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Sample records for archaeological grape seeds

  1. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Geuna, Filippo;

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, I...

  2. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

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    Mariano Ucchesu

    Full Text Available The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC, allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  3. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that...

  4. Suppression of oxidative stress by grape seed supplementation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo-Kyong; Zhang, Xian-Hua; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seeds have a beneficial effect on human health. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of grape seeds on antioxidant activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control diet group (C), a high-fat diet group (HF), a 5% grape seed-supplemented control diet group (G), and a 5% grape seed-supplemented high-fat diet group (HG). Dietary supplementation with grape seeds reduced serum concentrations of lipid peroxides compared wi...

  5. Sun drying of seedless and seeded grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    In this study, sun drying behaviour of seedless and seeded grapes was investigated. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of seedless and seeded grapes of berry size of 1.72 cm and 2.20 cm thicknesses from the initial moisture contents of 78.2% and 79.5% (w.b.) to final moisture content of around 22% (w.b.) were 176 and 228 h in open sun drying, respectively. The drying data were fitted to 12 thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models were compared using the determination of coefficient (R(2)), mean relative percent error (P), reduced chi-square (χ (2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The results showed that Midilli et al. model was found to satisfactorily describe the sun drying curves of seedless and seeded grapes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were estimated from Fick's diffusion model by 1.02 × 10(-11) and 1.66 × 10(-11) m(2)/s for seeded and seedless grapes. PMID:23572844

  6. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  7. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

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    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  8. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  9. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  10. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

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    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  11. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause the legs to swell (chronic venous insufficiency). Taking grape seed extract by mouth seems to reduce symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency such as tired or heavy legs, tension, and ...

  12. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

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    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  13. Antioxidant effect of extract of the grape seed in streptozotocin

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    Yousof Doostar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder as old as mankind and its incidence is considered to be high all over the world. Oxidative stress is strongly associated with development and the complications of diabetes. Antioxidant agents, especially with the origin of plants, are of more importance in the treatment of diabetic complications. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extract of the grape seed on antioxidants status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Material and methods: In this laboratory experimental study which conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz research center. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups including healthy control group, healthy group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg, diabetic control group and diabetic group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg. The experimental rats were treated in related groups for 12 weeks and at the end of experiment serum level of malonaldehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured in red blood cells. Statistically, comparison of the groups was carried out using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p< 0.05. Results: Diabetic rats showed significant increase in the value of MDA and a decrease in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Oral administration of grape seed extract resulted in significant reduction in the level of MDA and significant increase in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetes and show the anti-oxidative effect of grape seed extract

  14. Influence of Drying Temperature on Total Phenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Dilara Konuk; Figen Korel

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed, which is an organic waste arise from production of wine, juice and molasses, is considered as a functional food ingredient in food formulations because of its rich content of bioactive compounds. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature on the bioactive compounds of grape seeds. In the study, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seeds that are dehydrated at different drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C) were determined...

  15. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu FM; Du B; Li J

    2015-01-01

    Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems) poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphen...

  16. Antioxidant activity of white grape seed extracts on DPPH radicals

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    Ćetković Gordana S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition and antioxidant activity of grape seed extract (GSE obtained from red grape varietes are very well documented, in contrast to the white varietes. This paper presents the results of polyphenols content of ethyl acetate extract of grape seeds, obtained from two white grape varieties, Italian Riesling and Župljanka, and their antioxidant activity on the stable DPPH radical. The influence of the addition of GSE to raspberry juice on the DPPH radical was also examined. Content of total polyphenols in GSEs ranged between 81.6 and 82.8% (w/w, and the contetn of flavan-3-ols between 66.2 and 91.0% (w/w. HPLC results showed that the most abundant components in the extract were (+-catechin and (--epicatechin for both grape varieties. All tested GSEs exhibited good antioxidant activity. IC50 values for the GSEs of Italian Riesling and Župljanka were 0.79 and 0.95 mg sample/mg DPPH radical, respectivelly. Since the GSE of Italian Riesling possesed stronger antioxidant activity, it was used for further experiments. The IC50 value for raspberry juice was 4.18 mg raspberry juice/mg DPPH. The raspberry juice with addition of 0.60 μg/mL of GSE showed antioxidant activity of 39.2%. The same juice with the threefold concentration of vitamin C (1.81 μg/ml exhibited similar antioxidant activity (33.9%. Antioxidant activity of the same amount of juice without added antioxidants was lower (15.7%. The results showed that the GSE of white varietes could be considered as a good functional food ingredient.

  17. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  18. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

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    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  19. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

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    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  20. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  1. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Garcia-Jares; Alberto Vazquez; Juan P. Lamas; Marta Pajaro; Marta Alvarez-Casas; Marta Lores

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot b...

  2. Ancient pottery from archaeological sites in Southern Italy: first evidence of red grape products markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Granafei, Sara; Colivicchi, Fabio; Catald, Tommaso; Buchicchio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The chemical analysis of tartaric acid (TA) and syringic acid (SA), as grape product markers in ancient ceramic vessels from the sites of Manduria and Torre di Satriano (southern Italy), was successfully performed. Firstly, the fragmentation behaviour of TA and SA as deprotonated molecules, [M-H](-), obtained by collision-induced dissociation, was investigated. Then, reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode, using a quadrupole linear ion trap in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), was employed. A binary mobile phase composed of water-acetonitrile with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid enabled the optimum ESI efficiency of SA, greatly improving its identification when it occurs in trace amounts. Chemical analysis of ancient pottery fragments is a valid method for establishing the existence of preserved organic residues, which is valuable new evidence for the culture and customs of ancient populations, in this case those of southern Italy. The proposed RPLC-ESI-MRM method allowed a systematic investigation of ceramic fragments of both archaeological sites, thus providing positive evidence for the presence of TA and SA as grape product markers in storage vessels dating back to the ninth to third centuries BC. PMID:26353991

  3. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  4. Influence of Drying Temperature on Total Phenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Seeds

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    Dilara Konuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed, which is an organic waste arise from production of wine, juice and molasses, is considered as a functional food ingredient in food formulations because of its rich content of bioactive compounds. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature on the bioactive compounds of grape seeds. In the study, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seeds that are dehydrated at different drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C were determined. When comparing the fresh grape seeds with the corresponding dehydrated samples, it was shown that the drying operation led to reduction of total phenolic contents and the total phenolic contents decreased with an increase of the drying temperature. According to ABTS radical scavenging method, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC was found to be highest for fresh grape seeds and presented lower values for grape seeds dried at three different temperatures. As a result of the study, it was demonstrated that grape seed is a powerful antioxidant source and it has still high antioxidant activity after drying process. However, drying at low temperatures was put forward to be advantageous in order to reduce the losses of phenolic components.

  5. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  6. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

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    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  7. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

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    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation of grape skin and seeds on liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Mi-Ok; Moon, Jeon-OK

    2010-01-01

    Grape is one of the most popular and widely cultivated fruits in the world. Although grape skin and seeds are waste product of the winery and grape juice industry, these wastes contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and anthocyanidins, which play an important role as chemopreventive and anticancer agents. We evaluated efficacies of grape skin and seeds on hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Treatment with DMN significantly increase...

  9. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

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    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  10. Differential neuroprotective activity of two different grape seed extracts.

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    Keishi Narita

    Full Text Available Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major events that takes place during various neurotoxic injuries such as brain ischemia. We prepared grape seed extracts, from two different varieties, containing high amounts of polyphenols but little resveratrol. Their neuroprotective effects were investigated using primary culture of neonatal mouse hippocampal neurons treated with an excitotoxic concentration of glutamate. Koshu, a white, local variety of V. vinifera, alleviated the acute inactivation of Erk1/2 and dendrite retraction in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to a toxic concentration of glutamate (1.0 ng/ml. By contrast, Muscat Bailey A, a red, hybrid variety (Muscat Humburg × Bailey, failed to show any neuroprotective effect. Unlike brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neuroprotective cytokines, Koshu extract did not induce Akt phosphorylation. Koshu extract also augmented neuron survival rate 24 hours after glutamate toxicity. The comparison of polyphenols between the two samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that Koshu had higher amounts of low molecular weight polyphenols along with several Koshu-specific procyanidin oligomers. These data suggest the presence of high affinity molecular targets for polyphenols in hippocampal neurons, which induce neuroprotective effects in a manner different from BDNF, and the importance of low molecular weight polyphenols and/or procyanidin oligomers for neuroprotection.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binit Shrestha; ML Srithavaj Theerathavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon

    2012-01-01

    To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora.Methods:The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results: Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S.aureus. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  12. Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obtained from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L.) and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinifera, L.) produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of protein-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001) the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01) the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous oxidant system in liver homogenate. The effect of combined therapy was higher (p < 0,05) than the grape seed extract, but no more than that of polycosanol. We concluded that oral single-therapies using polycosanol and grape seed extract, administered during 4 weeks, decreased in a similar way, the lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of rats. Combined therapy was more effective to inhibits the lipid peroxidation in plasma than each single-therapy, separately

  13. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binit; Shrestha; M.L.Srithavaj; Theerathavaj; Sroisiri; Thaweboon; Boonyanit; Thaweboon

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora.Methods:The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus),Escherichia coli(E.coli),Candida albicans(C.albicans)and clinical strains of S.aureus,Klebsiella pneumonia(K.pneumonia)and Candida parapsilosis(C.parapsilosis)by disk diffusion test.Minimum inhibitory concentrations(MIC)and minimum cidal concentrations(MCC)were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method.The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol,and was tested for antimicrobial effects.Results:Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S.aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of1.25 mg/mL respectively.However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E.coli,K.pneumonia,C.parapsilosis and C.albicans.The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S.aureus.Conclusions:The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skinabutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  14. Comparison of thermal stability of grape seed oil with virgin sesame oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating causes extensive physical and chemical changes in oil and fats, which can change all physical and chemical characteristics and quality of oil during frying is so critical. This study was aimed to compare the thermal stability of virgin sesame oil and grape seed oil. Methods: The grape seed oil and virgin sesame oil were heated at 180 ° C for 8 hours. Every hour, a sample of the heated oils was taken to determine the changes in acid value, peroxide, anisidine and Totox. Results: Heating the oil caused extensive chemical variations both oils. The acidity index increased over time (p<0.05, there were fluctuations inperoxide value, and anisidine and Totox values also increased during thermal processes (p<0.05. Conclusion: Grape seed oil showed more resistance to heat than sesame oil.

  15. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stop the growth of lactobacillus acidophilus in the intestinal tract and cancel its effects. Don't take grape and lactobacillus at the same time.Vitamin CEarly research suggests that people with high blood pressure who ...

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml). PMID:22992888

  17. Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (ρ), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug.

  18. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  19. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Heba M; Wahby, Mayssaa M

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140-145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities. PMID:27293516

  20. Grape seed extract prevents gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Salama, Osama M

    2006-09-01

    The protection conferred by grape seed extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations have been evaluated in adult Swiss albino mice. The activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase), the levels of glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys homogenates, serum urea and creatinine were measured, and in addition the changes in kidney histology and bone marrow chromosomes were investigated. Gentamicin (80 mg/kg b.wt. intraperitoneally for 2 weeks) induced kidney damage as indicated from a pronounced changes in kidney histology, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine and MDA content in the kidney homogenate. While the activity of the antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase and the level of GSH were significantly decreased. Gentamicin induced genotoxicity indicated by increased the number of aberrant cells and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations (fragment, deletion and ring chromosome) and showed no effect on mitotic activity of the cell. Pretreatment with grape seed extract (7 days) and simultaneously (14 days) with gentamicin significantly protected the kidney tissue by ameliorating its antioxidant activity. Moreover, grape seed extract significantly protected bone marrow chromosomes from gentamicin induced genotoxicity by reducing the total number of aberrant cells, and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations. It could be concluded that grape seed extract acts as a potent antioxidant prevented kidney damage and genotoxicity of bone marrow cells.

  1. Grape seed extract to improve liver function in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshbaten Manouchehr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Therapeutic interventions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are limited, while anti-oxidative materials have shown benefits in animal models. This study aimed to evaluate grape seed extract as an anti-oxidative material in this process. Therapeutic effects of grape seed extract were evaluated in comparison to vitamin C in a double-blind setting. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients were enrolled in each group. Liver function tests were done; also, grade of steatosis and pattern of echogenicity of the liver were determined. Patients were followed up by the same evaluation repeated in first, second and third months. Results: Mean age ± standard deviation was 43.2 ± 10.3 years. Grape seed extract (GSE significantly improved the grade of fatty liver change; and resulted in significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase in patients receiving the concentrate compared to those receiving vitamin C independently, from the initial grade of steatosis. Conclusions: This study describes the beneficial effect of using grape seed extract for three months in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. These results may improve with a longer period of follow-up.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis...

  3. Seed oil triglyceride profiling of thirty-two hybrid grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Fabiola; Seraglia, Roberta; Molin, Laura; Traldi, Pietro; De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Gardiman, Massimo; Giust, Mirella; Flamini, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Triglyceride profile of seed oil samples from 32 hybrid grape varieties not studied before was investigated. A new method for the analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) has been developed based on the direct infusion in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source and employing tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water (85:10:5 v|v|v) as solvent; the formation of [M + Na](+) ions in high yield has been observed. TAGs were identified by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization and time-of-flight profile of samples was determined. Six were the principal TAGs identified in seed oil: trilinolein (LLL) was the most abundant (43%), followed by dilinoleoyl-oleoylglycerol (LOL, 23%), and dilinoleoyl-palmitoylglycerol (LPL, 15%). Compounds present in lower concentration were LSL and LOO (11%), LOP (6%), and LSP (2%). Compared with seed oils produced from V. Vinifera grapes, some significant differences in the relative abundances of TAGs were found, in particular hybrid grape seed oils showed higher LOL and lower LPL content, respectively. Among the samples studied, a particularly high content of LLL (rich in unsaturated fatty acids) was found in seed oils from two red varieties. PMID:22972779

  4. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects Triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE versus Epigallocatechin and Procyanidins on Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Dinicola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects.

  5. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  6. Polyphenolic compounds in seeds from some grape cultivars grown in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN GOĐEVAC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed extracts from eight grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera growing in Serbia were screened for their polyphenolic composition by means of HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS analysis. The study revealed 34 phenolic compounds belonging to the following groups: flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. The quantities of the main constituents were determined using PDA/HPLC. Qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars were observed.

  7. Study of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Jakubcová; Pavel Horky; Lenka Dostalova; Jiri Sochor; Lenka Tomaskova; Mojmir Baron; Libor Kalhotka; Ladislav Zeman

    2015-01-01

    In our experiment, we studied the antimicrobial and antioxidative effect of phytogenic additives. Three additives (grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressings) were selected to be monitored. The extracts about concentrations of 1:3 and 1:5 were prepared from them. The monitoring of antimicrobial properties was focused on the pathogenic bacteria Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli causing a serious disease in avian species. The bacteria were prepared in the dilutions of 102, 104 and ...

  8. An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from País grape seeds and skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Aspé, Estrella

    2015-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of País grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (penzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples.

  9. A galloylated dimeric proanthocyanidin from grape seed exhibits dentin biomodification potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansalkar, Rasika S.; Nam, Joo-Won; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, José G.; Leme, Ariene; Vidal, Cristina M. P.; Aguiar, Thaiane; Bedran Russo, Ana K.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds are a rich source of polyphenols, especially proanthocyanidins (PACs), and are also known for the presence of galloylated oligomeric PACs (OPACs). The present study focuses on phytochemical methodology for grape seed (O)PACs and their potential role as dentin bio-modifiers to be used in restorative and reparative dentistry. A new method using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was developed for the preparative separation of the grape seed (O)PACs. Orthogonal phytochemical profiling of the resulting CPC fractions was performed using C18 and diol HPLC, normal phase HPTLC, and IT-TOF MS analysis. A galloylated procyanidin dimer (1) was isolated from a CPC fraction in order to evaluate its potential to enhance dentin bio-mechanical properties. Moreover, it helped to evaluate the impact of the galloyl moiety on the observed bioactivity. Structure elucidation was performed using ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses. For the first time, 1H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA) was performed on this type of molecule, enabling a detailed proton chemical shift and coupling constant assignment. The CPC fractions as well as 1 showed promising results in the dentin stiffness bioassay and indicate that it may be used as dental intervention material. PMID:25542682

  10. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  11. Study of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment, we studied the antimicrobial and antioxidative effect of phytogenic additives. Three additives (grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressings were selected to be monitored. The extracts about concentrations of 1:3 and 1:5 were prepared from them. The monitoring of antimicrobial properties was focused on the pathogenic bacteria Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli causing a serious disease in avian species. The bacteria were prepared in the dilutions of 102, 104 and 106. The antimicrobial effect was observed in the inhibition zones. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method within the antioxidant analysis. Furthermore, the content of flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids and the total content of polyphenolic compounds was also determined. In the monitoring of the antimicrobial effect of grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressings at E. coli, a reduced growth of KTJ (colony forming units was observed in the disk area during the dilution of 106 and 104. Reduced growth of C. perfringens at a dilution of 106 was noticed using the extracts of grapevine seeds and grape pressings. Low reduced growth of C. perfringens at a dilution of 106 was found out using rosehip pressings. In a dilution of 102 and 104 in C. perfringens and 102 in E. Coli, a very low increase of KTJ was observed therefore the zones of inhibition were not possible to measure. In all monitored additives, the antimicrobial effect was proved. The additives reduced the growth of pathogenic E. coli and C. perfringens. Within the antioxidant analysis, the highest antioxidant activity was found out in grapevine seeds (7.021 g.L-1 GAE, which also contained the highest content of flavanols (3000 times higher than the rosehip pressings and 300 times higher than grapevine seeds pressings, hydroxycinnamic acids (1000 times higher than in grape pressings and 7600 times higher than in rosehip pressings and the total content of polyphenolic compounds (580 times

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coating Enriched by Zataria Multiflora Essential Oil and Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeisi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The presence of pathogenicbacteria and the factors causing food spoilage are the greatchallenge for public health. Attention to natural additivesinstead of chemical preservatives resulted in conducting severalstudies on plant essential oil and extracts. We aimed atevaluating the antibacterial effect of carboxymethyl cellulosecoating enriched by Zataria multiflora essential oil and grapeseed extract on rainbow trout meat.Material and methods: In this study, two concentrations ofZataria multiflora essential oil (1% and 2% and twoconcentrations of grape seed extract (0.5% and 1% were usedboth alone and in combination with Carboxymethyl cellulosecoating. Antibacterial effect of these treatments was evaluatedby enumeration of bacteria in special culture media.Results: The results obtained in this study demonstrate thatZataria multiflora essential oil in combination with grape seedextract significantly can decrease the number of bacteria anddelay the spoilage of the samples (p<0.05.Conclusion: Coating enriched by Zataria multiflora and grapeseed extract can properly delay the growth of spoilagemicroorganisms and prolong the shelf life of meat products.Key words: Carboxymethyl cellulose coating, Zatariamultiflora essential oil, Grape seed extract, Microbial flora

  13. Thermal Stability Study of the Grape Seeds Extracts in the Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of parameters the extraction process of grape seeds extracts on the bioactive compounds. The aqueous extracts were screened for total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content wich were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al (NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method while  their polyphenolic composition by means of HPLC-DAD- MS/ ESI(+ analysis. Total phenols content and flavonoid content varied between 37.835 and 31.830 mg GAE/g, 23.420 and 17.645 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Neagră seeds; between 24.265 and 27.065 mg GAE/g, 17.970 and 15.205 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Regală seeds. All extracts showed remarkable DPPH radical-scavenging activity ranging from 94.110 to 95.515%. The study revealed 14 phenolic compounds belonging to the following groups: flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Quantitative differences among the varieties and the level of temperature applied of  the extraction process were observed. The results suggested that the heat treatment of grape seeds liberated phenolic compounds having a significant effect in increasing the amounts of active when a 90°C extraction temperature was used.

  14. Development of Grape Seed Polyphenols Cake%葡萄籽多酚蛋糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志明; 程洋; 陈亮; 刘玮

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, with the cake's basic material, the grape seed powder was added to cake. The addition of grape seed powder was studied with single factor and orthogonal test , and the optimal formula of grape seed polyphenols cake was determined by polyphenols content and sensory evaluation. The results indicated that the condition of making grape seed polyphenols cake, adding grape seed powder of 7 %, fineness of 60 mesh, baking temperature of 180℃, baking time of 25 min, could achieve the best quality.%在蛋糕基本原料不变的情况下,添加葡萄籽粉,进行单因素和正交试验,确定出葡萄籽多酚蛋糕的最佳配方,并利用Folin-酚法和感官指标对葡萄籽多酚蛋糕多酚含量和口感进行评价。结果表明:当添加7%葡萄籽粉,细度为60目,烘烤温度为180℃,烘烤时间为25 min时蛋糕品质达到最佳。

  15. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Koppula Sushruta; Kolanukonda Rajabhanu; Nammi Srinivas; Sreemantula Satyanarayana; Boini Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress...

  16. The effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Ayhan; Yaman, Duygu

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of grape seed and colchicine on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage and on some serum biochemical parameters. Sixty male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into six groups (ten rats/group) and included the control group the group were given isotonic sodium chloride (1 mL/kg b.w) intraperitonealy (i.p.), group 2 the group treated i.p. injection of CCl4 (1.0 mL/kg b.w) in corn oil twice in the first week, Groups 3 and 4 injected with CCl4 as described for group 2 and the rats were orally given (100 mg/kg b.w) GSE and i.p. injected (10 μg/rat) with colchicine for four weeks, respectively and groups 5 and 6 were the grape seed and colchicine control groups in which rats were orally given grape seed (100 mg/kg b.w) and i.p. injected with colchicine (10 μg/rat), respectively. Anorexia, weight loss, motionlessness and hepatic colour variation at necropsy were observed in groups 2, 3, and 4. Hyperemia, focal bleeding, fat degeneration, changes ranging from degenerative to necrotic, increase in connective tissue elements, pronounced in portal sites in particular, and infiltration of lymphoid series cell observed in the livers of the rats in group 2, treated with CCl4. Histological hepatic changes in the rats in group 3 and 4 were similar to those in group 2. The levels of serum total protein, albumin and globulin decreased in groups 2, 3, and 4, compared with groups 1, 5 and 6; aspartate transaminase (ALT) activities increased. The lowest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were in groups 4 and 5. We concluded that GSE and colchicine have not sufficient ameliorative effects to CCl4 induced acute hepatic damage.

  17. Characterization of grape seed oil from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the composition and characteristics of red grape seed oils (Vitis vinifera L from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain. Eight representative varieties of grape seed oils from the Spanish wine Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo and Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín and Verdejo were studied. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 13.89 to 10.18%, and the moisture was similar for all the seeds. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in all samples, representing around 78%, followed by oleic acid with a concentration close 16%, the degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 90%. β-sitosterol and α-tocopherol were the main sterol and tocopherol, reaching values of 77.31% and 3.82 mg·100 g−1 of oil, respectively. In relation to the tocotrienols, α-tocotrienol was the main tocotrienol and accounted for 13.18 mg·100 g−1 of oil.El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar la composición y características de aceites de semillas de uvas rojas (Vitis vinifera L de vinos con denominación de origen protegida (DOP de España. Ocho variedades representativas de aceites de semillas de uvas españolas Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo y Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín y Verdejo fueron estudiadas. Los contenidos en aceite de las semillas oscilaron entre 13.89 y 10.18%, la humedad fué similar para todas las semillas. El contenido en ácido linoléico fué alto en todos los aceites alcanzando un valor del 78%, seguido del ácido oléico con una concentración cercana al 16%, registrando un grado total de insaturación del 90%. b-sitosterol y α-tocoferol fué el principal esterol y tocoferol, alcanzado niveles del 77.31% y de un 3.82 mg·100 g−1 de aceite respectivamente. En relación a los tocotrienoles, α-tocotrienol fué el mayoritario con

  18. Trying to set up the flavanolic phases during grape seed ripening: A spectral and chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada-Morín, Natalia; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Heredia, Francisco J; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Grape seeds were collected in ten different dates and classified in seven groups according to their individual hyperspectral imaging characteristics. Proanthocyanidin composition was studied using HPLC-MS for oligomers and acid catalyzed cleavage for polymers characterization. The combination of both analysis provided a complete description of the flavanols. Chemometric analysis was performed to summarize the analytical results. None of the considered variables presented statistical differences among all groups. From one to five groups were found for each variable, while three was the most frequent value, consequently three putative stages might be considered the real number of different analytical stages since it is the number of statistically significant groups for the majority of the compounds. This classification could be considered as the first step to optimize the use of seeds in winemaking to minimize the gap between sugar and phenolic maturities, consequence of the global climate change, mainly observed in warm climate. PMID:27591650

  19. Exploring the Anticancer Activity of Grape Seed Extract on Skin Cancer Cell Lines A431

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mohansrinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grape seeds were extracted using ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by solvent-solvent extraction method. The phytochemical tests were performed to identify different phytochemical compounds present in the grape seed extract (GSE. Antibacterial activity of the GSE was determined using agar diffusion method against Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis was done to identify the presence of bioactive compounds and their functional groups. The GC-MS results revealed a total of four compounds, known to have potent activity against cancer cells, viz, squalene, the most potent compound found in ethyl acetate extract and diethyl phthalate, ethyl-9- cis -11- trans octadecadienoate and (R-(--14,-methyl-8-Hexadecyn-1-ol in petroleum ether extract. Cytotoxic activity of the GSE was observed against skin cancer cell lines A4321 using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC50 value of the GSE against A431 skin cancer cell line was 480 µg/mL. This is first such report against A4321 cell lines. The study gives the overall perception about importance of GSE in medicine and nutraceuticals purposes.

  20. Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI] were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70] for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively. These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW. Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  1. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Şükrü

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 on a diabetic pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenbin; Li, Baoying; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Fei; Cai, Qian; Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Mei; Gao, Haiqing

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased considerably in recent years, highlighting the importance of developing new therapeutic strategies. Insulin-resistance and gradual dysfunction of pancreatic islets are the mainstay in the progression of T2DM. Therefore, preserving the function of the pancreas may lead to new prospective approaches. Our previous studies suggested that grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2), a natural polyphenol product, exhibited protective effects on diabetic vasculopathy. However, effects of GSPB2 on a diabetic pancreas remain unknown. In this study, we provided strong evidence that GSPB2 exerted protective effects on a diabetic pancreas. GSPB2 attenuated the elevated body weights, food intake and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels in db/db mice (p pancreas while GSPB2 treatment notably attenuated these alterations (p pancreas and GSPB2 provides protective effects at least in part through anti-inflammation.

  3. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. PMID:27166540

  4. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  5. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 μEq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  6. Protective role of grape seed extract against the effect of electromagnetic radiation on retinal rhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent time, people exposure to blue light has increased. Much of the world of commercial display and industry is lit with cool white fluorescent tubes which emit a strong spike of light in the blue and ultraviolet ranges. Indeed many homes and offices are lit with cool white fluorescent tubes. No doubts, more people are spending more time in front of Video Display Terminals which produce blue light. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blue light and the combined effect of blue light and gamma radiation on retinal rhodopsin. Also, the possible protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) to retinal rhodopsin was tested. New zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. The rabbits were classified into five groups I, II, III, IV and V according to the following: Group I: used as control group. Group II: subdivided into four subgroups subgroups were exposed to blue light of intensity 3.9 lux and decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks respectively. Group III: subdivided into four subgroups. All rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. Rabbits were decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks of exposure to blue light respectively. Group IV: subdivided into two subgroups. The two subgroups were exposed to blue light of 3.9 lux for one week and two weeks, then irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays and decapitated. Group V: subdivided into two subgroups. The rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light for one week and two weeks respectively. After these periods, the rabbits were irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays then decapitated. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. At the end of each period, the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded. After the decapitation, the rhodopsin was extracted and the

  7. Chemical characterization and phase behaviour of grape seed oil in compressed carbon dioxide and ethanol as co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium experimental results for the systems grape oil/carbon dioxide and (grape oil/carbon dioxide + ethanol). The oil was obtained by supercritical extraction from the grape seed residue from wine production. The static synthetic method using a variable-volume view cell was employed for obtaining the experimental bubble and dew (cloud) points transition data over the temperature range of (313.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 20.6 MPa. The experiments were carried out using (ethanol + CO2) overall mass fractions ranging from 0.50 to 0.99, keeping a fixed ethanol to carbon dioxide molar ratio at 1:3. Results indicate the existence of complex phase behaviour for all temperatures investigated with the occurrence of vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapour-liquid-liquid phase transitions observed.

  8. Porous structure and morphology of granular chars from flash and conventional pyrolysis of grape seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the influence of the operating conditions used in the pyrolysis of grape seeds on the morphology and textural properties of the chars resulting. Flash and conventional (283 K min−1 heating rate) pyrolysis have been used within a wide range of temperature (300–1000 °C). The effect of a pretreatment for oil extraction has also been studied. The porous structure of the chars was characterized by adsorption of N2 at 77 K, Ar at 77 K and 87 K, and CO2 at 273 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. All the materials prepared revealed an essentially microporous structure, with a poor or even negligible contribution of mesopores. Increasing pyrolysis temperature led to higher specific surface areas and lower pore size. The highest specific surface area values occurred within 700–800 °C, reaching up to 500 m2 g−1 with pore sizes in the 0.4–1.1 nm range. No significant morphological changes were observed upon carbonization so that the resulting chars were granular materials of similar size than the starting grape seeds. The hollow core structure of the chars, with most of the material allocated at the periphery of the granules can help to overcome the mass transfer limitations of most common (solid or massive) granular activated carbons. The chars showed a good mechanical strength during attrition tests. These chars can be potential candidates for the preparation of granular carbons molecular sieve or activated carbons raw materials. -- Highlights: •We use a raw material that has a very low price and a high availability. •Not very much attention has been paid to this waste for carbonaceous materials preparation. •The chars obtained have high specific surface area that is an interesting starting point for later activation processes. •The chars show a micro-macro porous bimodal distribution. •Pyrolysis does not affect to morphology or initial seed, leading a carbonized particles

  9. Functional components of grape seed and its application%葡萄籽功能性成分及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉慧; 袁春龙; 宋洋波

    2011-01-01

    Functional components of grape seed and its application were summarized. Beauty care cosmetic effect, safety and application of the components containing in the grape seed, such as procyanidins, grape seed oil, resveratrol, vitamins and tannins, et al were mainly introduced. Meanwhile, preparation technology,advantages and application prospect of grape seed ultrafine powder were briefed. Grape seed ultrafine powder technology can be applied in the manufacture of beauty care cosmetics to elaborate the actions of the functional components containing in the grape seed ,thereby to produce cosmetics with more comprehensive efficacy.%综述了葡萄籽功能性成分及其应用,主要介绍了葡萄籽中原花青素、葡萄籽油、白藜芦醇、维生素、单宁等成分所具有的美容保健功能、安全性和应用概况,同时介绍了葡萄籽超微粉的制备技术、优势和应用前景.提出了将葡萄籽超微粉技术应用于美容保健品的生产中,充分发挥葡萄籽功能性成分的作用,生产出功效更为全面的化妆品.

  10. Proanthocyanidins from Grape Seeds Inhibit UV Radiation- Induced Immune Suppression in Mice: Detection and Analysis of Molecular and Cellular Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced immunosuppression has been linked with the risk of skin carcinogenesis. Approximately, two million new cases of skin cancers, including melanoma and non-melanoma, diagnosed each year in the USA and therefore have a tremendous bad impact on public health. Dietary phytochemicals are promising options for the development of effective strategy for the prevention of photodamaging effects of UV radiation including the risk of skin cancer. Grape seed proanthocyanid...

  11. Phase behaviour and thermodynamic modelling for the system (grape seed oil + carbon dioxide + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short communication reports phase equilibrium data (cloud points), employing the synthetic static method, for the system {grape seed oil (GSO) + carbon dioxide (CO2) + ethanol} up to T = 343.15 K and 22.53 MPa. Experimental results were modelled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals quadratic mixing rule (PR-vdW2). It is shown that the thermodynamic model is able to represent satisfactorily the phase behaviour of the system investigated

  12. The Effect of Supplemental Grape Seed Extract on Pig Growth Performance and Body Composition During Heat Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, Andrew Todd

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high ambient temperature without cooling causes heat stress (HS) resulting in altered growth, body composition and metabolic dysfunction in pigs. Grape seed extract (GSE) has been shown to reduce inflammation, and improve glucose transport and metabolism. Thus, GSE may be an effective supplement to combat the consequences of heat stress; however this possibility has not been evaluated in a large animal model. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect o...

  13. Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Activity by Tea and Grape Seed Extracts and their Constituent Catechins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M.; Michels, Alexander J.; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, glucosidases required for starch digestion. The abundant flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) in these extracts were also tested for their inhibitory potential and evaluated against the pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. To evaluate relative potency of these extracts and catechins, the concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess an inhibitor’s relative efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. While tea extracts and individual catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of α-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Our data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase, and suggest that procyanidins found in grape seed extract strongly inhibit α-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidin rescues rats from steatosis: a comparative and combination study with metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Geetha, Rajagopalan; Radika, Mutlur Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a premorbid condition, lacks proper management owing to multitude of abnormalities. In this study, we compared the effects of a potent antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP), and an insulin sensitizer, metformin (MET), in high-fat-fructose-diet- (HFFD-) induced albino Wistar rat model of NAFLD. Either GSP (100 mg/Kg b.w) or MET (50 mg/Kg b.w) or both were administered as therapeutic options. HFFD-fed rats showed abnormal plasma lipid profile, inflammation, and steatosis of the liver when examined by biochemical and histology techniques. Increased lipid storage, lipogenesis, and reduced lipolysis were evident from mRNA expression studies of hepatic lipid droplets (LD) proteins, sterol regulatory element binding 1c (SREBP 1c), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor- α (PPAR- α ). GSP administration to HFFD-fed rats caused 69% reduction in hepatic TG levels, whereas MET caused only 23%. The combination treatment reduced TG levels by 63%. GSP reduced the mRNA expression of SREBP1c and LD proteins and increased that of PPAR- α more effectively compared to MET in HFFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Combination of MET and GSP improved the metabolism of lipids effectively, but the effect was not additive in restoring lipid levels. PMID:24307947

  15. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Rescues Rats from Steatosis: A Comparative and Combination Study with Metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Yogalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, a premorbid condition, lacks proper management owing to multitude of abnormalities. In this study, we compared the effects of a potent antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP, and an insulin sensitizer, metformin (MET, in high-fat-fructose-diet- (HFFD- induced albino Wistar rat model of NAFLD. Either GSP (100 mg/Kg b.w or MET (50 mg/Kg b.w or both were administered as therapeutic options. HFFD-fed rats showed abnormal plasma lipid profile, inflammation, and steatosis of the liver when examined by biochemical and histology techniques. Increased lipid storage, lipogenesis, and reduced lipolysis were evident from mRNA expression studies of hepatic lipid droplets (LD proteins, sterol regulatory element binding 1c (SREBP 1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α. GSP administration to HFFD-fed rats caused 69% reduction in hepatic TG levels, whereas MET caused only 23%. The combination treatment reduced TG levels by 63%. GSP reduced the mRNA expression of SREBP1c and LD proteins and increased that of PPAR-α more effectively compared to MET in HFFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Combination of MET and GSP improved the metabolism of lipids effectively, but the effect was not additive in restoring lipid levels.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  17. Grape Seed Procyanidins in Pre- and Mild Hypertension: A Registry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Belcaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a standardized grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE, Enovita to decrease blood pressure when associated with nondrug intervention (diet and lifestyle modifications was investigated in a controlled registry study involving 119 healthy, pre- and mildly hypertensive subjects. Two dosages of Enovita were evaluated (150 and 300 mg/die, using blood pressure and heart rate as the primary endpoints and complementing these observations with a laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF investigation of the microcirculation state and an evaluation of the plasma oxidative status. After four months of treatment, a statistically significant higher, and dose-dependent, improvement in all endpoints was observed in the treatment groups compared to that of the control, with blood pressure normalizing in 93% of the higher dosage (300 mg treatment group. Taken together, these observations suggest that GSPEs have beneficial cardiovascular effects that complement current intervention strategies in the hypertension area. The effect on blood pressure adds to the beneficial effects of GSPEs on the cardiovascular disease (CVD phenotype associated with the oxidation of membrane lipids (endothelial dysfunction, formation of oxidized LDL, and activation of phagocytic cells.

  18. Grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract as suppressors of bone destruction in inflammatory autoimmune arthritis.

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    Jin-Sil Park

    Full Text Available Chronic autoimmune inflammation, which is commonly observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, disrupts the delicate balance between bone resorption and formation causing thedestruction of the bone and joints. We undertook this study to verify the effects of natural grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, an antioxidant, on chronic inflammation and bone destruction. GSPE administration ameliorated the arthritic symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA, which are representative of cartilage and bone destruction. GSPE treatment reduced the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and osteoclast activity and increased differentiation of mature osteoblasts. Receptor activator of NFκB ligand expression in fibroblasts from RA patients was abrogated with GSPE treatment. GSPE blocked human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived osteoclastogenesis and acted as an antioxidant. GSPE improved the arthritic manifestations of CIA mice by simultaneously suppressing osteoclast differentiation and promoting osteoblast differentiation. Our results suggest that GSPE may be beneficial for the treatment of inflammation-associated bone destruction.

  19. The effects of oral grape seed extract on Cisplatin-induced cytogenotoxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible chemoprotective activity of orally administered grape seed extract (GSE) against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity towards mouse somatic and germinal cells in vivo. Pretreatment of mice with GSE (100mg/kg/day) for 7 days and simultaneously with a single dose of cisplatin (2.2 or 5.5 mg/kg, i.p.) for another day, significantly reduced the frequency of bone marrow micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes by factors of 1.9 and 1.28, respectively. Furthermore, GSF caused a reduction in bone marrow suppression induced by cisplatin treatment, particularly before the lower dose. In mail germline, orally administration of GSE (100mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days before and 7 consecutives days after treatment with a single dose of cisplatin (2.2 or 5.5 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly elevated the levels of sperm motility reduced by cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, GSE significantly decreased the elevated levels sperm head abnormality induced with cisplatin by factors of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively. Our results indicate that GSE plays a role in attenuating the genotoxicity induced by cisplatin and many provide the development of secondary malignancy and abnormal reproductive outcomes risk. (author)

  20. Protective effects of grape seeds proanthocyanidins against Naphthalene-Induced Hepatotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress with subsequent production of reactive oxygen species has been postulated as one of the mechanisms of naphthalene toxicity. In the present study, the effect of oral administration of the natural antioxidant and free radical scavenger, proanthociyanidins present in the grape seeds (GSP, 10 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) has been investigated in rats following the concomitant administration of naphthalene (1g kg, p.o., 15 days) and the measurements of selective parameters indicative of liver function and oxidative stress. Serum aminotransferase (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphates (AP) activities and total bilirubin (T Bil) concentrations were measured as hepatic tissue lipid peroxidation (MDA), DNA fragmentation and glutathione (GSH) contents. The effects of GSP on naphthalene-evoked changes in the above mentioned parameters were compared with the known hepatoprotectant agent, silymarin. Naphthalene hepatotoxicity was evident by the significant elevation of rat serum activities of ALT, AST, AP and T Bil concentration. This effect was accompanied with significant increase in MDA and DNA fragmentation plus the depletion of GSH in hepatic tissues. Concurrent administration of GSP significantly attenuated the nephtahlene induced disturbances in serum liver function enzymes and markedly antagonized the lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and GSH depletion induced by naphthalene in hepatic tissues. In conclusion, GSP appears to be a potent candidate to ameliorate the oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity associated with naphthalene in rats. (author)

  1. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao; Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya; AlMaadeed, Mariam A; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4μgml(-1) & 5μgml(-1) of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. PMID:27157761

  2. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Alleviates Arsenic-induced Oxidative Reproductive Toxicity in Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu Gang; GUO Shu Xia; DING Yu Song; NIU Qiang; XU Shang Zhi; PANG Li Juan; MA Ru Lin; JING Ming Xia; FENG Gang Ling; LIU Jia Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. Methods Sixty male Kunming mice received the following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control); arsenic trioxide (ATO; 4 mg/kg); GSPE (400 mg/kg); ATO+GSPE (100 mg/kg);ATO+GSPE (200 mg/kg) and ATO+GSPE (400 mg/kg). Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed and weighed, and the testis was examined for pathological changes. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) expression in the testis was detected by real-time PCR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. Results ATO-treated mice showed a significantly decreased sperm count and testis somatic index and activity levels of SOD, GSH, and T-AOC than control group. Compared to the ATO-treated group, ATO+GSPE group showed recovery of the measured parameters. Mice treated with ATO+high-dose GSPE showed the highest level of mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO, NQO1, and GST. Conclusion GSPE alleviates oxidative stress damage in mouse testis by activating Nrf2 signaling, thus counteracting arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

  3. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

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    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  4. Muscadine grape seed oil as a novel source of tocotrienols to reduce adipogenesis and adipocyte inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Yagiz, Yavuz; Xu, Changmou; Lu, Jiang; Chung, Soonkyu; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-07-01

    Tocotrienols are unsaturated forms of vitamin E previously shown to reduce adipogenesis and adipose inflammation. In this study, muscadine grape seed oil (MGSO) was identified as a novel source of tocotrienols containing significant amounts of α- and γ-tocotrienol (T3) with minor seasonal changes. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory potential of MGSO by using primary human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Differentiating hASCs were treated with MGSO and compared with rice bran and olive oil. Accumulation of triglyceride was significantly lower in MGSO-treated hASCs than rice bran and olive oils. A tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) from MGSO was prepared by solid phase extraction and eluted with 15% 1,4-dioxane in hexane. The MGSO-derived TRF treatment significantly reduced mRNA and protein expression that are crucial to adipogenesis (e.g., PPARγ and aP2) in hASCs. Furthermore, TRF from MGSO markedly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression in human adipocytes and cytokine secretion to the medium (IL-6 and IL-8). Collectively, our work suggests that MGSO is a stable and reliable natural source of T3 and MGSO may constitute a new dietary strategy to attenuate obesity and its associated adipose inflammation. PMID:26073057

  5. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

  6. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF GRAPE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Tagirova P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Technological methods of grape and derived semi-products processing are considered in the article. Husks, seeds and cuticle of grape are the important source of BAS due the high content of essential substances. Salt of tartaric acid, CO2 – extracts, grape oil, resveratol, vegetative flour are produced from the grape husks

  8. Procyanidins from grape seeds protect against phorbol ester-induced oxidative cellular and genotoxic damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin LU; Wan-zhou ZHAO; Zai CHANG; Wen-xing CHEN; Lin LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of Vitis vinifera procyanidins (PAs) on carcinogen-induced oxidative stress.METHODS: The single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) was employed to detect DNA damage induced by the carcinogen phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The release of hydrogen peroxidase from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was assayed by the horseradish peroxidase-mediated oxidation of phenol red. The microplate assay was used to detect the presence of oxidative products by means of 2',7'-dichlorofiuorescindiacetate (DCFH-DA). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of liver mitochondria was assayed, based on the ability of SOD to inhibit the generation of superoxidate anions by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was determined by the thiobarbimric acid (TBA) assay. RESULTS: DNA of NIH3T3 cells was significantly damaged after addition of PMA. The length of the comet tail was observed ,while in normal cells the comet tail could not be observed. PAs showed significant protective effects on carcinogen PMA-induced DNA damage. Through assessment of DCFH-DA oxidation, PAs were shown to inhibit the PMA-induced release of hydrogen peroxide by PMNs, and to inhibit respiratory burst activity in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Ex vivo study showed that serum from rats administered with PAs displayed similar effects in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PAs suppressed liver mitochondrial lipid peroxidation induced by PMA. PAs protected the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA in liver mitochondria damaged by PMA. CONCLUSION: Dietary PAs from grape seeds protect against carcinogen-induced oxidative cellular and genotoxic damage.

  9. Effects of grape seed extract supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Başaralı, Kemal

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on exercise performance and oxidative stress in acutely and chronically exercised rats. A total of sixty-four male rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into six groups: control, chronic exercise control, acute exercise control (AEC), GSE-supplemented control, GSE-supplemented chronic exercise and GSE-supplemented acute exercise groups. Chronic exercise consisted of treadmill running at 25 m/min, 45 min/d, 5 d a week for 6 weeks. Rats in the acute exercise groups were run on the treadmill at 30 m/min until exhaustion. GSE were given at 100 mg/kg of body weight with drinking water for 6 weeks. Plasma was separated from blood samples for the analysis of oxidative stress markers. There was no significant difference in time of exhaustion between the acute exercise groups. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the acute exercise groups and lower in the chronic exercise groups. GSE supplementation decreased MDA levels. Xanthine oxidase and adenosine deaminase activities were higher in the AEC group compared to all the other groups. NO levels were increased with both chronic exercise and GSE supplementation. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in the acute exercised groups and higher in the chronic exercised groups. GSE supplementation caused an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, GSE supplementation prevents exercise-induced oxidative stress by preventing lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:22011589

  10. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  11. Postprandial blood glucose response to grape seed extract in healthy participants: A pilot study

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    Suwimol Sapwarobol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consumption of a high carbohydrate diet may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Previous studies in vitro have revealed that grape seed extract (GSE inhibited the intestinal α-glucosidases and α-pancreatic amylase that may delay carbohydrate digestion and absorption, resulting in the suppression of postprandial glycemia. The objective of the study was to assess whether consumption of GSE together with high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial glycemia in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: The study used acute, randomized, controlled crossover design in which eight healthy subjects (four female and four male, mean aged 21.25 ± 3.69 years; body mass index =20.28 ± 1.40 kg/m 2 received high carbohydrate (HC meal (73.6 % together with or without 100 and 300 mg GSE. Results: Results showed that postprandial plasma glucose concentrations at 15 min and 30 min after ingestion HC meal together with 100 mg GSE (5.33 ± 0.41 mmol/L and 5.62 ± 0.47 mmol/L, respectively and 300 mg GSE (5.27 ± 0.29 mmol/L; 5.75 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively were significantly lower than that of HC meal (P<0.05. There was statistically significant difference in the 2 h area under the glucose response curve between HC meal and HC meal plus GSE. Conclusions: GSE reduces postprandial plasma glucose in healthy participants. The delayed and attenuated hyperglycemia may have a useful strategy to prevent development of diabetes in the healthy population.

  12. Grape Seed oil as Anti hepatic and Anti renal Dysfunction agent in Paracetamol Administrated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection conferred by dietary grape seed oil (GSO) against paracetamol (PCL)-induced liver and kidney dysfunction have been evaluated in adult male albino Wistar rats. The animals (180-200 g) were randomly divided into four groups of seven rats each. Group l: normal control, group II: animals received GSO (3.7 g Kg-1 body wt/day orally), group III: animals received PCL (4 g Kg-1 body wt/day orally) and group IV: animals received PCL plus GSO. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), urea (U), creatinine (Cr) and albumin (A) levels in serum and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. In addition, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver and kidney homogenates were chosen for assessing. The PCL induced a significant elevation in the serum AST, ALT, AP and GGT. Moreover, a significant increase in serum U, Cr, A and BUN were evident. Furthermore, a significant rise in TBARS, while a significant declined activity of SOD and CAT and GSH content in liver and kidney homogenates were also observed. Oral administration of GSO resulted in a significant reduction in liver and kidney markers in serum, BUN as well hepatic and renal TBARS accompanied by a significant improvement in the tissue antioxidants and A, when compared with PCL damaged rats. It was suggested that GSO has potent hepatic and renal protective effects against the oxidative damage induced in rats due to PCL treatment, perhaps by its antioxidative effects hence eliminating the deleterious effects of PCL.

  13. Antinociceptive effects of St. John's wort, Harpagophytum procumbens extract and Grape seed proanthocyanidins extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shinya; Hirai, Keita; Hatanaka, Junya; Hanato, Junko; Umegaki, Keizo; Yamada, Shizuo

    2008-02-01

    Hypericum perforatum extract (St. John's wort, SJW), Harpagophytum procumbens extract (HPE) and Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) have a broad spectrum of biological activities including antidepressant, anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant effects. The aim of this study was to clarify antinociceptive properties of SJW, HPE and GSPE in mice with mechanisms that might potentially underlie these activities. Also, the effects of these herbal extracts on the antinociception and plasma and brain concentrations of morphine were examined. Oral pretreatment with SJW (100-1000 mg/kg) and HPE (30-300 mg/kg) attenuated significantly times of licking/biting both first and second phases of formalin injection in mice in the dose-dependent manner, and GSPE (10-300 mg/kg) suppressed second phase. Naloxone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly attenuated antinociceptive effect of HPE but not SJW and GSPE. Formalin injection resulted in significant increase in the content of nitrites/nitrates (NO(x)) in mouse spinal cord. The rise of spinal NO(x) content by formalin was significantly attenuated by HPE and SJW. The pretreatment with SJW significantly potentiated an antinociceptive effect of morphine (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.), although concentrations of morphine in plasma and brain were not significantly changed by these herbal extracts. In conclusion, the present study has shown that SJW, HPE and GSPE exert significant antinociceptive effects in the formalin test of mice. In addition, opioidergic system seems to be involved in the antinociceptive effect of HPE but not SJW and GSPE. Furthermore, SJW potentiates morphine-induced antinociception possibly by pharmacodynamic interaction. PMID:18239280

  14. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kai; Shao, Jingjing; Zhou, Keyuan; Qiu, Haitao; Cao, Fengxiang; Li, Caihong; Dai, De

    2016-08-01

    Although modern radiotherapy offers excellent local control in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), current therapeutic decisions remain burdensome due to the frequency of local recurrence and treatment failure at distant sites. One potential and promising strategy for the prevention or treatment of cancers is the use of bioactive components of plant origin, including dietary plant products. Herein, we studied one class of these bioactive compounds, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs), and explored their effect on NPC CNE-2 cells, as well as the primary mechanism underlying this effect. Our results revealed that treatment of human NPC CNE-2 cells with GSPs reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and moreover, markedly induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, leading to induction of apoptosis. In addition, we found that the underlying mechanism was associated with increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PRAP) protein, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (Δψm). Furthermore, GSPs upregulated the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proteins, Bim and Bad, in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data supported our hypothesis that, in human NPC CNE-2 cells, GSPs could induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and ultimately reduce cell viability. Collectively, the results discussed above provide substantive evidence for the potential of GSPs as an effective bioactive phytochemical for the treatment of NPC. PMID:27277418

  15. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

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    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  16. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed: an experimental study in rat model

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    Koppula Sushruta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6 were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic, antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and

  17. Antioxidants from grape seed using supercritical carbon dioxide; Obtencion de antioxidantes a partir de pepitas de uva mediante extraccion con fluidas superciriticas, SFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acilu, M.; Berganza, J.; Brettes, P.

    2003-07-01

    The wine-producing industry produces large amount of solid waste annually. Grape seeds represent a large percentage of this solid waste, the production of vegetable oil and energy being the more usual added value. As it is known, grape seeds contain huge amounts of phenolic compounds and have been highly researched owing to their antoxidant properties. The aim of this article is to present the extraction results of these compounds from grape seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide. Before doing the final experiments in the pilot plant of supercritical fluids, the following variables were evaluated using analytical equipment: time extraction, pressure, temperature, amount, nature and method used for adding the modifiers, as well as pre-treatment and amount of raw material. The results showed that the recovery of phenolic compounds from real materials is lower than the recovery obtained with the standards, and that maximum extraction is achieved with monomeric compounds, mainly with epichatechin. (Author)

  18. Grape seed proanthocyanidins and metformin act by different mechanisms to promote insulin signaling in rats fed high calorie diet

    OpenAIRE

    Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Bhuvaneswari, Saravanan; Sreeja, S; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2013-01-01

    Key pathways like insulin signaling, AMP activated kinase (AMPK) activation and inflammatory signaling are involved in the complex pathological network of hepatic insulin resistance. Our aim is to investigate whether grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) and metformin (MET) target any of these pathways in insulin resistant rat liver. Albino Wistar rats were rendered insulin resistant by feeding a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). Either GSP (100 mg/kg b.w), MET(50 mg/kg b.w) or both were administer...

  19. Changes of Flavan-3-ols with Different Degrees of Polymerization in Seeds of ‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ Grapes after Veraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavan-3-ols consist of flavan-3-ol monomers and polymers with different degrees of polymerization (DP. In this study, flavan-3-ol extracts from grape seeds were well separated into three fractions including monomers, oligomers (2 < DP < 10 and polymers (DP > 10, by means of normal-phase HPLC-MS. The different patterns of these three fractions were analyzed in three Vitis vinifera cultivars (‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ seeds from veraison to harvest. The results showed: (1 polymers were the main form of flavan-3-ols in grape seeds and monomers accounted for only a small proportion; (2 the contents of flavan-3-ol monomers in the seeds of three grape cultivars all exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with a little fluctuation, whereas the patterns of the change of contents of oligomers and polymers were extremely different among grape cultivars; the contents of flavan-3-ol oligomers were enhanced in the seeds of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, but were reduced in the other two cultivars; (3 with regard to the proportion of flavan-3-ols with a certain DP to total flavan-3-ols, both flavan-3-ol monomers and flavan-3-ols with low DP fell in proportion, while the flavan-3-ols with high DP increased correspondingly. These findings indicate that flavan-3-ol polymerization in developing seeds is variety-dependent and may be genetically regulated.

  20. 葡萄籽油中植物甾醇的提取与鉴定%The Extraction and Identification of Phytosterols in the Grape Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽霞; 朱亿竹; 魏阳吉; 张也; 李景明

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a saponification and extraction process was used in extraction of grape seed oil and preparation of phytosterols the composition and content of phytosterols in the grape seed oil were analysed by CC-MS, with four wine grapes (Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Long Yan, Chardonnay) seeds as material. There were six phytosterols were determined from grape seed oil (campesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, stigniastanol, fucosterol, 9,19-cyclolano-tan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3,beta-)), the total phytosterols content in white grapes (Long Yan, Chardonnay )seed oil were higher than red grapes (Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon)seed oil. The content of beta-sitosterol is highest, followed by campesterol and stigmasterol, and the fucosterol were the lowest one in six phytosterols.%以4种酿酒葡萄(美乐、赤霞珠、龙眼、霞多丽)的种籽为原料,提取葡萄籽油,经皂化、萃取制得植物甾醇.采用GC-MS方法首次分析了葡萄耔油中植物甾醇的组成及含量,结果从葡萄籽油中检测到6种植物甾醇(菜油甾醇、豆甾醇、β-谷甾醇、岩藻甾醇、豆甾烷醇、环木菠萝烯醇),其中白葡萄品种(龙眼、霞多丽)籽油中总甾醇含量高于红萄萄品种(龙眼、霞多丽).在鉴定出的6种植物甾醇中,β-谷甾醇含量最高,其次是豆甾醇和菜油甾醇,岩藻甾醇含量最低.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process.

  2. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and antibacterial/probacterial effects of a grape seed extract in complex with lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Braicu, Cornelia; Chirilă, Flore; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Pelmuş, Rodica Ştefania; Călin, Loredana Georgeta; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS), and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE), were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS) or in extract (LE) to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B 41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects. PMID:25313359

  3. 葡萄籽中花色素的分离研究%Separation of Anthocyan from Grape Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温普红; 王晓玲; 杨得锁

    2001-01-01

    以葡萄籽为原料,甲醇做提取剂,冷浸12 h,70℃回流提取3次,每次2 h,合并提取液,减压浓缩至浸膏状,热水溶解,趁热过滤除杂,滤液用正丁醇萃取2次,萃取部分经减压浓缩,真空干燥,得花色素产品,经测定,花色素的质量分数可达90%以上。%The techniques of separation of anthocyan from grape seeds were srudied. The grape seeds after being soaked in cold methyl alcohol for 12 h were extracted under reflux 3 times (2 h each time) at 70 ℃. The raffmate was concentrated under vacuum into extract, which was then dissolved in boiling water and filtered. The filtrate was extracted 2 times by nbutanol. The extract was concentrated under vacuum, and then dried under vacuum to give the final product anthocyan.Purity of anthocyan was above 90%.

  4. Protective role of grape seed extract against radiation induced oxidative stress in rats: Role of endogenous antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract against γ-irradiation induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue. Animals were divided into four groups; Control group, Grape seed extract (GSE) group: animals were administered GSE for 14 consecutive days (100 mg/kg). Irradiated (IRR) group: rats were received dist. water for 7 days and then rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and dist. water was maintained for 7 additional days. GSE-IRR group: rats were treated with GSE for 7 consecutive days, one hour later after the last dose of GSE, rats were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy and GSE was maintained for 7 additional days. Administration of GSE for 14 consecutive days resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in hepatic tissues which were reduced by radiation treatment. Also, GSE resulted in a significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic tissues and a significant decrease in Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities and NO(x) level compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicate that GSE could increase the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in rat and thereby protect the animals from radiation-induced hepatotoxicity

  5. Acute Effects of Polyphenols from Cranberries and Grape Seeds on Endothelial Function and Performance in Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Labonté

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined how intake of polyphenols modifies brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD at rest, and cycling anaerobic performance, in elite athletes. In the first randomized cross-over study, FMD was measured over a three-hour period on two occasions in eight elite male and female athletes after acute consumption of either polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds (600 mg or a polyphenol-free placebo drink. Consumption of the polyphenol-rich drink led to a significant increase in FMD compared to placebo (p = 0.02, with a peak at 60 min. In a second study, 12 elite male and female athletes completed a three-kilometer time trial (TT on an ergocycle on two occasions in random order, either after consumption of 800 mg of polyphenols or a placebo. Acute intake of the polyphenol extract had no impact on the three-kilometer time trial completion. However, plasma lactate levels were significantly lower before and after the TT when subjects consumed the polyphenols vs. placebo (p < 0.05. Results suggest that polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds acutely modifies FMD at rest in elite athletes but this does not translate into enhanced cycling anaerobic performance.

  6. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS, and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE, were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS or in extract (LE to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process. PMID:24191456

  8. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Grape Seed (Vitis vinifera on Sugar and Lipids in Serum of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Ganjali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, no-drug treatments (medicinal plants are novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Grape Seed extract on the blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. Thirty male adult rats were randomly selected and divided into three groups as nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of grape seed. In diabetic groups, alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally to develop diabetes. Then the Test group received intraperitoneal injection of hydro-alcoholic extract of grape seed (100 mg/kg. At last, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, VLDL, LDL and insulin contents of the rats' serum sample were determined. Diabetic rats treated with extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level (p<0.05. Furthermore, compared diabetic group, in the extract-treated rats, there was a significant decrease in serum contents of total cholesterol (TC ,LDL,VLDL and TG, but a significant increase in insulin level and HDL (p<0.05. These results show that the hydroalcoholic extract of Grape Seed may be effective in the treatment of diabetes. This effect can be due to the presence of flavonoides and their antioxidant features.

  9. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; de Alencar, Severino Matias;

    2016-01-01

    -tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols...

  10. Archaeological seeds and local varieties of edible fruits: morphology through time

    OpenAIRE

    Sabato, Diego

    2015-01-01

    This research is divided in five chapters: [CHAPTER 1] describes the research carried out on waterlogged plant remains from a Late Bronze Age well found near Cabras, in Sa Osa area (Central-West Sardinia). The combination of macro-remain and pollen analyses in this unique context provided important information for exploring not only local subsistence systems but also human impact on the surrounding environment. Grapes and figs were the most abundant remains together with other ...

  11. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters (Dh) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C19 to 19.2 nm for C57). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the Dh-values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445–1458, 2013)].Graphical AbstractAmphiphilic copolymers based on

  12. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelet, Christophe, E-mail: Christophe.Travelet@cermav.cnrs.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Grenoble (ICMG-FR 2607 CNRS), PolyNat Carnot institute, Arcane LabEx, domaine universitaire de Grenoble, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales - CERMAV-UPR 5301 CNRS (France); Stemmelen, Mylene; Lapinte, Vincent [Universite de Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-UM1-ENSCM), equipe ingenierie et architectures macromoleculaires (France); Dubreuil, Frederic [Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Grenoble (ICMG-FR 2607 CNRS), PolyNat Carnot institute, Arcane LabEx, domaine universitaire de Grenoble, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales - CERMAV-UPR 5301 CNRS (France); Robin, Jean-Jacques [Universite de Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-UM1-ENSCM), equipe ingenierie et architectures macromoleculaires (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters (D{sub h}) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C{sub 19} to 19.2 nm for C{sub 57}). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D{sub h}-values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445-1458, 2013)].Graphical Abstract

  13. Physico-Chemical Properties of Bio-diesel from Wild Grape Seeds Oil and Petro-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Kaisan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The swiftly depleting conventional fossil fuel resources and increasing environmental distress has considerably popped up research curiosity in renewable energy fuel for internal combustion engines. Accordingly, in this research work, biodiesel from wild grape seed (Lannea Microcarpa was blended with petro-diesel in a ratio of 5:95, 10:90, 15:85 and 20:80 and pure fossil diesel designated B5, B10, B15, B20 and B0 respectively. The physico chemical properties of the biodiesel/petro diesel blends were determined. The properties are specific gravity, viscosity, flash point, calorific value, sulphur content, copper strip corrosion, colour, diesel index, cetane number, and cloud point. It was observed that, 9 out of the 10 properties determined conform to ASTM standards except for the colour which was dark brown for the oil and biodiesel, and brown for the automotive gasoline oil. The specific gravity and viscosity increase with percentage increase of biodiesel in the blends. The sulphur content, calorific values, cetane number and diesel index decrease with increase in the percentage biodiesel from the blends. The colour of the samples does not conform to the ASTM standards. All the samples have the best ASTM value for copper strip corrosion and as such, they could be run in any diesel engine without any fear of corrosion tendencies. Whence, Wild Grape seed biodiesel is physically okay, chemically stable, environmentally friendly and economically viable for use in compression ignition engine as a blend to partly replace the automotive gasoline oil.

  14. Long-term effects of chromium, grape seed extract, and zinc on various metabolic parameters of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, H G; Montamarry, S; Echard, B; Scheckenbach, R; Bagchi, D

    2001-07-01

    Progressive insulin resistance may contribute to both enhanced glycosylation of proteins and nucleic acids and augmented free radical damage commonly associated with aging. Accordingly, ingestion of chromium and antioxidants which improve insulin sensitivity and/or lessen free radical formation could theoretically ameliorate these basic disorders and lessen signs and symptoms of chronic age-related disorders. However, this supposition is based primarily upon acute rather than chronic data. Therefore, we divided 104 F344/BN rats into 2 groups: a control group receiving a basic diet and a test group receiving the same diet with added chromium polynicotinate (5 ppm), zinc monomethionine (18 ppm elemental zinc), and a grape seed extract high in flavonoids (250 ppm). Initial mean systolic blood pressures (SBP) of both control and test groups were 122 mm Hg. Over the first 7 months, the SBP of the control animals steadily increased to 140 mm Hg and remained at this level for the next 7-8 months. In contrast, the SBP of the test animals initially decreased over the first 4 months to as low as 110-114 mm Hg. The SBP then increased over the following months, essentially reaching the starting value of 120 mm Hg. This was still significantly lower than control (p kidney, and liver weights were not different after 1 year ingesting the different diets; but epididymal fat pad weight was less in the group receiving supplements. We conclude that after prolonged supplementation a combination of agents known to sensitize insulin response and act as antioxidants (chromium polynicotinate, grape seed extract, and zinc monomethionine) can markedly lower SBP in normotensive rats, lessen oxidative damage to fats as suggested by decreased TBARS formation, and lower HbA1C without showing signs of toxicity.

  15. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca) oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, D. S.; Menezes, M.; G. Gonçalves; Mukai, H.; Lenzi, E. K.; N. C. PEREIRA; Fernandes, P. R. G.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet) and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo) are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry result...

  16. Enhancement of trichogramma evanescens westwood as biological control agents by grape seeds against irradiated and non -irradiated potato tuber moth phthorimaea operculella eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly oviposited eggs of Phthorimaea operculellla (zeller) were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy. eggs parasitization and emergence of the parasitoid trichogramma evanescens were decreased in the irradiated eggs than in the control. the parasitization % reduced from 84.3 unirradiated eggs to 78.3 and 69.0 in eggs irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy, respectively, parasite emerges decrease also by γ -irradiation . Grape seeds extract (g.s.e.) decreased the parasitization% and the parasitoid emergence. the g.s.e. may be has a repellent effect on T. evanescens which decrease parasitization % and parasitoid emergence. Grape seed powder (g.s.p.) increased the egg parasitization to 92.5 while decreased to 86.5% and 73.0% when eggs irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy, respectively. parasitoid emergence was also increased when the eggs treated with (G.S.P)

  17. Effect of antioxidant and optimal antimicrobial mixtures of carvacrol, grape seed extract and chitosan on different spoilage microorganisms and their application as coatings on different food matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Javiera F. Rubilar; Cruz, Rui M.S.; Igor Khmelinskii; Margarida Cortez Vieira

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of natural agents with antimicrobial (AM) and antioxidant (AOX) properties. Optimization of the AM capacity for mixtures containing carvacrol, grape seed extract (GSE) and chitosan, against gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua and Enterococcus faecalis) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 106 cfu mL-1 was studied. To observe the synergistic or antagonistic effect and find optimal combin...

  18. Characterization of grape seed procyanidins by comprehensive two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction × reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Herrero, Miguel; Prodanov, Marin; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    In this work, the development and optimization of a new methodology to analyze grape seed procyanidins based on the application of two-dimensional comprehensive LC is presented. This two-dimensional method involves the use of a microbore column containing a diol stationary phase in the first dimension coupled to either a C18 partially porous short column or a C18 monolithic column in the second dimension. The orthogonal hydrophilic interaction × reversed phase liquid chromatography (HILIC×RP-LC) system is interfaced through a ten-port two-position switching valve. The optimized HILIC×RP-LC separation followed by diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection (HILIC×RP-LC-DAD-MS/MS) made possible the direct analysis of a complex grape seed extract and allowed the tentative identification of 43 flavan-3-ols, including monomers and procyanidin oligomers till a polymerization degree of 7 units with different galloylation degrees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this powerful analytical technique is employed to characterize complex procyanidin samples. This work successfully demonstrates the great capabilities of the HILIC×RP-LC-DAD-MS/MS coupling for the direct analysis of very complex natural samples like grape seeds. PMID:23224621

  19. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-12-15

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions. PMID:27451202

  20. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16INK4a and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin cancer

  1. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16{sup INK4a} and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  2. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Improves Insulin Production but Enhances Bax Protein Expression in Cafeteria-Treated Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Cedó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE in female Wistar rats improved insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and modulated apoptosis biomarkers in the pancreas. Considering that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in females are different from these parameters in males, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on male Wistar cafeteria-induced obese rats. The results have confirmed that the cafeteria model is a robust model mimicking a prediabetic state, as these rats display insulin resistance, increased insulin synthesis and secretion, and increased apoptosis in the pancreas. In addition, GSPE treatment (25 mg/kg of GSPE for 21 days in male rats improves insulin resistance and counteracts the cafeteria-induced effects on insulin synthesis. However, the administration of the extract enhances the cafeteria-induced increase in Bax protein levels, suggesting increased apoptosis. This result contradicts previous results from cafeteria-fed female rats, in which GSPE seemed to counteract the increased apoptosis induced by the cafeteria diet.

  3. Quantitative Mitochondrial Proteomics Study on Protective Mechanism of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extracts Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Heart Injury in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-da; QIU Jie; ZHAO Gai-xia; QIE Liang-yi; WEI Xin-bing; GAO Hai-qing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury is a critical condition,often associated with high morbidity and mortality.The cardioprotective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts(GSPE) against oxidant injury during I/R has been described in previous studies.However,the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.This study investigated the effect of GSPE on reperfusion arrhythmias especially ventricular tachycardia(VT)and ventricular fibrillation(VF),the lactic acid accumulation and the ultrastructure of ischemic cardiomyocytes as well as the global changes of mitochondria proteins in in vivo rat heart model against I/R injury.GSPE significantly reduced the incidence of VF and VT,lessened the lactic acid accumulation and attenuated the ultrastructure damage.Twenty differential proteins related to cardiac protection were revealed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation(iTRAQ) profiling.These proteins were mainly involved in energy metabolism.Besides,monoamine oxidase A(MAOA) was also identified.The differential expression of several proteins was validated by Western blot.Our study offered important information on the mechanism of GSPE treatment in ischemic heart disease.

  4. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect. PMID:27775601

  5. The Protective Effect of Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Oxidative Damage Induced by Zearalenone in Kunming Mice Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Miao; Yang, Shu-Hua; Han, Jian-Xin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Shuang; Chen, Xinliang; Guo, Jiayi; Wang, Jun; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) demonstrates strong anti-oxidant activity, little research has been done to clearly reveal the protective effects on the hepatotoxicity caused by zearalenone (ZEN). This study is to explore the protective effect of GSPE on ZEN-induced oxidative damage of liver in Kunming mice and the possible protective molecular mechanism of GSPE. The results indicated that GSPE could greatly reduce the ZEN-induced increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. GSPE also significantly decreased the content of MDA but enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px. The analysis indicated that ZEN decreased both mRNA expression levels and protein expression levels of nuclear erythroid2-related factor2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 is considered to be an essential antioxidative transcription factor, as downstream GSH-Px, γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased simultaneously, whereas the pre-administration of GSPE groups was shown to elevate these expressions. The results indicated that GSPE exerted a protective effect on ZEN-induced hepatic injury and the mechanism might be related to the activation of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. PMID:27231898

  6. Green electrospun grape seed extract-loaded silk fibroin nanofibrous mats with excellent cytocompatibility and antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si; Chen, Mengxia; Jiang, Huayue; Fan, Linpeng; Sun, Binbin; Yu, Fan; Yang, Xingxing; Lou, Xiangxin; He, Chuanglong; Wang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori has an excellent biocompatibility and thus be widely applied in the biomedical field. Recently, various SF-based composite nanofibers have been developed for more demanding applications. Additionally, grape seed extract (GSE) has been demonstrated to be powerful on antioxidation. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a GSE-loaded SF/polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite nanofiber by green electrospinning. Our results indicated the successful loading of GSE into the SF/PEO composite nanofibers. The introduction of GSE did not affect the morphology of the SF/PEO nanofibers and GSE can be released from the nanofibers with a sustained manner. Furthermore, comparing with the raw SF/PEO nanofibrous mats, the GSE-loaded SF/PEO nanofibrous mats significantly enhanced the proliferation of the skin fibroblasts and also protected them against the damage from tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. All these findings suggest a promising potential of this novel GSE-loaded SF/PEO composite nanofibrous mats applied in skin care, tissue regeneration and wound healing. PMID:26707696

  7. The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Chen, Jui-Hao; Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p = 0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

  8. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identification of proanthocyanidins in rat plasma after oral administration of grape seed extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasain, Jeevan K.; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Moore, Ray; Arabshahi, Alireza; Wilson, Landon; Barnes, Stephen; Wyss, J. Michael; Kim, Helen; Watts, Ray L.

    2009-01-01

    Proanthocyanidin rich plant extracts derived from grape seed extract (GSE), hawthorn and cranberry are on markets for their preventive effects against cardiovascular diseases and uroinfections in woman. However, the importance of these health beneficial effects of these botanicals remains elusive due to incomplete understanding of uptake, metabolism and bioavailability of proanthocyanidins in vivo. In the present study rats were given GSE orally (300 mg/kg, twice a day) and blood and urine were collected over a 24 h period. Monomeric catechins and their methylated metabolites, and proanthocyanidins up to trimers were detected in blood samples treated with GSE using LC-MS/MS operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A new tetramethylated metabolite of dimeric proanthocyanidin (m/z 633) in GSE-treated urine was tentatively identified. Using LC-MS/MS, (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin were identified in the brain conclusively. These data suggested that GSE catechins cross the blood brain barrier and may be responsible for the neuroprotective effects of GSE. PMID:19095430

  9. Green electrospun grape seed extract-loaded silk fibroin nanofibrous mats with excellent cytocompatibility and antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si; Chen, Mengxia; Jiang, Huayue; Fan, Linpeng; Sun, Binbin; Yu, Fan; Yang, Xingxing; Lou, Xiangxin; He, Chuanglong; Wang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori has an excellent biocompatibility and thus be widely applied in the biomedical field. Recently, various SF-based composite nanofibers have been developed for more demanding applications. Additionally, grape seed extract (GSE) has been demonstrated to be powerful on antioxidation. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a GSE-loaded SF/polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite nanofiber by green electrospinning. Our results indicated the successful loading of GSE into the SF/PEO composite nanofibers. The introduction of GSE did not affect the morphology of the SF/PEO nanofibers and GSE can be released from the nanofibers with a sustained manner. Furthermore, comparing with the raw SF/PEO nanofibrous mats, the GSE-loaded SF/PEO nanofibrous mats significantly enhanced the proliferation of the skin fibroblasts and also protected them against the damage from tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. All these findings suggest a promising potential of this novel GSE-loaded SF/PEO composite nanofibrous mats applied in skin care, tissue regeneration and wound healing.

  10. The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in

  11. Effects of grape pomace on the antioxidant defense system in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang-Sook; Chung, Hae-Kyung; CHOI, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Myung-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    The effects of grape seeds extract and grape peels extract prepared from grape pomace on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, degree of lipid peroxidation in serum and liver tissue were investigated in rabbits fed on high cholesterol diet. New Zealand white rabbits were divided as follows ; 1) NOR (normal group); 2) CHOL (cholesterol group); 3) GSH (cholesterol + grape seed extract group); 4) GPE (cholesterol + grape peel extract); 5) GSP (cholesterol + grape seed powder); 6) GPP (cholesterol...

  12. Grape seed proanthocyanidins and metformin act by different mechanisms to promote insulin signaling in rats fed high calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Bhuvaneswari, Saravanan; Sreeja, S; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-03-01

    Key pathways like insulin signaling, AMP activated kinase (AMPK) activation and inflammatory signaling are involved in the complex pathological network of hepatic insulin resistance. Our aim is to investigate whether grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) and metformin (MET) target any of these pathways in insulin resistant rat liver. Albino Wistar rats were rendered insulin resistant by feeding a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). Either GSP (100 mg/kg b.w), MET(50 mg/kg b.w) or both were administered to insulin resistant rats as therapeutic options. HFFD-feeding caused hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased gluconeogenesis, decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β(IR-β) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. The association of p85α subunit of phosphotidyl inositol 3 kinase(PI3K) with IRS-1 and subsequent Akt phosphorylation were reduced while the expression of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) were increased in HFFD rats. Both MET and GSP reduced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and improved glycolysis, tyrosine phosphorylation of IR-β and IRS-1, IRS-1-PI3K association and Akt activation. However, activation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, leptin and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and reduction in adiponectin caused by chronic HFFD feeding were reversed by GSP better than by MET. Activation of AMPK by GSP was much less compared to that by MET. These findings suggest that GSP might activate PI3K pathway and promote insulin action by reducing serine kinase activation and cytokine signaling and MET by targeting AMPK. The beneficial effects were enhanced during combination therapy. Thus, combination therapy with MET and GSP may be considered for the management of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24026800

  13. Synergistic Radiation Protective Effect of Purified Auricularia auricular-judae Polysaccharide (AAP IV with Grape Seed Procyanidins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic antioxidant potential and protective effect of grape seed procyanidins (GSP in combination with Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharides (AAP IV on radiation injury in splenocytes. Rat splenocyte irradiation resulted in significantly higher apoptosis rate, malondialdehyde (MDA (p < 0.005, reactive oxygen species (ROS (p < 0.01; cell viability, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD (p < 0.01, catalase (CAT (p < 0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX (p < 0.05, activity and glutathione (GSH (p < 0.01 levels were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. “GSP + AAP IV” treatment of rat splenocytes at doses of “GSP (0.3 μg/mL + AAP IV (50 μg/mL” displayed higher radioprotective and antioxidative effects than the administration of either GSP or AAP IV, as evident by lower levels of MDA (p < 0.001 concentration, as well as higher cell viability and T-SOD (p < 0.05, CAT (p < 0.005, GSH-PX (p < 0.01 and GSH content compared to the radiation group. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that “GSP + AAP IV” significantly ameliorated the decrease of spleen index (p < 0.005 and spleen GSH (p < 0.005 levels and significantly inhibited the increase of MDA (p < 0.005 levels of spleen with radiation-induced damage, compared with the non-treated group. The in vivo and in vitro results suggested that GSP and AAP IV have a synergistic protective effect against radiation-induced injury by improving the antioxidant and immunomodulation activities.

  14. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interferon γ (IFN-γ. Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four proinflammatory factors to different degrees and inhibit the inflammatory reaction of mice. The results suggest that GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced oxidative stress and significantly improves the immune injury of mice induced by AFB1.

  15. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Kui; Han, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yuan; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW) AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interferon γ (IFN-γ). Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four proinflammatory factors to different degrees and inhibit the inflammatory reaction of mice. The results suggest that GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced oxidative stress and significantly improves the immune injury of mice induced by AFB1. PMID:27070584

  16. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling and associated cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Junli; Qu, Zhenzhen; Fang, Haibo; Fu, Lan; Wu, Yupeng; Wang, Hongchao; Zang, Hongmin; Wang, Weiping

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the antioxidant effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE). The generation of free radicals and the ensuing apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy; therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of GSPE on cognitive impairment and neuronal damage induced by chronic seizures in rats. Seizures were induced by a daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 35 mg/kg/day, 36 days). Two other groups were treated with GSPE (100 or 200 mg/kg/day, orally) for 24 days and then for 36 days prior to each PTZ injection. After the final PTZ injection, hippocampus-dependent spatial learning was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM). The rats were then sacrificed for the measurement of hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA, a measure of lipid peroxidation) and glutathione (GSH, a measure of endogenous antioxidant capacity) levels, and for the expression of pro-apoptotic factors [cytochrome c (Cyt c), caspase‑9 and caspase‑3]. The mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), degree of mitochondrial swelling, neuronal damage and mitochondrial ultrastructure were also examined. Performance in the MWM was markedly impaired by PTZ-induced seizures, as evidenced by longer escape latencies during training and fewer platform crossings during the probe trial. This cognitive decline was accompanied by oxidative stress (MDA accumulation, ROS generation, reduced GSH activity), an increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, as well as damage to CA1 pyramidal neurons and the mitochondria. Pre-treatment with GSPE dose‑dependently reversed PTZ-induced impaired performance in the MWM, oxidative stress, mitochondrial ROS generation, the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and neuronal and mitochondrial damage. Thus, GSPE may reverse the hippocampal dysfunction induced by chronic seizures, by reducing oxidative stress and preserving mitochondrial function.

  17. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Parris M

    2009-09-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols are increasingly receiving attention as dietary supplements for the homeostatic management of inflammation, to support detoxication, and for anticancer, weight loss, and other benefits. Their pro-homeostatic effects on genes, transcription factors, enzymes, and cell signaling pathways are being intensively explored, but the poor bioavailability of some polyphenols likely contributes to poor clinical trial outcomes. This review covers four polyphenol preparations with poor bioavailability and their complexation into phytosomes to bypass this problem. Silybin and the other silymarin flavonolignans from milk thistle conserve tissue glutathione, are liver-protective, and have anticancer potential. Curcumin and its related diphenolic curcuminoids have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. The green tea flavan-3-ol catechins have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio- and neuro-protective effects, and anti-carcinogenic benefits, with fat oxidation effects coupled to weight loss. The complex grape seed proanthocyanidin mix (including catechin and epicatechin monomers and oligomers) counters oxidative stress and protects the circulatory system. For each of these preparations, conversion into phytosomes has improved efficacy without compromising safety. The phytosome technology creates intermolecular bonding between individual polyphenol molecules and one or more molecules of the phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Molecular imaging suggests that PC molecule(s) enwrap each polyphenol; upon oral intake the amphipathic PC molecules likely usher the polyphenol through the intestinal epithelial cell outer membrane, subsequently accessing the bloodstream. PC itself has proven clinical efficacy that contributes to phytosome in vivo actions. As a molecular delivery vehicle, phytosome technology substantially improves the clinical applicabilities of polyphenols and other poorly absorbed plant medicinals. PMID

  18. Oxidative stress induced by cadmium in the plasma, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats: Attenuation by grape seed proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazima, B; Manoharan, V; Miltonprabu, S

    2016-04-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, GSP-treated group (100 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)), Cd-treated group (cadmium chloride, 5 mg kg(-1) BW), and GSP + Cd-treated group in which GSP was orally pre-administered 90 min before Cd intoxication for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and were processed for various biochemical estimations. The extent of oxidative damage in isolated rat erythrocyte membrane was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic content, calcium ion (Ca(2+))/magnesium ion (Mg(2+))-ATPase and sodium ion (Na(+))/potassium ion (K(+))-ATPase activities, free iron, calcium, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration, and osmotic fragility. Our results unveiled that Cd intoxication significantly increased the erythrocyte lipid peroxidation markers and decreased the activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers in erythrocytes. Conversely, GSP pretreatment significantly prevented the decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and membrane-bound ATPases. GSP also restored the levels of iron, calcium, and H2O2 in Cd-treated rats. Conformational changes in erythrocytes of various groups were also determined using morphological and ultrastructural electron microscopic analysis. The findings of our study clearly revealed that GSP affords superior protection against Cd-induced reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation, and free radical generation in Cd-treated rats, which presumably reflects the ability of this flavonoid to protect erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats from the toxic effects of Cd. PMID:26089033

  19. Influence of solvents on the composition of condensed tannins in grape pomace seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Antonella; Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio

    2016-09-15

    The extracting effectiveness of some solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate), used as pure or in binary and ternary mixtures, was studied for the extraction of seeds from the fermented pomace of Nebbiolo cv. The aqueous mixtures of acetone provided the highest extraction yields in total polyphenols and total flavonoids. Polyphenolic extracts were also obtained with aqueous mixtures of ethanol or acetone at variable concentrations, and the condensed tannins were quantified with the phloroglucinolysis method. The aqueous mixtures of acetone were more effective than the corresponding aqueous mixtures of ethanol. The solvent influenced the extraction yield and the composition of the extracts: with the increase of the yield, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the condensed tannins increased. A significant correlation was noticed between mDP and the molar percentages of (+)-catechin as terminal unit (negative correlation), and of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-3O-gallate as extension units (positive correlation). PMID:27080893

  20. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Susana; Viveros, Agustín; Centeno, Carmen; Romero, C.; Arija, I.; Brenes, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral...

  1. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  2. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J.; Mendizabal, Jose A.; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega‐3, with CLA, or with omega‐3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatme...

  3. Research development on anti-carcinogenic activity and mechanism of grape seeds proanthocyanidins%葡萄籽原花青素抗癌活性及其机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 刘霞; 杨继红; 李华

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PCs) is the generic terms of a large class of flavan-3-ols derivatives that existed extensively in plants. There are many kinds of pharmacological activities of grape seeds proanthocyanidins. In general,grape seeds proanthocyanidins is famous for its three most important properties; high efficiency, low toxicity and high bioavailability. The discussion about anti-carcinogenic activity and mechanism of grape seeds proanthocyanidins can provide a referable value for the comprehensive utilization of grape resources. The classification, chemical structures as well as the research progress on anti-carcinogenic activity and mechanism of grape seeds proanthocyanidins were reviewed in this paper.%原花青素(proanthocyanidins,简称PCs或PAs)是植物中广泛存在的一大类黄烷-3-醇衍生物的总称.葡萄籽原花青素具有高效、低毒和高生物利用率的特点,并且具有多种药理活性.探讨其抗癌活性与机制对于葡萄资源的综合利用具有一定的参考价值.文中就葡萄籽原花青素的分类、结构特征以及近年来国内外对其抗癌活性与机制的研究进展进行阐述.

  4. Molecularly Imprinted Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction for the Determination of Triazine Herbicides in Grape Seeds by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinpei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Sun, Qun; Xu, Bo; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Xinghua

    2016-05-01

    Molecular imprinting technique, regarded as one of the current state-of-the-art researches, was incorporated with the simple dispersive solid-phase extraction (MI-DSPE) in this work for the extraction of triazine herbicides in grape seeds. The atrazine molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were successfully prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The imprinting particles were used as the adsorbent in DSPE. Thus, a simple, rapid and selective method based on MIPs coupled with DSPE was established for the simultaneous cleaning-up and quantitative extraction of four triazine herbicides in grape seeds. The experiment parameters, including type of washing solvents, washing time and type of eluting solvents, were investigated and optimized. The performance of the present method was validated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Good linear responses were obtained in concentration range of 0.010-5.0 µg g(-1)with correlation coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9993. The recoveries at two spiked levels (1.0 and 2.0 µg g(-1)) were between 81.2 and 113.0% with relative deviations ranging from 1.2 to 10.7%. The limits of detection were ranged between 0.006 and 0.013 µg g(-1), which were lower than the values required by European regulations. PMID:27013667

  5. Grape Seed Procyanidins and Cholestyramine Differentially Alter Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostatic Gene Expression in Mouse Intestine and Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Heidker

    Full Text Available Bile acid (BA sequestrants, lipid-lowering agents, may be prescribed as a monotherapy or combination therapy to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Over 33% of adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine strategies, and we recently reported that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE reduces enterohepatic BA recirculation as a means to reduce serum triglyceride (TG levels. The current study was therefore designed to assess the effects on BA, cholesterol and TG homeostatic gene expression following co-administration with GSPE and the BA sequestrant, cholestyramine (CHY. Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with either a control or 2% CHY-supplemented diet, after which, they were administered vehicle or GSPE for 14 hours. Liver and intestines were harvested and gene expression was analyzed. BA, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and TG levels were also analyzed in serum and feces. Results reveal that GSPE treatment alone, and co-administration with CHY, regulates BA, cholesterol and TG metabolism differently than CHY administration alone. Notably, GSPE decreased intestinal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt gene expression, while CHY significantly induced expression. Administration with GSPE or CHY robustly induced hepatic BA biosynthetic gene expression, especially cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, compared to control, while co-administration further enhanced expression. Treatment with CHY induced both intestinal and hepatic cholesterologenic gene expression, while co-administration with GSPE attenuated the CHY-induced increase in the liver but not intestine. CHY also induced hepatic lipogenic gene expression, which was attenuated by co-administration with GSPE. Consequently, a 25% decrease in serum TG levels was observed in the CHY+GSPE group, compared to the CHY group. Collectively, this study presents novel evidence demonstrating that GSPE provides additive and

  6. Grape Seed Procyanidins and Cholestyramine Differentially Alter Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostatic Gene Expression in Mouse Intestine and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidker, Rebecca M; Caiozzi, Gianella C; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Bile acid (BA) sequestrants, lipid-lowering agents, may be prescribed as a monotherapy or combination therapy to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Over 33% of adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine strategies, and we recently reported that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) reduces enterohepatic BA recirculation as a means to reduce serum triglyceride (TG) levels. The current study was therefore designed to assess the effects on BA, cholesterol and TG homeostatic gene expression following co-administration with GSPE and the BA sequestrant, cholestyramine (CHY). Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with either a control or 2% CHY-supplemented diet, after which, they were administered vehicle or GSPE for 14 hours. Liver and intestines were harvested and gene expression was analyzed. BA, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and TG levels were also analyzed in serum and feces. Results reveal that GSPE treatment alone, and co-administration with CHY, regulates BA, cholesterol and TG metabolism differently than CHY administration alone. Notably, GSPE decreased intestinal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) gene expression, while CHY significantly induced expression. Administration with GSPE or CHY robustly induced hepatic BA biosynthetic gene expression, especially cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), compared to control, while co-administration further enhanced expression. Treatment with CHY induced both intestinal and hepatic cholesterologenic gene expression, while co-administration with GSPE attenuated the CHY-induced increase in the liver but not intestine. CHY also induced hepatic lipogenic gene expression, which was attenuated by co-administration with GSPE. Consequently, a 25% decrease in serum TG levels was observed in the CHY+GSPE group, compared to the CHY group. Collectively, this study presents novel evidence demonstrating that GSPE provides additive and complementary

  7. Antibacterial Effects of Grape Extracts on Helicobacter pylori▿

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Joseph C.; Huang, Guohui; Haley-Zitlin, Vivian; Jiang, Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities were determined by agar dilution, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cell proliferation assays following treatment with various grape extracts. Muscadine grape skin possessed the strongest activity, followed by grape synergy (skin and seed) and seed, suggesting that higher phenolic levels do not necessarily determine overall anti-H. pylori efficacy.

  8. The comparative study of proanthocyanidins activity purified from hawthorn and grape seed%山楂原花青素和葡萄籽原花青素活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁思思; 张太平; 张鹤云

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较山楂原花青素( OPC)与葡萄籽OPC的生物活性.方法 体外将肝癌细胞Hep-S、小鼠肉瘤S-180、小鼠胸腺、脾淋巴细胞、肾细胞和肝细胞分别与不同浓度的山楂OPC或葡萄籽OPC共同培养,用MTT法检测抑制Hep-S和S-180增殖的影响以及促进T细胞、B细胞、肾细胞和肝细胞增殖的影响.提取与山楂OPC或葡萄籽OPC共同培养的Hep-S细胞的DNA,检测Hep-S细胞的凋亡程度.结果 山楂OPC比葡萄籽OPC抑制Hep-S和S-180增殖作用更好;其促进T细胞、B细胞、肾细胞和肝细胞增殖效果也更强;与葡萄籽OPC相比,山楂OPC使Hep-S细胞中的DNA发生更明显的凋亡,产生更多的DNA片段.结论 山楂OPC具有比葡萄籽OPC更强的生物活性.%Purpose To compare proanthocyanidins bioactivity between hawthorn and grape seed. Methods In vitro Hep-S,S-180,mice thymus,splenic lymphocytes,renal cell and liver cell with different concentrations of hawthorn and grape seed proanthocyanidins were cultivated, detecting how hawthorn and grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibited proliferation of Hep-S and S-180 and promoted proliferation of T cells,B cells,renal cell and liver cell by the MTT method. Extracteding DNA of Hep-S cells which were cultivated with hawthorn and grape seed procyanidin, so as to detect Hep-S cell apoptosis. Results Hawthorn proanthocyanidins has better inhibiting proliferation effect of Hep-S and S-180 than grape seed proanthocyanidins. It also has strong promoting proliferation effect of the thymus, splenic lymphocytes, renal cell and liver cell. Compared with grape seed proanthocyanidins,hawthorn proanthocyanidins make Hep-S cells produce more obvious DNA apoptosis and get more segment of DNA. Conclusion Hawthorn proanthocyanidins have stronger biological activity than those of grape seed.

  9. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Kequan Zhou; Raffoul, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid ...

  10. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on ... require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader . NCCIH Publication No.: D370 Created: March 2007 Updated: ...

  11. The effect of grape seed and grape marc meal extract on milk performance and the expression of genes of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the liver of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Koch, C; Romberg, F-J; Winkler, A; Dusel, G; Herzog, E; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been suggested that inflammation associated with the development of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that feeding grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) as a plant extract rich in flavonoids attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver of dairy cows. Two groups of cows received either a total mixed ration as a control diet or the same total mixed ration supplemented with 1% of GSGME over the period from wk 3 prepartum to wk 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake during wk 3 to 9 postpartum was not different between the 2 groups. However, the cows fed the diet supplemented with GSGME had an increased milk yield and an increased daily milk protein yield. Cows supplemented with GSGME moreover had a significantly reduced mRNA abundancy of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, in the liver in wk 1 and 3 postpartum. In contrast, mRNA abundances of a total of 3 genes involved in inflammation and 14 genes involved in ER stress response, as well as concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol, in liver samples of wk 1 and 3 postpartum did not differ between the 2 groups. Overall, this study shows that supplementation of GSGME did not influence inflammation or ER stress in the liver but increased milk yield, an effect that could be due to effects on ruminal metabolism. PMID:26409958

  12. Determination of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in skin, pulp, seed, cane and leaf of five native grape cultivars in West Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Khalil; Esmaeilzadeh, Forough; Hatami, Mehdi; Forough, Mehrdad; Molaie, Rahim

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, the phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in the skin, pulp, seed, cane and leaf of one international (Muscat) and five native (Hosseini, Ghara Shira, Agh Shani, Ghara Shani and Ghara Ghandome) grape cultivated in West Azerbaijan, Iran were investigated. Ghara Shani grape skin was found to contain the highest content of total phenolic and anthocyanin and cane of Ghara Shani contains the highest amount of flavonoid. A remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity up to 95% and consequently, the lowest IC50 was found for skin of Ghara Shani. According to RP-HPLC experiments, the highest concentration of phenolic compounds was identified as catechin (945 μg/g), epicatechin (482 μg/g), gallic acid (319 μg/g) and resveratrol (29.8 μg/g) in skin of Ghara Shani, quercetin in cane of Ghara Shani (956 μg/g), rutin in skin of Ghara Shira (298 μg/g) and caffeic acid in cane of Ghara Shira (17.4 μg/g). PMID:26776043

  13. Pre-fermentative addition of an enzymatic grape seed hydrolysate in warm climate winemaking. Effect on the differential colorimetry, copigmentation and polyphenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Jara-Palacios, M José; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-10-15

    The effect of adding an enzymatic hydrolysate of grape seeds (EH-GS) during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been evaluated. We focused on the polyphenolic composition as well as the application of differential and tristimulus colorimetry to colour data. This is the first attempt at using this oenological alternative to avoid common colour losses of red wines elaborated in a warm climate. The addition of 250g (simple dose, SW) of EH-GS to 120kg of fermentation material promoted a significant (panthocyanin levels. This increase could promote a higher copigmentation percentage and maximum colour stabilization (C(∗)ab) without significantly changing the wine tonality. Unexpectedly, the use of a double quantity (DW) of EH-GS resulted in significantly less chroma than for control wines (CW), demonstrating visually perceptible colour changes (ΔE(∗)ab>3 CIELAB units). PMID:27173573

  14. PIMT prevents the apoptosis of endothelial cells in response to glycated low density lipoproteins and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of diabetic angiopathy is associated with profound vascular endothelial cells (VEC dysfunction and apoptosis. Glycated low density lipoproteins (gly-LDL continuously produced in the setting of diabetic patients play an important role in causing VEC dysfunction and apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely elusive. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT is a widely expressed protein repair enzyme by multiple cell types of arterial wall including VEC. Our previous proteomic studies showed that the expression of PIMT was significantly decreased in the aorta of diabetic rats as compared with control rats and treatment with grape seed procyanidin extracts significantly increased the PIMT expression in diabetic rats. We hypothesized that PIMT plays a critical role in gly-LDL induced VEC apoptosis; grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2 protect against gly-LDL induced VEC apoptosis through PIMT regulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: HUVEC transfected negative control and PIMT siRNA were treated with or without GSPB2 (10 µmol/L for 48 h. Moreover, HUVEC of PIMT overexpression were stimulated by gly-LDL (50 µg/ml in the presence or absence of GSPB2 (10 µmol/L for 48 h. Our results showed that gly-LDL downregulated PIMT expression and PIMT overexpression or GSPB2 significantly attenuated gly-LDL induced VEC apoptosis. PIMT siRNA increased VEC apoptosis with up-regulation of p53, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. Mechanistically, overexpression of PIMT or GSPB2 increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and GSK3β in the gly-LDL induced VEC. CONCLUSION: In summary, our study identified PIMT as a key player responsible for gly-LDL induced VEC apoptosis and GSPB2 protect against gly-LDL induced VEC apoptosis by PIMT up-regulation. Targeting PIMT including use of GSPB2 could be turned into clinical application in the fighting against diabetic vascular complications.

  15. MicroRNA-19a/b mediates grape seed procyanidin extract-induced anti-neoplastic effects against lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jenny T; Xue, Bingye; Smoake, Jane; Lu, Qing-Yi; Park, Heesung; Henning, Susanne M; Burns, Windie; Bernabei, Alvise; Elashoff, David; Serio, Kenneth J; Massie, Larry

    2016-08-01

    Oncomirs are microRNAs (miRNA) associated with carcinogenesis and malignant transformation. They have emerged as potential molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy. We hypothesize that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSE) exerts antineoplastic effects through modulations of oncomirs and their downstream targets. We found that GSE significantly down-regulated oncomirs miR-19a and -19b in a variety of lung neoplastic cells. GSE also increased mRNA and protein levels of insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-2R) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), both predicted targets of miR-19a and -19b. Furthermore, GSE significantly increased PTEN activity and decreased AKT phosphorylation in A549 cells. Transfection of miR-19a and -19b mimics reversed the up-regulations of IGF2R and PTEN gene expression and abrogated the GSE induced anti-proliferative response. Additionally, oral administration of leucoselect phytosome, comprised of standardized grape seed oligomeric procyanidins complexed with soy phospholipids, to athymic nude mice via gavage, significantly down-regulated miR-19a, -19b and the miR-17-92 cluster host gene (MIR17HG) expressions, increased IGF-2R, PTEN, decreased phosphorylated-AKT in A549 xenograft tumors, and markedly inhibited tumor growth. To confirm the absorption of orally administered GSE, plasma procyanidin B1 levels, between 60 and 90 min after gavage of leucoselect phytosome (400 mg/kg), were measured by LC/MS at week 2 and 8 of treatment; the estimated concentration that was associated with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) (1.3 μg/mL) in vitro was much higher than the IC50 (0.032-0.13 μg/ml) observed in vivo. Our findings reveal novel antineoplastic mechanisms by GSE and support the clinical translation of leucoselect phytosome as an anti-neoplastic and chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. PMID:27289489

  16. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Tissue hardness (induration), pain and tenderness are common late adverse effects of curative radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with tissue induration after high-dose radiotherapy for early breast cancer in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-six eligible research volunteers with moderate or marked breast induration at a mean 10.8 years since radiotherapy for early breast cancer were randomised to active drug (n=44) or placebo (n=22). All patients were given grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) 100 mg three times a day orally, or corresponding placebo capsules, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in surface area (cm2) of palpable breast induration measured at the skin surface 12 months after randomisation. Secondary endpoints included change in photographic breast appearance and patient self-assessment of breast hardness, pain and tenderness. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, ≥50% reduction in surface area (cm2) of breast induration was recorded in13/44 (29.5%) GSPE and 6/22 (27%) placebo group patients (NS). At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of external assessments of tissue hardness, breast appearance or patient self-assessments of breast hardness, pain or tenderness. Conclusions: The study failed to show efficacy of orally-adminstered GSPE in patients with breast induration following radiotherapy for breast cancer

  17. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  18. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker Y Cheah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Grape seed procyanidins (PC are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2. DESIGN: SixPC fractions (F1-F6 were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature and ripe (mature, utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05, but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6 were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05. Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4 significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05. Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87% compared to 5-FU alone (37%. CONCLUSIONS: PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  19. The Archaeology of Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, T. S.; Holcomb, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Context and chronology are of critical importance in archaeological research. Unfortunately, however, many previously excavated sites lack adequate detail in these aspects. As such, archaeologists are increasingly returning to previously investigated sites in order to reassess the integrity of prior excavations and answer new research questions. Near-surface geophysics can be used to locate and map the extent of prior excavations at these sites. Here, we present two case studies of the use of geophysics to find previously excavated archaeological trenches. At Copper's Ferry (10IH73), in western Idaho, magnetic gradiometry was used to locate a trench excavated by Idaho State University in 1961. This trench yielded cultural materials associated with the Western Stemmed Tradition that potentially date to the Pleistocene. At Goat Springs Pueblo (LA285), New Mexico, electromagnetic induction was used to find UCLA's 1960 excavation trench within a central kiva. Ground-truthing at both sites proved the efficacy of these methods, and allowed for a reexamination of the context and chronology at both sites.

  20. MAJOR FLAVONOIDS AND THEIR ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN GRAPE SEEDS AND SKINS%葡萄籽和皮中黄酮成分和抗氧化能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟耕; 陈宗道; 闵燕萍

    2005-01-01

    Seeds and skins from grapes of Vitis vinifera varieties Merlot and Chardonnay ard in seeds from grapes of Vitis rotundifolia variety Muscadine were analyzed with HPLC for the major monomeric flavanols and phenolic acids. The contribution of the major monomeric flavanols and phenolic acid to the total antioxidant capacity of grape seeds and skins was also determined. Gallic acid, catechin and epicatechin concentrations were 68, 7, and 69 mg/100 g d. m. in Muscadine seeds, 10, 211, and 303 mg/100 g d.m. in Chardonnay seeds, and 7, 74, and 83 mg/100 g d.m. in Merlot seeds, respectively. Concentrations of these three compounds were lower in winery byproduct grape skins than seeds. These three major phenolic constituents of grape seeds contributed less than 17% to the antioxidant capacity measured as ORAC. Peroxyl radical scavenging activities of phenolics present in grape seeds or skins in decreasing order were resveratrol > catechin > epicatechin = gallocatechin > gallic acid = ellagic acid. The results indicated that dimeric, trimeric, oligomeric or polymeric procyanidins account for most of the superior antioxidant capacity of grape seeds.%通过高效液相色谱(HPLC)分析了酿酒葡萄中的梅鹿辄和霞多丽品种的籽和皮及圆叶葡萄品种麝香葡萄籽中主要单体黄酮醇和酚酸种类,并测定了葡萄籽和皮中的单体黄酮醇和酚酸对总抗氧化能力的贡献.结果表明:麝香葡萄籽中没食子酸、儿茶素、表儿茶酸的含量为68,7和69 mg/100g干重,而在霞多丽葡萄籽相应为10,211和303mg/100g干重,梅鹿辄葡萄籽中为7,74和83 mg/100g干重.这3种成分在葡萄酒副产物的皮中的含量低于籽中,采用抗氧化能量指数法(ORAC)测定其抗氧化能力贡献占总抗氧化能力的17%.在葡萄籽或皮中的酚类对过氧化游离基清除能力从大到小依次为:白藜芦醇、儿茶素、表儿茶酸=没食子儿茶精、没食子酸=鞣花酸.葡萄籽中抗氧化能力的最

  1. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats

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    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera, and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L, rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L, rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tales efectos.

  2. Sequential Extraction of Oil and Polyphenols from Grape Seed by Column Chromatography Method%柱层析法连续提取葡萄籽油和多酚的工艺技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明阳; 李璠; 解瑞林; 韩寒冰; 刘杰凤

    2015-01-01

    研究连续提取并分离葡萄籽中的葡萄籽油和多酚的最佳工艺条件。将干燥的葡萄籽粉末用石油醚湿润装进层析柱中,浸泡2 h,先后用石油醚和60%乙醇溶液连续洗脱,连续收集石油醚6倍体积(mL/g)和60%乙醇溶液10倍体积洗脱液,混合洗脱液分层,醚层中含有葡萄籽油,下层醇水液中含有多酚。连续提取的葡萄籽油和多酚的提取率均达到99%,经萃取一次性分离葡萄籽油和多酚,得率分别是97.6%和98.0%。利用柱层析连续提取葡萄籽油和多酚,并通过萃取可把两种成分一次性分离开来,工艺简单,时间短,有机溶剂用量少,提取效率高,具有广泛应用价值。%To explore technical process and conditions for the sequential extraction of grape seed oil and polyphenol by using column chromatography from grape seed. Dried material was loaded into a column with petroleum ether and sequentially eluted with 6-fold (mL/g) petroleum ether, 10-fold 60% (v/v) ethanol. The elutes was separated into an ether fraction containing grape seed oil and an ethanol-water fraction containing polyphenol. Through this procedure, grape seed oil and polyphenol in grape seed were simultaneously extracted at 99%extraction rates and simply separated at higher than 97.6%and 98.0%recovery rates. The process was simple and short, with less consumption of solvents and high extraction rates. The method provides a simple and high-efficient extraction and separation of wide range bioactive substances.

  3. Olive and grape seed extract prevents post-traumatic osteoarthritis damages and exhibits in vitro anti IL-1β activities before and after oral consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mével, Elsa; Merceron, Christophe; Vinatier, Claire; Krisa, Stéphanie; Richard, Tristan; Masson, Martial; Lesoeur, Julie; Hivernaud, Vincent; Gauthier, Olivier; Abadie, Jérôme; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Houard, Xavier; Wittrant, Yohann; Urban, Nelly; Beck, Laurent; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols exert a large range of beneficial effects in the prevention of age-related diseases. We sought to determine whether an extract of olive and grape seed standardized according to hydroxytyrosol (HT) and procyanidins (PCy) content, exerts preventive anti-osteoathritic effects. To this aim, we evaluated whether the HT/PCy mix could (i) have in vitro anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions, (ii) exert anti-osteoarthritis effects in two post-traumatic animal models and (iii) retain its bioactivity after oral administration. Anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions of HT/PCy were tested on primary cultured rabbit chondrocytes stimulated by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). The results showed that HT/PCy exerts anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions in vitro. The preventive effect of HT/PCy association was assessed in two animal models of post-traumatic OA in mice and rabbits. Diet supplementation with HT/PCy significantly decreased the severity of post-traumatic osteoarthritis in two complementary mice and rabbit models. The bioavailability and bioactivity was evaluated following gavage with HT/PCy in rabbits. Regular metabolites from HT/PCy extract were found in sera from rabbits following oral intake. Finally, sera from rabbits force-fed with HT/PCy conserved anti-IL-1β effect, suggesting the bioactivity of this extract. To conclude, HT/PCy extract may be of clinical significance for the preventive treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:27640363

  4. Exercise Training and Grape Seed Extract Co-Administration Improves Lipid Profile, Weight Loss, Bradycardia, and Hypotension of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Badavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Exercise Training (ET and Grape Seed Extract (GSE as an antioxidant have many positive effects on controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives:: This study aimed to determine the effects of GSE alone or combined with ET on body weight, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and heart rate in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods:: In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, GSE treated sedentary diabetic, and GSE treated trained diabetic. ET was conducted on the treadmill daily for 8 weeks. One way ANOVA followed by LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Results:: Reduction of body weight, high density lipoproteins, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure and increment of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoproteins were observed after STZ injection. Co-administration of GSE and ET had more positive effects on lipid profile compared to each method alone. In addition, GSE and ET modified heart rate partially, while their combination was more effective in improvement of heart rat in conscious rats. On the other hand, administration of ET or GSE alone did not affect systolic blood pressure and body weight, while their combination restored systolic blood pressure completely and improved body weight partially. Conclusions:: The study findings indicated that ET combined with GSE had more beneficial effects compared to each one alone on the complications of STZ induced diabetes. This may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic complications.

  5. Proanthocyanidins from Grape Seeds Modulate the NF-κB Signal Transduction Pathways in Rats with TNBS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis

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    Yongjie Wu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE, we explore whether GSPE regulates the inflammatory response of TNBS-induced colitis in rats at the levels of NF-κB signal transduction pathway. Rats were intragastrically administered of different doses of GSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg·kg−1 per day for seven days after ulcerative colitis (UC was induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS dissolved in 50% ethanol. Sulfasalazine (SASP at 400 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. The expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, phospho-I kappaB-alpha (pIκBα, inhibitor kappa B kinase (IκK in the colon tissues were all measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Treatment with GSPE reduced the expression of NF-κB, pIκBα and IκK in the colon. The results of this study show that GSPE exerts beneficial effects in inflammatory bowel disease by inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction pathways.

  6. Effect of grape seed extract on postprandial oxidative status and metabolic responses in men and women with the metabolic syndrome - randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

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    Indika Edirisinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE that is rich in mono-, oligo- and poly- meric polyphenols would modify postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Background: MetS is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and poor glycemic control. Consumption of a meal high in readily available carbohydrates and fat causes postprandial increases in glycemia and lipidemia and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Materials/methods: After an overnight fast, twelve subjects with MetS (5 men and 7 women consumed a breakfast meal high in fat and carbohydrate in a cross-over design. A GSE (300 mg or placebo capsule was administrated 1 hr before the meal (-1 hr. Changes in plasma insulin, glucose, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were measured hourly for 6 hr. Results: Plasma hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC measured as the positive incremental area under the curve (-1 to 5 hr was significantly increased when the meal was preceded by GSE compared with placebo (P0.05. No changes in inflammatory markers were evident. Conclusion: These data suggest that GSE enhances postprandial plasma antioxidant status and reduces the glycemic response to a meal, high in fat and carbohydrate in subjects with the MetS.

  7. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

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    Jia-Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2 has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases.

  8. Preparative isolation of monomer catechins and oligomer procyanidin fractions from grape seed extracts by high-speed counter-current chromatography

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    Shuting Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, monomer (+-catechin; (--epicatechin and (--epicatechin-3-o-gallate, three oligomeric procyanidin fractions (OPCs and one polymeric procyanidin fractions (PPCs were successfully separated and isolated from grape seed extracts using semi-preparative TBE-300 B high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. For their separation in monomer (+-catechin; (--epicatechin and (--epicatechin 3-O-gallate, hexane/ethyl acetate/water (1:10: 10, v/v/v was selected as solvent system. For separation of OPCs and PPCs, solvent system ethyl acetate/water (1:1, v/v was selected. Compositional data and mean polymerization degrees of OPCs were determined by phloroglucinolysis method. The purity of each fraction obtained; monomer (+-catechin (C, (--epicatechin (EC and (--epicatechin-3-o-gallate (ECG, verified by UPLC, was 98%, 82% and 71%, respectively. The mean polymerization degrees of the three OPCs fractions were respectively 2.842, 3.521, 4.475. As compared with traditional separation methods for catechins and OPCs, HSCCC has shown to be a powerful and efficient technique for large-scale isolation of these compounds.

  9. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

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    F. Agostini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel, harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40% in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%, 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  10. Lack of tissue accumulation of grape seed flavanols after daily long-term administration in healthy and cafeteria-diet obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Bravo, Francisca Isabel; Muguerza, Begoña; Arola-Arnal, Anna

    2015-11-18

    After ingestion flavanols are metabolized by phase-II enzymes and the microbiota and are distributed throughout the body depending on several factors. Herein we aim to evaluate whether flavanols are tissue-accumulated after the long-term administration of a grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) in rats and to study if compounds present in tissues differ in a cafeteria-diet obesity state. For that, plasma, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), brain, and aorta flavanol metabolites from standard chow-diet-fed (ST) and cafeteria-diet-fed (CAF) rats were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) 21 h after the last 12-week-daily GSPE (100 mg/kg) dosage. Results showed that long-term GSPE intake did not trigger a flavanol tissue accumulation, indicating a clearance of products at each daily dosage. Therefore, results suggest that polyphenol benefits in a disease state would be due to a daily pulsatile effect. Moreover, obesity induced by diet also influences the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols in rats. PMID:26496863

  11. Role of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) (VITIS VINIFERA) in the modulation of radiation-induced structural and oxidative damage in spleen and lung tissues of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) against oxidative organ damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats were treated daily, by gavage, with 100 mg/kg GSPE for 8 days before whole body exposure at 7 Gy and for 6 consecutive days after gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7 days after gamma irradiation. Histological examination of sections of the spleen and lung tissues through light microscope showed that exposure to ionizing irradiation has provoked severe architectural damage in both tissues as necrotic lesions and atrophied follicles in spleen and inflammation and disruption of bronchioles, destruction of respiratory portion in lung and dilating, widening of blood vessels in both spleen and lung. Histological damage was associated with significant alteration in the antioxidant status of both tissues, which was reflected by a significant increase in the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. GSPE treated-irradiated rats showed significant regeneration in lymphatic nodules and significant amelioration in inflammation, regeneration of bronchioles shape, alveolar sacs and improved pattern of blood vessels. Tissue regeneration was associated with significant improvement in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT and significant reduction in lipid peroxidation by products. It could be concluded that GSPE might be capable to attenuate radiation-induced oxidative and structural organ injury

  12. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J; Mendizabal, Jose A; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega-3, with CLA, or with omega-3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatments of beef were stored at 2 ± 1°C in aerobic packaging for 0, 1, 3, and 6 days under retail display conditions. Oxidation stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]), pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin formation, and sensory attributes (color and odor) were measured. Omega-3-enriched beef increased the oxidation level at day 6 as determined by TBARS (P color was not affected. The enrichment of CLA improved the coordinates of color (P color and odor values among the types of beef during display, except at day 3, when CLA treatments had the highest scores. Addition of GSE decreased the oxidation level (P color or the sensory parameters. PMID:26788312

  13. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

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    Mojtaba Raeisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2% and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE, (0.5% and 1% were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thio-barbituric acid (TBA, TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05 effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  14. Grape Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  15. 葡萄籽超微粉在模拟人体肠胃环境中的吸收状况%Absorptive Situation of Grape Seeds Supermicro Powder in Simulated Stomach and Intestinal Circumstance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春龙; 李华; 张予林; 李玲玲; 赵丽娟

    2011-01-01

    葡萄籽含有丰富的生物活性成分,具有极高的营养价值和保健作用.为了充分利用葡萄籽中的功能性成分,提高产品的附加值,将超微粉碎技术应用于葡萄籽的加工中,生产葡萄籽超微粉产品.为评价葡萄籽超微粉在人体中的吸收利用状况,做模拟肠、胃环境的吸收试验.试验结果表明:葡萄籽超微粉经模拟胃液消化3~5h,多酚、白藜芦醇溶出率:霞多丽60.87%~67.43%、23.65%~40.64%,赤霞珠60.48%~69.99%、20.63%~43.38%;经模拟肠液消化5~15 h,多酚、白藜芦醇溶出率:霞多丽1.96%~17.86%、17.51%~50.25%,赤霞珠3.38%~15.23%、14.02%~44.74%.葡萄籽多酚物质的消化吸收主要集中在胃环境中,白藜芦醇在肠、胃环境中的消化吸收几乎各占一半.%Grape seeds contain abundant active components, which have high nutritional and heath care value.In order to be useful grape seeds for increase new value-added products, the technology of super grinding was applied in the process of grape seeds and created a new products-supermicro powder of grape seeds.for the sake of evaluation the products, the absorptive experiment of the supermicro powder in simulated stomach and intestinal circumstance was carried out.The results were shown: After supermicro powder of grape seeds digested in simulated stomach juice for 3~5 h,the dissolved rate of polyphenols and resveratrol, Chardonnay were 60.87%~67.43%, 23.65%~40.64% respectively;Cabernet Sauvignon were 60.48%~69.99%, 20.63%~43.38%, respectively; digested for 5~15 h in simulated intestinal juice, Chardonnay were 1.96%~17.86%, 17.51%~50.25%, respectively; Cabernet Sauvignon were 3.38%~15.23%, 14.02%~44.71% respectively.It indicated that a majority of polyphenols and almost half of resveratrol of grape seeds were mainly dissolved in simulated stomach circumstance, and the others was dissolved in simulated intestinal circumstance.

  16. Effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins on growth performance, some serum biochemical parameters and body composition of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

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    Shao Wei Zhai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the effects of diet supplementation with grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs on fish growth performance, some serum parameters and body composition. Three hundred tilapia fingerlings with the initial average body weight of 9.50±1.25 g were randomly divided into five treatment groups with four replicates in each group and 15 fish in each replicate. The dietary GSPs levels of five treatment groups were 0 (control group, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The trial period was 49 days. Growth performance parameters were significantly improved by GSPs supplementation (P<0.05, while survival rates were similar among all groups (P>0.05. Serum parameter results showed that activities of aminotransferase aspartate in 200 and 400 mg/kg GSPs groups and alanine aminotransferase in 400 mg/kg GSPs group were lowered significantly (P<0.05. Levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol (except 200 mg/kg GSPs group were significantly lowered, while lysozyme activity and albumin level were significantly higher in fish of GSPs supplemented groups, independently from the level of supplementation. The highest crude protein level and lowest crude lipid level were found in fish of all GSPs supplemented groups, while levels of moisture and ash in fish of all groups were similar (P>0.05. The results indicated that dietary 200 mg/kg GSPs could exert beneficial effects on growth and body composition of tilapia fingerlings, and ameliorate serum biochemistry parameters related to health status.

  17. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

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    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  18. A Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Bile Acid and Cholesterol Excretion and Inhibition of Hepatic Lipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Downing

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE exerts a triglyceride-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic state using the fructose-fed rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were fed either a starch control diet or a diet containing 65% fructose for 8 weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the 9th week of the study, rats were maintained on their respective diet and administered vehicle or GSPE via oral gavage for 7 days. Fructose increased serum triglyceride levels by 171% after 9 weeks, compared to control, while GSPE administration attenuated this effect, resulting in a 41% decrease. GSPE inhibited hepatic lipogenesis via down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in the fructose-fed animals. GSPE increased fecal bile acid and total lipid excretion, decreased serum bile acid levels and increased the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, bile acid biosynthetic gene expression was not increased in the presence of GSPE and fructose. Serum cholesterol levels remained constant, while hepatic cholesterol levels decreased. GSPE did not modulate expression of genes responsible for esterification or biliary export of the newly synthesized cholesterol, but did increase fecal cholesterol excretion, suggesting that in the presence of GSPE and fructose, the liver may secrete more free cholesterol into the plasma which may then be shunted to the proximal small intestine for direct basolateral to apical secretion and subsequent fecal excretion. Our results demonstrate that GSPE effectively lowers serum triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats after one week administration. This study provides novel insight into the mechanistic actions of GSPE in treating hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrates that it targets hepatic de novo lipogenesis, bile acid homeostasis and non-biliary cholesterol excretion as

  19. A Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Bile Acid and Cholesterol Excretion and Inhibition of Hepatic Lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Laura E; Heidker, Rebecca M; Caiozzi, Gianella C; Wong, Brian S; Rodriguez, Kelvin; Del Rey, Fernando; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) exerts a triglyceride-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic state using the fructose-fed rat model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were fed either a starch control diet or a diet containing 65% fructose for 8 weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the 9th week of the study, rats were maintained on their respective diet and administered vehicle or GSPE via oral gavage for 7 days. Fructose increased serum triglyceride levels by 171% after 9 weeks, compared to control, while GSPE administration attenuated this effect, resulting in a 41% decrease. GSPE inhibited hepatic lipogenesis via down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in the fructose-fed animals. GSPE increased fecal bile acid and total lipid excretion, decreased serum bile acid levels and increased the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, bile acid biosynthetic gene expression was not increased in the presence of GSPE and fructose. Serum cholesterol levels remained constant, while hepatic cholesterol levels decreased. GSPE did not modulate expression of genes responsible for esterification or biliary export of the newly synthesized cholesterol, but did increase fecal cholesterol excretion, suggesting that in the presence of GSPE and fructose, the liver may secrete more free cholesterol into the plasma which may then be shunted to the proximal small intestine for direct basolateral to apical secretion and subsequent fecal excretion. Our results demonstrate that GSPE effectively lowers serum triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats after one week administration. This study provides novel insight into the mechanistic actions of GSPE in treating hypertriglyceridemia and demonstrates that it targets hepatic de novo lipogenesis, bile acid homeostasis and non-biliary cholesterol excretion as important mechanisms for

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of grape and papaya seed extracts and their application on the preservation of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during ice storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Faisal Rashid; Raju, C V; Lakshmisha, I P; Singh, Rajkumar Ratankumar

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of grape (GSE) and papaya seed extracts (PSE) were tested in vitro at varied concentrations and growth inhibition were seen against gram positive and gram negative bacteria by disc diffusion method. The results revealed that GSE contain four times higher phenolic and six folds higher flavonoid content than PSE. The antioxidant properties of GSE and PSE showed dose dependent activities and were comparatively much higher in GSE. Linoleic acid model of GSE and PSE displayed 67.67 and 46.43 % of inhibition respectively at 500 mg/L. The effect of dip treatment by GSE and PSE at a concentration of 500 and 1000 mg/L respectively on the quality changes of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in iced condition were assessed using chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters along with chilled whole control (CWC). The inhibition of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products by GSE at 500 mg/L was comparable to BHT at 200 mg/L. GSE exhibited higher antimicrobial activity on gram-positive strains compared to PSE and reduced the formation of volatile bases significantly. On the day of sensory rejection for CWC, the formation of trimethylamine and total volatile base nitrogen were reduced by 32.27 and 31.85 % in GSE samples and 19.01 and 24.70 % in PSE samples respectively. The dip treatment of GSE increased the shelflife of mackerel up to 15 days, PSE by 12 and 9 days for CWC during ice storage. Therefore, it can be concluded that, GSE can be used as a promising natural preservative and a substitute to the synthetic counterparts. PMID:26787935

  1. A novel approach of proteomics to study the mechanism of action of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on diabetic retinopathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness among the people of occupational age. To prevent the progress of retina injury, effective therapies directed toward the key molecular target are required. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE) have been reported to be effective in treating diabetic complications, while little is discussed about the functional protein changes. Methods We used streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes in rats. GSPE (250 mg/kg body weight per day) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 weeks. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined. Consequently, 2-D difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to investigate retina protein profiles among control, STZ-induced diabetic rats, and GSPE treated diabetic rats. Results GSPE significantly reduced the AGEs of diabetic rats (P <0.05). Moreover, GSPE significantly suppressed the vascular lesions of central regions, decreased capillary enlargements and neovascularization, similar to those of the control rats under light microscope. Eighteen proteins were found either up-regulated or down-regulated in the retina of STZ-induced diabetic rats. And seven proteins in the retina of diabetic rats were found to be back-regulated to normal levels after GSPE therapy. These back-regulated proteins are involved in many important biological processes such as heat shock, ubiquitin-proteasome system, cell proliferation, cell growth and glucose metabolism. Conclusions These findings might promote a better understanding for the mechanism of DR, and provide novel targets for evaluating the effects of GSPE therapy.

  2. Effect of grape seed extract on hepatic function and antioxidant status of Mouse bearing Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma and exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grape seed extract (GSE), rich in bioactive phytochemicals commonly known as procyanidins, is one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements in USA and Europe due to its several health benefits. The present study was performed to investigate the anti- tumor effect of GSE on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC)-induced oxidative stress, hepatic dysfunction and histopathological changes in the liver of albino mouse. GSE was orally administered to mice for 5 consecutive days at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight before and after tumor inoculation. On the 5th day of tumor inoculation, animals were exposed to 1 Gy whole body gamma radiation. The anti-tumor effect of GSE was evident in terms of a significant reduction in tumor viable cells count and increased non-viable cells count of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Biochemical investigations showed that EAC cells led to hepatic disturbances in liver function profile. Oral administration of GSE, with or without subsequent gamma irradiation, improved liver functions through a significant recovery of the elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) in the EAC-bearing mice groups. The results of the present study revealed that, pretreatment of mice with GSE induced a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and significant improvement in glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase as well as glutathione peroxidase activities in liver compared with those EAC damaged mice. Histopathological studies showed that EAC cells caused fatty degeneration, enlargement of liver cells nuclei and presence of necrosis. Pretreatment of animals with GSE exhibited protection justified by the results of the biochemical studies. It could be concluded that GSE administrated to mice, with or without subsequent gamma irradiation, exhibited anti-tumor effect reflected by improving liver function profile, modulating lipid peroxidation

  3. Effect of antioxidant and optimal antimicrobial mixtures of carvacrol, grape seed extract and chitosan on different spoilage microorganisms and their application as coatings on different food matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera F. Rubilar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the use of natural agents with antimicrobial (AM and antioxidant (AOX properties. Optimization of the AM capacity for mixtures containing carvacrol, grape seed extract (GSE and chitosan, against gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua and Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 106 cfu mL-1 was studied. To observe the synergistic or antagonistic effect and find optimal combinations between the three agents, a simplex centroid mixture design was run for each microorganism, combining carvacrol (0-300 ppm, X1, GSE (0-2000 ppm, X2 and chitosan (0-2% w/v, X3. Results of the response surface analysis showed several synergistic effects for all microorganisms. Combinations of 60 ppm-400 ppm-1.2% w/v (carvacrol-GSE-chitosan; optimal AM combination 1, OAMC-1; 9.6 ppm-684 ppm-1.25% w/v (OAMC-2; 90 ppm-160 ppm-1.24% w/v (OAMC-3 were found to be the optimal mixtures for all microorganisms. Radical scavenging activity (RSA of the same agents was then compared with a standard AOX (butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT at different concentrations (25, 50 and 100 ppm; as well as the optimal AM concentrations by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. RSA increased in the following order: chitosan< carvacrol< BHT< GSE and for the OAMC: OAMC-2< OAMC-1< OAMC-3. The best RSA (OAMC-3 was applied as a coating in two different food matrices (strawberries and salmon. For strawberries, P. aeruginosa was more sensitive to the action of OAMC-3 than S. cerevisiae. For salmon, S. aureus was more resistant to the action of OAMC-3 than E. faecalis and L. innocua.

  4. 葡萄籽原花青素检测方法的比较%The comparison of detection methods of the procyanidins on grape seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶莹; 胡文效; 高德艳; 李彦奎; 蒋锡龙

    2013-01-01

    本研究通过对原花青素的结构分析,选取香草醛法、铁盐催化比色法两种方法对葡萄籽中的原花青素进行了检测对比。结果表明,两种方法均能稳定、有效地对原花青素进行检测。香草醛法的检测结果数值较低,且线性范围较窄,适宜用于检测黄烷-3-醇单体、低聚体酚类化合物含量;铁盐催化比色法线性范围较宽,适宜用于黄烷-3-醇不同聚合度范围的酚类化合物总量检测。%The vanillin assay method and ferric ion catalytic colorimetric method had been chosen to detect the procyanidins content on grape seed. The results showed that both of the detection methods were stable and effective. The datum from Vanillin method indicated lower values and narrower linear range than from the ferric ion catalytic colorimetric method. Vanillin method suited to detect the content of flavan-3-alcohol monomer and oligomeric phenolic compounds;The Ferric ion catalytic colorimetric method had a wider linear range, and was suitable for the detection of the total content of flavan-3-alcohol which has a different polymerization degree.

  5. Preparation and identification of water-soluble calcium-binding protein from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds%葡萄籽中水溶性钙结合蛋白的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晨艳; 赵广华

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient required for critical biological functions such as nerve conduction, muscle contraction, mitosis, blood coagulation, and structural support of the skeleton.Dietary calcium intake is of general interest for human beings, particularly for infants and young children, when growth is accelerated. Milk and milk products as effective calcium supplements are generally accepted by human race with their high bioavailability. However, less consumption of milk in industrialized countries leads to inadequate calcium intake. Therefore, it is important to explore an alternate source for calcium supplement. On the other hand, dried grape seeds are likewise rich in lipids (22.07%), carbohydrates (12.51%) and proteins (11.94%) (w/w) and grape seeds as by-product during juice production can be an alternative source of protein. Meanwhile, this study demonstrates that grape seeds are rich in calcium ((5.62±0.01) g/kg for embryonic cells and (6.32± 0.01) g/kg for intact grape seeds), which was identified by ICP-AES. The calcium was mainly distributed in the stroma of the amyloplasts and around the starch granules, which was observed under TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope). Further study indicates that water-soluble protein from grape (Vitis viniferaL.) seeds (WSPG) contained two major components, one of which was 11S globulin-like protein mainly responsible for the binding of calcium in WSPG and the other was a novel protein (Protein A). The calcium contents of protein isolate from each step were identified by ICP-AES as well. When a traditional alkali extraction and acid precipitation method was used for isolation of WSPG, many binding calcium ions were lost. It is worth noting that the protein composition of grape seed protein obtained by both 30%-50% (NH4)2SO4 sediment and the alkali extraction and acid precipitation method was nearly identical, which consisted of protein A and protein B at a ratio of 2 to 3, but the content of calcium in the

  6. Archaeological Bonanza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s construction boom unearths many important ancient sites China’s top 10 archaeological discoveries in 2008 were released by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH) on March 31. The 10 winners, which were chosen from 25 nominees, include a Bronze-Age graveyard in

  7. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  8. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield.

  9. Analysis of the Fatty Acid Composition after Brewing Mountain Grape Skin and Seed by GC/MS%酿酒后山葡萄皮和籽中脂肪酸成分的GC/MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁旭光; 侯冬岩; 李铁纯; 回瑞华

    2014-01-01

    After the brewing mountain grape skins and seeds in the fatty acid composition are analysed. Soxhlet extraction method to extract wine after mountain grape skins and seeds in the fatty oil,with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to methyl ester of fatty acid in fatty oil,and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument is analyzed. Results show that the wine after the mountain grape skins identified 9 kinds of fatty acids,including three kinds of unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 72. 59% of the total fatty acid,linoleic acid accounted for 44. 98% of total fatty acid,oleic acid accounted for 25. 35% of total fatty acids. After brew-ing mountain grape seed identified 5 kinds of fatty acids,including three kinds of unsaturated fatty acids ac-counted for 87. 30% of the total fatty acid,linoleic acid accounted for 69. 58% of total fatty acid,oleic acid ac-counted for 14. 90% of total fatty acids.%对酿酒后山葡萄皮和籽中脂肪酸成分进行分析.采用索氏提取法提取酿酒后山葡萄皮和籽中的脂肪油,以氢氧化钾甲醇溶液对脂肪油中的脂肪酸进行甲酯化,用气相色谱-质谱联用仪进行分析.结果表明:酿酒后山葡萄皮鉴定出9种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸3种占脂肪酸总量的72.59%,亚油酸占脂肪酸总量的44.98%、油酸占脂肪酸总量的25.35%;酿酒后山葡萄籽鉴定出5种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸3种占脂肪酸总量的87.30%,亚油酸占脂肪酸总量的69.58%、油酸占脂肪酸总量的14.90%.

  10. Inhibitory effects of grape seed extract on growth, quorum sensing, and virulence factors of CDC "top-six" non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, L; Olsen, S A; Hu, J; Yue, W; Means, W J; Zhu, M J

    2016-07-16

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STECs) have become a growing concern to the food industry. Grape seed extract (GSE), a byproduct of wine industry, is abundant in polyphenols that are known to be beneficial to health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of GSE on the growth, quorum sensing, and virulence factors of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) "top-six" non-O157 STECs. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GSE was 2mg/ml against E. coli O26:H11, and 4mg/ml against the other non-O157 STECs tested. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) was the same as MIC for all six non-O157 STECs tested. At 5×10(5)CFU/ml inoculation level, 4mg/ml GSE effectively inhibited the growth of all tested strains, while 0.25-2mg/ml GSE delayed bacterial growth. At a higher inoculation level (1×10(7)CFU/ml), GSE had less efficacy against the growth of the selected six non-O157 STECs. Its impact on bacterial virulence was then assessed at this inoculation level. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a universal signal molecule mediating quorum sensing (QS). GSE at concentration as low as 0.5mg/ml dramatically reduced AI-2 production of all non-O157 STECs tested, with the inhibitory effect proportional to GSE levels. Consistent with diminished QS, GSE at concentration of 0.125mg/ml caused marked reduction of swimming motility of all motile non-O157 STECs tested. In agreement, GSE treatment reduced the production of flagella protein FliC and its regulator FliA in E. coli O103:H2 and E. coli O111:H2. Furthermore, 4mg/ml GSE inhibited the production of Shiga toxin, a major virulence factor, in E. coli O103:H2 and E. coli O111:H2. In summary, GSE inhibits the growth of "top-six" non-O157 STECs at the population level relevant to food contamination. At higher initial population, GSE suppresses QS with concomitant decrease in motility, flagella protein expression and Shiga toxin production. Thus, GSE has the potential to be used in food industry to

  11. 葡萄籽多酚化合物抗氧化能力与抗癌细胞增殖活性的评价%Antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenolic compounds on cancer cell culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兰兰; 张雅丽; 朱磊; 邓嘉进; 曲桂芹; 卢江

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenlic compounds on Petri-Dish cultured cancer cells. Methods: Three phenolic compound parameters(total phenols, flavonoids, and flavan-3-ols) and three antioxidant property parameters DPPH(2,2-diphenyi- 1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, ABTS 2, 2-azino-di-(3-ethylben -zothialozine-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging and FRAP(ferric reducing antioxidant power), were measured. In-vitro cultured human liver cancer cells-HepG2 were treated with extracts of grape seed phenlic compounds in different concentration for 24 h, and were measured for proliferation ability by MTT assay. Results: Phenolic compounds,antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities were different among variant grape seed extracts. Large quantity of phenolic compounds were remained in grape pomace. V. vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon"had higher values of phenolic compounds, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities than V.rotundifolia "Noble". Conclusions: Grape seed phenolic extracts from both fresh fruit and pomace showed antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities.%目的:探讨葡萄鲜果及酿酒皮渣中葡萄籽提取物中的酚类化合物含量,抗氧化特性及对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。方法:乙醇法提取葡萄籽中多酚化合物,分光光度计法测定三大酚类化合物参数(总酚、类黄酮类、黄烷-3-醇类)及3种抗氧化性能参数(DPPH)及ABTS自由基清除能力,FRAP分析)。体外培养肝癌细胞HepG2,建立细胞模型,不同浓度的提取物作用于癌细胞后,采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法(MTT法)检测多酚提取物对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。结果:不同样品葡萄籽所含酚类化合物、抗氧化性能、抗癌细胞增殖能力均不同,酿酒皮渣的葡萄籽中仍含有大量的多酚化合物,其中欧亚种赤霞珠鲜果

  12. Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis Seeds Regulate ARE-Mediated Enzyme Expression via Nrf2 Coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt Pathway in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Sik Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis seeds in particular their roles in inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes as well as in modulating the upstream kinases. Ethanolic extract of V. amurensis seeds was fractionated with a series of organic solvents and finally separated into six fractions, F1–F6. Chemical properties of the procyanidins were analyzed by vanillin assay, BuOH-HCl test, and depolymerization with phloroglucinol followed by LC/MS analysis. The F5 had the highest procyanidin content among all the fractions and strongly induced the reporter activity of antioxidant response element as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2 in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The procyanidin-rich F5 also strongly induced the expression of the phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes such as NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase1 and hemeoxygenase1. Phosphorylations of the upstream kinases such as MAPKs and PI3K/Akt were significantly increased by treatment with procyanidin fraction. In addition, the procyanidin-mediated Nrf2 expression was partly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and almost completely by p38 inhibitor SB202190, but neither by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, the procyanidins from wild grape seeds could be used as a potential natural chemopreventive agent through Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes induction via p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway.

  13. 不同山葡萄品种种子中黄烷-3-醇类物质含量比较研究%Comparative Research of the Flavan -3-ols Content of Varieties of Wild Grape Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文才; 艾军

    2013-01-01

    本试验以“贝达”、“北冰红”、“左山一”、“左山二”、“左优红”、“双红”、“双优”7个山葡萄品种为试验材料,运用高效液相色谱法测得各山葡萄品种种子中儿茶素与表儿茶素的含量。经分析比较得出,“双优”种子中儿茶素的含量最高(2.286mg/g );“左山二”种子中儿茶素含量最低(0.5842mg/g );“双优”种子中表儿茶素含量最高(4.165mg/g ),“左山一”及“左山二”种子中表儿茶素含量皆偏低(1.560mg/g和1.556mg/g )。%This experiment took seven varieties of wild grapes (“Beida” ,“Beibinghong” ,“Zuoshanyi” ,“Zuoshaner” ,“Zuoyouhong” ,“Shuanghong” ,“Shuangyou”) as materials .Use HPLC to measure the content of catechin and epicatechin in every kind of wild grape seeds .By the comparative analysis ,catechin was the highest in“Shuangyou”seeds of 2.286mg/g and the lowest in“Zuoshaner”seeds of 0.584 2mg/g;the epicatechin was highest in“Shuangyou”seeds of 4.165mg/g and the lowest in both“Zuoshanyi”seeds and“Zuoshaner”seeds of 1.560mg/g and 1.556mg/g .

  14. Comparison of fermented and fresh grape seed and related health care products procyanidins detection method%发酵及新鲜葡萄籽与相关保健品中原花青素检测方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李应丽; 王学清; 杨迎春; 杨洁

    2013-01-01

    以发酵葡萄酒后的葡萄籽渣、市售新鲜葡萄籽、两种国内和7种澳大利亚市售的原花青素保健品为原料,用70%乙醇,料液比为1:6,50℃提取2h.提取液分别采用硫酸香草醛法和福林-肖卡法测定其原花青素含量,对两种方法进行比较,并将所有样品进行了高效液相色谱测定.结果表明,新鲜葡萄籽中的原花青素含量明显高于发酵红葡萄酒后的葡萄籽,而发酵且蒸馏后的葡萄籽中原花青素含量高于发酵后未蒸馏的葡萄籽皮;高效液相色谱法为原花青素保健品的检测提供了一定依据.%Procyanidins were extracted with 70% ethanol at 50℃ for 2h from fermented,fresh grape seeds,and 9 health products of procyanidins from China and Australia.The extract was compared with Sulfuric acid vanillin method and Folin-Ciocaheu eolorimetry.All samples were detected with high performance liquid chromatography.Results showed that the content of procyanidins were higher in the fresh grape seeds than that in the fermented grape seeds.In the fermented grape seeds,distilled and dried grape seeds had the more procyanidins than other.The high performance liquid chromatography is a foundation of determing the health products of procyanidins.

  15. Efeito do estádio de desenvolvimento do fruto sobre a qualidade da semente do cultivar Patrícia de videira Effect of the fruit development stage on the quality of 'Patricia' grape seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocely Andreuccetti Maeda

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante a maturação do fruto do cultivar Patrícia de videira, podem-se identificar três diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento, com base, principalmente, na coloração do fruto. Neste trabalho, coletaram-se sementes de cada estádio, armazenando-as por diferentes períodos, sendo a qualidade examinada após a colheita e no armazenamento, visando detectar o ponto de menor índice de dormência e máxima germinação. O estádio de maturação do fruto afetou-lhes a viabilidade: as sementes dos frutos maduros sempre apresentaram os maiores valores de viabilidade, ao contrário daquelas de frutos imaturos. Durante o armazenamento, houve diminuição da viabilidade nos três tipos de sementes testados, sendo as de frutos imaturos as mais afetadas. Em sementes de frutos maduros, ocorreu redução da dormência durante o armazenamento. Antes e depois do armazenamento, as sementes dos frutos maduros e meio maduros emergiram mais rápido e houve desenvolvimento de maior número de plântulas, com maior peso de matéria seca, comparativamente às sementes do fruto imaturo. A máxima germinação e vigor da semente são alcançados em sua maturidade fisiológica, aspecto esse a ser considerado antes da colheita, para que se obtenham sementes de alta qualidade.During the maturation of the fruits of 'Patricia' grape (Vitis hybrid, three different development stages can be identified based mainly on the fruit color. Seeds in each of these stages were harvested and stored for different periods of time. Seed quality was analysed before and after storage in order to detect the maximum capacity of germination and the minimum dormancy level. Seed viability was affected by the fruit maturation stage: high-seed viability was obtained from seeds of mature fruits and low-viability from seeds of immature fruits. During storage a reduction of viability was found for all types of analysed seeds; the ones taken from immature fruits were the most affected. A

  16. Grape seed extract inhibits EGF-induced and constitutively active mitogenic signaling but activates JNK in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: possible role in antiproliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Alpana; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2003-03-01

    A loss of functional androgen receptor and an enhanced expression of growth factor receptors and associated ligands are causal genetic events in prostate cancer (PCA) progression. These genetic alterations lead to an epigenetic mechanism where a feedback autocrine loop between membrane receptor and ligand (e.g. EGFR-TGFalpha) results in a constitutive activation of MAPK-Elk1-AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling in human PCA at an advanced and androgen-independent stage. We rationalized that inhibiting these epigenetic events could be useful in controlling advanced PCA growth. Recently, we found that grape seed extract (GSE), a dietary supplement rich in flavonoid procyanidins, inhibits advanced and androgen-independent human PCA DU145 cell growth in culture and nude mice. Here, we performed detailed mechanistic studies to define the effect of GSE on EGFR-Shc-MAPK-Elk1-AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling in DU145 cells. Pretreatment of serum-starved cells with GSE resulted in 70% to almost complete inhibition of EGF-induced EGFR activation and 50% to complete inhibition of Shc activation, which corroborated with a comparable decrease in EGF-induced Shc binding to EGFR. Conversely, EGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited only by lower doses of GSE; in fact, higher doses showed an increase. Additional studies showed that GSE alone causes a dose- and time-dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in starved DU145 cells that is inhibited by an MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. Independent of this increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, GSE showed a strong inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase activity to Elk1 in both cellular and cell-free systems. GSE treatment of cells also inhibited both EGF-induced and constitutively active Elk1 phosphorylation and AP1 activation. GSE treatment also showed DNA synthesis inhibition in starved and EGF-stimulated cells as well as loss of cell viability and apoptotic death that was further increased by adding MEK1 inhibitor. Since GSE strongly induced

  17. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Adilson; Pegas Pereira, Elisangela Samartin; Assumpção, Elvira Cancio; Calixto dos Santos, Felipe Borba; Ota, Fernanda Sayuri; de Oliveira Pereira, Margareth; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Fávaro, Raquel; Barros Langen, Stephanie Selma; Favaro de Arruda, Lúcia Helena; Abildgaard, Eva Nydal

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet) marine protein (105 mg), vitamin C (27 mg), grape seed extract (13.75 mg), zinc (2 mg), and tomato extract (14.38 mg) in the improvement of skin aging in men. Methods This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images. Results Forty-one subjects (87%) completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05). The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05), dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001), and reduction of skin pH (P<0.05). No statistical improvement in relation to sebum was found. The photographic assessment showed an improvement in the overall appearance. The results of the objective measurements were found to be correlated with the subjects’ satisfaction by an increase of collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion The use of an oral supplement based on a unique biomarine complex, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract produced improvements in the signs of skin aging in men. PMID:26170708

  18. Experimental analysis on bacteriostatic efficacy and toxicity of grape seeds extract in hospital clinically isolated strain%葡萄籽提取物对医院临床分离菌株的抑菌作用及毒性试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯春婷; 孟姿秀; 孟凡戈; 李志富; 胡作林; 邵伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the bacteriostatic efficacy and toxicity of grape seeds ethanol extract in hospital clini-cally isolated strain. Methods:Clinically isolated strain specimens were used to observe the bacteriostatic efficacy of grape seed ethanol extract via bacterial inhibition zone test and nutrient broth method;and animal test was employed to observe experimentally its toxicity. Results:The diameters of bacterial inhibition zones of clinically isolated microorganism strain and standard microorganism strain exposed to the ethanol containing grape seed crude drug 125 mg/ L were larger than 7 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration( MIC)of grape seed ethanol extract for C albicans was 25. 0 mg/ ml. The mouse acute oral LD50 was above 5000 mg/ kg,the rabbit skin irritation test index of grape seed stock solution was 0. 13, which belonged to mild irritation. Conclusion:Grape seed extract has good bacteriostatic efficacy and it belongs to practi-cally non-toxic class and was slightly irritative to skin.%目的:分析葡萄籽乙醇提取液对医院临床分离菌株的体外抑菌作用和毒性。方法以临床标本分离菌株为对象,采用抑菌环试验和营养肉汤稀释法对其抑菌效果进行了试验观察;采用动物试验对其进行了毒性试验观察。结果含葡萄籽生药125 g/ L 的乙醇提取液对临床分离菌株和标准菌株的抑菌环直径均大于7 mm。葡萄籽乙醇提取物对白色念球菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为25.0 g/ L。小鼠急性经口 LD50值大于5000 mg/ kg,葡萄籽提取原液对家兔皮肤刺激试验指数为0.13,属于轻度刺激性。结论葡萄籽乙醇提取液具有良好的抑菌作用,属无毒、低刺激性物质。

  19. Contract archaeology and news archaeological contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Londoño

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two topics related to the current situation of archaeology in Latin America and Colombia. The first section of the paper deals with the impact of contract archaeology in Colombia. The fact that programs of contract or preventive archaeology have rocketed in recent years is well known. Less known, however, are the broad tendencies and dimensions of this phenomenon. The second issue discussed here is the relationship between global tourism politics and processes of local recovery and enhancement of heritage assets, which will be explored through the analysis of two archaeological sites. The recovery and touristification of an archaeological site is used as starting point to reflect about the differences between a new tendency in archaeological contract opposed to the dominant tendency in the field.

  20. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adilson Costa,1,2 Elisangela Samartin Pegas Pereira,1 Elvira Cancio Assumpção,1 Felipe Borba Calixto dos Santos,1 Fernanda Sayuri Ota,1 Margareth de Oliveira Pereira,1 Maria Carolina Fidelis,1 Raquel Fávaro,1 Stephanie Selma Barros Langen,1 Lúcia Helena Favaro de Arruda,1 Eva Nydal Abildgaard3 1Department of Dermatology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2KOLderma Clinical Trials Institute, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Nutritional Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet marine protein (105 mg, vitamin C (27 mg, grape seed extract (13.75 mg, zinc (2 mg, and tomato extract (14.38 mg in the improvement of skin aging in men.Methods: This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images.Results: Forty-one subjects (87% completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05. The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05, dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001, and

  1. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  2. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency. PMID:26948617

  3. Tephra, tephrochronology and archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Thastrup, Mads

    2013-01-01

    instantaneous from a geological, archaeological, and evolutionary perspective. Often these volcanic products can be identified by various chemical and non-chemical means and if the eruption date is known, the occurrence of tephra from a given eruption in stratigraphic sequences provides a powerful means......, and to make a case for better linking tephra research to archaeology, all from a primarily Scandinavian perspective. We argue that the identification of tephra in archaeological sediments should, in due time, become as routine as other types of geo-archaeological analyses, especially given that tephra cannot...

  4. Influence of Soil and Irrigation Management on the Quality of Seedless Crimson Table Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, R.; Agulheiro, C; Shahidian, S.; Vaz, M.; Rato, A.; Vieira, F; Valverde, P.

    2014-01-01

    The market for table grapes is moving into mass production of specialty seed-less grapes in covered areas, aiming at obtaining premium prices with early or late production of high quality products. Production of quality seedless grapes is not straightforward since it is requires the correct combination of various independent characteristics, such as color, sugars, size and quantity at the right moment for successful harvesting and marketing. The present study was carried out at...

  5. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  6. Radiocarbon and Indian archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radiocarbon (C14) dating techniques in Indian archaeology has been described in detail. Work done in Microlithic cultures, Neolithic period, Indus civilization and Iron age cultures have been reported. C14 dates of various archaeological sites are listed. (K.B.)

  7. Biocorrosion of Archaeological Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, William L.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the physical manifestation and chemical mechanisms andprocesses of biologically-induced corrosion of archaeological glass. Archaeological glasssamples from Greece and Cyprus suspected to have undergone biocorrosion wereanalyzed to characterize the composition and surface topography and to determine thedifference in the chemistry and microstructure between the glass surface and the bulk.Microscopic and analytical techniques employed include digital microscopy, polari...

  8. The influence of virus diseases on grape polyphenols of cv. 'Refosk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors can modulate the synthesis of polyphenols in the plants. Cv. 'Refosk' was used to show the influence of the GLRaV-1 and rugose wood (RW) on the polyphenols in grape. The infection shifted polyphenols from seeds to grape skins but had no impact on anthocyanins

  9. Grape seed proanthocyanidins promote apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through alterations in Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, and caspase-3 activation via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeran, Syed M; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) prevent photocarcinogenesis in mice. Here, we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with GSPs inhibited cellular proliferation (13-89%) and induced cell death (1-48%) in a dose (5-100 mug/ml)- and time (24, 48 and 72 h)-dependent manner. GSP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was associated with an increase in G1-phase arrest at 24 h, which was mediated through the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and simultaneous increase in protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (Cdki), Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27, and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. The treatment of A431 cells with GSPs (20-80 mug/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death (26-58%), which was associated with an increased protein expression of proapoptotic Bax, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) blocked the GSP-induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggesting that GSP-induced apoptosis is associated primarily with the caspase-3-dependent pathway. Together, our study suggests that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro, further in vivo mechanistic studies are required to verify the chemotherapeutic effect of GSPs in skin cancers. PMID:17437483

  10. The color intensity variation of grape seed extracts dissolving in the Wudalianchi mineral water%葡萄籽提取物的五大连池矿泉水溶液色度变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菁华; 马晓红; 李月兴; 方振兴; 潘虹

    2014-01-01

    Grape seed extract( GSE) is one kind of high anti-oxidation healthy food stuff. The GSE dissolved with Wudalianchi mineral water and centrifugal separation. The absorbency of solution was measured under 420 nm,520 nm,620 nm with UV spectrophotometer. The color intensity varied with time has been studied in this paper. A group dissolving in de-ionized water was set as control. Result showed that the color of GSE dissolved in mineral water is more stable. Conclusion:The beverage prepared by dissolving with Wudalianchi mineral water is more healthy and nutritious.%葡萄籽提取物是一种具有高抗氧化性等保健功效的天然食品原料,通过将葡萄籽提取物用五大连池矿泉水溶解后,经离心,静置观察,采用紫外分光光度计分别在420 nm、520 nm、620 nm 波长下测定葡萄籽矿泉水溶液的吸光度,并与葡萄籽蒸馏水溶液吸光度值进行比较,研究比较了两种溶液色调的变化。结果显示葡萄籽提取物用五大连池矿泉水溶解后溶液颜色稳定持久。所以,使用五大连池矿泉水作为葡萄籽提取物饮品的水源可以减少添加色素,并且颜色持久稳定。

  11. The Effect of Aloe Vera, Pomegranate Peel, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, and Sodium Ascorbate as Antioxidants on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Home-bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sharafeddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Immediate application of bonding agent to home- bleached enamel leads to significant reduction in the shear bond strength of composite resin due to the residual oxygen. Different antioxidant agents may overcome this problem. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the effect of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to home-bleached. Materials and Method: Sixty extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5×1.5 cm, with the coronal portion left out of the block. After bleaching the labial enamel surface with 15% carbamide peroxide, they were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10. Before performing composite resin restoration by using a cylindrical Teflon mold (5×2 mm, each group was treated with one of the following antioxidants: 10% sodium ascorbate solution, 10% pomegranate peel solution, 10% grape seed extract, 5% green tea extract, and aloe vera leaf gel. One group was left untreated as the control. The shear bond strength of samples was tested under a universal testing machine (ZwickRoell Z020. The shear bond strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05. Results: No significant difference existed between the control and experimental groups. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the effects of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of bleached enamel. Conclusion: Different antioxidants used in this study had the same effect on the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel, and none of them caused a statistically significant increase in its value.

  12. 葡萄籽油对镉致大鼠肝脏细胞氧化损伤的保护作用%Protective Effects of Grape Seed Oil on Oxidative Damage in Rat Liver Cells Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志辉; 杨翠婵; 李伯灵

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To explore the protective effect of grape seed oil (GSO) on DNA oxidative damage of liver cells in rats exposed to CdCl2. [ Methods ] A total of 40 SD rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into 5 groups, which were the control group (intraperitoneal injection and gastric perfusion of normal saline with same volume), the CdCl2 exposure-positive group (intraperitoneal injection of l.0mg/kg CdCl2 and gastric perfusion of normal saline with the same volume), and the GSO low-, medium- and high-dose intervention groups (intraperitoneal injection of l.0mg/kg CdCl2 and gastric perfusion of 0.66mg/kg, 1.32mg/kg, 2.64mg/kg GSO, respectively) with 8 of either gender in each group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. DNA oxidative damage was measured by single cell gel eletrophoresis (SCGE). [ Results ] The l.0mg/kg CdCl2 induced a significant increase in MDA content and DNA oxidative damage. The difference of MDA contents between the GSO high-dose intervention group and the CdCl2 exposure-positive group was significant (P< 0.05). The clearances in the GSO low-, medium- and high-dose intervention groups were 54.55%, 54.55% and 100.00%, respectively. The DNA damage significantly decreased in the GSO intervention groups in a dose-dependent manner, compared with the CdCl2 exposure-positive group (P<0.05). [ Conclusion ] A certain dose of grape seed oil can induce a decrease in MDA content and DNA damage in rat liver after cadmium exposure.%[目的]探讨葡萄籽油(grape seed oil,GSO)对氯化镉(CdCl2)诱导大鼠肝脏细胞DNA损伤的保护作用.[方法]将40只SPF级雌雄各半SD大鼠随机分为对照组(腹腔注射生理盐水和灌胃生理盐水)、染镉组(腹腔注射1.0 mg/kg的CdCl2和灌胃生理盐水)、GSO低、中、高剂量干预组(均腹腔注射1.0 mg/kg CdC12,同时分别灌胃0.66、1.32、2.64 mg/kgGSO),硫代巴比妥酸法检测肝中丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)的含量,采

  13. OK computer? Digital community archaeologies in practice (Internet Archaeology 40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this section of Internet Archaeology came out of a Theoretical Archaeology Group session at Manchester University in 2014. The session was motivated to explore issues associated with 'digital public archaeology' (DPA. The articles presented here deal with a number of themes which arise when doing digital public archaeology.

  14. Vermicomposting grape marc yields high quality organic biofertiliser and bioactive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Jorge; Martínez-Cordeiro, Hugo; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Grape is the largest fruit crop in the world, and most (80%) of the harvested fruit is used to make wine. The main by-product of the wine industry is called grape marc, which consists of the stalks, skin, pulp and seeds that remain after pressing the grapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether grape marc could be processed by vermicomposting on an industrial scale to yield both a high-quality organic, polyphenol-free fertiliser and grape seeds (as a source of bioactive polyphenols). Vermicomposting reduced the biomass of grape marc substantially (by 58%), mainly as a result of the loss of volatile solids. After 2 weeks, the process yielded a nutrient-rich, microbiologically active and stabilised peat-like material that was easily separated from the seeds by sieving. Although the polyphenol content of the seeds was considerably reduced, this disadvantage was outweighed by the ease of separation of the seeds. Separation of the seeds also eliminated the polyphenol-associated phytotoxicity from the vermicompost. The seeds still contained useful amounts of polyphenols, which could be directly extracted for use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The procedure described is effective, simple and economical, and could easily be scaled up for industrial application. PMID:25349068

  15. Archaeology and Photography: A Pragmatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is an exploration of meta-archaeology. We consider some of the premises, dispositions, infrastructures of archaeological practices, where the archaeological is no longer a substantive, but adjectival, an aspect of things and doings, where archaeology is part of the trans...

  16. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  17. Archaeological soybean (Glycine max in East Asia: does size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyoung-Ah Lee

    Full Text Available The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length × width × thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000-8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun. Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia.

  18. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  19. Inhibition of murine skin carcinogenesis by freeze-dried grape powder and other grape-derived major antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanausek, Margaret; Spears, Erick; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Wendel, Courtney; Slaga, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to carcinogenic insults causes a variety of adverse effects, among them the development of skin carcinomas. Since there is a need to develop efficient chemopreventive agents based on nutrition, our goal was to determine antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of grapes by evaluating grape powder developed by the California Table Grape Commission. In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of grape powder, three of the major antioxidant components found in grapes-resveratrol, catechin, quercetin, and grape seed extract, containing a proanthocyanidin B-2-gallate-were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and to protect the immune system. Tested antioxidants given topically and/or systemically strongly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation. The hydroxylation of 2'-deoxyguanosine was markedly inhibited by topical and dietary administration of test variables, i.e., by approximately 40-70%. Simultaneous dietary and topical treatment with antioxidants reduced these biomarkers, showing strong additive and in some combinations synergistic effects. DMBA-mediated Ha-ras mutations in codon 61 were reduced by up to 50% with topical applications, but much higher inhibition was observed in mice treated with different combinations. The results of the present study clearly show impressive effects of combined topical and dietary treatments with above grape-derived antioxidants.

  20. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  1. 海藻葡萄皮渣复合发酵醋饮料的研制%Development of Compound Fermented Vinegar Beverage of Algae and Grape Skin and Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾学东; 胡丽娜

    2014-01-01

    以海藻、葡萄皮渣为原料,经水、酒精先后浸提后,把两次浸提液混合均匀,调整酒精含量,加入蓝莓果汁等,经醋酸发酵,脱腥,制备发酵醋饮料。采用正交试验设计,以原花青素为有效成分指标,研究了酒精的最佳浸提工艺条件。结果表明,酒精度70%vol、浸提温度55℃、浸提时间4h为最佳浸提工艺;利用单因素实验,探讨了发酵时间、发酵醋酸度对产品脱腥的影响。结果表明,发酵时间72h、发酵酸度5g/100mL可以掩蔽海藻的腥味;最后通过正交试验,确定了发酵醋饮料的最佳配方为:发酵醋5%,木糖醇7.5%,蜂蜜2%。%Fermented vinegar beverage was prepared with raw materials of algae,grape skin and seed that after water leaching, alcohol leaching,mixing leaching solution, adjusting alcohol content, joining the blueberry juice,acetic acid fermentation, and deodorizing. By orthogonal experimental design,with procyanidins as effective component index, the best leaching technology conditions of alcohol was studied. The results showed that the best leaching process was alcohol 70% vol, leaching temperature 55℃,and leaching time 4h. The paper discussed the effect of fermentation time and fermentation degree of acetic acid on product trends using single factor analysis.The results showed that the smell of seaweed can be masked at fermentation time of 72h and acidity of 5g/100mL. Finally, the best formula was determined by orthogonal experiment:5%fermented vinegar, 7.5%xylitol, and 2%honey.

  2. Proteomic analysis of aorta and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 in db/db mice reveal a critical role of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 in diabetic arterial damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM, leading to morbidity and mortality. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2 has demonstrated protective effect against atherosclerosis, which is believed to be, at least in part, a result of its antioxidative effects. The aim of this study is to identify the target protein of GSPB2 responsible for the protective effect against atherosclerosis in patients with DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: GSPB2 (30 mg/kg body weight/day were administrated to db/db mice for 10 weeks. Proteomics of the aorta extracts by iTRAQ analysis was obtained from db/db mice. The results showed that expression of 557 proteins were either up- or down-regulated in the aorta of diabetic mice. Among those proteins, 139 proteins were normalized by GSPB2 to the levels comparable to those in control mice. Among the proteins regulated by GSPB2, the milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 (MFG-E8 was found to be increased in serum level in T2DM patients; the serum level of MFG-E8 was positively correlated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV. Inhibition of MFG-E8 by RNA interference significantly suppressed whereas exogenous recombinant MFG-E8 administration exacerbated atherogenesis the db/db mice. To gain more insights into the mechanism of action of MFG-E8, we investigated the effects of MFG-E8 on the signal pathway involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. Treatment with recombinant MFG-E8 led to increased whereas inhibition of MFG-E8 to decreased expression of MCP-1 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that MFG-E8 plays an important role in atherogenesis in diabetes through both ERK and MCP-1 signaling pathways. GSPB2, a well-studied antioxidant, significantly inhibited the arterial wall changes favoring atherogenesis in db/db mice by down-regulating MFG-E8 expression in aorta and its serum level

  3. Grape seed procyanidin reversal of p-glycoprotein associated multi-drug resistance via down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activity in A2780/T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-xin Zhao

    Full Text Available The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR, leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic.

  4. Photographs and Archaeological Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Guha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the ways in which photographs and their archives establish archaeological knowledge. It draws upon histories of photography and archaeology within South Asia to create focus upon archaeology’s evidentiary regimes. The aims are to: a demonstrate the importance of engaging with photographs and their archives as objects for reckoning archaeology’s evidentiary terrains, b draw attention to multiple social biographies a photograph or photographic archive acquires, c highlight the visual as a force of archaeology’s historiography, and d impress upon the necessity of attending to historiographical issues. The aims allow us in seeing some of the ways in which field sciences create their evidentiary frames, and have a special resonance within the context of South Asian archaeology where professional and amateur archaeologists continue to promote the belief that archaeological facts exist out there, and that archaeological research produces better and more robust sources for the past than scholarship based on texts. Visual histories also highlight the mutation of the so-called ‘colonialist’ historiography within the post-colonial histories of archaeology’s developments, and encourage us to go beyond the hackneyed formulations of colonial legacies and the hagiographic literature of individual practitioners.

  5. 利用葡萄籽油防治桃子采后褐腐病的研究%Application of Grape Seed Oil to Control Brown Rot of Postharvest Peaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张殿朋; 韩雪梅; 卢彩鸽; 张晓元; 刘伟成

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the efficacy of grape seed oil (GFO) at different concentrations (0.5%,0.1%,0.05%,0.01%) in controlling brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on postharvest peaches was evaluated in artificially-wounded peaches or under storage conditions,and moreover,the effects of GFO on fruit quality parameters including firmness,total soluble solids,ascorbic acid and titratable acidity were investigated.In vitro,when M.fructicola at 5 × 104 cfu/mL was cultured at the presence of GFO at the concentration of ≥0.05 %,the pathogen spore germination was completely inhibited by GFO; In vivo,when M.fructicola at 5 × 104 cfu/mL was inoculated into artificially-wounded peaches followed by inoculating GFO,GFO at the concentration of≥0.05% reduced the brown rot diameter by more than 50%,but no significant difference was observed between 0.1% and 0.5%.However,when the concentration of GFO was 0.01%,the control efficacy in vivo was significantly decreased.Therefore,the optimal concentration of GFO in controlling brown rot on postharvest peaches was defined as 0.1%.When stored at 1 ℃ and 96% RH for 21 days,the disease incidence of 0.1% GFO-treated peaches was 20.0%,the disease incidence of the fungicide (tebuconazole)-treated peaches was 18.7 %,and the disease incidence of the control group was 45.5%,showing that the efficacy of 0.1% GFO in controlling brown rot was 56.0%,which was very similar to that of fungicide(58.9%).Fruit quality parameter assessment indicated that GFO had no significant effects on the peach quality.As far as we know,this is the first report on application of non-harmful grape seed oil to control the brown rot on postharvest peaches as an alternative to fungicide.%为探索桃采后褐腐病的新型非化学农药防治手段,研究了不同用量葡萄籽油处理(体积分数分别为0.5%、0.1%、0.05%、0.01%)对桃采后褐腐病的抑制效果.将褐腐病菌(Monilinia fructicola)(终浓度:5

  6. 葡萄籽提取物对烤羊肉中杂环胺形成的影响%Inhibition Effect of Grape Seed Extract on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Fried Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国周; 王桂瑛; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2011-01-01

    将0.05%VE,0.1%与0.5%葡萄籽提取物,0.1%与0.5%槲皮素分别添加于羊肉表面,在200℃下煎烤10 min,利用固相萃取-配备二极管阵列检测器和荧光检测器的高效液相色谱分析烤羊肉中15种杂环胺的形成量,以探讨天然提取物对烤羊肉中杂环胺形成量的影响。结果表明:烤羊肉中共检测出10种杂环胺,其中极性杂环胺4种,非极性杂环胺6种,总量达51.68 ng/g。在极性杂环胺中2-氨基-1-甲基-6-苯基-咪唑并[4,5-b]吡啶(PhIP)的形成量较高,达10.50 ng/g;非极性杂环胺中9H-吡啶并[3,4-b]吲哚(Norharman)与1-甲基-9H-吡啶并[3,4-b]吲哚(Harman)的形成量较高,分别达19.66 ng/g与12.23 ng/g。烤羊肉中添加天然抗氧化剂只对极性杂环胺有抑制作用,其中添加0.5%葡萄籽提取物可以显著抑制2-氨基-3甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹啉(IQ),2-氨基-3,8-二甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹喔啉(MeIQx),2-氨基-3,4,8-三甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹喔啉(4,8-DiMeIQx)与PhIP 4种极性杂环胺的形成(P〈0.05),其生成量分别减少36.65%,67.73%,35.63%与30%。天然抗氧化剂对烤羊肉中非极性杂环胺的抑制作用不明显。%The effects of vitamin E,grape seed extracts and quercetin on HAAs formation in fried mutton patties were studied.Antioxidants were added directly to the surface of the patties before frying.Patties were fried at 200℃ for 10 min.HAAs were isolated by solid phase extraction and quantified by HPLC with DAD and FLD detection.Results showed that 10 HAAs were detected in fried mutton patties,the total amount of HAAs was up to 51.68 ng/g.Among them,9H-pyridoindole(Norharman),1-methyl-9H-pyrido indole(Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-pyridine(PhIP) were detected at higher level in fried mutton patties.The concentrations of the two compounds were 19.66 ng/g,12.23 ng/g and 10.50 ng/g respectively.Compared to the control,Grape seed extracts at 0.5% levels significantly

  7. Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on spinal cord injury in rats%原花青素对大鼠急性脊髓损伤的保护作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋佳; 齐慧慧; 贾连顺

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨原花青素对大鼠急性脊髓损伤(spinal cord injury,SCI)的保护作用.[方法]SD大鼠随机分为假手术组(A组)、脊髓打击损伤组(B组)、原花青素治疗组(C组).A组行T8椎板切除术,不伤及脊髓.B、C组采用改良Allens撞击法制备大鼠T8急性SCI模型.C组术后立即腹腔注射原花青素100 mg/kg,A、B组术后立即腹腔注射等量的生理盐水.分别于术后不同时间点评价大鼠后肢运动功能,检测脊髓匀浆超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)、髓过氧化物酶(myeloperoxidase,MPO)活性、丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量改变,观察脊髓组织病理学变化.[结果]术后A组大鼠后肢运动功能恢复.术后C组大鼠后肢运动功能较B组均有所改善,72 h后肢运动功能恢复更为显著(P<0.01).术后48 hB组脊髓组织SOD活性较A组明显降低(P<0.01),而MDA含量较A组明显增加(P<0.01);应用GSPE后,术后48hC组脊髓组织SOD活性较B组明显升高(P<0.01),脊髓组织MDA水平较B明显降低(P<0.01);SCI后脊髓组织TNF-α含量、MPO活性均随时间推移逐渐增高;各时间点C组脊髓TNF-α含量、MPO活性较B组均有统计学意义(P<0.01);A组大鼠各检测点脊髓组织形态结构均正常;B、C两组72 h切片变化最为显著;B组可见神经组织多灶性出血、大量神经元坏死、尼氏体溶解消失、核固缩变小及炎性细胞浸润;C组可见局部出血点、细胞轻度肿胀,胞质均匀及少量炎性细胞浸润.[结论] GSPE可明显改善大鼠运动功能,抑制氧化应激、炎症反应和细胞凋亡等,对SCI有神经保护作用.%[Objective]To study the protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on spinal cord injury(SCI) model with weight-dropping method in adult rats. [Method]Fifty-four SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operation group (group A) , spinal cord injury group (group B) ,and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE

  8. Effect of grape seed extract proanthocyanidin on loaded swimming time in mice%葡萄籽提取物原花青素对小鼠负重游泳时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘协; 李小宁; 包六行; 凌宝银

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Proanthocyanidin,a kind of grape seed extract(GSE),has the effect of anti-oxidation and elimination of free radicals.Research finds that increase of free radicals in skeletal muscle and active oxygen in other forms induced by exercise is one of the important causes of the injury and fatigue of skeletal muscle. Supplement of antioxidant can inhibit this kind of change and improve motor ability. OBJECTIVE:To study the anti-fatigue effects of proanthocyanidin. DESIGN:A completely randomized controlled experimental study taking experimental animals as the subjects. SETTING:A toxicological department of a provincial center for disease control and prevention. PARTICIPANTS:The experiment was completed in the Department of Toxicology,Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention from September to December 2001.Male mice of Kunming strain and common grade[certification number:SCXK(Su) 2002-0011;certification number of environmental equipment for experimental animal:SYXK(Su) 2001-0004]were purchased from the Experiment Animal Center of Chinese Pharmacological University.The 120 mice were randomly divided according to body mass into control group and 3 experiment groups, namely,low-,medium-and high-dose GSE groups,with 10 mice in each group.The mice in the 3 experiment groups received oral administration of GSE every day. INTERVENTIONS:The mice in the 3 experiment groups received oral administration of GSE of 1.7, 16.7 and 50.0 mg/kg body mass,respectively,while those in control group were only given twice distilled water for 30 consecutive days. After GSE treatment for 30 days,the loaded swimming time, contents of hepatic glycogen,blood lactic acid(LA) and hemoglobin were measured. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Loaded swimming time, hepatic glycogen,LA and hemoglobin contents. RESULTS:The loaded swimming time of mice in experiment groups was significantly prolonged as compared with that in control group (P< 0.01),with(17.84± 8.48) and(25.80± 7.45) minutes in medium

  9. [Antioxidant and antiradical properties of red grape wines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Muzychenko, G F; Bessonov, V V; Khanferyan, R A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the antioxidant and antiradical capacity of red table wines. It is shown that the antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines due to the varieties of grapes and processing technologies. A correlation between the concentration of phenolic components of the complex and antiradical properties, as well as antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines has been established. Antioxidant and antiradical properties were higher in variants with the highest concentration of the most important components of a phenolic complex--catechins and tannins. Their greatest content has been identified in the wine materials Saperavi made on technologies which can extract components polyphenol complex not only from grape skin, and grape seed (seed) containing ellagitannins and gallocatechin (using Vinificator company Padovan; prepared by fermenting mash irrigation heated mash, using a fermentation mash by Fludase). Depending on the grape varieties and production technology, the antioxidant activity varied by more than 30%. These data indicate that the technology can increase the production of wine intravarietal (for grapes) antioxidant activity of 10 to 20%. PMID:26841558

  10. 30 Years of Archaeological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s archaeology has achieved remarkable outcomes during the 30 years after the carrying out of the reform and opening up policy. In theoretical research, various archaeological theories and genres have been introduced to China, which have influenced the development of the archaeology of China.

  11. Building Sustainability in Community Archaeology: the Hendon School Archaeology Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moshenska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hendon School Archaeology Project is a collaboration between Hendon School, the Hendon and District Archaeological Society (HADAS and the UCL Institute of Archaeology. It aims to provide students at the school with an experience and understanding of archaeological fieldwork, while investigating an important multi-period site. This paper outlines the results of the first five years of the project: both the archaeological findings, and as an innovative collaborative form of community archaeology. The principal focus of research is the 16th-century residence of John Norden, cartographer to Elizabeth I; however, the most significant discovery to date is a substantial ceramic assemblage of 12th to 14th-century date. As community archaeology, an important aspect is the sustainability of the project, based on cost and resource sharing between the project partners, which we believe may offer a useful model for other such initiatives.

  12. Galactic Archaeology: Current Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    I present an overview of the science goals and achievements of ongoing spectroscopic surveys of individual stars in the nearby Universe. I include a brief discussion of the development of the field of Galactic Archaeology - using the fossil record in old stars nearby to infer how our Galaxy evolved and place the Milky Way in cosmological context.

  13. Archaeological Discoveries in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    LIAONING Province, in northeastern China, has been inhabited by many ethnic groups since ancient times. It is one of the sites of China’s earliest civilization. Since the 1950s many archaeological discoveries from periods beginning with the Paleolithic of 200,000 years ago, and through all the following historic periods, have been made in the province.

  14. Islamic Archaeology in Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Three years of archaeological research at Al Zubarah on the northwest coast of the Qatar peninsula has produced detailed information on social, cultural, and economic structures of a major trading town of the Gulf in the 18th and 19th centuries CE. Detailed investigations, undertaken in partnership...

  15. An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESR spectra of the seeds, skins and stalks of unirradiated and γ-irradiated Cape black grapes have been obtained. In the spectra of all parts of the grape a single line (g ca. 2.004) is observed both before and after irradiation. New spectral features are observed after irradiation with doses of between 2 and 10 kGy. Some of these features decline in intensity over a period of several days. However, in the case of stalks, new spectral features are readily observed over the shelf-life of the fruit and in samples irradiated to a dose of only 2 kGy. (author)

  16. Effect of Grape Seed Powder Replacing for Corn on the Weight and Economic Benefit of Adult Ewes%葡萄籽粉替代玉米对成年母羊体重和经济效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 孙占鹏; 张雪山; 安怀勇; 李会菊; 吴智广; 杨新军

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted to study the influence of different doses of grape seed powder replacing for corn on weight and economic benefi of adult ewes. 32 adult sheep with similar age (15 to 16 months) and in good health were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the principle of similar weight. The control group was fed the basal diet, the test Ⅰ , Ⅱ and Ⅲ groups added different doses of grape seed powder replacing for 7%, 14% and 21% corn in the basal diet. The results showed that the test Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ groups were no significantly difference compared with the control group in weight gain (P> 0. 05), the average weight of test Ⅰ group increased 14. 50% , and the economic benefit of test Ⅰ group increased 37. 74%. In short, adding grape seed powder replacing for 7% corn in the basal diet was the best for weight gain and economic efficiency of adult sheep in this research.%本试验旨在研究日粮中添加不同剂量葡萄籽粉替代玉米对成年母羊体重和经济效益的影响.试验选取年龄相近(15~16月龄)、健康状况良好的成年母羊32只,根据体重相近原则随机分为4组,对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ组分别用葡萄籽粉替代基础日粮中7%、14%和21%玉米.结果表明,试验各组间羊增重差异不显著(P>0.05),但试验Ⅰ组平均日增重比对照组提高了14.50%,且经济效益比对照组平均提高了37.74%.提示,本试验中在基础日粮中使用葡萄籽粉替代7%玉米对成年母羊的增重效果和经济效益最佳.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 680) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    . The claimed effect is “ocular system: OPCs play an important role in the structure and physiological functions of cornea, OPCs protect the cornea and improve visual adaptation to low luminances”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings...... claims in relation to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA......, clarifications from Member States and the references provided, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to the improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The Panel considers that improvement of visual adaptation to the dark is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which...

  18. 葡萄籽和苹果原花青素对变形链球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制作用%Antibacterial Activity of Procyanidins from Apple and Grape Seeds against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单静敏; 曹雁平; 肖俊松; 陈瑶佳; 于军

    2011-01-01

    研究苹果原花青素和葡萄籽原花青素对变形链球菌(Streptococcus mutans)和金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcusaureus)的抑制作用,采用试管液体稀释法和琼脂稀释法抑菌实验测定其最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)和质量最低杀菌质量浓度(MBC),并通过测定培养基pH值的变化,研究葡萄籽原花青素对变形链球菌产酸能力的影响。结果表明:苹果原花青素、葡萄籽原花青素对变形链球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌生长都有抑制作用;苹果原花青素对变形链球菌的MIC和MBC分别为1.25、4.00mg/mL,葡萄籽原花青素对变形链球菌的MIC和MBC分别为1.75、2.00mg/mL;苹果原花青素对金黄色葡萄球菌的MIC和MBC分别为4.00、9.00mg/mL,葡萄籽原花青素对金黄色葡萄球菌的MIC和MBC分别为2.00、6.50mg/mL。葡萄籽原花青素质量浓度大于1.00mg/mL对变形链球菌的产酸能力有显著抑制效果。%Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus are major pathogenic bacteria in human oral cavity.In the present study,the antibacterial activity of procyanidins derived from grape seeds and apples against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated.The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration(MBC) were determined by broth tube dilution and agar dilution methods,respectively.The effect of procyanidins on acid production of S.mutans was also studied by monitoring pH change of the broth during cultivation.Results showed that the MIC and MBC against S.mutans were 1.25 mg/mL and 4.00 mg/mL for apple procyanidins,and 1.75 mg/mL and 2.00 mg/mL for grape seed procyanidins,respectively.The MIC and MBC against S.aureus were 4.00 mg/mL and 9.00 mg/mL for apple procyanidins,and 2.00 mg/mL and 6.50 mg/mL for grape seed procyanidins,respectively.Grape seed procyanidins with a concentration over 1.00 mg/mL had significant inhibitory effect on acid production of S.mutans.

  19. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  20. Archaeology, landscape and aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Cooper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role, if any, of aesthetic reflections in the discipline of landscape archaeology. It begins by rejecting the charge that archaeologists should set aside their own aesthetic sensibility when studying landscapes. The bulk of the paper, however, is concerned with arguing that attention to the aesthetic sensibilities of the peoples who made the landscapes studied is essential to the kind of understanding and reconstruction of ways of life that landscape archaeology aims to provide. Two important themes that are developed during the course of this argument are: (1 a distinction (ignored by some archaeologists who are critical of appeals to aesthetic enjoyment between aesthetic appreciation and a dilettante “aestheticism” and (2 the aesthetic satisfactions that must be taken in work, such as farming, if this is to flourish.

  1. Additive archaeology: an alternative framework for recontextualising archaeological entities

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly Paul

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing poses a number of challenges to conventional understandings of materiality, including the so-called archaeological record. In particular, concepts such as real, virtual, and authentic are becoming increasingly unstable, as archaeological artefacts and assemblages can be digitalised, reiterated, extended and distributed through time and space as 3D printable entities. This paper argues that additive manufacturing represents a ‘grand disciplinary challenge’ to archaeologi...

  2. Drones in Archaeology

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil

    2014-09-01

    In late 2013, a joint archaeological and computer vision project was initiated to digitally capture the archaeological remains in the al-Ula valley, Saudi Arabia. The goal of our team of archeologists and computer scientists is to integrate 3D scanning technologies to produce 3D reconstructions of archaeological sites. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) serve as the vehicle which makes this scanning possible. UAVs allow the acquisition of 3D data as easily from the air as from the ground. This project focuses on the recent excavations carried out in ancient Dedan by King Saud University and the country\\'s conservation of the Lihyanite "lion tombs" carved into the ancient city\\'s cliff faces. Over the next several years this site will be used as a test bed to validate the potential of this emerging technology for rapid cultural heritage documentation. We additionally scanned several areas in Mada\\'in Saleh, an ancient Nabatean city filled with monumental carved sandstone tomb facades, rivaled only by the capital of the Nabatean empire: Petra.

  3. Grape products and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christine D

    2009-09-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods.

  4. Future archaeologies : method and story.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This will be an account of an ongoing experiment called 'future archaeology'. Despite it’s name it's not strictly an archaeological experiment, since I’m not an archaeologist. Nor is it strictly scientific, since I’m not a natural scientist. However, it is an empirical experiment: it draws on evidence, it draws on artefacts, it has a method, and is theoretically grounded in critical social sciences, science studies, anthropology, and archaeological theory.

  5. History of marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    archaeology we study the past activities of human from maritime finds, usually from shipwrecks, sunken ports and settlements. Nautical archaeology is studied and explained as maritime archaeology, specialising in maritime activities and technology of ships...

  6. Clinical, biometric and ultrasound assessment of the effects of daily use of a nutraceutical composed of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine Complex in photoaged human skin Avaliações clínica, biométrica e ultrassonográfica dos efeitos do uso diário de um nutracêutico a base de licopeno, extrato de acerola, extrato de semente de uva e Complexo Biomarinho na pele fotoenvelhecida humana

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Costa; Lars Lindmark; Lúcia Helena Fávaro Arruda; Elvira Cancio Assumpção; Fernanda Sayuri Ota; Margareth de Oliveira Pereira; Stéphanie Selma Barros Langen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of nutraceuticals has become frequent in the cutaneous approach to photoaging. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical efficacy of a nutraceutical product composed of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine ComplexT in photoaged human skin. METHODS: 50 women, from 35 to 60 years of age, phototypes I to III, were assessed. For 120 days, they associated the nutraceutical product with the use of a sunscreen FPS15. On days 0 (D0), 30 (D30), 60 (D60), 90 (D90) an...

  7. The Study on the Comprehensive Utilization of Grape Dregs%葡萄废渣的综合利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福祥; 韩菊

    2001-01-01

    The comprehensive utilization of grape dregs from wine plants is reviewed in many respects.It includes extracting pigment,pectin and tartaric acid from fermented grape skin;protein,grape seed oil and tannin from grape seeds;oligomeric flavanols from grape skin,seeds and stalk.%对葡萄酒厂副产品——葡萄废渣的综合利用进行了综述:从发酵的皮渣中提取色素、果胶、酒石酸;从葡萄籽中提取蛋白质、葡萄籽油、单宁;从葡萄皮、籽、梗中提取低聚黄烷醇化合物。

  8. GRAPE-6A: A single-card GRAPE-6 for parallel PC-GRAPE cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushige, T; Kawai, A; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Kawai, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of GRAPE-6A, a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations. It was designed to be used with a PC cluster, in which each node has one GRAPE-6A. Such configuration is particularly effective in running parallel tree algorithm. Though the use of parallel tree algorithm was possible with the original GRAPE-6 hardware, it was not very cost-effective since a single GRAPE-6 board was still too fast and too expensive. Therefore, we designed GRAPE-6A as a single PCI card to minimize the reproduction cost and optimize the computing speed. The peak performance is 130 Gflops for one GRAPE-6A board and 3.1 Tflops for our 24 node cluster. We describe the implementation of the tree, TreePM and individual timestep algorithms on both a single GRAPE-6A system and GRAPE-6A cluster. Using the tree algorithm on our 16-node GRAPE-6A system, we can complete a collisionless simulation with 100 million particles (8000 steps) within 10 days.

  9. GRAPE-6A: A single-card GRAPE-6 for parallel PC-GRAPE cluster system

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Kawai, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of GRAPE-6A, a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations. It was designed to be used with a PC cluster, in which each node has one GRAPE-6A. Such configuration is particularly effective in running parallel tree algorithm. Though the use of parallel tree algorithm was possible with the original GRAPE-6 hardware, it was not very cost-effective since a single GRAPE-6 board was still too fast and too expensive. Therefore...

  10. Internet Archaeology News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cèsar Carreras Monfort

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available La revista Internet Archaeology News s'adreça a un públic restringit, especialitzat en arqueologia i sobretot en aplicacions de caràcter informàtic i noves metodologies de treball. El fet que la revista neixi amb la voluntat d'ésser innovadora en el seu camp i molt especialitzada no treu que el nivell de les col·laboracions sigui de força qualitat gràcies a la política del equip editorial.

  11. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  12. Comparative study of ancient DNA extraction methods for archaeological plant remains

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Jason Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential for plant ancient DNA (aDNA) to address important archaeological questions, there are significantly fewer studies of plant aDNA compared to human and animal aDNA, partially due to a lack of research on DNA extraction methods for ancient plant remains. The current study uses heat to degrade modern corn, pea, and squash seeds to simulate degraded DNA associated with archaeological macro-botanical remains. I then compare DNA recovery efficiencies of three common DNA extract...

  13. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and insulinotropic effect of extracts prepared from grape (Vitis vinifera L) byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Doshi, Pooja; Adsule, Pandurang; Banerjee, Kaushik; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2013-01-01

    Grape byproducts are a rich source of phenolics having immense medicinal properties, but usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the phenolic antioxidants and the insulinotropic effect of extracts prepared from seed, skin and stems of two red wine grape cultivars: Pusa Navarang and Merlot. Pusa Navarang cultivar has shown high amounts of total phenolics (95.8 mg/ml), flavonoids (30.5 mg/ml) and flavan-3-ols (21.8 mg/ml) in seed extract and total an...

  14. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  15. An Exercise in Theoretical Archaeology: Do Archaeological Cultures Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Porčić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological culture still persists as a basic analytical and interpretative concept in Serbian archaeology despite criticism. This paper presents a formal view of archaeological cultures and explores the epistemological implications of this formalization. Formal analysis of archaeological culture is achieved through logical and quantitative explication of the traditional definition of archaeological cultures. The main result of the formal analysis is that there are real patterns of formal variability of material culture that may or may not correspond to traditional archaeological cultures. These patterns are real only in the analytical sense – they are real for given input data and scale of analysis. Unlike the traditional approach where this patterns are equated with archaeological cultures which are furthered interpreted in essentialist terms or as quasi- organic entities such as ethnic groups, it is claimed here that discovered patterns are only the starting point – the empirical situation that needs to be accounted for in anthropological an historical terms. This paper shows how patterns that are traditionally identified as archaeological cultures can arise as a consequence of an entire range of processes – different social and historical realities. The main conclusion is that the traditional concept of archaeological culture is not useful neither as analytical or interpretative tools for two reasons: 1 traditional cultures are subjectively defined entities with no theoretical justification for the criteria used in their definition and 2 the empirical pattern cannot be an explanation in itself because it is the thing that needs to be explained. Cultural evolutionary (transmission theory is proposed as a general framework for defining and interpreting patterns of formal variability of material culture in time and space.

  16. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  17. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26800498

  18. Calorific evaluation and energy potential of grape pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Patrik; Ludín, David; Rutkowski, Kazimierz; Krakowiak-Bal, Anna; Trávníček, Petr; Zemánek, Pavel; Turan, Jan; Višacki, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    This article deals with energetic evaluation and potential of pomace - a waste product originating during production of grape wine. Calorimetric analysis of 19 grapevine varieties was performed in 2013 and 2014. The aim was to specify their combustible limit and the gross calorific value. The evaluations were performed on pristine pomace, pomace without seeds, and only on seeds themselves. The results obtained imply that pomace is an interesting energetic resource with a gross calorific value of 16.07-18.97 MJ kg-1. Lower calorific values were detected in pomace after seed separation ie 14.60-17.75 MJ kg-1; on the contrary, seeds alone had the highest calorific values of 19.78-21.13 MJ kg-1. It can be assumed from the results of energetic evaluation of pomace in Czech Republic conditions that, by purposeful and efficient usage of pomace, 6.4 GWh of electric energy and 28 GWh of thermal energy can be generated.

  19. Archaeology in Indiana: The Science Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James R., III, Ed.; Johnson, Amy, Ed.; Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue continues the Indiana Historical Bureau's collaboration with the Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. The articles include "The Science of Archaeology," chronicling the remarkable transformation of the science of archaeology to date; "Archaeology in Indiana," providing a brief…

  20. Effects of whole-wheat flour and bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L.) on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadne Roberto KARNOPP; Amanda Miléo FIGUEROA; Paulo Ricardo LOS; Jéssica Cristine TELES; Deise Rosana Silva SIMÕES; Ana Cláudia BARANA; Fernanda Taborda KUBIAKI; João Guilherme Baggio de OLIVEIRA; Granato, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Grape pomace, which is derived from the skin and seeds, is the residue from the production of grape juice and wine. It corresponds to up to 20% of the total volume and it contains a high level of dietary fibers and bioactive compounds. In the Brazilian market, there is no product containing grape pomace as a replacement for conventional wheat flour. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole-wheat flour and organic Bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L.) on the sensory, ...

  1. 葡萄、葡萄皮%grape fruit,skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳

    2006-01-01

    @@ 又名 Black Grape Raisins, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Calzin, Chardonnay, Emperor, Enocianina,Flame Seedless, Grape, Grapes, Grape Fruit, Grape Fruit Skin, Grape Juice, Grape Skin, Grape Skin Extract, Merlot, Petite Sirah, raisins, Red Globe, Red Malaga, sauvignon Blanc, Sultanas, Table Grapes, Thompson Seedless,wine Grapes.

  2. Relation between Seed Appearance and Phenolic Maturity: A Case Study Using Grapes cv. Carménère Relación entre Apariencia de Semillas y Madurez Fenólica: Un Estudio de Caso usando Uvas cv. Carménère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fredes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. plays a key role in determining the harvest time in grapevine varieties. The harvest time of cv. Carménère is one of the latest of Chile. During the season 2007-2008, the evolution of the appearance of ‘Carménère’ seeds was evaluated as a harvest criterion, comparing it with the chemical and phenolic ripening. The samples were obtained from an organic vineyard located in Curicó Valley, Chile. Starting at 16 ºBrix, 100 seed berries samples were collected weekly from medium vigor vines in order to register photographically the ventral and dorsal sides of each seed. In addition to the seed tannins percentage, the extractable anthocyanins, total anthocyanins and total polyphenols index, as well as the titratable acidity, soluble solids and pH were registered. A color wheel of seed coat with a description of 12 digital colors was proposed for this cultivar. When the color number exceeded 10 (very dark brown, the soluble solids had already reached 24 ºBrix 1 month earlier. Two inverse correlations between seed coat color vs. seed phenols percentage and vs. total polyphenol index were found. The proper phenolic maturation (maximum anthocyanins and minimum seed tannins percentage occurred 177 d post flowering. The observation of seed coat color can be a reliable, simple and low-cost parameter to determine the correct ripeness of phenols in ‘Carménère’ grapevines.La evaluación sensorial de uvas (Vitis vinifera L. juega un rol clave en la determinación de la fecha de cosecha en los últimos estados de la maduración de la baya. La cosecha del cv. Carménère es una de las últimas en Chile. Durante la temporada 2007-2008, la evolución de la apariencia de semillas ‘Carménère’ fue evaluada como un criterio de cosecha, comparándola con la madurez química y fenólica. Las muestras fueron obtenidas desde una viña orgánica localizada en el valle de Curicó, Chile. Se colectaron

  3. ONTARIO GRAPE PRODUCTION ECONOMIC IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Grier, Kevin; Martin, Larry J.; Stiefelmeyer, Kate

    2000-01-01

    This report was undertaken in order to measure the economic impacts of the grape industry on the Ontario economy and the impacts of maintaining the Wine Content Act at the 30% level. It will also provide an estimate of the benefits to grape growers and Ontario of increasing the requirements of the Wine Content Act to 75%. Specifically, the objectives are: 1. To determine the current contribution of the processing grape industry to the economy of Ontario. 2. To estimate the economic effects of...

  4. Indigenous archaeology as complement to, not separate from, scientific archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Watkins

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Defining Indigenous Archaeology is as difficult as defining “Indigenous”. In some areas the term “Indigenous” is applied to people who existed in an area prior to colonization (“Geography”; in other areas it is applied to people who are to those people whose ancestors created the culture being (“Descendancy”; in others it is applied to the community of people who live in the area where the archaeology is being conducted (“Proximity”. This paper recognizes that Archaeology, however defined, has characteristics that add to the scientific study of the human past; that Indigenous Archaeology is not meant to supplant scientific archaeology but to add to archaeology’s powers. In this paper I will provide an overview of Indigenous Archaeology, examine some of the in trying to discuss its many facets as a single disciplinary approach to the of the past, and then close with an examination of the in the generalized approach to the study of the past by partnering with communities and organizations.

  5. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    of this activity. All the developed countries have made tremendous progress in this field and substantial progress has been made in India in marine archaeology. Over the years the National Institute of Oceanography in collaboration with other Government agencies...

  6. The Archaeology of Egyptian Monasticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Louise

    The study of Egyptian monasticism has traditionally relied heavily on the rich corpus of textual sources, while the archaeological remains have been secondary to our understanding of monastic life. This imbalance has resulted in a situation where questions pertinent to the physical remains...... of monasteries ha ve largely remained unanswered. Based on first - hand archaeological material from the White Monastery federation and comparative material obtained through archaeological reports, the thesis addresses Egypt ian Monasticism in the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Islamic period......, by examining three main themes through seven chapters. These themes are: 1. the relationship between the archaeological and textual sources pertinent to the White Monastery; 2. the diachronic development of the White Monastery and the process es that caused its abandonment; 3. the economy of the White...

  7. 葡萄柚种子提取物对真菌的抑制作用及其在葡萄和柿子保鲜中的应用%Inhibitory Activity of Grapefruit Seed Extract Against Fungi and Its Application in Preservations of Grape and Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文涛; 黄昆仑; 屈玮; 林希瑾; 邓爱科; 杨加佳; 罗云波

    2008-01-01

    The grapefruit seed extract (GSE), a natural plant extracts from the edible plants used as an extremely potent broadspectrum bactericide, and fungicide should be very effective for the fruit preservation. In this study, Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and persimmon (Diospyris kaki L.) easily undergone deterioration, were selected as model fruits. Eight fungi familiar to the rotting cause of grape and persimmon were used to testify the antifungal activity of GSE. The results of antifungal assay by the agar diffusion method indicated that GSE can efficiently inhibit the growth of tested fungi. The values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) also range from 39.06×10-6 to 625×10-6 as demonstrated by the similar results with the data taken from agar diffusion assay. In the storage application assay of both grape and persimmon, the obvious differences in sensory quality and microorganism indexes between the GSE treated fruits and control fruits support that GSE has both the strong antifungal activity and antioxidative activity. Polyphenolic compounds, rich in GSE used as the main effective antioxidative component,are capable to prevent fungal infection in storage to a large extent and to postpone ripening and aging of fruits effectively by scavenging the free radical and impacting a series of enzyme relating to postharvest physiological metabolism of fruits, particularly in the key parts liking stem and calyx. The obtained results also indicated that GSE can decrease browning and rot ratio,prolong the preservation period, ensure the quality of grape and persimmon and can be used as an effective and safe preservative.%葡萄柚种子提取物是潜在的广谱性细菌、真菌杀菌剂,应该在果蔬保鲜中具有很好的效果.本研究选取比较容易受真菌感染的葡萄和柿子作为模式保鲜材料并且测试了葡萄柚种子提取物对8种与这两种水果腐败相关的真菌的抑制效果.结果表明,这8种真菌的最小抑制浓度分别在39

  8. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  9. 葡萄籽原花青素对顺铂诱导人胚肾细胞凋亡的拮抗作用%Protective Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract against Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卓雨; 高丽萍; 李贞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨葡萄籽原花青素(grape seed proanthocyanidin,GSPE)对顺铂(cisdiamminedichloroplatinum,CDDP)诱导人胚肾细胞HEK293凋亡及相关凋亡基因的影响,并探讨可能的机制.方法:体外培养正常HEK293细胞,噻唑蓝法测定GSPE、CDDP分别对HEK293细胞生长的影响以及GSPE对CDDP诱导HEK293细胞毒性的保护作用,流式细胞仪测定GSPE对CDDP所致HEK293细胞凋亡率的变化,Western blotting测定GSPE对CDDP所致HEK293细胞凋亡相关基因Bax、Bc/-2蛋白表达的影响.结果:GSPE对CDDP所致HEK293细胞毒性具有拮抗作用,可减轻CDDP所致HEK293细胞凋亡,减弱Bax表达、增强Bcl-2表达.结论:GSPE对CDDP所致HEK293细胞凋亡具有拮抗作用,其机制可能与GSPE降低促凋亡基因Bax,升高抗凋亡基因Bcl-2的表达有关.

  10. Effects of Zymotic Grape Seed Meal on Digestive Physiology, Immune Organ Indices and Antioxidant Indices of Wulong Geese Aged from 5 to 12 Weeks%发酵葡萄籽粕对5~12周龄五龙鹅消化生理、免疫器官指数和抗氧化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝维; 隋丽; 岳斌; 葛文华; 张名爱; 张开磊; 贾玉辉; 史雪萍

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中不同水平发酵葡萄籽粕对5~12周龄五龙鹅消化生理、免疫器官指数和血清抗氧化指标的影响,以确定发酵葡萄籽粕使用效果和适宜添加水平。选用5周龄五龙鹅288只,随机分为6个组,每个组6个重复,每个重复8只鹅(公母各占1/2)。对照组(Ⅰ组)饲喂基础饲粮,试验组在基础饲粮中分别添加2%(Ⅱ组)、4%(Ⅲ组)、6%(Ⅳ组)、8%(Ⅴ组)、10%(Ⅵ组)的发酵葡萄籽粕。试验期8周。结果表明:1)与对照组相比,Ⅴ组十二指肠和空肠中淀粉酶、胰蛋白酶、胰脂肪酶及胰腺中淀粉酶、胰蛋白酶活性极显著提高( P<0.01),Ⅳ组胰腺中胰脂肪酶活性极显著提高(P<0.01),Ⅴ组胃蛋白酶活性显著提高(P<0.05)。2)与对照组相比,Ⅳ组肠道中大肠杆菌数量显著降低( P<0.05),Ⅴ组肠道中乳酸杆菌数量显著提高( P<0.05),Ⅳ、Ⅴ组之间差异不显著( P>0.05)。3)与对照组相比,Ⅳ组肠绒毛高度显著提高( P<0.05),Ⅳ组肌层厚度显著提高(P<0.05),Ⅴ组隐窝深度极显著降低(P<0.01)。4)各组免疫器官指数差异不显著( P>0.05)。与对照组相比,Ⅴ组血清总抗氧化能力极显著提高( P<0.01);Ⅳ组血清丙二醛含量极显著降低( P<0.01),Ⅴ组血清总超氧化物歧化酶、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶活性极显著提高( P<0.01)。由此可见,发酵葡萄籽粕能显著提高5~12周龄五龙鹅消化酶活性,优化肠道组织结构,提高鹅的抗氧化能力,对免疫器官指数没有影响。建议饲粮中发酵葡萄籽粕适宜添加水平为6%~8%。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary different zymotic grape seed meal lev-els on digestive physiology, immune organ indices and serum antioxidant indices of

  11. Archaeology on Screen: Representing Archaeology on Film in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bandović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading the popular culture may contribute to the reflexive view on a discipline such as archaeology. Film, as a part of popular culture, frequently unveils the hidden messages, which may be an echo of a discipline or its distorted image in the mirror. Film and archaeology share not only the common origins in the modernity, but also the imaginary spaces where the past and the present meet and intertwine. The subjects treated in films, the contexts in which archaeology appears, speak of the place the discipline holds in the society, reminding us at the same time of all the elements encompassed by the archaeological discourse. On the other hand, if we compare the portraits of the imaginary archaeologists (such as Professor Mihajlo Pavlović, Vera Zarić, with the witnesses of archaeology in Serbia over the 20th century (Nikola Vulić, Dragoslav Srejović, Milutin Garašanin, we shall approach the meeting point between academic and general public, science and the audience, theory and practice. Extraordinary individuals, unemployed dreamers living at the borders of the worlds, charming connoisseurs of the underworlds – these are but some of the qualities ascribed to the discipline by the films. However, these stereotypes do not generate out of the void, they are the consequence of the self-representation. This mystification of the discipline leads us back to the debate on the responsibility and ethics of the social scientists inside the society they live in. Of course, the suggested reading is one of the many possibilities, one of the archaeological interpretations.

  12. Introduction: Critical Blogging in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Morgan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Internet Archaeology collects the leading voices of blogging in archaeology to provide a critical examination of informal, online self-publication. This collection of articles is one result of over a decade of digital communication; the confluence of a conversation that grew from a few lonely voices to a tumultuous cacophony. Even so, blogging has had very little scrutiny in wider archaeological publication (but see Caraher 2008; Kansa and Deblauwe 2011. The first movement toward this volume was the Blogging Archaeology session at the 2011 Society for American Archaeology meetings, accompanied by a "Blog Carnival," a groundbreaking effort to foment reflexive discussion prior to the conference. Several participants of this original session and blog carnival have contributed to this volume; these articles are intermingled with perspectives from contributors who have started blogging in the intervening time, and with peer review comments from archaeologists who have blogged for a long time, and from those who do not blog at all.

  13. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  14. Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority......Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority...

  15. Archaeology as a social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-05-15

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration.

  16. Archaeology and global information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hodder

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to reinforce the view that there is a potential in the use of the Internet by archaeology for an important change in the organisation and institutionalisation of archaeological knowledge. As many have argued, this change involves a shift from hierarchy to networks and flows. But there are dangers that the Internet will simply translate old forms of elite knowledge into new forms, increasingly excluding the un-networked. Care needs to be taken to provide different modes of access for different groups and to find ways round the exclusive tendencies associated with the dispersal of any new technology.

  17. The Times of Archaeology and Archaeologies of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gardner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of archaeology as a discipline is explicitly structured by time, and ‘timetravel’ is a common feature of popular discourses about the study of the past. Yet archaeology is also the discipline which, amongst its other theoretical shortcomings, has singularly failed to develop any theory 'of 'time. Chronology is ever-present as a measuring tool, but only in rare cases has there been any consideration of this as but one, culturally-specific kind of temporality among many others experienced by people in their daily lives. In this paper, I will discuss various perspectives on archaeological times, including more sophisticated approaches developed since the later 1980s, and argue for an abandoning of the dualism between ‘measured’ and ‘experienced’ times which has emerged in some of these more critical attempts to grapple with the issue. Time is fundamental to archaeology, but not just because we ‘use’ dates. Rather, archaeologists should be able to contribute to wider discussions of time from their understandings of the materialized temporalities of past human agents, and to develop perspectives on the importance of these to the very nature of human social agency as a form of engagement with the world.

  18. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics with GRAPE and Parallel Virtual Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Nakasato, Naohito; Mori, Masao; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1997-01-01

    We have developed Remote-GRAPE, a subroutine library to use the special purpose computer GRAPE-3A. The GRAPE-3A can efficiently calculate gravitational force between particles, and construct neighbor lists. All other calculations are performed on the host workstation (WS) which is directly connected to GRAPE. The use of GRAPE for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GRAPE-SPH) can in principle greatly speed up the calculations on WS. However the current bottleneck of GRAPE-SPH is that its perform...

  19. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  20. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  1. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Soňa Felšöciová; Miroslava Císarová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine) on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar). The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal ...

  2. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  3. The Archaeology of Old Nuulliit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mikkel

    ¬aeo-Eskimo culture groups in Alaska. Knuth never published his findings in detail, which be¬came a mystery in Arctic archaeology circles. New investigations by the author of the material shows that the site was settled repeatedly by the first immigrants between 2500 BC and 1900 BC, and in addition that a total...

  4. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  5. Why History of Archaeology Matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staša Babić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, in the framework of the wider critical reassessments of archaeological theory and practice, especially in the English-speaking literature, a number of writings have been published, pointing to the origins and theoretical background in which some of the basic concepts of the discipline were developed. The very essence of archaeology has thus been situated into the cultural, political and ideological context of Western Europe at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. On the other hand, by the end of the 19th century this strategy of study into the past has become a part of the academic life in other contexts (such as Serbia, where the general circumstances were utterly different. However, the basic concepts were transferred from their original setting, inevitably undergone transformations, and then applied with long-lasting consequences. Therefore, the importance of the study of the history of archaeology in various local settings surpasses local concerns, but contributes to deeper understanding of the social role and importance of archaeological research in general.

  6. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  7. A manufactured past: virtual reality in archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Goodrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and visualisation technologies developed over the past thirty years have been readily accessible to the archaeological community since the mid 1990s. Despite the high profile of virtual archaeology (Reilly 1991 both within the media and professional archaeology it has not been taken on board as a generally useful and standard technique by archaeologists. In this article we wish to discuss the technical and other issues which have resulted in a reluctance to adopt virtual archaeology and, more importantly, discuss ways forward that can enable us routinely to benefit from this technology in the diversity of archaeological practice.

  8. Plant remains of archaeological site Casa Vieja, Callango (Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A paleoethnobotanical study was carried out at the Middle Horizon archaeological site of Casa Vieja, located in Callango within the Lower Ica Valley. A total of 23 species were identified, all determined to be of the Magnoliopyta Division, 78 % (or 18 species were Magnoliopsid and 22% (or 15 species Liliopsid. The Fabaceae are the best represented family with 6 species. Most of the analyzed samples correspond to seeds of Gossypium barbadense “cotton”. Seventy percent of the species were probably used as food; 48% for artifact-making and construction and 52% for medicinal and curative purposes.

  9. Phenolic composition of Merlot and Cabernet-Sauvignon grapes from Bordeaux vineyard for the 2009-vintage: Comparison to 2006, 2007 and 2008 vintages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrain, Bénédicte; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-06-15

    Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot skin and seed extracts from Bordeaux grapes were investigated to determine both grape variety and vintage effect on phenolic composition. The total content of polyphenols and tannins in Merlot seeds was higher than that of Cabernet-Sauvignon allowing to discriminate the varieties. HPLC analyses underlined significant differences in the absolute concentration of proanthocyanidins amongst the two varieties and in their composition: mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) and percentage of galloylation of seed extracts were good indicators of grape variety. The vintage effect on the phenolic composition was confirmed for 2009 in comparison to previous vintages. Low values of mDP and concentrations of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were found in 2009 seeds and skins. The climatic conditions of 2009 (high rainfall before flowering followed by a strong hydric stress during berries development until ripening) let us hypothesise a lower activation of flavonoid pathway.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of grape pomace: Biochemical characterization of the fractions and methane production in batch and continuous digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Jean H; Lendormi, Thomas; Hobaika, Zeina; Salameh, Dominique; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G; Lanoisellé, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have estimated the biogas and methane production from grape pomace (variety Cabernet Franc). The physical and chemical characteristics of the raw material were determined, and the structural polysaccharides were identified and analyzed by the Van Soest method. Batch anaerobic digestions were carried out to assess the methane production of the grape pomace, pulp and seeds. The obtained cumulative methane productions are 0.125, 0.165 and 0.052 Nm(3) kg COD(-1) for grape pomace, pulps and seeds, respectively. The effect of grinding on the methane potential of the substrates, as a mechanical pretreatment, was evaluated. We found that it increased the anaerobic biodegradability for grape pomace, pulp and seeds by 13.1%, 4.8% and 22.2%, respectively. On the other hand, the methane potential of the grape pomace was determined in a laboratory pilot plant (12L) continuously mixed with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The corresponding biogas production was 6.43 × 10(-3) Nm(3) d(-1), with a methane content of 62.3%. Thus, the pilot plant's efficiency compared to that achieved in the batch process was 81.2%. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the biochemical content and methane production.

  11. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  12. Computerized Archaeology – 3D Tools for Investigating Archaeological Artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computerized revolution poses challenges and creates new opportunities in archaeological research. The Computerized Archaeology Laboratory at the Hebrew University integrates techniques and ideas from computer science (e.g., computer graphics, machine learning) in the archaeological research methodologies. We operate optical scanners which provide the three dimensional (3D) digital models that are then analyzed with the computer programs developed in our laboratory. These programs address research issues and needs which could not be addressed without the availability of digital 3D models. Beyond ‘capturing’ and visualizing data, I will focus on the process of analysis and provide novel ways of interpretation. For example, recently we developed new ways for determining the degree of similarity between flakes from various Middle Paleolithic lithic assemblages in the Southern Levant. Preliminary results are promising since the methodology applied distinguished between assemblages not using the traditional techno-typological criteria. This may provide a novel method for clustering and separation of prehistoric assemblages, new means to check the validity of the traditional classification. (author)

  13. Tannin composition of cabernet-sauvignon and merlot grapes from the bordeaux area for different vintages (2006 to 2009) and comparison to tannin profile of five 2009 vintage mediterranean grapes varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Lorrain, Bénédicte; Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-02-11

    The proanthocyandin composition of skins and seeds of Bordeaux Merlot (M) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) grapes was evaluated by HPLC-UV-fluorescence for four consecutive vintages (2006 to 2009). The results indicated a strong vintage effect on the tannin profile of each variety. However, and in spite of the vintage effect, some tannin characteristics such as mDP, %G and %P allow discrimination of both Bordeaux varieties. The same analyses were carried out for the 2009 vintage of five Mediterranean grape varieties (Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan and Counoise). The results demonstrated differences among these five varieties. Syrah appeared to exhibit the highest concentrations of flavanol monomers and dimmers, especially in skins. The comparison study between Bordeaux and Mediterranean grape varieties for the same vintage (2009) revealed that mDP and %G for seed extracts were parameters specific to each vineyard area.

  14. Targets of red grapes: oxidative damage of DNA and leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anter, Jaouad; de Abreu-Abreu, Noriluz; Fernández-Bedmar, Zahira; Villatoro-Pulido, Myriam; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is a widespread crop all over the world. The biophenols present in grapes have a remarkable influence on wine quality and also confer potential health-protecting properties to this fruit. The aim of the present work was to assess the beneficial properties of skin, seeds and pulp of red table grapes (RTG) (Vitis vinifera, Palieri Cadiz variety). Two potential beneficial activities of red table grapes (RTG) were analyzed: (i) The maintenance of genomic stability studying their genotoxic/antigenotoxic effects, and (ii) the in vitro cytotoxic effect against tumor cells of RTG components. The genotoxic and/or antigenotoxic effect was measured applying the somatic mutation and recombination test on wing imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster. The cytotoxic effect was monitored using the HL60 human leukemia model to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of the different parts of RTG. The three major parts (skin, seeds and pulp) are not genotoxic. When antigenotoxicity assays were performed using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidative genotoxin, skin, seed and pulp exerted a desmutagenic effect, with seeds and skin showing the most potent effect. The cytotoxicity tests using HL60 cells indicated that only skin and pulp fractions are able to inhibit the tumor growth, with skin having the lowest IC50 (1.8 mg/mL versus 8 mg/mL of pulp). These results suggest that RTG are potent anti-mutagens that protect DNA from oxidative damage as well as being cytotoxic toward the HL60 tumor cell line. PMID:21366047

  15. Nigeria’s Archaeological Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka E. Okonkwo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available People have exploited mineral resources for several reasons ranging from the production of metal and ceramic objects to stone and wooden tools. Indigenous extraction and use of mineral resources for production of general goods among others have continued unabated. In this article, archaeological and ethnographic data were used to identify extraction methods for some of these raw materials in the past, and thus, examine how failure to manage such resources has adversely affected technological and resource development in Nigeria

  16. Investigation of the impact of grape cultivars on the grape brandies quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković Vesna; Palić Radosav; Živković Jelena; Mošić Ivana; Stanković Snežana; Stojanović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    The results of the four-year investigation of the grape cultivars impact of the first Yugoslav interspecies hybrids Lucija and Mediana on the grape brandies quality are presented. The experiment was carried out with reference to the standard grape cultivars Smederevka intended for production of grape brandies. Investigation covered a procedure for establishing parameters, which determine the quality of strong alcoholic beverages and organoleptic rating. Higher presence of methanol with refere...

  17. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  18. Generation of ESTs in Vitis vinifera wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon) and table grape (Muscat Hamburg) and discovery of new candidate genes with potential roles in berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Reid, Karen E; Liao, Nancy; Schlosser, James; Lijavetzky, Diego; Holt, Robert; Martínez Zapater, José M; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, Jörg; Lund, Steven T

    2007-11-01

    We report the generation and analysis of a total of 77,583 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon (wine grape) and Muscat Hamburg (table grape) with a focus on EST sequence quality and assembly optimization. The majority of the ESTs were derived from normalized cDNA libraries representing berry pericarp and seed developmental series, pooled non-berry tissues including root, flower, and leaf in Cabernet Sauvignon, and pooled tissues of berry, seed, and flower in Muscat Hamburg. EST and unigene sequence quality were determined by computational filtering coupled with small-scale contig reassembly, manual review, and BLAST analyses. EST assembly was optimized to better discriminate among closely related paralogs using two independent grape sequence sets, a previously published set of Vitis spp. gene families and our EST dataset derived from pooled leaf, flower, and root tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon. Sequence assembly within individual libraries indicated that those prepared from pooled tissues contributed the most to gene discovery. Annotations based upon searches against multiple databases including tomato and strawberry sequences helped to identify putative functions of ESTs and unigenes, particularly with respect to fleshy fruit development. Sequence comparison among the three wine grape libraries identified a number of genes preferentially expressed in the pericarp tissue, including transcription factors, receptor-like protein kinases, and hexose transporters. Gene ontology (GO) classification in the biological process aspect showed that GO categories corresponding to 'transport' and 'cell organization and biogenesis', which are associated with metabolite movement and cell wall structural changes during berry ripening, were higher in pericarp than in other tissues in the wine grape studied. The sequence data were used to characterize potential roles of new genes in berry development and composition. PMID

  19. Antisepsis and Fresh-keeping Effects of Natamycin Coating Compounds Treatment on Red Global Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling ZHOU; Meiying LIU; Xiaolin REN; Zhulian WU; Wei ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to research fresh-keeping effects of natamycin on cold-pre- served grape. Red globe grapes were processed with compound coating liquid of chitosan with mass fraction at 1% and natamycin with mass fractions at 0.20% (T1), 0.40% (T2) and 0.60% (T3), respectively. Grapes processed with water (CK3) and 1% chitosan (CK2) were taken as control groups. Rotten rate, seed shattering rate, mass loss rate, respiratory intensity and related physiological quality in test and control groups were compared. The results indicated that respiratory intensity, mass loss rate, rotten rate and seed shattering rate in CK1 were all higher than those in CK2. In addition, T1, T2 and T3 were lower in the indices than CK1 and CK2, but still kept at a high level in fruit hardness. Furthermore, mass fractions of Vc and titratable acid declined more slowly in T1, T2 and T3, compared with CK1 and CK2. Natamycin better preserved grapes and prolonged storage period. In general, natamycin with mass fraction at 0.4% proved best in fresh-keeping.

  20. The PCI Interface for GRAPE Systems: PCI-HIB

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, A.; Fukushige, T.; Taiji, M.; Makino, J.; Sugimoto, D.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a PCI interface for GRAPE systems. GRAPE(GRAvity piPE) is a special-purpose computer for gravitational N-body simulations. A GRAPE system consists of GRAPE processor boards and a host computer. GRAPE processors perform the calculation of gravitational forces between particles. The host computer performs the rest of calculations. The newest of GRAPE machines, the GRAPE-4, achieved the peak performance of 1.08 Tflops. The GRAPE-4 system uses TURBOChannel for the interface to the ho...

  1. Understanding Archaeological Authority in a Digital Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna-Jane Richardson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available "…with the increasing spread of social media and mobile communication, the social networks of knowledge construction are becoming not only vastly bigger and quicker and less limited by space and time constraints than they have been before, but also more of a threat to established authorities." (Hofheinz 2011, 1426 This article considers the issues of archaeological authority, expertise and organisational reputation in the UK from an online perspective, and questions whether the participatory promise of social media technologies can, and should, challenge archaeological authority. It explores how these issues are approached and mediated online, the issues of digital literacy for audience reception, and the approaches used by archaeological organisations to address the challenges of undertaking digital public archaeology projects whilst maintaining archaeological rigour and the visible performance of expertise. It discusses how the concepts of archaeological authority and expertise are demonstrated and practised online, using data from my doctoral research, undertaken from 2011 to 2013. This article questions if the presence of websites dedicated to the promulgation of alternative archaeologies on the Internet can present challenges for the performance of archaeological expertise online, and how organisations monitor and respond to alternative archaeological interpretations and news stories.

  2. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  3. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT OF THE FETEASCĂ NEAGRĂ GRAPE POMACE AND ITS FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM WINE INDUSTRY IN DIFFERENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariu Mariana Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the hereby study was to analyze and to compare the chemical content of the grape pomace and its fractions: skins and seeds from the red grape variety Fetească neagră (from Iași area, obtained in different years 2013 and 2014 respectively, from the winemaking process. Measurements targeted the dry matter content (DM%, organic matter (OM%, crude ash (CA%, crude protein (CP%, crude fat (EE%, crude fiber (CF%, neazotate extractive substances (SEN%, total polyphenols (TP% and tannins (Ta%. The results obtained showed significant differences in the chemical composition in favour of the grape pomace obtained in the 2014 climatic conditions: in the case of the seed for the content of DM%, SEN%, TP% and Ta%, in the case of the skins for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, TP%, Ta% and in the case of the grape pomace for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, SEN%, TP%, and Ta%. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition showed an annual variation of the chemical components, which may be due to climatic conditions and winemaking process. Therefore, an annual chemical quality assessment of the grape pomace is necessary, for the efficient use in the animal feed.

  4. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  5. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of total polyphenols, up to 44.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight in Alicante pomace, than skin extracts. The maximum total phenolic in skins was 31.6 mg GAE/g dry weight detected in 2010 Alicante pomace. Seeds also had the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC analysis revealed that, despite the vinification process, pomaces still contained an appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins as well as several anthocyanin glycosides. Alicante and Syrah proved to be the varieties of most interest in terms of their potential development for nutraceutical purposes.

  6. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  7. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  8. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  9. Climate signatures of grape harvest dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krieger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape harvest dates have been recorded in many European locations for several centuries, and potentially contain important information about past climate. In this study, we systematically analyse the relationship of grape harvest dates recorded in the Burgundy region (France with different climate data sets in order to understand the connection between climatic conditions and the time of harvest. The results point to a primary dependence of the grape harvest on the temperature from April to August. The strength of this connection depends on the winter to summer temperature relationship and increases over the last 100 years. The grape harvest date is also related to the winter temperature. This connection is non-stationary on interannual, but stable on decadal-to-multidecadal time scales. Therefore, the grape harvest date can be used for independent reconstructions of local April-to-August temperature on interannual time scales as well as remote winter temperature on decadal-to-multidecadal time scales.

  10. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-08-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  11. Fruit quality, nutraceutical and antimicrobial properties of 58 muscadine grape varieties (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) grown in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Zhao, Lu; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2017-01-15

    Fifty-eight muscadine grape varieties were evaluated for their fruit quality, nutraceutical, and antimicrobial properties during two growing seasons (2012 vs. 2013). Fruit quality was significantly different among muscadine grape varieties, with weight ranged from 2.93 to 22.32g, pH from 3.01 to 3.84, titratable acidity from 0.27% to 0.83%, and °Brix from 10.92 to 23.91. Total phenols for different muscadine juices varied from 0.26 to 1.28mgGA/mL, skins from 10.13 to 30.02mgGA/g DM, and seeds from 22.47 to 72.01mgGA/g DM. Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of grape juices varied from 0.97 to 6.78mmolTrolox/mL, skins from 83.59 to 221.20μmolTrolox/g DM, and seeds from 178.22 to 619.73μmolTrolox/g DM. Study demonstratedgrape seed polyphenols (MIC 54.8-60.1μg/ml) showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than skin polyphenols (MIC 70.7-80.2μg/ml). This information could be a valuable asset in the research and extension of muscadine grapes. PMID:27542461

  12. Relation between Grape Wine Quality and Related Physicochemical Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-Yue Chen; Yuan-Biao Zhang; Qiu-Ye Qian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate grape wine quality more objectively by reducing the error of traditional grape-wine-quality evaluation. On combining grape wine quality and physicochemical index of grapevine, we provided a grape-wine-quality evaluation model by grapevine’s physicochemical index in this study. Firstly, evaluations of the tasters are analyzed, for eliminating the disturbance caused by their individual difference. Then, relationship between grape wine and grapevines are anal...

  13. The clone selection studies on Siyah Gemre grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilli Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V. vinifera L.cv. “Siyah Gemre” is an important table grape variety of Mediterranean Region in Turkey. It is late sea- son, medium bunch density, round berry, red-black colored and seeded. The study was carried out to make clone selection for increasing the yield and quality in “Siyah Gemre” grape variety The project was completed in two stages. First one was selection nominees of mother clone vine and second was establishing of clonal collection vineyard. The first stage studies were carried out at grower vineyards of İsparta, Turkey surroundings where “Siyah Gemre” is grown wide spread, between 2001 and 2003. Clonal nominees were selected by using counting the cluster and shoot at the end of the project. After that, the clonal collection vineyard was established with spacing 3.0 m × 1.65 m in 2004. Twelve vines of each clonal nominees were grafted onto 110R rootstock. In the study the values of yield, number of cluster, weight of cluster, 100 berry weight, index of maturity, sensory analysis, weight of pruning and bud productivity were evaluated between 2007–2012. At the end of this study, according to the values of total point, five clone nominees were selected and among their 3, 19, 24 numbered clones were chosen in terms of total sensory analysis score, yield and stability, cluster and berry properties respectively.

  14. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine. PMID:10227191

  15. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-07-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  16. Influence of different withering conditions on phenolic composition of Avanà, Chatus and Nebbiolo grapes for the production of 'Reinforced' wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Urcan, Delia Elena; Lin, Lin; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana; Pop, Nastasia; Lambri, Milena; Rolle, Luca

    2016-03-01

    The impact of postharvest withering rates on the phenolic composition of 'reinforced' wines produced with partially dehydrated grapes was evaluated. The study was performed on winegrape varieties with anthocyanin profiles differently constituted of di- and tri-substituted forms. Dehydration induced limited changes in the anthocyanin profile of berry skins. Nevertheless, the greatest abundance of total anthocyanins and their more stable forms (malvidin-3-glucoside and acylated glucosides) corresponded to the wines made from slow withered Chatus grapes, which were in turn the darkest. In contrast, the wines made from withered Avanà grapes did not meet good chromatic characteristics due to low contents of total anthocyanins and high ratios between di- and tri-substituted forms. Nebbiolo wines showed intermediate values of this ratio, and therefore of clarity and color intensity. The fast process is recommended because higher percentages of galloylated flavanols in the seeds of slow withered Nebbiolo grapes may have a negative influence on wine astringency.

  17. Antioxidant properties of different fruit seeds and peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigations performed was to assess the antioxidant properties of the seeds and peels of selected fruits. The antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol and tannin content were determined. The results obtained revealed essential diversities of the analysed parameters among the material examined. The peels were characterized by higher ability to scavenge free radicals and higher polyphenols concentration than the seeds, particularly those of citrus fruits imported to Poland. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the peels of the Šampion cultivar of apples and white grapes, and in the seeds of the Idared cultivar apples and oranges. Tannins play a meaningful role as antioxidants in grape, apple and goosberry fruits. The peels and seeds of various fruits, which are waste products in fruit and vegetable industry, may be a potential source of antioxidants.

  18. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  19. Critical Reflections on Digital Public Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bonacchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents critiques and analyses of recent work in digital public archaeology (DPA in the United Kingdom. It first locates different strands of DPA within the wider field of public archaeology, and begins to map out the diverse forms, aims and sources of DPA. Next it critically examines the models of 'communication' that are present in DPA, suggesting that greater attention should be paid to audiences in particular, and monitoring and evaluation in general. Finally the article considers the democratising effects of digital media on archaeological knowledge economies, highlighting some current and potential future areas of interest.

  20. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  1. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  2. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  3. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  4. Archaeological data reveal slow rates of evolution during plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, Michael D; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2011-01-01

    Domestication is an evolutionary process of species divergence in which morphological and physiological changes result from the cultivation/tending of plant or animal species by a mutualistic partner, most prominently humans. Darwin used domestication as an analogy to evolution by natural selection although there is strong debate on whether this process of species evolution by human association is an appropriate model for evolutionary study. There is a presumption that selection under domestication is strong and most models assume rapid evolution of cultivated species. Using archaeological data for 11 species from 60 archaeological sites, we measure rates of evolution in two plant domestication traits--nonshattering and grain/seed size increase. Contrary to previous assumptions, we find the rates of phenotypic evolution during domestication are slow, and significantly lower or comparable to those observed among wild species subjected to natural selection. Our study indicates that the magnitudes of the rates of evolution during the domestication process, including the strength of selection, may be similar to those measured for wild species. This suggests that domestication may be driven by unconscious selection pressures similar to that observed for natural selection, and the study of the domestication process may indeed prove to be a valid model for the study of evolutionary change.

  5. Objects or Narratives. Archaeological Exhibitions in Serbia: Foundations of Museum Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana Cvjetićanin

    2016-01-01

    Although every local museum or parts of national museums keep archaeological finds, museums in general play a very limited role on the archaeological scene, often being passive and marginalized. Well-grounded investigation into the archaeological objects kept in museum collections and, above all, the public domain of museums, the nature of collections and exhibitions, both permanent and occasional, have not been adequately recognized, discussed or considered. In spite of the fact that museum ...

  6. The e-Depot for Dutch Archaeology. Archiving and publication of archaeological data

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the archiving and publication of archaeological research data has led to the establishment of the e-Depot for Dutch Archaeology (EDNA) accommodated at DANS. EDNA is a collaboration between DANS and the Cultural Heritage Agency (RCE). DANS is an institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The slogan "Digital archaeology requires a digital memory" was used in 2007 to bring care for dig...

  7. Factorial design optimization and characterization of poly-lactic acid (PLA) nanoparticle formation for the delivery of grape extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Aburto, Javiera; von Plessing, Carlos; Rockel, Marlene; Aspé, Estrella

    2016-09-15

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) extracted from grapes have several bioactive properties, giving them potential medical uses. However, PAs are unstable in the digestive tract and must be stabilized to allow oral administration, which can be accomplished by nanoencapsulation. In this study, PAs extracted from grape seed and skin were stabilized with poly-d,l-lactide (PLA) polymer by the emulsion-evaporation method. An experimental Box-Behnken design was implemented, evaluating the influence of three factors: sonication time (30-360s) for the emulsion formation, loading of grape extracts (5-20%) and concentration of stabilizing agent (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA: 1-3%). The process was optimized to achieve higher encapsulation efficiency (EE=82.7%) and a smaller size (256nm). The nanoparticles (NPs) were physically analyzed by TEM, FT-IR, TGA and DTG to characterize the nanoencapsulation process. In vitro release studies, through stomach and intestinal simulation, showed a sustained release of PAs from PLA-NPs. PMID:27080882

  8. Characterization of polyphenolic metabolites in the seeds of Vitis germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the seeds of 91 grape accessions from 17 Vitis species were characterized for two consecutive years. A total of 28 polyphenolic compounds including 2 gallic derivatives, 3 monomer flava-3-ols, 15 dimer flava-3-ols, 4 trimer flava-3-ols, resver...

  9. Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.

  10. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity effects of seed oils from edible fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olubunmi Atolani; Joshua Omere; C.A. Otuechere; A. Adewuyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a natural remedy for the some acute diseases the fatty acids profile, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potentials of seed oils from natural sources have been examined.Methods:The fatty acids profile of seed oils from sweet orange, grape, lime and watermelon obtained by soxhlet extraction were trans-esterified and examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay were examined and compared with gallic acid and α-tocopherol while the cytotoxicity were examined via the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay using cyclophosphamide as a reference standard. Results:Sweet orange seed contained 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (62.18%), grape seed, erucic acid (43.17), lime seed, oleic acid (52.42%) and watermelon seed linoleic acid (61.11%) as the major fatty acid present. Among the four oils tested, grape seed oil had the highest acute toxicity with LC50 value of (156.2 ± 0.37) μg/mL while orange seed oil had the highest lethal toxicity with LC50 (7.59 ± 0.35)μg/mL value. Lime seed oil IC50 (14.49 ± 3.54) μg/mL showed the highest antioxidant potential of about 70% at 1 mg/mL concentration which was more significant than the reference compounds gallic acid and α-tocopherol with IC50 value of (201.10 ± 1.65) and (54.86 ± 2.38) μg/mL respectively. The yield of oil from these seeds varied from 9.583% to 24.790% with the oils being rich in essential fatty acids. Conclusion: Utilization of the seeds will reduce wastes, improve commercialization and procures hitherto neglected substances for technological and nutritional applications.

  11. Effects of dietary polyphenol-rich grape products on intestinal microflora and gut morphology in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, A; Chamorro, S; Pizarro, M; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2011-03-01

    Grapes have high amounts of phenolic compounds, which can modulate the gut activity as well as modify the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract. The microbiological activity of avoparcin, grape pomace concentrate, and grape seed extract was evaluated in an in vitro study. An in vivo experiment was also conducted to study the effect of the inclusion of grape pomace concentrate and grape seed extract in the diet of broiler chicks on performance, intestinal microflora (by cultured and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology), and gut morphology at 21 d of age. Dietary treatments included an antibiotic-free diet (CON), a positive control (AVP; 50 mg/kg of avoparcin), and antibiotic-free diets containing grape pomace concentrate (GPC; 60 g/kg) or grape seed extract (GSE; 7.2 g/kg). Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the GSE diet, which showed decreased weight gain. In the ileal content, birds fed CON and GSE diets had the highest populations of Lactobacillus. Compared with the CON diet, the AVP, GPC, and GSE diets increased the populations of Enterococcus and decreased the counts of Clostridium in the ileal content. In the cecal digesta, birds fed GPC and GSE diets had higher populations of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Clostridium than birds in any other treatment group. Animals fed GPC and GSE diets showed a higher biodiversity degree than those fed control diets. The frequency of detection of several potential phenol-degrading bacteria as well as unidentified and uncultured organisms was increased in animals fed GPC and GSE diets. Birds fed the CON diet had longer villi and deeper crypt depth than birds in any other treatment group. The highest villi height:crypt depth ratio corresponded to birds fed GPC and AVP diets and the lowest to those fed CON and GSE diets. In conclusion, dietary polyphenol-rich grape products modify the gut morphology and intestinal

  12. GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Atsushi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 ...

  13. Maritime archaeology and shipwrecks off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    . It is hoped that this book will be an invaluable guide for students; teachers and scholars of Archaeology, History and allied disciplines besides general public. The book is well illustrated and comprehensively presented to be of use to everybody interested...

  14. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  15. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Garrard; Norah Moloney; Dietrich Stout; Ignacio de la Torre

    2005-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963) was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978) for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989) inspired many of...

  16. Archaeologically Sustainable Development in an Urban Context

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, John C

    2013-01-01

    Archaeological deposits pose a financial risk for developers resulting from the planning constraints that are imposed by the premise that a public interest exists in those deposits and in the consequent impact that any development might have upon them. In England and Wales, those planning constraints arise from the principles now established by the National Planning Policy Framework. Here archaeological deposits are identified as being among the heritage assets that go to make up the heritage...

  17. The study of archaeology in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    The University of Malta has made a late entry in the field of archaeology. The first graduate courses started only in 1987. One recalls with satisfaction, however, that Professor Temi Zammit, the distinguished Maltese archaeologist, was Rector of the Royal University of Malta between 1920 and 1926, and that for a short period, in the years 1938-1939, John Ward Perkins, then at the beginning of his brilliant and influential career, was appointed Professor of Archaeology...

  18. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  19. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  20. Developing technologies for the management of the Archaeological Heritage: towards a model of Evaluation of the Archaeological Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro Martínez, David; Villoch Vázquez, Victoria; Criado Boado, Felipe

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes to establish criteria and procedures of archaeological practice to solve the problems and demands posed by the Management of the Archaeological Heritage. Our Research Unit is developing the CLAAR Programme, to define criteria and conventions for Landscape Archaeology and Archaeological Heritage. The main aim of this programme is to contribute to the development of systems and methodologies to manage and evaluate the Archaeological Heritage. In a practica...

  1. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov A. I.; Mikhaylovskiy S. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't ...

  2. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't have the merits of existing rootstocks. The short description of the grapes rootstocks which were created in the Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking such as AZOS-1, AZOS-2, AZOS-3, AZOS-4, AZOS-5 and AZOS-6 is given in the article. It is indicated that these rootstocks have a high resistance to a leaf form of phylloxera, to chlorosis and to some other diseases of a grapes bush. They have the short period of vegetation, high quantity of standard cutting from hectare and other useful properties. In the article the description of a new formation of rootstocks grapes bushes of "AOS- 1" and "AOS-2" with a free trail shoots is given. This construction of grapes bush is developed by the Anapa's Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking. We have also given all the advantages of this forming in comparison with other designs of grapes bushes. It is especially noted that use of this forming of bushes increases the productivity per men in the process of bushes scrap and preparation of cutting; the expenditures on the struggle against diseases and wreckers on the vineyards are reduced; the quantity standard of grapes cutting increases by 27-33%

  3. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  4. THE EFFECT OF PECTOLYTIC ENZYME TREATMENTS ON RED GRAPES MASH OF VRANEC ON GRAPE JUICE YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRO MOJSOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and industrial trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of pectolytic enzyme treatments on red grape mash of Vranec on grape juice yields. The red grape Vranec for laboratory trials were taken from private winery “Imako vino” Stip (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their laboratory. The red grape Vranec for industrial trials were taken from private winery “Tristo” Veles (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their winery. The grapes were weighed, destemmed, crushed and divided in 5 liters plastic reservoirs for laboratory trials, and for industrial trials were placed in a stainless steel fermentor (4t.. All treatments were performed in doublecate. Red grape mash made from Vranec were macerated for 6 hours at 18 to 20oC with addition of one commercial pectolytic enzymepreparation (Vinozym Vintage FCE, Rohapect VR-C and Trenolin Rot DF. After addition of SO2 (50ppm and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae NEUTRE SC (Lallemand, 2009(200 mg/kg grape, maceration time of 5 days (~25 oC was applied in order to study the effect of macerating enzymes on grape juice yields. After the maceration, the pomace was removed, in the obtained 4 different variations. Pectolytic enzyme preparation was not added to control trial. All treatments were performed in duplicate. Results of laboratory and industrial trials from our experiments, gives increased on free run juice yields by 4.85%-6.35% compared with non-treated mash of control trials.

  5. The use of ESR technique for assessment of heating temperatures of archaeological lentil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydaş, Canan; Engin, Birol; Dönmez, Emel Oybak; Belli, Oktay

    2010-01-01

    Heat-induced paramagnetic centers in modern and archaeological lentils ( Lens culinaris, Medik.) were studied by X-band (9.3 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The modern red lentil samples were heated in an electrical furnace at increasing temperatures in the range 70-500 °C. The ESR spectral parameters (the intensity, g-value and peak-to-peak line width) of the heat-induced organic radicals were investigated for modern red lentil ( Lens culinaris, Medik.) samples. The obtained ESR spectra indicate that the relative number of heat-induced paramagnetic species and peak-to-peak line widths depends on the temperature and heating time of the modern lentil. The g-values also depend on the heating temperature but not heating time. Heated modern red lentils produced a range of organic radicals with g-values from g = 2.0062 to 2.0035. ESR signals of carbonised archaeological lentil samples from two archaeological deposits of the Van province in Turkey were studied and g-values, peak-to-peak line widths, intensities and elemental compositions were compared with those obtained for modern samples in order to assess at which temperature these archaeological lentils were heated in prehistoric sites. The maximum temperatures of the previous heating of carbonised UA5 and Y11 lentil seeds are as follows about 500 °C and above 500 °C, respectively.

  6. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Ailsa D; Leong, Su-Lin L; Kazi, Benozir A; Emmett, Robert W; Scott, Eileen S

    2007-10-20

    Many fungi may occur on grapes during growth in the vineyard, but the main concern from the viewpoint of mycotoxin contamination is the black Aspergilli, Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger. These fungi are capable of producing ochratoxin A (OA) which may contaminate grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. Understanding the ecology and physiology of the black Aspergilli can provide tools for management of OA at all stages of grape production and processing. In the vineyard, careful management of cultivation, irrigation and pruning can assist in minimising the levels of black Aspergilli in the soil, which in turn, can minimise contamination of grapes by these fungi. Minimising damage to grapes on the vine by the use of open vine canopies, grape varieties with resistance to rain damage and by the management of insect pests and fungal diseases (e.g., mildew, Botrytis bunch rot) can reduce the incidence of Aspergillus rot in mature berries. The risk of OA in table grapes can be minimised by careful visual inspection to avoid damaged and discoloured berries. In wine, harvesting grapes with minimal damage, rapid processing and good sanitation practices in the winery assist in minimising OA. During vinification, pressing of grapes, and clarification steps which remove grape solids, grape proteins and spent yeast can also remove a significant proportion of OA. For dried vine fruit production, avoiding berry damage, rapid drying, and final cleaning and sorting to remove dark berries can reduce overall OA levels in finished products.

  7. Ochratoxin A in dried grapes and grape-derived products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Ayse Sibel; Ozden, Sibel; Alpertunga, Buket

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin and widespread food contaminant which results in a probable human exposure. A total of 85 samples (50 dried grapes, 10 grape juices and 25 pekmez (boiled and concentrated grape juices) were collected from different supermarkets and traditional bazaars in Istanbul during 2008-2009. An analytical method based on immuno-affinity column for clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection was used to determine the OTA. Contamination frequencies were 8%, 20% and 88% with mean concentrations of positive samples of 1.15, 1.40 and 2.04 µg/kg for dried grapes, grape juices and pekmez samples, respectively. These levels were lower than the maximum levels as set by the European Commission (EC). However, 12 of 25 pekmez samples had higher levels than permitted by the European Union (EU) for safe consumption. PMID:24779935

  8. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlakov M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice varieties Aniuta, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska close to each other (50.93; 56.14; 51.23%. According to the percentage of glucose similar varieties Aniuta and Nizina (33 - 34.27%, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska (41.16 - 45.22%. Sort Jubilee Novocherkasska, had content in berries close fructose and glucose. Most of fructose (66.02% in berries variety Nizina. In berries studied cultivars organic acid content was: wine 3128 - 3861, malic 982 - 3753, citric 109 - 317, amber 3 - 115 mg / dm3. The highest concentrations of potassium and sodium cations are presented in berries varieties Aniuta: potassium - 1219 sodium - 35.13 mg / dm3 and cations magnesium and calcium in berries Jubilee Novocherkasska 46.75 and 73.64 mg / dm3. The lowest concentration of potassium and sodium cations observed in grape Vodograi, magnesium - from grape Aniuta, calcium - at grape Nizina. We studied grape bunches are large, not dense, beautiful, berries are large, harmonious taste. Tasting score fresh grapes varieties Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina, Jubilee Novocherkasska 7.6; 7.4; 7.8; 7.8 points respectively

  9. Grape Tomato Cultivar Evaluation for Northern Indiana, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Four grape tomato varieties were evaluated in a replicated trial at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana. A fifth grape variety and one cherry variety were observed in unreplicated plots. Yield, plant, and fruit characteristics are reported.

  10. Marx, Production, Society and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lull, Vicente

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Social life is produced. Social life takes place before the fact of thinking about it. Drawing upon elements coming from utopian Socialism. British economy and, especially, Hegel’s philosophy, Marx proposed a set of dialectic categories addressed to thinking and to explaining how social life is produced, including in these dynamics the production of ourselves. In this paper, the guidelines of Marx’ thoughts are shown starting from the reading and analysis of his own texts. Also, the pertinence of the relationship between Marx and the research of society is argued through the material objects which make any society real: the archaeological research.

    La vida social se produce. La vida social es anterior al hecho de pensarla. Basándose en elementos procedentes del socialismo utópico, la economía británica y, sobre todo, la filosofía de Hegel, Marx propuso categorías dialécticas para pensar y explicar cómo se produce la vida social, y nosotros en ella. En este artículo se exponen las líneas básicas del pensamiento de Marx a partir de una lectura y análisis de sus propios textos, y se argumenta la pertinencia de la relación entre dicho pensamiento y la investigación de la sociedad a partir de los objetos materiales que la hicieron posible: la investigación arqueológica.

  11. Making space for an archaeology of place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wheatley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than attempt to write a balanced or complete overview of the application of GIS to archaeology (which would inevitably end up being didactic and uncritical this article sets out to present a discursive and contentious position with the deliberate aim of stimulating further debate about the future role of GIS within our discipline. To this end, existing applications of GIS to archaeology are reviewed, concentrating on two areas of application, predictive modelling and visibility analyses, and on their wider disciplinary context. It is argued that GIS cannot be simplistically held to have been a 'good thing' or a 'bad thing' for archaeology, but rather that these different application areas may be analysed separately and found to have quite different qualities. Although they are in no sense alternatives to one another, the areas of predictive modelling and visibility analysis can be seen to represent quite different agendas for the development of an archaeology of space and/or place. The development of correlative predictive models is considered first, both from the perspective of explanation and of cultural resource management. The arguments against predictive modelling as a means of explanation are rehearsed and it is found to be over-generalising, deterministic and de-humanised. As a consequence, it is argued that predictive modelling is now essentially detached from contemporary theoretical archaeological concerns. Moreover, it is argued to be an area with significant unresolved methodological problems and, far more seriously, that it presents very real dangers for the future representativity of archaeological records. Second, the development of GIS-based visibility analysis is reviewed. This is also found to be methodologically problematic and incomplete. However, it is argued that visibility studies — in direct contrast to predictive modelling — have remained firmly situated within contemporary theoretical debates, notably about

  12. Archaeological Narratives and Other Ways of Telling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluciennik

    1999-12-01

    With a few exceptions, archaeologists have been far less concerned with the form of their texts or problems of authorship than have ethnographers. Typically, archaeologies are presented in the form of narratives understood as sequential stories. Approaches to narrative analysis drawn from literary theory, philosophy, and sociology and definitions of characters, events, and plots are examined, together with particular problems these may pose for the discipline of archaeology. It is suggested that neither literary analysis nor the tendency to write and evaluate archaeological and historical narratives in terms of explanatory value takes sufficient account of the often hybrid nature and aims of these texts and the contexts in which they were produced. This argument is illustrated with particular reference to stories of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe. It is argued that reconsidering archaeology's positioning across the 19th-century science-humanities divide suggests a broader approach to the idea of what constitutes a narrative which can offer fresh opportunities for useful reflexivity and experimentation in presentation. Further roles and possibilities of narrative and non-narrative ways of writing archaeologies are also considered. PMID:10539944

  13. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determine the minimum quality grade will be: (i) The United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table grape crop insurance provisions. 457.149 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.149 Table grape crop...

  14. 7 CFR 457.138 - Grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another use (i.e. table grapes), the production to count will be in accordance with section 12(c)(2(ii.... (e) Mature marketable grape production may be adjusted for quality deficiencies as follows: (1.... (2) Grape production that is eligible for quality adjustment, as specified in subsection...

  15. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., quality, and maturity of table grapes that are imported into the United States. Inspection by the Federal... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to section 8e of the...

  16. GRAPE IN MEVLANA / MEVLANA’DA ÜZÜM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. R. Bahar AKPINAR

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the mystical meaningsattributed to fruit and grape in the works (Mesnevi andRubaiyyat) of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, and discussesthe relations between the symbolism of the unripe grape,grape, wine and vineyard, wine, drinking place, winebearer, drunken.

  17. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  18. 40 years of medieval archaeology at Aarhus University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2015-01-01

    The history of medieval archaeology as a university discipline in Denmark (at Aarhus University), 1971-2012......The history of medieval archaeology as a university discipline in Denmark (at Aarhus University), 1971-2012...

  19. 75 FR 5879 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... to divert imported grapes from normal marketing channels for up to 60 days after their arrival at a U... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 925 and 944 Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in Regulatory Periods AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  20. Comparison of Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations from different appellations of origin and grape varieties by microsatellite analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Leonor; Machado, Sofia; Ramos, P; Alemão, F.; Gomes, P; Sousa, S.; Santos, Manuel A.S.; Duarte, F.L; Casal, Margarida; Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    One hundred ninety two grape samples were collected during the 2006 harvest season in the Vinho Verde (grape varieties: Arinto, Alvarinho, Avesso, Loureiro, Touriga Nacional) Bairrada (grape varieties: Arinto, Baga, Castelão Francês, Maria Gomes, Touriga Nacional) Alentejo (grape varieties, Aragonês, Trincadeira, Touriga Nacional), Terras do Sado (grape variety Castelão) Bucelas (grape variety Arinto) and Estremadura (grape varieties: Arinto, Aragonês, Castelão, Trincadeira, Touriga Nacional)...

  1. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  2. Establishment of in vitro culture of grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of in vitro culture from shoot tip explants (meristemetic tissue) of grapes was investigated through tissue culture technique. These explants were collected from gene bank of Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources (IABGR), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Fifteen accessions of grapes were surface sterilized and tested on 75% MS media for germination and initial growth parameters. Accession No. 020017 (Dakh-1) exhibited highest viability (100%), shoot length (4.12 cm) and nodes plant (3.8). Moreover, it was found that response of cultures to different treatments was dependent both on accession and treatment duration. In conclusion, this protocol proved to be useful in optimizing the dose and duration of the treatment of grape explants with the surface disinfectant. (author)

  3. “Neutron metallography” of archaeological bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, S.; Bartoli, L.; Kockelmann, W.; Zoppi, M.; Miccio, M.

    2004-07-01

    Following a first demonstration on the potentials of time-of-flight neutron diffraction in the microstructural characterisation of archaeological bronzes, we present here the results of a further systematic study on the topic. The experiments were performed on standardised specimens and original archaeological bronze findings at the powder diffractometer ROTAX. The possibility to achieve various metallographic data concerning alloy composition, homogeneity, dendritic structure, metal and mineral phases, as well as the effects of hardening, annealing, and re-crystallisation processes was successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, we also report a texture analysis on a Roman coin, which provided a clear striking fingerprint thus demonstrating a powerful authentication method.

  4. The Archaeology of Late Antique Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dann, Rachael Jane

    , and despite the spectacular nature of the finds, the sites have received remarkably little scholarly attention. This book offers the first interpretation of social life at these key sites, and proposes a series of innovative, theoretically informed frames for exploring the significance of the material remains...... a series of archaeologically unique monumental tumuli and multi-chambered tomb structures containing evidence of human and animal sacrifice, as well as a highly sophisticated material culture. The interpretations presented here draw on the emergent field of sensory archaeology to address the key issue...... of material culture and the human relationship to the sensory nature of the sensory world....

  5. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  6. Teaching Experimental Archaeology at the University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    For more than ten years the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen has offered the course Experimental Archaeology, Ethno-archaeology and Simple Technology to all students at BA level.......For more than ten years the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen has offered the course Experimental Archaeology, Ethno-archaeology and Simple Technology to all students at BA level....

  7. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from grape seeds protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and cerebral dysfunction in rats%葡萄籽寡聚体原花青素对大鼠酒精性肝损伤及脑功能障碍的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 马艺萍; 李亚伟; 魏婕; 张峻豪; 何佟; 陈世民

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To study the protective effects of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) from grape seeds against alcohol-induced liver injury and cerebral dysfunction in rats.METHODS:Thirty-one Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups:A (treated with normal saline),B (treated with OPC),C (treated with OPC and alcohol),and D (treated with alcohol).Groups A and D were administered intragastrically with 0.9% NaCl [10mL/(kg·d)],while groups B and C were administered with OPC solution [200 mg/(kgd].After three hours,groups A and B were intragastrically given 0.9% NaCl [10 mL/(kg·d)],while groups C and D were given 55% alcohol [10mL/(kg·d)].After 23 d,blood samples were collected from all animals via the inferior vena cava under general anesthesia,and liver and brain tissue samples were taken and fixed in 10% buffer formaldehyde.The level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the plasma was measured,and the histopathology of the liver and brain was assessed under an optical microscope.RESULTS:Plasma levels of AST were 110.00U/L ± 15.55 U/L,98.38 U/L ± 17.86 U/L,100.14U/L ± 14.46 U/L and 176.00 U/L ± 49.60 U/L in groups A,B,C and D,respectively,and those of ALT were 57.25 U/L ± 9.04 U/L,49.50 U/L ± 6.67U/L,50.28 U/L ± 5.37 U/L and 74.50 ± 9.69 in groups A,B,C and D.Both AST and ALT levels did not significantly differ between groups A,B and C (all P > 0.05); however,both AST and ALT levels were significantly elevated in group D compared to groups A,B,and C (all P < 0.001).No significant liver injury was found in groups A and B.The incidence of liver injury in group C was lower than that in group D (57.1% vs 100%,P =0.077),and the area of injured liver was significantly less in group C than in group D (3.6%± 3.2% vs 63% ± 28%,P < 0.001).The latent periods from alcohol administration to the onset of drunkenness was significantly longer in group C than in group D (16.43 min ± 2.71 min vs 10.67min

  8. 11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶2基因表达作为葡萄籽提取物预防乳腺癌靶点的探讨%Expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 genes as a molecular target endpoint for the prevention of breast cell carcinogenesis with grape seed extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋筱瑜; 王华骞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the change of 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression in carcinogenesis and cancer prevention and to study the possibility of using 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression as a molecular target endpoint in the progression of breast cell carcinogenesis suppressed by Grape Seed Extract (GSE). Methods Cell carcinogenesis model for human breast epithelial MCF10A cell was induced by treating the cell with carcinogens NNK and B[ a] P repeatedly, and the cell model system for the prevention of carcinogenesis was developed by combining GSE with NNK and B[ a] P. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene. The biological change of carcinogen treated cells was studied by transfecting small interference RNA ( siRNA ) to inhibit 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression of cells. Results The colony formation of carcinogen treated cells in low-mitogen medium was less after the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was inhibited by specific siRNA, which was just like the colony formation of normal cells. The expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was high in carcinogen treated cells, and the gene expression was low or undetectable in normal breast epithelial cells and cells combined treated with GSE and carcinogen. Conclusion The biological display of carcinogen treated cells could be normalized after the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was inhibited. The mechanism for GSE preventing carcinogenesis might be the result of GSE inhibiting the expression of 11β-HSD 2 gene. 11β-HSD 2 gene might be the molecular target endpoint for the suppression of breast cell carcinogenesis by GSE.%目的 研究11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶2型基因(11β-HSD 2)表达在癌症发生及预防过程中的变化,探讨该基因作为葡萄籽提取物(GSE)抑制乳腺上皮细胞慢性癌变过程中靶点的可能性.方法 建立低浓度致癌物NNK和B[a]P刺激乳腺上皮细胞MCF 10A癌变及GSE抑制乳腺上皮细胞癌变过程的细胞模型,研究瞬时转染了靶向11β-HSD 2基因的

  9. Maturing Gracefully? Curriculum Standards for History and Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the similarities and differences between the disciplines of history and archaeology. Examines the standards and principles recently proposed for teaching history and archaeology to determine the areas of difference and commonality. Addresses the issues of historical and archaeological thinking describing each in detail. (CMK)

  10. Transformations of the Past: Teachers' Knowledge of North American Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that archaeology education should be included within the social studies curriculum and addresses various reasons why archaeology has been ignored within the classroom. Presents the findings from a survey that investigated preservice and experienced teachers' knowledge of archaeology. Concludes that there is a need for teacher preparation on…

  11. Archaeology for Dance: An Approach to Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez y. Royo, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes that existing methodologies for dance studies can be extended through consideration of recently developing methodologies from social archaeology. It is first argued that an archaeological perspective on dance is enriching for archaeology, whose recent interest in dance as a focus of investigation can be seen as an attempt to…

  12. Scavenging and antioxidant properties of different grape cultivars against ionizing radiation-induced liver damage ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) has become an integral part of the modern medicine--both for diagnosis as well as therapy. However, normal tissues or even distant cells also suffer IR-induced free radical insult. It may be more damaging in longer term than direct radiation exposure. Antioxidants provide protection against IR-induced damage. Grapes are the richest source of antioxidants. Here, we assessed the scavenging properties of four grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars, namely Flame seedless (Black), Kishmish chorni (Black with reddish brown), Red globe (Red) and Thompson seedless mutant (Green), and also evaluated their protective action against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue ex vivo. The scavenging abilities of grape seeds [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC₅₀ = 0.008 ± 0.001 mg/mL), hydrogen peroxide (IC₅₀ = 0.49 to 0.8 mg/mL), hydroxyl radicals (IC₅₀ = 0.08 ± 0.008 mg/mL), and nitric oxide (IC₅₀ = 0.8 ± 0.08 mg/mL)] were higher than that of skin or pulp. Gamma (γ) radiation exposure to sliced liver tissues ex vivo from goat, @ 6 Gy significantly (P antioxidant potential compared to skin or pulp extracts of different grape cultivars against oxidative damage by ionizing radiation (6 Gy, 10 Gy and 16 Gy) in sliced liver tissues ex vivo. Grape extracts at higher concentration (10 mg extract/g liver tissue) showed stronger antioxidant potential against lower dose (6 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Our results suggest that grape extracts could serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant against lower doses of IR-induced oxidative stress in liver extracts ex vivo. PMID:27295925

  13. Modelling phenolic and technological maturities of grapes by means of the multivariate relation between organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, E; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A; Íñiguez, M; Puras, P

    2013-01-25

    The ripeness of grapes at the harvest time is one of the most important parameters for obtaining high quality red wines. Traditionally the decision of harvesting is to be taken only after analysing sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH of the grape juice (technological maturity). However, these parameters only provide information about the pulp ripeness and overlook the real degree of skins and seeds maturities (phenolic maturity). Both maturities, technological and phenolic, are not simultaneously reached, on the contrary they tend to separate depending on several factors: grape variety, cultivar, adverse weather conditions, soil, water availability and cultural practices. Besides, this divergence is increasing as a consequence of the climate change (larger quantities of CO(2), less rain, and higher temperatures). 247 samples collected in vineyards representative of the qualified designation of origin Rioja from 2007 to 2011 have been analysed. Samples contain the four grape varieties usual in the elaboration of Rioja wines ('tempranillo', 'garnacha', 'mazuelo' and 'graciano'). The present study is the first systematic investigation on the maturity of grapes that includes the organoleptic evaluation of the degree of grapes maturity (sugars/acidity maturity, aromatic maturity of the pulp, aromatic maturity of the skins and tannins maturity) together with the values of the physicochemical parameters (probable alcohol degree, total acidity, pH, malic acid, K, total index polyphenolics, anthocyans, absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm, colour index and tartaric acid) determined over the same samples. A varimax rotation of the latent variables of a PLS model between the physicochemical variables and the mean of four sensory variables allows identifying both maturities. Besides, the position of the samples in the first plane defines the effect that the different factors exert on both phenolic and technological maturities.

  14. Seed proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  15. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  16. Crowd-sourcing archaeological research: HeritageTogether digital public archaeology in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeologists are increasingly working with crowd-sourced digital data. Using evidence from other disciplines about the nature of crowd-sourcing in academic research, we suggest that archaeological projects using donated data can usefully be differentiated between generative projects (which rely on data collected by citizen scientists, and analytical projects (which make use of volunteers to classify, or otherwise analyse data that are provided by the project. We conclude that projects which privilege hyper-local research (such as surveying specific sites might experience tension if the audience they are appealing to are 'cyber local'. In turn, for more 'traditional' archaeological audiences (when the primary motivating interests may be the tangible, physical nature of portable material culture or the archaeological site itself, then intangible, digital simulacra may not provide an effective medium through which to undertake digital public archaeology.

  17. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR PROMOTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE: THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF PARMA (ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Dall’Asta; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; R. Roncella

    2016-01-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve ...

  18. Objects or Narratives. Archaeological Exhibitions in Serbia: Foundations of Museum Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Cvjetićanin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although every local museum or parts of national museums keep archaeological finds, museums in general play a very limited role on the archaeological scene, often being passive and marginalized. Well-grounded investigation into the archaeological objects kept in museum collections and, above all, the public domain of museums, the nature of collections and exhibitions, both permanent and occasional, have not been adequately recognized, discussed or considered. In spite of the fact that museum exhibitions legitimize the dominant social and political norms of the present, museums remain marginalized, separated from the currents of various pertinent disciplines, and not prepared for the necessary changes. Archaeological theory, shaping the archaeological practice of museums as well, is not understood as its constituent part, and the interpretive context in which exhibitions are created, contents and nature of interpretation are not considered. The analysis of the exhibitions of the National Museum in Belgrade, being the paradigm of museum archaeology in Serbia up to the middle of the 20th century, has shown that the culture-historical approach, the idea of continuity and dynamic artistic presentations of alienated past have marked this public presence of museums. The Museum has developed from the storage space and knowledge presentation, over exhibition space to an ideal museum, dominated by estheticized expositions, establishing various official representations of the past. The changes in the theory of museology, somewhat coinciding with the changes in archaeological theory, have posed a new challenge to museum archaeology, that may be defined in short as the need for the new interpretation of the past.

  19. Moessbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia Yuanfu; Huang Hongbo [Nanjing University, Department of Physics (China)

    2003-09-15

    The Moessbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  20. Archaeometric studies on the Hatahara archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reconstruction of the past and the understanding of historical and cultural aspects of societies that developed at archaeological sites have been enabled by archaeometric studies undertaken on ceramics located at these areas. This study aims to be a contribution to the elucidation of these aspects with the application of three physical methods of analysis: neutron activation analysis (NAA), thermoluminescence dating (TL) an electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to ceramic fragments from the Hatahara archaeological site, located at central Amazon. The elemental concentrations obtained by NAA for 120 ceramic fragments were interpreted by means of cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results showed the existence of five distinct ceramic groups. This information, supported by archaeological interpretation, confirm the existence of four distinct occupation Phases at Hatahara site. In order to establish a chronology for the occupations, the ages of three ceramic fragments were determined by TL. The dating of two fragments did not confirm the archaeological interpretation about their occupation Phases. However, the dating of the third fragment allowed the confirmation that it belongs to the Manacapuru Phase. The determination of the burning temperatures of four ceramic fragments was performed by EPR. It was observed that although the analyzed ceramic samples belong to three distinct groups, there was no significant variation on their burning temperatures. (author)

  1. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  2. EIS Field Investigation in an Archaeological Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Nydam Mose is an area rich in archaeological artefacts from the Iron Age. Excavations have been conducted in this area since 1859. Environmental changes and probably disturbances caused by excavating the area are now expected to have lead to an accelerated rate of deterioration of both wood and m...

  3. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian' (2013 league table for studying archaeology Ranked 2nd in 'The Times' (2013 ‘Good University Guide’ 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011 Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future. To address these questions students integrate the humanities and the sciences; using a wide range of approaches to collect, evaluate and interpret relevant evidence. At UCL and during survey and excavation projects students make life-long friends while developing teamwork, management and leadership skills. Studying archaeology demands energy and enthusiasm, it challenges expectations while developing the problem-solving and transferable skills which all employers are looking for. Graduates from the Institute go on to make wide-ranging contributions to society, including business, academia and archaeology.

  4. Interactions In Space For Archaeological Models

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, T S; Knappett, C

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine a variety of quantitative models for describing archaeological networks, with particular emphasis on the maritime networks of the Aegean Middle Bronze Age. In particular, we discriminate between those gravitational networks that are most likely (maximum entropy) and most efficient (best cost/benefit outcomes).

  5. The fifth issue of Archaeology International

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, David R.

    2001-01-01

    With the appearance of this issue, Archaeology International (AI) reaches its fifth birthday. Since it was launched, as a successor to the former Bulletin and Annual Reports of the Institute, my aim each year has been to feature short articles on current research by Institute staff and research students, and to supplement them with summary information about other research-related matters.

  6. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Garrard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963 was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978 for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989 inspired many of the students with his experimental research on prehistoric bone and flint technology and for his innovative work on the microwear analysis of flint tools. In 1982, Mark Roberts began his excavations at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Boxgrove in Sussex and more recently Matthew Pope has been involved in an extensive survey of the Middle Pleistocene raised beaches along the south Sussex coast. Simon Parfitt has been undertaking groundbreaking research into the Lower Palaeolithic of East Anglia. Andrew Garrard and Norah Moloney joined the staff of the Institute of Archaeology in 1990 and 1994 respectively, and Dietrich Stout and Ignacio de la Torre in 2005. Each are involved in research relating to human developments through the Pleistocene and this is outlined in the four sections that follow. Several other staff also undertake research in related fields, including Ole Gron, Simon Hills on, Richard Macphail, Marcello Mannino, Tim Schadla-Hall, James Steele and Ken Thomas. The work of several of these has featured in recent issues of Archaeology International.

  7. Particle accelerators unravel Art and Archaeology issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Many analytical techniques are applied to get a better insight on art works and archaeological artefacts and to contribute to their conservation and restoration. Because of the precious and sometimes unique character of these items, non-destructive and non-sampling techniques are preferred. From this standpoint, the analysis with ion beams produced by accelerators (IBA), featuring good analytical performance and non-destructiveness, constitutes one of the best choices. Ion beams analysis techniques (IBA) introduced in 1957 have been constantly adapted to address art and archaeology questions; today the performances obtained directly on the object placed in the atmosphere rival with those achieved in vacuum. Since 20 years, AGLAE, the IBA facility of the Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France located in the Louvre museum has contributed to this progress. The cornerstone of this development is a versatile external nuclear microprobe implementing PIXE, PIGE, RBS, NRA and ERDA methods for rapid expertises of art works and more extensive research works in art history, archaeology and conservation science. After an introduction of the physical principles of IBA, a virtual tour of this unique facility will be provided. The benefit of its use will be illustrated through two case studies, the first one dealing with the determination by PIXE of the provenance of painted works of the Spanish master Murillo and the second one with the authentication study using NRA of a mysterious archaeological rock crystal skull.

  8. Archaeology for the Science Teacher: Interdisciplinary Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslinger, C. Michael; Thiel, Daniel P.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an example of how archaeologists might conduct a hypothetical research program to illustrate how specific types of data are generated and then used to interpret prehistoric culture systems. A brief review of the historical development of American archaeology is also provided. (JN)

  9. In vitro cultures of grape tissues : new possibilities to study grape berry physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Grape berries suffer important morphological, biochemical and physiological changes during its development and maturation. It is known that photoassimilates translocated from leaves serve as the major source of carbon and energy to support fruit needs, but recent findings revealed that, at least in the green phase, grape berries show high photosynthetic activity especially in the exocarp. The contribution of fruit photosynthesis for fruit growth and production of organic compounds is far from...

  10. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  11. Male strategies and Plio-Pleistocene archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, J F; Hawkes, K; Lupo, K D; Blurton Jones, N G

    2002-12-01

    Archaeological data are frequently cited in support of the idea that big game hunting drove the evolution of early Homo, mainly through its role in offspring provisioning. This argument has been disputed on two grounds: (1) ethnographic observations on modern foragers show that although hunting may contribute a large fraction of the overall diet, it is an unreliable day-to-day food source, pursued more for status than subsistence; (2) archaeological evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene, coincident with the emergence of Homo can be read to reflect low-yield scavenging, not hunting. Our review of the archaeology yields results consistent with these critiques: (1) early humans acquired large-bodied ungulates primarily by aggressive scavenging, not hunting; (2) meat was consumed at or near the point of acquisition, not at home bases, as the hunting hypothesis requires; (3) carcasses were taken at highly variable rates and in varying degrees of completeness, making meat from big game an even less reliable food source than it is among modern foragers. Collectively, Plio-Pleistocene site location and assemblage composition are consistent with the hypothesis that large carcasses were taken not for purposes of provisioning, but in the context of competitive male displays. Even if meat were acquired more reliably than the archaeology indicates, its consumption cannot account for the significant changes in life history now seen to distinguish early humans from ancestral australopiths. The coincidence between the earliest dates for Homo ergaster and an increase in the archaeological visibility of meat eating that many find so provocative instead reflects: (1) changes in the structure of the environment that concentrated scavenging opportunities in space, making evidence of their pursuit more obvious to archaeologists; (2) H. ergaster's larger body size (itself a consequence of other factors), which improved its ability at interference competition. PMID:12473486

  12. Characterization of polyphenolic metabolites in grape hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the berries of 48 hybrid grapes (Vitis) were characterized for two consecutive years. A total of 48 polyphenolic compounds including 28 anthocyanins, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, 6 hydroxycinnamic derivatives, 6 flavonols and 6 flavanols were ident...

  13. NATURAL MICROFLORA OF WINE GRAPE BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts and bacterial species on grapes has been investigated in vineyards worldwide. For winemaking are very important three groups of microorganisms. First two includes acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria; they live and grow normally on grape surface. The third group includes more than 20 detectable genera of yeasts. There are three principal genera found on grapes Hanseniaspora uvarum (Kloeckera apiculata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Candida pulcherrima, and Candida stellata or new descripted Candida zemplinina. Aim of this study was investigate of number of three major groups of microorganisms which are important for grapes and winemaking. The number of bacteria on Acetobacter agar (AA ranged from 1.76 log CFU/mL to 2.80 log CFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria were counted on MRS agar and the number of detectable colonies ranged from 0.48 log CFU/mL to 2.06 log CFU/mL. Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA was used for cultivation of yeast and the number of yeasts ranged from 2.47 log CFU/mL to 2.76 log CFU/mL. For identification of yeast species were used different types of agar media with acid base indicator bromocresol green. Identified 10 yeasts species includes to genus: Candida, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Candida, Debaromyces, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces. We identified only few bacterial species includes to genus Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Gluconobacter and Acetobacter.

  14. Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Archaeology, by Stephen Williams. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Trigger

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years Stephen Williams has taught a course at Harvard University dealing with those aspects of Americanist archaeology that the finds to be based on fantasy rather than on carefully recovered archaeological evidence. He has now published a book based on this course, which provides a history of this archaeology. Much of the strength of this book is derived from Williams' recognition that fantastic archaeology has been an integral part of American archaeology from its earliest days, that the border between the fantastic and the scientific is problematical, and that weird ideas often fill real social needs.

  15. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  16. Archaeological analogous and industrials for deep storage: study of the archaeological metallic piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present research is to obtain information about archaeological analogous of iron and steel, useful for the model of deep geological repository (AGP). The analogous examined have remained buried between 1400 and 2400 years, in very assorted geochemical environments. The extraction of the archaeological pieces has been accomplished according to normalised protocols, trying to carry to the laboratory so the piece as its burial environment, avoiding all possible pollution. Trying to the archaeological analogous could provide valuable information to the AGP model, the study has been directed to related the physical-chemical characteristics of the terrain respect to the deterioration of the archaeological metallic piece. The geology of the surrounding terrain to the archaeological deposit, the geomorphological study of the terrain and data from the analysis of ground: pH, wetness, porosity, organic matter contents, bacteria presence, sulphates, carbonates, chlorides, etc., have allowed to explain the physical-chemical phenomena suffered by the archaeological iron and steel pieces. Also, an exhaustive study of the archaeological piece has been accomplished, concerning the microstructure of the corrosion layer and of the not deteriorated metallic rest. Obtained information concerns different items, such as corrosion velocity and formations of oxide layers, diffusion of chemical elements from the corrosion layer to the metal and viceversa, and structural changes in oxide layers and in the metallic remains by structural ageing. Obtained data have allowed to develop a mathematical model for calculation of corrosion velocity in buried iron and steels, based on physical-chemical variables of grounds, chemical composition and thermomechanical treatment given to the metal during its manufacture. (Author)

  17. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  18. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.-M.M., E-mail: AnneMarie.Williams@utas.edu.au [School of Medicine, Private Bag 34, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Siegele, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  19. A Faceted Query Engine Applied to Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Ross

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the Faceted Query Engine, a system developed at Columbia University under the aegis of the inter-disciplinary project Computational Tools for Modeling, Visualizing and Analyzing Historic and Archaeological Sites. Our system is based on novel Database Systems research that has been published in Computer Science venues (Ross and Janevski, 2004 and Ross et al., 2005. The goal of this article is to introduce our system to the target user audience - the archaeology community. We demonstrate the use of the Faceted Query Engine on a previously unpublished dataset: the Thulamela (South Africa collection. This dataset is comprised of iron-age finds from the Thulamela site at the Kruger National Park. Our project is the first to systematically compile and classify this dataset. We also use a larger dataset, a collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts from the Memphis site (Giddy,1999, to demonstrate some of the features of our system.

  20. WATER AND ARCHAEOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICHOLAS KATHIJOTES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is undoubtedly the most precious resource of the planet and the accessibility to water resources marked the history of mankind since the dawn of times. Water has been indeed very central to archaeology and anthropology, that studied the ways in which water was provisioned, tanked, distributed, worshipped, exploited for agricultural irrigation or to power machines like water-mills, used for leisure, hygiene and healing, or abused to confer power on particular groups ,and how it played a central role in political and economic strategies. More than any other factor, waterways marked cultural and economic developments in history. This paper outlines examples of water resources management throughout the ages, in Cyprus and the Hellenic Civilization on different aspects of the use and management of water, investigates technical issues and gives suggestions, thus promoting a new approach to archaeological heritage and sustainable tourism.

  1. Quantitative paleoparasitology applied to archaeological sediments

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    Martín H Fugassa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three techniques to extract parasite remains from archaeological sediments were tested. The aim was to improve the sensibility of recommended paleoparasitological techniques applied in archaeological remains. Sediment collected from the pelvic girdle of a human body found in Cabo Vírgenes, Santa Cruz, Argentina, associated to a Spanish settlement founded in 1584 known as Nombre de Jesús, was used to search for parasites. Sediment close to the skull was used as control. The techniques recommended by Jones, Reinhard, and Dittmar and Teejen were used and compared with the modified technique presented here, developed to improve the sensibility to detect parasite remains. Positive results were obtained only with the modified technique, resulting in the finding of Trichuris trichiura eggs in the sediment.

  2. Concord grape juice supplementation and neurocognitive function in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, Robert; Boespflug, Erin L; Fleck, David E; Stein, Amanda L; Wightman, Jolynne D; Shidler, Marcelle D; Sadat-Hossieny, Sara

    2012-06-13

    Polyphenol compounds found in berry fruits, in particular flavonoids, have been associated with health benefits including improvement in cognition and neuronal function with aging. Concord grape juice contains polyphenols, including anthocyanins and flavanols, and previous research has shown improvement in a number of human health conditions with grape juice supplementation. In the current study, older adult subjects with mild cognitive impairment consumed Concord grape juice or placebo for 16 weeks and were administered assessments of memory function and brain activation pre- and postintervention. Participants who consumed grape juice showed reduced semantic interference on memory tasks. Relatively greater activation in anterior and posterior regions of the right hemisphere was also observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the grape juice treated subjects. These findings provide further evidence that Concord grape juice can enhance neurocognitive function in older adults with mild memory decline. PMID:22468945

  3. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  4. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon; Alberto Miele

    2012-01-01

    The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nect...

  5. Basic Issues in Harappan Archaeology: Some Thoughts

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    Vasant Shinde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the Harappan Civilization in the early twentieth century was considered to be the most significant archaeological discovery in the Indian Subcontinent as it pushed the beginning of settled life by 2000 years. Contemporary to the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Civilizations it was unique in its town planning. Spread over major parts of the western and north-western subcontinent, its influence is seen to the Tajikistan border in the north and the Gulf region in the west with over two thousand sites found till date. The past eight decades of research have brought to light many important details of the culture including the cultural process involving its origin, maturity and decline but certain aspects such as the terminology, climatic influence, regional variations, script etc are still very flimsy. To gain more information the focus of research will have to shift from Mega Site Archaeology to Small Site Archaeology with large multidisciplinary research projects to acquire a more holistic picture of the Harappan culture.

  6. Contextualising Archaeological Information Through Interactive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Johnson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Many web sites use maps delivered as non-interactive images. With the development of web-enabled mapping, new methods of presenting and contextualising archaeological and historical data are becoming available. However, most current examples are static views of contemporary framework data or specific time slices, and do not provide interactivity relating to the time dimension, which is so important to archaeology and related disciplines. In this article I look at some of the advantages of time-enabled interactive mapping and map animation in providing educational experiences to museum visitors and the web-browsing public. These will be illustrated through three example applications of the TimeMap methodology developed at the University of Sydney Archaeological Computing Laboratory: 1. the Sydney TimeMap kiosk at the Museum of Sydney; 2. an embedded Java mapping applet developed for MacquarieNet, a major Australian online educational encyclopaedia; and 3. the metadata clearinghouse mapping applet developed for the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative, Berkeley. In each of these examples, a wide range of resources are delivered through a time-enabled map interface which accesses live database data rather than pre-structured curated presentations of data. This flexibility brings its own challenges in providing intuitive pathways and appropriate levels of detail in response to free-ranging user enquiries. The paper outlines some of the approaches I have adopted to resolve these issues.

  7. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year s...

  8. Design and Construction of Grape Theme Sightseeing Garden

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Jun; Yu, Yifei; Li, Jingchuan; Han, Ruifeng; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Taking the grape theme sightseeing garden of Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences for example, this article discusses the suitable edible and wine making cultivation varieties, vineyard frame and cultivation techniques in the grape theme sightseeing garden, from the perspective of planning and design. The garden landscape design and construction is integrated with sightseeing and garden visiting to highlight the theme of grape sightseeing garden, aimed at achieving purposes of sightseeing, pick...

  9. When Archaeology Begins: The Cultural and Political Context of Chinese Archaeological Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 19th century, the construction of world history has been dominated by Western Europe. In Jack Goody’s recent work, The Theft of History (2007, he demonstrates that the interpretation of the past is conceptualized and presented according to what happened in Europe, and more often in Western Europe. Chinese archaeology, under the control of Western imperialism in the early 20th century, believed that it had to destroy Confucianism and come up with a new philosophy. However, with the arrival of many different kinds of western ideas, such as evolution and diffusion, Chinese archaeology was reformulated many times. Such issues have been discussed in several publications (Chen 1997; Liu and Chen 1999; Falkenhausen 1993. In this paper, we reexamine some of the key concepts of Chinese archaeological thought.

  10. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

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    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  11. The State of Table Grape Varieties in R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Ivanova, Violeta; Ilieva, Fidanka; Sofijanova, Elenica; Kletnikoski, Petar

    2011-01-01

    In this work is given for surfaces and production of table grapes, conditions and the way on growing, the structure of the assortment, consumption of fresh grape (at home and export) as well as cold storage capacities and the possibility for storage. Analyses showed that R. Macedonia disposes with 7.424 ha vineyards with table grape, and average production in year is 71.588 t grapes. The consumption in the home market is 12.000 t (6 kg/citizen), and the export from 9.821 t (2004 year) to 1...

  12. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  13. Clinical, biometric and ultrasound assessment of the effects of daily use of a nutraceutical composed of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine Complex in photoaged human skin Avaliações clínica, biométrica e ultrassonográfica dos efeitos do uso diário de um nutracêutico a base de licopeno, extrato de acerola, extrato de semente de uva e Complexo Biomarinho na pele fotoenvelhecida humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Costa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of nutraceuticals has become frequent in the cutaneous approach to photoaging. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical efficacy of a nutraceutical product composed of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine ComplexT in photoaged human skin. METHODS: 50 women, from 35 to 60 years of age, phototypes I to III, were assessed. For 120 days, they associated the nutraceutical product with the use of a sunscreen FPS15. On days 0 (D0, 30 (D30, 60 (D60, 90 (D90 and 120 (D120 they were evaluated and underwent Medical Assessments and Self-Assessment and cutaneous biometric analyses (corneometry, sebumetry and pH-metry in the skin of the left zygomatic region and the upper medial side region of the left arm; on days 0 (D0, 30 (D30 and 120 (D120 the skin of the same regions was analyzed by ultrasound. On days 0 (D0 and 120 (D120 skin biopsies were performed in the areas where instrumental evaluation was performed (to evaluate collagen and elastic fibers. RESULTS: There was an improvement of the general status of the skin of all volunteers by the Medical and Volunteer Self- Assessments; increased parameters of cutaneous hydration, reduction of pH, increasing of ultrasound density and a histological increment of collagen and elastic fibers (both on the face and arm; there was a reduction of seborrhea (only on the face CONCLUSIONS: The daily use of a nutraceutical product containing lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine ComplexT showed an important adjuvant effect to counteract skin photoaging.FUNDAMENTOS: O uso de nutracêuticos se tornou uma condição frequente na abordagem cutânea do fotoenvelhecimento. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia clínica do uso de um produto nutracêutico a base de licopeno, extrato de acerola, extrato de semente de uva e Complexo BiomarinhoT na pele fotoenvelhecida humana. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 50 mulheres, de 35 a 60 anos de idade, fototipo I a III. Por 120 dias, elas

  14. Recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ∼400 scintillator detectors and a 560 m2 large tracking muon detector (Eμ > 1 GeV), at Ooty in India. The muon detector has been used to observe acceleration of muons during thunderstorm conditions. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below 1 PeV, with an overlap with direct measurements. More recently we have explored the possibility of using the angular distribution of > 1 GeV muons to identify the best from among several low- and high-energy hadronic interaction models. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in all of the areas listed above. (authors)

  15. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  16. From Web to Grid, a new perspective for archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Pelfer, Pier Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that in Archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualisation. In the last years the amount of information coming from remote sensing. from precise and fast acquisition of 3-D artefacts images by scanners laser, from GPS precise reference of geographical points and from other human and natural sciences are increasing at a large extent the amount of data that it need to be stored and made available for analysis. Moreover the use of Virtual Archaeology as a new approach to the narration and visualisation in Archaeology, is expanding rapidly, not only in the museum and archaeology professions, but also in the broadcast media, tourism and heritage industries. From another side recent natural and social disasters (wars) created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively any information about ancient civilisations. It is urgent a longterm project for saving archaeological...

  17. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  18. 基于酚类物质的酿酒红葡萄品种特性分析%Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Red Grape Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 王晓宇; 田呈瑞; 赵旗峰; 马小河; 唐晓萍; 马婷婷; 马锦锦

    2015-01-01

    conical. There was a significant difference between the proportion of grape peels, seeds and pulps. The ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ with a higher quality was the first cultivar in China, its proportion of peels and seeds were the highest and reached 31.3%;whereas the proportion of peels and seeds of ‘Cabernet Gernischet’ was lower, only 10.62%, meanwhile the wine fermented by‘Cabernet Gernischet’ had a lower content of polyphenols and a supple texture. Titratable acid content of 20 varieties of grapes was 3.97-9.00 g·L-1 and the content of soluble solid was 14.5-25.4 g·L-1. Different grape varieties and different parts of the grape fruit (skin, seed and pulp) were significantly different in the polyphenols content. TPC (total phenolic content) of grape peel was 12-125 mg·100g-1FW (fruit fresh weight), TFA (total flavanol content) was 1-27 mg·100g-1FW; TPC of grape seed was 17-456 mg·100g-1 FW, TFA was 22-505 mg·100g-1FW, TPC of grape pulps was 1.24-3.24 mg·100g-1FW, that TPC in grape seed was 3-4 times of grape peel, TFA in the seed was 10 times more than the peel. Anthocyanin mainly existed in grape peels and the content of anthocyanin of grape peels was 1-34 mg·100g-1FW. Among the 20 varieties of grape, ‘Cabernet sauvignon’ exhibited the highest anthocyanin content, which was followed by ‘Ruby cabernet’, ‘Marselan’ and ‘Cabernet gernischet’. The grape cultivars such as ‘Marselan’ and ‘Cabernet sauvignon’ had higher phenolic compounds, meanwhile the grape cultivars such as ‘Cabernet gernischet’, ‘Heihuxiang’ and ‘Cinsaut cehco’ had lower phenols content. The content of phenolic compounds in different parts of various grapes was significantly different. The order was that grape seeds was the highest, followed by the grape skins, and the pulp was the lowest. The phenolic compounds content in pulp was much lower than that in skins and seeds, and pulp mainly contained phenolic acids. A total of 12 kinds of monomeric phenols in

  19. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  20. Geodetic surveying as part of archaeological research in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying is an important part of any archaeological research. In this paper we focus on the archaeological research in north Sudan (6th Nile cataract and the surveying methods applicable under the local conditions. Surveying in the Third World countries is affected by the political situation (limited import of surveying tools, local conditions (lack of fixed points, GNSS correction signal, inaccessible basemaps and fixed point network. This article describes the methods and results obtained during the three archaeological seasons (2011-2014. The classical surveying methods were combined with KAP (Kite Aerial Photography to obtain the desired results in form of archaeological maps, detailed orthophoto images and other analyses results.

  1. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obtained from a long-term grape growing. In addition, they have to be supported by histological and biochemical analyses.

  2. Major factors influencing antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity in grapes and wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Lachman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaromír Lachman, Miloslav Šulc, Katerina Faitová, Vladimír PivecDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Phenolic compounds in wines, especially in red wines, possess strong antioxidant activity, have the largest effect in decreasing atherosclerosis by both hypolipemic and antioxidant mechanisms. The long-term uptake of red wine has a positive impact on antioxidant activity (AA of blood plasma in rats in vivo and increases AA by 15%–20% compared to a control group. In the article the effect of total phenolics (TP, total anthocyanins (TA, individual anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolics contained in red grapes, musts, grape seeds and skins and wines on the AA is discussed. Significant impact of varieties, viticultural regions and locations, climate conditions and vintage has been shown. Likewise, the ways and individual stages of the vinification technology process, and storage conditions affect color, TP, TA, and AA and health aspects of produced wines. Resveratrol, another free radical scavenger mainly contained in the skins of grapes, inhibits the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Higher amounts of trans-resveratrol (RES have been found in wines from cool and wet climate regions and lesser amounts are typical for warm and dry regions. Changes in the TP content and AA affected by grape variety, vineyard location and winemaking process in white and blue varieties from different vineyards of the Czech Republic were studied. Significant differences in TP among varieties were found. Analysis of variance showed statistically high differences among red and white wines and growing locations. Wines differed significantly in TP content and AA increased significantly during the winemaking process. Statistically significant differences in AA values were found among growing areas, wines and varieties. Significant positive correlations between TP

  3. 77 FR 59660 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... Stanford University Archaeology Center. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  4. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed an...: Dr. Richard Hodges, Director, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology &...

  5. 葡萄多酚酸奶的加工工艺%The Processing Technology of Grape Polyphenols Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤英; 张文秋; 刘德全

    2012-01-01

    A new type of functional yoghurt was developed by using grape seed extract and skim milk as main raw materials. The study was conducted of processing condition in five aspects which involved the adding meth- od of polyphenol extract, the effect of different adding amount on fermentation speed and quality,the determina- tion of recipe of health yoghourt and the variation of grape polyphenol during the processing of the yoghourt. The results showed that grape polyphenol extract was added before pasteurization, the optimum adding amount was 0.07 ; the best recipe was 0.05 inoculum concentration, 100 g/L sugar, 10 g/L cyclodextrin and 4 h of fer- mention;grape seed polyphenol was stable during fermentation except that a little losses occurred during pas- teurization;Slight inhibition of grape seed polyphenol was found in the post-acidification process of the yogurt.%以葡萄籽浸提液、脱脂乳粉为原料,研制了一种新型的功能酸奶——葡萄多酚酸奶。从葡萄籽浸提液的添加方法和添加量对发酵速度和品质的影响,葡萄多酚酸奶配方的确定,葡萄多酚在酸奶加工中的变化等方面研究了葡萄多酚酸奶的制作工艺。结果表明:葡萄多酚酸奶的工艺为葡萄籽浸提液在灭菌前添加;适宜添加量为占葡萄多酚酸奶体积分数0.07;最佳配方为乳酸菌接种量为占葡萄多酚酸奶体积分数0.05,糖的质量浓度为100 g/L,环糊精的质量浓度为10 g/L,发酵时间4 h;葡萄多酚除在杀菌工艺中有所损失外,在发酵过程中非常稳定;葡萄籽浸提液对酸奶后酸化过程有轻微抑制作用。

  6. Geometric documentation of underwater archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Diamanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry has often been the most preferable method for the geometric documentation of monuments, especially in cases of highly complex objects, of high accuracy and quality requirements and, of course, budget, time or accessibility limitations. Such limitations, requirements and complexities are undoubtedly features of the highly challenging task of surveying an underwater archaeological site. This paper is focused on the case of a Hellenistic shipwreck found in Greece at the Southern Euboean gulf, 40-47 meters below the sea surface. Underwater photogrammetry was chosen as the ideal solution for the detailed and accurate mapping of a shipwreck located in an environment with limited accessibility. There are time limitations when diving at these depths so it is essential that the data collection time is kept as short as possible. This makes custom surveying techniques rather impossible to apply. However, with the growing use of consumer cameras and photogrammetric software, this application is becoming easier, thus benefiting a wide variety of underwater sites. Utilizing cameras for underwater photogrammetry though, poses some crucial modeling problems, due to the refraction effect and further additional parameters which have to be co-estimated [1]. The applied method involved an underwater calibration of the camera as well as conventional field survey measurements in order to establish a reference frame. The application of a three-dimensional trilateration using common tape measures was chosen for this reason. Among the software that was used for surveying and photogrammetry processing, were Site Recorder SE, Eos Systems Photomodeler, ZI’s SSK and Rhinoceros. The underwater archaeological research at the Southern Euboean gulf is a continuing project carried out by the Hellenic Institute for Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A. in collaboration with the Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, under the direction of the archaeologist G

  7. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food...-dextrin. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with grape color extract may contain only those... nonbeverage food, except that it may not be used to color foods for which standards of identity have...

  8. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety names. 4.93 Section 4.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names §...

  9. Implementing quantum logic gates with GRAPE: principles and practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, B

    2012-01-01

    We briefly describe the use of GRAPE pulses to implement quantum logic gates in NMR quantum computers, and discuss a range of simple extensions to the core technique. We then consider a range of difficulties which can arise in practical implementations of GRAPE sequences, reflecting non-idealities in the experimental systems used.

  10. GENE POOL OF INDIGENOUS GRAPE VARIETIES AND INTRODUCENTS IN ABKHAZIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aiba V. S.; Troshin L. P.; Kravchenko R. V.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of results of the conducting surveys on screening and saving gene pool of indigenous grape varieties in the Republic of Abkhazia, which contributed to detection and identification of the 15 previously described in the literature of Abkhazian native grape varieties

  11. Changes in polyphenol content during production of grape juice concentrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The production of grape juice concentrate on an industrial scale was evaluated and samples from the main steps of processing have been collected and analyzed. The sampling steps included the selection and washing of grapes (Nevsehir Patlak variety), pressing in order to obtain the juice separate fro

  12. Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants

  13. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Picton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available University College London houses one of the world’s most important collections of ancient Egyptian material, the majority excavated by Flinders Petrie, his students and his successors in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is a museum of archaeology that helps to explain the development of a discipline that was in its infancy when Petrie worked in Egypt over a century ago. It is a teaching collection, its densely packed cases entrancing, and sometimes intimidating, visitors who rave about its old-fashioned feel, but it is anything but frozen in time.

  14. Effects of fining on phenolic compounds and colour of red wine obtained with addition of increased amounts of grape solid phase in pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the effect of grape pomace enrichment in solid phase (stems and seeds on phenolic compounds and colour stability of obtained red wines, before and after use of different fining agents. Results have shown increase in total phenols and flavan-3-ols content after grape solid phase addition. On the other hand, decrease in anthocyanins content has generally been recorded in all wine samples except in wines obtained with addition of 40 g/l of seeds during maceration. Stems addition caused decrease in colour intensity while addition of seeds has increased this colour parameter. The use of four fining agents (albumin, gelatine, bentonite and PVPP has been investigated and compared, especially in terms of their influence on potential stabilization effect of grape solid phase on wine colour. Fined wines tended to have considerably lower anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol levels, especially in the case of gelatine and PVPP treatment (decrease up to 60 and 70%, respectively. In the case of chromatic parameters, used fining agents caused colour intensity decrease but it is important to emphasize that their values, after fining, are still as high as expected from red wine. This can be explained by the stabilization effect of increased flavan-3-ols content.

  15. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  16. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) emerged for pre-dawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), mid-day leaf water potential (ΨL) and PAW, with berry size, berry weight, pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the

  17. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  18. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  19. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  20. Environmental archaeology at the Institute: the early years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Sheldon

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1998/99 issue of Archaeology International, Geoffrey Dimbleby reflected on the period, from 1964 to 1979, when he was head of the Institute's former Department of Human Environment. Here Joan Sheldon (Fig. 1, who joined the Institute in 1948 as assistant to Frederick Zeuner, recalls how environmental archaeology developed during her 35 years on the staff.

  1. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  2. Mexican Underwater Archaeology and Some of its Challenges and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Luna Erreguerena

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to Carver’s lead article, I’d like to highlight an easily overlooked aspect of archaeology: underwater archaeology. I will offer some examples and experiences from Mexico, which will perhaps resonate in other cities and nations around the world with a rich underwater cultural heritage.

  3. Controlled Atmosphere Treatment for Control of Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Harvested Table Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO) alone and in combinations with 50% carbon dioxide were studied to control grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) on harvested table grapes. Two ultralow oxygen levels, ˜30 ppm and <1 ppm, were tested in both ULO and ULO+50% ...

  4. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  5. Liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic study for varietal discrimination of grapes according to plant sterols content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Laura; Sampedro, M Carmen; Sánchez, Alicia; Delporte, Cédric; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-07-01

    Grapevine and derived products are rich in a wide range of compounds and its quality mainly depends on its metabolites, as a result of viticulture practices. Plant sterols, also called phytosterols (PS), are secondary metabolites regarded as bioactive substance present in grape berries and other plant-based food. The present study deals with a metabolomic approach focusing on phytosterols family in six varieties of Rioja grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo, Graciano, Garnacha, White Garnacha and Viura), in order to find significant differences among them. Liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry with a quadrupole-time of flight mass analyzer (LC-QTOF) was used to find as many metabolites as possible in the different grape berry fractions, and using statistics to help finding significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulp, peel and seeds in relation to the variety. The best chromatographic and detection conditions were achieved by gas phase ionization via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode. Furthermore, analysis with electrospray (ESI) is also needed for phytosterol derivatives confirmation. Putative compounds of interest in the analyzed samples were found by an automated compound extraction algorithm (Molecular Feature Extraction, MFE) and an initial differential expression from the data was created with the aid of commercial software. Once the data were collected, the results were filtered, aligned and normalized, and evaluating applying one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a 95% significance level. For sample class prediction, partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is used as a supervised pattern recognition method and excellent separation among the grape varieties is shown. An overall accuracy of 93.3% (pulp samples), 100.0% (peel) or 96.7% (seeds) in discriminating between grape varieties was achieved when comparing the different fractions. In general, 7 PS derivatives were identified with ID scores

  6. Starry Messages: Searching for Signatures of Interstellar Archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Carrigan, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatu...

  7. Palazzo Valentini: Archaeological discoveries and redevelopment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Napoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Palazzo Valentini, a historical site of Rome׳s Provincial Administration, is located at the heart of the city. The building was purchased in 1827 by Vincenzo Valentini, a banker and consul general of the Prussian Crown. In 1939, with the outbreak of World War II, a fully self-contained, air-raid shelter was built under the courtyard, with an exit tunnel heading onto the Trajan׳s Forum. Archaeological investigations started in 2005 in view of a simple rehabilitation work of the underground level. As work progressed, the sample-plots brought to light new archaeological findings: relics of a huge temple and what remained of two residential houses with thermal baths. We therefore designed an exhibition space with glass surfaces to allow visitors to appreciate the findings while following a path through historical ages: from the 16th-century courtyard to the underground Roman domus (the sumptuous houses of senators and dignitaries of the Roman Empire, with private baths, to the remains of a Roman temple, and all the way to the Trajan׳s Column pedestal by way of the air-raid shelter. Virtual reconstructions, graphic effects, and movies are the means used to revive the hypothetical original appearance of the environments and the daily life of that epoch in order to help us build a prototype of an on-site museum of the third millennium.

  8. Classification of archaeologically stratified pumice by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the research program 'Synchronization of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millenium B.C.' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. The widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region were used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. A remarkable quantity of pumice and pumiceous tephra (several km3) was produced by the 'Minoan eruption' of Thera (Santorini), which is assumed to have happened between 1450 and 1650 B.C. Thus the discovery of the primary fallout of 'Minoan' tephra in archaeologically stratified locations can be used as a relative time mark. Additionally, pumice lumps used as abrasive can serve for dating by first appearance. Essential to an identification of the primary volcanic source is the knowledge that pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns, as previous work has shown. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. (author)

  9. Radiology in archaeological studies of incas mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to determine the imaging findings in three 500-year-old Inca mummies and how modern radiology can be used in other sciences such as archaeology. Material and Method: Three naturally mummified children were studied using conventional radiography, dental radiography, CT and puncture biopsies. Working sessions were limited to 20 minutes to prevent thawing of the corpses and radiological techniques were adjusted to their particular anatomic position. Results: CT images showed shrinkaged internal organs due to dehydration. The fatty tissue of the bodies was visibly white because of the transformation of it into adipocere, favoring white matter/gray matter differentiation at the central nervous system. The lungs were expanded in the three corpses and right lung and maxillary sinus pathologies were determined in the older girl. Chronological ages of the three children at the time of their deaths were established. DNA studies determined no family links among them. The spleen was not seen in any case. Conclusions: Modern radiology is an excellent tool in archaeological research. Nutritional state, ages and pathologies of the three mummies were evaluated. (author)

  10. Review of Ramsey Abbey - An Archaeological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gaffney

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The CD is designed to be read using most standard web browsers and is compatible with both Windows and Mac operating systems. Occasionally in order to view a diagram you are transported into Adobe Acrobat, a copy of which is on the CD. The CD is the culmination of a community based project based on the medieval abbey at Ramsey in Cambridgeshire, England. According to the sleeve of the CD the project was paid for by a Royal Society and British Association Millennium Award, which was funded by the Millennium Commission to 'encourage people's understanding of science, engineering and technology in the community'. The science in question largely involves the small-scale, perhaps even surgical, use of resistance, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR. The project, however, had a more interesting agenda, one that involves the testing of an archaeological problem. In short, the Archaeological Field Unit (AFU of Cambridgeshire County Council found that there were competing hypotheses concerning the location of the former church on the now-ruined abbey site. The CD pieces together the evidence for the church, collected with the help of the children at the school that now occupies the site. The CD can be seen as part of the remit to reach the wider community that also involved open days, seminars and a web site.

  11. GRAPE-6: The massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical particle simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Junichiro; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Koga, Masaki; Namura, Ken

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture and performance of the GRAPE-6 system, a massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical $N$-body simulations. GRAPE-6 is the successor of GRAPE-4, which was completed in 1995 and achieved the theoretical peak speed of 1.08 Tflops. As was the case with GRAPE-4, the primary application of GRAPE-6 is simulation of collisional systems, though it can be used for collisionless systems. The main differences between GRAPE-4 and GRAPE-6 are (a...

  12. Politics and the World Archaeological Congress [-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao, Nandini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The recognition in the West that every discipline is influenced by its socio-political context led to the demand for reflexive archaeology and to the formation in 1986, by the 'politically aware', of the World Archaeological Congress (WAC. WAC explicitly recognises the socio-political context of archaeological practice, and archaelogy's political, social and academic responsibilities. The Congress, which meets every four years, met in India in December 1994. Indian archaeologists have largely denied the influence of socio-political contexts on academics. But this has not prevented some from (misusing archaeological evidence to further political ends with catastrophic results. No discussion on the issue was permitted at the Congress so that eight years after it was formed. the WAC compromised and suppressed free debate on a vital matter. This essay outlines the genesis of WAC and the reasons why it was formed, before analysing the Indian context of the third meeting of the Congress. It also examines the response of Indian archaeologists at WAC to the protest against such political abuse of archaeology and calls for a reflection on whether WAC has achieved its objective of becoming a relevant world organisation.

    El reconocimiento en Occidente de que cada disciplina está influida por su contexto socio-político llevó a la reivindicación de una arqueología reflexiva y a la formación en 1986, por los arqueólogos ”políticamente conscientes”, del Congreso Arqueológico Mundial (WAC. El WAC reconoce explícitamente el contexto sociopolítico de la práctica arqueológica y las responsabilidades políticas, sociales y académicas de la arqueología. El Congreso, que se celebra cada cuatro años, tuvo lugar en India en diciembre de 1994. Los arqueólogos indios han negado durante mucho tiempo la influencia de los contextos socio-políticos sobre los investigadores. Pero ello no ha impedido que algunos de ellos hayan utilizado de

  13. GRAPE-6: The massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical particle simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Makino, J; Koga, M; Namura, K; Makino, Junichiro; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Koga, Masaki; Namura, Ken

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture and performance of the GRAPE-6 system, a massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical $N$-body simulations. GRAPE-6 is the successor of GRAPE-4, which was completed in 1995 and achieved the theoretical peak speed of 1.08 Tflops. As was the case with GRAPE-4, the primary application of GRAPE-6 is simulation of collisional systems, though it can be used for collisionless systems. The main differences between GRAPE-4 and GRAPE-6 are (a) The processor chip of GRAPE-6 integrates 6 force-calculation pipelines, compared to one pipeline of GRAPE-4 (which needed 3 clock cycles to calculate one interaction), (b) the clock speed is increased from 32 to 90 MHz, and (c) the total number of processor chips is increased from 1728 to 2048. These improvements resulted in the peak speed of 64 Tflops. We also discuss the design of the successor of GRAPE-6.

  14. The Scandinavian Connection: The Roots of Darwinian Archaeology in 19th-Century Scandinavian Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Riede

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Evolution’ is without doubt one of archaeology’s favourite, most used and perhaps most overused words. However, ‘evolution’ comes in many guises and it is only really in the last ten years that an explicitly Darwinian approach to the archaeological record has begun to emerge. Today, the number of papers using Darwinian Theory grows almost exponentially, reflecting perhaps the current popularity of applying Darwinian Theory to human behaviour, including culture, in more general terms (Aunger 2000; Barrett et al. 2002; Laland andamp; Brown 2002; Mesoudi et al. 2004; Ziman 2000. The field has developed its own technical jargon (Hart andamp; Terrell 2002 and enjoys increasing public funding. Here is not the place to list, let alone discuss the entire corpus of works (but see http://cladistics.coas.missouri.edu/pubs.html and http://www.ceacb.ucl.ac.uk/resources. Instead this brief papers attempts to address some historical aspects of Darwinian thinking in archaeology. Although there is considerable diversity within this Darwinian or Evolutionary Archaeology (EA, this paper will focus primarily on its two most vocal American proponents: Michael J. O’Brien and Richard Lee Lyman. In a long series of publications they have not only put forward a “radically empiricist” (Shennan 2002a: 255, yet eminently workable Darwinian approach to artefact analysis, but they have also traced the intellectual ancestry of EA back to a number of key figures in early 20th century Americanist archaeology (Lyman et al. 1997b; Lyman andamp; O’Brien 1997, 1999, 2000a, 2001, 2003, 2004; Lyman et al. 1997a, 1997b; Lyman et al. 1998; O’Brien et al. 2005. Despite the impressive amount of scholarship that has gone into these works and the exemplary publication strategy, which has been instrumental in promoting this particular approach, their version of the history of archaeology can be criticised as the writing of “partial histories” (Murray 2002a: 234. As

  15. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Edward William R Barlow

    2016-01-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four nor...

  16. THE TABLE GRAPE CULTIVATION AND MARKETING THEM TO I.N.C.D.B.H. STEFANESTI

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bădulescu

    2014-01-01

    Growing table grapes offers manufacturers a range of priorities, compared to growing grapes for wine. It should be considered that by making table grapes, obtaining income is recorded immediately. If several varieties are cultivated end cooking time staggered, these revenues are obtained over a period of time. Table grape varieties are more productive (15 to 17 t / ha), so the profit will be higher. For table grape varieties all depends on quality. If respected cultivation technology of these...

  17. Detection of 'archaeological features' among reflectance spectra of natural soils and archaeological soils using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lampel, Johannes; Jordan, David; Fiedler, Sabine; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological terminology 'soil-mark' refers to buried archaeological features being visible on the ground surface. Soil-marks have been identified by archaeologists based on their personal experience and knowledge. This study suggests a quantitative spectral analysis method to detect such archaeological features. This study identifies 'archaeological spectra' (reflectance spectra from surfaces containing archaeological materials) among various soil spectra using PCA (principal component analysis). Based on the results of the PCA, a difference (D) between the original spectrum and modified spectrum, which represents the principal component (PC) values of natural soils, can be determined. If the difference D between the two spectra is small, then the spectrum is similar to the spectral features of natural soils. If not, it identifies that the spectrum is more likely to be non-natural soil, probably an archaeological material. The method is applied on soil spectra from a prehistoric settlement site in Calabria, Italy. For the spectral range between 400 to 700nm, the difference value D for archaeological material ranges from 0.11 to 0.73 (the value varies depending on the number of PCs used). For natural soil, D ranges only from 0.04 to 0.09. The results shows D value is significantly larger for archaeological spectra, which indicates that the method can be applied to identify archaeological material among an unknown group of soil spectra, if a set of samples of natural soils exists. The study will present results of applying this method to various wavelength ranges and spectra from different sites. The major aim is to find optimised settings of the PCA method which can be applied in a universal way for identifying archaeological spectra.

  18. Changes in grape phylloxera abundance in ungrafted vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Karen S; Hoffmann, Ary A; Powell, Kevin S

    2006-10-01

    To examine seasonal changes in the abundance of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), several sampling methods were tested at vineyards in Victoria, Australia. At a recently infested site, changes detected by root assessment, trunk trapping, and emergence trapping were closely correlated, although the largest numbers of grape phylloxera were obtained using traps that collected phylloxera emerging from soil. This trapping technique was further used to investigate changes in grape phylloxera numbers across three different sites from southeastern Australia as well as in three consecutive seasons at the same vineyard. Grape phylloxera numbers decreased as vines deteriorated; a single peak of emergence occurred in every summer. Size and timing of emergence peaks varied between sites and also between vine blocks within a site. The number of grape phylloxera trapped was correlated with degree-days. Monitoring soil temperature may provide a way of timing control options against grape phylloxera and a way of identifying peak periods when phylloxera detection surveys should be completed or when grape phylloxera are at the highest risk of spreading among vineyards. PMID:17066812

  19. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Grape Juice at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ravika; Jain, Ritu; Sharma, Krishna S.

    2015-04-01

    The complex permittivity of fresh juice of two cultivars of grapes, Sultania (green grapes) and Black Monukka (black grapes) was measured in terms of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor over the frequency range from 1 to 50 GHz and at temperatures ranging from 30 to 60°C, by using the PNA network analyzer model E8364C and open ended coaxial probe 85070E. The Cole-Cole plots and dielectric constant vs. (angular frequency) dielectric loss factor and dielectric constant vs. dielectric loss factor/(angular frequency) regression lines at different temperatures were used in Debye approximation to predict relaxation frequency of molecules for the two cultivars of grapes in the low frequency and high frequency limits, respectively. It was observed that the acidic character of green grapes is responsible for the large amplitude vibrational peaks in dielectric loss factor - frequency curves, in the high frequency region at higher temperatures. On the other hand, excess of sugar in black grapes suppresses the activity of water molecules, thereby suppressing the vibrational peaks at higher frequencies. Different relaxation frequencies found for the two cultivars of grapes suggest that they have different molecular structure.

  20. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  1. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  2. Digital fruition of archaeological finds. The experience at the Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a series of investigations undertaken thanks to the collaboration between the Department of Architecture and Territorial Planning of the University of Bologna and the Archaeological Museum of Bologna , aimed at finding a procedure for the 3d digital survey and exploration of archaeological finds. In particular, this paper shows how users can benefit from the use of digital technologies for the fruition of historical-artistic heritage. As a matter of fact, digital communication tools stimulate multisensory perception mechanisms and therefore allow to actively involve users in the exploration of contents presented through collections. Immersive visualizations, augmented reality and both tactile and visual exploration of findings can ease the establishment of a more immediate and direct communication channel with users that generally communicate and access information using digital technologies and mediums.

  3. Massive Open Online Archaeology, Massive Open Online Opportunity: Toward a Worldwide Community of Archaeological Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel, Jeffrey Paul

    2014-01-01

    While the World Wide Web has provided the public at large with heretofore-unimagined access to information, the egalitarian – and frequently anonymous – nature of online content creation has also provided an unprecedented opportunity for the spread of misinformation and misinterpretation alike. Archaeology is no exception to the double-edged sword that is the 21st century web, as the opening of museum collections, the ability to conduct armchair “surveys” via tools like Google Earth, unfetter...

  4. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  5. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  6. TABLE GRAPE PUNNET PACKAGING: THE INFLUENCE OF CHECK-WEIGHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit, R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of South Africas table grapes are exported to the EU and the UK. In recent years, pre-packaged table grapes are now preferred in many European supermarkets. This increased demand has resulted in stringent quality standards, including the specification of punnet mass. Locally, table grapes are packed manually using seasonal labour, who often have limited formal education. Punnets must conform to upper and lower mass limits, but many deviations occur due to human and machine error. Check-weighing proved effective in reducing out-of-specification punnets, but human and machine errors were still problem factors.

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Arginine in Grape Juice Using 8-Hydroquinoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; LIANG Xin-hong; ZHAO Rui-xiang; FENG Li-dan; LI Hua

    2008-01-01

    Arginine in grape juice can be metabolized by wine yeasts and malolactic bacteria to precursors of ethyl carbamate, known as carcinogen. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, fast, and accurate method for determining arginine in grape juice with Sakaguchi reaction by separating arginine with strong cation-exchange resins. Parameters were optimized including the concentrations of 8-hydroquinoline and sodium hydrobromite. The color stability lasted for 4 min, which is sufficient to finish the measurement. The method is simple, reproducible and accurate, and can be applied for quick measurement of arginine in grape juice to take necessary measures for controlling the level of ethyl carbamate.

  8. Design and Construction of Grape Theme Sightseeing Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; LIU; Yifei; YU; Jingchuan; LI; Ruifeng; HAN; Ying; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Taking the grape theme sightseeing garden of Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences for example,this article discusses the suitable edible and wine making cultivation varieties,vineyard frame and cultivation techniques in the grape theme sightseeing garden,from the perspective of planning and design. The garden landscape design and construction is integrated with sightseeing and garden visiting to highlight the theme of grape sightseeing garden,aimed at achieving purposes of sightseeing,picking,appreciating the beautiful scenery,and enjoying palatable food.

  9. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  10. Galactic Archaeology and Minimum Spanning Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlane, B A; Flynn, C M L

    2015-01-01

    Chemical tagging of stellar debris from disrupted open clusters and associations underpins the science cases for next-generation multi-object spectroscopic surveys. As part of the Galactic Archaeology project TraCD (Tracking Cluster Debris), a preliminary attempt at reconstructing the birth clouds of now phase-mixed thin disk debris is undertaken using a parametric minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Empirically-motivated chemical abundance pattern uncertainties (for a 10-dimensional chemistry-space) are applied to NBODY6-realised stellar associations dissolved into a background sea of field stars, all evolving in a Milky Way potential. We demonstrate that significant population reconstruction degeneracies appear when the abundance uncertainties approach 0.1 dex and the parameterised MST approach is employed; more sophisticated methodologies will be required to ameliorate these degeneracies.

  11. ARCHAEOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATION OF A DEFUNCT IRAQI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šedina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  12. Studies of technology in prehistoric archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitezović Selena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology studies have always been the most important focus of archaeology, as a science which analyzes human past through the study of material culture. To say that something is technological in archaeology, means to put the concept of technology in the centre of theoretical studies, and to study not only the form of the object, but also the entire sequence of technological factors, from raw material choice, mode of use, up to the reasons for abandonment. The concept of technology in anthropology and archaeology is based on the original meaning of the word τεχνη in ancient Greek, meaning the skill, i. e., to study how something is being done. Such a concept of technology as a skill or mode of doing something was for the first time outlined by the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss, whose starting point was that every technological statement was at the same time social or cultural statement and that technological choices have social foundations. Pierre Lemonnier further developed the anthropology of technology, focusing on the question of technological choices, as well as numerous other anthropologists. In archaeology, the most important contribution to the study of technology was the work of André Leroi-Gourhan, who created the concept of chaîne opératoire, as an analytical tool for studying the mode of creating, using and discarding an artefact, starting with raw material acquisition, mode of manufacture, final form, use (including caching, breaking and repairing up to the final discarding. It is not only about reconstructing the algorithmic sequence of operations in creating one object, but it is a complex analysis of operational chain within one society which includes the analysis of technological choices. The analyses of technologies today include a variety of different approaches, most of them with emphasis on the cultural and social aspects of technology. The analysis of bone industry in the Early and Middle Neolithic in central

  13. Public Engagement at Archaeology South-East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Orange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Business skills are a recognised skill shortage within the archaeological profession (Aitchison and Edwards, 2008: 106. Conversely, many small and medium-sized enterprises could benefit from the specialist knowledge that recently graduated PhD students could bring to their business. Recognising this, UCL Advances (the centre for entrepreneurship and business at UCL manages a Knowledge Exchange Associate (KEA scheme whereby exiting PhD students are hosted by businesses. Each KEA acts as a conduit for the transfer of knowledge from UCL to industry, with projects tailored to meet the needs of each business. In return KEA’s are provided with challenging and creative project management experience and formal business training (UCL Advances, 2013.

  14. Online Resistance to Precarious Archaeological Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hardy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The international cultural heritage economy has long been underpinned by a reserve army of unemployed/underemployed labour. The entry-level workforce is being further undermined and unpaid/underpaid labour is additionally being consolidated through the crisis and austerity measures. Independently and under different pressures, archaeologists across Europe have begun to use blogging, micro-blogging and other social media in concerted national efforts to document, analyse and resist exploitative and exclusive employment practices. This article focuses on the development of movements against unpaid labour (free archaeology in the UK, against unpaid and underpaid internship (volontariato and stage in Italy, and for employment (istihdam in Turkey. Using insights gained through observing and participating in these movements, and through running a research blog on precarious labour in the cultural heritage industry, this article examines the benefits and limits of blogging/micro-blogging as a tool for debate within the profession, communication with the public, and activism.

  15. Distant Neighbours: Different Visions about Mexican Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez Gastélum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Mexican archaeology experienced a major transformation due to the enactment of a Federal Law about archaeological, artistic, and historical monuments and zones, which changed the Mexican Government’s administration of Mexican archaeological heritage. In 1972, in West Mexico, an active group of archaeologists from the U.S.A. was working. They came from several universities and were also members of an academic association, the West Mexican Society for Advanced Study, that was based in Ajijic, Mexico, and comprised both U.S. and Mexican archaeologists. This group wrote to the government about their views of the new laws, and the government department concerned with their implementation, the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH – Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, then responded with the Mexican Government’s official standpoint. In this paper, we analyze the positions of the West Mexican Society for Advanced Study, and INAH. We observe the sociopolitical and academic contexts from both U.S. and Mexican perspectives, and we offer explanations about their opposing views. We consider this episode to be a manifestation of the ideas circulating between U.S. and Mexican archaeologies.En 1972 la arqueología mexicana tuvo un cambio radical. En ese año fue promulgada la Ley Federal de Monumentos y Zonas Arqueológicos, Artísticos e Históricos. Esta ley cambió la manera en que el gobierno mexicano administraba el patrimonio arqueológico nacional. En dicho año, en el occidente de México, estuvo trabajando un grupo muy activo de arqueólogos estadounidenses, que si bien procedían de diversas universidades, también fueron miembros de una institución académica. La Sociedad de Estudios Avanzados del Occidente de México, con sede en Ajijic, México, reunió tanto a arquéologos estadounidenses como mexicanos. Los primeros escribieron un documento que contenía sus opiniones sobre la nueva ley y lo

  16. PRINCELY HALYCH: INTRIGUING PROSPECTS FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Koval

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to statistical data, permanent and local archaeological researches have covered only about ten per cent of the territory of Princely Halych, which opens up endless possibilities for research at the site of the ancient city. The chapter highlights the importance of the scientific and popular works by Antin Petrushevych, Lev Lavretskyi and Izydor Sharanevych, who in 1882 initiated the archaeological research on the mighty Principality of Halych (Galicia and its capital, and the excavation of the first Christian church in Halych – the Church of the Holy Saviour mentioned in the Kyivan Chronicle. The little-known works of these scientists, which were published in Lviv newspapers in the 1880s, clearly show that Lavretskyi and Sharanevych’s findings received international acclaim and were a significant factor in rousing national consciousness and stimulating social activity of the Galician Ukrainians. It is difficult to explain the lack of interest in carrying out excavations outside the perimeter of the foundations of the Church, which could have enhanced the social, historical, topographical analysis of the monument and its surroundings. A particular fact that proves the importance of such research is the discovery of pendant seals, which modern sphragistics attributes to Prince Volodymyrko Volodarevych (1141-1153.  This conclusion is in good agreement with the Kyivan Chronicle and the findings of the archaeologists who excavated the Church of the Holy Saviour. All these facts provide grounds for the hypothesis concerning the location of the State Chancellery and the mysterious Palace of the 12th century Lords of Galicia.

  17. Water status and quality improvement in high-CO2 treated table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Oscar; Fernandez-Caballero, Carlos; Sanchez-Ballesta, María T; Escribano, María I; Merodio, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    Unfreezable water (UFW) content in berry tissues (pulp, skin, seed) and rachis of table grape clusters stored at 0°C has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of short exposure to high CO2 (20% CO2 for 3days) and the transfer to air were also studied. Water status of pulp tissues was related to the thawing behaviour and the structural characteristics, using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM). The UFW content in all tissues increased rapidly in response to high CO2 while it remained stable or decreased in untreated clusters. The strong potential of this beneficial gaseous treatment for increasing the UFW content was also evident after transfer to air. The metabolic adjustment caused by exposure to high CO2, which reduced the amount of water available to be frozen, improved stored fruit quality, thus minimising structural damage and reducing water leakage associated with the freezing-thawing process. PMID:25214326

  18. Research on the Extraction Technology of Resveratrol from Grapes%葡萄中提取白藜芦醇的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺璇; 洪剑斌; 刘荣俊

    2012-01-01

    采用超声波法提取葡萄皮和葡萄籽中的白藜芦醇,由正交试验获得葡萄皮中提取白藜芦醇的最佳工艺为:乙醇提取剂浓度60%,料液比1∶12,超声时间12min,60℃水浴时间30min,白藜芦醇提取率为0.014 9%.葡萄籽中提取白藜芦醇的最佳工艺为:乙醇提取剂浓度60%,料液比1∶14,超声时间5min,60℃水浴时间30min,白藜芦醇提取率为0.005 7%.在此条件下的提取工艺稳定性好且简便易行,实验结果还显示葡萄皮中白藜芦醇的含量高于葡萄籽中的含量.%By the ultrasonic extraction test of resveratrol from grape skin and grape seed,it is obtained that the best process for the extraction of resveratrol from grape skins:60% ethanol,the solid-liquid ratio 1∶12,ultrasonic time 12 min,bath with 60 ℃ water 30 min,the resveratrol extraction rate is 0.014 9%.The optimum extraction of resveratrol from grape seeds:60% ethanol,the solid-liquid ratio 1∶14,ultrasonic time 5 min,bath with 60 ℃ water 30 min,the extraction rate is 0.005 7%.Under these conditions,the extraction process is stable and easy to draw.The result also shows that the content of resveratrol in grape skin is higher than the content in the grape seed.

  19. River archaeology - a new tool for historical hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, Attila J [National Office of Cultural Heritage, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: attila.toth@koh.hu

    2008-11-01

    River archaeology consists of underwater research on the rivers themselves. It is also concerned with the archaeology of the valleys/floodplains with special attention to human-environmental interactions (reconstructing landscape, the environment, economy and society from material culture and traces of human impact on their surroundings). As historical hydrology is concerned with similar questions, from the hydrologist's point of view, the combination of different approaches offers the possibilities for fruitful cooperation for both disciplines. The intent of this paper is to present the type, nature and limitations of this part of the archaeological record through recent work in the Drava River basin.

  20. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Sun, Guoping; Zheng, Yunfei

    2016-05-01

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may provide further evidence for the reliability of phytolith dating. We present an improved method for extracting phytoliths from soils. We compared the dating of phytoliths and other materials (e.g., charcoal and plant seeds) recovered at the same depth from seven pits at six archaeological sites in China. The estimated ages of the phytoliths and other materials were generally consistent, except for one outlier. We attribute this inconsistency to the post-depositional processes of phytoliths in soil, rather than to the uptake of old carbon from the soil. Our results clearly show the potential for phytolith carbon dating at archaeological sites in the absence of other dating materials.

  1. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses ...

  2. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obta...

  3. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  4. Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-01-01

    The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology is another in a series of volumes devoted to the history of archaeology that have appeared in recent time. Paul Bahn, the editor of the volume, has broken down his coverage of the history of worldwide archaeology into the following arrangement 'The Archaeology of Archaeology", "Old Worlds and New, 1500-1760", "Antiquarians and Explorers, 1760-1820", "Science and Romantic...

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  6. Agrobiologocal and Technological Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Danlas White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Fazinić

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture has always been primarity directed towards growing wine cultivars white table grape cultivar growing was limited to very few highly valued cultivars which found their position in the big market.\

  7. Effects of Cultivar and Process Variables on Dynamic-Mechanical and Sensorial Behavior of Value-Added Grape-Based Smoothies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Alessandro del Nobile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of either cooking temperature (45, 80, and 100 °C or inclusion of seed particles on the dynamic-mechanical and sensorial properties of value-added Crimson seedless, Black Pearl, or Baresana grape-based smoothies were studied. The inclusion of seed particles resulted in significant increases of the phenolic content, both in Black Pearl and Baresana, but it did not affect in a negative way the sensorial characteristics of smoothies whereas it caused an increase of the viscoelastic behavior of Black Pearl and a slight decrease in Baresana grape-based smoothies. In particular, the investigated rheological parameters were the loss and storage modulus. Moreover, the loss tangent value (the ratio between loss and storage modulus remained unchanged, indicating a pseudoplastic behavior of all samples, independent on the process conditions. The smoothies produced from Crimson grapes at the intermediate temperature (80 °C showed sensorial and rheological characteristics similar to those manufactured at 45 °C and better than those manufactured at 100 °C.

  8. Biology and management of grape phylloxera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granett, J; Walker, M A; Kocsis, L; Omer, A D

    2001-01-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae), is a worldwide pest of grapevines. Its life cycle has sexual and asexual portions with forms that feed from leaf and root galls. Not all forms occur throughout the insect's range. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera cultivars; leaf forms predominate on other Vitis species characteristic of the American native range. Other conditions influence expression of the life cycle. Hosts and conditions similarly affect life table performance. Damage to grapevines is by secondary soilborne pathogens attacking the feeding site and by physiological interaction of the insect with the grapevine, though the latter has not been well studied. Resistant rootstocks derived from native American Vitis are the primary control tool. The insect varies genetically and relative to performance on hosts. Use of insecticides is limited in effect, and other control methods are not proven. More research on the biology, ecology, and management of phylloxera is needed. PMID:11112174

  9. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  10. Ancient Dwarka: Study based on recent underwater archaeological investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    , the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. Marine archaeological explorations off Dwarka have brought to light a large number of stone structures, which are semicircular, rectangular and square in shape...

  11. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    tools available for major and small archaeological studies. Various suggessions are being given in this report in measuring distances underwater of artifact, measurement of depth and a method to get the azimuth of the baseline control network, so...

  12. Application of acoustic, magnetic and electromagnetic systems in marine archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.

    The importance of integrated geoscientific studies is reiterated for underwater archaeological exploration. Geophysical systems applied for the detection of artefacts, ancient places and underwater sites/objects are explained and detailed...

  13. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Alexis E.

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials such as archaeological teeth, ivory, and antler. Experimental research via the controlled application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) precursors to bone flour, modern bone samples, and archaeological bones, indicated the in situ formation of HAP with a simultaneous increase in the cohesiveness of friable bone material, while preserving the bone's physiochemical properties. These preliminary results point towards a promising new method in archaeological conservation.

  14. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  15. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM EASTERN SLOVAK WINE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Felšöciová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Dana Tančinová; Zuzana Mašková; Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated an endogenous mycobiota of grapes in Eastern wine region, Slovakia and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Intact berries from four wine grape cultivars were tested. Seven/eight berries superficially sterilized from each samples were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C, 5 - 7 days. A total of 582 isolates were obtained that belonged to ten genera: Alternaria, Asper...

  16. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Vasil Georgiev; Anthony Ananga; Violeta Tsolova

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among ...

  17. Analytical Methodology for Characterization of Grape and Wine Phenolic Bioactives

    OpenAIRE

    Stefova, Marina; Ivanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols are a large and complex group of compounds responsible for the characteristics, quality and colour of grape and wine, especially for red ones. Polyphenolic composition has been extensively studied and a large family of structures have been identified in grape and wine. These compounds can affect the appearance, taste, mouth-feel, fragrance and antimicrobial properties of wine. In addition, polyphenols were confirmed to be the key compounds responsible for the antioxidant potential...

  18. Ampelographic description of cluster, berry and seed of merlot cultivar (Vitis vinifera L. and its selected clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a four-year period, ampelographic experiments focusing on the berry cluster (average length of grape cluster, number of grape clusters per shoot, number of berries per grape cluster and length of peduncle, berry (length of berry and berry juice yield, length of pedicel and seed (length of berry seed of Merlot cultivar (used as a relevant standard and 11 clones (Nos. 022, 023, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 033 and 034 were performed in order to establish the differences among them. These experiments were actually conducted in the third phase of individual clonal selection of Merlot cultivar carried out in Serbia. The lengths of grape cluster and pedicel as well as berry must yields differed significantly among the examined clones. The cluster and principal component analyses classified 12 samples into three divergent clusters/groups, respectively. The clones belonging to the cluster II /the second group/ had significantly higher values of numbers of grape clusters per shoot and berries per grape cluster; lengths of peduncle and berry; berry must yield and length of pedicel, compared both to standard Merlot /the cluster I, the first group/ and the clones of the cluster III /the third group/. The phenological observations showed no significant differences in the beginnings and durations of phenological stages and vegetation period of the examined clones. The obtained results indicate the real need for further research work focused both on the agrobiological and technological properties of the grapes and wines aiming to better describe the selected clones. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 0719, br. 46009 i br. 172053

  19. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  20. Archaeological maps: methods and techniques for territorial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Leonor; Branco, Gertrudes

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological maps are, by definition, a tool for the management of the cultural heritage, planning and urban development, and are drawn up on the basis of existing studies and recent fieldwork, covering all the latest data. In Portugal, the idea of creating a national archaeological map was developed, for the first time, in the 1970s. However, several attempts to organize such amount of information have been offset by two major problems: the difficulty of mapping such a large area, and the ...