino Matias;

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on ...

  3. Extraction Technologies and Application of Grape Seed Oil%葡萄籽油制取工艺及产品的应用开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永斌; 邓攀博; 季祥

    2011-01-01

    Grape seed oil has high nutritional and hygienic value. This essay introduced the extraction technologies of grape seed oil, such as compression method, solvent extraction method and supercritical C02 extraction method, and analyzed advantage and disadvantage of each method.The application of grape seed oil in health care medicines, health food and cosmetics products were also reviewed to provide inspiration for deep exploitation of grape seed oil.%葡萄籽油具有较高的营养和保健价值,该文介绍了压榨法、浸出法、超临界CO2萃取法等制取葡萄籽油的工艺,分析了各种加工方法的优势和劣势,以及葡萄籽油在保健药品、保健食品和美容产品方面的应用,为葡萄籽油的深度开发提供借鉴。

  4. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes.

  5. Physico-Chemical Properties of Bio-diesel from Wild Grape Seeds Oil and Petro-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Kaisan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The swiftly depleting conventional fossil fuel resources and increasing environmental distress has considerably popped up research curiosity in renewable energy fuel for internal combustion engines. Accordingly, in this research work, biodiesel from wild grape seed (Lannea Microcarpa was blended with petro-diesel in a ratio of 5:95, 10:90, 15:85 and 20:80 and pure fossil diesel designated B5, B10, B15, B20 and B0 respectively. The physico chemical properties of the biodiesel/petro diesel blends were determined. The properties are specific gravity, viscosity, flash point, calorific value, sulphur content, copper strip corrosion, colour, diesel index, cetane number, and cloud point. It was observed that, 9 out of the 10 properties determined conform to ASTM standards except for the colour which was dark brown for the oil and biodiesel, and brown for the automotive gasoline oil. The specific gravity and viscosity increase with percentage increase of biodiesel in the blends. The sulphur content, calorific values, cetane number and diesel index decrease with increase in the percentage biodiesel from the blends. The colour of the samples does not conform to the ASTM standards. All the samples have the best ASTM value for copper strip corrosion and as such, they could be run in any diesel engine without any fear of corrosion tendencies. Whence, Wild Grape seed biodiesel is physically okay, chemically stable, environmentally friendly and economically viable for use in compression ignition engine as a blend to partly replace the automotive gasoline oil.

  6. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca) oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet) and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo) are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry result...

  7. Changes of platelet antioxidative enzymes during oxidative stress: the protective effect of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa and grape seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław; Erler, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) and grape seeds (seeds of Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) are two of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, and they have been shown to have various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the action of phenolic extracts (at concentrations 5-100 µg/mL) of two different plants, berries of A. melanocarpa (chokebbery) and grape seeds, on the activities of various antioxidative enzymes, the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status) in control the platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (the strong physiological oxidant) in vitro. The properties of these two tested extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa, like the extract from grape seeds, reduced the changes in activities of different antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) in platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The action of the two tested plant extracts and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced glutathione in platelets compared with platelets treated with H(2)O(2) only. Comparative studies indicate that the two tested plant extracts had similar antioxidative properties, and were found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of resveratrol.

  8. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Qing Zhang; Bin-Wen Gao; Jing Wang; Qiao-Ling Ren; Jun-Feng Chen; Qiang Ma; Zi-Jing Zhang; Bao-Song Xing

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and red...

  9. Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2012-09-12

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of α-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit α-amylase activity.

  10. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  11. Sensory analysis and chemical characterization of cereal enriched with grape peel and seed flour - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.13176

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    Dalany Menezes Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes a breakfast cereal with partial replacement of corn grits by the flour of grape seeds and peels from the residues of the wine industry. Residues (peels and seeds of grape varieties ‘Isabel’ and ‘Bordô’ were dried in an air circulation oven at 85°C for 6 hours to obtain the flour. Three formulations of breakfast extruded cereals were prepared with 10, 15 and 20% of grape flour to replace corn grits. The formulas were analyzed with regard to their phenolic compounds, fibers, instrumental texture and sensory evaluation so that the samples’ general acceptance could be verified. Breakfast cereals with higher phenolic content were those made with 20% of seed and peel flour; fibers rates were similar and the most accepted were those containing 15 and 20% residue flour. The use of residues from the wine industry is an alternative to reduce the risk of pollution by inadequate disposal. The flour produced in this study is rich in fibers and bioactive compounds and represents an alternative source of human food.  

  12. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16{sup INK4a} and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  13. Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin-Gelatin Colloidal Complexes on Stability and in Vitro Digestion of Fish Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chao, An-Chong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-11-25

    The colloidal complexes composed of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and gelatin (GLT), as natural antioxidants to improve stability and inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil emulsions, were evaluated. The interactions between GSP and GLT, and the chemical structures of GSP/GLT self-assembled colloidal complexes, were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Fish oil was emulsified with GLT to obtain an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. After formation of the emulsion, GLT was fixed by GSP to obtain the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes stabilized fish oil emulsion. Menhaden oil emulsified by GSP/GLT(0.4 wt %) colloidal complexes yielded an emulsion with smaller particles and higher emulsion stability as compared to its GLT emulsified counterpart. The GSP/GLT colloidal complexes inhibited the lipid oxidation in fish oil emulsions more effectively than free GLT because the emulsified fish oil was surrounded by the antioxidant GSP/GLT colloidal complexes. The digestion rate of the fish oil emulsified with the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes was reduced as compared to that emulsified with free GLT. The extent of free fatty acids released from the GSP/GLT complexes stabilized fish oil emulsions was 63.3% under simulated digestion condition, indicating that the fish oil emulsion was considerably hydrolyzed with lipase.

  14. Quantitative Mitochondrial Proteomics Study on Protective Mechanism of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extracts Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Heart Injury in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-da; QIU Jie; ZHAO Gai-xia; QIE Liang-yi; WEI Xin-bing; GAO Hai-qing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury is a critical condition,often associated with high morbidity and mortality.The cardioprotective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts(GSPE) against oxidant injury during I/R has been described in previous studies.However,the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.This study investigated the effect of GSPE on reperfusion arrhythmias especially ventricular tachycardia(VT)and ventricular fibrillation(VF),the lactic acid accumulation and the ultrastructure of ischemic cardiomyocytes as well as the global changes of mitochondria proteins in in vivo rat heart model against I/R injury.GSPE significantly reduced the incidence of VF and VT,lessened the lactic acid accumulation and attenuated the ultrastructure damage.Twenty differential proteins related to cardiac protection were revealed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation(iTRAQ) profiling.These proteins were mainly involved in energy metabolism.Besides,monoamine oxidase A(MAOA) was also identified.The differential expression of several proteins was validated by Western blot.Our study offered important information on the mechanism of GSPE treatment in ischemic heart disease.

  15. Protective effects of red wine polyphenols and grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract on acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. El-Sayed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the potential protective effects of red wine polyphenols (RWPs and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Silymarin was used as a standard reference hepatoprotective agent. A single dose of acetaminophen (800 mg/kg, injected intraperitoneally to male rats, caused a significant increase in serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides(TG, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and liver contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS measured as malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO with significant decrease in serum albumin, HDL cholesterol, reduced glutathione (GSH and hepatic activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and caspase-3 in liver tissue as compared with the control group. On the other hand, administration of each of GSPE (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., RWPs (40 mg/kg/day, p.o. and silymarin (100 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 15 consecutive days significantly ameliorated the liver injury which confirmed by the histopathological examination. It was concluded that RWPs and GSPE showed protective effects against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity where RWPs were more effective than GSPE; most probably through their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.

  16. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders.

  17. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on high dosage garlic-induced renal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hamlaoui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the protective role of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE against high garlic dose-induced renal toxicity has been evaluated. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with garlic (5 g/kg bw or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for one month. Renal oxidative stress markers and antioxidant status were evaluated. We also measured plasma creatinine and urea. Data showed that high garlic dose induced renal toxicity by increasing creatinine and urea and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein, calcium and H2O2, but decreased free iron. Unexpectedly garlic increased catalase but decreased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. GSSE co-treatment counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H2O2 and free iron, inducing Ca2+ depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca2+ repletion.

  18. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit colon cancer-induced angiogenesis through suppressing the expression of VEGF and Ang1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuangsheng; Yang, Ninggang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jing; Huang, Tao; Hu, Lamei; Zhao, Jin; Li, Yongquan; Li, Caili; Zhang, Xiaosu

    2012-12-01

    Tumor cells trigger angiogenesis through overexpression of various angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 1 (Ang1). Therefore, inhibition of the expression of both VEGF and Ang1, the initial step of tumor angiogenesis, is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are widely consumed dietary supplements that have antitumor activity. Due to their polymeric structure, GSPs are poorly absorbed along the gastrointestinal tract and can reach the colon at high concentrations, allowing these chemicals to act as chemopreventive agents for colon cancer. In the present study, we found that GSPs inhibited colon tumor-induced angiogenesis and, thus, the growth of colon tumor xenografts on the chick chorioallantoic membranes. The mechanisms of their action were related to inhibiting the expression of both VEGF and Ang1 through scavenging reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have demonstrated that the chemopreventive effects of GSPs on colon cancer are associated with their growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects. Our results demonstrate another mechanism by which GSPs inhibit colon tumor growth, which will be helpful for developing GSPs as a pharmacologically safe angiopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  19. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect. PMID:27775601

  20. The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Jui-Hao; Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p = 0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

  1. Green electrospun grape seed extract-loaded silk fibroin nanofibrous mats with excellent cytocompatibility and antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si; Chen, Mengxia; Jiang, Huayue; Fan, Linpeng; Sun, Binbin; Yu, Fan; Yang, Xingxing; Lou, Xiangxin; He, Chuanglong; Wang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori has an excellent biocompatibility and thus be widely applied in the biomedical field. Recently, various SF-based composite nanofibers have been developed for more demanding applications. Additionally, grape seed extract (GSE) has been demonstrated to be powerful on antioxidation. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a GSE-loaded SF/polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite nanofiber by green electrospinning. Our results indicated the successful loading of GSE into the SF/PEO composite nanofibers. The introduction of GSE did not affect the morphology of the SF/PEO nanofibers and GSE can be released from the nanofibers with a sustained manner. Furthermore, comparing with the raw SF/PEO nanofibrous mats, the GSE-loaded SF/PEO nanofibrous mats significantly enhanced the proliferation of the skin fibroblasts and also protected them against the damage from tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. All these findings suggest a promising potential of this novel GSE-loaded SF/PEO composite nanofibrous mats applied in skin care, tissue regeneration and wound healing.

  2. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1

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    Miao Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interferon γ (IFN-γ. Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four proinflammatory factors to different degrees and inhibit the inflammatory reaction of mice. The results suggest that GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced oxidative stress and significantly improves the immune injury of mice induced by AFB1.

  3. Effects of grape seed-derived polyphenols on amyloid beta-protein self-assembly and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kenjiro; Condron, Margaret M; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Teplow, David B

    2008-11-21

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study the protective effects of red wine, experiments recently were executed in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. These studies showed that a commercially available grape seed polyphenolic extract, MegaNatural-AZ (MN), significantly attenuated AD-type cognitive deterioration and reduced cerebral amyloid deposition (Wang, J., Ho, L., Zhao, W., Ono, K., Rosensweig, C., Chen, L., Humala, N., Teplow, D. B., and Pasinetti, G. M. (2008) J. Neurosci. 28, 6388-6392). To elucidate the mechanistic bases for these observations, here we used CD spectroscopy, photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins, thioflavin T fluorescence, size exclusion chromatography, and electron microscopy to examine the effects of MN on the assembly of the two predominant disease-related amyloid beta-protein alloforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42. We also examined the effects of MN on Abeta-induced cytotoxicity by assaying 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase activity in Abeta-treated, differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Initial studies revealed that MN blocked Abeta fibril formation. Subsequent evaluation of the assembly stage specificity of the effect showed that MN was able to inhibit protofibril formation, pre-protofibrillar oligomerization, and initial coil --> alpha-helix/beta-sheet secondary structure transitions. Importantly, MN had protective effects in assays of cytotoxicity in which MN was mixed with Abeta prior to peptide assembly or following assembly and just prior to peptide addition to cells. These data suggest that MN is worthy of consideration as a therapeutic agent for AD.

  4. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Mediates Antineoplastic Effects against Lung Cancer via Modulations of Prostacyclin and 15-HETE Eicosanoid Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jenny T; Smoake, Jane; Park, Heesung K; Lu, Qing-Yi; Xue, Bingye

    2016-12-01

    Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSE) has been reported to exert antineoplastic properties via the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) eicosanoid pathways. In addition, ample data link carcinogenesis to inflammatory events involving other major eicosanoid metabolic pathways, including prostacyclin (PGI2) and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). We therefore evaluated the effects of GSE on prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS)/PGI2 and 15-lipoxigenase-2 (15-LOX-2)/15-HETE productions by human lung premalignant and malignant cells and correlated the findings with antiproliferative or proapoptotic effects of GSE. The effects of GSE on PGI2 and 15-HETE productions by human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells ex vivo were also determined. We further evaluated the bioactivity of oral administration of leucoselect phytosome (a standardized GSE) in the lungs of subjects participating in a lung cancer chemoprevention trial, by comparing the antiproliferative effects of coculturing matched pre- versus posttreatment BAL fluids with lung premalignant and malignant cells. GSE significantly increased PGI2 (as measured by 6-keto PGF1α) and 15-HETE productions by these cells. Transfections of PTGIS or 15-LOX-2-specific siRNA partially abrogated the antiproliferative or proapoptotic effects of GSE in lung premalignant and malignant cells, respectively. GSE also increased PTGIS and inhibition of caspase-3, and transfection of 15-LOX-2 siRNA abrogated the GSE-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. In addition, culture supernatants from ex vivo GSE-treated baseline BAL cells, as well as BAL fluids from subjects treated with leucoselect phytosome, significantly decreased proliferations of lung premalignant and malignant cells. Our findings support the continued investigation of GSE as an anti-neoplastic and chemopreventive agent against lung cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 9(12); 925-32. ©2016 AACR.

  5. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling and associated cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Junli; Qu, Zhenzhen; Fang, Haibo; Fu, Lan; Wu, Yupeng; Wang, Hongchao; Zang, Hongmin; Wang, Weiping

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the antioxidant effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE). The generation of free radicals and the ensuing apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy; therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of GSPE on cognitive impairment and neuronal damage induced by chronic seizures in rats. Seizures were induced by a daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 35 mg/kg/day, 36 days). Two other groups were treated with GSPE (100 or 200 mg/kg/day, orally) for 24 days and then for 36 days prior to each PTZ injection. After the final PTZ injection, hippocampus-dependent spatial learning was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM). The rats were then sacrificed for the measurement of hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA, a measure of lipid peroxidation) and glutathione (GSH, a measure of endogenous antioxidant capacity) levels, and for the expression of pro-apoptotic factors [cytochrome c (Cyt c), caspase‑9 and caspase‑3]. The mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), degree of mitochondrial swelling, neuronal damage and mitochondrial ultrastructure were also examined. Performance in the MWM was markedly impaired by PTZ-induced seizures, as evidenced by longer escape latencies during training and fewer platform crossings during the probe trial. This cognitive decline was accompanied by oxidative stress (MDA accumulation, ROS generation, reduced GSH activity), an increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, as well as damage to CA1 pyramidal neurons and the mitochondria. Pre-treatment with GSPE dose‑dependently reversed PTZ-induced impaired performance in the MWM, oxidative stress, mitochondrial ROS generation, the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and neuronal and mitochondrial damage. Thus, GSPE may reverse the hippocampal dysfunction induced by chronic seizures, by reducing oxidative stress and preserving mitochondrial function.

  6. Therapeutic effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds in rats with TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Cai, Yong-Qing; Qin, Hong; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE) in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Rats were intragastrically administered different doses of GSPE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) per day for 7 days after UC was twice-induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)dissolved in 50% ethanol. Sulfasalazine (SASP) at 200 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. Macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and changes in weight/length ratio (mg/mm) of colon segments were analyzed. The levels of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the colon tissues and MPO activity in the serum were all measured by biochemical methods or double antibody sandwich ELISA methods. Compared with the TNBS control group, GSPE treatment facilitated recovery of pathologic changes in the colon after insult with TNBS, as demonstrated by increased body weight (p rats treated with GSPE was significantly lower than that in the TNBS control group. The MDA and IL-1beta levels of colon tissues were also decreased in GSPE groups. The intestinal antiinflammatory effect of GSPE was accompanied by a significant improvement of IL-2 and IL-4 levels in the colon tissues of rats in the high-dose GSPE group (p 0.05). GSPE exerts a beneficial antiinflammatory effect in the acute phase of TNBS-induced colitis in rats by downregulating some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration and antioxidation damage, promoting damaged tissue repair to improve colonic oxidative stress, decreasing production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, and increasing production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-2 and IL-4.

  7. Mature seeds for in vitro sanitation of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiró, R.; Gammoudi, N.; Yuste, A.; Olmos, A.; Gisbert, C.

    2015-07-01

    The conservation of old grapevine varieties is important since they are adapted to specific climate conditions and may carry genes interesting to breeders. As virus infection is common in grapevine varieties, the use of virus free materials is of great importance. In this work, we used somatic embryogenesis for the sanitation of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses that were found after analyzing the putative presence of the five most common, economically important grape viruses by real-time multiplex RT-PCR in the old cultivar “Grumet Negre”. Unopened and opened inflorescences, fecundated ovaries, and, also, mature seeds were used as starting explants. Explants were cultured on plates with two embryogenesis induction media (Nitsch & McCown Woody plant medium) that contained the growth regulator thidiazuron and differed in their salt and vitamin compositions. One half of each kind of explant was cut prior to being cultured. After five months of culture, embryos had only developed from seeds that were cut previous to sowing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that mature seeds have been used for inducing embryogenesis in grape. A total of 42% of the embryos transferred to tubes for germination regenerated into normal plantlets. The absence of both the GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses in all regenerated plants was confirmed by real-time uniplex RT-PCR. So, this protocol can be used for sanitation and also for micropropagation. (Author)

  8. Activity and Safety Evaluation of Grape Seed Ultrafine Powder Mask%葡萄籽超微粉面膜活性及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉慧; 袁春龙; 宋洋波

    2012-01-01

    为研究葡萄籽超微粉面膜活性及安全性,以葡萄籽多酚提取液面膜为对照,对葡萄籽超微粉面膜进行美白功效和抗衰老功效评价,并通过动物试验检测其安全性.将葡萄籽超微粉直接加入面膜液中,面膜液所具有的抑制酪氨酸酶活性、清除DPPH自由基及超氧阴离子的能力高于使用葡萄籽多酚提取液;而在清除羟自由基能力的测定中,其结果与前述3项结果相反.另外,随着葡萄籽超微粉或多酚提取液用量的增加,所测以上4项功效性均呈现明显增加趋势.葡萄籽超微粉面膜对动物具有高度安全性.%In order to study the efficiency and security of grape seed ultrafine powder mask, the whitening efficacy and anti-aging efficacy of it were evaluated with the polyphenol extract mask as a control , and the security was evaluated by animal tests. The efficiency of ultrafine powder mask is higher than polyphenol extract mask in three experiments, including inhibit tyrosinase activity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The result of hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity is contrary to the previous three. In addition, with the increase of the content of grape seed ultrafine powder or polyphenol extract, the efficiency increased significantly. The grape seed ultrafine powder mask has a high level of security on animals.

  9. Pre-fermentative addition of an enzymatic grape seed hydrolysate in warm climate winemaking. Effect on the differential colorimetry, copigmentation and polyphenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Jara-Palacios, M José; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-10-15

    The effect of adding an enzymatic hydrolysate of grape seeds (EH-GS) during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been evaluated. We focused on the polyphenolic composition as well as the application of differential and tristimulus colorimetry to colour data. This is the first attempt at using this oenological alternative to avoid common colour losses of red wines elaborated in a warm climate. The addition of 250g (simple dose, SW) of EH-GS to 120kg of fermentation material promoted a significant (p3 CIELAB units).

  10. Research development on anti-carcinogenic activity and mechanism of grape seeds proanthocyanidins%葡萄籽原花青素抗癌活性及其机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 刘霞; 杨继红; 李华

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PCs) is the generic terms of a large class of flavan-3-ols derivatives that existed extensively in plants. There are many kinds of pharmacological activities of grape seeds proanthocyanidins. In general,grape seeds proanthocyanidins is famous for its three most important properties; high efficiency, low toxicity and high bioavailability. The discussion about anti-carcinogenic activity and mechanism of grape seeds proanthocyanidins can provide a referable value for the comprehensive utilization of grape resources. The classification, chemical structures as well as the research progress on anti-carcinogenic activity and mechanism of grape seeds proanthocyanidins were reviewed in this paper.%原花青素(proanthocyanidins,简称PCs或PAs)是植物中广泛存在的一大类黄烷-3-醇衍生物的总称.葡萄籽原花青素具有高效、低毒和高生物利用率的特点,并且具有多种药理活性.探讨其抗癌活性与机制对于葡萄资源的综合利用具有一定的参考价值.文中就葡萄籽原花青素的分类、结构特征以及近年来国内外对其抗癌活性与机制的研究进展进行阐述.

  11. Simulated digestion of proanthocyanidins in grape skin and seed extracts and the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Labra, Javiera

    2013-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and composition of flavan-3-ols from red grape skin and seed extracts (raw and purified, which are high in proanthocyanidins (PAs)). In addition, the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of these extracts were evaluated. The extracts were digested with a mixture of pepsin-HCl for 2 h, followed by a 2 h incubation with pancreatin and bile salts including a cellulose dialysis tubing (molecular weight cut-off 12 kDa) at 37°C with shaking in the dark and under N2. Under gastric conditions, the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of seed extracts, raw (mDP≈6, pdigestion. The PAs were significantly degraded (up to 80%) during the pancreatic digestion, yielding low-molecular-weight compounds that diffused into the serum-available fraction (mDP≈2). The overall mass transfer coefficient (K) of the seed extracts was 10(-7) m(2)/s. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, over 80% of ACE inhibition by raw seed and skin extracts was preserved. However, the purified seed and skin extracts lost their ability to inhibit ACE after intestinal digestion.

  12. The polyphenol-rich extract from grape seeds inhibits platelet signaling pathways triggered by both proteolytic and non-proteolytic agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in the reduction of blood platelet functions by various plant extract, including the grape seeds extract (rich in phenolic compounds, a mixture of about 95% oligomeric phenols; GSE) are still unclear. In the literature there are few papers describing studies on the effects of GSE on selected element of hemostasis. The aim of our study was to establish and compare the influence of GSE (at final dose of 0.625-50 µg/ml) and resveratrol (3,4',5 - trihydroxystilben), a phenolic compound synthesized in grapes and vegetables and presents in wine, which has been supposed to be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular events, on different steps of platelet activation. We measured the effects of GSE and resveratrol on platelet aggregation, the surface expression of P-selectin, platelet microparticle formation (PMP), and superoxide anion radicals ([Formula: see text]) production in blood platelets stimulated by TRAP and thrombin. P-selectin expression and PMP formation were measured by a flow cytometer. In gel-filtered platelets activated by thrombin or TRAP and treated with different concentrations of GSE (1.25-50 µg/ml) a significant decrease of P-selectin expression, PMP formation and platelet aggregation was observed. GSE caused also a dose-dependent reduction of [Formula: see text] produced in platelets activated by TRAP or thrombin. Our present results indicate that GSE inhibits platelet signaling pathways trigged by both proteolytic (thrombin) and non-proteolytic agonist (TRAP). In the comparative studies, GSE was found to be more effective antiplatelet factor, than the solution of pure resveratrol. Thus, the polyphenol-rich extract from grape seeds can be useful as the protecting factor against cardiovascular diseases.

  13. The Extraction Process of Polyphenols from Grape Seed%葡萄籽中多酚类物质提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周曼; 曹唯仪; 王玉蓉

    2012-01-01

    目的:优选葡萄籽中多酚类物质的提取工艺.方法:以儿茶素为检测指标,采用L9(34)正交试验,筛选溶剂浓度、提取次数和提取时间工艺参数.结果:最佳提取工艺为:10BV 50%乙醇提取3次,提取时间为2h、1h、1h.结论:该工艺可用于葡萄籽多酚类有效部分的提取.%Objective; To optimize extraction process of polyphenols from grape seed. Method: Take catechin as the characteristic markers, sach as alcohol concentration, extraction times and extraction time, and an L9 ( 34 ) orthogonal design was employed. Results;The extraction condition was as follows; with 10 times of 50% etha-nol by triple for 4. 0h(the first time for 2. 0h, the last two times for 1. 0h each time ). Conclusion:The optimized technology is stable and feasible, and it can be used for the extraction of polyphenols from grape seed.

  14. Comparative Effect of Grape Seed Extract (Vitis Vinifera) and Ascorbic Acid in Oxidative Stress Induced by On-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Naser; Babaei, Hossein; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Jodati, Ahmad-Reza; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad-Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to test the beneficial effect of grape seed extract (GSE) (Vitis vinifera) and Vitamin C in oxidative stress and reperfusion injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients and Methods: In this randomized trial, 87 patients undergoing elective and isolated coronary bypass surgery included. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 29 each): (1) Control group with no treatment, (2) GSE group who received the extract 24 h before operation, 100 mg every 6 h, orally, (3) Vitamin C group who received 25 mg/kg Vitamin C through CPB during surgery. Blood samples were taken from coronary sinus at (T1) just before aortic cross clamp; (T2) just before starting controlled aortic root reperfusion; and (T3) 10 min after root reperfusion. Some clinical parameters and biochemical markers were compared among the groups. Results: There were significant differences in tracheal intubation times, sinus rhythm return, and left ventricular function between treatment groups compared with control (P Vitamin C groups at T2 and T3 times. In reperfusion period, malondialdehyde level was increased in control group; however, it was significantly lower for the grape seed group (P = 0.04). The differences in the mean levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase among the three groups were not significant (P > 0.05 in all cases). Conclusions: In our patients, GSE and Vitamin C had antioxidative effects and reduced deleterious effects of CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. PMID:28074795

  15. Grape Seed Procyanidins and Cholestyramine Differentially Alter Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostatic Gene Expression in Mouse Intestine and Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Heidker

    Full Text Available Bile acid (BA sequestrants, lipid-lowering agents, may be prescribed as a monotherapy or combination therapy to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Over 33% of adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine strategies, and we recently reported that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE reduces enterohepatic BA recirculation as a means to reduce serum triglyceride (TG levels. The current study was therefore designed to assess the effects on BA, cholesterol and TG homeostatic gene expression following co-administration with GSPE and the BA sequestrant, cholestyramine (CHY. Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with either a control or 2% CHY-supplemented diet, after which, they were administered vehicle or GSPE for 14 hours. Liver and intestines were harvested and gene expression was analyzed. BA, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and TG levels were also analyzed in serum and feces. Results reveal that GSPE treatment alone, and co-administration with CHY, regulates BA, cholesterol and TG metabolism differently than CHY administration alone. Notably, GSPE decreased intestinal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt gene expression, while CHY significantly induced expression. Administration with GSPE or CHY robustly induced hepatic BA biosynthetic gene expression, especially cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, compared to control, while co-administration further enhanced expression. Treatment with CHY induced both intestinal and hepatic cholesterologenic gene expression, while co-administration with GSPE attenuated the CHY-induced increase in the liver but not intestine. CHY also induced hepatic lipogenic gene expression, which was attenuated by co-administration with GSPE. Consequently, a 25% decrease in serum TG levels was observed in the CHY+GSPE group, compared to the CHY group. Collectively, this study presents novel evidence demonstrating that GSPE provides additive and

  16. The ubiquitin extension protein S27a is differentially expressed in developing flower organs of Thompson seedless versus Thompson seeded grape isogenic clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Uri; Velcheva, Margarita; Sahar, Nachman; Flaishman, Moshe; Or, Etti; Degani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2009-07-01

    In Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless, fertilization occurs but seeds abort, a type of stenospermocarpy. To clone transcripts with differential expression during flower development, suppressive subtractive hybridization was carried out using two isogenic clones 'Thompson seedless' and 'Thompson seeded', at three stages of inflorescence development (from bud break to ~20 days prior to anthesis). Differential screening and sequencing of a forward and reverse subtractive cDNA library yielded several singleton ESTs. One differentially expressed clone in 'Thompson' seeded versus seedless isogenic clones was the ubiquitin extension protein S27a. In situ hybridization demonstrated its significantly higher expression in the carpel and ovaries of 'Thompson' seedless versus seeded isogenic clones during flower development. Overexpression of this gene resulted in abnormal plant regeneration and inhibited shoot development compared to controls; its silencing in embryogenic callus induced cell necrosis and callus death, evidencing tight regulation of this gene in developing organs of grape. S27a overexpression in carpels and integuments of the seedless flower may interfere with normal development of these organs, leading to embryo abortion and seedlessness.

  17. The comparative study of proanthocyanidins activity purified from hawthorn and grape seed%山楂原花青素和葡萄籽原花青素活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁思思; 张太平; 张鹤云

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较山楂原花青素( OPC)与葡萄籽OPC的生物活性.方法 体外将肝癌细胞Hep-S、小鼠肉瘤S-180、小鼠胸腺、脾淋巴细胞、肾细胞和肝细胞分别与不同浓度的山楂OPC或葡萄籽OPC共同培养,用MTT法检测抑制Hep-S和S-180增殖的影响以及促进T细胞、B细胞、肾细胞和肝细胞增殖的影响.提取与山楂OPC或葡萄籽OPC共同培养的Hep-S细胞的DNA,检测Hep-S细胞的凋亡程度.结果 山楂OPC比葡萄籽OPC抑制Hep-S和S-180增殖作用更好;其促进T细胞、B细胞、肾细胞和肝细胞增殖效果也更强;与葡萄籽OPC相比,山楂OPC使Hep-S细胞中的DNA发生更明显的凋亡,产生更多的DNA片段.结论 山楂OPC具有比葡萄籽OPC更强的生物活性.%Purpose To compare proanthocyanidins bioactivity between hawthorn and grape seed. Methods In vitro Hep-S,S-180,mice thymus,splenic lymphocytes,renal cell and liver cell with different concentrations of hawthorn and grape seed proanthocyanidins were cultivated, detecting how hawthorn and grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibited proliferation of Hep-S and S-180 and promoted proliferation of T cells,B cells,renal cell and liver cell by the MTT method. Extracteding DNA of Hep-S cells which were cultivated with hawthorn and grape seed procyanidin, so as to detect Hep-S cell apoptosis. Results Hawthorn proanthocyanidins has better inhibiting proliferation effect of Hep-S and S-180 than grape seed proanthocyanidins. It also has strong promoting proliferation effect of the thymus, splenic lymphocytes, renal cell and liver cell. Compared with grape seed proanthocyanidins,hawthorn proanthocyanidins make Hep-S cells produce more obvious DNA apoptosis and get more segment of DNA. Conclusion Hawthorn proanthocyanidins have stronger biological activity than those of grape seed.

  18. Stability studies of cosmetic emulsions prepared from natural products such as wine, grape seed oil and mastic resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Dutschk, V.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made in this study to use diluted wine as the aqueous phase and grapeseed oil as the oil phase for the preparation of oil-in-water cosmetic emulsions. Two monovarietal wines of Hellenic origin were used in this study; a red one from Sangiovese grapes and a white one from Muscat of Sam

  19. Improvement in Memory and Brain Long-term Potentiation Deficits Due to Permanent Hypoperfusion/Ischemia by Grape Seed Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sarkaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia (CHI is a neurological disease where impaired hippocampus electrical activity and cognition caused by a serial pathophysiological events. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic oral administration of grape seed extract (GSE on passive avoidance memory and long-term potentiation (LTP after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO in male adult rats.   Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into: 1 Sham+Veh, 2 Isch+Veh, 3 Sham+GSE, 4 Isch+GSE. In order to make 2CCAO as an animal model of CHI, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. To evaluation of passive avoidance memory, step-down latency (STL was measured and LTP was recorded from hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG after high frequency stimulation (HFS in all rats. Results: We found that memory was significantly impaired in rats after CHI (P

  20. Researching on quality of grape seed oil extracted by different methods%不同方法提取的葡萄籽油品质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米彩霞; 马建龙; 刘利军

    2011-01-01

    Using the same batch of grape seeds as the materials, the grape .seeds oil was extracted by four methods: Soxhlct extraction, MicroWave-assisted extraction, Ultrasonic extraction and Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction ( SCF - CO2 ). The extraction rate, physical and chemical indices and fatty acid contents were compared. The results showed that MicroWave-assisted extraction had the high-test oil yields reached 16. 85% ; the SCF-CO2 extracted oil excelled the other oil in physiochemical properties; different extraction methods influenced the fatty acid composition and contents of the oil in different level; the SCF - CO2 extracted oil has the highest contents of linoleic, and the contents reach 70. 54%.%以酿酒后同一批次葡萄籽为原料,采用索氏法、微波辅助法、超声波辅助法、超临界CO2萃取4种方法提取葡萄籽油.分别从提取率、油品理化性质、脂肪酸组分及含量方面对4种提取方法进行比较.结果表明,不同提取方法对葡萄籽油各脂肪酸组分、含量及提取率均有不同程度的影响,采用微波辅助提取率最高,达16.85%;采用超临界CO2萃取的葡萄籽油理化指标均优于其它方法;其中超临界CO2萃取的葡萄籽油亚油酸含量最高,达70.54%.

  1. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  2. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker Y Cheah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Grape seed procyanidins (PC are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2. DESIGN: SixPC fractions (F1-F6 were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature and ripe (mature, utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05, but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6 were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05. Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4 significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05. Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87% compared to 5-FU alone (37%. CONCLUSIONS: PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  3. MAJOR FLAVONOIDS AND THEIR ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN GRAPE SEEDS AND SKINS%葡萄籽和皮中黄酮成分和抗氧化能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟耕; 陈宗道; 闵燕萍

    2005-01-01

    Seeds and skins from grapes of Vitis vinifera varieties Merlot and Chardonnay ard in seeds from grapes of Vitis rotundifolia variety Muscadine were analyzed with HPLC for the major monomeric flavanols and phenolic acids. The contribution of the major monomeric flavanols and phenolic acid to the total antioxidant capacity of grape seeds and skins was also determined. Gallic acid, catechin and epicatechin concentrations were 68, 7, and 69 mg/100 g d. m. in Muscadine seeds, 10, 211, and 303 mg/100 g d.m. in Chardonnay seeds, and 7, 74, and 83 mg/100 g d.m. in Merlot seeds, respectively. Concentrations of these three compounds were lower in winery byproduct grape skins than seeds. These three major phenolic constituents of grape seeds contributed less than 17% to the antioxidant capacity measured as ORAC. Peroxyl radical scavenging activities of phenolics present in grape seeds or skins in decreasing order were resveratrol > catechin > epicatechin = gallocatechin > gallic acid = ellagic acid. The results indicated that dimeric, trimeric, oligomeric or polymeric procyanidins account for most of the superior antioxidant capacity of grape seeds.%通过高效液相色谱(HPLC)分析了酿酒葡萄中的梅鹿辄和霞多丽品种的籽和皮及圆叶葡萄品种麝香葡萄籽中主要单体黄酮醇和酚酸种类,并测定了葡萄籽和皮中的单体黄酮醇和酚酸对总抗氧化能力的贡献.结果表明:麝香葡萄籽中没食子酸、儿茶素、表儿茶酸的含量为68,7和69 mg/100g干重,而在霞多丽葡萄籽相应为10,211和303mg/100g干重,梅鹿辄葡萄籽中为7,74和83 mg/100g干重.这3种成分在葡萄酒副产物的皮中的含量低于籽中,采用抗氧化能量指数法(ORAC)测定其抗氧化能力贡献占总抗氧化能力的17%.在葡萄籽或皮中的酚类对过氧化游离基清除能力从大到小依次为:白藜芦醇、儿茶素、表儿茶酸=没食子儿茶精、没食子酸=鞣花酸.葡萄籽中抗氧化能力的最

  4. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera, and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L, rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L, rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tales efectos.

  5. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa; Jiménez Despaigne, Sonia; Curveco Sánchez, Dayisell

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera), and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L), rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera) y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L), rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tale...

  6. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  7. Bioavailability of gallic acid and catechins from grape seed polyphenol extract is improved by repeated dosing in rats: implications for treatment in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Mario G; Lobo, Jessica K; Janle, Elsa M; Cooper, Bruce; Simon, James E; Wu, Qing-Li; Welch, Cara; Ho, Lap; Weaver, Connie; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the bioavailability and brain deposition of a grape seed polyphenolic extract (GSPE) previously found to attenuate cognitive deterioration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plasma pharmacokinetic response of major GSPE phenolic components was measured following intragastric gavage of 50, 100, and 150 mg GSPE per kg body weight. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis identified gallic acid (GA), catechin (C), and epicatechin (EC) in plasma of rats gavaged acutely with GSPE. Additionally, 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA), 3'-methylcatechin (3'-OMeC), and 3'-methylepicatechin (3'-OMeEC) were identified as circulating metabolites of GSPE phenolic constituents. Cmax for individual GSPE constituents and their metabolites increased in a dose-dependent fashion (with increasing GSPE oral dose). Repeated daily exposure to GSPE was found to significantly increase bioavailability (defined as plasma AUC0-8h) of GA, C, and EC by 198, 253, and 282% relative to animals receiving only a single acute GSPE dose. EC and C were not detectable in brain tissues of rats receiving a single GSPE dose but reached levels of 290.7 +/-45.9 and 576.7 +/- 227.7 pg/g in brain tissues from rats administered GSPE for 10 days. This study suggests that brain deposition of GA, C, and EC is affected by repeated dosing of GSPE.

  8. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

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    Mojtaba Raeisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2% and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE, (0.5% and 1% were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thio-barbituric acid (TBA, TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05 effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  9. Effect of grape seed extract on postprandial oxidative status and metabolic responses in men and women with the metabolic syndrome - randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

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    Indika Edirisinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE that is rich in mono-, oligo- and poly- meric polyphenols would modify postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Background: MetS is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and poor glycemic control. Consumption of a meal high in readily available carbohydrates and fat causes postprandial increases in glycemia and lipidemia and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Materials/methods: After an overnight fast, twelve subjects with MetS (5 men and 7 women consumed a breakfast meal high in fat and carbohydrate in a cross-over design. A GSE (300 mg or placebo capsule was administrated 1 hr before the meal (-1 hr. Changes in plasma insulin, glucose, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were measured hourly for 6 hr. Results: Plasma hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC measured as the positive incremental area under the curve (-1 to 5 hr was significantly increased when the meal was preceded by GSE compared with placebo (P0.05. No changes in inflammatory markers were evident. Conclusion: These data suggest that GSE enhances postprandial plasma antioxidant status and reduces the glycemic response to a meal, high in fat and carbohydrate in subjects with the MetS.

  10. Hypocholesterolemic activity of grape seed proanthocyanidin is mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Rui; Zhang, Zesheng; Yu, Hongjian; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2010-11-01

    Interest in grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) as a cholesterol-lowering nutraceutical is growing. This study was to investigate the effect of GSP on blood cholesterol level and gene expression of cholesterol-regulating enzymes in Golden Syrian hamsters maintained on a 0.1% cholesterol diet. Results affirmed supplementation of 0.5% or 1.0% GSP could decrease plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol level. Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated GSP did not affect sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and low-density lipoprotein receptor; however, it increased mRNA 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. GSP had no effect on the protein mass of liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) but it decreased mRNA LXRα. Most importantly, GSP increased not only the protein level of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) but also mRNA CYP7A1. It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of GSP was most likely mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

  11. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  12. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  13. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Qing; Gao, Bin-Wen; Wang, Jing; Ren, Qiao-Ling; Chen, Jun-Feng; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Xing, Bao-Song

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases. PMID:27057282

  14. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

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    Jia-Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2 has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases.

  15. Exercise Training and Grape Seed Extract Co-Administration Improves Lipid Profile, Weight Loss, Bradycardia, and Hypotension of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Badavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Exercise Training (ET and Grape Seed Extract (GSE as an antioxidant have many positive effects on controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives:: This study aimed to determine the effects of GSE alone or combined with ET on body weight, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and heart rate in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods:: In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, GSE treated sedentary diabetic, and GSE treated trained diabetic. ET was conducted on the treadmill daily for 8 weeks. One way ANOVA followed by LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Results:: Reduction of body weight, high density lipoproteins, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure and increment of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoproteins were observed after STZ injection. Co-administration of GSE and ET had more positive effects on lipid profile compared to each method alone. In addition, GSE and ET modified heart rate partially, while their combination was more effective in improvement of heart rat in conscious rats. On the other hand, administration of ET or GSE alone did not affect systolic blood pressure and body weight, while their combination restored systolic blood pressure completely and improved body weight partially. Conclusions:: The study findings indicated that ET combined with GSE had more beneficial effects compared to each one alone on the complications of STZ induced diabetes. This may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic complications.

  16. Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Ker Y; Howarth, Gordon S; Yazbeck, Roger; Wright, Tessa H; Whitford, Eleanor J; Payne, Caroline; Butler, Ross N; Bastian, Susan E P

    2009-02-01

    Mucositis is a common side-effect of high-dose chemotherapy regimens. Grape seed extract (GSE) represents a rich source of proanthocyanidins with the potential to decrease oxidative damage and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated GSE for its capacity to decrease the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in vitro and in vivo. In vitro: GSE was administered to IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells prior to damage induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Cell viability was determined by neutral red assay. In vivo: Female Dark Agouti rats (130-180 g) were gavaged with 1 ml GSE (400 mg/kg) daily (day 3-11) and received 5-FU (150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection on day nine to induce mucositis. Rats were sacrificed at day 12 and intestinal tissues collected for myeloperoxidase and sucrase activity assays and histological analyses. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. GSE prevented the decrease in IEC-6 cell viability induced by 5-FU (p IEC-6 cells from 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity and ameliorated intestinal damage induced by 5-FU in rats. GSE may represent a promising prophylactic adjunct to conventional chemotherapy for preventing intestinal mucositis.

  17. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

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    F. Agostini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel, harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40% in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%, 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  18. Comparative effect of grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera and ascorbic acid in oxidative stress induced by on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

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    Naser Safaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to test the beneficial effect of grape seed extract (GSE (Vitis vinifera and Vitamin C in oxidative stress and reperfusion injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients and Methods: In this randomized trial, 87 patients undergoing elective and isolated coronary bypass surgery included. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 29 each: (1 Control group with no treatment, (2 GSE group who received the extract 24 h before operation, 100 mg every 6 h, orally, (3 Vitamin C group who received 25 mg/kg Vitamin C through CPB during surgery. Blood samples were taken from coronary sinus at (T1 just before aortic cross clamp; (T2 just before starting controlled aortic root reperfusion; and (T3 10 min after root reperfusion. Some clinical parameters and biochemical markers were compared among the groups. Results: There were significant differences in tracheal intubation times, sinus rhythm return, and left ventricular function between treatment groups compared with control (P 0.05 in all cases. Conclusions: In our patients, GSE and Vitamin C had antioxidative effects and reduced deleterious effects of CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  19. Proanthocyanidins from Grape Seeds Modulate the NF-κB Signal Transduction Pathways in Rats with TNBS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Yang, Xiaolai; Cai, Yongqing; Qin, Hong; Wang, Li; Wang, Yanhong; Huang, Yanhui; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Xin; Li, Wan; Li, Sijia; Chen, Jiajia; Wu, Yongjie

    2011-08-08

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE), we explore whether GSPE regulates the inflammatory response of TNBS-induced colitis in rats at the levels of NF-κB signal transduction pathway. Rats were intragastrically administered of different doses of GSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg·kg-1) per day for seven days after ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in 50% ethanol. Sulfasalazine (SASP) at 400 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. The expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), phospho-I kappaB-alpha (pIκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IκK) in the colon tissues were all measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Treatment with GSPE reduced the expression of NF-κB, pIκBα and IκK in the colon. The results of this study show that GSPE exerts beneficial effects in inflammatory bowel disease by inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction pathways.

  20. Proanthocyanidins from Grape Seeds Modulate the NF-κB Signal Transduction Pathways in Rats with TNBS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis

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    Yongjie Wu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE, we explore whether GSPE regulates the inflammatory response of TNBS-induced colitis in rats at the levels of NF-κB signal transduction pathway. Rats were intragastrically administered of different doses of GSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg·kg−1 per day for seven days after ulcerative colitis (UC was induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS dissolved in 50% ethanol. Sulfasalazine (SASP at 400 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. The expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, phospho-I kappaB-alpha (pIκBα, inhibitor kappa B kinase (IκK in the colon tissues were all measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Treatment with GSPE reduced the expression of NF-κB, pIκBα and IκK in the colon. The results of this study show that GSPE exerts beneficial effects in inflammatory bowel disease by inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction pathways.

  1. Direct and simultaneous quantification of tannin mean degree of polymerization and percentage of galloylation in grape seeds using diffuse reflectance fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christos; Kyraleou, Maria; Voskidi, Eleni; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Taranilis, Petros A; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2015-02-01

    The direct and simultaneous quantitative determination of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the degree of galloylation (%G) in grape seeds were quantified using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS). The results were compared with those obtained using the conventional analysis employing phloroglucinolysis as pretreatment followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV and mass spectrometry detection. Infrared spectra were recorded in solid state samples after freeze drying. The 2nd derivative of the 1832 to 1416 and 918 to 739 cm(-1) spectral regions for the quantification of mDP, the 2nd derivative of the 1813 to 607 cm(-1) spectral region for the degree of %G determination and PLS regression were used. The determination coefficients (R(2) ) of mDP and %G were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding values of the root-mean-square error of calibration were found 0.506 and 0.692, the root-mean-square error of cross validation 0.811 and 0.921, and the root-mean-square error of prediction 0.612 and 0.801. The proposed method in comparison with the conventional method is simpler, less time consuming, more economical, and requires reduced quantities of chemical reagents and fewer sample pretreatment steps. It could be a starting point for the design of more specific models according to the requirements of the wineries.

  2. 葡萄籽精油对体外瘤胃发酵和甲烷生成的影响%Effects of grape seed oil addition on rumen fermentation and methanogenesis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米热古丽·伊马木; 余雄; 王改琴; 刘海军; 王恬

    2012-01-01

    通过体外培养法研究发酵底物精粗比7:3条件下,添加100,150和250 μL/L葡萄籽精油对瘤胃发酵和甲烷产量的影响.采用气相色谱仪测定甲烷产量,培养24 h后,测定挥发性脂肪酸、pH、氨态氮浓度和原虫数.结果发现,添加葡萄籽精油100 μL/L和150 μL/L试验组与对照组相比提高了累计产气量、发酵液pH值(P<0.05)、乙酸摩尔比例,降低了甲烷浓度(P<0.01)、丙酸、丁酸、戊酸和支链挥发性脂肪酸摩尔比例.葡萄籽精油添加量为150μL/L可降低氨态氮浓度及瘤胃原虫数,添加100 μL/L葡萄籽精油能提高总挥发性脂肪酸.试验表明,适宜添加量的葡萄籽精油可以改变瘤胃发酵模式,增加丙酸乙酸比例,抑制甲烷生成.%A diet of 7 concentrate; 3 forage was used as substrate in vitro, treatments were consisted of control group (0) versus three levels of grape essential oils (100, 150, 250 μL/L) , 3 repeats in each group. In vitro gas production (GP) was recorded and methane production was determined 3,6,9, 12 and 24 h after incubation. Ammonia nitrogen, volatile fatty acids ( VFAs) , protozoa and pH were measured after 24 h incubation. The results showed that the gas production, pH and acetate proportion were increased by supplementations of 100 and 150μL/L grape seed oils (P<0.05) , where the methane production (P<0. 01), molar proportion of propionate, butyrate, valerate and BCVFA decreased. In addition, ammonia nitrogen and protozoa were decreased by supplementation of 150 μL/L grape seed oils, while, total volatile fatty acid increased by 100μL/L grape seed oils. In conclusion, addition of grape seed oils at a proper level could change the fermentation pattern, increase the propionate acetate ratio and inhibit methanogenesis.

  3. 葡萄籽中原花青素提取工艺%Optimization of Proanthocyanidin Extraction from Grape Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丽霞; 何志贵; 朱勇; 曾庆文; 胡博然

    2011-01-01

    以发酵后葡萄籽为原料,研究微波、纤维素酶和超声波辅助提取葡萄籽中原花青素的工艺条件,对影响原花青素提取率的因素进行考察,通过正交试验确定葡萄籽中原花青素的最佳提取工艺。结果表明最佳方法为微波辅助提取,其最佳工艺条件:料液比1:25(g/mL)、乙醇体积分数80%、微波时间40s、微波功率115W,原花青素的提取率为10.70%。%The aim of this study was to optimize technical conditions for ultrasonic-assisted ethanol extraction,cellulase hydrolysis-based extraction and microwave-assisted ethanol extraction of proanthocyanidins from grape seed power using one-factor-at-a-time coupled with orthogonal array design method.Microwave-assisted extraction was found to be the best of the three methods,and the optimal process conditions were ethanol concentration of 80%,material-to-liquid ratio of 1:25(g/mL),microwave treatment time of 40 s and microwave power of 115 W.Under these conditions,the extraction rate of proanthocyanidins was 10.70%.

  4. A novel approach of proteomics to study the mechanism of action of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on diabetic retinopathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness among the people of occupational age. To prevent the progress of retina injury, effective therapies directed toward the key molecular target are required. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE) have been reported to be effective in treating diabetic complications, while little is discussed about the functional protein changes. Methods We used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes in rats. GSPE (250 mg/kg body weight per day) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 weeks. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined. Consequently, 2-D difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to investigate retina protein profiles among control, STZ-induced diabetic rats, and GSPE treated diabetic rats. Results GSPE significantly reduced the AGEs of diabetic rats (P <0.05). Moreover, GSPE significantly suppressed the vascular lesions of central regions, decreased capillary enlargements and neovascularization, similar to those of the control rats under light microscope. Eighteen proteins were found either up-regulated or down-regulated in the retina of STZ-induced diabetic rats. And seven proteins in the retina of diabetic rats were found to be back-regulated to normal levels after GSPE therapy. These back-regulated proteins are involved in many important biological processes such as heat shock, ubiquitin-proteasome system, cell proliferation, cell growth and glucose metabolism. Conclusions These findings might promote a better understanding for the mechanism of DR, and provide novel targets for evaluating the effects of GSPE therapy.

  5. A Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Bile Acid and Cholesterol Excretion and Inhibition of Hepatic Lipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Downing

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE exerts a triglyceride-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic state using the fructose-fed rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were fed either a starch control diet or a diet containing 65% fructose for 8 weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the 9th week of the study, rats were maintained on their respective diet and administered vehicle or GSPE via oral gavage for 7 days. Fructose increased serum triglyceride levels by 171% after 9 weeks, compared to control, while GSPE administration attenuated this effect, resulting in a 41% decrease. GSPE inhibited hepatic lipogenesis via down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in the fructose-fed animals. GSPE increased fecal bile acid and total lipid excretion, decreased serum bile acid levels and increased the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, bile acid biosynthetic gene expression was not increased in the presence of GSPE and fructose. Serum cholesterol levels remained constant, while hepatic cholesterol levels decreased. GSPE did not modulate expression of genes responsible for esterification or biliary export of the newly synthesized cholesterol, but did increase fecal cholesterol excretion, suggesting that in the presence of GSPE and fructose, the liver may secrete more free cholesterol into the plasma which may then be shunted to the proximal small intestine for direct basolateral to apical secretion and subsequent fecal excretion. Our results demonstrate that GSPE effectively lowers serum triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats after one week administration. This study provides novel insight into the mechanistic actions of GSPE in treating hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrates that it targets hepatic de novo lipogenesis, bile acid homeostasis and non-biliary cholesterol excretion as

  6. A Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Bile Acid and Cholesterol Excretion and Inhibition of Hepatic Lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Laura E; Heidker, Rebecca M; Caiozzi, Gianella C; Wong, Brian S; Rodriguez, Kelvin; Del Rey, Fernando; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) exerts a triglyceride-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic state using the fructose-fed rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were fed either a starch control diet or a diet containing 65% fructose for 8 weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the 9th week of the study, rats were maintained on their respective diet and administered vehicle or GSPE via oral gavage for 7 days. Fructose increased serum triglyceride levels by 171% after 9 weeks, compared to control, while GSPE administration attenuated this effect, resulting in a 41% decrease. GSPE inhibited hepatic lipogenesis via down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in the fructose-fed animals. GSPE increased fecal bile acid and total lipid excretion, decreased serum bile acid levels and increased the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, bile acid biosynthetic gene expression was not increased in the presence of GSPE and fructose. Serum cholesterol levels remained constant, while hepatic cholesterol levels decreased. GSPE did not modulate expression of genes responsible for esterification or biliary export of the newly synthesized cholesterol, but did increase fecal cholesterol excretion, suggesting that in the presence of GSPE and fructose, the liver may secrete more free cholesterol into the plasma which may then be shunted to the proximal small intestine for direct basolateral to apical secretion and subsequent fecal excretion. Our results demonstrate that GSPE effectively lowers serum triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats after one week administration. This study provides novel insight into the mechanistic actions of GSPE in treating hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrates that it targets hepatic de novo lipogenesis, bile acid homeostasis and non-biliary cholesterol excretion as important mechanisms for

  7. Optimization of polyphenols extraction from grape seeds by response surface methodology%响应面法优化葡萄籽多酚提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华丽; 熊汉国; 王玮

    2012-01-01

    对葡萄籽中多酚类物质的提取条件进行研究.以丙酮为最佳提取试剂,分别考察丙酮体积分数、提取时间、提取温度、提取次数对葡萄籽多酚提取量的影响,在单因素试验的基础上,利用Central Composite Design法设计响应面试验,对葡萄籽多酚提取工艺进行优化.结果表明,当丙酮体积分数为72%,提取时间为32 min,提取温度为65℃,提取次数为4次对葡萄籽多酚提取量可这2.892 mg/mL.%To optimize the process for polyphenols extraction from grape seeds, acetone was chosen as the best extraction solvent for this research. Then a series of smgle-factor experiments were made to investigate the effects of acetone concentration, extraction duration, temperature and times on polyphenols yield, and based on this, a 19-run response surface design was generated by the Design-Expert software according to the central composite design principle and experimental data obtained were subjected to quadratic regression analysis to create a mathematical model describing polyphenols extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be: acetone concentration of 72% for an extraction duration of 32 min at 65 ℃ 4 times. Under these conditions, the yield of polyphenols was 2. 892 mg/mL.

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of whey protein isolate coating incorporated with nisin, grape seed extract, malic acid, and EDTA on a Turkey frankfurter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadang, V P; Hettiarachchy, N S; Johnson, M G; Owens, C

    2008-10-01

    The effectiveness of whey protein isolate (WPI) coatings incorporated with grape seed extract (GSE), nisin (N), malic acid (MA), and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and their combinations to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in a turkey frankfurter system through surface inoculation (approximately 10(6) CFU/g) of pathogens. The inoculated frankfurters were dipped into WPI film forming solutions both with and without the addition of antimicrobial agents (GSE, MA, or N and EDTA, or combinations). Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d. The L. monocytogenes population (5.5 log/g) decreased to 2.3 log/g after 28 d at 4 degrees C in the samples containing nisin (6000 IU/g) combined with GSE (0.5%) and MA (1.0%). The S. typhimurium population (6.0 log/g) was decreased to approximately 1 log cycles after 28 d at 4 degrees C in the samples coated with WPI containing a combination of N, MA, GSE, and EDTA. The E. coli O157:H7 population (6.15 log/g) was decreased by 4.6 log cycles after 28 d in samples containing WPI coating incorporated with N, MA, and EDTA. These findings demonstrated that the use of an edible film coating containing nisin, organic acids, and natural extracts is a promising means of controlling the growth and recontamination of L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 in ready-to-eat poultry products.

  9. Effect of antioxidant and optimal antimicrobial mixtures of carvacrol, grape seed extract and chitosan on different spoilage microorganisms and their application as coatings on different food matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera F. Rubilar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the use of natural agents with antimicrobial (AM and antioxidant (AOX properties. Optimization of the AM capacity for mixtures containing carvacrol, grape seed extract (GSE and chitosan, against gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua and Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 106 cfu mL-1 was studied. To observe the synergistic or antagonistic effect and find optimal combinations between the three agents, a simplex centroid mixture design was run for each microorganism, combining carvacrol (0-300 ppm, X1, GSE (0-2000 ppm, X2 and chitosan (0-2% w/v, X3. Results of the response surface analysis showed several synergistic effects for all microorganisms. Combinations of 60 ppm-400 ppm-1.2% w/v (carvacrol-GSE-chitosan; optimal AM combination 1, OAMC-1; 9.6 ppm-684 ppm-1.25% w/v (OAMC-2; 90 ppm-160 ppm-1.24% w/v (OAMC-3 were found to be the optimal mixtures for all microorganisms. Radical scavenging activity (RSA of the same agents was then compared with a standard AOX (butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT at different concentrations (25, 50 and 100 ppm; as well as the optimal AM concentrations by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. RSA increased in the following order: chitosan< carvacrol< BHT< GSE and for the OAMC: OAMC-2< OAMC-1< OAMC-3. The best RSA (OAMC-3 was applied as a coating in two different food matrices (strawberries and salmon. For strawberries, P. aeruginosa was more sensitive to the action of OAMC-3 than S. cerevisiae. For salmon, S. aureus was more resistant to the action of OAMC-3 than E. faecalis and L. innocua.

  10. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  11. Effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins on growth performance, some serum biochemical parameters and body composition of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Wei Zhai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the effects of diet supplementation with grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs on fish growth performance, some serum parameters and body composition. Three hundred tilapia fingerlings with the initial average body weight of 9.50±1.25 g were randomly divided into five treatment groups with four replicates in each group and 15 fish in each replicate. The dietary GSPs levels of five treatment groups were 0 (control group, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The trial period was 49 days. Growth performance parameters were significantly improved by GSPs supplementation (P<0.05, while survival rates were similar among all groups (P>0.05. Serum parameter results showed that activities of aminotransferase aspartate in 200 and 400 mg/kg GSPs groups and alanine aminotransferase in 400 mg/kg GSPs group were lowered significantly (P<0.05. Levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol (except 200 mg/kg GSPs group were significantly lowered, while lysozyme activity and albumin level were significantly higher in fish of GSPs supplemented groups, independently from the level of supplementation. The highest crude protein level and lowest crude lipid level were found in fish of all GSPs supplemented groups, while levels of moisture and ash in fish of all groups were similar (P>0.05. The results indicated that dietary 200 mg/kg GSPs could exert beneficial effects on growth and body composition of tilapia fingerlings, and ameliorate serum biochemistry parameters related to health status.

  12. 葡萄籽原花青素检测方法的比较%The comparison of detection methods of the procyanidins on grape seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶莹; 胡文效; 高德艳; 李彦奎; 蒋锡龙

    2013-01-01

    本研究通过对原花青素的结构分析,选取香草醛法、铁盐催化比色法两种方法对葡萄籽中的原花青素进行了检测对比。结果表明,两种方法均能稳定、有效地对原花青素进行检测。香草醛法的检测结果数值较低,且线性范围较窄,适宜用于检测黄烷-3-醇单体、低聚体酚类化合物含量;铁盐催化比色法线性范围较宽,适宜用于黄烷-3-醇不同聚合度范围的酚类化合物总量检测。%The vanillin assay method and ferric ion catalytic colorimetric method had been chosen to detect the procyanidins content on grape seed. The results showed that both of the detection methods were stable and effective. The datum from Vanillin method indicated lower values and narrower linear range than from the ferric ion catalytic colorimetric method. Vanillin method suited to detect the content of flavan-3-alcohol monomer and oligomeric phenolic compounds;The Ferric ion catalytic colorimetric method had a wider linear range, and was suitable for the detection of the total content of flavan-3-alcohol which has a different polymerization degree.

  13. Study on the Efficiency of Grape Seed Meals Used as Antioxidants in Layer Diets Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Compared with Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Olteanu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The 4-week study was conducted with 180 Lohmann Brown layers (52 weeks of age. The layers were assigned to three groups (C, E1 and E2. The basal diet (group C consisted mainly of corn, soybean meal and corn gluten, and contained 19% crude protein and 11.58 MJ/kg metabolizable energy. The diets for groups E1 and E2 differed from group C by the inclusion of 5% flax meal and of dietary antioxidants. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in the fat of E1 and E2 diets was almost 10 times higher than in group C. E1 diet was supplemented with vitamin E (100 mg/kg feed, DM, while E2 diet was supplemented with 2% grape seed meal (polyphenols: 630.890 µg gallic acid equivalents/g sample; flavonoids: 5.065 µg rutin equivalents/g sample; antioxidant capacity: 28.468 mM trolox equivalents/g sample. The antioxidant capacity of E2 was higher than in C, but lower than in E1. Haugh units of the eggs (18 eggs/group harvested during the last experimental week were not significantly different among groups. The ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs ratio in the fat from the eggs was 4.46 ± 0.11 (E1 and 4.52 ± 0.21 (E2, three times lower (p<0.05 than the control group (14.70 ± 0.43. In group E1 in particular, but also in group E2, the concentration of total polyphenols in the egg yolk was higher (p<0.05 than in group C.

  14. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds modulates the nuclear factor-kappa B signal transduction pathways in rats with TNBS-induced recurrent ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Ge, Bin; Yang, Xiao-Lai; Zhai, Jing; Yang, Li-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Xia; Shi, Jin-Cheng; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE) on recurrent ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. GSPE in doses of 100, 200, and 400mg/kg were intragastrically administered per day for 7 days after recurrent colitis was twice-induced by TNBS. The levels of GSH, as well as the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in colon tissues were measured by biochemical methods. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the nuclear translocation levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the colon tissues were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Western blotting analysis was used to determine the protein expression levels of inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKKα/β), phosphorylated IκBα and phosphorylated IKKα/β. GSPE treatment was associated with a remarkable increased the activity of GSH-Px and SOD with GSH levels in TNBS-induced recurrent colitis rats as compared to the model group. GSPE also significantly reduced the expression levels of TNF-α, p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα and the translocation of NF-κB in the colon mucosa. GSPE exerted a protective effect on recurrent colitis in rats by modifying the inflammatory response and promoting damaged tissue repair to improve colonic oxidative stress. Moreover, GSPE inhibited the TNBS-induced inflammatory of recurrent colitis though blocking NF-κB signaling pathways.

  15. 超声波提取葡萄籽油的工艺优化及其抗氧化性研究%Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 王定颖; 岳田利

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed oil (GSO) is a kind of vegetable oil with lots of nutrients, the content of linoleic acid reaches over 75% of total fatty acids. GSO has special medical and nutritional values in prevention of cardiovascular disease and aging. This article was aimed at optimizing extraction process conditions of grape seed oil assisted by ultrasonic wave through response surface methodology (RSM), and to analyze the influence of different factors on extraction effects. Antioxidative capacity of OSO was determined by DPPH method. The result showed that: (1) The order of influence of extraction factors on extraction content of grape seed oil at temperature 〉 time 〉 power 〉 material liquid ratio. (2) Optimum technological conditions were as follows: the extraction temperature at 54.2~C, extraction time for 37.8 min, ultrasonic power at 456.8 W, and the grape seed oil content was 0.13 g/g and extraction rate was 13.3% under the optimized conditions. (3) The concentration of the grape seed oil were controlled as 1 - 25 rag, and showed a positive relationship with antioxidant activity, the scavenging rate reached 80.7% at 25 mg. The scavenging rate of DPPH free radical did not increase with the increase of concentration of grape seed oil.%通过单因素试验选择温度、提取时间、功率为影响超声波提取葡萄籽油效率的3个主要因素,运用响应曲面法进行超声波提取葡萄籽油的最佳工艺研究,分析各因素对提取效果的影响,并采用DPPH自由基实验以对其抗氧化性进行评价。结果表明:最佳工艺条件为温度54℃、提取时间37min、超声波功率456W,在此条件下进行验证实验,每5g葡萄籽的葡萄籽油提取量为0.63314g,提取率13.31%;葡萄籽油质量浓度为1~25mg/mL时,其质量浓度变化与自由基清除率呈正相关,在25mg/mL时,清除率达到80.7%,继续增大葡萄籽油质量浓度,对自由基清除率影响不大。

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 680) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA...... has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds. The Panel considers that OPCs from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds are sufficiently characterised...

  17. Preparation and identification of water-soluble calcium-binding protein from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds%葡萄籽中水溶性钙结合蛋白的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晨艳; 赵广华

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient required for critical biological functions such as nerve conduction, muscle contraction, mitosis, blood coagulation, and structural support of the skeleton.Dietary calcium intake is of general interest for human beings, particularly for infants and young children, when growth is accelerated. Milk and milk products as effective calcium supplements are generally accepted by human race with their high bioavailability. However, less consumption of milk in industrialized countries leads to inadequate calcium intake. Therefore, it is important to explore an alternate source for calcium supplement. On the other hand, dried grape seeds are likewise rich in lipids (22.07%), carbohydrates (12.51%) and proteins (11.94%) (w/w) and grape seeds as by-product during juice production can be an alternative source of protein. Meanwhile, this study demonstrates that grape seeds are rich in calcium ((5.62±0.01) g/kg for embryonic cells and (6.32± 0.01) g/kg for intact grape seeds), which was identified by ICP-AES. The calcium was mainly distributed in the stroma of the amyloplasts and around the starch granules, which was observed under TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope). Further study indicates that water-soluble protein from grape (Vitis viniferaL.) seeds (WSPG) contained two major components, one of which was 11S globulin-like protein mainly responsible for the binding of calcium in WSPG and the other was a novel protein (Protein A). The calcium contents of protein isolate from each step were identified by ICP-AES as well. When a traditional alkali extraction and acid precipitation method was used for isolation of WSPG, many binding calcium ions were lost. It is worth noting that the protein composition of grape seed protein obtained by both 30%-50% (NH4)2SO4 sediment and the alkali extraction and acid precipitation method was nearly identical, which consisted of protein A and protein B at a ratio of 2 to 3, but the content of calcium in the

  18. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  19. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield.

  20. 正交试验法优化葡萄籽软胶囊的制备处方%Optimization of Grape Seed Extract Soft Capsule Preparation by Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绪发; 唐秀芳; 李建英

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of Grape Seed Extract Soft Capsule was optimized by orthogonal design with evaluation indexes such as sedimentation ratio and redispersibility,by taking soybean oil as the disperse medium, beeswax as the suspending agent, and soybean phospholipid as the moistening agent. The results showed that the optimal proportion of soft capsule contents were made from Grape Seed Extract. soybean oil. beeswax and soybean phospholipid (18.2∶72.8∶6∶3)and the contents of soft capsule were well distributed with good stabilization and fluidity.%以大豆油为分散介质,蜂蜡为助悬剂,大豆磷脂为润湿剂,以沉降比和再分散性为指标,采用正交设计优化葡萄籽软胶囊的填充物处方。结果表明:葡萄籽软胶囊的填充物最佳配比为葡萄籽提取物-大豆油-蜂蜡-大豆磷脂(18.2∶72.8∶6∶3),制备得到的软胶囊填充物料液均匀、稳定、流动性好。

  1. Aqueous Two-phase Extraction of Resveratrol from Red Grape Seed%双水相萃取双优红葡萄籽中的白藜芦醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪杰; 高明波; 朴晶晶; 廖颖玲

    2015-01-01

    The wine making process produces a large quantity of grape secondary products, which include grape seeds, skins, and stems and so on. These byproducts comprise approximately 20% of the harvested grapes. All the byproducts are only scraps from the grape wine, generally treated as waste. Resveratrol, exists mainly in the above byproducts, owning a number of functions, such as antibacterial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation function. It can also inhibit platelet aggregation, bring vasodilation and improve the body immunity. The method of aqueous two-phase extraction was used to extract the resveratrol in the grape Shuangyouhong seeds. The whole extraction is green and simple, which was far better than the traditional organic solvent extraction. Of the 16 kinds of aqueous two-phase systems, the best one of ethanol/ dipotassium phosphate system was optimized. On the basis of single factor experiment and the following four factors level contrast experiment, the extraction conditions of resveratrol were optimized as follows: 70% ethanol, solid to liquid ratio of 1:15, extraction for 2. 5 h at 60 ℃. The content of resveratrol in the Shuangyouhong grape seeds was 0. 484%.%葡萄酿酒过程中会产生大量的副产品,主要包括:葡萄籽,葡萄皮和葡萄茎;这些副产品约占葡萄总成分的20%。这些副产品是葡萄酿酒后的下脚料,一般被当做废弃物。白藜芦醇却主要存在于以上副产品中。其具有抗菌、抗癌、抗氧化、抑制血小板凝集和舒张血管、提高机体免疫力等特性。本实验利用双水相萃取的方法萃取“双优红”葡萄籽中的白藜芦醇,萃取过程绿色简洁,比传统有机溶剂萃取法有更好的萃取效果。从16种双水相体系中优选出最佳双水相体系乙醇/磷酸氢二钾。在单因素实验基础上,通过四因素水平对比实验优化白藜芦醇的萃取条件为:料液比为1:15,温度为60℃,乙醇萃取浓度为70%,萃取时间为2.5 h,在此最

  2. Archaeological Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    From July to August of 1995 a jointarchaeological team from the InnerMongolian Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute and Japan’sEast Asian Archaeology Research Society unearthed the remains of a primitive human community dating back 6,000 years.This site was discovered at Wangmu Mountain on the southem bank of Daihai Lake in Liangcheng County Inner Mongolia. Within an area of 200 square meters,17 dwelling remains,22 cellars and over 100 pottery,stone and bone articles were unearthed.

  3. 葡萄籽多酚化合物抗氧化能力与抗癌细胞增殖活性的评价%Antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenolic compounds on cancer cell culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兰兰; 张雅丽; 朱磊; 邓嘉进; 曲桂芹; 卢江

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenlic compounds on Petri-Dish cultured cancer cells. Methods: Three phenolic compound parameters(total phenols, flavonoids, and flavan-3-ols) and three antioxidant property parameters DPPH(2,2-diphenyi- 1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, ABTS 2, 2-azino-di-(3-ethylben -zothialozine-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging and FRAP(ferric reducing antioxidant power), were measured. In-vitro cultured human liver cancer cells-HepG2 were treated with extracts of grape seed phenlic compounds in different concentration for 24 h, and were measured for proliferation ability by MTT assay. Results: Phenolic compounds,antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities were different among variant grape seed extracts. Large quantity of phenolic compounds were remained in grape pomace. V. vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon"had higher values of phenolic compounds, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities than V.rotundifolia "Noble". Conclusions: Grape seed phenolic extracts from both fresh fruit and pomace showed antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities.%目的:探讨葡萄鲜果及酿酒皮渣中葡萄籽提取物中的酚类化合物含量,抗氧化特性及对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。方法:乙醇法提取葡萄籽中多酚化合物,分光光度计法测定三大酚类化合物参数(总酚、类黄酮类、黄烷-3-醇类)及3种抗氧化性能参数(DPPH)及ABTS自由基清除能力,FRAP分析)。体外培养肝癌细胞HepG2,建立细胞模型,不同浓度的提取物作用于癌细胞后,采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法(MTT法)检测多酚提取物对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。结果:不同样品葡萄籽所含酚类化合物、抗氧化性能、抗癌细胞增殖能力均不同,酿酒皮渣的葡萄籽中仍含有大量的多酚化合物,其中欧亚种赤霞珠鲜果

  4. Archaeological Bonanza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s construction boom unearths many important ancient sites China’s top 10 archaeological discoveries in 2008 were released by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH) on March 31. The 10 winners, which were chosen from 25 nominees, include a Bronze-Age graveyard in

  5. Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis Seeds Regulate ARE-Mediated Enzyme Expression via Nrf2 Coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt Pathway in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Sik Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis seeds in particular their roles in inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes as well as in modulating the upstream kinases. Ethanolic extract of V. amurensis seeds was fractionated with a series of organic solvents and finally separated into six fractions, F1–F6. Chemical properties of the procyanidins were analyzed by vanillin assay, BuOH-HCl test, and depolymerization with phloroglucinol followed by LC/MS analysis. The F5 had the highest procyanidin content among all the fractions and strongly induced the reporter activity of antioxidant response element as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2 in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The procyanidin-rich F5 also strongly induced the expression of the phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes such as NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase1 and hemeoxygenase1. Phosphorylations of the upstream kinases such as MAPKs and PI3K/Akt were significantly increased by treatment with procyanidin fraction. In addition, the procyanidin-mediated Nrf2 expression was partly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and almost completely by p38 inhibitor SB202190, but neither by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, the procyanidins from wild grape seeds could be used as a potential natural chemopreventive agent through Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes induction via p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway.

  6. 不同山葡萄品种种子中黄烷-3-醇类物质含量比较研究%Comparative Research of the Flavan -3-ols Content of Varieties of Wild Grape Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文才; 艾军

    2013-01-01

    本试验以“贝达”、“北冰红”、“左山一”、“左山二”、“左优红”、“双红”、“双优”7个山葡萄品种为试验材料,运用高效液相色谱法测得各山葡萄品种种子中儿茶素与表儿茶素的含量。经分析比较得出,“双优”种子中儿茶素的含量最高(2.286mg/g );“左山二”种子中儿茶素含量最低(0.5842mg/g );“双优”种子中表儿茶素含量最高(4.165mg/g ),“左山一”及“左山二”种子中表儿茶素含量皆偏低(1.560mg/g和1.556mg/g )。%This experiment took seven varieties of wild grapes (“Beida” ,“Beibinghong” ,“Zuoshanyi” ,“Zuoshaner” ,“Zuoyouhong” ,“Shuanghong” ,“Shuangyou”) as materials .Use HPLC to measure the content of catechin and epicatechin in every kind of wild grape seeds .By the comparative analysis ,catechin was the highest in“Shuangyou”seeds of 2.286mg/g and the lowest in“Zuoshaner”seeds of 0.584 2mg/g;the epicatechin was highest in“Shuangyou”seeds of 4.165mg/g and the lowest in both“Zuoshanyi”seeds and“Zuoshaner”seeds of 1.560mg/g and 1.556mg/g .

  7. Chronic administration of grape-seed polyphenols attenuates the development of hypertension and improves other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in cafeteria diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Zara; Margalef, Maria; Bravo, Francisca I; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    The effects of grape-seed polyphenols against the development of hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, known as the cafeteria (CAF) diet. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed standard (STD) or CAF diets for 12 weeks. The CAF diet-fed rats were administered different doses of a low-molecular-weight grape-seed polyphenol extract (LM-GSPE) (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg per d) or vehicle daily, and the STD diet-fed rats were administered LM-GSPE (100 mg/kg per d) or vehicle using ten animals per group. Body weight (BW), waist perimeter (WP) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) by the tail-cuff method were recorded weekly. The animals were housed in metabolic chambers every 2 weeks to estimate daily food and liquid intakes and to collect faeces and urine samples. The plasma lipid profile was analysed at time 0 and on the 4th, 7th, 10th and 12th weeks of the experiment. Moreover, plasma leptin was measured at the end of the experiment. Results demonstrated that LM-GSPE, when administered with the CAF diet, attenuated the increase in BP, BW, WP and improved lipid metabolism in these animals. However, although the 25- and 100-mg/kg per d doses were sufficient to produce beneficial effects on BP and lipid metabolism, a 200-mg/kg per d dose was necessary to have an effect on BW and WP. The present findings suggest that LM-GSPE is a good candidate for a BP-lowering agent that can also ameliorate other conditions associated with the MetS.

  8. Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghradze David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Wine Agency of the Republic of Georgia initiated a three-year “Research Project for the study of Georgian Grapes and Wine Culture. Through collaborative research by Georgian and foreign institutions and researchers, the project aims to: stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, through the lens of the country with the earliest tradition of grape domestication and winemaking; and to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time. The project advances the study of grape and wine culture by utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, including: archaeology, history, ethnography, molecular genetics, biomolecular archaeology, palaeobotany, ampelography, enology, climatology and other scientific fields. These studies are diachronic in their approach, beginning with the oldest Neolithic civilizations, to present day, creating a holistic understanding of the continuity and complexity of Georgian Wine Culture to help popularize Georgian Wine throughout the global wine market.

  9. Experimental analysis on bacteriostatic efficacy and toxicity of grape seeds extract in hospital clinically isolated strain%葡萄籽提取物对医院临床分离菌株的抑菌作用及毒性试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯春婷; 孟姿秀; 孟凡戈; 李志富; 胡作林; 邵伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the bacteriostatic efficacy and toxicity of grape seeds ethanol extract in hospital clini-cally isolated strain. Methods:Clinically isolated strain specimens were used to observe the bacteriostatic efficacy of grape seed ethanol extract via bacterial inhibition zone test and nutrient broth method;and animal test was employed to observe experimentally its toxicity. Results:The diameters of bacterial inhibition zones of clinically isolated microorganism strain and standard microorganism strain exposed to the ethanol containing grape seed crude drug 125 mg/ L were larger than 7 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration( MIC)of grape seed ethanol extract for C albicans was 25. 0 mg/ ml. The mouse acute oral LD50 was above 5000 mg/ kg,the rabbit skin irritation test index of grape seed stock solution was 0. 13, which belonged to mild irritation. Conclusion:Grape seed extract has good bacteriostatic efficacy and it belongs to practi-cally non-toxic class and was slightly irritative to skin.%目的:分析葡萄籽乙醇提取液对医院临床分离菌株的体外抑菌作用和毒性。方法以临床标本分离菌株为对象,采用抑菌环试验和营养肉汤稀释法对其抑菌效果进行了试验观察;采用动物试验对其进行了毒性试验观察。结果含葡萄籽生药125 g/ L 的乙醇提取液对临床分离菌株和标准菌株的抑菌环直径均大于7 mm。葡萄籽乙醇提取物对白色念球菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为25.0 g/ L。小鼠急性经口 LD50值大于5000 mg/ kg,葡萄籽提取原液对家兔皮肤刺激试验指数为0.13,属于轻度刺激性。结论葡萄籽乙醇提取液具有良好的抑菌作用,属无毒、低刺激性物质。

  10. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adilson Costa,1,2 Elisangela Samartin Pegas Pereira,1 Elvira Cancio Assumpção,1 Felipe Borba Calixto dos Santos,1 Fernanda Sayuri Ota,1 Margareth de Oliveira Pereira,1 Maria Carolina Fidelis,1 Raquel Fávaro,1 Stephanie Selma Barros Langen,1 Lúcia Helena Favaro de Arruda,1 Eva Nydal Abildgaard3 1Department of Dermatology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2KOLderma Clinical Trials Institute, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Nutritional Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet marine protein (105 mg, vitamin C (27 mg, grape seed extract (13.75 mg, zinc (2 mg, and tomato extract (14.38 mg in the improvement of skin aging in men.Methods: This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images.Results: Forty-one subjects (87% completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05. The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05, dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001, and

  11. 辽南山葡萄籽多酚提取工艺的初步研究1)%Study on the Polyphenols Extraction from Grape Seed in Liaonan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the polyphenols extracted from grape seed according to the differ‐ent extraction agent in the visible absorption of 540nm place ,Determine the best solution for 70% of methanol extraction agent .By single factor experiment ,determine the extraction agent concentration ,temperature ,time ,ratio of the applicable scope ,Reuse orthogonal test method for optimizing process .Determine the optimum technological conditions for :Volume fraction 70% of methanol ,more than 1∶20 (m/v ) ,70℃ extraction 20 min baths . The seeds of vitis amurensis rupr polyphenol content can reach 18 .981 mg/g .%  以山葡萄籽为实验材料,通过单因素法提取葡萄籽中的多酚。根据不同浸提剂在540nm处可见光吸收情况的测定,确定70%甲醇溶液为最佳浸提剂。通过单因素试验确定了提取剂浓度、提取时间、提取温度、料液比的适用范围,再利用正交试验法进行工艺优化。确定最佳工艺条件为:体积分数70%的甲醇,料液比1∶20(m/v),70℃水浴,浸提20min。山葡萄籽中多酚的含量可达18.981mg/g。

  12. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  13. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency.

  14. The color intensity variation of grape seed extracts dissolving in the Wudalianchi mineral water%葡萄籽提取物的五大连池矿泉水溶液色度变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菁华; 马晓红; 李月兴; 方振兴; 潘虹

    2014-01-01

    Grape seed extract( GSE) is one kind of high anti-oxidation healthy food stuff. The GSE dissolved with Wudalianchi mineral water and centrifugal separation. The absorbency of solution was measured under 420 nm,520 nm,620 nm with UV spectrophotometer. The color intensity varied with time has been studied in this paper. A group dissolving in de-ionized water was set as control. Result showed that the color of GSE dissolved in mineral water is more stable. Conclusion:The beverage prepared by dissolving with Wudalianchi mineral water is more healthy and nutritious.%葡萄籽提取物是一种具有高抗氧化性等保健功效的天然食品原料,通过将葡萄籽提取物用五大连池矿泉水溶解后,经离心,静置观察,采用紫外分光光度计分别在420 nm、520 nm、620 nm 波长下测定葡萄籽矿泉水溶液的吸光度,并与葡萄籽蒸馏水溶液吸光度值进行比较,研究比较了两种溶液色调的变化。结果显示葡萄籽提取物用五大连池矿泉水溶解后溶液颜色稳定持久。所以,使用五大连池矿泉水作为葡萄籽提取物饮品的水源可以减少添加色素,并且颜色持久稳定。

  15. The Effect of Aloe Vera, Pomegranate Peel, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, and Sodium Ascorbate as Antioxidants on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Home-bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sharafeddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Immediate application of bonding agent to home- bleached enamel leads to significant reduction in the shear bond strength of composite resin due to the residual oxygen. Different antioxidant agents may overcome this problem. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the effect of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to home-bleached. Materials and Method: Sixty extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5×1.5 cm, with the coronal portion left out of the block. After bleaching the labial enamel surface with 15% carbamide peroxide, they were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10. Before performing composite resin restoration by using a cylindrical Teflon mold (5×2 mm, each group was treated with one of the following antioxidants: 10% sodium ascorbate solution, 10% pomegranate peel solution, 10% grape seed extract, 5% green tea extract, and aloe vera leaf gel. One group was left untreated as the control. The shear bond strength of samples was tested under a universal testing machine (ZwickRoell Z020. The shear bond strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05. Results: No significant difference existed between the control and experimental groups. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the effects of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of bleached enamel. Conclusion: Different antioxidants used in this study had the same effect on the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel, and none of them caused a statistically significant increase in its value.

  16. Proteomic analysis of kidney and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 in db/db mice indicate MFG-E8 as a key molecule in the development of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Bao-Ying; Li, Xiao-Li; Cheng, Mei; Yu, Fei; Lu, Wei-da; Cai, Qian; Wang, Jun-Fu; Zhou, Rui-Hai; Gao, Hai-Qing; Shen, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, as a severe microvascular complication of diabetic mellitus, has become the leading cause of end-stage renal diseases. However, no effective therapeutic strategy has been developed to prevent renal damage progression to end stage renal disease. Hence, the present study evaluated the protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) and explored its molecular targets underlying diabetic nephropathy by a comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis in db/db mice. Here, we found that oral administration of GSPB2 significantly attenuated the renal dysfunction and pathological changes in db/db mice. Proteome analysis by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) identified 53 down-regulated and 60 up-regulated proteins after treatment with GSPB2 in db/db mice. Western blot analysis confirmed that milk fat globule EGF-8 (MFG-E8) was significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. MFG-E8 silencing by transfection of MFG-E8 shRNA improved renal histological lesions by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1⁄2), Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) in kidneys of db/db mice. In contrast, over-expression of MFG-E8 by injection of recombinant MFG-E8 resulted in the opposite effects. GSPB2 treatment significantly decreased protein levels of MFG-E8, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, and phospho-GSK-3β in the kidneys of db/db mice. These findings yield insights into the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, revealing MFG-E8 as a new therapeutic target and indicating GSPB2 as a prospective therapy by down-regulation of MFG-E8, along with ERK1/2, Akt and GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  17. Grape seed procyanidins administered at physiological doses to rats during pregnancy and lactation promote lipid oxidation and up-regulate AMPK in the muscle of male offspring in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenti, Anna; del Bas, Josep Maria; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Arola, Lluís; Caimari, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) during pregnancy and lactation, at doses extrapolated to human consumption, programs male offspring toward improved metabolism in adulthood. For this purpose, female rats were fed a normal-fat diet (NFD) and treated with either GSPE (25 mg kg(-1) of body weight/day) or vehicle during gestation and lactation. The metabolic programming effects of GSPE were evaluated in the male offspring fed NFD from 30 to 170 days of life. No changes were observed in body weight, adiposity, circulating lipid profile and insulin sensitivity between the offspring of dams treated with GSPE (STD-GSPE group) and their counterparts (STD-veh). However, the STD-GSPE offspring had lower circulating levels of C-reactive protein and lower respiratory quotient values, shifting whole-body energy catabolism from carbohydrate to fat oxidation. Furthermore, the STD-GSPE animals also exhibited increased levels of total and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and an over-expression of the mRNA levels of key genes related to fatty acid uptake (Fatp1 and CD36) and β-oxidation (pparα and had) in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that GSPE programs healthy male offspring towards a better circulating inflammatory profile and greater lipid utilisation in adulthood. The metabolic programming effects of GSPE that are related to the enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle seem to be mediated, at least in part, by AMPK. These findings could be of relevance in the prevention of pathologies associated to lifestyle and aging, such as obesity and insulin resistance.

  18. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of tot...

  19. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  20. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  1. Inhibition of murine skin carcinogenesis by freeze-dried grape powder and other grape-derived major antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanausek, Margaret; Spears, Erick; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Wendel, Courtney; Slaga, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to carcinogenic insults causes a variety of adverse effects, among them the development of skin carcinomas. Since there is a need to develop efficient chemopreventive agents based on nutrition, our goal was to determine antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of grapes by evaluating grape powder developed by the California Table Grape Commission. In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of grape powder, three of the major antioxidant components found in grapes-resveratrol, catechin, quercetin, and grape seed extract, containing a proanthocyanidin B-2-gallate-were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and to protect the immune system. Tested antioxidants given topically and/or systemically strongly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation. The hydroxylation of 2'-deoxyguanosine was markedly inhibited by topical and dietary administration of test variables, i.e., by approximately 40-70%. Simultaneous dietary and topical treatment with antioxidants reduced these biomarkers, showing strong additive and in some combinations synergistic effects. DMBA-mediated Ha-ras mutations in codon 61 were reduced by up to 50% with topical applications, but much higher inhibition was observed in mice treated with different combinations. The results of the present study clearly show impressive effects of combined topical and dietary treatments with above grape-derived antioxidants.

  2. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  3. OK computer? Digital community archaeologies in practice (Internet Archaeology 40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this section of Internet Archaeology came out of a Theoretical Archaeology Group session at Manchester University in 2014. The session was motivated to explore issues associated with 'digital public archaeology' (DPA. The articles presented here deal with a number of themes which arise when doing digital public archaeology.

  4. 超声微波双辅助提取葡萄籽低聚原花青素的研究%Extraction of oligoprocyanidins from grape seed with ultrasonic treatment followed by microwave treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茵茹; 康健; 赵芙蓉

    2012-01-01

    以新疆吐鲁番的赤霞珠葡萄籽为研究对象,利用超声微波双辅助法提取其中的低聚原花青素.以低聚原花青素提取率为考察指标,研究固液比、微波功率、微波辐照时间、作用次数、乙醇体积分数5个单因素对葡萄籽低聚原花青素提取率的影响.并采用响应面分析法对提取结果进行优化.结果表明,采用超声微波双辅助萃取技术得到的低聚原花青素提取率较单独采用超声或微波辅助得到的原花青素提取率高.在以70.3%vol的乙醇为提取溶剂、固液比为1∶14.6 (g∶mL)、超声处理30min、微波功率400W、微波时间30s的条件下,得到的低聚原花青素提取率最大为7.62mg/g.%In this paper, grape seeds of Cabernet Sauvignon from Turpan Xinjiang were used to extract oligoprocyanidins by ultrasonic treatment followed by microwave. Effects of solid-liquid ratio, microwave power, microwave time, treatment times and alcohol concentration on extraction rate of oligoprocyanidins were evaluated through orthogonal experiments. The response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction result. The combinations of ultrasonic with microwave obtain higher extraction efficiency than the use of ultrasonic and microwave alone. The optimal extraction condition were as followed: extraction solution 70.3% vol alcohol, solid-liquid ratio 1:14.6, ultrasonic treatment time 30min, microwave power 400W and microwave time 30. Extraction rate of oligoprocyanidins was 7.62mg/g under these optimal conditions.

  5. 海藻葡萄皮渣复合发酵醋饮料的研制%Development of Compound Fermented Vinegar Beverage of Algae and Grape Skin and Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾学东; 胡丽娜

    2014-01-01

    以海藻、葡萄皮渣为原料,经水、酒精先后浸提后,把两次浸提液混合均匀,调整酒精含量,加入蓝莓果汁等,经醋酸发酵,脱腥,制备发酵醋饮料。采用正交试验设计,以原花青素为有效成分指标,研究了酒精的最佳浸提工艺条件。结果表明,酒精度70%vol、浸提温度55℃、浸提时间4h为最佳浸提工艺;利用单因素实验,探讨了发酵时间、发酵醋酸度对产品脱腥的影响。结果表明,发酵时间72h、发酵酸度5g/100mL可以掩蔽海藻的腥味;最后通过正交试验,确定了发酵醋饮料的最佳配方为:发酵醋5%,木糖醇7.5%,蜂蜜2%。%Fermented vinegar beverage was prepared with raw materials of algae,grape skin and seed that after water leaching, alcohol leaching,mixing leaching solution, adjusting alcohol content, joining the blueberry juice,acetic acid fermentation, and deodorizing. By orthogonal experimental design,with procyanidins as effective component index, the best leaching technology conditions of alcohol was studied. The results showed that the best leaching process was alcohol 70% vol, leaching temperature 55℃,and leaching time 4h. The paper discussed the effect of fermentation time and fermentation degree of acetic acid on product trends using single factor analysis.The results showed that the smell of seaweed can be masked at fermentation time of 72h and acidity of 5g/100mL. Finally, the best formula was determined by orthogonal experiment:5%fermented vinegar, 7.5%xylitol, and 2%honey.

  6. Grape seed procyanidin reversal of p-glycoprotein associated multi-drug resistance via down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activity in A2780/T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-xin Zhao

    Full Text Available The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR, leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic.

  7. Archaeology and Photography: A Pragmatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is an exploration of meta-archaeology. We consider some of the premises, dispositions, infrastructures of archaeological practices, where the archaeological is no longer a substantive, but adjectival, an aspect of things and doings, where archaeology is part of the trans-disciplinary...

  8. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  9. 葡萄籽提取物对烤羊肉中杂环胺形成的影响%Inhibition Effect of Grape Seed Extract on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Fried Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国周; 王桂瑛; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2011-01-01

    将0.05%VE,0.1%与0.5%葡萄籽提取物,0.1%与0.5%槲皮素分别添加于羊肉表面,在200℃下煎烤10 min,利用固相萃取-配备二极管阵列检测器和荧光检测器的高效液相色谱分析烤羊肉中15种杂环胺的形成量,以探讨天然提取物对烤羊肉中杂环胺形成量的影响。结果表明:烤羊肉中共检测出10种杂环胺,其中极性杂环胺4种,非极性杂环胺6种,总量达51.68 ng/g。在极性杂环胺中2-氨基-1-甲基-6-苯基-咪唑并[4,5-b]吡啶(PhIP)的形成量较高,达10.50 ng/g;非极性杂环胺中9H-吡啶并[3,4-b]吲哚(Norharman)与1-甲基-9H-吡啶并[3,4-b]吲哚(Harman)的形成量较高,分别达19.66 ng/g与12.23 ng/g。烤羊肉中添加天然抗氧化剂只对极性杂环胺有抑制作用,其中添加0.5%葡萄籽提取物可以显著抑制2-氨基-3甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹啉(IQ),2-氨基-3,8-二甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹喔啉(MeIQx),2-氨基-3,4,8-三甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹喔啉(4,8-DiMeIQx)与PhIP 4种极性杂环胺的形成(P〈0.05),其生成量分别减少36.65%,67.73%,35.63%与30%。天然抗氧化剂对烤羊肉中非极性杂环胺的抑制作用不明显。%The effects of vitamin E,grape seed extracts and quercetin on HAAs formation in fried mutton patties were studied.Antioxidants were added directly to the surface of the patties before frying.Patties were fried at 200℃ for 10 min.HAAs were isolated by solid phase extraction and quantified by HPLC with DAD and FLD detection.Results showed that 10 HAAs were detected in fried mutton patties,the total amount of HAAs was up to 51.68 ng/g.Among them,9H-pyridoindole(Norharman),1-methyl-9H-pyrido indole(Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-pyridine(PhIP) were detected at higher level in fried mutton patties.The concentrations of the two compounds were 19.66 ng/g,12.23 ng/g and 10.50 ng/g respectively.Compared to the control,Grape seed extracts at 0.5% levels significantly

  10. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  11. 葡萄籽和苹果原花青素对变形链球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制作用%Antibacterial Activity of Procyanidins from Apple and Grape Seeds against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单静敏; 曹雁平; 肖俊松; 陈瑶佳; 于军

    2011-01-01

    研究苹果原花青素和葡萄籽原花青素对变形链球菌(Streptococcus mutans)和金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcusaureus)的抑制作用,采用试管液体稀释法和琼脂稀释法抑菌实验测定其最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)和质量最低杀菌质量浓度(MBC),并通过测定培养基pH值的变化,研究葡萄籽原花青素对变形链球菌产酸能力的影响。结果表明:苹果原花青素、葡萄籽原花青素对变形链球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌生长都有抑制作用;苹果原花青素对变形链球菌的MIC和MBC分别为1.25、4.00mg/mL,葡萄籽原花青素对变形链球菌的MIC和MBC分别为1.75、2.00mg/mL;苹果原花青素对金黄色葡萄球菌的MIC和MBC分别为4.00、9.00mg/mL,葡萄籽原花青素对金黄色葡萄球菌的MIC和MBC分别为2.00、6.50mg/mL。葡萄籽原花青素质量浓度大于1.00mg/mL对变形链球菌的产酸能力有显著抑制效果。%Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus are major pathogenic bacteria in human oral cavity.In the present study,the antibacterial activity of procyanidins derived from grape seeds and apples against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated.The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration(MBC) were determined by broth tube dilution and agar dilution methods,respectively.The effect of procyanidins on acid production of S.mutans was also studied by monitoring pH change of the broth during cultivation.Results showed that the MIC and MBC against S.mutans were 1.25 mg/mL and 4.00 mg/mL for apple procyanidins,and 1.75 mg/mL and 2.00 mg/mL for grape seed procyanidins,respectively.The MIC and MBC against S.aureus were 4.00 mg/mL and 9.00 mg/mL for apple procyanidins,and 2.00 mg/mL and 6.50 mg/mL for grape seed procyanidins,respectively.Grape seed procyanidins with a concentration over 1.00 mg/mL had significant inhibitory effect on acid production of S.mutans.

  12. 甲酯化方法对番茄、哈密瓜、葡萄和石榴四种籽油脂肪酸组成分析的影响%Effects of Methylesterification Methods on the Fatty Acid Composition Analysis of the Tomato,Hami Melon,Grape,or Pomegranate Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武鹏凯; 林宏英; 黄建梅; 王春梅

    2015-01-01

    为了探索适合番茄、哈密瓜、葡萄和石榴4种籽油脂肪酸组成分析的甲酯化方法,本实验采用酸催化、碱催化和酸碱催化3种方法分别甲酯化4种籽油,以气相色谱-质谱法检测它们的脂肪酸组成。结果表明,使用KOH-甲醇溶液甲酯化方法,从番茄、哈密瓜、葡萄和石榴4种籽油中分别检测出12种、11种、12种、12种脂肪酸,H2 SO4-甲醇溶液法分别检测出8种、8种、6种、5种脂肪酸,酸碱结合法分别检测出11种、15种、14种、11种脂肪酸。说明适合番茄籽油和石榴籽油甲酯化的方法为KOH-甲醇溶液法,适合葡萄籽油和哈密瓜籽油甲酯化的方法是KOH-甲醇溶液与H2 SO4-甲醇溶液法相结合法。%This study aimed to find better methylesterification method for analyzing the fatty acid composition of the tomato ,Hami melon ,grapes or pomegranate seed oils .The seed oils of the four fruits were methylated by acid-catalyzed ,alkali-catalyzed ,acid-alkali combination method ,re-spectively ,and the fatty acids composition were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry .The results showed that there were 12 ,11 ,12 or 12 kinds of fatty acids identified in the tomato ,Hami melon ,grape or pomegranate seed oil ,respectively ,by KOH-methanol solution method;8 ,8 ,6 or 5 kinds of fatty acids by H2 SO4 -methanol solution method;11 ,15 ,14 or 11 kinds of fatty acids by acid-alkali combination method . These data suggest that KOH-methanol solution method is suitable for methylesterification of tomato seed oil or pomegranate seed oil;KOH-methanol solution and H2SO4 -methanol solution combination method are fitting for Hami melon or grape seed oil .

  13. 30 Years of Archaeological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s archaeology has achieved remarkable outcomes during the 30 years after the carrying out of the reform and opening up policy. In theoretical research, various archaeological theories and genres have been introduced to China, which have influenced the development of the archaeology of China.

  14. Building Sustainability in Community Archaeology: the Hendon School Archaeology Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moshenska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hendon School Archaeology Project is a collaboration between Hendon School, the Hendon and District Archaeological Society (HADAS and the UCL Institute of Archaeology. It aims to provide students at the school with an experience and understanding of archaeological fieldwork, while investigating an important multi-period site. This paper outlines the results of the first five years of the project: both the archaeological findings, and as an innovative collaborative form of community archaeology. The principal focus of research is the 16th-century residence of John Norden, cartographer to Elizabeth I; however, the most significant discovery to date is a substantial ceramic assemblage of 12th to 14th-century date. As community archaeology, an important aspect is the sustainability of the project, based on cost and resource sharing between the project partners, which we believe may offer a useful model for other such initiatives.

  15. In vitro embryo rescue culture of F1 progenies from crosses between different ploidy grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W; Li, G R; Luo, Y X; Ma, X H; Wang, M; Ren, R

    2015-12-29

    Crossing different ploidy grapes is an effective way to obtain new seedless cultivars. Although embryo rescue has been extensively applied in breeding seedless and triploid grapes, only a few improved cultivars have been developed. Based on preliminary studies, we set five crosses between tetraploid and diploid grape varieties to obtain new hybrid triploid germplasms. Additionally, we compared two different methods of performing in vitro embryo rescue and sowing in the development of hybrid triploid grape plants. The results showed that the germination rate of hybrid seeds was much lower (0-22.8%) than that of the self-pollinated seeds (50.9-61.2%) obtained though the same method of in vitro culture. Meanwhile, the seed germination rates of all crosses obtain through in vitro culture (0-61.2%) were higher than those obtained through sowing (0-42.0%). Identification of ploidy level confirmed that three lines obtained from the crosses of 'Ruby Seedless (2x) x Black Olympia (4x)' and 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' were triploid, and one line from the cross of 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' was haploid, and the others were diploid, tetraploid, or aneuploidy plants. Moreover, 4 haploid and 42 triploid surviving grape seedlings were planted in a vineyard after propagation. Therefore, an efficient system of breeding triploid seedless grapes using embryo rescue was established and 42 hybrid triploid germplasms were obtained for use in future studies.

  16. Galactic Archaeology: Current Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    I present an overview of the science goals and achievements of ongoing spectroscopic surveys of individual stars in the nearby Universe. I include a brief discussion of the development of the field of Galactic Archaeology - using the fossil record in old stars nearby to infer how our Galaxy evolved and place the Milky Way in cosmological context.

  17. Islamic Archaeology in Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Three years of archaeological research at Al Zubarah on the northwest coast of the Qatar peninsula has produced detailed information on social, cultural, and economic structures of a major trading town of the Gulf in the 18th and 19th centuries CE. Detailed investigations, undertaken in partnership...

  18. Archaeological Discoveries in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    LIAONING Province, in northeastern China, has been inhabited by many ethnic groups since ancient times. It is one of the sites of China’s earliest civilization. Since the 1950s many archaeological discoveries from periods beginning with the Paleolithic of 200,000 years ago, and through all the following historic periods, have been made in the province.

  19. The Study on the Comprehensive Utilization of Grape Dregs%葡萄废渣的综合利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福祥; 韩菊

    2001-01-01

    The comprehensive utilization of grape dregs from wine plants is reviewed in many respects.It includes extracting pigment,pectin and tartaric acid from fermented grape skin;protein,grape seed oil and tannin from grape seeds;oligomeric flavanols from grape skin,seeds and stalk.%对葡萄酒厂副产品——葡萄废渣的综合利用进行了综述:从发酵的皮渣中提取色素、果胶、酒石酸;从葡萄籽中提取蛋白质、葡萄籽油、单宁;从葡萄皮、籽、梗中提取低聚黄烷醇化合物。

  20. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  1. Drones in Archaeology

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil

    2014-09-01

    In late 2013, a joint archaeological and computer vision project was initiated to digitally capture the archaeological remains in the al-Ula valley, Saudi Arabia. The goal of our team of archeologists and computer scientists is to integrate 3D scanning technologies to produce 3D reconstructions of archaeological sites. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) serve as the vehicle which makes this scanning possible. UAVs allow the acquisition of 3D data as easily from the air as from the ground. This project focuses on the recent excavations carried out in ancient Dedan by King Saud University and the country\\'s conservation of the Lihyanite "lion tombs" carved into the ancient city\\'s cliff faces. Over the next several years this site will be used as a test bed to validate the potential of this emerging technology for rapid cultural heritage documentation. We additionally scanned several areas in Mada\\'in Saleh, an ancient Nabatean city filled with monumental carved sandstone tomb facades, rivaled only by the capital of the Nabatean empire: Petra.

  2. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested.

  3. 葡萄、葡萄皮%grape fruit,skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳

    2006-01-01

    @@ 又名 Black Grape Raisins, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Calzin, Chardonnay, Emperor, Enocianina,Flame Seedless, Grape, Grapes, Grape Fruit, Grape Fruit Skin, Grape Juice, Grape Skin, Grape Skin Extract, Merlot, Petite Sirah, raisins, Red Globe, Red Malaga, sauvignon Blanc, Sultanas, Table Grapes, Thompson Seedless,wine Grapes.

  4. Study on Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Procyanidins from Grape Seeds and Its Antioxidant Activity%超声提取葡萄籽原花青素工艺的优化及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金华; 刘志刚; 曾晓丹; 高艳; 马明硕

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM)is used to optimize the ultrasonic extraction technology of procyanidins from grape seeds. On the basis of single factor test, a central composite design experiment is conducted and the response surface analysis is employed to investigate the influences of four main factors including ultrasonic extraction temperature,ratio of solvent to raw material,ethanol concentration and ultrasonic time on the yield of procyanidins.Then a regression model is established. The optimum condition is temperature of 55 ℃,ratio of solvent to raw material of 20(mL/g),ethanol concentration of 65% and extraction time of 10 min.Under such conditions,the yield of procyanidins is 2.482%,which is extremely consistent with the experimental value with a relative error of 0.36%. Pyrogallol oxidation method is applied for determination of antioxidant activities of procyanidins in grape seeds.The results show that the extraction has capacity to scavenge radical and the scavenging activity increases with the procyanidins concentration.%研究利用响应曲面法优化超声提取葡萄籽原花青素的工艺。在单因素实验基础上,采用中心组合设计响应面实验,考察了提取温度、液料比、乙醇浓度以及超声时间对原花青素提取率的影响,并建立回归模型。优化后的工艺:提取温度55℃,液料比20(mL/g),乙醇浓度65%,超声时间10 min;在此条件下葡萄籽原花青素的提取率为2.482%,与回归模型预测值的相对偏差为0.36%。同时进行了提取物的抗氧化性检验,结果表明葡萄籽原花青素对超氧阴离子自由基具有较好的清除能力,且呈剂量相关性。

  5. Relation between Seed Appearance and Phenolic Maturity: A Case Study Using Grapes cv. Carménère Relación entre Apariencia de Semillas y Madurez Fenólica: Un Estudio de Caso usando Uvas cv. Carménère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fredes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. plays a key role in determining the harvest time in grapevine varieties. The harvest time of cv. Carménère is one of the latest of Chile. During the season 2007-2008, the evolution of the appearance of ‘Carménère’ seeds was evaluated as a harvest criterion, comparing it with the chemical and phenolic ripening. The samples were obtained from an organic vineyard located in Curicó Valley, Chile. Starting at 16 ºBrix, 100 seed berries samples were collected weekly from medium vigor vines in order to register photographically the ventral and dorsal sides of each seed. In addition to the seed tannins percentage, the extractable anthocyanins, total anthocyanins and total polyphenols index, as well as the titratable acidity, soluble solids and pH were registered. A color wheel of seed coat with a description of 12 digital colors was proposed for this cultivar. When the color number exceeded 10 (very dark brown, the soluble solids had already reached 24 ºBrix 1 month earlier. Two inverse correlations between seed coat color vs. seed phenols percentage and vs. total polyphenol index were found. The proper phenolic maturation (maximum anthocyanins and minimum seed tannins percentage occurred 177 d post flowering. The observation of seed coat color can be a reliable, simple and low-cost parameter to determine the correct ripeness of phenols in ‘Carménère’ grapevines.La evaluación sensorial de uvas (Vitis vinifera L. juega un rol clave en la determinación de la fecha de cosecha en los últimos estados de la maduración de la baya. La cosecha del cv. Carménère es una de las últimas en Chile. Durante la temporada 2007-2008, la evolución de la apariencia de semillas ‘Carménère’ fue evaluada como un criterio de cosecha, comparándola con la madurez química y fenólica. Las muestras fueron obtenidas desde una viña orgánica localizada en el valle de Curicó, Chile. Se colectaron

  6. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  7. An Exercise in Theoretical Archaeology: Do Archaeological Cultures Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Porčić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological culture still persists as a basic analytical and interpretative concept in Serbian archaeology despite criticism. This paper presents a formal view of archaeological cultures and explores the epistemological implications of this formalization. Formal analysis of archaeological culture is achieved through logical and quantitative explication of the traditional definition of archaeological cultures. The main result of the formal analysis is that there are real patterns of formal variability of material culture that may or may not correspond to traditional archaeological cultures. These patterns are real only in the analytical sense – they are real for given input data and scale of analysis. Unlike the traditional approach where this patterns are equated with archaeological cultures which are furthered interpreted in essentialist terms or as quasi- organic entities such as ethnic groups, it is claimed here that discovered patterns are only the starting point – the empirical situation that needs to be accounted for in anthropological an historical terms. This paper shows how patterns that are traditionally identified as archaeological cultures can arise as a consequence of an entire range of processes – different social and historical realities. The main conclusion is that the traditional concept of archaeological culture is not useful neither as analytical or interpretative tools for two reasons: 1 traditional cultures are subjectively defined entities with no theoretical justification for the criteria used in their definition and 2 the empirical pattern cannot be an explanation in itself because it is the thing that needs to be explained. Cultural evolutionary (transmission theory is proposed as a general framework for defining and interpreting patterns of formal variability of material culture in time and space.

  8. 葡萄籽原花青素对顺铂诱导人胚肾细胞凋亡的拮抗作用%Protective Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract against Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卓雨; 高丽萍; 李贞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨葡萄籽原花青素(grape seed proanthocyanidin,GSPE)对顺铂(cisdiamminedichloroplatinum,CDDP)诱导人胚肾细胞HEK293凋亡及相关凋亡基因的影响,并探讨可能的机制.方法:体外培养正常HEK293细胞,噻唑蓝法测定GSPE、CDDP分别对HEK293细胞生长的影响以及GSPE对CDDP诱导HEK293细胞毒性的保护作用,流式细胞仪测定GSPE对CDDP所致HEK293细胞凋亡率的变化,Western blotting测定GSPE对CDDP所致HEK293细胞凋亡相关基因Bax、Bc/-2蛋白表达的影响.结果:GSPE对CDDP所致HEK293细胞毒性具有拮抗作用,可减轻CDDP所致HEK293细胞凋亡,减弱Bax表达、增强Bcl-2表达.结论:GSPE对CDDP所致HEK293细胞凋亡具有拮抗作用,其机制可能与GSPE降低促凋亡基因Bax,升高抗凋亡基因Bcl-2的表达有关.

  9. Effects of Zymotic Grape Seed Meal on Digestive Physiology, Immune Organ Indices and Antioxidant Indices of Wulong Geese Aged from 5 to 12 Weeks%发酵葡萄籽粕对5~12周龄五龙鹅消化生理、免疫器官指数和抗氧化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝维; 隋丽; 岳斌; 葛文华; 张名爱; 张开磊; 贾玉辉; 史雪萍

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中不同水平发酵葡萄籽粕对5~12周龄五龙鹅消化生理、免疫器官指数和血清抗氧化指标的影响,以确定发酵葡萄籽粕使用效果和适宜添加水平。选用5周龄五龙鹅288只,随机分为6个组,每个组6个重复,每个重复8只鹅(公母各占1/2)。对照组(Ⅰ组)饲喂基础饲粮,试验组在基础饲粮中分别添加2%(Ⅱ组)、4%(Ⅲ组)、6%(Ⅳ组)、8%(Ⅴ组)、10%(Ⅵ组)的发酵葡萄籽粕。试验期8周。结果表明:1)与对照组相比,Ⅴ组十二指肠和空肠中淀粉酶、胰蛋白酶、胰脂肪酶及胰腺中淀粉酶、胰蛋白酶活性极显著提高( P<0.01),Ⅳ组胰腺中胰脂肪酶活性极显著提高(P<0.01),Ⅴ组胃蛋白酶活性显著提高(P<0.05)。2)与对照组相比,Ⅳ组肠道中大肠杆菌数量显著降低( P<0.05),Ⅴ组肠道中乳酸杆菌数量显著提高( P<0.05),Ⅳ、Ⅴ组之间差异不显著( P>0.05)。3)与对照组相比,Ⅳ组肠绒毛高度显著提高( P<0.05),Ⅳ组肌层厚度显著提高(P<0.05),Ⅴ组隐窝深度极显著降低(P<0.01)。4)各组免疫器官指数差异不显著( P>0.05)。与对照组相比,Ⅴ组血清总抗氧化能力极显著提高( P<0.01);Ⅳ组血清丙二醛含量极显著降低( P<0.01),Ⅴ组血清总超氧化物歧化酶、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶活性极显著提高( P<0.01)。由此可见,发酵葡萄籽粕能显著提高5~12周龄五龙鹅消化酶活性,优化肠道组织结构,提高鹅的抗氧化能力,对免疫器官指数没有影响。建议饲粮中发酵葡萄籽粕适宜添加水平为6%~8%。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary different zymotic grape seed meal lev-els on digestive physiology, immune organ indices and serum antioxidant indices of

  10. Archaeology in Indiana: The Science Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James R., III, Ed.; Johnson, Amy, Ed.; Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue continues the Indiana Historical Bureau's collaboration with the Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. The articles include "The Science of Archaeology," chronicling the remarkable transformation of the science of archaeology to date; "Archaeology in Indiana," providing a brief…

  11. Indian Archaeology and Postmodernism: Fashion or Necessity?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins by considering the origins and trajectory of growth of Indian Archaeology, from an Antiquarian stage, through to its present state, which may best be described, positioned between cultural historical, Positivist and Post-positivist approaches. The school of archaeological thought informed by Positivist Philosophy has been called variously as the New Archaeology, Hypothetico-Deductive Archaeology, and ...

  12. Indigenous archaeology as complement to, not separate from, scientific archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Watkins

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Defining Indigenous Archaeology is as difficult as defining “Indigenous”. In some areas the term “Indigenous” is applied to people who existed in an area prior to colonization (“Geography”; in other areas it is applied to people who are to those people whose ancestors created the culture being (“Descendancy”; in others it is applied to the community of people who live in the area where the archaeology is being conducted (“Proximity”. This paper recognizes that Archaeology, however defined, has characteristics that add to the scientific study of the human past; that Indigenous Archaeology is not meant to supplant scientific archaeology but to add to archaeology’s powers. In this paper I will provide an overview of Indigenous Archaeology, examine some of the in trying to discuss its many facets as a single disciplinary approach to the of the past, and then close with an examination of the in the generalized approach to the study of the past by partnering with communities and organizations.

  13. The Archaeology of Egyptian Monasticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Louise

    The study of Egyptian monasticism has traditionally relied heavily on the rich corpus of textual sources, while the archaeological remains have been secondary to our understanding of monastic life. This imbalance has resulted in a situation where questions pertinent to the physical remains...... of monasteries ha ve largely remained unanswered. Based on first - hand archaeological material from the White Monastery federation and comparative material obtained through archaeological reports, the thesis addresses Egypt ian Monasticism in the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Islamic period......, by examining three main themes through seven chapters. These themes are: 1. the relationship between the archaeological and textual sources pertinent to the White Monastery; 2. the diachronic development of the White Monastery and the process es that caused its abandonment; 3. the economy of the White...

  14. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S

    of this activity. All the developed countries have made tremendous progress in this field and substantial progress has been made in India in marine archaeology. Over the years the National Institute of Oceanography in collaboration with other Government agencies...

  15. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  16. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  17. The contemporary in post-medieval archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Penrose, Sefryn

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary archaeology is an emerging field of enquiry within the wider discipline associated with the questioning of temporal boundaries in what we study and why we engage with material remains of the recent past more generally. This article argues that contemporary archaeology should be broadly...... defined at this stage in its development and therefore can be located in Post-Medieval Archaeology through research that explicitly engages with what it is to conduct contemporary archaeology, but also through those implicitly considering how the past intrudes into the present. We believe that Post......-Medieval Archaeology will continue to highlight archaeological studies of the contemporary into the future....

  18. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  19. 高效液相色谱法同时测定葡萄籽提取物中儿茶素、原花青素B1和原花青素B2的含量﹡%Simultaneous determination of catechin, procyanidins B1 and procyanidins B2 in grape seed extract by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪慧敏; 汤洋; 张言; 杜倩; 刘雨; 孙鑫波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC methodology for simultaneous determination of catechin , procyanidins B1 and procyanidins B 2 in grape seed extract .Methods The determination was performed on a Zorbax SB C 18 column with mobile phase consisting of cetonitrile -0 .5% acetic acid ( gradient elution ) .The detection wavelength was set at 278 nm,and column temperature was 35℃.The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min.Results The linear range was 0.99~66.0 mg/L for catechin (r=0.999 9), 0.774~51.6 mg/L for procyanidins B1(r=0.999 8) and 1.44~96.0 mg/L for pro-cyanidins B2(r=0.999 9).The relative standard derivation (RSD) was 0.90% for precision test, 0.91% for repeat-ability test and 2.72%for stability test.The average recovery was 99.48%, 95.94%and 99.14%, respectively.Con-clusion The developed methodology is verified to determine the content of catechin , procyanidins B 1 and procyanidins B2 in grape seed extract .%目的:建立高效液相色谱法同时测定葡萄籽提取物中儿茶素、原花青素B1和原花青素B2的含量。方法色谱柱为Zorbax SB C18,流动相为乙腈-0.5%冰醋酸溶液(梯度洗脱),检测波长为278 nm,柱温为35℃,流速为1.0 ml/min。结果儿茶素、原花青素B1和原花青素B2的质量浓度分别在0.99~66.0(r=0.9999)、0.774~51.6(r=0.9998)、1.44~96.0(r=0.9999)mg/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,精密度试验及重复性、稳定性试验的相对标准偏差(RSD)均小于3%,平均加样回收率分别为99.48%、95.95%、99.14%,RSD 分别为0.90%、0.91%、2.72%(n=6)。结论本方法经验证,可用于葡萄籽提取物中儿茶素、原花青素B1和原花青素B2含量的测定。

  20. Phenolic composition of Merlot and Cabernet-Sauvignon grapes from Bordeaux vineyard for the 2009-vintage: Comparison to 2006, 2007 and 2008 vintages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrain, Bénédicte; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-06-15

    Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot skin and seed extracts from Bordeaux grapes were investigated to determine both grape variety and vintage effect on phenolic composition. The total content of polyphenols and tannins in Merlot seeds was higher than that of Cabernet-Sauvignon allowing to discriminate the varieties. HPLC analyses underlined significant differences in the absolute concentration of proanthocyanidins amongst the two varieties and in their composition: mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) and percentage of galloylation of seed extracts were good indicators of grape variety. The vintage effect on the phenolic composition was confirmed for 2009 in comparison to previous vintages. Low values of mDP and concentrations of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were found in 2009 seeds and skins. The climatic conditions of 2009 (high rainfall before flowering followed by a strong hydric stress during berries development until ripening) let us hypothesise a lower activation of flavonoid pathway.

  1. Introduction: Critical Blogging in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Morgan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Internet Archaeology collects the leading voices of blogging in archaeology to provide a critical examination of informal, online self-publication. This collection of articles is one result of over a decade of digital communication; the confluence of a conversation that grew from a few lonely voices to a tumultuous cacophony. Even so, blogging has had very little scrutiny in wider archaeological publication (but see Caraher 2008; Kansa and Deblauwe 2011. The first movement toward this volume was the Blogging Archaeology session at the 2011 Society for American Archaeology meetings, accompanied by a "Blog Carnival," a groundbreaking effort to foment reflexive discussion prior to the conference. Several participants of this original session and blog carnival have contributed to this volume; these articles are intermingled with perspectives from contributors who have started blogging in the intervening time, and with peer review comments from archaeologists who have blogged for a long time, and from those who do not blog at all.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of grape pomace: Biochemical characterization of the fractions and methane production in batch and continuous digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Jean H; Lendormi, Thomas; Hobaika, Zeina; Salameh, Dominique; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G; Lanoisellé, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have estimated the biogas and methane production from grape pomace (variety Cabernet Franc). The physical and chemical characteristics of the raw material were determined, and the structural polysaccharides were identified and analyzed by the Van Soest method. Batch anaerobic digestions were carried out to assess the methane production of the grape pomace, pulp and seeds. The obtained cumulative methane productions are 0.125, 0.165 and 0.052 Nm(3) kg COD(-1) for grape pomace, pulps and seeds, respectively. The effect of grinding on the methane potential of the substrates, as a mechanical pretreatment, was evaluated. We found that it increased the anaerobic biodegradability for grape pomace, pulp and seeds by 13.1%, 4.8% and 22.2%, respectively. On the other hand, the methane potential of the grape pomace was determined in a laboratory pilot plant (12L) continuously mixed with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The corresponding biogas production was 6.43 × 10(-3) Nm(3) d(-1), with a methane content of 62.3%. Thus, the pilot plant's efficiency compared to that achieved in the batch process was 81.2%. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the biochemical content and methane production.

  3. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  4. Marine archaeological explorations off Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    The Marine archaeology centre of the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India has undertaken marine archaeological explorations in Goa waters to locate shipwrecks and port installations in coastal areas, and riverbanks. The exploration...

  5. Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority......Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority...

  6. Tannin composition of cabernet-sauvignon and merlot grapes from the bordeaux area for different vintages (2006 to 2009) and comparison to tannin profile of five 2009 vintage mediterranean grapes varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Lorrain, Bénédicte; Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-02-11

    The proanthocyandin composition of skins and seeds of Bordeaux Merlot (M) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) grapes was evaluated by HPLC-UV-fluorescence for four consecutive vintages (2006 to 2009). The results indicated a strong vintage effect on the tannin profile of each variety. However, and in spite of the vintage effect, some tannin characteristics such as mDP, %G and %P allow discrimination of both Bordeaux varieties. The same analyses were carried out for the 2009 vintage of five Mediterranean grape varieties (Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan and Counoise). The results demonstrated differences among these five varieties. Syrah appeared to exhibit the highest concentrations of flavanol monomers and dimmers, especially in skins. The comparison study between Bordeaux and Mediterranean grape varieties for the same vintage (2009) revealed that mDP and %G for seed extracts were parameters specific to each vineyard area.

  7. Archaeology as a social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-05-15

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration.

  8. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  9. The Times of Archaeology and Archaeologies of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gardner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of archaeology as a discipline is explicitly structured by time, and ‘timetravel’ is a common feature of popular discourses about the study of the past. Yet archaeology is also the discipline which, amongst its other theoretical shortcomings, has singularly failed to develop any theory 'of 'time. Chronology is ever-present as a measuring tool, but only in rare cases has there been any consideration of this as but one, culturally-specific kind of temporality among many others experienced by people in their daily lives. In this paper, I will discuss various perspectives on archaeological times, including more sophisticated approaches developed since the later 1980s, and argue for an abandoning of the dualism between ‘measured’ and ‘experienced’ times which has emerged in some of these more critical attempts to grapple with the issue. Time is fundamental to archaeology, but not just because we ‘use’ dates. Rather, archaeologists should be able to contribute to wider discussions of time from their understandings of the materialized temporalities of past human agents, and to develop perspectives on the importance of these to the very nature of human social agency as a form of engagement with the world.

  10. Plant remains of archaeological site Casa Vieja, Callango (Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A paleoethnobotanical study was carried out at the Middle Horizon archaeological site of Casa Vieja, located in Callango within the Lower Ica Valley. A total of 23 species were identified, all determined to be of the Magnoliopyta Division, 78 % (or 18 species were Magnoliopsid and 22% (or 15 species Liliopsid. The Fabaceae are the best represented family with 6 species. Most of the analyzed samples correspond to seeds of Gossypium barbadense “cotton”. Seventy percent of the species were probably used as food; 48% for artifact-making and construction and 52% for medicinal and curative purposes.

  11. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Bin Li; Ya-Jun Guo; Gui-Fang Deng; En-Qin Xia

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial proper...

  12. Archaeology and Science in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Elia Valori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The monuments and historical memories of a people are its non-biological DNA, through which a political system creates its identity. Archaeological research, the protection and valorization of artistic heritage in China envisages the glorification of Beijing’s unifying power, recreating, through the business of cultural and archaeological tourism, sustained economic development, especially in depressed areas, also by taking into consideration the relationship between ecology, cultural heritage and economic development. Protecting Chinese artistic and archaeological structures fosters the interest of the government for leading-edge technologies used in discovering, protecting and managing the most delicate and complex finds.  Italy can supply Beijing with these technologies, together with the know-how, developed over many years of care and analysis of some of the world’s greatest artistic heritage. With the use of these technologies, in accordance with legislation related to environmental  protection, artistic and archaeological finds can be studied thoroughly and rapidly, thus providing the possibility of learning about the context in which a work is inserted and allowing the whole site to be valorized.

  13. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  14. Maritime archaeological studies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    India with more than 7000 km long coastline and about 5000 years old maritime history is dotted with several ancient ports. Marine archaeological research during last two and half decades has revealed a number of sites along the Indian coast, which...

  15. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  16. Why History of Archaeology Matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staša Babić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, in the framework of the wider critical reassessments of archaeological theory and practice, especially in the English-speaking literature, a number of writings have been published, pointing to the origins and theoretical background in which some of the basic concepts of the discipline were developed. The very essence of archaeology has thus been situated into the cultural, political and ideological context of Western Europe at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. On the other hand, by the end of the 19th century this strategy of study into the past has become a part of the academic life in other contexts (such as Serbia, where the general circumstances were utterly different. However, the basic concepts were transferred from their original setting, inevitably undergone transformations, and then applied with long-lasting consequences. Therefore, the importance of the study of the history of archaeology in various local settings surpasses local concerns, but contributes to deeper understanding of the social role and importance of archaeological research in general.

  17. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... variety of grapes except Emperor, Almeria, Calmeria, and Ribier varieties, on any Saturday, Sunday... this section, nor handle any variety of grapes except Emperor, Calmeria, Almeria, and Ribier...

  18. Prehistoric Agricultural Communities in West Central Alabama. Volume 2. Studies of Material Remains from the Lubbub Creek Archaeological Locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    grape (Vitis sp.), two gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), four sedge family ( Cyperaceae ), one sage (Salvia sp.), and one prickly poppy (Argemone sp.). Sixty...present. Passionflower, Chenopodium. sedge , .aygrass, and sage seeds were also identified from this feature; also present 0- ".’ T.: " . - .:.1

  19. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  20. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  1. 低聚体葡萄籽原花青素对顺铂损伤HEK293细胞及抗癌活性的影响%Protective Effect of Grape Seed Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins Extract against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in HEK293 Cell and Effect on Anticancer Activity of Cisplatin in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连燕娜; 高丽萍; 郭豫; 高兆兰; 金玉

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨低聚体葡萄籽原花青素(grape seed proanthocyanidins extract,GSPE)及其结构单元儿茶素(catechin,C)对顺铂(cis-dichlorodiamineplatinum (Ⅱ),DDP)损伤HEK293人胚肾细胞的保护作用以及对DDP抗A549人肺腺癌细胞活性的影响.方法:体外培养HEK293细胞和A549细胞,以DDP建立损伤模型,分别用不同质量浓度的低聚体GSPE和儿茶素对细胞进行预处理,四甲基偶氮唑蓝(methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium,MTT)法测定细胞抑制率和存活率.结果:当低聚体GSPE质量浓度为16 mg/L时,对DDP诱导的HEK293细胞损伤的保护作用最佳,与DDP损伤组相比有显著差异(P<0.05),并且在达到此质量浓度时可显著增强DDP对A549细胞的损伤效果(P<0.05).相同条件下儿茶素对DDP诱导的HEK293细胞损伤无显著影响(P>0.05).结论:体外培养条件下,一定质量浓度的低聚体GSPE对DDP诱导的HEK293细胞损伤具有一定的保护作用,同时能增强DDP对A549细胞的杀伤作用.儿茶素对DDP诱导HEK293细胞损伤的保护作用不明显.

  2. Mechanism of cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum-Induced Testicular Toxicity and Protective Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract in Rats%顺铂诱发大鼠睾丸毒性的机制及葡萄籽原花青素的防护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连燕娜; 张海莲; 赵江燕; 高丽萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究葡萄籽原花青素(grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts,GSPE)对顺铂(cisdiamminedichloroplatinum,CDDP)诱发大鼠睾丸氧化损伤和细胞凋亡的防护作用.方法:将40只大鼠随机分为空白对照组、CDDP模型组、GSPE低剂量组(200 mg/ (kg·d))、GSPE高剂量组(400 mg/ (kg·d)).分别以蒸馏水和相应剂量的GSPE对大鼠连续灌胃15 d,灌胃10 d后一次性腹腔注射CDDP,剂量为7 mg/kg,空白对照组注射相同剂量的生理盐水.注射CDDP后第5天处死大鼠,检测精子指标、大鼠睾丸组织中超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)与谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase,GSH-Px)活力、还原型谷胱甘肽(glutathione,GSH)与丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量,流式细胞仪检测大鼠睾丸细胞凋亡率,并观察睾丸组织在光镜下形态的变化.结果:CDDP模型组大鼠睾丸和附睾的质量、附睾精子的浓度和活动度、GSH-Px、SOD活力以及GSH含量均显著降低,而MDA水平和睾丸细胞凋亡率显著升高.预防性口服GSPE显著改善了CDDP引起的大鼠睾丸质量减小、功能减弱以及氧化应激、脂质过氧化和细胞凋亡这些不利影响.结论:GSPE对CDDP诱发的大鼠睾丸毒性有剂量依赖性防护作用,其机制很可能与抑制体内氧化应激及细胞凋亡有密切关系.

  3. An integrated approach to teaching Aegean archaeology and archaeological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcairn, Erica Glenn

    Outlined here is a course that would serve as an introduction to archaeological science, specifically within the context of Aegean Prehistory. The main objective of this course is to expose students early in their archaeological careers to a variety of methods and questions, and to depart from the culture-historical perspective that typifies introductory survey courses. The class structure is equal parts lecture and discussion, moving between learning how the methods work and evaluating case studies. All graded assignments build on one another, guiding the students through designing their own research project. The ultimate goals of the assignments are to build key writing and professional skills, develop a basic understanding of research design, and to instill confidence that the student can contribute to the production of knowledge, whatever field he or she decides to pursue.

  4. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT OF THE FETEASCĂ NEAGRĂ GRAPE POMACE AND ITS FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM WINE INDUSTRY IN DIFFERENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariu Mariana Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the hereby study was to analyze and to compare the chemical content of the grape pomace and its fractions: skins and seeds from the red grape variety Fetească neagră (from Iași area, obtained in different years 2013 and 2014 respectively, from the winemaking process. Measurements targeted the dry matter content (DM%, organic matter (OM%, crude ash (CA%, crude protein (CP%, crude fat (EE%, crude fiber (CF%, neazotate extractive substances (SEN%, total polyphenols (TP% and tannins (Ta%. The results obtained showed significant differences in the chemical composition in favour of the grape pomace obtained in the 2014 climatic conditions: in the case of the seed for the content of DM%, SEN%, TP% and Ta%, in the case of the skins for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, TP%, Ta% and in the case of the grape pomace for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, SEN%, TP%, and Ta%. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition showed an annual variation of the chemical components, which may be due to climatic conditions and winemaking process. Therefore, an annual chemical quality assessment of the grape pomace is necessary, for the efficient use in the animal feed.

  5. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  6. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of total polyphenols, up to 44.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight in Alicante pomace, than skin extracts. The maximum total phenolic in skins was 31.6 mg GAE/g dry weight detected in 2010 Alicante pomace. Seeds also had the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC analysis revealed that, despite the vinification process, pomaces still contained an appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins as well as several anthocyanin glycosides. Alicante and Syrah proved to be the varieties of most interest in terms of their potential development for nutraceutical purposes.

  7. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  8. ‘Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  9. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  10. Light exclusion influence on grape anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study contrasted the anthocyanins of investigational grape clusters that developed without light incidence (light-excluded), to those of control clusters that were shaded naturally beneath the vine canopy (control-shaded). Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque w...

  11. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  12. Aroma Glycosides in Grapes and Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibin; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Ullah, Niamat; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The major aroma components in grapes and wine include free volatile compounds and glycosidic nonvolatile compounds. The latter group of compounds is more than 10 times abundant of the former, and constitutes a big aroma reserve in grapes and wine. This review summarizes the research results obtained recently for the identification of aroma glycosides in grapes and wine, including grape glycoside structures, differences in aroma glycosides among grape varieties, hydrolysis mechanisms, and the factors that influence them. It also presents the analytical techniques used to identify the glycosidic aroma precursors. The operational strategies, challenges, and improvements of each step encountered in the analysis of glycosidic aroma precursors are described. This review intends to provide a convenient reference for researchers interested in the methods used for the determination of the aroma glucosides composition and the recognition of their chemical structures.

  13. Archaeology and Islam in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wood

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Some Indonesian archaeologists, however, have focused on the nation's Islamic past. Uka Tjandrasasmita is one of Indonesia's leading archaeologists and is largely behind the writing of Volume III of the Sejarah Nasional Indonesia, the national history that was the "standard text" for the teaching of history in Indonesian schools during the New Order; the volume he worked on dealt with Indonesia's Islamic history. For many years he held the position of the head of the Islamic Antiquities section of the Indonesian Archaeological Service (Bidang Arkeologi Islam, Pusat Penelitian Kepurbakalaan dan Peninggalan Nasional and carried out survey and excavation work in West, Central and East java. He has published many reports on the Islamic archaeology of Indonesia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v15i2.530

  14. Nigeria’s Archaeological Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka E. Okonkwo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available People have exploited mineral resources for several reasons ranging from the production of metal and ceramic objects to stone and wooden tools. Indigenous extraction and use of mineral resources for production of general goods among others have continued unabated. In this article, archaeological and ethnographic data were used to identify extraction methods for some of these raw materials in the past, and thus, examine how failure to manage such resources has adversely affected technological and resource development in Nigeria

  15. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aqueous extraction (steeping) of the fresh deseeded marc remaining after grapes have been pressed to produce grape juice or wine. It contains the common components of grape juice; namely, anthocyanins, tartaric acid, tannins, sugars, minerals, etc., but not in the same proportions as found in grape...

  16. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  17. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  18. Visualisation in Archaeology: Connecting Research and Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Gibbons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Visualisation in Archaeology (www.viarch.org.uk is a three-year research project funded by English Heritage. Established in December 2007, Visualisation in Archaeology (VIA has as its principal mission a commitment to providing a forum in which practitioners and researchers can contribute towards a critical (reassessment of visualising data resulting from archaeological research. This paper will present an overview of the VIA’s research aims and objectives, its methodology, and its proposed future directions.

  19. Understanding Archaeological Authority in a Digital Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna-Jane Richardson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available "…with the increasing spread of social media and mobile communication, the social networks of knowledge construction are becoming not only vastly bigger and quicker and less limited by space and time constraints than they have been before, but also more of a threat to established authorities." (Hofheinz 2011, 1426 This article considers the issues of archaeological authority, expertise and organisational reputation in the UK from an online perspective, and questions whether the participatory promise of social media technologies can, and should, challenge archaeological authority. It explores how these issues are approached and mediated online, the issues of digital literacy for audience reception, and the approaches used by archaeological organisations to address the challenges of undertaking digital public archaeology projects whilst maintaining archaeological rigour and the visible performance of expertise. It discusses how the concepts of archaeological authority and expertise are demonstrated and practised online, using data from my doctoral research, undertaken from 2011 to 2013. This article questions if the presence of websites dedicated to the promulgation of alternative archaeologies on the Internet can present challenges for the performance of archaeological expertise online, and how organisations monitor and respond to alternative archaeological interpretations and news stories.

  20. The Archaeology of Childhood: Revisiting Mohenjodaro Terracotta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Pratap

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For long archaeologists have been perplexed that the excavated data are usually interpreted from an adult male perspective. The literature locating this and the concomitant rise of gendered archaeology thrives (Conkey and Spector 1984, Conkey and Gero 1999, Conkey 2005. However, in addition to andocentric biases in archaeology, there is also a tendency to overlook the evidence related with children that who are omnipresent, in all cultures. As this is true in the Indian context also, in this paper we shall suggest that terracotta objects provide an invaluable category of archaeological material for considering the archaeology of childhood.

  1. Influence of grape genotype, ripening season, seed trace size, and culture date on in ovule embryo development and plant formation Influência do genótipo, época de maturação, tamanho da semente-traço e época da cultura sobre o desenvolvimento do embrião no óvulo e a formação da planta de videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso V. Pommer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen seedless grape genotypes differing in ripening season (early, mid and late and in seed trace size (small, medium and large were harvested at 6, 10, 14, 18 and 22 weeks past bloom (wpb. Using embryo rescue techniques it was studied if embryo do abort as the fruit matures and what percent embryos remain viable at later stages. The size of seed trace was also investigated to determine its influence on embryo viability during maturation. It was found that genotype have great influence on embryo culture traits. Late maturing genotypes showed fewer rescued embryos, germinated embryos and transplantable plants than early and mid season ones. The best culture time for grape embryo rescue is 6 and 10 wpb. At these dates, the largest number of embryos, germinated embryos and transplantable plants were obtained. Genotypes with the largest ratio for seed trace weight/seed trace length (i.e., largest density showed the greatest tendency to have the largest number of ovules with embryos, more germinated embryos and more transplantable plants. The study also showed that it is possible to recover plants from mature fruit harvested late, although at a much reduced rate.Dezoito genótipos de uvas (Vitis vinifera L. apirenas, sem sementes diferindo na época de maturação (precoce, média e tardia c no tamanho da semente-traço (pequena, média e grande, foram colhidos a 6, 10, 14, 18 e 22 semanas após o florescimento. Usando técnicas de resgate de embrião, foi estudado se o embrião aborta à medida que o fruto amadurece e quais percentagens de embriões permanecem viáveis em estádios mais avançados. O tamanho da semente-traço também foi investigado para determinar sua influência na viabilidade do embrião durante a maturação. Verificou-se que o genótipo tem grande influência nas características relacionadas com a cultura de embrião. Genótipos de maturação tardia mostraram menos embriões resgatados e germinados e menos pl

  2. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the public..., information concerning the nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions... written request for information, concerning the archaeological resources within the requesting...

  3. The clone selection studies on Siyah Gemre grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilli Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V. vinifera L.cv. “Siyah Gemre” is an important table grape variety of Mediterranean Region in Turkey. It is late sea- son, medium bunch density, round berry, red-black colored and seeded. The study was carried out to make clone selection for increasing the yield and quality in “Siyah Gemre” grape variety The project was completed in two stages. First one was selection nominees of mother clone vine and second was establishing of clonal collection vineyard. The first stage studies were carried out at grower vineyards of İsparta, Turkey surroundings where “Siyah Gemre” is grown wide spread, between 2001 and 2003. Clonal nominees were selected by using counting the cluster and shoot at the end of the project. After that, the clonal collection vineyard was established with spacing 3.0 m × 1.65 m in 2004. Twelve vines of each clonal nominees were grafted onto 110R rootstock. In the study the values of yield, number of cluster, weight of cluster, 100 berry weight, index of maturity, sensory analysis, weight of pruning and bud productivity were evaluated between 2007–2012. At the end of this study, according to the values of total point, five clone nominees were selected and among their 3, 19, 24 numbered clones were chosen in terms of total sensory analysis score, yield and stability, cluster and berry properties respectively.

  4. Grape seed and apple tannins: emulsifying and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Zafimahova, Andrea; Alvarado, Pedro G Maldonado; Dubreucq, Eric; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

    2015-07-01

    Tannins are natural antioxidants found in plant-based foods and beverages, whose amphiphilic nature could be useful to both stabilize emulsions and protect unsaturated lipids from oxidation. In this paper, the use of tannins as antioxidant emulsifiers was studied. The main parameters influencing the stability of emulsions (i.e. tannins structure and concentration, aqueous phase pH, and ionic strength) were identified and optimized. Oil in water emulsions stabilized with tannins were compared with those stabilized with two commercial emulsifying agents, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil. In optimized conditions, the condensed tannins allowed to obtain a stability equivalent to that of PVA. Tannins presented good antioxidant activity in oil in water emulsion, as measured by the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay.

  5. Influence of different withering conditions on phenolic composition of Avanà, Chatus and Nebbiolo grapes for the production of 'Reinforced' wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Urcan, Delia Elena; Lin, Lin; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana; Pop, Nastasia; Lambri, Milena; Rolle, Luca

    2016-03-01

    The impact of postharvest withering rates on the phenolic composition of 'reinforced' wines produced with partially dehydrated grapes was evaluated. The study was performed on winegrape varieties with anthocyanin profiles differently constituted of di- and tri-substituted forms. Dehydration induced limited changes in the anthocyanin profile of berry skins. Nevertheless, the greatest abundance of total anthocyanins and their more stable forms (malvidin-3-glucoside and acylated glucosides) corresponded to the wines made from slow withered Chatus grapes, which were in turn the darkest. In contrast, the wines made from withered Avanà grapes did not meet good chromatic characteristics due to low contents of total anthocyanins and high ratios between di- and tri-substituted forms. Nebbiolo wines showed intermediate values of this ratio, and therefore of clarity and color intensity. The fast process is recommended because higher percentages of galloylated flavanols in the seeds of slow withered Nebbiolo grapes may have a negative influence on wine astringency.

  6. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  7. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  8. Reduction of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury with regular consumption of grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianhua; Cordis, Gerald A; Tosaki, Arpad; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-05-01

    Recently several polyphenolic antioxidants derived from grape seeds and skins have been implicated in cardioprotection. This study was undertaken to determine if the grapes were equally cardioprotective. Sprague Dawley male rats were given (orally) standardized grape extract (SGE) for a period of three weeks. Time-matched control experiments were performed by feeding the animals 45 microg/100 of glucose plus 45 microg/100 g fructose per day for three weeks. After 30 days, rats were sacrificed, hearts excised and perfused via working-mode. Hearts were made ischemic for 30 min followed by two hours of reperfusion. At 100 mg/kg and at 200 mg/kg, SGE provided significant cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic ventricular recovery and reduced amount of myocardial infarction. No cardioprotection was apparent when rats were given grape samples at a dose of 50 mg/100 g/day. In vitro studies demonstrated that the SGE could directly scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which are formed in the ischemic reperfused myocardium. The results demonstrate that the heats of the rats fed SGE reduced myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury by functioning as in vivo antioxidant.

  9. Polyphenol content in white table grape (Vitis Vinifera) berries of cultivar Italia: interactive effect of irrigation, delayed harvest and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Laganà, Aldo; Samperi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol concentrations were quantified by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in white table grape. The experimental vineyard was subjected to different kinds of water supply and supply rates. Samples from the same vineyards were also analysed after 6 weeks of storage in a refrigerator and after 6 weeks of delayed harvesting. Berry skins and seeds were analysed separately. A statistical treatment of the screening kind, namely the 2(k) full factorial design, was used for the interpretation of results. Storage, delayed harvesting and the different kinds of water supply appeared to be the variables most affecting grape polyphenol content. In some cases, results showed that polyphenol content diminished by more than 50% after 6 weeks if the grapes were stored in a refrigerator, or if a sprinkler was used for irrigation.

  10. The Archaeology of Old Nuulliit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mikkel

    Count Eigil Knuth succeeded in finding a Palaeo-Eskimo settlement named “Old Nuulliit” on the well-known Nuulliit site in the Thule area. This site was settled by the first immigrants to Greenland – a hitherto unknown culture group, “the Old Nuulliit Culture”, which was closely related to Pal......¬aeo-Eskimo culture groups in Alaska. Knuth never published his findings in detail, which be¬came a mystery in Arctic archaeology circles. New investigations by the author of the material shows that the site was settled repeatedly by the first immigrants between 2500 BC and 1900 BC, and in addition that a total...

  11. Case studies in archaeological predictive modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Jacobus Wilhelmus Hermanus Philippus

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, a collection of papers is put together dealing with various quantitative aspects of predictive modelling and archaeological prospection. Among the issues covered are the effects of survey bias on the archaeological data used for predictive modelling, and the complexities of testing p

  12. Effects of dietary polyphenol-rich grape products on intestinal microflora and gut morphology in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, A; Chamorro, S; Pizarro, M; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2011-03-01

    Grapes have high amounts of phenolic compounds, which can modulate the gut activity as well as modify the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract. The microbiological activity of avoparcin, grape pomace concentrate, and grape seed extract was evaluated in an in vitro study. An in vivo experiment was also conducted to study the effect of the inclusion of grape pomace concentrate and grape seed extract in the diet of broiler chicks on performance, intestinal microflora (by cultured and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology), and gut morphology at 21 d of age. Dietary treatments included an antibiotic-free diet (CON), a positive control (AVP; 50 mg/kg of avoparcin), and antibiotic-free diets containing grape pomace concentrate (GPC; 60 g/kg) or grape seed extract (GSE; 7.2 g/kg). Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the GSE diet, which showed decreased weight gain. In the ileal content, birds fed CON and GSE diets had the highest populations of Lactobacillus. Compared with the CON diet, the AVP, GPC, and GSE diets increased the populations of Enterococcus and decreased the counts of Clostridium in the ileal content. In the cecal digesta, birds fed GPC and GSE diets had higher populations of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Clostridium than birds in any other treatment group. Animals fed GPC and GSE diets showed a higher biodiversity degree than those fed control diets. The frequency of detection of several potential phenol-degrading bacteria as well as unidentified and uncultured organisms was increased in animals fed GPC and GSE diets. Birds fed the CON diet had longer villi and deeper crypt depth than birds in any other treatment group. The highest villi height:crypt depth ratio corresponded to birds fed GPC and AVP diets and the lowest to those fed CON and GSE diets. In conclusion, dietary polyphenol-rich grape products modify the gut morphology and intestinal

  13. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity effects of seed oils from edible fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olubunmi Atolani; Joshua Omere; C.A. Otuechere; A. Adewuyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a natural remedy for the some acute diseases the fatty acids profile, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potentials of seed oils from natural sources have been examined.Methods:The fatty acids profile of seed oils from sweet orange, grape, lime and watermelon obtained by soxhlet extraction were trans-esterified and examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay were examined and compared with gallic acid and α-tocopherol while the cytotoxicity were examined via the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay using cyclophosphamide as a reference standard. Results:Sweet orange seed contained 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (62.18%), grape seed, erucic acid (43.17), lime seed, oleic acid (52.42%) and watermelon seed linoleic acid (61.11%) as the major fatty acid present. Among the four oils tested, grape seed oil had the highest acute toxicity with LC50 value of (156.2 ± 0.37) μg/mL while orange seed oil had the highest lethal toxicity with LC50 (7.59 ± 0.35)μg/mL value. Lime seed oil IC50 (14.49 ± 3.54) μg/mL showed the highest antioxidant potential of about 70% at 1 mg/mL concentration which was more significant than the reference compounds gallic acid and α-tocopherol with IC50 value of (201.10 ± 1.65) and (54.86 ± 2.38) μg/mL respectively. The yield of oil from these seeds varied from 9.583% to 24.790% with the oils being rich in essential fatty acids. Conclusion: Utilization of the seeds will reduce wastes, improve commercialization and procures hitherto neglected substances for technological and nutritional applications.

  14. 外用原花青素对皮肤急性光损伤日晒伤细胞及p53蛋白表达的影响%Influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on sunburn cell formation and p53 protein expression induced by acute ultraviolet injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小英; 刘玮; 胡益云; 张萍; 信许亚; 田燕; 马慧敏; 范立英

    2009-01-01

    目的 评估外用葡萄籽提取物原花青素对急性光损伤的日晒伤细胞及p53蛋白表达的影响.方法 实验设计正常皮肤组、单纯2MED照射组、基质+2MED照射组、含葡萄籽提取物原花青素样品外用+2MED照射组,连续3天相同方法处理后24 h对皮肤取材,进行HE染色和p53免疫组化染色.结果 含葡萄籽提取物原花青素样品外用+2MED照射组的日晒伤细胞数与单纯接受紫外线照射的皮肤相比.差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).含葡萄籽提取物原花青素样品外用+2MED照射组的p53蛋白阳性细胞数与单纯接受紫外线照射的皮肤相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 葡萄籽提取物原花青素外用对紫外线造成的急性光损伤具有较好的防护作用,可作为一种天然的防晒成分加以开发.%Objective To evaluate the influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on sunburn cell formation and p53 protein expression induced by acute ultraviolet injury. Methods Ten volunteers were enrolled in this study. The buttock region served as the exposed region. Four areas were randomized and delineated on the buttock: one area (control area) received no exposure or product, the other 3 areas were exposed to two minimal erythema doses (MED) of simulated solar radiation (SSR) for 3 days. Of the 3 exposed areas, one area (SSR) received no product before exposure, one area (SSR + Veh) was pretreated with vehicle, the third area (SSR + GSPE) with the samples of GSPE. GSPE or vehicle was applied 30 minutes before each exposure at 2 μL/cm2. Skin biopsy was performed 24 hours after the last exposure, and skin specimens were subjected to hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining and histochemical analysis for p53 protein. Results There was a statistical difference in the number of sunburn cells per high power field (×200) between SSR sites and SSR + GSPE sites (29.8±11.1 cells vs 2.2±0.2 cells, P<0.01). A significant decrease was noticed in the account

  15. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-12-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  16. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-08-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  17. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  18. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemorrhoids. Constipation. Cough. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Diarrhea. Heavy menstrual periods. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Canker sores. Liver damage. Other conditions. More ...

  19. A Fast Parallel Treecode with GRAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Junichiro

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we describe an implementation of the Barnes-Hut treecode on a cluster of PCs (Beowulf-class machines) equipped with GRAPE hardware. Our implementation is designed to achieve good performance on clusters of GRAPE with a relatively slow network, such as the standard Gigabit Ethernet. With 12 processors, the speedup over single-processor code reaches around 10. Our code is available on the web.

  20. Bioaerosol formation during grape stemming and crushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Marc; Krebs, Walter; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-15

    Indoor formation of airborne particles during pre-fermentation grape processing was assessed by particle counting using laser particle sizers. Particle numbers of four different aerodynamic size classes (0.3 to 0.5 microm, 0.5 to 1 microm, 1 to 5 microm, and >5 microm) were determined during unloading of harvest containers and subsequent grape stemming and crushing. Regarding these size classes, composition before grape handling was determined as 87.9%, 10.4%, 1.7%, and 0.1%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during grape handling to 50.4%, 15.2%, 33.0%, and 1.5%, respectively. Airborne bacteria and fungi originating from grape processing were collected by impactor and liquid impinger samplers. Grape handling resulted in a sixfold increase in total (biological and non-biological) airborne particles. The generation of bacterial and fungal aerosols was associated mostly with particles of aerodynamic diameters>5 microm (mainly 7 to 11 microm) as determined by flow cytometry. This fraction was increased 150fold in relation to background levels before grape crushing. Maximum concentrations of culturable bacteria reached 485,000 colony forming units (cfu/m3), whereas 146,000 cfu of fungi and yeasts were detected per cubic meter of air. Culturable Gram-negative bacteria occurred only in small numbers (180 cfu/m3). In relation to the total number of airborne particles emitted, culturable microorganisms comprised 0.1% to 0.2%. As soon as grape crushing was stopped, particle concentrations decreased rapidly either due to passive settling or due to air currents in the occupational indoor environment reaching background levels.

  1. Archaeologies of Hair: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Ashby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This collection of short articles represents an original attempt to bring together scholarship that is usually divided along lines of specialism in time, place, method, or discipline. The shared focus of its contributions is on hair: more than an infrequently preserved element of human remains, but a widespread (and arguably cross-cultural symbol of power, of fertility, of identity and the self. Moreover, its care and treatment using various forms of material culture, and its artistic representation in diverse media, offer a unique opportunity to examine the interface between the body and material culture. Where exceptional taphonomic conditions facilitate the preservation of hair and associated organic material, the result is some of the richest assemblages of human remains and associated material culture in the archaeological record (e.g. Wilson et al. 2007; Fletcher 1998. In contrast, 'everyday' objects associated with haircare are among the most taphonomically robust, frequently encountered and recognisable personal items known to archaeologists (e.g. Stephens 2008; Ashby 2011, and provide us with insight into the making of personal and bodily identities, even in the absence of human remains themselves. When studied in an interdisciplinary framework, the interpretative potential of this material is clear, but such work has been rare. This collection aims to set a new agenda for cross-disciplinary research focused on the nexus of human and artefactual remains, by highlighting the rich and diverse potential of this material when studied through archaeological, biochemical, artistic, historical, sociological and anthropological lenses.

  2. 75 FR 17031 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... strawberries in the past but are also being used for other fruit. They are made of a clear, rigid plastic and... the production area. In addition, there are about 100 importers of grapes. Small agricultural service..., Egypt, Italy, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, and South Africa, and known grape importers were notified of...

  3. THE EFFECT OF PECTOLYTIC ENZYME TREATMENTS ON RED GRAPES MASH OF VRANEC ON GRAPE JUICE YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRO MOJSOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and industrial trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of pectolytic enzyme treatments on red grape mash of Vranec on grape juice yields. The red grape Vranec for laboratory trials were taken from private winery “Imako vino” Stip (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their laboratory. The red grape Vranec for industrial trials were taken from private winery “Tristo” Veles (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their winery. The grapes were weighed, destemmed, crushed and divided in 5 liters plastic reservoirs for laboratory trials, and for industrial trials were placed in a stainless steel fermentor (4t.. All treatments were performed in doublecate. Red grape mash made from Vranec were macerated for 6 hours at 18 to 20oC with addition of one commercial pectolytic enzymepreparation (Vinozym Vintage FCE, Rohapect VR-C and Trenolin Rot DF. After addition of SO2 (50ppm and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae NEUTRE SC (Lallemand, 2009(200 mg/kg grape, maceration time of 5 days (~25 oC was applied in order to study the effect of macerating enzymes on grape juice yields. After the maceration, the pomace was removed, in the obtained 4 different variations. Pectolytic enzyme preparation was not added to control trial. All treatments were performed in duplicate. Results of laboratory and industrial trials from our experiments, gives increased on free run juice yields by 4.85%-6.35% compared with non-treated mash of control trials.

  4. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched grape juice from ultrasonication treated grape fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mohidul; Yun, Hae-Keun; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Grape (Vitis spp.) is a major source of resveratrol that can be eaten directly or after making jam, jelly, wine and juice. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has a profound positive influence on human health, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ageing effects and the ability to lower blood sugar. During industrial production of grape juice, resveratrol is lost because of the use of clarifying agents and filtration; therefore, commercial grape juice contains very low amounts of resveratrol. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of resveratrol in grape juice prepared from three varieties of grape, viz. Campbell Early, Muscat Bailey A (MBA) and Kyoho, following post-harvest ultrasonication cleaning for 5 min and 6h of incubation in the dark at 25 °C. This process resulted in the amounts of resveratrol increasing by 1.53, 1.15 and 1.24 times in juice prepared from Campbell Early, MBA and Kyoho, respectively, without changing the amounts of total soluble solids. Overall, our results indicate that ultrasonication treatment of post-harvested grape fruits can be an effective method for producing resveratrol-enriched grape juice as well as cleaning grapes thoroughly.

  5. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... request for information, concerning the archaeological resources within the requesting Governor's State... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological...

  6. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Ailsa D; Leong, Su-Lin L; Kazi, Benozir A; Emmett, Robert W; Scott, Eileen S

    2007-10-20

    Many fungi may occur on grapes during growth in the vineyard, but the main concern from the viewpoint of mycotoxin contamination is the black Aspergilli, Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger. These fungi are capable of producing ochratoxin A (OA) which may contaminate grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. Understanding the ecology and physiology of the black Aspergilli can provide tools for management of OA at all stages of grape production and processing. In the vineyard, careful management of cultivation, irrigation and pruning can assist in minimising the levels of black Aspergilli in the soil, which in turn, can minimise contamination of grapes by these fungi. Minimising damage to grapes on the vine by the use of open vine canopies, grape varieties with resistance to rain damage and by the management of insect pests and fungal diseases (e.g., mildew, Botrytis bunch rot) can reduce the incidence of Aspergillus rot in mature berries. The risk of OA in table grapes can be minimised by careful visual inspection to avoid damaged and discoloured berries. In wine, harvesting grapes with minimal damage, rapid processing and good sanitation practices in the winery assist in minimising OA. During vinification, pressing of grapes, and clarification steps which remove grape solids, grape proteins and spent yeast can also remove a significant proportion of OA. For dried vine fruit production, avoiding berry damage, rapid drying, and final cleaning and sorting to remove dark berries can reduce overall OA levels in finished products.

  7. Archaeological data reveal slow rates of evolution during plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, Michael D; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2011-01-01

    Domestication is an evolutionary process of species divergence in which morphological and physiological changes result from the cultivation/tending of plant or animal species by a mutualistic partner, most prominently humans. Darwin used domestication as an analogy to evolution by natural selection although there is strong debate on whether this process of species evolution by human association is an appropriate model for evolutionary study. There is a presumption that selection under domestication is strong and most models assume rapid evolution of cultivated species. Using archaeological data for 11 species from 60 archaeological sites, we measure rates of evolution in two plant domestication traits--nonshattering and grain/seed size increase. Contrary to previous assumptions, we find the rates of phenotypic evolution during domestication are slow, and significantly lower or comparable to those observed among wild species subjected to natural selection. Our study indicates that the magnitudes of the rates of evolution during the domestication process, including the strength of selection, may be similar to those measured for wild species. This suggests that domestication may be driven by unconscious selection pressures similar to that observed for natural selection, and the study of the domestication process may indeed prove to be a valid model for the study of evolutionary change.

  8. Ampelographic Characteristics and Molecular Investigation of Azerbaijani Local Grape Varieties by Microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VUGAR SALIMOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at introducing of some local grapevine varieties cultivated in different areas of Azerbaijan. The cultivars are grown in the ampelographic collection of the Azerbaijani Scientific Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-making. The description of their ampelographic specifications was based on the OIV list. Comparing cultivars, it has been found that, although there are similarities in various descriptor traits, most of the characteristics are distinctive of specific cultivars. A considerable polymorphism was found concerning the botanical features of leaves, clusters, berries, as well as considering some biological and technological characteristics. In more details, these genotypes differ each other by the morphological features of leaves; the shape, size and structure of clusters; the shape, color and flavor of berries; the productivity indices; the resistance to pests and diseases; the duration of their vegetative period; the sugar and acid contents; and the number of seeds in the berry. This study was carried out on nine grape cultivars grown in region Garabagh, Nakhchyvan and Absheron in 2008- 2012. Analyses of the ampelographic features of the studied grape varieties showed that the genotypes considerably differ by their main morphological, biological and technological characteristics. 42 Azerbaijani grape varieties (including above mentioned have been investigated comparatively with Caucasian countries` and European grape varieties. Based on the descriptive statistics Azerbaijani samples appeared having the highest genetic diversity. The first two coordinates of the PCoA differentiated the samples into two main clusters, despite the presence of overlapping zones: i the group clusterizing the most part of cultivars from Azerbaijan; ii the other Caucasian and European varieties. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the optimal K value equal to 3, highlighting 3 groups: i Central European group; ii an admixed group, containing

  9. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  10. Critical Reflections on Digital Public Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bonacchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents critiques and analyses of recent work in digital public archaeology (DPA in the United Kingdom. It first locates different strands of DPA within the wider field of public archaeology, and begins to map out the diverse forms, aims and sources of DPA. Next it critically examines the models of 'communication' that are present in DPA, suggesting that greater attention should be paid to audiences in particular, and monitoring and evaluation in general. Finally the article considers the democratising effects of digital media on archaeological knowledge economies, highlighting some current and potential future areas of interest.

  11. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  12. Digital Archaeological Heritage: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith May

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The 17th EAC Symposium (Europae Archaeologiae Consilium in Brighton was convened under a concept note that recognised that 'Digital technologies are developing at an unprecedented speed. As they do, they are opening up many new possibilities for the conduct and presentation of archaeological research and investigation. The digital realm is one which knows few borders and so the sharing of understanding about these new methods, techniques and possibilities across Europe is extremely valuable'. The Brighton Symposium was held over one-and-a-half days (17-18 March 2016 and consisted of three presentation sessions, followed by discussions that included questions and comments from the floor. The presentations were aimed at one of the three broad themes of the symposium although, in actuality, a number of the presenters raised topics that spanned more than one theme. This issue is the outcome of the Symposium.

  13. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-07-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  14. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlakov M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice varieties Aniuta, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska close to each other (50.93; 56.14; 51.23%. According to the percentage of glucose similar varieties Aniuta and Nizina (33 - 34.27%, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska (41.16 - 45.22%. Sort Jubilee Novocherkasska, had content in berries close fructose and glucose. Most of fructose (66.02% in berries variety Nizina. In berries studied cultivars organic acid content was: wine 3128 - 3861, malic 982 - 3753, citric 109 - 317, amber 3 - 115 mg / dm3. The highest concentrations of potassium and sodium cations are presented in berries varieties Aniuta: potassium - 1219 sodium - 35.13 mg / dm3 and cations magnesium and calcium in berries Jubilee Novocherkasska 46.75 and 73.64 mg / dm3. The lowest concentration of potassium and sodium cations observed in grape Vodograi, magnesium - from grape Aniuta, calcium - at grape Nizina. We studied grape bunches are large, not dense, beautiful, berries are large, harmonious taste. Tasting score fresh grapes varieties Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina, Jubilee Novocherkasska 7.6; 7.4; 7.8; 7.8 points respectively

  15. Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.

  16. Effects of whole-wheat flour and bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Roberto KARNOPP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace, which is derived from the skin and seeds, is the residue from the production of grape juice and wine. It corresponds to up to 20% of the total volume and it contains a high level of dietary fibers and bioactive compounds. In the Brazilian market, there is no product containing grape pomace as a replacement for conventional wheat flour. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole-wheat flour and organic Bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies using response surface methodology (RSM. The regression models indicated that the addition of whole-wheat and organic grape pomace decreased (p 65% of explained data variability, except for brittleness. The sensory evaluation results revealed that no significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed for the cookie samples, implying that the addition of grape pomace and whole-wheat flour did not negatively affect the preference of cookies.

  17. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  18. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  19. Maritime archaeology and shipwrecks off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    of questions and answers in a lucid manner. It narrates the beginning of Maritime Archaeological explorations in India, starting from a modest presentation of the tools, techniques, conservation and dating methods in comparison to international scenario...

  20. Studying at UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Frearson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ranked first in the UK for archaeology, for the fifth year in a row, in 'The Guardian' 'University Guide' League Tables, with a top score of 100/100. Ranked in the top five for student satisfaction in 'The Complete University Guide' 2016 League Table of UK archaeology departments (published in May 2015. Twitter: @UCLarchaeology Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/UCLArchaeology_

  1. EFFICIENT PREDICTIVE MODELLING FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Balla, A.; Pavlogeorgatos, G.; Tsiafakis, D.; Pavlidis, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents a general methodology for designing, developing and implementing predictive modelling for identifying areas of archaeological interest. The methodology is based on documented archaeological data and geographical factors, geospatial analysis and predictive modelling, and has been applied to the identification of possible Macedonian tombs’ locations in Northern Greece. The model was tested extensively and the results were validated using a commonly used predictive gain,...

  2. 11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶2基因表达作为葡萄籽提取物预防乳腺癌靶点的探讨%Expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 genes as a molecular target endpoint for the prevention of breast cell carcinogenesis with grape seed extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋筱瑜; 王华骞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the change of 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression in carcinogenesis and cancer prevention and to study the possibility of using 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression as a molecular target endpoint in the progression of breast cell carcinogenesis suppressed by Grape Seed Extract (GSE). Methods Cell carcinogenesis model for human breast epithelial MCF10A cell was induced by treating the cell with carcinogens NNK and B[ a] P repeatedly, and the cell model system for the prevention of carcinogenesis was developed by combining GSE with NNK and B[ a] P. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene. The biological change of carcinogen treated cells was studied by transfecting small interference RNA ( siRNA ) to inhibit 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression of cells. Results The colony formation of carcinogen treated cells in low-mitogen medium was less after the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was inhibited by specific siRNA, which was just like the colony formation of normal cells. The expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was high in carcinogen treated cells, and the gene expression was low or undetectable in normal breast epithelial cells and cells combined treated with GSE and carcinogen. Conclusion The biological display of carcinogen treated cells could be normalized after the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was inhibited. The mechanism for GSE preventing carcinogenesis might be the result of GSE inhibiting the expression of 11β-HSD 2 gene. 11β-HSD 2 gene might be the molecular target endpoint for the suppression of breast cell carcinogenesis by GSE.%目的 研究11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶2型基因(11β-HSD 2)表达在癌症发生及预防过程中的变化,探讨该基因作为葡萄籽提取物(GSE)抑制乳腺上皮细胞慢性癌变过程中靶点的可能性.方法 建立低浓度致癌物NNK和B[a]P刺激乳腺上皮细胞MCF 10A癌变及GSE抑制乳腺上皮细胞癌变过程的细胞模型,研究瞬时转染了靶向11β-HSD 2基因的

  3. Modelling phenolic and technological maturities of grapes by means of the multivariate relation between organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, E; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A; Íñiguez, M; Puras, P

    2013-01-25

    The ripeness of grapes at the harvest time is one of the most important parameters for obtaining high quality red wines. Traditionally the decision of harvesting is to be taken only after analysing sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH of the grape juice (technological maturity). However, these parameters only provide information about the pulp ripeness and overlook the real degree of skins and seeds maturities (phenolic maturity). Both maturities, technological and phenolic, are not simultaneously reached, on the contrary they tend to separate depending on several factors: grape variety, cultivar, adverse weather conditions, soil, water availability and cultural practices. Besides, this divergence is increasing as a consequence of the climate change (larger quantities of CO(2), less rain, and higher temperatures). 247 samples collected in vineyards representative of the qualified designation of origin Rioja from 2007 to 2011 have been analysed. Samples contain the four grape varieties usual in the elaboration of Rioja wines ('tempranillo', 'garnacha', 'mazuelo' and 'graciano'). The present study is the first systematic investigation on the maturity of grapes that includes the organoleptic evaluation of the degree of grapes maturity (sugars/acidity maturity, aromatic maturity of the pulp, aromatic maturity of the skins and tannins maturity) together with the values of the physicochemical parameters (probable alcohol degree, total acidity, pH, malic acid, K, total index polyphenolics, anthocyans, absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm, colour index and tartaric acid) determined over the same samples. A varimax rotation of the latent variables of a PLS model between the physicochemical variables and the mean of four sensory variables allows identifying both maturities. Besides, the position of the samples in the first plane defines the effect that the different factors exert on both phenolic and technological maturities.

  4. Over-evaluation of total flavonoids in grape skin extracts containing sulphur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Onofrio; Squadrito, Margherita; Vento, Giorgia; Tirelli, Antonio; Di Stefano, Rocco

    2015-04-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) proved to increase absorbance at 280 nm of grape skin and seed extracts containing it, diluted with ethanol-HCl to assess total flavonoids and anthocyanins in the same analysis. Additional absorbance at 280 nm was also observed in acetone:H2O extracts, if the acetone had not completely evaporated before the extracts were diluted with a solvent. Flavonoids were correctly quantified in the extracts when SO2 or acetone were removed by solid-phase extraction with a C18 RP as sorbent and methanol as eluting solvent.

  5. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  6. Making space for an archaeology of place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wheatley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than attempt to write a balanced or complete overview of the application of GIS to archaeology (which would inevitably end up being didactic and uncritical this article sets out to present a discursive and contentious position with the deliberate aim of stimulating further debate about the future role of GIS within our discipline. To this end, existing applications of GIS to archaeology are reviewed, concentrating on two areas of application, predictive modelling and visibility analyses, and on their wider disciplinary context. It is argued that GIS cannot be simplistically held to have been a 'good thing' or a 'bad thing' for archaeology, but rather that these different application areas may be analysed separately and found to have quite different qualities. Although they are in no sense alternatives to one another, the areas of predictive modelling and visibility analysis can be seen to represent quite different agendas for the development of an archaeology of space and/or place. The development of correlative predictive models is considered first, both from the perspective of explanation and of cultural resource management. The arguments against predictive modelling as a means of explanation are rehearsed and it is found to be over-generalising, deterministic and de-humanised. As a consequence, it is argued that predictive modelling is now essentially detached from contemporary theoretical archaeological concerns. Moreover, it is argued to be an area with significant unresolved methodological problems and, far more seriously, that it presents very real dangers for the future representativity of archaeological records. Second, the development of GIS-based visibility analysis is reviewed. This is also found to be methodologically problematic and incomplete. However, it is argued that visibility studies — in direct contrast to predictive modelling — have remained firmly situated within contemporary theoretical debates, notably about

  7. Proteome analysis of grape skins during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deytieux, Christelle; Geny, Laurence; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Claverol, Stéphane; Bonneu, Marc; Donèche, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of proteins isolated from skin tissue is apparently an essential parameter for understanding grape ripening as this tissue contains the key compounds for wine quality. It has been particularly difficult to extract proteins from skins for analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis gels and, therefore, a protocol for this purpose has been adapted. The focus was on the evolution of the proteome profile of grape skin during maturation. Proteome maps obtained at three stages of ripening were compared to assess the extent to which protein distribution differs in grape skin during ripening. The comparative analysis shows that numerous soluble skin proteins evolve during ripening and reveal specific distributions at different stages. Proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolisms, and stress response are identified as being over-expressed at the beginning of colour-change. The end of colour-change is characterized by the over-expression of proteins involved in anthocyanin synthesis and, at harvest, the dominant proteins are involved in defence mechanisms. In particular, increases in the abundance of different chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase isoforms were found as the berry ripens. This observation can be correlated with the increase of the activities of both of these enzymes during skin ripening. The differences observed in proteome maps clearly show that significant metabolic changes occur in grape skin during this crucial phase of ripening. This comparative analysis provides more detailed characterization of the fruit ripening process.

  8. Archaeological Narratives and Other Ways of Telling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluciennik

    1999-12-01

    With a few exceptions, archaeologists have been far less concerned with the form of their texts or problems of authorship than have ethnographers. Typically, archaeologies are presented in the form of narratives understood as sequential stories. Approaches to narrative analysis drawn from literary theory, philosophy, and sociology and definitions of characters, events, and plots are examined, together with particular problems these may pose for the discipline of archaeology. It is suggested that neither literary analysis nor the tendency to write and evaluate archaeological and historical narratives in terms of explanatory value takes sufficient account of the often hybrid nature and aims of these texts and the contexts in which they were produced. This argument is illustrated with particular reference to stories of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe. It is argued that reconsidering archaeology's positioning across the 19th-century science-humanities divide suggests a broader approach to the idea of what constitutes a narrative which can offer fresh opportunities for useful reflexivity and experimentation in presentation. Further roles and possibilities of narrative and non-narrative ways of writing archaeologies are also considered.

  9. Marx, Production, Society and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lull, Vicente

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Social life is produced. Social life takes place before the fact of thinking about it. Drawing upon elements coming from utopian Socialism. British economy and, especially, Hegel’s philosophy, Marx proposed a set of dialectic categories addressed to thinking and to explaining how social life is produced, including in these dynamics the production of ourselves. In this paper, the guidelines of Marx’ thoughts are shown starting from the reading and analysis of his own texts. Also, the pertinence of the relationship between Marx and the research of society is argued through the material objects which make any society real: the archaeological research.

    La vida social se produce. La vida social es anterior al hecho de pensarla. Basándose en elementos procedentes del socialismo utópico, la economía británica y, sobre todo, la filosofía de Hegel, Marx propuso categorías dialécticas para pensar y explicar cómo se produce la vida social, y nosotros en ella. En este artículo se exponen las líneas básicas del pensamiento de Marx a partir de una lectura y análisis de sus propios textos, y se argumenta la pertinencia de la relación entre dicho pensamiento y la investigación de la sociedad a partir de los objetos materiales que la hicieron posible: la investigación arqueológica.

  10. Prospects for GRB Polarimetry with GRAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, M. L.; Bloser, P. F.; Legere, J.; Macri, J. R.; Narita, T.; Ryan, J. M.

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses the latest progress in the development of GRAPE (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation from these sources will lead to a better understating of both the emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. We can monitor individual Compton scatters that occur in the plastics and determine whether the photon is photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal or not. A Compton scattered photon that is immediately photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal constitutes a valid event. These valid events provide us with the interaction locations of each incident photon and ultimately produces a modulation pattern for the Compton scattering of the polarized radiation. Comparing with Monte Carlo simulations of a 100% polarized beam, the level of polarization of the measured beam can then be determined. The complete array is mounted on a flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) that can measure the deposited energies resulting from the photon interactions. The design of the detector allows for a large field-of-view (> π steradian), at the same time offering the ability to be close-packed with multiple modules in order to reduce deadspace. We present in this paper the latest laboratory results obtained from GRAPE using partially polarized radiation sources along with a brief description of our future plans for the GRAPE design.

  11. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  12. Teaching Experimental Archaeology at the University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    For more than ten years the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen has offered the course Experimental Archaeology, Ethno-archaeology and Simple Technology to all students at BA level....

  13. 40 years of medieval archaeology at Aarhus University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2015-01-01

    The history of medieval archaeology as a university discipline in Denmark (at Aarhus University), 1971-2012......The history of medieval archaeology as a university discipline in Denmark (at Aarhus University), 1971-2012...

  14. Towards the Enhancement of "MINOR" Archaeological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research, maintenance and presentation with interactive products. The use of three-dimensional models managed through AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies with mobile devices gives several opportunities in the field of study and communication. It also improves on-site exploration of the landscape, enhancing the "minor" archaeological sites, daily subjected to numerous emergency works and facilitating the understanding of heritage sites.

  15. Shoshone Spirituality Archaeological Interpretation in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay

    2001-03-01

    Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.

  16. “Neutron metallography” of archaeological bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, S.; Bartoli, L.; Kockelmann, W.; Zoppi, M.; Miccio, M.

    2004-07-01

    Following a first demonstration on the potentials of time-of-flight neutron diffraction in the microstructural characterisation of archaeological bronzes, we present here the results of a further systematic study on the topic. The experiments were performed on standardised specimens and original archaeological bronze findings at the powder diffractometer ROTAX. The possibility to achieve various metallographic data concerning alloy composition, homogeneity, dendritic structure, metal and mineral phases, as well as the effects of hardening, annealing, and re-crystallisation processes was successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, we also report a texture analysis on a Roman coin, which provided a clear striking fingerprint thus demonstrating a powerful authentication method.

  17. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Kharakwal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of brass and zinc in India.

  18. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  19. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available to... provision of law, information concerning the nature and location of any archaeological resource, with...

  20. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not... provision of law, information concerning the nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the... archaeological resource or area about which information is sought; (ii) The purpose for which the information...

  1. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... specific archaeological resource or area about which information is sought. (2) The purpose for which the... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological...

  2. Maturing Gracefully? Curriculum Standards for History and Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the similarities and differences between the disciplines of history and archaeology. Examines the standards and principles recently proposed for teaching history and archaeology to determine the areas of difference and commonality. Addresses the issues of historical and archaeological thinking describing each in detail. (CMK)

  3. Transformations of the Past: Teachers' Knowledge of North American Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that archaeology education should be included within the social studies curriculum and addresses various reasons why archaeology has been ignored within the classroom. Presents the findings from a survey that investigated preservice and experienced teachers' knowledge of archaeology. Concludes that there is a need for teacher preparation on…

  4. Archaeology for Dance: An Approach to Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez y. Royo, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes that existing methodologies for dance studies can be extended through consideration of recently developing methodologies from social archaeology. It is first argued that an archaeological perspective on dance is enriching for archaeology, whose recent interest in dance as a focus of investigation can be seen as an attempt to…

  5. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  6. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  7. Digitising the Archaeological Process at the Swedish National Heritage Board: producing, managing and sharing archaeological information

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    Åsa Larsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Digital Archaeological Process (DAP programme was initiated by the Swedish National Heritage Board in order to create a more seamless process for storing and sharing digital information generated through archaeological surveys and excavations. The programme aims to increase the availability of digital data as well as the quality and usefulness of the information. The Cultural Environment Register is being developed, which will contain and/or link to information about where fieldwork has been done and what was found: archaeological sites, field documentation, finds, as well as the reports and publications. In addition to creating a new system for storing this information, a large amount of old digital projects previously kept by museums and archaeological contractors is being collected to be made publicly available. Our goal is to make heritage management more efficient, and in the process the information will also become more useful to researchers, museums and the general public.

  8. Crowd-sourcing archaeological research: HeritageTogether digital public archaeology in practice

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    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeologists are increasingly working with crowd-sourced digital data. Using evidence from other disciplines about the nature of crowd-sourcing in academic research, we suggest that archaeological projects using donated data can usefully be differentiated between generative projects (which rely on data collected by citizen scientists, and analytical projects (which make use of volunteers to classify, or otherwise analyse data that are provided by the project. We conclude that projects which privilege hyper-local research (such as surveying specific sites might experience tension if the audience they are appealing to are 'cyber local'. In turn, for more 'traditional' archaeological audiences (when the primary motivating interests may be the tangible, physical nature of portable material culture or the archaeological site itself, then intangible, digital simulacra may not provide an effective medium through which to undertake digital public archaeology.

  9. Concerning the work of the II international field archaeological school

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    Sitdikov Ayrat G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The II international field archaeological school was held in Bolgar, 17-30 August, 2015. Basic theoretical lectures were included into syllabus, as well as methodical studies and work of such scientific sections as: History of ancient metallurgy and metal processing; Palaeoanthropology; Archeobiological methods in archaeology; Techniques of field conservation and restoration; Geoinformational systems in archaeology; History of ancient ceramics; Experimental and traseology study of ancient tools; Archaeological glass. The Bolgar school is an example of organisation an academic educational centre which is focused on practical acquisition of contemporary techniques of complex archaeological monuments’ study with wide usage of experimental research methods.

  10. Experimental Archaeology and the Denticulate Mousterian

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    Karen Arnold

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available The following· essay is a summary of preliminary experimental work carried out in connection with my doctoral research on the nature of the Denticulate Mousterian facies, which was presented to the postgraduate seminar of the Institute of Archaeology, UCL on October 24th 1990.

  11. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

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    Bill Sillar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian' (2013 league table for studying archaeology Ranked 2nd in 'The Times' (2013 ‘Good University Guide’ 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011 Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future. To address these questions students integrate the humanities and the sciences; using a wide range of approaches to collect, evaluate and interpret relevant evidence. At UCL and during survey and excavation projects students make life-long friends while developing teamwork, management and leadership skills. Studying archaeology demands energy and enthusiasm, it challenges expectations while developing the problem-solving and transferable skills which all employers are looking for. Graduates from the Institute go on to make wide-ranging contributions to society, including business, academia and archaeology.

  12. Interactions In Space For Archaeological Models

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, T S; Knappett, C

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine a variety of quantitative models for describing archaeological networks, with particular emphasis on the maritime networks of the Aegean Middle Bronze Age. In particular, we discriminate between those gravitational networks that are most likely (maximum entropy) and most efficient (best cost/benefit outcomes).

  13. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  14. What Kind of Archaeology do We Need?

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    Staša Babić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available From the time of the constitution of archaeology as an academic discipline to the present, two radical changes have taken place of theoretical postulates, aims, methods, relationships with other disciplines. However, potentially farreaching consequences of these fundamental changes have not had the same impact in all the academic communities. The critical assessment of the epistemological foundations of archaeology in Serbia indicates that our professional community has remained resistant to the large extent to the paradigm changes in the wider disciplinary surrounding, so the culture-historical approach still prevails, even though it was severely criticized as early as by the middle of the 20th century. Facing this significant delay raises many important questions, starting by the issue of selection among various, sometimes mutually conflicting theoretical approaches, being a part of archaeological research for several decades and implying certain consequences in terms of methodological aspects of the discipline. Partial, non-critical and insufficiently theoretically informed borrowing of individual elements of research may lead to equally bad results as the total rejection of influences from other archaeological environments. It is therefore necessary to bring into the discipline the comprehension of the social responsibility of archaeologists, the importance of the academic narratives we produce and the ways of their creation.

  15. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

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    Andrew Garrard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963 was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978 for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989 inspired many of the students with his experimental research on prehistoric bone and flint technology and for his innovative work on the microwear analysis of flint tools. In 1982, Mark Roberts began his excavations at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Boxgrove in Sussex and more recently Matthew Pope has been involved in an extensive survey of the Middle Pleistocene raised beaches along the south Sussex coast. Simon Parfitt has been undertaking groundbreaking research into the Lower Palaeolithic of East Anglia. Andrew Garrard and Norah Moloney joined the staff of the Institute of Archaeology in 1990 and 1994 respectively, and Dietrich Stout and Ignacio de la Torre in 2005. Each are involved in research relating to human developments through the Pleistocene and this is outlined in the four sections that follow. Several other staff also undertake research in related fields, including Ole Gron, Simon Hills on, Richard Macphail, Marcello Mannino, Tim Schadla-Hall, James Steele and Ken Thomas. The work of several of these has featured in recent issues of Archaeology International.

  16. Archaeological Investigations at Tarague Beach, Guam,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    parallel rows. There is considerable variation in size and height of such structures; some are clearly of megalithic proportions while others may be...Engineer Division, Pacific Ocean, Fort Shafter, Hawaii. J. Stephen Athens, archaeological consultant, Honolulu, Hawaii. Craib, John L. n.d. Megaliths as

  17. Editorial: Portable antiquities: archaeology, collecting, metal detecting

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    Suzie Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal detecting and archaeology do not always coexist peacefully. Indeed, even in the current climate of participation and inclusion within public and community archaeologies, there are still issues of trust to address, relating to both metal-detector users and archaeologists. While in the UK there have been disagreements between archaeologists and metal-detector users over the years, there have also been some significant steps made in encouraging metal-detector users to cooperate with the archaeological sector. Perhaps the most successful and best known of these is the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS, active across England and Wales. Add to this mix those that provide the commercial demand for metal-detected finds, the dealers and private collectors, and a clash of interests and motivations seems inevitable. Most would hope that relationships, positive in many cases but also problematic, will improve, both in the interests of enhancing the recording of non-stratified finds, and of promoting a publicly accessible and inclusive archaeology. However, is this an inevitable progression, or ultimately unachievable?

  18. Moessbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia Yuanfu; Huang Hongbo [Nanjing University, Department of Physics (China)

    2003-09-15

    The Moessbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  19. The fifth issue of Archaeology International

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Harris

    2001-01-01

    With the appearance of this issue, Archaeology International (AI) reaches its fifth birthday. Since it was launched, as a successor to the former Bulletin and Annual Reports of the Institute, my aim each year has been to feature short articles on current research by Institute staff and research students, and to supplement them with summary information about other research-related matters.

  20. Recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

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    Gupta S.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ~400 scintillator detectors and a 560 m2 large tracking muon detector (Eμ > 1 GeV, at Ooty in India. The muon detector has been used to observe acceleration of muons during thunderstorm conditions. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below 1 PeV, with an overlap with direct measurements. More recently we have explored the possibility of using the angular distribution of >1 GeV muons to identify the best from among several low- and high-energy hadronic interaction models. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in all of the areas listed above.

  1. Authority and the production of archaeological knowledge

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    Natalija Ćosić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of archaeology is founded upon the interaction of various practices, in the network of individuals and institutions, jointly shaping and formulating the explanations of the past. The registered sites and material remains represent the places where undefined layers and physical structures are converted from heaps of dirt and discarded material into the knowledge of the past. From the perspective of production of knowledge and construction of facts about the times past, the archaeological excavations are not only a process of research. The production of archaeological knowledge, in the field and beyond, always takes place under specific circumstances, including not only the relations among professionals and institutions, but also the relations between material remains and the individuals “discovering” them and translating them into interpretations. Metaphorically speaking, in the complex relationship between archaeologists and material culture, an individual in the process of creating the knowledge of an object creates his/her own professional identity, while an object creates an archaeologist in the process of identification. The final outcome presents a chosen and formulated explanation about the past, stemming from a specific logic of disciplinary practice. However, the question arises: what or who decides which interpretations are more valid than the others, and who is in the position to declare an authentic interpretation of the excavated material. Thus the discussion enters the field of problematizing the concept of authority and its role in the production of archaeological knowledge. The analyses show that authority should not be understood as a definite source, periodically appearing and disappearing, but rather as an achievement of social and cultural interactions and changes. The theoretical grounds for the research of authority is formulated based upon Foucault’s interpretation of relation between power and

  2. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

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    Vasil Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  3. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

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    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been used to identify adulterations in juices. Besides phlorizin, it can be seen that adulteration by quantifying the levels of sorbitol, present in apples, but absent in healthy grapes. The content of this compounds in grape juices can vary due to the variety of grape and harvest.This study aimed to analyze phlorizin and sorbitol, in 141 experimental samples of Vitis labrusca grape juices, harvest 2016, of 9 varieties and 43 commercial samples (different vintages. The experimental juices from red grapes showed higher sorbitol content than the white grapes. For sorbitol analysis, the juices of Ives differed statistically of the juices of: Isabella, Concord, Niagara Branca and White Muscat. It was detected the presence of apple juice in 5 commercial grape juices.

  4. Clinical, biometric and ultrasound assessment of the effects of daily use of a nutraceutical composed of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine Complex in photoaged human skin Avaliações clínica, biométrica e ultrassonográfica dos efeitos do uso diário de um nutracêutico a base de licopeno, extrato de acerola, extrato de semente de uva e Complexo Biomarinho na pele fotoenvelhecida humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Costa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of nutraceuticals has become frequent in the cutaneous approach to photoaging. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical efficacy of a nutraceutical product composed of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine ComplexT in photoaged human skin. METHODS: 50 women, from 35 to 60 years of age, phototypes I to III, were assessed. For 120 days, they associated the nutraceutical product with the use of a sunscreen FPS15. On days 0 (D0, 30 (D30, 60 (D60, 90 (D90 and 120 (D120 they were evaluated and underwent Medical Assessments and Self-Assessment and cutaneous biometric analyses (corneometry, sebumetry and pH-metry in the skin of the left zygomatic region and the upper medial side region of the left arm; on days 0 (D0, 30 (D30 and 120 (D120 the skin of the same regions was analyzed by ultrasound. On days 0 (D0 and 120 (D120 skin biopsies were performed in the areas where instrumental evaluation was performed (to evaluate collagen and elastic fibers. RESULTS: There was an improvement of the general status of the skin of all volunteers by the Medical and Volunteer Self- Assessments; increased parameters of cutaneous hydration, reduction of pH, increasing of ultrasound density and a histological increment of collagen and elastic fibers (both on the face and arm; there was a reduction of seborrhea (only on the face CONCLUSIONS: The daily use of a nutraceutical product containing lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine ComplexT showed an important adjuvant effect to counteract skin photoaging.FUNDAMENTOS: O uso de nutracêuticos se tornou uma condição frequente na abordagem cutânea do fotoenvelhecimento. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia clínica do uso de um produto nutracêutico a base de licopeno, extrato de acerola, extrato de semente de uva e Complexo BiomarinhoT na pele fotoenvelhecida humana. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 50 mulheres, de 35 a 60 anos de idade, fototipo I a III. Por 120 dias, elas

  5. Social Archaeological Approaches in Port and Harbour Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam

    2013-12-01

    This introductory article to the special issue of the Journal of Maritime Archaeology offers a comparative perspective on the theme of archaeological theory and social archaeological approaches to ports and harbours. As a specialist in Roman archaeology I was keen to explore the way in which specialists in other areas of archaeology approached the archaeology of ports and harbours and whether different approaches and perspectives may be able to add nuances to the way in which material is interpreted. The volume brings together a collection of exciting new studies which explore social themes in port and harbour studies with the intention to encourage debate and the use of new interpretative perspectives. This article examines a number of interpretative themes including those relating to architectural analyse, human behaviour, action and experience and artefact analysis. These themes help us to move towards a more theoretically informed ports and harbour archaeology which focuses on meaning as well as description. The emphasis on theory within archaeology allows us to be more ambitious in our interpretative frameworks including in Roman archaeology which has not tended to embrace the theoretical aspects of the archaeological discipline with as much enthusiasm as some other areas of archaeology.

  6. Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Archaeology, by Stephen Williams. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1991

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    Bruce G. Trigger

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years Stephen Williams has taught a course at Harvard University dealing with those aspects of Americanist archaeology that the finds to be based on fantasy rather than on carefully recovered archaeological evidence. He has now published a book based on this course, which provides a history of this archaeology. Much of the strength of this book is derived from Williams' recognition that fantastic archaeology has been an integral part of American archaeology from its earliest days, that the border between the fantastic and the scientific is problematical, and that weird ideas often fill real social needs.

  7. 基于酚类物质的酿酒红葡萄品种特性分析%Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Red Grape Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 王晓宇; 田呈瑞; 赵旗峰; 马小河; 唐晓萍; 马婷婷; 马锦锦

    2015-01-01

    conical. There was a significant difference between the proportion of grape peels, seeds and pulps. The ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ with a higher quality was the first cultivar in China, its proportion of peels and seeds were the highest and reached 31.3%;whereas the proportion of peels and seeds of ‘Cabernet Gernischet’ was lower, only 10.62%, meanwhile the wine fermented by‘Cabernet Gernischet’ had a lower content of polyphenols and a supple texture. Titratable acid content of 20 varieties of grapes was 3.97-9.00 g·L-1 and the content of soluble solid was 14.5-25.4 g·L-1. Different grape varieties and different parts of the grape fruit (skin, seed and pulp) were significantly different in the polyphenols content. TPC (total phenolic content) of grape peel was 12-125 mg·100g-1FW (fruit fresh weight), TFA (total flavanol content) was 1-27 mg·100g-1FW; TPC of grape seed was 17-456 mg·100g-1 FW, TFA was 22-505 mg·100g-1FW, TPC of grape pulps was 1.24-3.24 mg·100g-1FW, that TPC in grape seed was 3-4 times of grape peel, TFA in the seed was 10 times more than the peel. Anthocyanin mainly existed in grape peels and the content of anthocyanin of grape peels was 1-34 mg·100g-1FW. Among the 20 varieties of grape, ‘Cabernet sauvignon’ exhibited the highest anthocyanin content, which was followed by ‘Ruby cabernet’, ‘Marselan’ and ‘Cabernet gernischet’. The grape cultivars such as ‘Marselan’ and ‘Cabernet sauvignon’ had higher phenolic compounds, meanwhile the grape cultivars such as ‘Cabernet gernischet’, ‘Heihuxiang’ and ‘Cinsaut cehco’ had lower phenols content. The content of phenolic compounds in different parts of various grapes was significantly different. The order was that grape seeds was the highest, followed by the grape skins, and the pulp was the lowest. The phenolic compounds content in pulp was much lower than that in skins and seeds, and pulp mainly contained phenolic acids. A total of 12 kinds of monomeric phenols in

  8. Major factors influencing antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity in grapes and wines

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    Jaromír Lachman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaromír Lachman, Miloslav Šulc, Katerina Faitová, Vladimír PivecDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Phenolic compounds in wines, especially in red wines, possess strong antioxidant activity, have the largest effect in decreasing atherosclerosis by both hypolipemic and antioxidant mechanisms. The long-term uptake of red wine has a positive impact on antioxidant activity (AA of blood plasma in rats in vivo and increases AA by 15%–20% compared to a control group. In the article the effect of total phenolics (TP, total anthocyanins (TA, individual anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolics contained in red grapes, musts, grape seeds and skins and wines on the AA is discussed. Significant impact of varieties, viticultural regions and locations, climate conditions and vintage has been shown. Likewise, the ways and individual stages of the vinification technology process, and storage conditions affect color, TP, TA, and AA and health aspects of produced wines. Resveratrol, another free radical scavenger mainly contained in the skins of grapes, inhibits the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Higher amounts of trans-resveratrol (RES have been found in wines from cool and wet climate regions and lesser amounts are typical for warm and dry regions. Changes in the TP content and AA affected by grape variety, vineyard location and winemaking process in white and blue varieties from different vineyards of the Czech Republic were studied. Significant differences in TP among varieties were found. Analysis of variance showed statistically high differences among red and white wines and growing locations. Wines differed significantly in TP content and AA increased significantly during the winemaking process. Statistically significant differences in AA values were found among growing areas, wines and varieties. Significant positive correlations between TP

  9. Encyclopaedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan:conceptual problems

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    Abdullin Khalim M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodological problems of creation the glossary for the preparation of encyclopedic dictionary, which is related to the Republic of Tatarstan archaeology are considered in this article. It is noticed that creation of such generalizing editions determines a new important stage of science and its theoretic and methodological basis development. Encyclopedias and dictionaries are the terminological thesaurus and functioning as a source of norms. They are forming the uniform, unifying and conventional approach to archaeological definitions and their content. They are also able to provide an insight into the basic archaeological concepts in the accessible form, to give the characteristic to archaeological monuments on Republic territory, to acquaint with archaeologists, who has ever worked on territory of Tatarstan, to present the last archaeological discoveries, and to popularize achievements of the Kazan Archaeology school. The complete information about archaeology in Republic is supposed to be included in the encyclopedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan (the special attention will be focused on the conceptual system of archaeology, monuments and antiquity subjects, about objects and monuments of historic and archaeological heritage, as well as biographic data of all archaeologists who has ever worked in Tatarstan and information about all organizations related to archaeology in region. There are all preconditions to claim that the considerable source study and theoretical base for creation of the encyclopedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan is created. It is gathered the significant experience on complex studying and generalization of considerable volume of a material which is referring to an ancient and medieval history of region and on research and ordering of archaeological monuments. It is suggested that at the first investigation phase will be created a glossary and after that the collective of authors can pass

  10. Seed planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  11. Association between Grape Yeast Communities and the Vineyard Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumonde-Neves, João; Lima, Teresa; Schuller, Dorit; Pais, Célia

    2017-01-01

    The grape yeast biota from several wine-producing areas, with distinct soil types and grapevine training systems, was assessed on five islands of Azores Archipelago, and differences in yeast communities composition associated with the geographic origin of the grapes were explored. Fifty-seven grape samples belonging to the Vitis vinifera grapevine cultivars Verdelho dos Açores (Verdelho), Arinto da Terceira (Arinto) and Terrantez do Pico (Terrantez) were collected in two consecutive years and 40 spontaneous fermentations were achieved. A total of 1710 yeast isolates were obtained from freshly crushed grapes and 1200 from final stage of fermentations. Twenty-eight species were identified, Hanseniaspura uvarum, Pichia terricola and Metschnikowia pulcherrima being the three most representative species isolated. Candida carpophila was encountered for the first time as an inhabitant of grape or wine-associated environments. In both sampling years, a higher proportion of H. uvarum in fresh grapes from Verdelho cultivar was observed, in comparison with Arinto cultivar. Qualitatively significant differences were found among yeast communities from several locations on five islands of the Archipelago, particularly in locations with distinctive agro-ecological compositions. Our results are in agreement with the statement that grape-associated microbial biogeography is non-randomly associated with interactions of climate, soil, cultivar, and vine training systems in vineyard ecosystems. Our observations strongly support a possible linkage between grape yeast and wine typicality, reinforcing the statement that different viticultural terroirs harbor distinctive yeast biota, in particular in vineyards with very distinctive environmental conditions. PMID:28085916

  12. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wi...

  13. Effects of fining on phenolic compounds and colour of red wine obtained with addition of increased amounts of grape solid phase in pomace

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    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the effect of grape pomace enrichment in solid phase (stems and seeds on phenolic compounds and colour stability of obtained red wines, before and after use of different fining agents. Results have shown increase in total phenols and flavan-3-ols content after grape solid phase addition. On the other hand, decrease in anthocyanins content has generally been recorded in all wine samples except in wines obtained with addition of 40 g/l of seeds during maceration. Stems addition caused decrease in colour intensity while addition of seeds has increased this colour parameter. The use of four fining agents (albumin, gelatine, bentonite and PVPP has been investigated and compared, especially in terms of their influence on potential stabilization effect of grape solid phase on wine colour. Fined wines tended to have considerably lower anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol levels, especially in the case of gelatine and PVPP treatment (decrease up to 60 and 70%, respectively. In the case of chromatic parameters, used fining agents caused colour intensity decrease but it is important to emphasize that their values, after fining, are still as high as expected from red wine. This can be explained by the stabilization effect of increased flavan-3-ols content.

  14. Archaeology of Architecture and Archaeology of houses in Early Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe» dossier, the object of which is to explore the different approaches, methodologies and themes analysed in the study of early medieval architecture in western Europe. More specifically, in what follows, analysis is undertaken of the contexts which explain the recent development of studies on this topic, as well as the main contributions of the seven papers which form this dossier. In addition, the main historical and archaeological problems raised by the analysis of this material record are also discussed.En este trabajo se presenta el dossier «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe», que pretende explorar los distintos enfoques, metodologías y temáticas analizadas en el estudio de las arquitecturas altomedievales en el marco de Europa occidental. Más concretamente se analizan los contextos que explican el desarrollo reciente de los estudios sobre esta materia, las principales aportaciones de los siete trabajos que conforman este dossier y se discuten los principales problemas históricos y arqueológicos que plantea el análisis de este registro material.

  15. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.-M.M., E-mail: AnneMarie.Williams@utas.edu.au [School of Medicine, Private Bag 34, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Siegele, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  16. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  17. A Faceted Query Engine Applied to Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Ross

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the Faceted Query Engine, a system developed at Columbia University under the aegis of the inter-disciplinary project Computational Tools for Modeling, Visualizing and Analyzing Historic and Archaeological Sites. Our system is based on novel Database Systems research that has been published in Computer Science venues (Ross and Janevski, 2004 and Ross et al., 2005. The goal of this article is to introduce our system to the target user audience - the archaeology community. We demonstrate the use of the Faceted Query Engine on a previously unpublished dataset: the Thulamela (South Africa collection. This dataset is comprised of iron-age finds from the Thulamela site at the Kruger National Park. Our project is the first to systematically compile and classify this dataset. We also use a larger dataset, a collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts from the Memphis site (Giddy,1999, to demonstrate some of the features of our system.

  18. Quantitative paleoparasitology applied to archaeological sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín H Fugassa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three techniques to extract parasite remains from archaeological sediments were tested. The aim was to improve the sensibility of recommended paleoparasitological techniques applied in archaeological remains. Sediment collected from the pelvic girdle of a human body found in Cabo Vírgenes, Santa Cruz, Argentina, associated to a Spanish settlement founded in 1584 known as Nombre de Jesús, was used to search for parasites. Sediment close to the skull was used as control. The techniques recommended by Jones, Reinhard, and Dittmar and Teejen were used and compared with the modified technique presented here, developed to improve the sensibility to detect parasite remains. Positive results were obtained only with the modified technique, resulting in the finding of Trichuris trichiura eggs in the sediment.

  19. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  20. Presentation of Archaeoastronomy in Introductions to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Victor B.

    In order to gain insights into how archaeoastronomy is presented (if at all) in introductory archaeology courses at universities, a study of introductory textbooks was undertaken in 2004 and again in 2012. In both instances the results were mixed. The quality of future coverage and the reputation of archaeoastronomy may depend upon archaeoastronomers' ability to confine themselves to good exemplars in the next editions of their books.

  1. Alternative Archaeological Representations within Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jonathan C.; Ryan, Nick S.

    1997-01-01

    Traditional VR methods allow the user to tour and view the virtual world from different perspectives. Increasingly, more interactive and adaptive worlds are being generated, potentially allowing the user to interact with and affect objects in the virtual world. We describe and compare four models of operation that allow the publisher to generate views, with the client manipulating and affecting specific objects in the world. We demonstrate these approaches through a problem in archaeological ...

  2. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the grape skins showed significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Data vines were categorized as non

  3. Contextualising Archaeological Information Through Interactive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Johnson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Many web sites use maps delivered as non-interactive images. With the development of web-enabled mapping, new methods of presenting and contextualising archaeological and historical data are becoming available. However, most current examples are static views of contemporary framework data or specific time slices, and do not provide interactivity relating to the time dimension, which is so important to archaeology and related disciplines. In this article I look at some of the advantages of time-enabled interactive mapping and map animation in providing educational experiences to museum visitors and the web-browsing public. These will be illustrated through three example applications of the TimeMap methodology developed at the University of Sydney Archaeological Computing Laboratory: 1. the Sydney TimeMap kiosk at the Museum of Sydney; 2. an embedded Java mapping applet developed for MacquarieNet, a major Australian online educational encyclopaedia; and 3. the metadata clearinghouse mapping applet developed for the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative, Berkeley. In each of these examples, a wide range of resources are delivered through a time-enabled map interface which accesses live database data rather than pre-structured curated presentations of data. This flexibility brings its own challenges in providing intuitive pathways and appropriate levels of detail in response to free-ranging user enquiries. The paper outlines some of the approaches I have adopted to resolve these issues.

  4. Controlled Atmosphere Treatment for Control of Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Harvested Table Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO) alone and in combinations with 50% carbon dioxide were studied to control grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) on harvested table grapes. Two ultralow oxygen levels, ˜30 ppm and <1 ppm, were tested in both ULO and ULO+50% ...

  5. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  6. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  7. From Web to Grid, a new perspective for archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Pelfer, Pier Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that in Archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualisation. In the last years the amount of information coming from remote sensing. from precise and fast acquisition of 3-D artefacts images by scanners laser, from GPS precise reference of geographical points and from other human and natural sciences are increasing at a large extent the amount of data that it need to be stored and made available for analysis. Moreover the use of Virtual Archaeology as a new approach to the narration and visualisation in Archaeology, is expanding rapidly, not only in the museum and archaeology professions, but also in the broadcast media, tourism and heritage industries. From another side recent natural and social disasters (wars) created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively any information about ancient civilisations. It is urgent a longterm project for saving archaeological...

  8. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the CRA-VIT (Viticulture Research Centre Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: (i using the spreadsheet “BioGrace, developed within the “Intelligent Energy Europe” program to support and to ease the RED (Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; (ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy. The comparison with other bioenergy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains.

  9. Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeology at Beedings, West Sussex: new contexts for Pleistocene archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Pope

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The site of Beedings in Sussex was first recognized as the source of some exceptional Upper Palaeolithic flintwork in 1900, but subsequently disappeared from the archaeological literature. In the 1980s it was recognized again, but it was not until 2007–8 that in situ Palaeolithic archaeology was found at the site. In this article, the director of the excavations describes the discovery, within a network of geological fissures, of two separate industries, one Middle Palaeolithic and the other Early Upper Palaeolithic. The archaeology at Beedings spans a crucial cultural transition in the European Palaeolithic and therefore provides an important new dataset for the analysis of late Neanderthal groups in northern Europe and their replacement by modern human populations.

  10. Liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic study for varietal discrimination of grapes according to plant sterols content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Laura; Sampedro, M Carmen; Sánchez, Alicia; Delporte, Cédric; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-07-08

    Grapevine and derived products are rich in a wide range of compounds and its quality mainly depends on its metabolites, as a result of viticulture practices. Plant sterols, also called phytosterols (PS), are secondary metabolites regarded as bioactive substance present in grape berries and other plant-based food. The present study deals with a metabolomic approach focusing on phytosterols family in six varieties of Rioja grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo, Graciano, Garnacha, White Garnacha and Viura), in order to find significant differences among them. Liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry with a quadrupole-time of flight mass analyzer (LC-QTOF) was used to find as many metabolites as possible in the different grape berry fractions, and using statistics to help finding significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulp, peel and seeds in relation to the variety. The best chromatographic and detection conditions were achieved by gas phase ionization via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode. Furthermore, analysis with electrospray (ESI) is also needed for phytosterol derivatives confirmation. Putative compounds of interest in the analyzed samples were found by an automated compound extraction algorithm (Molecular Feature Extraction, MFE) and an initial differential expression from the data was created with the aid of commercial software. Once the data were collected, the results were filtered, aligned and normalized, and evaluating applying one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a 95% significance level. For sample class prediction, partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is used as a supervised pattern recognition method and excellent separation among the grape varieties is shown. An overall accuracy of 93.3% (pulp samples), 100.0% (peel) or 96.7% (seeds) in discriminating between grape varieties was achieved when comparing the different fractions. In general, 7 PS derivatives were identified with ID scores

  11. Design of a modular autonomous underwater vehicle for archaeological investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Reggiannini, Marco; Pascali, Maria Antonietta; Moroni, Davide; Salvetti, Ovidio; Allotta,Benedetto; Bartolini, Fabio; Bellavia, Fabio; Colombo, Carlo; Conti, Roberto; Costanzi, Riccardo; Fanfani, Marco; Gelli, Jonathan; Monni, Niccol?; Natalini, Marco; Pazzaglia, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    MARTA (MARine Tool for Archaeology) is a modular AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) designed and developed by the University of Florence in the framework of the ARROWS (ARchaeological RObot systems for the World's Seas) FP7 European project. The ARROWS project challenge is to provide the underwater archaeologists with technological tools for cost affordable campaigns: i.e. ARROWS adapts and develops low cost AUV technologies to significantly reduce the cost of archaeological operations, cove...

  12. Geodetic surveying as part of archaeological research in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying is an important part of any archaeological research. In this paper we focus on the archaeological research in north Sudan (6th Nile cataract and the surveying methods applicable under the local conditions. Surveying in the Third World countries is affected by the political situation (limited import of surveying tools, local conditions (lack of fixed points, GNSS correction signal, inaccessible basemaps and fixed point network. This article describes the methods and results obtained during the three archaeological seasons (2011-2014. The classical surveying methods were combined with KAP (Kite Aerial Photography to obtain the desired results in form of archaeological maps, detailed orthophoto images and other analyses results.

  13. Unbiased Cultural Transmission in Time-Averaged Archaeological Assemblages

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Unbiased models are foundational in the archaeological study of cultural transmission. Applications have as- sumed that archaeological data represent synchronic samples, despite the accretional nature of the archaeological record. I document the circumstances under which time-averaging alters the distribution of model predictions. Richness is inflated in long-duration assemblages, and evenness is "flattened" compared to unaveraged samples. Tests of neutrality, employed to differentiate biased and unbiased models, suffer serious problems with Type I error under time-averaging. Finally, the time-scale over which time-averaging alters predictions is determined by the mean trait lifetime, providing a way to evaluate the impact of these effects upon archaeological samples.

  14. 77 FR 59660 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... Stanford University Archaeology Center. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  15. 77 FR 46120 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... objects in the possession of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University... Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA...

  16. Long-term effect of seismic activities on archaeological remains: a test study from Zakynthos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendürüs, M.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.; Kars, H.; Sintubin, M.; Stewart, I.S.; Niemi, T.M.; Altunel, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the archaeological and geoarchaeological surveys on the island of Zakynthos, Greece, it has been noted that the distribution and preservation of archaeological remains of Zakynthos present spatially different characteristics. In general, archaeological pottery finds and architectural remains

  17. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Grape Juice at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ravika; Jain, Ritu; Sharma, Krishna S.

    2015-04-01

    The complex permittivity of fresh juice of two cultivars of grapes, Sultania (green grapes) and Black Monukka (black grapes) was measured in terms of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor over the frequency range from 1 to 50 GHz and at temperatures ranging from 30 to 60°C, by using the PNA network analyzer model E8364C and open ended coaxial probe 85070E. The Cole-Cole plots and dielectric constant vs. (angular frequency) dielectric loss factor and dielectric constant vs. dielectric loss factor/(angular frequency) regression lines at different temperatures were used in Debye approximation to predict relaxation frequency of molecules for the two cultivars of grapes in the low frequency and high frequency limits, respectively. It was observed that the acidic character of green grapes is responsible for the large amplitude vibrational peaks in dielectric loss factor - frequency curves, in the high frequency region at higher temperatures. On the other hand, excess of sugar in black grapes suppresses the activity of water molecules, thereby suppressing the vibrational peaks at higher frequencies. Different relaxation frequencies found for the two cultivars of grapes suggest that they have different molecular structure.

  18. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  19. [The use of dried grape press cake in pig fattening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, I; Tomová, M; Holub, A; Pleskac, Z

    1979-12-01

    In dried grape press cake the content of crude nutrients and ash, overall sugar, amino acids, alpha-tocopherol and gross energy was determined. In biological experiments with pigs (total of 109 animals) 10% of mixture A1 or SOL was replaced by the same amount of dried crushed grape press cake, without affecting negatively the weight gains and consumption of mixtures per unit of weight gain. Nutritional effects of grape press cake are a subject of discussion and comprise three factors: higher content of enrgy (fat and sugars) in mixtures containing press cake, anti-oxidation effect of press cake and the effect of tocopherols on the metabolism of basic nutrients.

  20. Design and Construction of Grape Theme Sightseeing Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; LIU; Yifei; YU; Jingchuan; LI; Ruifeng; HAN; Ying; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Taking the grape theme sightseeing garden of Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences for example,this article discusses the suitable edible and wine making cultivation varieties,vineyard frame and cultivation techniques in the grape theme sightseeing garden,from the perspective of planning and design. The garden landscape design and construction is integrated with sightseeing and garden visiting to highlight the theme of grape sightseeing garden,aimed at achieving purposes of sightseeing,picking,appreciating the beautiful scenery,and enjoying palatable food.

  1. Geometric documentation of underwater archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Diamanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry has often been the most preferable method for the geometric documentation of monuments, especially in cases of highly complex objects, of high accuracy and quality requirements and, of course, budget, time or accessibility limitations. Such limitations, requirements and complexities are undoubtedly features of the highly challenging task of surveying an underwater archaeological site. This paper is focused on the case of a Hellenistic shipwreck found in Greece at the Southern Euboean gulf, 40-47 meters below the sea surface. Underwater photogrammetry was chosen as the ideal solution for the detailed and accurate mapping of a shipwreck located in an environment with limited accessibility. There are time limitations when diving at these depths so it is essential that the data collection time is kept as short as possible. This makes custom surveying techniques rather impossible to apply. However, with the growing use of consumer cameras and photogrammetric software, this application is becoming easier, thus benefiting a wide variety of underwater sites. Utilizing cameras for underwater photogrammetry though, poses some crucial modeling problems, due to the refraction effect and further additional parameters which have to be co-estimated [1]. The applied method involved an underwater calibration of the camera as well as conventional field survey measurements in order to establish a reference frame. The application of a three-dimensional trilateration using common tape measures was chosen for this reason. Among the software that was used for surveying and photogrammetry processing, were Site Recorder SE, Eos Systems Photomodeler, ZI’s SSK and Rhinoceros. The underwater archaeological research at the Southern Euboean gulf is a continuing project carried out by the Hellenic Institute for Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A. in collaboration with the Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, under the direction of the archaeologist G

  2. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  3. Archaeology of childhood: an ethnoarchaeological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politis, Gustavo G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The material production of children has not usually been considered in the analysis of the hunter-gatherer archaeological record. However, ethnographic data shows that children are significant producers of material culture, especially in residential camps. In this paper, information about the activity of children among the Nukak from the Colombian Amazon, is summarized. Based on this, and on data from other hunter-gatherers, archaeological expectations are generated and compared with the archaeological record of the Pampean Region of Argentina. A methodology for the identification of children's activity is proposed as a first step towards the discussion of diversity in the agency of social actors in past societies.

    La producción material de los niños no ha sido habitualmente considerada en el análisis del registro arqueológico de los cazadores-recolectores, a pesar de que los datos etnográficos muestran que los niños son generadores importantes de cultura material, especialmente en los campamentos residenciales. En este trabajo se resume la información obtenida entre el grupo indígena Nukak, de la Amazonia colombiana, respecto a la participación infantil en la producción de objetos. A partir de esto, y de información de otros grupos cazadores-recolectores, se derivan expectativas arqueológicas que se confrontan con los materiales de los sitios arqueológicos de la región Pampeana de Argentina. Se propone una metodología para la identificación de la actividad infantil en los contextos arqueológicos, como un primer paso para discutir la agencia de actores sociales diversos en las sociedades del pasado.

  4. Research on the Extraction Technology of Resveratrol from Grapes%葡萄中提取白藜芦醇的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺璇; 洪剑斌; 刘荣俊

    2012-01-01

    采用超声波法提取葡萄皮和葡萄籽中的白藜芦醇,由正交试验获得葡萄皮中提取白藜芦醇的最佳工艺为:乙醇提取剂浓度60%,料液比1∶12,超声时间12min,60℃水浴时间30min,白藜芦醇提取率为0.014 9%.葡萄籽中提取白藜芦醇的最佳工艺为:乙醇提取剂浓度60%,料液比1∶14,超声时间5min,60℃水浴时间30min,白藜芦醇提取率为0.005 7%.在此条件下的提取工艺稳定性好且简便易行,实验结果还显示葡萄皮中白藜芦醇的含量高于葡萄籽中的含量.%By the ultrasonic extraction test of resveratrol from grape skin and grape seed,it is obtained that the best process for the extraction of resveratrol from grape skins:60% ethanol,the solid-liquid ratio 1∶12,ultrasonic time 12 min,bath with 60 ℃ water 30 min,the resveratrol extraction rate is 0.014 9%.The optimum extraction of resveratrol from grape seeds:60% ethanol,the solid-liquid ratio 1∶14,ultrasonic time 5 min,bath with 60 ℃ water 30 min,the extraction rate is 0.005 7%.Under these conditions,the extraction process is stable and easy to draw.The result also shows that the content of resveratrol in grape skin is higher than the content in the grape seed.

  5. Archaeological sites as indicators of ancient shorelines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Archaeological Sites as Indicators of Ancient Shorelines K H Vora, A. S. Gnur. Sundaresh and S. Tripati National Institute of Oceanogr-aplzy, Dona Paula, Goa Ernail: vora@nio.org Abstract During the late... Coastal areas of the continents have been the focal points of the emergence of the civilization. For in- stance, the Indian Ocean witnessed the rise of 3 major the Bronze Age Civilizations around it during the mid- Holocene period. Ocean has played...

  6. Asteroseismology for Galactic archaeology: bridging two fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luca; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Serenelli, Aldo M.

    Asteroseismology has the capability of precisely determining stellar properties that would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses, and thus ages of field stars. When coupling this information with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures, and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for Galactic studies can be obtained. An overview of the ongoing Strömgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) is presented, along with recent results using asteroseismology to investigate the vertical age structure of the Milky Way disc.

  7. EIS Field Investigation in an Archaeological Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Nydam Mose is an area rich in archaeological artefacts from the Iron Age. Excavations have been conducted in this area since 1859. Environmental changes and probably disturbances caused by excavating the area are now expected to have lead to an accelerated rate of deterioration of both wood...... task to produce data representative for the actual precorroded objects. However, in an attempt to characterise the corrosivity of the present environment electrochemical soil corrosion probes with carbon steel electrodes have been buried at 1-m depth. Results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  8. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  9. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  10. The Politics and Practice of Archaeology in Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, van der S.J.; Perring, D.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory paper reviews recent writings on archaeology and conflict, setting the other contributions to this volume into context. We draw attention to the political nature of archaeological work, and to the problems of reconciling professional interest in the protection and management of cul

  11. Mexican Underwater Archaeology and Some of its Challenges and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Luna Erreguerena

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to Carver’s lead article, I’d like to highlight an easily overlooked aspect of archaeology: underwater archaeology. I will offer some examples and experiences from Mexico, which will perhaps resonate in other cities and nations around the world with a rich underwater cultural heritage.

  12. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  13. Environmental archaeology at the Institute: the early years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Sheldon

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1998/99 issue of Archaeology International, Geoffrey Dimbleby reflected on the period, from 1964 to 1979, when he was head of the Institute's former Department of Human Environment. Here Joan Sheldon (Fig. 1, who joined the Institute in 1948 as assistant to Frederick Zeuner, recalls how environmental archaeology developed during her 35 years on the staff.

  14. Archaeology and Memory. Former WWII Camps in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Ooijen, van I.M.A.

    The archaeology of 20th-century war, terror and conflict is a growing field of research. The archaeological research of ‘terrorscapes’ often overlaps with personal and collective memories. Besides memory, the heritage of the camps has been dominated in the last decades by historical research. What t

  15. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  16. Starry Messages: Searching for Signatures of Interstellar Archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Carrigan, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatu...

  17. Connection of Geodesy and Archaeology in Modern Geovisualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Poslončec-Petrić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One type of thematic maps is also the map of archeological sites. In order to obtain high-quality cartographic presentation on thematic maps of archaeological sites, a cartographer must know the basic terms and classification of archaeology. The paper presents a few existing archaeological maps (static and interactive and there is also the interactive map of archaeological sites on the island Pag presented. The map has been made within the frame of the diploma thesis by a student Martina Triplat, and the data presented are the result of research made at the archaeological sites of the island Pag and of the geodetic works made at the excavation sites in Uvala Vlaška, the locality Blato and at the economic objects in the vicinity of the locality Blato.

  18. Virtual Diving in the Underwater Archaeological Site of Cala Minnola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, F.; Lagudi, A.; Barbieri, L.; Muzzupappa, M.; Mangeruga, M.; Pupo, F.; Cozza, M.; Cozza, A.; Ritacco, G.; Peluso, R.; Tusa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the application of the technologies and methods defined in the VISAS project for the case study of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola located in the island of Levanzo, in the archipelago of the Aegadian Islands (Sicily, Italy). The VISAS project (http://visas-project.eu) aims to improve the responsible and sustainable exploitation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage by means the development of new methods and technologies including an innovative virtual tour of the submerged archaeological sites. In particular, the paper describes the 3D reconstruction of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola and focus on the development of the virtual scene for its visualization and exploitation. The virtual dive of the underwater archaeological site allows users to live a recreational and educational experience by receiving historical, archaeological and biological information about the submerged exhibits, the flora and fauna of the place.

  19. The Archaeologist Undeceived: Selecting Quality Archaeological Information from the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of unreliable information and actual misinformation available via the Internet makes its use problematic for academic purposes, particularly for data-intensive disciplines such as archaeology. Whilst there are many sources for reviews of websites, few apply the type of criteria most appropriate to archaeology. Information and library professionals have developed sets of criteria that can be adapted for the evaluation of archaeological websites. An evaluative tool for archaeological websites, using al-ready-available criteria, was developed and tested on twenty archaeological web sites. It proved capable of allowing its user to make clear distinctions between sites on the basis of quality. Further refining of the evaluative tool is possible on the basis of testing by both archaeologists and information professionals.

  20. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  1. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient as... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or...

  2. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  3. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  4. Review of Ramsey Abbey - An Archaeological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gaffney

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The CD is designed to be read using most standard web browsers and is compatible with both Windows and Mac operating systems. Occasionally in order to view a diagram you are transported into Adobe Acrobat, a copy of which is on the CD. The CD is the culmination of a community based project based on the medieval abbey at Ramsey in Cambridgeshire, England. According to the sleeve of the CD the project was paid for by a Royal Society and British Association Millennium Award, which was funded by the Millennium Commission to 'encourage people's understanding of science, engineering and technology in the community'. The science in question largely involves the small-scale, perhaps even surgical, use of resistance, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR. The project, however, had a more interesting agenda, one that involves the testing of an archaeological problem. In short, the Archaeological Field Unit (AFU of Cambridgeshire County Council found that there were competing hypotheses concerning the location of the former church on the now-ruined abbey site. The CD pieces together the evidence for the church, collected with the help of the children at the school that now occupies the site. The CD can be seen as part of the remit to reach the wider community that also involved open days, seminars and a web site.

  5. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues; Dutra Sandra Valduga; Leonardelli Susiane; Carnieli Gilberto João; Vanderlinde Regina

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been...

  6. Politics and the World Archaeological Congress [-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao, Nandini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The recognition in the West that every discipline is influenced by its socio-political context led to the demand for reflexive archaeology and to the formation in 1986, by the 'politically aware', of the World Archaeological Congress (WAC. WAC explicitly recognises the socio-political context of archaeological practice, and archaelogy's political, social and academic responsibilities. The Congress, which meets every four years, met in India in December 1994. Indian archaeologists have largely denied the influence of socio-political contexts on academics. But this has not prevented some from (misusing archaeological evidence to further political ends with catastrophic results. No discussion on the issue was permitted at the Congress so that eight years after it was formed. the WAC compromised and suppressed free debate on a vital matter. This essay outlines the genesis of WAC and the reasons why it was formed, before analysing the Indian context of the third meeting of the Congress. It also examines the response of Indian archaeologists at WAC to the protest against such political abuse of archaeology and calls for a reflection on whether WAC has achieved its objective of becoming a relevant world organisation.

    El reconocimiento en Occidente de que cada disciplina está influida por su contexto socio-político llevó a la reivindicación de una arqueología reflexiva y a la formación en 1986, por los arqueólogos ”políticamente conscientes”, del Congreso Arqueológico Mundial (WAC. El WAC reconoce explícitamente el contexto sociopolítico de la práctica arqueológica y las responsabilidades políticas, sociales y académicas de la arqueología. El Congreso, que se celebra cada cuatro años, tuvo lugar en India en diciembre de 1994. Los arqueólogos indios han negado durante mucho tiempo la influencia de los contextos socio-políticos sobre los investigadores. Pero ello no ha impedido que algunos de ellos hayan utilizado de

  7. Reduction of Salmonella enterica on grape tomatoes using microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Turley, A; Dong, X; Wu, C

    2011-01-31

    Grape tomatoes were surface inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Senftenburg, Kentucky and Enteritidis and heated for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 s using a household microwave oven at two different power levels (medium and high). Following heating, viable counts, temperature measurements and quality measurements were performed on the tomatoes. At high power level, more than 2 log reduction of Salmonella enterica was detected on grape tomatoes after 50 s but the texture were damaged. Three heating treatments, 40 s heating at high power level, 40 and 50 s heating at medium power level, could achieve more than 1.45 log reduction of Salmonella enterica on grape tomatoes, and all the treatments except for 50 s at high power level did not affect the color, pH value and nutritional quality of grape tomato after heating (p>0.05). However, 40 s heating at medium power was the only treatment among the three that did not affect the texture quality of grape tomato. Therefore, it might be a potential way for consumers to use microwave heating at medium power level (700 W) for 40 s to reduce Salmonella population on water immersed grape tomatoes.

  8. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  9. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples.

  10. Sustainable Wine and Grape Production, the Example of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallás Edit Ilona

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Before analysing the economic situation of winegrape production, it is practical to mention some issues concerning the industry. Grape production in Hungary suffered a severe crisis in the 1990’s regarding both production and sales. Its consequence is the decreasing area of grape production and the reducing number of grape producers. Lately, after our EU accession the grape and wine verticum has significantly improved. The situation is still grave today as the producers have to face the more and more intense competition in the market and cheap import products both on the national and international markets. Grape production is in a more disadvantaged situation than wine making and the risks are higher. We have to know the cost-profit situation of the well-discernible verticum parts to make recommendations. Despite the changes, the great fluctuation in income is typical for the industry. Grape is one of the plants where price often did not cover costs in the consecutive years. Costs of production cannot be assessed on their own. They can be judged in relation with the yield changes in real.

  11. Ampelographic description of cluster, berry and seed of merlot cultivar (Vitis vinifera L. and its selected clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a four-year period, ampelographic experiments focusing on the berry cluster (average length of grape cluster, number of grape clusters per shoot, number of berries per grape cluster and length of peduncle, berry (length of berry and berry juice yield, length of pedicel and seed (length of berry seed of Merlot cultivar (used as a relevant standard and 11 clones (Nos. 022, 023, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 033 and 034 were performed in order to establish the differences among them. These experiments were actually conducted in the third phase of individual clonal selection of Merlot cultivar carried out in Serbia. The lengths of grape cluster and pedicel as well as berry must yields differed significantly among the examined clones. The cluster and principal component analyses classified 12 samples into three divergent clusters/groups, respectively. The clones belonging to the cluster II /the second group/ had significantly higher values of numbers of grape clusters per shoot and berries per grape cluster; lengths of peduncle and berry; berry must yield and length of pedicel, compared both to standard Merlot /the cluster I, the first group/ and the clones of the cluster III /the third group/. The phenological observations showed no significant differences in the beginnings and durations of phenological stages and vegetation period of the examined clones. The obtained results indicate the real need for further research work focused both on the agrobiological and technological properties of the grapes and wines aiming to better describe the selected clones. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 0719, br. 46009 i br. 172053

  12. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  13. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  14. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Salinas, M Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids that showed the highest and the lowest concentration in the must were the same, regardless of the grape variety and maturation stage. Moreover, the consumption of amino acids during the fermentation increased with their concentration in the must. The formation of volatile compounds was not nitrogen composition dependent. However, the concentration of amino acids in the must from grapes collected 1 wk before harvest can be used as a parameter to estimate the concentration of esters in wines from grapes collected at harvest and therefore to have more information to know the grape oenological capacity. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility to estimate the concentration of esters in the wines with the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must.

  15. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations.

  16. Digital fruition of archaeological finds. The experience at the Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a series of investigations undertaken thanks to the collaboration between the Department of Architecture and Territorial Planning of the University of Bologna and the Archaeological Museum of Bologna , aimed at finding a procedure for the 3d digital survey and exploration of archaeological finds. In particular, this paper shows how users can benefit from the use of digital technologies for the fruition of historical-artistic heritage. As a matter of fact, digital communication tools stimulate multisensory perception mechanisms and therefore allow to actively involve users in the exploration of contents presented through collections. Immersive visualizations, augmented reality and both tactile and visual exploration of findings can ease the establishment of a more immediate and direct communication channel with users that generally communicate and access information using digital technologies and mediums.

  17. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Sun, Guoping; Zheng, Yunfei

    2016-05-26

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may provide further evidence for the reliability of phytolith dating. We present an improved method for extracting phytoliths from soils. We compared the dating of phytoliths and other materials (e.g., charcoal and plant seeds) recovered at the same depth from seven pits at six archaeological sites in China. The estimated ages of the phytoliths and other materials were generally consistent, except for one outlier. We attribute this inconsistency to the post-depositional processes of phytoliths in soil, rather than to the uptake of old carbon from the soil. Our results clearly show the potential for phytolith carbon dating at archaeological sites in the absence of other dating materials.

  19. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  20. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  1. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  2. Galactic Archaeology and Minimum Spanning Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlane, B A; Flynn, C M L

    2015-01-01

    Chemical tagging of stellar debris from disrupted open clusters and associations underpins the science cases for next-generation multi-object spectroscopic surveys. As part of the Galactic Archaeology project TraCD (Tracking Cluster Debris), a preliminary attempt at reconstructing the birth clouds of now phase-mixed thin disk debris is undertaken using a parametric minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Empirically-motivated chemical abundance pattern uncertainties (for a 10-dimensional chemistry-space) are applied to NBODY6-realised stellar associations dissolved into a background sea of field stars, all evolving in a Milky Way potential. We demonstrate that significant population reconstruction degeneracies appear when the abundance uncertainties approach 0.1 dex and the parameterised MST approach is employed; more sophisticated methodologies will be required to ameliorate these degeneracies.

  3. Distant Neighbours: Different Visions about Mexican Archaeology

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    Luis Gómez Gastélum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Mexican archaeology experienced a major transformation due to the enactment of a Federal Law about archaeological, artistic, and historical monuments and zones, which changed the Mexican Government’s administration of Mexican archaeological heritage. In 1972, in West Mexico, an active group of archaeologists from the U.S.A. was working. They came from several universities and were also members of an academic association, the West Mexican Society for Advanced Study, that was based in Ajijic, Mexico, and comprised both U.S. and Mexican archaeologists. This group wrote to the government about their views of the new laws, and the government department concerned with their implementation, the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH – Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, then responded with the Mexican Government’s official standpoint. In this paper, we analyze the positions of the West Mexican Society for Advanced Study, and INAH. We observe the sociopolitical and academic contexts from both U.S. and Mexican perspectives, and we offer explanations about their opposing views. We consider this episode to be a manifestation of the ideas circulating between U.S. and Mexican archaeologies.En 1972 la arqueología mexicana tuvo un cambio radical. En ese año fue promulgada la Ley Federal de Monumentos y Zonas Arqueológicos, Artísticos e Históricos. Esta ley cambió la manera en que el gobierno mexicano administraba el patrimonio arqueológico nacional. En dicho año, en el occidente de México, estuvo trabajando un grupo muy activo de arqueólogos estadounidenses, que si bien procedían de diversas universidades, también fueron miembros de una institución académica. La Sociedad de Estudios Avanzados del Occidente de México, con sede en Ajijic, México, reunió tanto a arquéologos estadounidenses como mexicanos. Los primeros escribieron un documento que contenía sus opiniones sobre la nueva ley y lo

  4. ARCHAEOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATION OF A DEFUNCT IRAQI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šedina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  5. Marine Robots : Applications in Marine Archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maurya, P.K.; Pascoal, A.; Gaur, A.

    stream_size 15055 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Marit_Archaeol_India_2015_226a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Marit_Archaeol_India_2015_226a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Citation: Recent Researches on Indus Civilization & Maritime Archaeology in India. ed by: Gaur, A.S.;  Sundaresh,; Agam Kala Prakashan, New Delhi; 2015; 226‐229    Marine robots: Applications in marine archeology  Pramod...

  6. Online Resistance to Precarious Archaeological Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hardy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The international cultural heritage economy has long been underpinned by a reserve army of unemployed/underemployed labour. The entry-level workforce is being further undermined and unpaid/underpaid labour is additionally being consolidated through the crisis and austerity measures. Independently and under different pressures, archaeologists across Europe have begun to use blogging, micro-blogging and other social media in concerted national efforts to document, analyse and resist exploitative and exclusive employment practices. This article focuses on the development of movements against unpaid labour (free archaeology in the UK, against unpaid and underpaid internship (volontariato and stage in Italy, and for employment (istihdam in Turkey. Using insights gained through observing and participating in these movements, and through running a research blog on precarious labour in the cultural heritage industry, this article examines the benefits and limits of blogging/micro-blogging as a tool for debate within the profession, communication with the public, and activism.

  7. Moessbauer Spectroscopy in South American Archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, U.; Haeusler, W.; Wagner, F. E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany); Shimada, I. [Southern Illinois University, Institute of Anthropology (United States)

    2003-06-15

    We report on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of early pottery finds from the Poma Archaeological Reserve, North Coast of Peru. The material is from a Formative kiln site at Batan Grande (1000-800 BC) and a ceramics workshop at Huaca Sialupe pertaining to the Middle Sican period (900-1100 AD). Moessbauer spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, optical thin-section microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the material. Numerous sherds of Sican black- and redware, bricks, moulds and kiln linings were studied. Local clay from the kiln site at Batan Grande, lumps of clay, and unfired sherds from Huaca Sialupe were used as model material for firing experiments under controlled conditions. By comparing the Moessbauer spectra from laboratory and field firings with the ancient materials, methods of early pottery making can be assessed.

  8. Studies of technology in prehistoric archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitezović Selena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology studies have always been the most important focus of archaeology, as a science which analyzes human past through the study of material culture. To say that something is technological in archaeology, means to put the concept of technology in the centre of theoretical studies, and to study not only the form of the object, but also the entire sequence of technological factors, from raw material choice, mode of use, up to the reasons for abandonment. The concept of technology in anthropology and archaeology is based on the original meaning of the word τεχνη in ancient Greek, meaning the skill, i. e., to study how something is being done. Such a concept of technology as a skill or mode of doing something was for the first time outlined by the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss, whose starting point was that every technological statement was at the same time social or cultural statement and that technological choices have social foundations. Pierre Lemonnier further developed the anthropology of technology, focusing on the question of technological choices, as well as numerous other anthropologists. In archaeology, the most important contribution to the study of technology was the work of André Leroi-Gourhan, who created the concept of chaîne opératoire, as an analytical tool for studying the mode of creating, using and discarding an artefact, starting with raw material acquisition, mode of manufacture, final form, use (including caching, breaking and repairing up to the final discarding. It is not only about reconstructing the algorithmic sequence of operations in creating one object, but it is a complex analysis of operational chain within one society which includes the analysis of technological choices. The analyses of technologies today include a variety of different approaches, most of them with emphasis on the cultural and social aspects of technology. The analysis of bone industry in the Early and Middle Neolithic in central

  9. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  10. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  11. Proanthocyanidin Accumulation and Biosynthesis Are Modulated by the Irrigation Regime in Tempranillo Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Genebra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main effects of three different irrigation regimes, i.e., sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI and non-irrigated (NI, on seed traits namely proanthocyanidins (PAs were evaluated in the wine grape cultivar Aragonez (syn. Tempranillo grown in Alentejo (Portugal over two growing seasons. Results showed that while the number of seeds per berry was not affected by water availability, seed fresh weight differed among treatments, the NI treatment exhibiting the lowest values. The biosynthetic pathway of flavanols appeared to be modified by the irrigation treatment, and several genes responsible for PA synthesis were up-regulated in the most stressed seeds (RDI and NI. However, this effect had no impact on PA content, suggesting the influence of other factors such as oxidation and/or degradation of PAs at late stages of maturation in grape seeds. The seeds’ non-enzymatic antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and hydroxyl radical adverting capacity (HORAC were modulated by water deficit and correlated well with PA content. The impact of irrigation strategy on PA biosynthesis, content, and anti-radical activity during seed ripening is discussed in the context of increasing interest in the role of PAs in the color and taste of wine, and the potential health benefits relating to their antioxidant capacity.

  12. Preservation of Urban Archaeological Deposits: monitoring and characterisation of archaeological deposits at Marks & Spencer, 44-45 Parliament Street, York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The City of York Council has been pursuing a strict policy of in situ preservation of archaeological deposits since April 1990. Planning consent is normally granted in the historic core of York for a new development so long as less than 5% of the archaeological deposits that are preserved on a site are destroyed. During archaeological evaluation work carried out as part of the redevelopment and expansion proposals for Marks & Spencer plc on Parliament Street, deposit monitoring devices were installed to investigate and monitor both the character of the archaeological deposits present and also the burial environment surrounding them (of particular importance because the burial environment, in terms both of its characteristics and stability, is thought to play a vital role in the preservation in situ of a site's archaeological deposits. The monitoring programme was undertaken between June 1995 and April 1998. As a result the data from a total of 30 site visits have been collected and are presented in this report. This article discusses results of the deposit monitoring project and presents evidence of changes that appear to be taking place in the archaeological deposits. Although the lower deposits at Parliament Street are stable, the upper deposits show considerable seasonal variations. The concept of preservation of archaeological deposits in situ is now deeply embedded both in Codes of Professional Conduct (IFA Code of Conduct and in national policy guidance (PPG 16. However, this emphasis on preservation in situ has been criticised. Does conservation archaeology in general and the City of York policy in particular achieve the preservation of the remaining 95% of the archaeology? Or are these deposits condemned to unseen, unrecorded destruction, sealed below new buildings; indeed if this is the case, shouldn't these deposits be excavated now while they are still viable?

  13. 葡萄(Vitis vinifera L.)籽蛋白的生化组成分析%The Biochemical Composition Analysis of Vitis vini f era L .Seeds Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪莹; 胡冰; 徐丹娜; 马慧丽; 赖童飞; 周婷

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important components in grape (Vitis vinifera L .) ,seeds protein has a potential for developing into dietary or functional protein .Basing on the determination of the contents of the main ingredients and metal elements in grape seeds ,11S globulin was confirmed as the main component of grape seeds protein by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry identification .Then ,nutritive values of grape seeds protein were determined by amino acid composition detection and the comparison with those of soybean protein isolate .Finally ,the secondary structure of grape seeds protein was preliminary speculated by infrared spectroscopic analysis .The results will provide theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilization and developing functional product of grape seeds protein .%葡萄(Vitis vinifera L 。)籽蛋白是葡萄籽的重要组分之一,具有开发成膳食蛋白或功能性蛋白的潜力。在确定葡萄籽各主要成分和金属元素含量的基础上,通过双向电泳结合质谱鉴定手段,确定了葡萄籽蛋白的主要成分为11 S球蛋白;通过氨基酸组成检测及与大豆分离蛋白的比较,明确了葡萄籽蛋白的营养价值;最后利用红外光谱分析,对葡萄籽蛋白的二级结构进行了初步分析。研究结果将为葡萄籽蛋白的综合利用及功能性产品的研发提供理论基础。

  14. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  15. Application of acoustic, magnetic and electromagnetic systems in marine archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.

    The importance of integrated geoscientific studies is reiterated for underwater archaeological exploration. Geophysical systems applied for the detection of artefacts, ancient places and underwater sites/objects are explained and detailed...

  16. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  17. Ancient Dwarka: Study based on recent underwater archaeological investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    , the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. Marine archaeological explorations off Dwarka have brought to light a large number of stone structures, which are semicircular, rectangular and square in shape...

  18. Archaeological Reconnaissance of Lewiston and Portage Levees, Portage, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-06

    Years of Eastern Wisconsin Oneota Prehistory:" Foreign Language proficiency: Spanish, French, Minor Studies: Linguistics) Membership in Professional...Excavation Analyses of Archaeological Materials and data Hominid Paleontology North American Prehistory North American Indians (*indicates Graduate course

  19. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    This technical report comprises of two major aspects: (1) Surface positioning and (2) Sub-surface Positioning, which are followed for obtaining geographical positions while carrying out marine archaeological studies. Also, it analyses various survey...

  20. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  1. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-08-04

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes.

  2. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  3. Educational activities of remote sensing archaeology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.

  4. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  5. Integrating Archaeological Modeling in DoD Cultural Resource Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    and 3 environmental data. To build models efficiently, relevant archaeological data should be maintained in computerized databases usable by GIS...processes. 7 Most of the concerns raised about archaeological predictive modeling are epistemological : how do we know that the model works short of... compute and thus serve as useful initial measures. However, for a performance standard, a statistic that mirrors stakeholders’ perceptions of what

  6. Narrating the postcolonial landscape : archaeologies of race at Hadrian's Wall.

    OpenAIRE

    Divya P Tolia-Kelly

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research completed as part of an interdisciplinary project entitled ‘Tales of the Frontier’; both between the disciplines of geography and archaeology; and on the landscape narratives of Hadrian’s Wall. In particular, the paper unravels the currency of race-geographies present in the collaboration, material interpretation and dissemination processes which included the curating of a public exhibition ‘An Archaeology of “Race”‘. In public museums and popular narratives of Ro...

  7. Orthophoto imaging and GIS for seabed visualization and underwater archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Seinturier, Julien; Drap, Pierre; Durand, Anne; Vincent, N.; Cibecchi, F.; Papani, O.; Grussenmeyer, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    We present here the first step of an interdisciplinary work dealing with underwater photogrammetry and archaeological data management. In the framework of a phd project we develop a set of tools from underwater data capture to 3D underwater GIS for archaeological excavation. The phd project, managed by Julien Seinturier, is monitored by Odile Papini for the data fusion aspect and Pierre Drap for the underwater photogrammetrical aspect. The project is financed together by the French Region PAC...

  8. A Review of 'The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Dupeyron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 'The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology' is intended to be a showcase of the discipline’s recent developments and provide a comprehensive - but non-exhaustive - overview of early 21st century work in the region. It is probably one of the most ambitious such projects since the sixteen volume series 'Handbook of Middle American Indians' published in the 1960s. It is primarily intended for professionals and students of Mesoamerican archaeology.

  9. Technical analysis of four archaeological andean painted textiles

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the materials and manufacturing techniques used to create four archaeological Andean painted textiles in the collection of the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. The textiles are attributed to Peru but have minimal provenience. Building on previous work by other scholars on similar archaeological textiles, the materials and manufacturing techniques are identified and characterized by observation, documentation, and scientific analysis. S...

  10. Archaeology and Religious Landscapes in India: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harding

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Religious and archaeological understandings of topography are usually understood in terms of different spheres of knowledge; where they intersect, it is when one becomes the object of analysis for another. But each is a way of making meaning in the landscape, of relating past and present through identify events with features of this landscape. Each is therefore a cultural activity and product. This is no more clear than when religion and archaeology build upon the work of each other.

  11. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  12. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohidul Hasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US treatment, light-emitting diode (LED, ultra violet (UV irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.

  13. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  14. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  15. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption, particularly wine, reduce the risk of CHD. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of grape-skin extract on markers of oxidative status. The study was designed as a randomised crossover. A diet with a low content...... of flavonoids was served with strict control of intake in two consecutive 1-week intervention periods to fifteen subjects (nine women, six men) divided randomly into two groups. During one of the weeks the subjects from either group consumed 200 ml grape-skin extract in water (1 mg extract/ml) at each of three...... daily meals (31.3 mg total phenolics, including 9.0 mg catechin). An increased activity of glutathione reductase and a borderline increase of glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes were observed after grape-skin intervention, while the intervention had no significant effect on superoxide...

  16. 张宣葡萄产区土壤硒含量与葡萄品质关系研究%Research for Relationship between Contents of Selenium in Soil and Quality of Grape in Zhangxuan Grape-producing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽娜; 刘树庆; 杨志新; 徐淑伟

    2011-01-01

    调查分析了张宣地区葡萄园产区土壤硒分布状况,并与葡萄品质进行了相关分析,结果表明:张宣葡萄产区表层土壤硒含量低于中国表层土壤硒含量,在怀涿葡萄产区总面积占67.74%的土壤属于缺硒土壤,24.73%产区土壤为少硒土壤,足硒土壤面积较少;宣化葡萄产区面积达81.82%产区土壤为足硒土壤;土壤硒含量与土壤有机质含量呈极显著正相关,与土壤pH呈极显著负相关,偏相关分析显示该产区土壤有机质与土壤硒含量的关系更密切;土壤硒含量与葡萄果实Vc有负相关关系,与果实中pH、单粒重呈正相关关系,分析表明土壤硒与酿酒葡萄品质关系密切;土层深度在土壤硒含量与葡萄品质的关系中影响不大.%The distribution of selenium in soils and its correlation with quality of grape were analyzed in Zhangxuan grape-producing areas. The results showed that contents of selenium in surface soil lower than that average background value of China, about 67.74% of the soil in grape-producing areas in Huailai were lack selenium, about 24.73% of soil in where has little selenium. There are little area of soil in which has adequate selenium, about 81.82%of the soil in Xuanhua has adequate selenium. There was a significantly positive correlation between contents of selenium and organic matter in soil,a highly significant negative correlation was found between contents of selenium and pH in soil. The partial correlation analysis showed that organic matter was more closely related to the content of selenium in soil. There was a significantly positive correlation between contents of selenium in the soil and Vc in grape, and a significant negative was between contents of selenium in the soil and single seed weight and pH in grape.The contents of selenium in soil was closely related to the quality of wine grapes, soil depth has less effect on the relation between selenium content of soil and quality of grape.

  17. Archaeological culture, please meet yoghurt culture: towards a relational archaeology of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking milk as a point of departure, we set out on a journey to explore the ‘mutual becomings’ of different bodies, species, and things. We argue that milk should be understood as a component in an assemblage that connects animals, humans, hormones, enzymes, bacteria, food, genes, technologies and material culture. These complex entanglements produced new, unexpected results and effects. Since they form part of this assemblage, all its components are profoundly changed. Focusing on this diversity of relations between humans, other creatures, things and substances is a key to an archaeology that does not radically separate humans and nonhumans.

  18. Evaluation of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Properties of some Fruit Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of secondary plant metabolite with an antioxidant character are present in the vegetal extracts, such as: tocopherols, carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc. These compounds intervene in the cellular defense mechanisms against the free radicals and oxidative stress, as they possess anticancer and anti mutation effect. The aim of this work was to study the antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content of methanolic extracts obtained from seeds of fruits: Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Citrullus lanatus. Grape seeds have a high content of antioxidants and polyphenols compounds, due to this, it is recommended their used in obtaining functional food with benefit on the human body.

  19. The Symbolisms of Biblical Allusions in The Grapes of Wrath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韵

    2016-01-01

    The Grapes of Wrath is a spiritual pilgrimage. The main idea of the novel is to show generations of people try their best to survive, and feel the hardness and happiness during the procedure, which is same to the Holy Bible. From Genesis to Revelation, the Book narrates people continue to struggle for land, home, and braw life. This paper analyses the symbolisms of biblical allusions in The Grapes of Wrath from three aspects: the journey and the biblical prose style,Christian symbolism, and the biblical allusive images. This paper tends to prove that Christianity has great impact on the American literature, and American dream, wrath and hope lie in the novel.

  20. Influence of minimally processed grapes washing with lemon essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    ALMELA CAMAÑAS, CELIA; Espert, María; Ortolá Ortolá, Mª Dolores; Castelló Gómez, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The increased interest in ready to eat products along with the great production of grapes make necessary to find a new way of presentation of this product in order to ease its consumption. The main goal is to keep quality and extend the shelf-life of grains of table grapes by applying different concentrations of lemon essential oil (LEO) which were applied in a preliminary stage of immersion. Samples were stored in PET trays at 5 ºC for 21 days. Soluble solids content, pH, acidity, antioxida...

  1. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  2. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  3. Photorealistic virtual exploration of an archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Abate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case study concerning the virtual reconstruction and navigation of an archaeological site located in Moregine, near Pompeii as it appeared to archaeologists after the completion of the excavation and including the reconstruction of face and body appearance of a woman that found death there, during the eruption of 79 BC. The main challenges faced in this study concern the visual engine required to delivering possibly unlimited visual quality and the methodology for achieving an ethnically faithful face reconstruction from skull bones. The first objective is tackled by adopting a pre-rendering based visualization engine, through which environment navigation is achieved following pre-built paths and performing available actions through a context sensitive motion tracking based interface. Secondly, the plausible appearance of the woman's face is reconstructed exploiting an approach based on craniometrical analysis together with a pictorial physiognomic database and content-based image retrieval technology, to the aim of providing more faithful results compared to other methods in literature based solely on statistical data.

  4. The industrial archaeology of deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstrode, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    For geologists and antiquaries of the late 1850s debates over ancient stone tools were frustrated by a lack of accepted criteria. The artefacts were hard to interpret. It was not self-evident how to judge whether they were ancient or modern, natural or man-made; or indeed whether stone tools could pre-date the use of metal tools at all. Antiquary and papermaker John Evans provided a system that offered to resolve these issues. His criteria and his use of re-enactment, making his own stone implements, gained acceptance among flint experts across fluid disciplinary boundaries and enabled authoritative interpretations of the underdetermined objects. This paper explores how Evans drew on the concerns of his industrial culture to make sense of prehistoric artefacts and support his claim to access the past through his own actions. Situated industrial concerns provided the resources for his flint work: from a patent dispute with astronomer and fellow industrialist Warren de la Rue, through his role in the Victorian arms trade, to the struggle to displace skilled manual labour in his factories. Evans is remembered for pioneering the techniques and classificatory system of modern Palaeolithic archaeology and as one of the founders of the re-enactment science of experimental flint knapping. His work played a significant role in helping reconceive the antiquity of man, yet the system of proof for this grand claim was deeply situated in his industrial culture. This paper explores how the industrial resources of a Victorian papermaker made human history.

  5. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  6. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Holley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups. If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone (and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture) is a basic operational concept (Rands and Bishop 1980). A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area. On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.

  7. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  8. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  9. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temp

  10. Biological efficacy evaluation of mating disruption against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, in grape in glasshouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, T; Bangels, E; Beliën, T

    2013-01-01

    The grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is an important pest of grapes. In Belgium, severe losses of production appeared due to the presence of L. botrona in grapes commercially grown in glasshouses. In 2010 mating disruption became a key pest management tactic in Flemish pip fruit orchards after being tested for several years. In other (European) countries, mating disruption is already applied in grapes but there is no registration in Belgium for use in grapes. Searching for an interesting residue free technique for application in small glasshouses, we evaluated the effect of mating disruption for control of L. botrana under protected conditions (glasshouse trials) during three consecutive years (2010-2012). A prerequisite for successful mating disruption is the treatment of large contiguous areas, as the pheromone product will not remain in sufficient quantities on narrow sites and, moreover, a larger portion of the crop remains at risk from migrating mated females. The glasshouses are rather small, however, we hypothesized that these so called border effects are not present due to the secluded spaces of the glasshouses. Pheromone dispensers were deployed and flights of L botrano moths were monitored (pheromone traps/UV-traps) during the whole time period of the trials. In the mating disrupted glasshouses hardly any moth was caught anymore in pheromone traps, in contrast to UV-traps or catches by pheromone traps in comparable non-mating disrupted glasshouse compartments. This indicates the incapability of the males to localize sex pheromone sources, and hence, the inability of finding females for mating. In line with these flight monitoring data, the nearly absence or strongly decreased L. botrana caused damage symptoms in the mating disrupted glasshouses demonstrates the benefits of the mating disruption technique under protected conditions of grape growing in glasshouses.

  11. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  12. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  13. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  14. Photogrammetric Techniques for Promotion of Archaeological Heritage: the Archaeological Museum of Parma (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  15. Archaeological remote sensing application pre-post war situation of Babylon archaeological site—Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo; Invernizzi, Antonio; Parapetti, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The first basic step in obtaining a correct geographical knowledge and initiative for archaeological cartography analysis is an adequately geo-localized representation of natural and semi-natural resources and human activities, present and past. In this context, the correct and contextual evaluation of the resources through the use of integrated techniques of aerial photos, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) supply the synoptic instrument to the real knowledge of the land geography and for the operational management of any research and project. We will describe, at a synthetic level, the maturity of the land systematic study of Babylon archaeological site using different change detection analysis. Topographic maps of 1920 and 1980 were used, 18 aerial photos (1986) were mosaicked and georeferenced, vector information was digitized and inserted in a GIS system, DTM was build. Object oriented image analysis activity is being carried on and initial results are available through a WebGIS. The use of remote sensing (Quickbird and Ikonos) data allows us to capture the integral mutations due to human interventions. Earth observation data and GIS system were an optimal starting point for generating and updating the cartography. This results will be indispensable for the Iraqi authority and scientific community who care about the future of the territory.

  16. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR PROMOTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE: THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF PARMA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dall’Asta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy. To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  17. Convergent evolution and parallelism in plant domestication revealed by an expanding archaeological record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Dorian Q; Denham, Tim; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Lucas, Leilani; Stevens, Chris J; Qin, Ling; Allaby, Robin G; Purugganan, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Recent increases in archaeobotanical evidence offer insights into the processes of plant domestication and agricultural origins, which evolved in parallel in several world regions. Many different crop species underwent convergent evolution and acquired domestication syndrome traits. For a growing number of seed crop species, these traits can be quantified by proxy from archaeological evidence, providing measures of the rates of change during domestication. Among domestication traits, nonshattering cereal ears evolved more quickly in general than seed size. Nevertheless, most domestication traits show similarly slow rates of phenotypic change over several centuries to millennia, and these rates were similar across different regions of origin. Crops reproduced vegetatively, including tubers and many fruit trees, are less easily documented in terms of morphological domestication, but multiple lines of evidence outline some patterns in the development of vegecultural systems across the New World and Old World tropics. Pathways to plant domestication can also be compared in terms of the cultural and economic factors occurring at the start of the process. Whereas agricultural societies have tended to converge on higher population densities and sedentism, in some instances cultivation began among sedentary hunter-gatherers whereas more often it was initiated by mobile societies of hunter-gatherers or herder-gatherers.

  18. Resveratrol and Grape Extract-loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Joana A. Loureiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ has been linked to the formation of neuritic plaques, which are pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Various natural compounds have been suggested as therapeutics for AD. Among these compounds, resveratrol has aroused great interest due to its neuroprotective characteristics. Here, we provide evidence that grape skin and grape seed extracts increase the inhibition effect on Aβ aggregation. However, after intravenous injection, resveratrol is rapidly metabolized into both glucuronic acid and sulfate conjugations of the phenolic groups in the liver and intestinal epithelial cells (within less than 2 h, which are then eliminated. In the present study, we show that solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs functionalized with an antibody, the anti-transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody (OX26 mAb, can work as a possible carrier to transport the extract to target the brain. Experiments on human brain-like endothelial cells show that the cellular uptake of the OX26 SLNs is substantially more efficient than that of normal SLNs and SLNs functionalized with an unspecific antibody. As a consequence, the transcytosis ability of these different SLNs is higher when functionalized with OX-26.

  19. Effect of trellising system on grape and wine composition of Syrah vines grown in the cerrado region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concept that the trellising system affects not only sunlight interception and carbon assimilation, but also the fruitzone microclimate, which has a great impact on fruit composition and consequently on wine quality, the effect of two trellising systems - Vertical Shoot Position (VSP and modified Geneva Double Curtain (GDC - on wine and berry composition of Syrah grapes grown in João Pinheiro, Northeast region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil was investigated. The parameters such as pH, berry size and weight, and seeds total phenolic contents were not affected by the training system. The GDC system produced fruits with the highest Brix and lowest titratable acidity. Berries from the VSP system presented lower anthocyanin concentration than those from the GDC system. Similar results were found for the total phenolic content of the skin of grape berries from the VSP system. GDC wines were characterized by high anthocyanin content and red color, resulting in wines with high color intensity. These data suggest that in the tropical region of Minas Gerais state, with high temperature and high sunlight intensity, the trellising system, which protects bunches against excessive radiation, should be chosen.

  20. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  1. Archaeology 2.0? Review of Archaeology 2.0: New Approaches to Communication and Collaboration [Web Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Shanks

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cotsen Institute in Los Angeles has launched a new publishing initiative in 'Digital Archaeology'. Its first book, Archaeology 2.0: New Approaches to Communication and Collaboration, edited by Eric C. Kansa, Sarah Whitcher Kansa and Ethan Watrall, makes a grand claim, if only in its title, that archaeology has undergone, or is about to undergo, changes that bring about a completely new version or kind of archaeology. The analogy is with the World Wide Web. Just as the IT world embraced radical changes of software design and web delivery nearly ten years ago and announced that this was Web version 2.0, so too archaeology is changed, the authors claim, and enough to warrant the designation version 2.0. We disagree and argue that the claim is not well supported. Moreover, we hold that the book misunderstands the implications of Web 2.0 and its aftermath. The well-meaning authors do make a valuable contribution to debates about uses of information technology in archaeology, and particularly data management. But their perspective is hopelessly narrow, looking back to the circumscribed concerns of professional field archaeologists with their data, its dissemination, use and survival. The authors focus mainly upon their own projects, expressing little interest in the scope of contemporary archaeology, digitally enabled as it all is, through heritage and everything to do with the representation of the material past in the present, an interest surely begged by the overt reference to the global changes associated with the notion of Web 2.0.

  2. Archaeological Investigations at the Upper Chapel, Norfolk Street, Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Baker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheffield, in the north of England, grew rapidly in the 19th century and gained an international reputation for its cutlery, tableware, and steel products. The material legacy of this age of industrialisation is extensive, and archaeological work in the modern city over the last 20 years has, for the most part, focused on the above and below ground industrial archaeology relating to metals trades' production sites spanning the 19th and 20th centuries. This article describes recent archaeological work around the Upper Chapel, a Unitarian Meeting House in the city centre where archaeological work recovered a possible buried medieval soil deposit, which contained an assemblage of medieval pottery dating from the 12th to 15th centuries. The presence of waster sherds and fragments of kiln furniture within this assemblage suggests that pottery production may have taken place on or near the site, making this the first putative evidence for pottery production in medieval Sheffield. The archaeological investigations also recovered four human burials from the 18th- to 19th-century burial ground associated with the Upper Chapel. The Upper Chapel burial ground differs from other recently excavated cemeteries in Sheffield as it potentially contained graves of high-status individuals, with at least a proportion of the skeletons and coffins well-preserved owing to waterlogged ground conditions. Detailed studies of the human remains, coffins, and incorporated material, including brass shroud pins are also discussed.

  3. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  4. The development of a GIS for New Deal Archaeology

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    Bernard K. Means

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available I have recently launched an effort to create a GIS of all New Deal-funded archaeological investigations conducted in the 48 states that comprised the USA during the Great Depression (Means 2011. This effort was inspired by the persistent notion that New Deal archaeology was largely limited to the southeastern United States, where the generally warmer climate was seen as conducive to the lengthy field seasons that ensured continuous work for the unemployed (Lyon 1996. The large mound sites that dotted the southeastern USA also ensured that there would be sufficient work for the large relief crews seen as ideal from the perspective of federal officials. While it may prove true that the majority of New Deal archaeology was conducted in the southeast, it is also demonstrably true that the various ‘Alphabet Soup’ work relief programs – notably the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC and the Works Progress Administration/Work Projects Administration (WPA – supported archaeological investigations throughout the USA. In my preliminary efforts to create a GIS for New Deal archaeology, I have determined that at least 75 percent of the 48 states that comprised the USA during the Great Depression had some form of federally funded work relief survey or excavation.

  5. The National Planning Policy Framework and Archaeology: A Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Flatman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For twenty years, ‘rescue’ archaeology and cultural resource management in England lived within the certain world of Planning Policy Guidance Note 16: Archaeology and Planning (the PPG (DoE 1990. The PPG gave our profession clear locus and status within the business of development and planning. Those who wished to disturb archaeological remains in order to build were effectively obliged to pay for the excavation and publication of those remains they could not preserve in situ – provided that local planners were prepared to take on board the conservation agenda described for them in the PPG. The PPG provided a new language of investigative procedure, built around deskbased assessments, field evaluations, written schemes of investigation, and programmes of mitigation (usually a combination of excavation and avoidance. Whilst the PPG relied on a series of contestable assumptions it gave archaeologists unprecedented access to sites and funds. A full obituary of the PPG would be long on its flaws, but those in professional practice benefitted from expanded horizons of archaeological employment and research (see Aitchison 2010, 2012. The policies set out within the PPG secured almost all of the advances made during the ‘rescue’ era of British archaeology in the 1970s and 80s whilst reducing our reliance on state funding.

  6. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A. [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) - Université Paris 7. Paris (France); Carloganu, C.; Niess, V. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC) - Université Blaise Pascal. Clermont - Ferrand (France); Gibert, D. [Géosciences Rennes - Université de Rennes 1. Rennes (France); Marteau, J. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL) - Université de Lyon (UCBL). Lyon (France)

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  7. Ensilage and bioconversion of grape pomace into fuel ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lee, Christopher; Yu, Chaowei; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Simmons, Christopher W; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2012-11-07

    Two types of grape pomace were ensiled with eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Both fresh grape pomace (FrGP) and fermented grape pomace (FeGP) were preserved through alcoholic fermentation but not malolactic conversion. Water leaching prior to storage was used to reduce water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol from FrGP and FeGP, respectively, to increase malolactic conversion. Leached FeGP had spoilage after 28 days of ensilage, whereas FrGP was preserved. Dilute acid pretreatment was examined for increasing the conversion of pomace to ethanol via Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation. Dilute acid pretreatment doubled the ethanol yield from FeGP, but it did not improve the ethanol yield from FrGP. The ethanol yields from raw pomace were nearly double the yields from the ensiled pomace. For this reason, the recovery of ethanol produced during winemaking from FeGP and ethanol produced during storage of FrGP is critical for the economical conversion of grape pomace to biofuel.

  8. Therapeutic chemical treatment of grape vines for root diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop post-plant treatment of soil pests for perennial vine and tree crops. Field trials were performed to evaluate post-plant treatment of established grape vines (Vitis vinifera var. Thompson Seedless) with known problems of soilborne plant-parasitic nematodes and pathogens us...

  9. Erosive potential of different types of grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginna Kércia Matos Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10 for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN and surface roughness (Ra tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%. The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05 on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.

  10. A Stylistic Analysis of The Grapes of Wrath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲

    2009-01-01

    As we known, stylistics plays an important role in analysis of the literary works, therefore, this paper applies the theory of the stylistics to The Grapes of Wrath so as to explore the language usege in process of creating the novel, that is, the mind of the writer. This can help the readers appreciate the art of literature.

  11. TABLE GRAPE VARIETIES CULTURE TO NRDIBH STEFANESTI, OVER TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Costescu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges, in the past decades extensive work has been done to improve the grape-vine, which yielded some remarkable results. The first concerns the improvement of grape-vines to NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges (then SCPVV Stefanesti were initiated by the breeder engineer Baditescu Margareta, improvement in the Laboratory in 1982, was its founder, who has dedicated so much to obtain new varieties by crossing sexual and clonal selection to. Improvement work was continued by researchers: Smaranda Julia, Smaranda George, Camelia Popa. After lengthy activity at SCDVV Stefanesti were obtained clones new to old varieties of wine, but also at the table. Thus, clonal selections have been approved for 13 red and white wines. For table varieties were approved Argessis and Golden Stefanesti varieties and clones Stefanesti, Muscat Adda 22 and Perlette 10. Varieties approved quality characteristics that allow for superior wines, varieties of wine for the table and the quality of the grapes is good looks for Romania to meet the demands of markets in developed countries. Spread production of new varieties of table grapes, can effectively contribute to the recovery in activity in wine country by increasing efficiency and profitability.

  12. Tuning color variation in grape anthocyanins at the molecular scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; Di Meo, Florent; Guillaume, Maxime; Failla, Osvaldo; Trouillas, Patrick

    2013-12-15

    Anthocyanins are the main grape pigments. Due to their aromatic cyclic arrangements, they are able to absorb the radiation in the low energy range of the visible spectrum. In the fruit of Vitis vinifera L., the five main anthocyanidins (cyanidin, peonidin, delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin) are present as 3-O-glucosides, as well as their acetyl, p-coumaroyl and caffeoyl ester forms. Despite the huge number of experimental studies dedicated to the anthocyanin profile analysis of grapes and wines, the complete theoretical elucidation of the optical properties of grape anthocyanins is missing. The present work carried out this task through quantum chemistry calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), compared to experimental spectra. The differences in visible absorption spectra between the most common grape anthocyanins were rationalized according to B-ring substitution, glucosylation and esterification. A particular attention was given to the intra-molecular copigmentation effect, demonstrating the existence of an intra-molecular charge transfer excited state for the p-coumaroyl and caffeoyl ester forms.

  13. Anthocyanins and color degradation in ozonated grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, B K; O'Donnell, C P; Patras, A; Brunton, N; Cullen, P J

    2009-11-01

    Grape juice samples were ozonated with processing variables of ozone concentration (1.6-7.8% w/w) and treatment time (0-10 min). Effects of processing variables on grape juice color values (L, a and b) and anthocyanins were determined. The changes in lightness (L) values and total color difference (TCD) values were fitted well to zero-order kinetics whereas, a and b followed first-order kinetics. Three major anthocyanins were observed in the grape juice namely cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3Gl, 133.9 mg/L), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (Dy3Gl, 21.4) and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (My3Gl, 3.2mg/L). Significant reductions in anthocyanin content were observed during ozonation. During ozonation Cy3Gl was found to be stable compared to Dy3Gl and My3Gl. Changes in Cy3Gl were fitted well to the fraction conversion model. The results presented in this study indicate that both color and anthocyanin content are significantly affected during ozone processing. Thus, the effects of ozonation on the grape juice should be considered by processors prior to its adoption as a preservation technique.

  14. Piezoelectric MEMS resonators for monitoring grape must fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, J.; Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Úbeda, J.; Ruiz-Díez, V.; Pfusterschmied, G.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    The traditional procedure followed by winemakers for monitoring grape must fermentation is not automated, has not enough accuracy or has only been tested in discrete must samples. In order to contribute to the automation and improvement of the wine fermentation process, we have designed an AlN-based piezoelectric microresonator, serving as a density sensor and being excited in the 4th-order roof tile-shaped vibration mode. Furthermore, conditioning circuits were designed to convert the one-port impedance of the resonator into a resonant two-port transfer function. This allowed us to design a Phase Locked Loop-based oscillator circuit, implemented with a commercial lock-in amplifier with an oscillation frequency determined by the vibrating mode. We were capable of measuring the fermentation kinetics by both tracking the resonance frequency and by determining the quality factor measurements of the microresonator. Moreover, the resonator was calibrated with an artificial model solution of grape must and then applied for the monitoring of real grape must fermentation. Our results demonstrate the high potential of MEMS resonators to detect the decrease in sugar and the increase in ethanol concentrations during the grape must fermentation with a resolution of 100 μg/ml and a sensitivity of 0.16 Hz/μg/ml as upper limits.

  15. GRAPE - A Balloon-Borne Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Macri, J R; McConnell, M L; Narita, T; Ryan, J M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the development status of GRAPE (the Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), although GRAPE could also be employed in the study of other astrophysical sources. Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation will lead to a better understating of both emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. The azimuthal distribution of photon scatters from the plastic array into the central calorimeter provides a measure of the polarization fraction and polarization angle of the incident radiation. The design of the detector provides sensitivity over a large field-of-view (>pi steradian). The design facilitates the fabrication of large area arrays w...

  16. Archaeological research in the Eurasian steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parzinger, Hermann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the activities of the 'Eurasien-Abteilung' of the German Archaeological Institute in different countries of former USSR. Many of these projects have just begun; consequently the paper does not discuss the results of these investigations, but details their scientific purposes. The investigations cover an area which extends from the Black Sea to northeastern China. The principal objects of these investigations include: the transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Pontic area north of the Black Sea and the Greek colonization of that area; the activities of the Scythians and the Sassanians in Transcaucasia, urbanism and metallurgy in the Bronze Age of Central Asia; and, finally, cultural developments from the Early Bronze Age to the periods of the Scythians and the Huns period in southern Siberia.

    Este artículo presenta las actividades de la 'Eurasien-Abteilung', del Instituto Arqueológico Alemán, en los distintos países de la ex-URSS. Como muchos de estos proyectos han empezado hace poco tiempo, no pretendemos adelantar resultados, sino planteamientos científicos. El área que abarcan se extiende desde el Mar Negro hasta el Noreste de China. Sus principales temas de investigación son: el cambio del Bronce Final a la primera Edad del Hierro en el norte del Mar Negro, la colonización griega en esta zona, las actividades de los Escitas y de los Sasánidas en Transcaucasia, el urbanismo y la metalurgia de la Edad del Bronce en Asia Central y, finalmente, el desarrollo cultural desde el Bronce Antiguo hasta la época de los Escitas y Hunos en el sur de Siberia.

  17. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  18. 77 FR 59661 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Stanford University...

  19. Identifying military impacts to archaeological resources based on differences in vertical stratification of soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  20. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... & Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed an...: Dr. Richard Hodges, Director, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology &...