WorldWideScience

Sample records for archaean asteroid impacts

  1. Asteroids and Archaean crustal evolution: Tests of possible genetic links between major mantle/crust melting events and clustered extraterrestrial bombardments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, A. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Since the oldest intact terrestrial rocks of ca. 4.0 Ga and oldest zircon xenocrysts of ca. 4.3 Ga measured to date overlap with the lunar late heavy bombardment, the early Precambrian record requires close reexamination vis a vis the effects of megaimpacts. The identification of microtektite-bearing horizons containing spinals of chondritic chemistry and Ir anomalies in 3.5-3.4-Ga greenstone belts provides the first direct evidence for large-scale Archaean impacts. The Archaean crustal record contains evidence for several major greenstone-granite-forming episodes where deep upwelling and adiabatic fusion of the mantle was accompanied by contemporaneous crustal anatexis. Isotopic age studies suggest evidence for principal age clusters about 3.5, 3.0, and 2.7 (+/- 0.8) Ga, relics of a ca. 3.8-Ga event, and several less well defined episodes. These peak events were accompanied and followed by protracted thermal fluctuations in intracrustal high-grade metamorphic zones. Interpretations of these events in terms of internal dynamics of the Earth are difficult to reconcile with the thermal behavior of silicate rheologies in a continuously convecting mantle regime. A triggering of these episodes by mantle rebound response to intermittent extraterrestrial asteroid impacts is supported by (1) identification of major Archaean impacts from microtektite and distal ejecta horizons marked by Ir anomalies; (2) geochemical and experimental evidence for mantle upwelling, possibly from levels as deep as the transition zone; and (3) catastrophic adiabatic melting required to generate peridotitic komatites. Episodic differentiation/accretion growth of sial consequent on these events is capable of resolving the volume problem that arises from comparisons between modern continental crust and the estimated sial produced by continuous two-stage mantle melting processes. The volume problem is exacerbated by projected high accretion rates under Archaean geotherms. It is suggested that

  2. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  3. Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheng, A.F.; Michel, R.; Jutzi, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Stickle, A.; Barnouin, O.; Ernst, C.; Atchison, J.; Pravec, Petr; Richardson, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, February (2016), s. 25-37 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : planetary defense * near- Earth asteroids * asteroid impact hazards Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2016

  4. Asteroid rotation excitation by subcatastrophic impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, T.; Pravec, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 432, č. 2 (2013), s. 1623-1631 ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : numerical methods * minor planets * general asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.226, year: 2013

  5. Asteroids from a Martian Mega Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Like evidence left at a crime scene, the mineral olivine may be the clue that helps scientists piece together Marss possibly violent history. Could a long-ago giant impact have flung pieces of Mars throughout our inner solar system? Two researchers from the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan are on the case.A Telltale MineralOlivine, a mineral that is common in Earths subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. Olivine is a major component of Marss upper mantle. [Wilson44691]Olivine is a major component of the Martian upper mantle, making up 60% of this region by weight. Intriguingly, olivine turns up in other places in our solar system too for instance, in seven out of the nine known Mars Trojans (a group of asteroids of unknown origin that share Marss orbit), and in the rare A-type asteroids orbiting in the main asteroid belt.How did these asteroids form, and why are they so olivine-rich? An interesting explanation has been postulated: perhaps this olivine all came from the same place Mars as the result of a mega impact billions of years ago.Evidence for ImpactMars bears plenty of signs pointing to a giant impact in its past. The northern and sourthern hemispheres of Mars look very different, a phenomenon referred to as the Mars hemisphere dichotomy. The impact of a Pluto-sized body could explain the smooth Borealis Basin that covers the northern 40% of Marss surface.This high-resolution topographic map of Mars reveals the dichotomy between its northern and sourthern hemispheres. The smooth region in the northern hemisphere, the Borealis basin, may have been formed when a giant object impacted Mars billions of years ago. [NASA/JPL/USGS]Other evidence piles up: Marss orbit location, its rotation speed, the presence of its two moons all could be neatly explained by a large impact around 4 billion years ago. Could such an impact have also strewn debris from Marss mantle across the solar system?To test this theory, we need to determine if a mega impact is

  6. Asteroid-Generated Tsunami and Impact Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M.; Aftosmis, M.; Berger, M. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Gisler, G.; Jennings, B.; LeVeque, R. J.; Mathias, D.; McCoy, C.; Robertson, D.; Titov, V. V.; Wheeler, L.

    2016-12-01

    The justification for planetary defense comes from a cost/benefit analysis, which includes risk assessment. The contribution from ocean impacts and airbursts is difficult to quantify and represents a significant uncertainty in our assessment of the overall risk. Our group is currently working toward improved understanding of impact scenarios that can generate dangerous tsunami. The importance of asteroid-generated tsunami research has increased because a new Science Definition Team, at the behest of NASA's Planetary Defense Coordinating Office, is now updating the results of a 2003 study on which our current planetary defense policy is based Our group was formed to address this question on many fronts, including asteroid entry modeling, tsunami generation and propagation simulations, modeling of coastal run-ups, inundation, and consequences, infrastructure damage estimates, and physics-based probabilistic impact risk assessment. We also organized the Second International Workshop on Asteroid Threat Assessment, focused on asteroid-generated tsunami and associated risk (Aug. 23-24, 2016). We will summarize our progress and present the highlights of our workshop, emphasizing its relevance to earth and planetary science. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  8. A Probabilistic Asteroid Impact Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Wheeler, Lorien F.; Dotson, Jessie L.

    2016-01-01

    Asteroid threat assessment requires the quantification of both the impact likelihood and resulting consequence across the range of possible events. This paper presents a probabilistic asteroid impact risk (PAIR) assessment model developed for this purpose. The model incorporates published impact frequency rates with state-of-the-art consequence assessment tools, applied within a Monte Carlo framework that generates sets of impact scenarios from uncertain parameter distributions. Explicit treatment of atmospheric entry is included to produce energy deposition rates that account for the effects of thermal ablation and object fragmentation. These energy deposition rates are used to model the resulting ground damage, and affected populations are computed for the sampled impact locations. The results for each scenario are aggregated into a distribution of potential outcomes that reflect the range of uncertain impact parameters, population densities, and strike probabilities. As an illustration of the utility of the PAIR model, the results are used to address the question of what minimum size asteroid constitutes a threat to the population. To answer this question, complete distributions of results are combined with a hypothetical risk tolerance posture to provide the minimum size, given sets of initial assumptions. Model outputs demonstrate how such questions can be answered and provide a means for interpreting the effect that input assumptions and uncertainty can have on final risk-based decisions. Model results can be used to prioritize investments to gain knowledge in critical areas or, conversely, to identify areas where additional data has little effect on the metrics of interest.

  9. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment Mission and its Potential Contributions to Human Exploration of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andy S.

    2014-01-01

    The joint ESA and NASA Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission, involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. AIDA's primary objective is to demonstrate a kinetic impact deflection and characterize the binary NEA Didymos. The science and technical data obtained from AIDA will aid in the planning of future human exploration missions to NEAs and other small bodies. The dual robotic missions of AIDA, ESA's Asteroid Impact Monitor (AIM) and NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), will provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of the binary target Didymos both prior to and after the kinetic impact demonstration. The knowledge gained from this mission will help identify asteroidal physical properties in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for future small body missions. The AIDA data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations.

  10. Sensitivity of Asteroid Impact Risk to Uncertainty in Asteroid Properties and Entry Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; Dotson, Jessie L.; NASA Asteroid Threat Assessment Project

    2017-10-01

    A central challenge in assessing the threat posed by asteroids striking Earth is the large amount of uncertainty inherent throughout all aspects of the problem. Many asteroid properties are not well characterized and can range widely from strong, dense, monolithic irons to loosely bound, highly porous rubble piles. Even for an object of known properties, the specific entry velocity, angle, and impact location can swing the potential consequence from no damage to causing millions of casualties. Due to the extreme rarity of large asteroid strikes, there are also large uncertainties in how different types of asteroids will interact with the atmosphere during entry, how readily they may break up or ablate, and how much surface damage will be caused by the resulting airbursts or impacts.In this work, we use our Probabilistic Asteroid Impact Risk (PAIR) model to investigate the sensitivity of asteroid impact damage to uncertainties in key asteroid properties, entry parameters, or modeling assumptions. The PAIR model combines physics-based analytic models of asteroid entry and damage in a probabilistic Monte Carlo framework to assess the risk posed by a wide range of potential impacts. The model samples from uncertainty distributions of asteroid properties and entry parameters to generate millions of specific impact cases, and models the atmospheric entry and damage for each case, including blast overpressure, thermal radiation, tsunami inundation, and global effects. To assess the risk sensitivity, we alternately fix and vary the different input parameters and compare the effect on the resulting range of damage produced. The goal of these studies is to help guide future efforts in asteroid characterization and model refinement by determining which properties most significantly affect the potential risk.

  11. Guided asteroid deflection by kinetic impact: Mapping keyholes to an asteroid's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, S.; Farnocchia, D.

    2014-07-01

    The kinetic impactor deflection approach is likely to be the optimal deflection strategy in most real-world cases, given the likelihood of decades of warning time provided by asteroid search programs and the probable small size of the next confirmed asteroid impact that would require deflection. However, despite its straightforward implementation, the kinetic impactor approach can have its effectiveness limited by the astrodynamics that govern the impactor spacecraft trajectory. First, the deflection from an impact is maximized when the asteroid is at perihelion, while an impact near perihelion can in some cases be energetically difficult to implement. Additionally, the asteroid change in velocity Δ V should aligned with the target's heliocentric velocity vector in order to maximize the deflection at a potential impact some years in the future. Thus the relative velocity should be aligned with or against the heliocentric velocity, which implies that the impactor and asteroid orbits should be tangent at the point of impact. However, for natural bodies such as meteorites colliding with the Earth, the relative velocity vectors tend to cluster near the sunward or anti- sunward directions, far from the desired direction. This is because there is generally a significant crossing angle between the orbits of the impactor and target and an impact at tangency is unusual. The point is that hitting the asteroid is not enough, but rather we desire to hit the asteroid at a point when the asteroid and spacecraft orbits are nearly tangent and when the asteroid is near perihelion. However, complicating the analysis is the fact that the impact of a spacecraft on an asteroid would create an ejecta plume that is roughly normal to the surface at the point of impact. This escaping ejecta provides additional momentum transfer that generally adds to the effectiveness of a kinetic deflection. The ratio β between the ejecta momentum and the total momentum (ejecta plus spacecraft) can

  12. Science case for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): A component of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michel, P.; Cheng, A.; Kueppers, M.; Pravec, Petr; Blum, J.; Delbó, M.; Green, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Tsiganis, K.; Vincent, J.B.; Biele, J.; Ciarletti, V.; Herique, A.; Ulamec, S.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Benner, L. A. M.; Naidu, S.P.; Barnouin, O.; Richardson, D.C.; Rivkin, A. S.; Scheirich, Peter; Moskovitz, N.; Thirouin, A.; Schwartz, S.R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2016), s. 2529-2547 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07193S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : planetary defense * near- Earth asteroids * asteroid impact hazards Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2016

  13. Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, Galen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gittings, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-06-11

    Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.

  14. Asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.F.; Gaffey, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    During the past 15 yr much progress has been made in the study of the asteroids with optical, infrared, and radar telescopes. Simultaneously a vast body of petrologic, chemical and isotopic data has been acquired for meteorites, which are actual samples of asteroids. This work has demonstrated that asteroids vary widely in composition and thermal history in a systematic but complex way with orbital position and size. The authors report that it appears that these variations can be explained to first order by a simple model invoking three principal mechanisms: condensation of various known and unknown classes of chondritic material at radial locations in the nebula controlled by the temperature and composition; intense metamorphic heating after accretion which declined rapidly with both increasing solar distance and smaller planetesimal size, producing complete differentiation in some inner belt objects, incomplete differentiation in many more, and extensive metamorphism and aqueous alteration in middle-belt objects; and complex collisional fragmentation often controlled by internal strength gradients due to irregular distribution of metal

  15. Photometric observations of Earth-impacting asteroid 2008 TC(3)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozubal, M.; Gasdia, F.W.; Dantowitz, R.; Scheirich, Peter; Harris, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2011), s. 534-542 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroid * photometric observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2011

  16. Post mitigation impact risk analysis for asteroid deflection demonstration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William; Bancelin, David; Cano, Juan L.; Cichocki, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Even though mankind believes to have the capabilities to avert potentially disastrous asteroid impacts, only the realization of mitigation demonstration missions can validate this claim. Such a deflection demonstration attempt has to be cost effective, easy to validate, and safe in the sense that harmless asteroids must not be turned into potentially hazardous objects. Uncertainties in an asteroid's orbital and physical parameters as well as those additionally introduced during a mitigation attempt necessitate an in depth analysis of deflection mission designs in order to dispel planetary safety concerns. We present a post mitigation impact risk analysis of a list of potential kinetic impactor based deflection demonstration missions proposed in the framework of the NEOShield project. Our results confirm that mitigation induced uncertainties have a significant influence on the deflection outcome. Those cannot be neglected in post deflection impact risk studies. We show, furthermore, that deflection missions have to be assessed on an individual basis in order to ensure that asteroids are not inadvertently transported closer to the Earth at a later date. Finally, we present viable targets and mission designs for a kinetic impactor test to be launched between the years 2025 and 2032.

  17. Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Asteroid Impact Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, D.; Wheeler, L.; Prabhu, D. K.; Aftosmis, M.; Dotson, J.; Robertson, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center is developing a physics-based impact risk model for probabilistically assessing threats from potential asteroid impacts on Earth. The model integrates probabilistic sampling of asteroid parameter ranges with physics-based analyses of entry, breakup, and impact to estimate damage areas and casualties from various impact scenarios. Assessing these threats is a highly coupled, dynamic problem involving significant uncertainties in the range of expected asteroid characteristics, how those characteristics may affect the level of damage, and the fidelity of various modeling approaches and assumptions. The presented model is used to explore the sensitivity of impact risk estimates to these uncertainties in order to gain insight into what additional data or modeling refinements are most important for producing effective, meaningful risk assessments. In the extreme cases of very small or very large impacts, the results are generally insensitive to many of the characterization and modeling assumptions. However, the nature of the sensitivity can change across moderate-sized impacts. Results will focus on the value of additional information in this critical, mid-size range, and how this additional data can support more robust mitigation decisions.

  18. Calculations of Asteroid Impacts into Deep and Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, Galen; Weaver, Robert; Gittings, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Contrary to received opinion, ocean impacts of small (dangerous features of ocean impacts, just as for land impacts, are the atmospheric effects. We present illustrative hydrodynamic calculations of impacts into both deep and shallow seas, and draw conclusions from a parameter study in which the size of the impactor and the depth of the sea are varied independently. For vertical impacts at 20 km/s, craters in the seafloor are produced when the water depth is less than about 5-7 times the asteroid diameter. Both the depth and the diameter of the transient crater scale with the asteroid diameter, so the volume of water excavated scales with the asteroid volume. About a third of the crater volume is vaporised, because the kinetic energy per unit mass of the asteroid is much larger than the latent heat of vaporisation of water. The vaporised water carries away a considerable fraction of the impact energy in an explosively expanding blast wave which is responsible for devastating local effects and may affect worldwide climate. Of the remaining energy, a substantial portion is used in the crown splash and the rebound jet that forms as the transient crater collapses. The collapse and rebound cycle leads to a propagating wave with a wavelength considerably shorter than classical tsunamis, being only about twice the diameter of the transient crater. Propagation of this wave is hindered somewhat because its amplitude is so large that it breaks in deep water and is strongly affected by the blast wave's perturbation of the atmosphere. Even if propagation were perfect, however, the volume of water delivered per metre of shoreline is less than was delivered by the Boxing Day 2004 tsunami for any impactor smaller than 500 m diameter in an ocean of 5 km depth or less. Near-field effects are dangerous for impactors of diameter 200 m or greater; hurricane-force winds can extend tens of kilometers from the impact point, and fallout from the initial splash can be extremely violent

  19. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Oblique Asteroid Impacts into Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, G. R.; Ferguson, J. M.; Heberling, T.; Plesko, C. S.; Weaver, R.

    2016-12-01

    Waves generated by impacts into oceans may represent the most significant danger from near-earth asteroids and comets. For impacts near populated shores, the crown splash and subsequent waves, accompanied by sediment lofting and high winds, could be more damaging than storm surges from the strongest hurricanes. For asteroids less than 500 m in diameter that impact into deep water far from shores, the waves produced will be detectable over large distances, but probably not significantly dangerous. We present new three-dimensional simulations of oblique impacts into deep water, with trajectory angles ranging from 20 degrees to 60 degrees (where 90 degrees is vertical). These simulations are performed with the Los Alamos Rage hydrocode, and include atmospheric effects including ablation and airbursts. These oblique impact simulations are specifically performed in order to help determine whether there are additional dangers from the obliquity of impact not covered by previous two-dimensional studies. Water surface elevation profiles, surface pressures, and depth-averaged mass fluxes within the water are prepared for use in propagation studies.

  20. Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society An Interdisciplinary Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrowsky, Peter T

    2007-01-01

    In 1908 an atmospheric explosion in northern Siberia released energy equivalent to 15 Mton of TNT. Can a comparable or larger NEO affect us again? When the next NEO strikes Earth will it be large enough to destroy a city? Will the climate change significantly? Can archaeology and anthropology provide insights into the expected cultural responses with NEO interactions? Does society have a true grasp of the actual risks involved? Is the Great Depression a good model for the economic collapse that could follow a NEO catastrophe? This volume provides a necessary link between various disciplines and comet/asteroid impacts.

  1. Impact and cratering processes on asteroids, satellites, and planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.R.; Davis, D.R.; Weidenschilling, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new model for scaling the outcome of catastrophic collisions from laboratory scale experiments was developed and applied to large bodies where gravitational binding is dominant. This algorithm includes a pressure dependent impact strength which predicts that large asteroids behave as intrinsically strong objects due to compressive loading of overburden throughout their interiors. For small bodies, where the gravitational loading is negligible, this model assumes that the impact strength is independent of size. There was considerable discussion of scaling laws for disruption when these results were presented to one authors colleagues. The pressure strengthening impact strength model was viewed as physically quite plausible; however, it was argued that the impact strength should decrease with increasing size in the size range where gravitational compression is negligible

  2. TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF ASTEROID OCEAN IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gittings

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of asteroid impacts into an ocean using the SAGE code from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The SAGE code is a compressible Eulerian hydrodynamics code using continuous adaptive mesh refinement for following discontinuities with a fine grid while treating the bulk of the simulation more coarsely. We have used realistic equations of state for the atmosphere, sea water, the oceanic crust, and the mantle. In two dimensions, we simulated asteroid impactors moving at 20 km/s vertically through an exponential atmosphere into a 5 km deep ocean. The impactors were composed of mantle material (3.32 g/cc or iron (7.8 g/cc with diameters from 250m to 10 km. In our three-dimensional runs we simulated asteroids of 1 km diameter composed of iron moving at 20 km/s at angles of 45 and 60 degrees from the vertical. All impacts, including the oblique ones, produce a large underwater cavities with nearly vertical walls followed by a collapse starting from the bottom and subsequent vertical jetting. Substantial amounts of water are vaporized and lofted high into the atmosphere. In the larger impacts, significant amounts of crustal and even mantle material are lofted as well. Tsunamis up to a kilometer in initial height are generated by the collapse of the vertical jet. These waves are initially complex in form, and interact strongly with shocks propagating through the water and the crust. The tsunami waves are followed out to 100 km from the point of impact. Their periods and wavelengths show them to be intermediate type waves, and not (in general shallow-water waves. At great distances, the waves decay as the inverse of the distance from the impact point, ignoring sea-floor topography. For all impactors smaller than about 2 km diameter, the impacting body is highly fragmented and its remains lofted into the stratosphere with the water

  3. Seismo-Acoustic Numerical Investigation of Land Impacts, Water Impacts, or Air Bursts of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Dearborn, D. S.; Miller, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The annual probability of an asteroid impact is low, but over time, such catastrophic events are inevitable. Interest in assessing the impact consequences has led us to develop a physics-based framework to seamlessly simulate the event from entry to impact, including air, water and ground shock propagation and wave generation. The non-linear effects are simulated using the hydrodynamics code GEODYN. As effects propagate outward, they become a wave source for the linear-elastic-wave propagation code and simulated using SAW or SWWP, depends on whether the asteroid impacts the land or the ocean, respectively. The GEODYN-SAW-SWWP coupling is based on the structured adaptive-mesh-refinement infrastructure, SAMRAI, and has been used in FEMA table-top exercises conducted in 2013 and 2014, and more recently, the 2015 Planetary Defense Conference exercise. Moreover, during atmospheric entry, asteroids create an acoustic trace that could be used to infer several physical characteristics of asteroid itself. Using SAW we explore the physical space parameters in order to rank the most important characteristics; Results from these simulations provide an estimate of onshore and offshore effects and can inform more sophisticated inundation and structural models. The capabilities of this methodology are illustrated by providing results for different impact locations, and an exploration of asteroid size on the waves arriving at the shoreline of area cities. We constructed the maximum and minimum envelops of water-wave heights or acceleration spectra given the size of the asteroid and the location of the impact along the risk corridor. Such profiles can inform emergency response and disaster-mitigation efforts. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Delivery of organics to Mars through asteroid and comet impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantseva, K.; Mueller, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; ten Kate, I. L.; Greenstreet, S.

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary results show that the asteroid-borne organic flux on Mars is comparable to the IPD rate; asteroids certainly cannot be neglected. Comets, on the other hand, contribute only 0.01% of the IDP-borne rate and can be neglected in the process of organic delivery to Mars.

  5. Steve Ostro and the Near-Earth Asteroid Impact Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2009-09-01

    The late Steve Ostro, whose scientific interests in Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) primarily related to his planetary radar research in the 1980s, soon became an expert on the impact hazard. He quickly realized that radar provided perspectives on close-approaching NEAs that were both very precise as well as complementary to traditional astrometry, enabling good predictions of future orbits and collision probabilities extending for centuries into the future. He also was among the few astronomers who considered the profound issues raised by this newly recognized hazard and by early suggestions of how to mitigate the hazard. With Carl Sagan, Ostro articulated the "deflection dilemma" and other potential low-probability but real dangers of mitigation technologies that might be more serious than the low-probability impact hazard itself. Yet Ostro maintained a deep interest in developing responsible mitigation technologies, in educating the public about the nature of the impact hazard, and in learning more about the population of threatening bodies, especially using the revealing techniques of delay-doppler radar mapping of NEAs and their satellites.

  6. The asteroid impact connection of planetary evolution with special reference to large Precambrian and Australian impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2014-01-01

    When in 1981 Louis and Walter Alvarez, the father and son team, unearthed a tell-tale Iridium-rich sedimentary horizon at the 65 million years-old Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio, Italy, their find heralded a paradigm shift in the study of terrestrial evolution.  Since the 1980s the discovery and study of asteroid impact ejecta in the oldest well-preserved terrains of Western Australia and South Africa, by Don Lowe, Gary Byerly, Bruce Simonson, Scott Hassler, the author and others, and the documentation of new exposed and buried impact structures in several continents, have led to a resurgence of the idea of the catastrophism theory of Cuvier, previously largely supplanted by the uniformitarian theory of Hutton and Lyell. Several mass extinction of species events are known to have occurred in temporal proximity to large asteroid impacts, global volcanic eruptions and continental splitting. Likely links are observed between asteroid clusters and the 580 Ma acritarch radiation, end-Devonian extinction, ...

  7. The impact imperative: Laser ablation for deflecting asteroids, meteoroids, and comets from impacting the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Jonathan W [Advanced Projects/FD02, National Space Science and Technology Center, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Phipps, Claude [Photonics Associates 200A Ojo de la Vaca Road Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States); Smalley, Larry [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville (United States); Reilly, James [Northeast Science and Technology, East Sandwich, MA (United States); Boccio, Dona [Queensborough Community College of the City, University of New York, New York (United States)

    2003-05-14

    Impacting at hypervelocity, an asteroid struck the Earth approximately 65 million years ago in the Yucatan Peninsula area. This triggered the extinction of almost 70% of the species of life on Earth including the dinosaurs. Other impacts prior to this one have caused even greater extinctions. Preventing collisions with the Earth by hypervelocity asteroids, meteoroids, and comets is the most important immediate space challenge facing human civilization. This is the Impact Imperative. We now believe that while there are about 2000 earth orbit crossing rocks greater than 1 kilometer in diameter, there may be as many as 200,000 or more objects in the 100 m size range. Can anything be done about this fundamental existence question facing our civilization? The answer is a resounding yes{exclamation_point} By using an intelligent combination of Earth and space based sensors coupled with an infra-structure of high-energy laser stations and other secondary mitigation options, we can deflect inbound asteroids, meteoroids, and comets and prevent them from striking the Earth. This can be accomplished by irradiating the surface of an inbound rock with sufficiently intense pulses so that ablation occurs. This ablation acts as a small rocket incrementally changing the shape of the rock's orbit around the Sun. One-kilometer size rocks can be moved sufficiently in about a month while smaller rocks may be moved in a shorter time span.

  8. The impact imperative: Laser ablation for deflecting asteroids, meteoroids, and comets from impacting the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Phipps, Claude; Smalley, Larry; Reilly, James; Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Impacting at hypervelocity, an asteroid struck the Earth approximately 65 million years ago in the Yucatan Peninsula area. This triggered the extinction of almost 70% of the species of life on Earth including the dinosaurs. Other impacts prior to this one have caused even greater extinctions. Preventing collisions with the Earth by hypervelocity asteroids, meteoroids, and comets is the most important immediate space challenge facing human civilization. This is the Impact Imperative. We now believe that while there are about 2000 earth orbit crossing rocks greater than 1 kilometer in diameter, there may be as many as 200,000 or more objects in the 100 m size range. Can anything be done about this fundamental existence question facing our civilization? The answer is a resounding yes! By using an intelligent combination of Earth and space based sensors coupled with an infra-structure of high-energy laser stations and other secondary mitigation options, we can deflect inbound asteroids, meteoroids, and comets and prevent them from striking the Earth. This can be accomplished by irradiating the surface of an inbound rock with sufficiently intense pulses so that ablation occurs. This ablation acts as a small rocket incrementally changing the shape of the rock's orbit around the Sun. One-kilometer size rocks can be moved sufficiently in about a month while smaller rocks may be moved in a shorter time span

  9. Waves Generated by Asteroid Impacts and Their Hazard Consequences on The Shorelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of a hypothetical asteroid impact onto the ocean in support of an emergency preparedness, planning, and management exercise. We addressed the scenario from asteroid entry; to ocean impact (splash rim); to wave generation, propagation, and interaction with the shoreline. For the analysis we used GEODYN, a hydrocode, to simulate the impact and generate the source wave for the large-scale shallow water wave program, SWWP. Using state-of-the-art, high-performance computing codes we simulated three impact areas — two are located on the West Coast near Los Angeles's shoreline and the San Francisco Bay, respectively, and the third is located in the Gulf of Mexico, with a possible impact location between Texas and Florida. On account of uncertainty in the exact impact location within the asteroid risk corridor, we examined multiple possibilities for impact points within each area. Uncertainty in the asteroid impact location was then convolved and represented as uncertainty in the shoreline flooding zones. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD-005.

  10. Dynamical Origin and Terrestrial Impact Flux of Large Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Roig, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical models of the asteroid delivery from the main belt suggest that the current impact flux of diameter D> 10 km asteroids on the Earth is ≃0.5–1 Gyr‑1. Studies of the Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population find a much higher flux, with ≃ 7 D> 10 km asteroid impacts per Gyr. Here we show that this problem is rooted in the application of impact probability of small NEAs (≃1.5 Gyr‑1 per object), whose population is well characterized, to large NEAs. In reality, large NEAs evolve from the main belt by different escape routes, have a different orbital distribution, and lower impact probabilities (0.8 ± 0.3 Gyr‑1 per object) than small NEAs. In addition, we find that the current population of two D> 10 km NEAs (Ganymed and Eros) is a slight fluctuation over the long-term average of 1.1+/- 0.5 D> 10 km NEAs in a steady state. These results have important implications for our understanding of the occurrence of the K/T-scale impacts on the terrestrial worlds.

  11. Measurement requirements for a Near-Earth Asteroid impact mitigation demonstration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Stephen D.; Ball, Andrew J.; Wells, Nigel; Saunders, Christopher; McBride, Neil

    2011-10-01

    A concept for an Impact Mitigation Preparation Mission, called Don Quijote, is to send two spacecrafts to a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA): an Orbiter and an Impactor. The Impactor collides with the asteroid while the Orbiter measures the resulting change in the asteroid's orbit, by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) carried out before and after the impact. Three parallel Phase A studies on Don Quijote were carried out for the European Space Agency: the research presented here reflects the outcomes of the study by QinetiQ. We discuss the mission objectives with regard to the prioritisation of payload instruments, with emphasis on the interpretation of the impact. The Radio Science Experiment is described and it is examined how solar radiation pressure may increase the uncertainty in measuring the orbit of the target asteroid. It is determined that to measure the change in orbit accurately a thermal IR spectrometer is mandatory, to measure the Yarkovsky effect. The advantages of having a laser altimeter are discussed. The advantages of a dedicated wide-angle impact camera are discussed and the field-of-view is initially sized through a simple model of the impact.

  12. The Impact Clan: A Disenchanted Look at Asteroid Impact Monitoring Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abramo, Germano

    2015-11-01

    Synopsis: How many times in the last decade have you heard announcements about asteroids with unusually high Earth-collision chances in the near future? Surely more than once, we guess. It is not difficult to find sentences like "this is one of most dangerous asteroids ever found" every now and then in the media. It is probably difficult for the man in the street to reconcile his (ordinary) perception of risk with something that, despite these continuous and alarming announcements, has never happened and is still not happening: how many people have been killed by these nasty asteroids in the history of mankind? Earthquakes, floods, and volcanic eruptions are known to be dangerous because they have already struck with a high death toll. This book is an informed and disenchanted review of the activity of the so-called "Impact Monitoring Systems", which were born in the late 90's. The author happened to be involved in this business right from the outset, when he started his research career. His critique addresses directly the merits of that science, providing the reader with scientific and rigorous arguments against the worth of such an activity, at least in the way in which it is currently being carried out. But this book also brings together the personal and human vicissitudes of the author, experienced during his 16 years spent in Astronomy and Astrophysics research, his views on Science, Life and Society. The book is non-fiction; it is accessible to any (curious) person with a high-school/college level education.

  13. Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Martínez-Jiménez, Marina; Lloro, Ivan [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Meteorites, Minor Bodies and Planetary Sciences Group, Campus UAB Bellaterra, c/Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Barcelona) (Spain); Pellicer, Eva [Departament de Física, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Williams, Iwan P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, 317 Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); Blum, Jürgen [Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Michel, Patrick [Lagrange Laboratory, University of Nice, CNRS, Côte d’Azur Observatory (France); Küppers, Michael [European Space Agency, European Space Astronomy Centre, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada E-28691 (Spain); Sort, Jordi, E-mail: moyano@ice.csic.es, E-mail: trigo@ice.csic.es [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite is a highly shocked, low porosity, ordinary chondrite, probably similar to S- or Q-type asteroids. Therefore, nanoindentation experiments on this meteorite allow us to obtain key data to understand the physical properties of near-Earth asteroids. Tests at different length scales provide information about the local mechanical properties of the minerals forming this meteorite: reduced Young’s modulus, hardness, elastic recovery, and fracture toughness. Those tests are also useful to understand the potential to deflect threatening asteroids using a kinetic projectile. We found that the differences in mechanical properties between regions of the meteorite, which increase or reduce the efficiency of impacts, are not a result of compositional differences. A low mean particle size, attributed to repetitive shock, can increase hardness, while low porosity promotes a higher momentum multiplication. Momentum multiplication is the ratio between the change in momentum of a target due to an impact, and the momentum of the projectile, and therefore, higher values imply more efficient impacts. In the Chelyabinsk meteorite, the properties of the light-colored lithology materials facilitate obtaining higher momentum multiplication values, compared to the other regions described for this meteorite. Also, we found a low value of fracture toughness in the shock-melt veins of Chelyabinsk, which would promote the ejection of material after an impact and therefore increase the momentum multiplication. These results are relevant to the growing interest in missions to test asteroid deflection, such as the recent collaboration between the European Space Agency and NASA, known as the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission.

  14. Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Martínez-Jiménez, Marina; Lloro, Ivan; Pellicer, Eva; Williams, Iwan P.; Blum, Jürgen; Michel, Patrick; Küppers, Michael; Sort, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite is a highly shocked, low porosity, ordinary chondrite, probably similar to S- or Q-type asteroids. Therefore, nanoindentation experiments on this meteorite allow us to obtain key data to understand the physical properties of near-Earth asteroids. Tests at different length scales provide information about the local mechanical properties of the minerals forming this meteorite: reduced Young’s modulus, hardness, elastic recovery, and fracture toughness. Those tests are also useful to understand the potential to deflect threatening asteroids using a kinetic projectile. We found that the differences in mechanical properties between regions of the meteorite, which increase or reduce the efficiency of impacts, are not a result of compositional differences. A low mean particle size, attributed to repetitive shock, can increase hardness, while low porosity promotes a higher momentum multiplication. Momentum multiplication is the ratio between the change in momentum of a target due to an impact, and the momentum of the projectile, and therefore, higher values imply more efficient impacts. In the Chelyabinsk meteorite, the properties of the light-colored lithology materials facilitate obtaining higher momentum multiplication values, compared to the other regions described for this meteorite. Also, we found a low value of fracture toughness in the shock-melt veins of Chelyabinsk, which would promote the ejection of material after an impact and therefore increase the momentum multiplication. These results are relevant to the growing interest in missions to test asteroid deflection, such as the recent collaboration between the European Space Agency and NASA, known as the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission.

  15. Asteroid Impacts and Modern Civilization: Can We Prevent a Catastrophe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.; Boslough, M.; Chapman, C. R.; Drube, L.; Michel, P.; Harris, A. W.

    We are now approaching the level of technical expertise necessary to deflect a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) capable of destroying a large urban area, if not a small country. The current level of activity in the field, including search programs, physical characterization, and international initiatives to assess mitigation strategies, is unprecedented. However, we have only just started to explore the relevant properties of the small end of the NEA population (diameter threat to life and property. Political awareness and international response efforts are still at a very primitive stage. For a global guarantee of protection, advances in scientific and technical competence must be matched by improvements in international coordination, as well as preparedness at the political level.

  16. Looking before we leap: an ongoing, quantative investigation of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There are many outstanding questions about the correct response to an asteroid or comet impact threat on Earth. Nuclear munitions are currently thought to be the most efficient method of delivering an impact-preventing impulse to a potentially hazardous object (PHO). However, there are major uncertainties about the response of PHOs to a nuclear burst, and the most appropriate ways to use nuclear munitions for hazard mitigation.

  17. Asteroid impacts, microbes, and the cooling of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)); Mancinelli, R.L. (SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Earth's surface temperature constrained microbial evolution, according to Schwartzman et al. (1993). Their hypothesis states that the maximal temperature that extant organisms of a given type tolerate is the surface temperature occurring when that type of organism arose. Schwartzman and his colleagues concluded that the temperature changed from 100[degrees]C to 50[degrees]C between 3.75 billion years ago (BYA) and 1 BYA. These temperatures are consistent with those derived from oxygen isotope ratios derived from oxygen isotope ratios in ancient sediments (Karhu and Epstein 1986, Knauth and Lowe 1978). The 100[degrees]C surface temperature they derive for 3.75 BYA is also the same as Earth's surface temperature 4.4 BYA (Kosting and Ackerman 1986). In this article, we address the cause of the delay in surface cooling until 3.75 BYA, and we explore the implications for microbial evolution of a high temperature on early Earth. We propose that three effects of the early heavy bombardment of Earth by asteroids, and comets, until 3.8 BYA, could have delayed onset of surface cooling.

  18. Tsunami Generation from Asteroid Airburst and Ocean Impact and Van Dorn Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Darrel

    2016-01-01

    Airburst - In the simulations explored energy from the airburst couples very weakly with the water making tsunami dangerous over a shorter distance than the blast for asteroid sizes up to the maximum expected size that will still airburst (approx.250MT). Future areas of investigation: - Low entry angle airbursts create more cylindrical blasts and might couple more efficiently - Bursts very close to the ground will increase coupling - Inclusion of thermosphere (>80km altitude) may show some plume collapse effects over a large area although with much less pressure center dot Ocean Impact - Asteroid creates large cavity in ocean. Cavity backfills creating central jet. Oscillation between the cavity and jet sends out tsunami wave packet. - For deep ocean impact waves are deep water waves (Phase speed = 2x Group speed) - If the tsunami propagation and inundation calculations are correct for the small (impact deep ocean basins, the resulting tsunami is not a significant hazard unless particularly close to vulnerable communities. Future work: - Shallow ocean impact. - Effect of continental shelf and beach profiles - Tsunami vs. blast damage radii for impacts close to populated areas - Larger asteroids below presumed threshold of global effects (Ø200 - 800m).

  19. The 3.26-3.24 Ga Barberton asteroid impact cluster: Tests of tectonic and magmatic consequences, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew; Vickers, John

    2006-01-01

    movements in Archaean granite-greenstone terrains associated with large asteroid impacts, culminating in transformation from sima-dominated crust to continental rift environments.

  20. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    Asteroids are fascinating worlds. Considered the building blocks of our planets, many of the authors of this book have devoted their scientific careers to exploring them with the tools of our trade: ground- and spacebased observations, in situ space missions, and studies that run the gamut from theoretical modeling efforts to laboratory work. Like fossils for paleontologists, or DNA for geneticists, they allow us to construct a veritable time machine and provide us with tantalizing glimpses of the earliest nature of our solar system. By investigating them, we can probe what our home system was like before life or even the planets existed. The origin and evolution of life on our planet is also intertwined with asteroids in a different way. It is believed that impacts on the primordial Earth may have delivered the basic components for life, with biology favoring attributes that could more easily survive the aftermath of such energetic events. In this fashion, asteroids may have banished many probable avenues for life to relative obscurity. Similarly, they may have also prevented our biosphere from becoming more complex until more recent eras. The full tale of asteroid impacts on the history of our world, and how human life managed to emerge from myriad possibilities, has yet to be fully told. The hazard posed by asteroid impacts to our civilization is low but singular. The design of efficient mitigation strategies strongly relies on asteroid detection by our ground- and spacebased surveys as well as knowledge of their physical properties. A more positive motivation for asteroid discovery is that the proximity of some asteroids to Earth may allow future astronauts to harvest their water and rare mineral resources for use in exploration. A key goal of asteroid science is therefore to learn how humans and robotic probes can interact with asteroids (and extract their materials) in an efficient way. We expect that these adventures may be commonplace in the future

  1. Collisional Histories of Comets and Trojan Asteroids: Insights from Forsterite and Enstatite Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer. S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Smith, D. C.; Cintala, M. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Impacts into forsterite and orthoenstatite at speeds typically encountered by comets demonstrate that shock imparted by collisions is detectable in the infrared signatures of their dust. The spectral signatures can be traced to physical alterations in their crystalline structures, as observed in TEM imaging and modeled using a dipole approximation. These results yield tantalizing insights into the collisional history of our solar system, as well as the history of individual comets and Trojan asteroids.

  2. Tumbling asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Kotková, Lenka; Hergenrother, C.; Mottola, S.; Hicks, M. D.; Masi, G.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Kaasalainen, M.; Galád, Adrián; Brown, P.; DeGraff, D. R.; Lambert, J.V.; Cooney, W.R.; Foglia, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 173 (2005), s. 108-131 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Keywords : near-Earth objects * fast-rotating asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.244, year: 2005

  3. Asteroid impacts on terrestrial planets: the effects of super-Earths and the role of the ν6 resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Jeremy L.; Martin, Rebecca G.; Lepp, Stephen; Livio, Mario

    2018-01-01

    With N-body simulations of a planetary system with an asteroid belt, we investigate how the asteroid impact rate on the Earth is affected by the architecture of the planetary system. We find that the ν6 secular resonance plays an important role in the asteroid collision rate with the Earth. Compared to exoplanetary systems, the Solar system is somewhat special in its lack of a super-Earth mass planet in the inner Solar system. We therefore first consider the effects of the presence of a super-Earth in the terrestrial planet region. We find a significant effect for super-Earths with a mass of around 10 M⊕ and a separation greater than about 0.7 au. For a super-Earth which is interior to the Earth's orbit, the number of asteroids colliding with Earth increases the closer the super-Earth is to the Earth's orbit. This is the result of multiple secular resonance locations causing more asteroids to be perturbed on to Earth-crossing orbits. When the super-Earth is placed exterior to Earth's orbit, the collision rate decreases substantially because the ν6 resonance no longer exists in the asteroid belt region. We also find that changing the semimajor axis of Saturn leads to a significant decrease in the asteroid collision rate, though increasing its mass increases the collision rate. These results may have implications for the habitability of exoplanetary systems.

  4. Calculation methods for estimating the prospects of a space experiment by means of impact by asteroid Apophis on the Moon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrik, A. V.; Kazantsev, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of principal change of asteroid 99952 (Apophis) orbit is formulated. Aim of this change is the termination of asteroid motion in Solar system. Instead of the passive rescue tactics from asteroid threat, an option is proposed for using the asteroid for setting up a large-scale space experiment on the impact interaction of the asteroid with the Moon. The scientific and methodical apparatus for calculating the possibility of realization, searching and justification the scientific uses of this space experiment is considered.

  5. A concept for providing warning of earth impacts by small asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, D. W.; Reitsema, H. J.; Lu, E.; Arentz, R.; Linfield, R.; Chapman, C.; Farquhar, R.; Ledkov, A. A.; Eismont, N. A.; Chumachenko, E.

    2013-07-01

    The atmospheric detonation of a 17 m-asteroid above Chelyabinsk, Russia on 2013 February 15 shows that even small asteroids can cause extensive damage. Earth-based telescopes have found smaller harmless objects, such as 2008 TC3, a 4 m-asteroid that was discovered 20h before it exploded over northeastern Sudan (Jenniskens, 2009). 2008 TC3 remains the only asteroid discovered before it hit Earth because it approached Earth from the night side, where it was observed by large telescopes searching for near-Earth objects (NEO's). The larger object that exploded over Chelyabinsk approached Earth from the day side, from too close to the Sun to be detected from Earth. A sizeable telescope in an orbit about the Sun-Earth L1 (SE-L1) libration point could find objects like the "Chelyabinsk" asteroid approaching approximately from the line of sight to the Sun about a day before Earth closest approach. Such a system would have the astrometric accuracy needed to determine the time and impact zone for a NEO on a collision course. This would give at least several hours, and usually 2-4 days, to take protective measures, rather than the approximately two-minute interval between the flash and shock wave arrival that occurred in Chelyabinsk. A perhaps even more important reason for providing warning of these events, even smaller harmless ones that explode high in the atmosphere with the force of an atomic bomb, is to prevent mistaking such an event for a nuclear attack that could trigger a devastating nuclear war. A concept using a space telescope similar to that needed for an SE-L1 monitoring satellite, is already conceived by the B612 Foundation, whose planned Sentinel Space Telescope could find nearly all 140 m and larger NEO's, including those in orbits mostly inside the Earth's orbit that are hard to find with Earth-based telescopes, from a Venus-like orbit (Lu, 2013). Few modifications would be needed to the Sentinel Space Telescope to operate in a SE-L1 orbit, 0.01 AU from

  6. Lead isotopes in archaean plutonic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    Archaean intrusive rocks have initial Pb isotopic compositions which show a varied and complex history for the source regions of the rocks. Even the oldest rocks from Greenland indicate heterogenous U and Pb distribution prior to 3800 m.y. ago. Source regions with μ values less than 7 must have played a significant role in the early history of the earth. By late Archaean time U/Pb ratios of source regions had increased substantially. Data from Australia and North America show distinct regional differences, both within and between continents. (Auth.)

  7. Large-scale melting and impact mixing on early-formed asteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Richard; Barrat, J.-A.; Scott, Edward Robert Dalton

    Large-scale melting of asteroids and planetesimals is now known to have taken place ex-tremely early in solar system history [1]. The first-generation bodies produced by this process would have been subject to rapid collisional reprocessing, leading in most cases to fragmentation and/or accretion...... the relationship between the different groups of achondrites [3, 4]. Here we present new oxygen isotope evidence con-cerning the role of large-scale melting and subsequent impact mixing in the evolution of three important achondrite groups: the main-group pallasites, meso-siderites and HEDs....

  8. Collisional Histories of Comets and Trojan Asteroids: Diopside, Magnesite, and Fayalite Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Smith, D. C.; Keller, L. P.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Comets and asteroids have weathered dynamic histories, as evidenced by their rough surfaces. The Nice model describes a violent reshuffling of small bodies during the Late Heavy Bombardment, with collisions acting to grind these planetesimals away. This creates an additional source of impact material that can re-work the surfaces of the larger bodies over the lifetime of the solar system. Here, we investigate the possibility that signatures due to impacts (e.g. from micrometeoroids or meteoroids) could be detected in their spectra, and how that can be explained by the physical manifestation of shock in the crystalline structure of minerals. All impact experiments were conducted in the Johnson Space Center Experimental Impact Laboratory using the vertical gun. Impact speeds ranged from approx.2.0 km/s to approx.2.8 km/s. All experiments were conducted at room temperature. Minerals found in comets and asteroids were chosen as targets, including diopside (MgCaSi2O6, monoclinic pyroxene), magnesite (MgCO3, carbonate), and fayalite (FeSiO4, olivine). Impacted samples were analyzed using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Absorbance features in the 8-13 m spectral region demonstrate relative amplitude changes as well as wavelength shifts. Corresponding TEM images exhibit planar shock dislocations in the crystalline structure, attributed to deformation at high strain and low temperatures. Elongating or shortening the axes of the crystalline structure of forsterite (Mg2SiO4, olivine) using a discrete dipole approximation model (Lindsay et al., submitted) yields changes in spectral features similar to those observed in our impacted laboratory minerals.

  9. Momentum and Angular Momentum Transfer in Oblique Impacts: Implications for Asteroid Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Hasegawa, Sunao; Shirogane, Nobutoshi

    1996-09-01

    We conducted a series of high velocity oblique impact experiments (0.66-6.7 km/s) using polycarbonate (plastic) projectiles and targets made of mortar, aluminum alloy, and mild steel. We then calculated the efficiencies of momentum transfer for small cratering impacts. They are η = (M‧Vn‧)/(mvn) and ζ = (M‧Vt‧)/(mvt), wheremandvare the mass and velocity of a projectile, andM‧ andV‧ represent those of a postimpact target. Subscripts “n” and “t” denote the components normal and tangential to the target surface at the impact point, respectively. The main findings are: (1) η increases with increasing impact velocity; (2) η is larger for mortar than for ductile metallic targets; (3) ζ for mortar targets seems to increase with the impact velocity in the velocity range less than about 2 km/s and decrease with it in the higher velocity range; (4) ζ for the aluminum alloy targets correlates negatively with incident zenith angle of the projectile. In addition to these findings on the momentum transfer, we show theoretically that “ζL” can be expressed by η and ζ for small cratering impact. Here, ζLis the spin angular momentum that the target acquires at impact divided by the collisional angular momentum due to the projectile. This is an important parameter to study the collisional evolution of asteroid rotation. For a spherical target, ζLis shown to be well approximated by ζ.

  10. Impacts into Coarse-Grained Spheres at Moderate Impact Velocities: Implications for Cratering on Asteroids and Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Olivier S.; Daly, R. Terik; Cintala, Mark J.; Crawford, David A.

    2018-01-01

    The surfaces of many planets and asteroids contain coarsely fragmental material generated by impacts or other geologic processes. The presence of such pre-existing structures may affect subsequent impacts, particularly when the width of the shock is comparable to or smaller than the size of pre-existing structures. Reasonable theoretical predictions and low speed (<300m/s) impact experiments suggest that in such targets the cratering process should be highly dissipative, which would reduce cratering efficiencies and cause a rapid decay in ejection velocity as a function of distance from the impact point. In this study, we assess whether these results apply at higher impact speeds between 0.5 and 2.5 km s-1. This study shows little change in cratering efficiency when 3.18 mm diameter glass beads are launched into targets composed of these same beads. These impacts are very efficient, and ejection velocity decays slowly as function of distance from the impact point. This slow decay in ejection velocity probably indicates a correspondingly slow decay of the shock stresses. However, these experiments reveal that initial interactions between projectile and target strongly influence the cratering process and lead to asymmetries in crater shape and ejection angles, as well as significant variations in ejection velocity at a given launch position. Such effects of asymmetric coupling could be further enhanced by heterogeneity in the initial distribution of grains in the target and by mechanical collisions between grains. These experiments help to explain why so few craters are seen on the rubble-pile asteroid Itokawa: impacts into its coarsely fragmental surface by projectiles comparable to or smaller than the size of these fragments likely yield craters that are not easily recognizable.

  11. Severity of ocean acidification following the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Toby; Merico, Agostino; Armstrong McKay, David Ian

    2015-05-26

    Most paleo-episodes of ocean acidification (OA) were either too slow or too small to be instructive in predicting near-future impacts. The end-Cretaceous event (66 Mya) is intriguing in this regard, both because of its rapid onset and also because many pelagic calcifying species (including 100% of ammonites and more than 90% of calcareous nannoplankton and foraminifera) went extinct at this time. Here we evaluate whether extinction-level OA could feasibly have been produced by the asteroid impact. Carbon cycle box models were used to estimate OA consequences of (i) vaporization of up to 60 × 10(15) mol of sulfur from gypsum rocks at the point of impact; (ii) generation of up to 5 × 10(15) mol of NOx by the impact pressure wave and other sources; (iii) release of up to 6,500 Pg C as CO2 from vaporization of carbonate rocks, wildfires, and soil carbon decay; and (iv) ocean overturn bringing high-CO2 water to the surface. We find that the acidification produced by most processes is too weak to explain calcifier extinctions. Sulfuric acid additions could have made the surface ocean extremely undersaturated (Ωcalcite ocean very rapidly (over a few days) and if the quantity added was at the top end of literature estimates. We therefore conclude that severe ocean acidification might have been, but most likely was not, responsible for the great extinctions of planktonic calcifiers and ammonites at the end of the Cretaceous.

  12. Comparison of Damage from Hydrocode Simulations of an Asteroid Airburst or Impact on Land, in Deep, or in Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Darrel; Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan

    2017-01-01

    If an asteroid is discovered to be on a collision course with Earth and there is insufficient time for a deflection effort to make it miss Earth completely, should it be redirected to a land or ocean impact? While distance from densely populated areas should obviously be maximized, the differing ability of air blast, seismic waves, and tsunami waves to cause damage at distance does not make the choice between land and ocean impacts an immediately obvious one. More broadly this work is a step towards improving damage models from asteroid impacts. This extended abstract follows the hypothetical scenario of the 2017 IAA Planetary Defense Conference where a 100-250m diameter asteroid is on a potential impact course with Earth. A hydrocode was used to simulate impacts into the most sparsely populated areas along the eastern end of the hypothetical impact corridor- specifically in the Gobi Desert, in the shallow waters of the Sea of Japan, and in the deep waters of the Japan Trench in the Pacific Ocean.

  13. Asteroid team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matson, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue

  14. Asteroid team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue.

  15. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean deposits of Northern Karelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafieva, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Rozanov, A. Y.; Vrevskiy, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Newly found biomorphic microstructures from the Upper Archaean (lopian) rocks from Northern Karelia are described. The presence of various microorganisms of bacterial nature and even cyanobacteria (and possibly eukaryotic forms) is suggested. The necessity of employing methods of electron microscopy, as well as traditional methods, while studying the very early manifestations of life in Archaean and Early Proterozoic is noted.

  16. Network of Nano-Landers for In-Situ Characterization of Asteroid Impact Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kalita, Himangshu; Asphaug, Erik; Schwartz, Stephen; Thangavelautham, Jekanthan

    2017-01-01

    Exploration of asteroids and comets can give insight into the origins of the solar system and can be instrumental in planetary defence and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Asteroids, due to their low gravity are a challenging target for surface exploration. Current missions envision performing touch-and-go operations over an asteroid surface. In this work, we analyse the feasibility of sending scores of nano-landers, each 1 kg in mass and volume of 1U, or 1000 cm3. These landers would hop...

  17. Asteroid deflection using a kinetic impactor: Insights from hypervelocity impact experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Tobias; Schäfer, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the planned AIDA mission [1], an impactor spacecraft (DART) hits the second component of the asteroid Didymos at hypervelocity. The impact crater will be observed from the AIM spacecraft and an observation of the ejecta plume is possible [1]. This allows conclusions to be drawn about the physical properties of the target material, and the momentum transfer will be studied [1]. In preparation for this mission, hypervelocity impact experiments can provide valuable information about the outcome of an impact event as a function of impactor and target material properties and, thus, support the interpretation of the data from the DART impact. In addition, these impact experiments provide an important means to validate numerical impact simulations required to simulate large-scale impacts that cannot be studied in laboratory experiments. Impact experiments have shown that crater morphology and size, crater growth and ejecta dynamics strongly depend on the physical properties of the target material [2]. For example, porous materials like sandstone lead to a shallower and slower ejection than low-porous materials like quartzite, and the cratering efficiency is reduced in porous targets leading to a smaller amount of ejected mass [3]. These phenomena result in a reduced momentum multiplication factor (often called "beta-value"), i.e. the ratio of the change in target momentum after the impact and the momentum of the projectile is smaller for porous materials. Hypervelocity impact experiments into target materials with different porosities and densities such as quartzite (2.9 %, 2.6 g/cm3), sandstone (25.3 %, 2 g/cm3), limestone (31 %, 1.8 g/cm3), and highly porous aerated concrete (87.5 %, 0.4 g/cm3) were conducted. Projectile velocities were varied between about 3 km/s and almost 7 km/s. A ballistic pendulum was used to measure the momentum transfer. The material strength required for scaling laws was determined for all target materials. The highest

  18. Adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archaean granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hervé

    1999-03-01

    Both geochemical and experimental petrological research indicate that Archaean continental crust was generated by partial melting of an Archaean tholeiite transformed into a garnet-bearing amphibolite or eclogite. The geodynamic context of tholeiite melting is the subject of controversy. It is assumed to be either (1) subduction (melting of a hot subducting slab), or (2) hot spot (melting of underplated basalts). These hypotheses are considered in the light of modern adakite genesis. Adakites are intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks, andesitic to rhyolitic in composition (basaltic members are lacking). They have trondhjemitic affinities (high-Na 2O contents and K 2O/Na 2O˜0.5) and their Mg no. (0.5), Ni (20-40 ppm) and Cr (30-50 ppm) contents are higher than in typical calc-alkaline magmas. Sr contents are high (>300 ppm, until 2000 ppm) and REE show strongly fractionated patterns with very low heavy REE (HREE) contents (Yb≤1.8 ppm, Y≤18 ppm). Consequently, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios are typical and discriminating features of adakitic magmas, indicative of melting of a mafic source where garnet and/or hornblende are residual phases. Adakitic magmas are only found in subduction zone environments, exclusively where the subduction and/or the subducted slab are young (subducted and where the adakitic character of the lavas correlates well with the young age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere. In typical subduction zones, the subducted lithosphere is older than 20 Ma, it is cool and the geothermal gradient along the Benioff plane is low such that the oceanic crust dehydrates before it reaches the solidus temperature of hydrated tholeiite. Consequently, the basaltic slab cannot melt. The released large ion lithophile element (LILE)-rich fluids rise up into the mantle wedge, inducing both its metasomatism and partial melting. Afterwards, the residue is made up of olivine+clinopyroxene+orthopyroxene, such that the partial melts are HREE-rich (low La/Yb and Sr

  19. Computer simulations of large asteroid impacts into oceanic and continental sites--preliminary results on atmospheric, cratering and ejecta dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, D.J.; Schuster, S.H.; Rosenblatt, M.; Grant, L.B.; Hassig, P.J.; Kreyenhagen, K.N.

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations have been completed that describe passage of a 10-km-diameter asteroid through the Earth's atmosphere and the subsequent cratering and ejecta dynamics caused by impact of the asteroid into both oceanic and continental sites. The asteroid was modeled as a spherical body moving vertically at 20 km/s with a kinetic energy of 2.6 ?? 1030 ergs (6.2 ?? 107 Mt ). Detailed material modeling of the asteroid, ocean, crustal units, sedimentary unit, and mantle included effects of strength and fracturing, generic asteroid and rock properties, porosity, saturation, lithostatic stresses, and geothermal contributions, each selected to simulate impact and geologic conditions that were as realistic as possible. Calculation of the passage of the asteroid through a U.S. Standard Atmosphere showed development of a strong bow shock wave followed by a highly shock compressed and heated air mass. Rapid expansion of this shocked air created a large low-density region that also expanded away from the impact area. Shock temperatures in air reached ???20,000 K near the surface of the uplifting crater rim and were as high as ???2000 K at more than 30 km range and 10 km altitude. Calculations to 30 s showed that the shock fronts in the air and in most of the expanding shocked air mass preceded the formation of the crater, ejecta, and rim uplift and did not interact with them. As cratering developed, uplifted rim and target material were ejected into the very low density, shock-heated air immediately above the forming crater, and complex interactions could be expected. Calculations of the impact events showed equally dramatic effects on the oceanic and continental targets through an interval of 120 s. Despite geologic differences in the targets, both cratering events developed comparable dynamic flow fields and by ???29 s had formed similar-sized transient craters ???39 km deep and ???62 km across. Transient-rim uplift of ocean and crust reached a maximum altitude of nearly

  20. Comparing Results of SPH/N-body Impact Simulations Using Both Solid and Rubble-pile Target Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Bottke, W. F.; Enke, B. L.; Nesvorný, D.; Asphaug, E.; Richardson, D. C.

    2006-09-01

    We have been investigating the properties of satellites and the morphology of size-frequency distributions (SFDs) resulting from a suite of 160 SPH/N-body simulations of impacts into 100-km diameter parent asteroids (Durda et al. 2004, Icarus 170, 243-257; Durda et al. 2006, Icarus, in press). These simulations have produced many valuable insights into the outcomes of cratering and disruptive impacts but were limited to monolithic basalt targets. As a natural consequence of collisional evolution, however, many asteroids have undergone a series of battering impacts that likely have left their interiors substantially fractured, if not completely rubblized. In light of this, we have re-mapped the matrix of simulations using rubble-pile target objects. We constructed the rubble-pile targets by filling the interior of the 100-km diameter spherical shell (the target envelope) with randomly sized solid spheres in mutual contact. We then assigned full damage (which reduces tensile and shear stresses to zero) to SPH particles in the contacts between the components; the remaining volume is void space. The internal spherical components have a power-law distribution of sizes simulating fragments of a pre-shattered parent object. First-look analysis of the rubble-pile results indicate some general similarities to the simulations with the monolithic targets (e.g., similar trends in the number of small, gravitationally bound satellite systems as a function of impact conditions) and some significant differences (e.g., size of largest remnants and smaller debris affecting size frequency distributions of resulting families). We will report details of a more thorough analysis and the implications for collisional models of the main asteroid belt. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, grant number AST0407045.

  1. Unmelted meteoritic debris in the Late Pliocene iridium anomaly - Evidence for the ocean impact of a nonchondritic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, F. T.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Ir-bearing particles have been recovered from two piston cores in the Antarctic Basin in the southeastern Pacific. In core E13-3, the particles closely correspond to the Late Pliocene Ir anomaly and have a fluence of about 100 mg/cm sq. In core E13-4, 120 km to the southwest, the particle fluence is about 4 mg/cm sq. Particles with diameters from 0.5 to 4 mm contain at least 35 percent of the Ir in this horizon. Three types of particles have been identified: (1) vesicular, (2) basaltic, and (3) metal. The vesicular particles appear to be shock-melted debris derived from the oceanic impact of a howarditic asteroid containing a minor metal component. These particles have recrystallized from a melt and impact into the ocean has resulted in the incorporation of Na, K, Cl, and radiogenic Sr from the ocean water target. The basaltic clasts appear to be unmelted fragments of the original asteroid which may have separated from the main body prior to impact. Combined vesicular and basaltic particles are believed to have formed by collisions in the debris cloud. Estimates of the diameter of the projectile range from 100 to 500 m. By many orders of magnitude, this is the most massive achondrite sampled by a single meteorite fall.

  2. 2015 Barcelona Asteroid Day

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsevich, Maria; Palme, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of the research presented at the International Asteroid Day workshop which was celebrated at Barcelona on June 30th, 2015. The proceedings discuss the beginning of a new era in the study and exploration of the solar system’s minor bodies. International Asteroid Day commemorates the Tunguska event of June 30th, 1908. The workshop’s goal was to promote the importance of dealing proactively with impact hazards from space. Multidisciplinary experts contributed to this discussion by describing the nature of comets and asteroids along with their offspring, meteoroids. New missions to return material samples of asteroids back to Earth such as Osiris-REx and Hayabusa 2, as well as projects like AIM and DART which will test impact deflection techniques for Potentially Hazardous Asteroids encounters were also covered. The proceedings include both an outreach level to popularize impact hazards and a scientific character which covers the latest knowledge on these topics, as well as offeri...

  3. Asteroid taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 μm can be used to classify these objects onto several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11 or 14 different classes, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population

  4. The Impact and Oxidation Survival of Selected Meteoritic Compounds: Signatures of Asteroid Organic Material on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Horz, Fred; Oleary, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    Polar, non-volatile organic compounds may be present on the surfaces (or near surfaces) of multiple Solar System bodies. If found, by current or future missions, it would be desirable to determine the origin(s) of such compounds, e.g., asteroidal or in situ. To test the possible survival of meteoritic compounds both during impacts with planetary surfaces and under subsequent (possibly) harsh ambient conditions, we subjected known meteoritic compounds to relatively high impact-shock pressures and/or to varying oxidizing/corrosive conditions. Tested compounds include sulfonic and phosphonic acids (S&P), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) amino acids, keto acids, dicarboxylic acids, deoxy sugar acids, and hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (Table 1). Meteoritic sulfonic acids were found to be relatively abundant in the Murchison meteorite and to possess unusual S-33 isotope anomalies (non mass-dependent isotope fractionations). Combined with distinctive C-S and C-P bonds, the S&P are potential signatures of asteroidal organic material.

  5. Observation of freakish-asteroid-discovered-resembles support my idea that many dark comets were arrested and lurked in the solar system after every impaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2014-03-01

    New observations show that some asteroids are looked like comets. http://www.astrowatch.net/2013/11/freakish-asteroid-discovered-resembles.html, http://www.astrowatch.net/2013/11/astronomers-puzzle-over-newfound.html. It supports my idea that ``many dark comets with very special tilted orbits were arrested and lurked in the solar system'' - ``Sun's companion-dark hole seasonal took its dark comets belt and much dark matter to impact near our earth. And some of them probability hit on our earth. So this model kept and triggered periodic mass extinctions on our earth every 25 to 27 million years. After every impaction, many dark comets with very special tilted orbits were arrested and lurked in the solar system. Because some of them picked up many solar matter, so it looked like the asteroids. When the dark hole-Tyche goes near the solar system again, they will impact near planets.'' The idea maybe explains why do the asteroid looks like the comet? Where are the asteroids come from? What relationship do they have with the impactions and extinctions? http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2011.CAL.C1.7, http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/CAL12/Event/181168, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2013.MAR.H1.267. During 2009 to 2010, I had presented there are many dark comets like dark Asteroids near the orbit of Jupiter in ASP Meetings. In 2010, NASA's WISE found them. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17, http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/WISE/news/wise20100122.html Avoid Earth Extinction Associ.

  6. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  7. Asteroid Composite Tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This is a composite tape showing 10 short segments primarily about asteroids. The segments have short introductory slides, which include brief descriptions about the shots. The segments are: (1) Radar movie of asteroid 1620 Geographos; (2) Animation of the trajectories of Toutatis and Earth (3) Animation of a landing on Toutatis; (4) Simulated encounter of an asteroid with Earth, includes a simulated impact trajectory; (5) An animated overview of the Manrover vehicle; (6) The Near Earth Asteroid Tracking project, includes a photograph of USAF Station in Hawaii, and animation of Earth approaching 4179 Toutatis and the asteroid Gaspara; (7) live video of the anchor tests of the Champoleon anchoring apparatus; (8) a second live video of the Champoleon anchor tests showing anchoring spikes, and collision rings; (9) An animated segment with narration about the Stardust mission with sound, which describes the mission to fly close to a comet, and capture cometary material for return to Earth; (10) live video of the drop test of a Stardust replica from a hot air balloon; this includes sound but is not narrated.

  8. Structure and origin of Australian ring and dome features with reference to the search for asteroid impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Ring, dome and crater features on the Australian continent and shelf include (A) 38 structures of confirmed or probable asteroid and meteorite impact origin and (B) numerous buried and exposed ring, dome and crater features of undefined origin. A large number of the latter include structural and geophysical elements consistent with impact structures, pending test by field investigations and/or drilling. This paper documents and briefly describes 43 ring and dome features with the aim of appraising their similarities and differences from those of impact structures. Discrimination between impact structures and igneous plugs, volcanic caldera and salt domes require field work and/or drilling. Where crater-like morphological patterns intersect pre-existing linear structural features and contain central morphological highs and unique thrust and fault patterns an impact connection needs to tested in the field. Hints of potential buried impact structures may be furnished by single or multi-ring TMI patterns, circular TMI quiet zones, corresponding gravity patterns, low velocity and non-reflective seismic zones.

  9. Summary of Results from Analyses of Deposits of the Deep-Ocean Impact of the Eltanin Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Gersonde, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Deposits of the late Pliocene (2.5 Ma) Eltanin impact are unique in the known geological record. The only known example of a km-sized asteroid to impact a deep-ocean (5 km) basin, is the most meterorite-rich locality known. This was discovered as an Ir anomaly in sediments from three cores collected in 1965 by the USNS Eltanin. These cores contained mm-sized shock-melted asteroid materials and unmelted meteorite fragments. Mineral chemistry of meteorite fragments, and siderophole concentrations in melt rocks, indicate that the parent asteroid was a low-metal (4\\%) mesosiderite. A geological exploration of the impact in 1995 by Polarstern expedition ANT-XIV4 was near the Freeden Seamounts (57.3S, 90.5 W), and successfully collected three cores with impact deposits. Analyses showed that sediments as old as Eocene were eroded by the impact disturbance and redeposited in three distinct units. The lowermost is a chaotic assemblage of sediment fragments up to 50 cm in size. Above this is a laminated sand-rich unit that deposited as a turbulent flow, and this is overlain by a more fine-grained deposit of silts and clays that settled from a cloud of sediment suspended in the water column. Meteoritic ejecta particles were concentrated near the base of the uppermost unit, where coarse ejecta caught up with the disturbed sediment. Here we will present results from a new suite of cores collected on Polarstern expedition ANT-XVIIU5a. In 2001, the Polarstern returned to the impact area and explored a region of 80,000 sq-km., collecting at least 16 sediment cores with meteoritic ejecta. The known strewn field extends over a region 660 by 200 km. The meteoritic ejecta is most concentrated in cores on the Freeden seamounts, and in the basins to the north, where the amount of meteoritic material deposited on the ocean floor was as much as 3 g/sq-cm. These concentrations drop off to the north and the east to levels as low as approximately 0.1 g/sq-cm. We were unable to sample the

  10. Asteroid Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  11. Archaean TTG of Vodlozero Terrain, Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekulaev, Valery; Arestova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    The Vodlozero terrain is the largest (about 270*240 km) early Archaean fragment of Fennoscandian Shield and composes its eastern part. The granitoids of TTG suite are predominant component of the terrain. The greenstone belts are placed along the margins of the terrain. Several stages of TTG formation can be distinguished in Achaean crust history. (1) The oldest TTG are trondhjemites and tonalities with age of 3240 Ma. They contain rare and small amphibolite inclusions of the same age. These TTG are characterized by high Sr (av. 412 ppm), Sr/Y (70), (La/Yb)n (54) and low Y (av. 7 ppm), Yb (0.32 ppm) and Nb (4 ppm). It was shown (Lobach-Zhuchenko et al., 2000), that the source of these TTG could be basic rocks, having composition similar with TH1 by K.Condie. (2) The tonalities and granodiorites with age of 3150 Ma are disposed near greenstone belts and contain compared to TTG of the first group less Sr (av. 250 ppm), Sr/Y (22), (La/Yb)n (18) and more K, Rb (av. 70 ppm), Ba (470 ppm), Y (11 ppm),Yb (1.16 ppm). TTG of both groups have identical T(DM)Nd (3250-3400 Ma) and differences in composition is evidently connected with lower level of source melting of the second group and also with K-metasomatism. The volcanics of the greenstone belts have age 3020 - 2940 Ma. Dykes of gabbro-amphibolites and andesites with the same age and composition cut TTG of the first and the second groups. The age of the third TTG group is about 2900 Ma ago. These rocks form leucosoma of migmatites within TTG of the second group. The composition of the third TTG and Nd isotope data suppose their origin by the melting of ancient TTG crust simultaneously with greenstone belt emplacement. The fourth TTG group with age 2780-2850 Ma forms a small intrusions, cutting older TTG and greenstone rocks. Their composition is similar to 3150 Ma TTG. Nd isotope data indicate that these TTG have younger (about 2850 Ma) source. Thus there are four TTG groups formed into interval more 400 Ma. The age and

  12. Deep and persistent melt layer in the Archaean mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrault, Denis; Pesce, Giacomo; Manthilake, Geeth; Monteux, Julien; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Chantel, Julien; Novella, Davide; Guignot, Nicolas; King, Andrew; Itié, Jean-Paul; Hennet, Louis

    2018-02-01

    The transition from the Archaean to the Proterozoic eon ended a period of great instability at the Earth's surface. The origin of this transition could be a change in the dynamic regime of the Earth's interior. Here we use laboratory experiments to investigate the solidus of samples representative of the Archaean upper mantle. Our two complementary in situ measurements of the melting curve reveal a solidus that is 200-250 K lower than previously reported at depths higher than about 100 km. Such a lower solidus temperature makes partial melting today easier than previously thought, particularly in the presence of volatiles (H2O and CO2). A lower solidus could also account for the early high production of melts such as komatiites. For an Archaean mantle that was 200-300 K hotter than today, significant melting is expected at depths from 100-150 km to more than 400 km. Thus, a persistent layer of melt may have existed in the Archaean upper mantle. This shell of molten material may have progressively disappeared because of secular cooling of the mantle. Crystallization would have increased the upper mantle viscosity and could have enhanced mechanical coupling between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. Such a change might explain the transition from surface dynamics dominated by a stagnant lid on the early Earth to modern-like plate tectonics with deep slab subduction.

  13. Stable isotope composition and volume of Early Archaean oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    via biogenic methanogenesis [2]. Mass balance considerations within the Earth system places a cumulative upper limit on elemental hydrogen loss to space of ~1.8x1022mol elemental hydrogen H, constraining maximum Archaean atmospheric methane levels at ~3.8Ga to

  14. the origin of late archaean granitoids in the sukumaland greenstone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    melting at the base of a late Archaean thickened sub-arc basaltic crust. Melting to form the Suite 1 granitoids occurred in the eclogite stability field whereas Suite 2 formed by melting at shallower ... of TTG in terms of slab melting processes.

  15. Asteroids II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzel, R.P.; Gehrels, T.; Matthews, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to asteroids. A description of exploration techniques, details on their physical properties, discussions of their origin and evolution, an examination of their interrelations with meteorites and comets followed by an attempt at a big picture framework are given

  16. Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Newell J.

    1994-01-01

    Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

  17. Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trask, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors

  18. Ejecta cloud from the AIDA space project kinetic impact on the secondary of a binary asteroid: I. mechanical environment and dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the post-impact dynamics of ejecta clouds are crucial to the planning of a kinetic impact mission to an asteroid, and also has great implications for the history of planetary formation. The purpose of this article is to track the evolution of ejecta produced by AIDA mission, which targets for kinetic impact the secondary of near-Earth binary asteroid (65803) Didymos on 2022, and to feedback essential informations to AIDA's ongoing phase-A study. We present a detailed dynamic model for the simulation of an ejecta cloud from a binary asteroid that synthesizes all relevant forces based on a previous analysis of the mechanical environment. We apply our method to gain insight into the expected response of Didymos to the AIDA impact, including the subsequent evolution of debris and dust. The crater scaling relations from laboratory experiments are employed to approximate the distributions of ejecta mass and launching speed. The size distribution of fragments is modeled with a power law fitted from observations of real asteroid surface. A full-scale demonstration is simulated using parameters specified by the mission. We report the results of the simulation, which include the computed spread of the ejecta cloud and the recorded history of ejecta accretion and escape. The violent period of the ejecta evolution is found to be short, and is followed by a stage where the remaining ejecta is gradually cleared. Solar radiation pressure proves to be efficient in cleaning dust-size ejecta, and the simulation results after two weeks shows that large debris on polar orbits (perpendicular to the binary orbital plane) has a survival advantage over smaller ejecta and ejecta that keeps to low latitudes.

  19. Investigating the Effects of Temperature on the Signatures of Shocks Propagated Through Impacts into Minerals Found in Comets and Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Susan M.; Jensen, E. A.; Fane, M.; Smith, D. C.; Holmes, J.; Keller, L. P.; Lindsay, S. S.; Wooden, D. H.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Comets and asteroids are subjected to extremely cold conditions throughout their lifetimes. During their sojourns in the solar system, they are subjected to collisions at speeds that are easily capable of generating shock waves in their constituent materials. In addition to ices, more common silicate minerals such as olivines and pyroxenes are important components of these objects. The collision-induced shocks could affect the spectral signatures of those mineral components, which could in turn be detected telescopically. We have embarked on a project to determine how impact-generated shock might affect the reflectance spectra and structures of select silicates as both impact speed and target temperature are varied systematically. While the effects of impact speed (in the form of shock stress) on numerous materials have been and continue to be studied, the role of target temperature has received comparatively little attention, presumably because of the operational difficulties it can introduce to experimentation. Our experiments were performed with the vertical gun in the Experimental Impact Laboratory of the Johnson Space Center. A liquid-nitrogen system was plumbed to permit cooling of the target container and its contents under vacuum to temperatures as low as -100 C (173 K). Temperatures were monitored by thermocouples mounted on the outside of the target container. Because those sensors were not in contact with the target material at impact, the measured temperatures are treated as lower limits for the actual values. Peridot (Mg-rich olivine) and enstatite (Mg-rich orthopyroxene) were used as targets, which involved the impact of alumina (Al2O3) spheres at speeds of 2.0 - 2.7 km s(exp -1) and temperatures covering 25 C to -100 C (298 K to 173 K). We have begun collecting and analyzing data in the near to mid-IR with a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, and preliminary analyses show that notable differences in absorption-band strength and position occur

  20. Impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and extinction of terrestrial life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, T.J.; O'Keefe, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Finite difference calculations describing the impact mechanics associated with a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object impacting a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate solid planet at 30 km/sec demonstrate that from 12 to 15% of the bolide energy resides in the water. In the gravity field of the earth some 10 to 30 times the impactor mass of water is launched on trajectories which would take it to altitudes of 10 km or higher. This ejecta launched on trajectories which can achieve stratospheric heights is 10 1 to 10 2 projectile masses, similar to that resulting from impact of objects on an ocean-free silicate half-space (continent). Ejecta composed of impactor material, launched on trajectories which would carry it to stratospheric heights, matches the fraction (10 -2 to 10 -1 ) of bolide (extraterrestrial) material found in the platinum-metal-rich Cretaceous-Tertiary and Eocene-Oligocene boundary layers. Oceanic impact results in giant tsunamis initially having amplitudes of approx. 4 km, representing the solitary waterwave stability limit in the deep ocean, and containing 10 -2 to 10 -1 of the energy of the impact. Using the constraint of no observed turbidities in marine sediments in the Cretaceous-Tertiary and Eocene-Oligocene boundary materials (calculated maximum water-sediment interface particle velocity approx. 10 0 m/sec) implies a maximum impactor energy of approx. 10 28 to approx. 10 29 erg corresponding to a maximum diameter for a silicate impactor of approx. 2 km (at 11 km/sec). Minimal global tsunami run-up heights on the continents corresponding to impacts of this energy are 300-400 m. We speculate that such waves would inundate all low altitude continental areas. As a result, the terrestrial animal food chain would be seriously perturbed, which could have caused extinction of large terrestrial animals

  1. Impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and extinction of terrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Finite difference calculations describing the impact mechanics associated with a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object impacting a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate solid planet demonstrate that from 12 to 15% of the bolide energy resides in the water. It is speculated that minimal global tsunami run-up heights on the continents would be 300-400 meters, and that such waves would inundate all low altitude continental areas, and strip and silt-over virtually all vegetation. As a result the terrestrial animal food chain would be seriously perturbed. This could in turn cause extinction of large terrestrial animals.

  2. Binary asteroid population. 1. Angular momentum content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 1 (2007), s. 250-259 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * satellites of asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2007

  3. Speckle interferometry of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.

    1988-01-01

    By studying the image two-dimensional power spectra or autocorrelations projected by an asteroid as it rotates, it is possible to locate its rotational pole and derive its three axes dimensions through speckle interferometry under certain assumptions of uniform, geometric scattering, and triaxial ellipsoid shape. However, in cases where images can be reconstructed, the need for making the assumptions is obviated. Furthermore, the ultimate goal for speckle interferometry of image reconstruction will lead to mapping albedo features (if they exist) as impact areas or geological units. The first glimpses of the surface of an asteroid were obtained from images of 4 Vesta reconstructed from speckle interferometric observations. These images reveal that Vesta is quite Moon-like in having large hemispheric-scale albedo features. All of its lightcurves can be produced from a simple model developed from the images. Although undoubtedly more intricate than the model, Vesta's lightcurves can be matched by a model with three dark and four bright spots. The dark areas so dominate one hemisphere that a lightcurve minimum occurs when the maximum cross-section area is visible. The triaxial ellipsoid shape derived for Vesta is not consistent with the notion that the asteroid has an equilibrium shape in spite of its having apparently been differentiated

  4. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Virkki, A.; Fedorets, G.; Wilkman, O.; Kohout, T.

    2014-08-01

    Asteroids, Comets, Meteors focuses on the research of small Solar System bodies. Small bodies are the key to understanding the formation and evolution of the Solar System, carrying signals from pre-solar times. Understanding the evolution of the Solar System helps unveil the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems. Societally, small bodies will be important future resources of minerals. The near-Earth population of small bodies continues to pose an impact hazard, whether it be small pieces of falling meteorites or larger asteroids or cometary nuclei capable of causing global environmental effects. The conference series entitled ''Asteroids, Comets, Meteors'' constitutes the leading international series in the field of small Solar System bodies. The first three conferences took place in Uppsala, Sweden in 1983, 1985, and 1989. The conference is now returning to Nordic countries after a quarter of a century. After the Uppsala conferences, the conference has taken place in Flagstaff, Arizona, U.S.A. in 1991, Belgirate, Italy in 1993, Paris, France in 1996, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. in 1999, in Berlin, Germany in 2002, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2005, in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. in 2008, and in Niigata, Japan in 2012. ACM in Helsinki, Finland in 2014 will be the 12th conference in the series.

  5. Designing global climate and atmospheric chemistry simulations for 1 and 10 km diameter asteroid impacts using the properties of ejecta from the K-Pg impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Toon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About 66 million years ago, an asteroid about 10 km in diameter struck the Yucatan Peninsula creating the Chicxulub crater. The crater has been dated and found to be coincident with the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg mass extinction event, one of six great mass extinctions in the last 600 million years. This event precipitated one of the largest episodes of rapid climate change in Earth's history, yet no modern three-dimensional climate calculations have simulated the event. Similarly, while there is an ongoing effort to detect asteroids that might hit Earth and to develop methods to stop them, there have been no modern calculations of the sizes of asteroids whose impacts on land would cause devastating effects on Earth. Here, we provide the information needed to initialize such calculations for the K-Pg impactor and for a 1 km diameter impactor. There is considerable controversy about the details of the events that followed the Chicxulub impact. We proceed through the data record in the order of confidence that a climatically important material was present in the atmosphere. The climatic importance is roughly proportional to the optical depth of the material. Spherules with diameters of several hundred microns are found globally in an abundance that would have produced an atmospheric layer with an optical depth around 20, yet their large sizes would only allow them to stay airborne for a few days. They were likely important for triggering global wildfires. Soot, probably from global or near-global wildfires, is found globally in an abundance that would have produced an optical depth near 100, which would effectively prevent sunlight from reaching the surface. Nanometer-sized iron particles are also present globally. Theory suggests these particles might be remnants of the vaporized asteroid and target that initially remained as vapor rather than condensing on the hundred-micron spherules when they entered the atmosphere. If present in the

  6. Classification of IRAS asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, E.F.; Matson, D.L.; Veeder, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Albedos and spectral reflectances are essential for classifying asteroids. For example, classes E, M and P are indistinguishable without albedo data. Colorometric data are available for about 1000 asteroids but, prior to IRAS, albedo data was available for only about 200. IRAS broke this bottleneck by providing albedo data on nearly 2000 asteroids. Hence, excepting absolute magnitudes, the albedo and size are now the most common asteroid physical parameters known. In this chapter the authors present the results of analyses of IRAS-derived asteroid albedos, discuss their application to asteroid classification, and mention several studies which might be done to exploit further this data set

  7. Asteroid/meteorite streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    The independent discovery of the same three streams (named alpha, beta, and gamma) among 139 Earth approaching asteroids and among 89 meteorite producing fireballs presents the possibility of matching specific meteorites to specific asteroids, or at least to asteroids in the same stream and, therefore, presumably of the same composition. Although perhaps of limited practical value, the three meteorites with known orbits are all ordinary chondrites. To identify, in general, the taxonomic type of the parent asteroid, however, would be of great scientific interest since these most abundant meteorite types cannot be unambiguously spectrally matched to an asteroid type. The H5 Pribram meteorite and asteroid 4486 (unclassified) are not part of a stream, but travel in fairly similar orbits. The LL5 Innisfree meteorite is orbitally similar to asteroid 1989DA (unclassified), and both are members of a fourth stream (delta) defined by five meteorite-dropping fireballs and this one asteroid. The H5 Lost City meteorite is orbitally similar to 1980AA (S type), which is a member of stream gamma defined by four asteroids and four fireballs. Another asteroid in this stream is classified as an S type, another is QU, and the fourth is unclassified. This stream suggests that ordinary chondrites should be associated with S (and/or Q) asteroids. Two of the known four V type asteroids belong to another stream, beta, defined by five asteroids and four meteorite-dropping (but unrecovered) fireballs, making it the most probable source of the eucrites. The final stream, alpha, defined by five asteroids and three fireballs is of unknown composition since no meteorites have been recovered and only one asteroid has an ambiguous classification of QRS. If this stream, or any other as yet undiscovered ones, were found to be composed of a more practical material (e.g., water or metalrich), then recovery of the associated meteorites would provide an opportunity for in-hand analysis of a potential

  8. Working Group Reports and Presentations: Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John

    2006-01-01

    The study and utilization of asteroids will be an economical way to enable exploration of the solar system and extend human presence in space. There are thousands of near-earth objects (NEOs) that we will be able to reach. They offer resources, transportation, and exploration platforms, but also present a potential threat to civilization. Asteroids play a catastrophic role in the history of the Earth. Geological records indicate a regular history of massive impacts, which astronomical observations confirm is likely to continue with potentially devastating consequences. However, study and exploration of near earth asteroids can significantly increase advanced warning of an Earth impact, and potentially lead to the technology necessary to avert such a collision. Efforts to detect and prevent cataclysmic events would tend to foster and likely require international cooperation toward a unified goal of self-preservation. Exploration of asteroids will help us to understand our history and perhaps save our future. Besides the obvious and compelling scientific and security drivers for asteroid research and exploration, there are numerous engineering and industrial applications for near-term asteroid exploration. We have strong evidence that some asteroids are metal rich. Some are water and organic rich. They can be reached with a very low fuel cost compared to other solar system destinations. Once we reach them, there are efficient, simple extraction technologies available that would facilitate utilization. In addition, the costs of returning extracted resources from asteroids will be a fraction of the cost to return similar resources from the moon to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). These raw materials, extracted and shipped at relatively low cost, can be used to manufacture structures, fuel, and products which could be used to foster mankind s further exploration of the solar system. Asteroids also have the potential to offer transport to several destinations in the solar system

  9. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, A.; Cheng, A. F.; Stickle, A. M.; Richardson, D. C.; Barnouin, O. S.; Thomas, C.; Fahnestock, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor. DART is currently in Preliminary Design Phase ("Phase B"), and is part of the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA), a joint ESA-NASA cooperative project. The AIDA target is the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos, an S-class system that will make a close approach to Earth in fall 2022. The DART spacecraft is designed to impact the Didymos secondary at 6 km/s and demonstrate the ability to modify its trajectory through momentum transfer. The primary goals of AIDA are (1) perform a full-scale demonstration of the spacecraft kinetic impact technique for deflection of an asteroid; (2) measure the resulting asteroid deflection, by targeting the secondary member of a binary NEO and measuring the resulting changes of the binary orbit; and (3) study hyper-velocity collision effects on an asteroid, validating models for momentum transfer in asteroid impacts. The DART impact on the Didymos secondary will change the orbital period of the binary by several minutes, which can be measured by Earth-based optical and radar observations. The baseline DART mission launches in late 2020 to impact the Didymos secondary in 2022 near the time of its close pass of Earth, which enables an array of ground- and space-based observatories to participate in gathering data. The AIDA project will provide the first measurements of momentum transfer efficiency from hyper-velocity kinetic impact at full scale on an asteroid, where the impact conditions of the projectile are known, and physical properties and internal structures of the target asteroid are characterized or constrained. The DART kinetic impact is predicted to make a crater of 6 to 17 meters diameter, depending on target physical properties, but will also release a large volume of particulate ejecta that may be directly observable from Earth or even resolvable as a

  10. Spectral investigation of two asteroidal fireballs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 97, 3-4 (2006), s. 279-293 ISSN 0167-9295. [Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2005. Búzios, 07.08.2005-12.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0543; GA ČR GA205/03/1404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * meteors * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2006

  11. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories Code-to-Code Comparison of Inter Lab Test Problem 1 for Asteroid Impact Hazard Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Robert P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Howley, Kirsten [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferguson, Jim Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gisler, Galen Ross [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Plesko, Catherine Suzanne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Managan, Rob [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Owen, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wasem, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bruck-Syal, Megan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The NNSA Laboratories have entered into an interagency collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to explore strategies for prevention of Earth impacts by asteroids. Assessment of such strategies relies upon use of sophisticated multi-physics simulation codes. This document describes the task of verifying and cross-validating, between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), modeling capabilities and methods to be employed as part of the NNSA-NASA collaboration. The approach has been to develop a set of test problems and then to compare and contrast results obtained by use of a suite of codes, including MCNP, RAGE, Mercury, Ares, and Spheral. This document provides a short description of the codes, an overview of the idealized test problems, and discussion of the results for deflection by kinetic impactors and stand-off nuclear explosions.

  12. Do asteroids have satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenschilling, S.J.; Paolicchi, P.; Zappala, V.

    1989-01-01

    A substantial body of indirect evidence suggests that some asteroids have satelities, although none has been detected unambiguously. Collisions between asteroids provide physically plausible mechanisms for the production of binaries, but these operate with low probability; only a small minority of asteroids are likely to have satellites. The abundance of binary asteroids can constrain the collisional history of the entire belt population. The allowed angular momentum of binaries and their rate of tidal evolution limit separations to no more than a few tens of the primary's radii. Their expected properties are consistent with failure to detect them by current imaging techniques

  13. Effect of thicker oceanic crust in the Archaean on the growth of continental crust through time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Present crustal evolution models fail to account for the generation of the large volume of continental crust in the required time intervals. All Archaean plate tectonic models, whether invoking faster spreading rates, similar to today's spreading rates, or longer ridge lengths, essentially propose that continental crust has grown by island arc accretion due to the subduction of oceanic crust. The petrological differences that characterize the Archaean from later terrains result from the subduction of hotter oceanic crust into a hotter mantle. If the oceanic crust was appreciably thicker in the Archaean, as geothermal models would indicate, this thicker crust is surely going to have an effect on tectonic processes. A more valid approach is to compare the possible styles of convergence of thick oceanic crust with modern convergence zones. The best modern analog occurs where thick continental crust is colliding with thick continental crust. Oceanic crustal collision on the scale of the present-day Himalayan continental collision zone may have been a frequent occurrence in the Archaean, resulting in extensive partial melting of the hydrous underthrust oceanic crust to produce voluminous tonalite melts, leaving a depleted stabilized basic residuum. Present-day island arc accretion may not have been the dominant mechanism for the growth of the early Archaean crust

  14. Asteroids mass determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Basic methods for asteroid mass determinations and their errors are discussed. New results and some current developments in the astrometric method are reviewed. New methods and techniques, such as electronic imaging, radar ranging and space probes are becoming important for asteroid mass determinations. Mass and density estimations on rotational properties and possible satelites are also discussed

  15. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  16. Geodynamic evolution of the West and Central Pilbara Craton in Western Australia : a mid-Archaean active continental margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Archaean era lasted for about one third of the Earth's history, from ca 4.0 until 2.5 billion years ago. Because the Archaean spans such a long time, knowledge about this era is for understanding the evolution of the Earth until the present day, especially because it is the time offormation of

  17. Geodynamic evolution of the West and Central Pilbara Craton in Western Australia : a mid-Archaean active continental margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Archaean era lasted for about one third of the Earth's history, from ca 4.0 until 2.5 billion years ago. Because the Archaean spans such a long time, knowledge about this era is for understanding the evolution of the Earth until the present day, especially because it is the time

  18. Photometric geodesy of main-belt asteroids. III. Additional lightcurves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenschilling, S.J.; Chapman, C.R.; Davis, D.R.; Greenberg, R.; Levy, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 107 complete or partial lightcurves are presented for 59 different asteroids over the 1982-1989 period. Unusual lightcurves with unequal minima and maxima at large amplitudes are preferentially seen for M-type asteroids. Some asteroids, such as 16 Psyche and 201 Penelope, exhibit lightcurves combining large amplitude with very unequal brightness for both maxima and both minima, even at small phase angles. An M-type asteroid is believed to consist of a metal core of a differentiated parent body that has had its rocky mantle completely removed by one or more large impacts. 39 refs

  19. Formation of the Treysa quintet and the main-group pallasites by impact-generated processes in the IIIAB asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.

    2016-04-01

    Treysa and Delegate have compositions closely similar to those of IIIAB irons but plot above the IIIAB field on Ir-Au diagrams; for this reason they are designated anomalous members of IIIAB. All refractory siderophiles share this anomaly. Wasson () interpreted the large spread on IIIAB Ir-Au diagrams to result from melt-trapping and generated solid and liquid fractional crystallization tracks; almost all IIIAB irons fall between the tracks. In contrast, Treysa, Delegate, and three other irons (the Treysa quintet) plot beyond the liquid track. Ideal fractional crystallization cannot account for compositions that plot outside the region between the tracks. Possible explanations for the anomalous compositions of the Treysa quintet are that (1) these meteorites did not form in the IIIAB magma or (2) they formed by the mixing of early crystallized solids with a late liquid. The weight of the evidence including cosmic-ray ages favor the second explanation. Although this explanation can account for positions plotting above the liquid track, it requires special circumstances. The infalling blocks must be assimilated and the resulting melt must crystallize quickly into pockets small enough (processes operating on late IIIAB magma supports the conclusion that PMG formed on the IIIAB parent asteroid.

  20. Performance of Hayabusa2 DCAM3-D Camera for Short-Range Imaging of SCI and Ejecta Curtain Generated from the Artificial Impact Crater Formed on Asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, K.; Shirai, K.; Ogawa, K.; Wada, K.; Honda, R.; Arakawa, M.; Sakatani, N.; Ikeda, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Deployable Camera 3-D (DCAM3-D) is a small high-resolution camera equipped on Deployable Camera 3 (DCAM3), one of the Hayabusa2 instruments. Hayabusa2 will explore asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3) and conduct an impact experiment using a liner shooting device called Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI). DCAM3 will be detached from the Hayabusa2 spacecraft and observe the impact experiment. The purposes of the observation are to know the impact conditions, to estimate the surface structure of asteroid Ryugu, and to understand the physics of impact phenomena on low-gravity bodies. DCAM3-D requires high imaging performance because it has to image and detect multiple targets of different scale and radiance, i.e., the faint SCI before the shot from 1-km distance, the bright ejecta generated by the impact, and the asteroid. In this paper we report the evaluation of the performance of the CMOS imaging sensor and the optical system of DCAM3-D. We also describe the calibration of DCAM3-D. We confirmed that the imaging performance of DCAM3-D satisfies the required values to achieve the purposes of the observation.

  1. Bayesian modeling of the mass and density of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Mathias, Donovan

    2017-10-01

    Mass and density are two of the fundamental properties of any object. In the case of near earth asteroids, knowledge about the mass of an asteroid is essential for estimating the risk due to (potential) impact and planning possible mitigation options. The density of an asteroid can illuminate the structure of the asteroid. A low density can be indicative of a rubble pile structure whereas a higher density can imply a monolith and/or higher metal content. The damage resulting from an impact of an asteroid with Earth depends on its interior structure in addition to its total mass, and as a result, density is a key parameter to understanding the risk of asteroid impact. Unfortunately, measuring the mass and density of asteroids is challenging and often results in measurements with large uncertainties. In the absence of mass / density measurements for a specific object, understanding the range and distribution of likely values can facilitate probabilistic assessments of structure and impact risk. Hierarchical Bayesian models have recently been developed to investigate the mass - radius relationship of exoplanets (Wolfgang, Rogers & Ford 2016) and to probabilistically forecast the mass of bodies large enough to establish hydrostatic equilibrium over a range of 9 orders of magnitude in mass (from planemos to main sequence stars; Chen & Kipping 2017). Here, we extend this approach to investigate the mass and densities of asteroids. Several candidate Bayesian models are presented, and their performance is assessed relative to a synthetic asteroid population. In addition, a preliminary Bayesian model for probablistically forecasting masses and densities of asteroids is presented. The forecasting model is conditioned on existing asteroid data and includes observational errors, hyper-parameter uncertainties and intrinsic scatter.

  2. Modeling Asteroid Dynamics using AMUSE: First Test Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantseva, Kateryna; Mueller, Michael; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    We are creating a dynamic model of the current asteroid population. The goal is to reproduce measured impact rates in the current Solar System, from which we'll derive delivery rates of water and organic material by tracing low-albedo C-class asteroids (using the measured albedo distribution from

  3. Spacecraft exploration of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Langevin, Y.; Farquhar, R.; Fulchignoni, M.

    1989-01-01

    After two decades of spacecraft exploration, we still await the first direct investigation of an asteroid. This paper describes how a growing international interest in the solar system's more primitive bodies should remedy this. Plans are under way in Europe for a dedicated asteroid mission (Vesta) which will include multiple flybys with in situ penetrator studies. Possible targets include 4 Vesta, 8 Flora and 46 Hestia; launch its scheduled for 1994 or 1996. In the United States, NASA plans include flybys of asteroids en route to outer solar system targets

  4. Asteroid clusters similar to asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravec, P.; Fatka, P.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Scheeres, D. J.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Vraštil, J.; Pray, D. P.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Inasaridze, R. Ya.; Ayvazian, V. R.; Kvaratskhelia, O. I.; Zhuzhunadze, V. T.; Husárik, M.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Világi, J.; Kornoš, L.; Gajdoš, Š.; Burkhonov, O.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Donchev, Z.; Borisov, G.; Bonev, T.; Rumyantsev, V. V.; Molotov, I. E.

    2018-04-01

    We studied the membership, size ratio and rotational properties of 13 asteroid clusters consisting of between 3 and 19 known members that are on similar heliocentric orbits. By backward integrations of their orbits, we confirmed their cluster membership and estimated times elapsed since separation of the secondaries (the smaller cluster members) from the primary (i.e., cluster age) that are between 105 and a few 106 years. We ran photometric observations for all the cluster primaries and a sample of secondaries and we derived their accurate absolute magnitudes and rotation periods. We found that 11 of the 13 clusters follow the same trend of primary rotation period vs mass ratio as asteroid pairs that was revealed by Pravec et al. (2010). We generalized the model of the post-fission system for asteroid pairs by Pravec et al. (2010) to a system of N components formed by rotational fission and we found excellent agreement between the data for the 11 asteroid clusters and the prediction from the theory of their formation by rotational fission. The two exceptions are the high-mass ratio (q > 0.7) clusters of (18777) Hobson and (22280) Mandragora for which a different formation mechanism is needed. Two candidate mechanisms for formation of more than one secondary by rotational fission were published: the secondary fission process proposed by Jacobson and Scheeres (2011) and a cratering collision event onto a nearly critically rotating primary proposed by Vokrouhlický et al. (2017). It will have to be revealed from future studies which of the clusters were formed by one or the other process. To that point, we found certain further interesting properties and features of the asteroid clusters that place constraints on the theories of their formation, among them the most intriguing being the possibility of a cascade disruption for some of the clusters.

  5. Asteroid taxonomic classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on three taxonomic classification schemes developed and applied to the body of available color and albedo data. Asteroid taxonomic classifications according to two of these schemes are reproduced

  6. Distant asteroids and Chiron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, L.M.; Vilas, F.; Hartmann, W.K.; Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical properties of distant asteroids (a>3.3 AU) has grown dramatically over the past five years, due to systematic compositional and lightcurve studies. Most of these objects have red, dark surfaces, and their spectra show a reddening in spectral slope with heliocentric distance implying a change in surface composition. Trojans for which near-opposition phase curve information is available appear to show little or no opposition effect, unlike any dark solar system objects. The lightcurve amplitudes of Trojan and Hilda asteroids imply significantly more elongated shapes for these groups than for main-belt asteroids of comparable size. These recent observations are reviewed in the context of their implications for the formation and subsequent evolution of the distant asteroids, and their interrelations with the main belt, Chiron and comets

  7. Asteroid rotation. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.; Young, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the year 1979 of an ongoing program of asteroid photometry at Table Mountain Observatory are presented. The results for 53 asteroids are summarized in a table, showing the number, name, opposition date, taxonomic class, diameter, absolute magnitude, mean absolute magnitude at zero phase angle and values of the absolute magnitude and linear phase coefficient derived from it, the rotation period in hours, peak-to-peak amplitude of variation, difference between mean and maximum brightness, and reliability index. Another table presents data on aspect and comparison stars, including brightness and distance data. Reliable rotation periods are reported for 22 asteroids for which no previous values are known. For seven asteroids, periods are reported which are revisions of previously reported values

  8. 24-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is comprised of asteroid flux data measured in 26 filters using the McCord dual beam photometer, and covering the range 0.32 - 1.08 microns for 285...

  9. Near Earth Asteroid Scout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a 6U CubeSat developed jointly between NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA...

  10. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  11. Asteroids@Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durech, Josef; Hanus, J.; Vanco, R.

    2012-10-01

    We present a new project called Asteroids@home (http://asteroidsathome.net/boinc). It is a volunteer-computing project that uses an open-source BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) software to distribute tasks to volunteers, who provide their computing resources. The project was created at the Astronomical Institute, Charles University in Prague, in cooperation with the Czech National Team. The scientific aim of the project is to solve a time-consuming inverse problem of shape reconstruction of asteroids from sparse-in-time photometry. The time-demanding nature of the problem comes from the fact that with sparse-in-time photometry the rotation period of an asteroid is not apriori known and a huge parameter space must be densely scanned for the best solution. The nature of the problem makes it an ideal task to be solved by distributed computing - the period parameter space can be divided into small bins that can be scanned separately and then joined together to give the globally best solution. In the framework of the the project, we process asteroid photometric data from surveys together with asteroid lightcurves and we derive asteroid shapes and spin states. The algorithm is based on the lightcurve inversion method developed by Kaasalainen et al. (Icarus 153, 37, 2001). The enormous potential of distributed computing will enable us to effectively process also the data from future surveys (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Gaia mission, etc.). We also plan to process data of a synthetic asteroid population to reveal biases of the method. In our presentation, we will describe the project, show the first results (new models of asteroids), and discuss the possibilities of its further development. This work has been supported by the grant GACR P209/10/0537 of the Czech Science Foundation and by the Research Program MSM0021620860 of the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic.

  12. Asteroid rotation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzel, R.P.; Farinella, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last decade the data base of asteroid rotation parameters (rotation rates and lightcurve amplitudes) has become sufficiently large to identify some definite rends and properties which can help us to interpret asteroid collisional evolution. Many significant correlations are found between rotation parameters and diameter, with distinct changes occurring near 125 km. The size range, which is also the diameter above which self-gravity may become important, perhaps represents a division between surviving primordial asteroids and collisional fragments. A Maxwellian is able to fit the observed rotation rate distributions of asteroids with D>125 km, implying that their rotation rates may be determined by collisional evolution. Asteroids with D<125 km show an excess of slow rotators and their non-Maxwellian distributions suggests that their rotation rates are more strongly influenced by other processes, such as the distribution resulting from their formation in catastrophic disruption events. Other correlations observed in the data set include different mean rotation rates for C, S and M type asteroids implying that their surface spectra are indicative of bulk properties

  13. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  14. Manganiferous minerals of the epidote group from the Archaean basement of West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katerinopoulou, Anna; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Kolb, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The chemical compositions and crystal structures of Mn3+-containing minerals from the epidote group in Greenland rocks are investigated and described in detail. They occur in hydrothermally altered Archaean mafic sequences within the gneissic complex of the North Atlantic craton of West Greenland...

  15. Salinity of the Archaean oceans from analysis of fluid inclusions in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Bernard; Avice, Guillaume; Bekaert, David V.; Broadley, Michael W.

    2018-05-01

    Fluids trapped in inclusions in well-characterized Archaean hydrothermal quartz crystals were analyzed by the extended argon-argon method, which permits the simultaneous measurement of chlorine and potassium concentrations. Argon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of the trapped fluids were also determined by static mass spectrometry. Fluids were extracted by stepwise crushing of quartz samples from North Pole (NW Australia) and Barberton (South Africa) 3.5-3.0-Ga-old greenstone belts. The data indicate that fluids are a mixture of a low salinity end-member, regarded as the Archaean oceanic water, and several hydrothermal end-members rich in Cl, K, N, and radiogenic parentless 40Ar. The low Cl-K end-member suggests that the salinity of the Archaean oceans was comparable to the modern one, and that the potassium content of the Archaean oceans was lower than at present by about 40%. A constant salinity of the oceans through time has important implications for the stabilization of the continental crust and for the habitability of the ancient Earth.

  16. THERMAL TOMOGRAPHY OF ASTEROID SURFACE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Alan W.; Drube, Line, E-mail: alan.harris@dlr.de [German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid can provide insight into its surface structure: porous material has a lower thermal inertia than rock. We develop a means to estimate thermal inertia values of asteroids and use it to show that thermal inertia appears to increase with spin period in the case of main-belt asteroids (MBAs). Similar behavior is found on the basis of thermophysical modeling for near-Earth objects (NEOs). We interpret our results in terms of rapidly increasing material density and thermal conductivity with depth, and provide evidence that thermal inertia increases by factors of 10 (MBAs) to 20 (NEOs) within a depth of just 10 cm. Our results are consistent with a very general picture of rapidly changing material properties in the topmost regolith layers of asteroids and have important implications for calculations of the Yarkovsky effect, including its perturbation of the orbits of potentially hazardous objects and those of asteroid family members after the break-up event. Evidence of a rapid increase of thermal inertia with depth is also an important result for studies of the ejecta-enhanced momentum transfer of impacting vehicles (“kinetic impactors”) in planetary defense.

  17. Introduction to the Asteroids II data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Asteroids II data base presented is a compilation of asteroid data. Included are asteroid names and discovery circumstances, proper elements and family identifications, asteroid lightcurve parameters, asteroid pole determinations, taxonomic classes, absolute magnitudes and slope parameters, UBV color indices, and albedos and diameters from the IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey

  18. Direct Detection of the Asteroidal YORP Effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lowry, S.C.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Pravec, Petr; Vokrouhlický, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Taylor, P.A.; Margot, J. L.; Galád, Adrián; Irwin, M.; Irwin, J.; Kušnirák, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 316, č. 5822 (2007), s. 272-274 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids rotation * near- Earth objects Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 26.372, year: 2007

  19. Photometric survey of asynchronous binary asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Kotková, Lenka; Mottola, S.; Hahn, G.; Brown, P.; Esquerdo, G.; Kaiser, K.; Krzeminski, Z.; Pray, D. P.; Warner, B. D.; Harris, A. W.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Benner, L. A. M.; Margot, J. L.; Galád, Adrián; Holliday, W.; Hicks, M. D.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Tholen, D.; Whiteley, R.; Marchis, F.; DeGraff, D. R.; Grauer, A.; Larson, S. M.; Velichko, F. P.; Cooney, W.R.; Stephens, R.; Zhu, J.; Kirsch, K.; Dyvig, R.; Snyder, L.; Reddy, V.; Moore, S.; Gajdoš, Š.; Világi, J.; Masi, G.; Higgins, D.; Funkhouser, G. M.; Knight, B.; Slivan, S. M.; Behrend, R.; Grenon, M.; Burki, G.; Roy, R.; Demeautis, C.; Matter, D.; Waelchli, N.; Revaz, Y.; Klotz, A.; Rieugné, M.; Thieri, P.; Cotrez, V.; Brunetto, L.; Kober, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 1 (2006), s. 63-93 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0604; GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * binary * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2006

  20. Slowly rotating asteroid 1999 GU3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Kotková, Lenka; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Jurgens, R. F.; Giorgini, I. D.; Slade, M. A.; Yeomans, D. K.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Wolf, M.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 1 (2000), s. 589-593 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003708; GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : asteroids * rotation * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2000

  1. Exogenous origin of hydration on asteroid (16) Psyche: the role of hydrated asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdellidou, C.; Delbo', M.; Fienga, A.

    2018-04-01

    Asteroid (16) Psyche, which for a long time was the largest M-type with no detection of hydration features in its spectrum, was recently discovered to have a weak 3-μm band and thus it was eventually added to the group of hydrated asteroids. Its relatively high density, in combination with the high radar albedo, led researchers to classify the asteroid as a metallic object. It is believed that it is possibly a core of a differentiated body, a remnant of `hit-and-run' collisions. The detection of hydration is, in principle, inconsistent with a pure metallic origin for this body. Here, we consider the scenario in which the hydration on its surface is exogenous and was delivered by hydrated impactors. We show that impacting asteroids that belong to families whose members have the 3-μm band can deliver hydrated material to Psyche. We developed a collisional model with which we test all dark carbonaceous asteroid families, which contain hydrated members. We find that the major source of hydrated impactors is the family of Themis, with a total implanted mass on Psyche of the order of ˜1014 kg. However, the hydrated fraction could be only a few per cent of the implanted mass, as the water content in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, the best analogue for the Themis asteroid family, is typically a few per cent of their mass.

  2. Resurfacing asteroids from YORP spin-up and failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Kevin J.; Minton, David A.; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Carry, Benoit

    2018-04-01

    The spectral properties of S and Q-type asteroids can change over time due to interaction with the solar wind and micrometeorite impacts in a process known as 'space weathering.' Space weathering raises the spectral slope and decreases the 1 μm absorption band depth in the spectra of S and Q-type asteroids. Over time, Q-type asteroids, which have very similar spectra to ordinary chondrite meteorites, will change into S-type asteroids. Because there are a significant number of Q-type asteroids, there must be some process which is resurfacing S-type asteroids into Q-types. In this study, we use asteroid data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to show a trend between the slope through the g‧, r‧, and i‧ filters, called the gri-slope, and size that holds for all populations of S and Q-type asteroids in the inner solar system, regardless of orbit. We model the evolution of a suite of asteroids in a Monte Carlo YORP rotational evolution and space weathering model. We show that spin-up and failure from YORP is one of the key resurfacing mechanisms that creates the observed weathering trends with size. By varying the non-dimensional YORP coefficient and running time of the present model over the range 475-1425 Myr, we find a range of values for the space weathering timescale, τSW ≈ 19-80 Myr at 2.2 AU. We also estimate the time to weather a newly resurfaced Q-type asteroid into an S-complex asteroid at 1 AU, τQ → S(1AU) ≈ 2-7 Myr.

  3. BAOBAB (Big And Outrageously Bold Asteroid Belt) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Thomas, C. A; Englander, J. A.; Ruesch, O.; Hosseini, S.; Goossens, S. J.; Mazarico, E. M.; Schmerr, N.

    2017-01-01

    One of the intriguing results of NASA's Dawn mission is the composition and structure of the Main Asteroid Belt's only known dwarf planet, Ceres [1]. It has a top layer of dehydrated clays and salts [2] and an icy-rocky mantle [3,4]. It is widely known that the asteroid belt failed to accrete as a planet by resonances between the Sun and Jupiter. About 20-30 asteroids >100 km diameter are probably differentiated protoplanets [5]. 1) how many more and which ones are fragments of protoplanets? 2) How many and which ones are primordial rubble piles left over from condensation of the solar nebula? 3) How would we go about gaining better and more complete characterization of the mass, interior structure and composition of the Main Belt asteroid population? 4) What is the relationship between asteroids and ocean worlds? Bulk parameters such as the mass, density, and porosity, are important to characterize the structure of any celestial body, and for asteroids in particular, they can shed light on the conditions in the early solar system. Asteroid density estimates exist but currently they are often based on assumed properties of taxonomic classes, or through astronomical survey data where interactions with asteroids are weak at best resulting in large measurement uncertainty. We only have direct density estimates from spacecraft encounters for a few asteroids at this time. Knowledge of the asteroids is significant not only to understand their role in solar system workings, but also to assess their potential as space resources, as impact hazards on Earth, or even as harboring life forms. And for the distant future, we want to know if the idea put forth in a contest sponsored by Physics Today, to surface the asteroids into highly reflecting, polished surfaces and use them as a massively segmented mirror for astrophysical exploration [6], is feasible.

  4. Asteroids - NeoWs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NeoWs (Near Earth Object Web Service) is a RESTful web service for near earth Asteroid information. With NeoWs a user can: search for Asteroids based on their...

  5. Asteroids astronomical and geological bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Burbine, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Asteroid science is a fundamental topic in planetary science and is key to furthering our understanding of planetary formation and the evolution of the Solar System. Ground-based observations and missions have provided a wealth of new data in recent years, and forthcoming missions promise further exciting results. This accessible book presents a comprehensive introduction to asteroid science, summarising the astronomical and geological characteristics of asteroids. The interdisciplinary nature of asteroid science is reflected in the broad range of topics covered, including asteroid and meteorite classification, chemical and physical properties of asteroids, observational techniques, cratering, and the discovery of asteroids and how they are named. Other chapters discuss past, present and future space missions and the threat that these bodies pose for Earth. Based on an upper-level course on asteroids and meteorites taught by the author, this book is ideal for students, researchers and professional scientists ...

  6. Thermal and impact history of the H chondrite parent asteroid during metamorphism: Constraints from metallic Fe-Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Tatiana V.; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Wakita, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    We have studied cloudy taenite, metallographic cooling rates, and shock effects in 30 H3-6 chondrites to elucidate the thermal and early impact history of the H chondrite parent body. We focused on H chondrites with old Ar-Ar ages (>4.4 Gyr) and unshocked and mildly shocked H chondrites, as strongly shocked chondrites with such old ages are very rare. Cooling rates for most H chondrites at 500 °C are 10-50 °C/Myr and do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type as predicted by the onion-shell model in which types 3-5 are arranged in concentric layers around a type 6 core. Some type 4 chondrites cooled slower than some type 6 chondrites and type 3 chondrites did not cool faster than other types, contrary to the onion-shell model. Cloudy taenite particle sizes, which range from 40 to 120 nm, are inversely correlated with metallographic cooling rates and show that the latter were not compromised by shock heating. The three H4 chondrites that were used to develop the onion-shell model, Ste. Marguerite, Beaver Creek, and Forest Vale, cooled through 500 °C at ⩾5000 °C/Myr. Our thermal modeling shows that these rates are 50× higher than could be achieved in a body that was heated by 26Al and cooled without disturbance by impact. Published Ar-Ar ages do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type but do correlate inversely with cloudy taenite particle size suggesting that impact mixing decreased during metamorphism. Metal and silicate compositions in regolith breccias show that impacts mixed material after metamorphism without causing significant heating. Impacts during metamorphism created Portales Valley and two other H6 chondrites with large metallic veins, excavated the fast-cooled H4 chondrites around 3-4 Myr after accretion, and mixed petrologic types. Metallographic data do not require catastrophic disruption by impact during cooling.

  7. The DLR AsteroidFinder for NEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Stefano; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Michaelis, Harald; Hoffmann, Harald; Spietz, Peter; Jansen, Frank; Thimo Grundmann, Jan; Hahn, Gerhard; Montenegro, Sergio; Findlay, Ross; Boerner, Anko; Messina, Gabriele; Behnke, Thomas; Tschentscher, Matthias; Scheibe, Karsten; Mertens, Volker; Heidecke, Ansgar

    Potential Earth-impacting asteroids that spend most of their time interior to Earth's orbit are extremely difficult to be observed from the ground and remain largely undetected. Firstly, they are mostly located at small solar elongations, where the sky brightness and their faintness due to the large phase angle prevents their discovery. Secondly, these objects tend to have very long synodic orbital periods, which makes observation opportunities rare and impact warning times short. Because of these limitations, even the advent of next generation ground-based asteroid surveys is not likely to radically improve the situation (Veres et al. Icarus 203, p472, 2009). On the other hand, a small satellite with a suitable design can observe close to the Sun and detect these objects efficiently against a dark sky background. For this reason, DLR, the German Aerospace Center, has selected AsteroidFinder as the first experiment to be launched under its new compact satellite national program. The primary goal of the mission is to detect and characterize Near Earth Objects (NEOs), with a particular focus on the population of objects completely contained within Earth's orbit (IEOs or Inner Earth Objects). Current dynamical models predict the existence of more than 1000 such objects down to a size of 100m, of which, due to the abovementioned observation difficulties, only 10 have been discovered to date. Benefitting from the vantage point of a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), AsteroidFinder makes use of a small optical telescope to scan those regions of the sky that are close to the Sun, and therefore beyond the reach of ground based observatories. By estimating the population, the size and the orbital distribution of IEOs, AsteroidFinder will contribute to our knowledge of the inner Solar System, and to the assessment of the impact hazard for the Earth. A secondary goal of the mission is to demonstrate techniques that enable the space-based detection of space debris in the cm size range

  8. The stability of some asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of two different stability criteria, namely, Hill's modified stability criterium and the method of surface of section, has been employed for asteroid orbits. The idea is to compute different criteria of stability for the same asteroids in order to compare the results and see the practical interest of the computations for researches about evolutionary trends of individual asteroids, groups and families of asteroids. (Auth.)

  9. Physical Mechanism of Comet (and Asteroid) Outbursts: The Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    2015-07-01

    A film made during impact experiments at NASA Ames illustrates a mechanism in which regolith can become gas charged and then erupt to create outbursts as observed on comets (and "asteroids" such as 2060 Chiron).

  10. Magnetospheric Effects as a New Aspect of the Asteroid Impact Problem: Necessity and Possibilities of Laboratory Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Yuri P.; Nikitin, Sergei A.; Ponomarenko, Arnold G.; Minami, Shigeyuki

    1997-05-01

    This paper discusses the possible consequences to the Earth's magnetosphere, when due to too short an advanced warning, attempts at mitigation of a near-Earth object (NEO) must be made in close proximity to the Earth. The energy Eo, and explosive plasma release during impact may be compared with the kinetic energy Ek of the NEO and with the energy, Ee (Ee approximately Ek), needed for NEO deflection by a strong (protective force) explosive, at distances close to the scale of the magnetosphere. If the energy, Em, of the Earth's dipole field latter is relatively small (Em is less than Eo for a NEO size approximately 1 km), global or even catastrophic disturbances could occur. These ecologically important magnetospheric aspects of the NEO impact problem have been discussed recently; particularly in the context of the comet SL-9/Jupiter impact. In the latter case, the effect on Jupiter's magnetosphere of the 'NEO' explosions was very small (x equals Eo/Em approximately 0.001, where Em is the 'outer' magnetic energy of the planetary dipole field) and the corresponding model of its 'fireball' development could be simulated numerically in 'zero' approximation, with the assumption of an undisturbed magnetospheric media as a whole. However, in general, and, in the rather probable case of NEO impacts with values x approximately 1, the development of such 3D, nonstationary MHD or PIC-models at this time. Such information can be obtained from new kinds of simulation experiments with the laboratory magnetosphere, the so-called 'terrella'.

  11. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  12. Calculating the momentum enhancement factor for asteroid deflection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberling, Tamra; Gisler, Galen; Plesko, Catherine; Weaver, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of kinetic-impact deflection of threatening near-Earth asteroids will be tested for the first time in the proposed AIDA (Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment) mission, involving NASAs DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test). The impact of the DART spacecraft onto the secondary of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos at a speed of 5 to 7 km/s is expected to alter the mutual orbit by an observable amount. Furthermore, the velocity transferred to the secondary depends largely on the momentum enhancement factor, typically referred to as beta. Here, we use two hydrocodes developed at Los Alamos, RAGE and PAGOSA, to calculate an approximate value for beta in laboratory-scale benchmark experiments. Convergence studies comparing the two codes show the importance of mesh size in estimating this crucial parameter.

  13. LISA and asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinet, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    LISA is a joint ESA-NASA mission aiming for cosmic gravitational wave detection and analysis. We address here the question of a special kind of signal caused by asteroid encounters. We present a short theory of the detection of such signals

  14. Asteroids, meteorites, and comets

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites provides students, researchers, and general readers with the most up-to-date information on this fascinating field. From the days of the dinosaurs to our modern environment, this book explores all aspects of these cosmic invaders.

  15. A hitherto unknown river type from the Archaean at Bhurkuli (Jharkhand, E India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loon A.J. (Tom van

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Archaean granitoid pluton of the Singhbhum craton in E India is overlain by Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasediments. These sediments are still poorly known and their stratigraphy is under debate. Several scattered, most probably Meso- to Neoarchaean, conglomerates are present in the state of Jharkhand that differ so much in characteristics that they are probably not related to each other. The sedimentology of a series of conglomerate patches and layers near Bhurkuli has been investigated, including the characteristics of the clasts. It is deduced on the basis of these characteristics and the sedimentological context that the Bhurkuli conglomerates represent the channel facies of a river system that differed from the types of fluvial systems that exist nowadays.

  16. Ideas and perspectives: hydrothermally driven redistribution and sequestration of early Archaean biomass - the "hydrothermal pump hypothesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Thiel, Volker; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Mißbach, Helge; Reinhardt, Manuel; Schäfer, Nadine; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Reitner, Joachim

    2018-03-01

    Archaean hydrothermal chert veins commonly contain abundant organic carbon of uncertain origin (abiotic vs. biotic). In this study, we analysed kerogen contained in a hydrothermal chert vein from the ca. 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation (Pilbara Craton, Western Australia). Catalytic hydropyrolysis (HyPy) of this kerogen yielded n-alkanes up to n-C22, with a sharp decrease in abundance beyond n-C18. This distribution ( ≤ n-C18) is very similar to that observed in HyPy products of recent bacterial biomass, which was used as reference material, whereas it differs markedly from the unimodal distribution of abiotic compounds experimentally formed via Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis. We therefore propose that the organic matter in the Archaean chert veins has a primarily microbial origin. The microbially derived organic matter accumulated in anoxic aquatic (surface and/or subsurface) environments and was then assimilated, redistributed and sequestered by the hydrothermal fluids (hydrothermal pump hypothesis).

  17. Early tectonic history of the Marymia Inlier and correlation with the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagas, L.

    1999-01-01

    The Archaean granite-greenstone rocks of the Marymia Inlier outcrop within Proterozoic rocks forming the Capricorn Orogen. Five major deformation events are recognised in the rocks of the Plutonic Well and Baumgarten greenstone belts. The first two events were Late Archaean and synchronous with major epithermal gold mineralisation in the belts. Palaeoproterozoic extensional faulting was probably related to the early stages of the Capricorn Orogeny. The fourth event records a compressional phase of the Capricorn Orogeny associated with greenschist-facies metamorphism, whereas the last major event involved wrench faulting associated with minor folding. The Archaean tectonic history, rock types and timing of mineralisation strongly suggest that the Marymia Inlier is part of the Yilgarn Craton, and that each of the provinces in the craton experienced the same geological history since 2.72 Ga. The inlier is now interpreted to include two components, one is the eastern or northern extension of either the Narryer Terrane. Murchison Province or Southern Cross Province, and the other is the northwestern extension of the Eastern Goldfields Province. The Jenkin Fault, which was active in Proterozoic times, separates these two components. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. ASTROMETRIC MASSES OF 26 ASTEROIDS AND OBSERVATIONS ON ASTEROID POROSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, James; Chesley, Steven R.; Matson, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    As an application of our recent observational error model, we present the astrometric masses of 26 main-belt asteroids. We also present an integrated ephemeris of 300 large asteroids, which was used in the mass determination algorithm to model significant perturbations from the rest of the main belt. After combining our mass estimates with those of other authors, we study the bulk porosities of over 50 main-belt asteroids and observe that asteroids as large as 300 km in diameter may be loose aggregates. This finding may place specific constraints on models of main-belt collisional evolution. Additionally, we observe that C-group asteroids tend to have significantly higher macroporosity than S-group asteroids.

  19. Geologic History of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Some types of meteorites - most irons, stony irons, some achondrites - hail from asteroids that were heated to the point where magmatism occurred within a very few million years of the formation of the earliest solids in the solar system. The largest clan of achondrites, the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites, represent the crust of their parent asteroid]. Diogenites are cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust whilst eucrites are basalts, diabases and cumulate gabbros from the upper crust. Howardites are impact-engendered breccias mostly of diogenites and eucrites. There remains only one large asteroid with a basaltic crust, 4 Vesta, which is thought to be the source of the HED clan. Differentiation models for Vesta are based on HED compositions. Proto-Vesta consisted of chondritic materials containing Al-26, a potent, short-lived heat source. Inferences from compositional data are that Vesta was melted to high degree (=50%) allowing homogenization of the silicate phase and separation of a metallic core. Convection of the silicate magma ocean allowed equilibrium crystallization, forming a harzburgitic mantle. After convective lockup occurred, melt collected between the mantle and the cool thermal boundary layer and underwent fractional crystallization forming an orthopyroxene-rich (diogenite) lower crust. The initial thermal boundary layer of chondritic material was replaced by a mafic upper crust through impact disruption and foundering. The mafic crust thickened over time as additional residual magma intrudes and penetrates the mafic crust forming plutons, dikes, sills and flows of cumulate and basaltic eucrite composition. This magmatic history may have taken only 2-3 Myr. This magma ocean scenario is at odds with a model of heat and magma transport that indicates that small degrees of melt would be rapidly expelled from source regions, precluding development of a magma ocean. Constraints from radiogenic Mg-26 distibutions

  20. Seven Asteroids Studied from Modra Observatory in the Course of Binary Asteroid Photometric Campaign

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galád, Adrián; Pravec, Petr; Kornoš, L.; Gajdoš, Š.; Világi, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, 1-2 (2007), s. 17-25 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2007

  1. A radar survey of M- and X-class asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shepard, M.K.; Clark, B. E.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Giorgini, J. D.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Harris, A. W.; Warner, B. D.; Pray, D. P.; Pravec, Petr; Fauerbach, M.; Bennett, T.; Klotz, A.; Behrend, R.; Correia, H.; Coloma, J.M.; Casulli, S.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 1 (2008), s. 184-205 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Grant - others:NSF(US) AST-0605903; NSF(US) AST-0606704; NSF(US) AST-0607505; NASA (US) NNG06GI32G Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * asteroids composition * surfaces Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.268, year: 2008

  2. On the maximum amplitude of harmonics of an asteroid lightcurve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harris, A. W.; Pravec, Petr; Galád, Adrián; Skiff, B.A.; Warner, B. D.; Világi, J.; Gajdoš, Š.; Carbognani, A.; Hornoch, Kamil; Kušnirák, Peter; Cooney jr., W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Higgins, D.; Bowell, E.; Koehn, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 235, June (2014), s. 55-59 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0229 Grant - others:SAV(SK) Vega 1/0670/13; NASA (US) NNX13AP56G Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids * asteroids rotation * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.038, year: 2014

  3. Radar observations of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes echoes from 33 main-belt asteroids (MBAs) and 19 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have provided a wealth of new information about these objects such as sizes, shapes, spin vectors, and such surface characteristics as decimeter-scale morphology, topographic relief, regolith porosity and metal concentrations. On average, small NEAs are much rougher at decimeter scales than MBAs, comets or terrestrial planets. Some of the largest MBAs (e.g., 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas ) are smoother than the moon at decimeter scales but much rougher than the Moon at some much larger scale. There is at least a five-fold variation in the radar albedos of MBAs, implying substantial variations in the surface porosities or metal concentrations of these objects. The highest MBA albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a metal concentration near unity and lunar porosities

  4. Earth's Trojan asteroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Wiegert, Paul; Veillet, Christian

    2011-07-27

    It was realized in 1772 that small bodies can stably share the same orbit as a planet if they remain near 'triangular points' 60° ahead of or behind it in the orbit. Such 'Trojan asteroids' have been found co-orbiting with Jupiter, Mars and Neptune. They have not hitherto been found associated with Earth, where the viewing geometry poses difficulties for their detection, although other kinds of co-orbital asteroid (horseshoe orbiters and quasi-satellites) have been observed. Here we report an archival search of infrared data for possible Earth Trojans, producing the candidate 2010 TK(7). We subsequently made optical observations which established that 2010 TK(7) is a Trojan companion of Earth, librating around the leading Lagrange triangular point, L(4). Its orbit is stable over at least ten thousand years.

  5. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  6. Comet or Asteroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    When is a minor object in the solar system a comet? And when is it an asteroid? Until recently, there was little doubt. Any object that was found to display a tail or appeared diffuse was a comet of ice and dust grains, and any that didn't, was an asteroid of solid rock. Moreover, comets normally move in rather elongated orbits, while most asteroids follow near-circular orbits close to the main plane of the solar system in which the major planets move. However, astronomers have recently discovered some `intermediate' objects which seem to possess properties that are typical for both categories. For instance, a strange object (P/1996 N2 - Elst-Pizarro) was found last year at ESO ( ESO Press Photo 36/96 ) which showed a cometary tail, while moving in a typical asteroidal orbit. At about the same time, American scientists found another (1996 PW) that moved in a very elongated comet-type orbit but was completely devoid of a tail. Now, a group of European scientists, by means of observations carried out at the ESO La Silla observatory, have found yet another object that at first appeared to be one more comet/asteroid example. However, continued and more detailed observations aimed at revealing its true nature have shown that it is most probably a comet . Consequently, it has received the provisional cometary designation P/1997 T3 . The Uppsala-DLR Trojan Survey Some time ago, Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist (Astronomical Observatory, Uppsala, Sweden), in collaboration with Gerhard Hahn, Stefano Mottola, Magnus Lundström and Uri Carsenty (DLR, Institute of Planetary Exploration, Berlin, Germany), started to study the distribution of asteroids near Jupiter. They were particularly interested in those that move in orbits similar to that of Jupiter and which are located `ahead' of Jupiter in the so-called `Jovian L4 Lagrangian point'. Together with those `behind' Jupiter, these asteroids have been given the names of Greek and Trojan Heroes who participated in the famous Trojan war

  7. An overview of the asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzel, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction and overview of the field of asteroid science is presented, highlighting the accomplishments of the 1980s. The development and application of many observational techniques and data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite have greatly increased our knowledge of asteroid physical properties. New scenarios for understanding the chemical diversity and dynamical structure of asteroids have emerged. New insights have been gained toward understanding their origin and interrelations with meteorites and comets. Suggestions and speculations are offered on future research directions

  8. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: Implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean H. Bédard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower plate is the dominant agent in modern convergent margins characterized by active subduction, as negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere sinks into the asthenosphere under its own weight. This is a strong plate-driving force because the slab-pull force is transmitted through the stiff sub-oceanic lithospheric mantle. As geological and geochemical data seem inconsistent with the existence of modern-style ridges and arcs in the Archaean, a periodically-destabilized stagnant-lid crust system is proposed instead. Stagnant-lid intervals may correspond to periods of layered mantle convection where efficient cooling was restricted to the upper mantle, perturbing Earth's heat generation/loss balance, eventually triggering mantle overturns. Archaean basalts were derived from fertile mantle in overturn upwelling zones (OUZOs, which were larger and longer-lived than post-Archaean plumes. Early cratons/continents probably formed above OUZOs as large volumes of basalt and komatiite were delivered for protracted periods, allowing basal crustal cannibalism, garnetiferous crustal restite delamination, and coupled development of continental crust and sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Periodic mixing and rehomogenization during overturns retarded development of isotopically depleted MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt mantle. Only after the start of true subduction did sequestration of subducted slabs at the core-mantle boundary lead to the development of the depleted MORB mantle source. During Archaean mantle overturns, pre-existing continents located above OUZOs would be strongly reworked; whereas OUZO-distal continents would drift in response to mantle currents. The leading edge of drifting Archaean continents would be convergent margins characterized by terrane accretion, imbrication, subcretion and anatexis of unsubductable oceanic lithosphere. As Earth cooled and the background oceanic lithosphere became denser and stiffer, there would be an increasing

  9. The first retrograde Trojan asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Veillet, Christian

    2018-04-01

    There are about six thousand asteroids which share Jupiter's orbit around the Sun. Called the 'Trojan asteroids', they co-exist easily with this giant planet because they travel in the same direction as it ('direct' or 'prograde' motion), and remain roughly 60 degrees ahead of or behind it in its orbit. Newly discovered asteroid 2015 BZ509 is on a retrograde orbit, but is nonetheless in a state dynamically analogous to that of the prograde Trojans. The discovery circumstances and the nature of the motion of this curious asteroid -the first of its kind- will be outlined.

  10. Asteroid families from cratering: Detection and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, A.; Cellino, A.; Knežević, Z.; Novaković, B.; Spoto, F.; Paolicchi, P.

    2014-07-01

    A new asteroid families classification, more efficient in the inclusion of smaller family members, shows how relevant the cratering impacts are on large asteroids. These do not disrupt the target, but just form families with the ejecta from large craters. Of the 12 largest asteroids, 8 have cratering families: number (2), (4), (5), (10), (87), (15), (3), and (31). At least another 7 cratering families can be identified. Of the cratering families identified so far, 7 have >1000 members. This imposes a remarkable change from the focus on fragmentation families of previous classifications. Such a large dataset of asteroids believed to be crater ejecta opens a new challenge: to model the crater and family forming event(s) generating them. The first problem is to identify which cratering families, found by the similarity of proper elements, can be formed at once, with a single collision. We have identified as a likely outcome of multiple collisions the families of (4), (10), (15), and (20). Of the ejecta generated by cratering, only a fraction reaches the escape velocity from the surviving parent body. The distribution of velocities at infinity, giving to the resulting family an initial position and shape in the proper elements space, is highly asymmetric with respect to the parent body. This shape is deformed by the Yarkovsky effect and by the interaction with resonances. All the largest asteroids have been subjected to large cratering events, thus the lack of a family needs to be interpreted. The most interesting case is (1) Ceres, which is not the parent body of the nearby family of (93). Two possible interpretations of the low family forming efficiency are based on either the composition of Ceres with a significant fraction of ice, protected by a thin crust, or with the larger escape velocity of ~500 m/s.

  11. 3-µm Spectroscopy of Asteroid 16 Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takir, Driss; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan; Shepard, Michael K.

    2016-10-01

    Asteroid 16 Psyche, an M-type asteroid, is thought to be one of the most massive exposed iron metal object in the asteroid belt. The high radar albedos of Psyche suggest that this differentiated asteroid is dominantly composed of metal. Psyche was previously found to be featureless in the 3-µm spectral region. However, in our study we found that this asteroid exhibits a 3-µm absorption feature, possibly indicating the presence of hydrated silicates.We have observed Psyche in the 3-µm spectral region, using the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD:1.9-4.2 µm) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). For data reduction, we used the IDL (Interactive Data Language)-based spectral reduction tool Spextool (v4.1). Psyche was observed over the course of three nights with an apparent visual magnitude of ~9.50: 8 December 2015 (3 sets), 9 December 2015 (1 set), and 10 March 2016 (1 set). These observations have revealed that Psyche may exhibit a 3-µm absorption feature, similar to the sharp group in the 2.9-3.3-µm spectral range. Psyche also exhibits an absorption feature similar to the one in Ceres and Ceres-like group in the spectral 3.3-4.0-µm range. These 3-µm observational results revealed that Psyche may not be as featureless as once thought in the 3-µm spectral region.Evidence for the 3-µm band was found on the surfaces of many M-type asteroids and a number of plausible alternative interpretations for the presence of this 3-µm band were previously suggested. These interpretations include the presence of anhydrous silicates containing structural OH, the presence of fluid inclusions, the presence of xenolithic hydrous meteorite components on asteroid surfaces from impacts, solar wind-implanted H, or the presence of troilite. The detection of the Ceres-like feature in the 3.3-4.0-µm spectral range, however, would rule out some of these alternative interpretations, especially the solar wind-implanted H.

  12. Asteroid results from the IRAS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeder, G.J.; Tedesco, E.F.; Matson, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that the IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey yield a data base of infrared flux densities for 1811 individual asteroids. Albedos and diameters for these have been derived via a standard thermal model. IRAS sampled a large number of small asteroids and detected many dark asteroids in the outer belt. High-albedo asteroids remain rare. Observations of the brighter asteroids at multiple wavelengths shows the expected range of color temperatures through the main belt

  13. Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Vokrouhlický, D.; Polishook, D.; Scheeres, D.J.; Harris, A. W.; Galád, Adrián; Vaduvescu, O.; Pozo, F.; Barr, A.; Longa, P.; Vachier, F.; Colas, F.; Pray, D. P.; Pollock, J.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K.M.; Haislip, J.B.; LaCluyze, A.; Kušnirák, Peter; Henych, Tomáš; Marchis, F.; Macomber, B.; Jacobson, S.A.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Sergeev, A.V.; Leroy, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 7310 (2010), s. 1085-1088 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107; GA ČR GD205/08/H005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : full 2-body problem * binary asteroids * stability Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 36.101, year: 2010

  14. Asteroid collisional history - Effects on sizes and spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.R.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Farinella, P.; Paolicchi, P.; Binzel, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of asteroid collisional history on sizes and spins of present-day objects are discussed. Collisional evolution studies indicate that collisions have altered the spin-rates of small bodies, but that the largest asteroids may have retained their primordial rotation rates. Most asteroids larger than 100 km diam have probably been shattered, but have gravitationally recaptured their fragments to form a rubble-pile structure. Large angular momentum asteroids appear to have Maclaurian spheroidal or Jacobi-ellipsoid-like shapes; some of them may have fissioned into binaries. An integrated size and spin collisional evolution model is presented, with two critical parameters: one which determines the spin rates for small fragments resulting from a shattering collision, and the other determines the fraction of impact angular momentum that is retained by the target. 36 refs

  15. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  16. Constraining the potential temperature of the Archaean mantle: A review of the evidence from komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Cheadle, M. J.; Arndt, N. T.; Bickle, M. J.

    1993-09-01

    The maximum potential temperature of the Archaean mantle is poorly known, and is best constrained by the MgO contents of komatiitic liquids, which are directly related to eruptive temperatures. However, most Archaean komatiites are significantly altered and it is difficult to assess the composition of the erupted liquid. Relatively fresh lavas from the SASKMAR suite, Belingwe Greenstone Belt, Zimbabwe (2.7 Ga) include chills of 25.6 wt.% MgO, and olivines ranging to Fo 93.6, implying eruption at around 1520°C. A chill sample from Alexo Township, Ontario (also 2.7 Ga) is 28 wt.% MgO, and associated olivines range to Fo 94.1, implying eruption at 1560°C. However, inferences of erupted liquids containing 32-33 wt.% MgO, from lavas in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa (3.45 Ga) and from the Perseverance Complex, Western Australia (2.7 Ga) may be challenged on the grounds that they contain excess (cumulate) olivine, or were enriched in Mg during alteration or metamorphism. Re-interpretation of olivine compositions from these rocks shows that they most likely contained a maximum of 29 wt.% MgO corresponding to an eruption temperature of 1580°C. This composition is the highest liquid MgO content of an erupted lava that can be supported with any confidence. The hottest modern magma, on Gorgona Island (0.155 Ga) contained 18-20% MgO and erupted at circa 1400°C. If 1580°C is taken as the temperature of the most magnesian known eruption, then the source mantle from which the liquids rose would have been at up to 2200°C at pressures of 18 GPa corresponding to a mantle potential temperature of 1900°C. These temperatures are in excess of the mantle temperatures predicted by secular cooling models, and thus komatiites can only be formed in hot rising convective jets in the mantle. This result requires that Archaean mantle jets may have been 300°C hotter than the Archaean ambient mantle temperature. This temperature difference is similar to the 200-300

  17. New isotopic and field evidence for the ages and distribution of Archaean rocks in east Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinny, P.D.; Delor, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of East Antarctica is composed of a number of recognised Archaean cratonic nuclei surrounded by Proterozoic metamorphic complexes. Poor exposure, inaccessibility and the effects of multiple tectonothermal overprints combine to confound the knowledge of the early history of these terranes. Against this, it is shown how recent advances in zircon geochronology allied with new petrological, geochemical and field observations have resulted in major revisions to the chronostratigraphy of several key areas, including Napier Complex of Enderby Land, Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group. 11 refs

  18. Asteroid electrostatic instrumentation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aplin, K L; Bowles, N E; Urbak, E [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Keane, D; Sawyer, E C, E-mail: k.aplin1@physics.ox.ac.uk [RAL Space, R25, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Asteroid surface material is expected to become photoelectrically charged, and is likely to be transported through electrostatic levitation. Understanding any movement of the surface material is relevant to proposed space missions to return samples to Earth for detailed isotopic analysis. Motivated by preparations for the Marco Polo sample return mission, we present electrostatic modelling for a real asteroid, Itokawa, for which detailed shape information is available, and verify that charging effects are likely to be significant at the terminator and at the edges of shadow regions for the Marco Polo baseline asteroid, 1999JU3. We also describe the Asteroid Charge Experiment electric field instrumentation intended for Marco Polo. Finally, we find that the differing asteroid and spacecraft potentials on landing could perturb sample collection for the short landing time of 20min that is currently planned.

  19. Evolution of comets into asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; A'hearn, M.F.; Rickman, H.; Mcfadden, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents observational evidence, together with recent theoretical developments, supporting the hypothesis that at least some asteroids might be extinct or dormant cometary nuclei. The observations include the discovery of a number of apparent asteroids in chaotic Jupiter-crossing orbits; the IRAS discovery of 1983 TB, an asteroid in the same orbit as the Geminid meteor shower; the apparent low activity levels determined for several short-period comet nuclei including Comet Halley; and observations of possible cometary activity in some earth-crossing asteroids. Theoretical developments include explorations of dynamical mechanisms capable of delivering main-belt asteroids into earth-crossing orbits, and an understanding of possible processes which may affect comets during their long residence in the Oort cloud and lead to the formation of nonvolatile crusts before and after they enter the planetary system. 143 refs

  20. The Chelyabinsk superbolide: a fragment of asteroid 2011 EO40?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2013-11-01

    Bright fireballs or bolides are caused by meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere at high speed. Some have a cometary origin, a few may have originated within the Venus-Earth-Mars region as a result of massive impacts in the remote past but a relevant fraction is likely the result of the break-up of asteroids. Disrupted asteroids produce clusters of fragments or asteroid families and meteoroid streams. Linking a bolide to a certain asteroid family may help to understand its origin and pre-impact dynamical evolution. On 2013 February 15, a superbolide was observed in the skies near Chelyabinsk, Russia. Such a meteor could be the result of the decay of an asteroid and here we explore this possibility applying a multistep approach. First, we use available data and Monte Carlo optimization (validated using 2008 TC3 as template) to obtain a robust solution for the pre-impact orbit of the Chelyabinsk impactor (a = 1.62 au, e = 0.53, i = 3.82°, Ω = 326.41° and ω = 109.44°). Then, we use this most probable orbit and numerical analysis to single out candidates for membership in, what we call, the Chelyabinsk asteroid family. Finally, we perform N-body simulations to either confirm or reject any dynamical connection between candidates and impactor. We find reliable statistical evidence on the existence of the Chelyabinsk cluster. It appears to include multiple small asteroids and two relatively large members: 2007 BD7 and 2011 EO40. The most probable parent body for the Chelyabinsk superbolide is 2011 EO40. The orbits of these objects are quite perturbed as they experience close encounters not only with the Earth-Moon system but also with Venus, Mars and Ceres. Under such conditions, the cluster cannot be older than about 20-40 kyr.

  1. Compositional studies of primitive asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.

    1988-01-01

    The composition of primitive asteroids and their relationship to satellites in the solar system will be studied by analyzing existing narrowband charge coupled device (CCD) reflectance spectra, acquiring additional spectra of asteroids and small satellites in the 0.5 to 1.0 micrometer spectral range, and exploring possibilities for obtaining compositional information in the blue-UV spectral region. Comparison with laboratory spectra of terrestrial chlorites and serpentines (phyllosilicates) and the clay minerals found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites will continue. During 1987, narrowband CCD reflectance spectra of 17 additional asteroids were acquired. These spectra and spectra of 34 other asteroids have been used primarily for two studies: weak absorption features similar to those due to Fe2(+) and Fe2(+) - Fe3(+) transitions in iron oxides f ound in terrestrial chlorites and serpentines and carbonaceous chondrites have been identified in some primitive asteroid spectra. There is a first indication that asteroids grouped by heliocentric distance show similar weak absorption features. Nonparametric statistics are being applied to test the hypothesis of discrete remnants of a gradation in composition of outer-belt asteroids

  2. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, L. S.; Gertsch, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Given that an asteroid (or comet) has been determined to contain sufficient material of value to be potentially economic to exploit, a mining method must be selected and implemented. This paper discusses the engineering necessary to bring a mine online, and the opportunities and challenges inherent in asteroid mineral prospects. The very important step of orebody characterization is discussed elsewhere. The mining methods discussed here are based on enclosing the asteroid within a bag in some fashion, whether completely or partially. In general, asteroid mining methods based on bags will consist of the following steps. Not all will be required in every case, nor necessarily in this particular sequence. Some steps will be performed simultaneously. Their purpose is to extract the valuable material from the body of the asteroid in the most efficient, cost-effective manner possible. In approximate order of initiation, if not of conclusion, the steps are: 1. Tether anchoring to the asteroid. 2. Asteroid motion control. 3. Body/fragment restraint system placement. 4. Operations platform construction. 5. Bag construction. 6. Auxiliary and support equipment placement. 7. Mining operations. 8. Processing operations. 9. Product transport to markets.

  3. Archaean ultra-depleted komatiites formed by hydrous melting of cratonic mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A H; Shirey, S B; Carlson, R W

    2003-06-19

    Komatiites are ultramafic volcanic rocks containing more than 18 per cent MgO (ref. 1) that erupted mainly in the Archaean era (more than 2.5 gigayears ago). Although such compositions occur in later periods of Earth history (for example, the Cretaceous komatiites of Gorgona Island), the more recent examples tend to have lower MgO content than their Archaean equivalents. Komatiites are also characterized by their low incompatible-element content, which is most consistent with their generation by high degrees of partial melting (30-50 per cent). Current models for komatiite genesis include the melting of rock at great depth in plumes of hot, diapirically rising mantle or the melting of relatively shallow mantle rocks at less extreme, but still high, temperatures caused by fluxing with water. Here we report a suite of ultramafic lava flows from the Commondale greenstone belt, in the southern part of the Kaapvaal Craton, which represents a previously unrecognized type of komatiite with exceptionally high forsterite content of its igneous olivines, low TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio, high silica content, extreme depletion in rare-earth elements and low Re/Os ratio. We suggest a model for their formation in which a garnet-enriched residue left by earlier cratonic volcanism was melted by hydration from a subducting slab.

  4. Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-03-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the best-preserved records of fluvial sedimentation on an Archaean continent. The basin hosts the worlds biggest gold resource in thin pebble beds, but the process for gold enrichment is debated. Mechanical accumulation of gold particles from flowing river water is the prevailing hypothesis, yet there is evidence for hydrothermal mobilization of gold by fluids invading the metasedimentary rocks after their burial. Earth's atmosphere three billion years ago was oxygen free, but already sustained some of the oldest microbial life on land. Here I use thermodynamic modelling and mass-balance calculations to show that these conditions could have led to the chemical transport and precipitation of gold in anoxic surface waters, reconciling the evidence for fluvial deposition with evidence for hydrothermal-like chemical reactions. I suggest that the release of sulphurous gases from large volcanic eruptions created acid rain that enabled the dissolution and transport of gold in surface waters as sulphur complexes. Precipitation of the richest gold deposits could have been triggered by chemical reduction of the dissolved gold onto organic material in shallow lakes and pools. I conclude that the Witwatersrand gold could have formed only during the Archaean, after the emergence of continental life but before the rise of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere.

  5. Joint lightcurve observations of 10 near-Earth asteroids from Modra and Ondřejov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galád, Adrián; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Világi, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 97, 1-2 (2005), s. 147-163 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * near-Earth asteroids * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  6. The Main Asteroid Belt: The Crossroads of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, main belt asteroids are leftover planetary building blocks that never accreted enough material to become planets. They are therefore keys to understanding how the Solar System formed and evolved. They may also provide clues to the origin of life, as similar bodies may have delivered organics and water to the early Earth.Strong associations between asteroids and meteorites emerged thanks to multi-technique observations, modeling, in situ and sample return analyses. Spacecraft images revolutionized our knowledge of these small worlds. Asteroids are stunning in their diversity in terms of physical properties. Their gravity varies by more orders of magnitude than its variation among the terrestrial planets, including the Moon. Each rendezvous with an asteroid thus turned our geological understanding on its head as each asteroid is affected in different ways by a variety of processes such as landslides, faulting, and impact cratering. Composition also varies, from ice-rich to lunar-like to chondritic.Nearly every asteroid we see today, whether of primitive or evolved compositions, is the product of a complex history involving accretion and one or more episodes of catastrophic disruption that sometimes resulted in families of smaller asteroids that have distinct and indicative petrogenic relationships. These families provide the best data to study the impact disruption process at scales far larger than those accessible in laboratory. Tens, perhaps hundreds, of early asteroids grew large enough to thermally differentiate. Their traces are scattered pieces of their metal-rich cores and, more rarely, their mantles and crusts.Asteroids represent stages on the rocky road to planet formation. They have great stories to tell about the formation and evolution of our Solar System as well as other planetary systems: asteroid belts seem common around Sun-like stars. We will review our current knowledge on their properties, their link to

  7. Dynamical portrait of the Hoffmeister asteroid family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Bojan; Maurel, Clara; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Knezevic, Zoran; Radovic, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    The (1726) Hoffmeister asteroid family is located in the middle of the Main Belt, between 2.75 and 2.82 AU. It draws our attention due to its unusual shape when projected to the semi-major axis vs. inclination plane. Actually, the distribution of family members as seen in this plane clearly suggests different dynamical evolution for the two parts of the family delimited in terms of semi-major axis.Therefore, we investigate here the dynamics of the family members aiming primarily to explain the observed unusual shape, but we also reconstruct the evolution of the whole family in time, and estimated its age.The Hoffmeister family is close to the fourth degree secular resonance z1=g-g6+s-s6, and in the neighborhood of the most massive asteroid (1) Ceres, each of these possibly being responsible for the strange shape of the family. To identify which ones, if any, among the different possible dynamical mechanisms are actually at work here, we performed a set of numerical integrations. We integrate the orbits of test particles over 300 Myr, as the age of the Hoffmeister family was previously roughly estimated to be 300 ± 200 Myr. Moreover, in order to identify and isolate the main perturber(s), we repeat four times the integrations using each time a different dynamical model, taking or not into account the Yarkovsky effect and dwarf planet Ceres as a perturbing body.Our results reveal the significant role of a so far overlooked dynamical aspect, namely a secular resonance between the dwarf planet Ceres and other asteroids. In particular, we show that the post-impact evolution of the Hoffmeister asteroid family is a direct consequence of the nodal secular resonance with Ceres.

  8. HIGH ECLIPTIC LATITUDE SURVEY FOR SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Jun; Itoh, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Main-belt asteroids have been continuously colliding with one another since they were formed. Their size distribution is primarily determined by the size dependence of asteroid strength against catastrophic impacts. The strength scaling law as a function of body size could depend on collision velocity, but the relationship remains unknown, especially under hypervelocity collisions comparable to 10 km s –1 . We present a wide-field imaging survey at an ecliptic latitude of about 25° for investigating the size distribution of small main-belt asteroids that have highly inclined orbits. The analysis technique allowing for efficient asteroid detections and high-accuracy photometric measurements provides sufficient sample data to estimate the size distribution of sub-kilometer asteroids with inclinations larger than 14°. The best-fit power-law slopes of the cumulative size distribution are 1.25 ± 0.03 in the diameter range of 0.6-1.0 km and 1.84 ± 0.27 in 1.0-3.0 km. We provide a simple size distribution model that takes into consideration the oscillations of the power-law slope due to the transition from the gravity-scaled regime to the strength-scaled regime. We find that the high-inclination population has a shallow slope of the primary components of the size distribution compared to the low-inclination populations. The asteroid population exposed to hypervelocity impacts undergoes collisional processes where large bodies have a higher disruptive strength and longer lifespan relative to tiny bodies than the ecliptic asteroids

  9. Asteroid named after CAS scientist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ An asteroid has been named after CAS astronomy historian XI Zezong with the approval of the International Minor Planet Nomenclature Committee (IMPNC), announced China's National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) on 17 August.

  10. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  11. Near Earth Asteroid redirect missions based on gravity assist maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledkov, Anton; Shustov, Boris M.; Eismont, Natan; Boyarsky, Michael; Nazirov, Ravil; Fedyaev, Konstantin

    During last years several events attracted world community attention to the hazards of hitting the Earth by sky objects. One of these objects is Apophis asteroid what was expected with nonzero probability to hit the Earth in 2036. Luckily after more precise measurements this event is considered as practically improbable. But the other object has really reached the Earth, entered the atmosphere in the Chelyabinsk area and caused vast damages. After this the hazardous near Earth objects problem received practical confirmation of the necessity to find the methods of its resolution. The methods to prevent collision of the dangerous sky object with the Earth proposed up to now look not practical enough if one mentions such as gravitational tractor or changing the reflectivity of the asteroid surface. Even the method supposing the targeting of the spacecraft to the hazardous object in order to deflect it from initial trajectory by impact does not work because its low mass as compared with the mass of asteroid to be deflected. For example the mass of the Apophis is estimated to be about 40 million tons but the spacecraft which can be launched to intercept the asteroid using contemporary launchers has the mass not more than 5 tons. So the question arises where to find the heavier projectile which is possible to direct to the dangerous object? The answer proposed in our paper is very simple: to search it among small near Earth asteroids. As small ones we suppose those which have the cross section size not more than 12-15 meters and mass not exceeding 1500 -1700 tons. According to contemporary estimates the number of such asteroids is not less than 100000. The other question is how to redirect such asteroid to the dangerous one. In the paper the possibilities are studied to use for that purpose gravity assist maneuvers near Earth. It is shown that even among asteroids included in contemporary catalogue there are the ones which could be directed to the trajectory of the

  12. Special issue on asteroids - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Bojan; Hsieh, Henry H.; Gronchi, Giovanni F.

    2018-04-01

    The articles in this special issue are devoted to asteroids, small solar system bodies that primarily populate a region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, known as the asteroid belt, but can also be found throughout the Solar System. Asteroids are considered to be a key to understanding the formation and evolution of our planetary system. Their properties allow us to test current theoretical models and develop new theoretical concepts pertaining to evolutionary processes in the Solar System. There have been major advances in asteroid science in the last decade, and that trend continues. Eighteen papers accepted for this special issue cover a wide range of asteroid-related subjects, pushing the boundaries of our understanding of these intriguing objects even further. Here we provide the reader with a brief overview of these thrilling papers, with an invitation for interested scientists to read each work in detail for a better understanding of these recent cutting edge results. As many topics in asteroid science remain open challenges, we hope that this special issue will be an important reference point for future research on this compelling topic.

  13. Asteroids: up close and personal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Clark R. [Southwest Research Institute (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Think of our solar system. The Sun, the Moon and the nine planets come to mind first, followed by the moons of other planets and other small bodies like asteroids. In 1991, almost 30 years after planetary exploration began, an asteroid was visited by a passing spacecraft for the first time. Nearly another decade elapsed before the first dedicated asteroid mission went into orbit around Eros, a city-sized object some 34 km long. And earlier this year, the NEAR, Shoemaker spacecraft daringly descended to the surface of Eros and landed safely. Asteroids have been pushed to the tail-end of the itinerary of solar-system exploration because of their diminutive sizes. Indeed, the wealth of low-gravity phenomena associated with asteroids has captured the imagination of both researchers and the public alike. In the June issue of Physics World Clark R Chapman of the Southwest Research Institute, US, explains how the landing of a spacecraft on the asteroid Eros earlier this year has given space scientists the best view yet of small planetary bodies and has opened a new window on the solar system. (U.K.)

  14. Spin rate distribution of small asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Warner, B. D.; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Pray, D. P.; Higgins, D.; Oey, J.; Galád, Adrián; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Világi, J.; Husárik, M.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Chiorny, V. G.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Cooney jr., W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Stephens, R.; Dyvig, R.; Reddy, V.; Ries, J.G.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Durkee, R.; Masi, G.; Koff, R.; Goncalves, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 197, č. 2 (2008), s. 497-504 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Grant - others: NASA (US) NAG5-13244; NASA (US) NNG06GI32G; VEGA(SK) 1/3074/06; VEGA(SK) 1/3067/06; VEGA(SK) 2/7009/27 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids rotation * photometry * near-Earth objects Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.268, year: 2008

  15. Why Archaean TTG cannot be generated by MORB melting in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hervé; Moyen, Jean-François; Guitreau, Martin; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc

    2014-06-01

    Until recently it was assumed that the Archaean continental crust (made of TTGs: tonalites, trondhjemites, and granodiorites) was generated through partial melting of MORB-like basalts in hot subduction environments, where the subducted oceanic crust melted at high pressure, leaving a garnet-bearing amphibolitic or eclogitic residue. However, recent geochemical models as well as basalt melting experiments have precluded MORB as a plausible source for TTGs. Rather, geochemical and experimental evidences indicate that formation of TTG required a LILE-enriched source, similar to oceanic plateau basalts. Moreover, subduction is a continuous process, while continental growth is episodic. Several “super-growth events” have been identified at ~ 4.2, ~ 3.8, ~ 3.2, ~ 2.7, ~ 1.8, ~ 1.1, and ~ 0.5 Ga, which is inconsistent with the regular pattern that would be expected from a subduction-driven process. In order to account for this periodicity, it has been proposed that, as subduction proceeds, descending residual slabs accumulate at the 660-km seismic discontinuity. When stored oceanic crust exceeds a certain mass threshold, it rapidly sinks into the mantle as a cold avalanche, which induces the ascent of mantle plumes that in turn produce large amounts of magmas resulting in oceanic plateaus. However, melting at the base of thick oceanic plateaus does not appear to be a realistic process that can account for TTG genesis. Modern oceanic plateaus contain only small volumes (≤ 5%) of felsic magmas generally formed by high degrees of fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas. The composition of these felsic magmas drastically differs from that of TTGs. In Iceland, the interaction between a mantle plume and the mid-Atlantic ridge gives rise to an anomalously (Archaean-like) high geothermal gradient resulting in thick basaltic crust able to melt at shallow depth. Even in this favorable context though, the characteristic Archaean TTG trace element signature is not being

  16. Did the formation of D″ cause the Archaean-Proterozoic transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Griffiths, Ross W.

    2014-02-01

    The MgO content of the highest MgO plume-related komatiites and picrites remained constant at 32±2.5% between 3.5 and 2.7 Ga, then fell to 21±3% by ca. 2.0 Ga, a value similar to the present day value. Because there is a linear relationship between the liquidus temperature of dry magmas and their MgO content this observation implies that the temperature of mantle plumes changed little between 3.5 and 2.7 Ga, and then fell by 200-250 °C between 2.7 and 2.0 Ga to a temperature similar to that of present plumes. We suggest that Archaean plumes originate from the core-mantle boundary and that their temperature remained constant because the temperature of the outer core was buffered by solidification of the Fe-Ni inner core. At about 2.7 Ga dense former basaltic crust began to accumulate at the core and eventually covered it to produce an insulating layer that reduced the heat flux out of the core and lowered the temperature of mantle plumes. The temperature of mantle plumes fell as the dense layer above the core thickened until it exceeded the critical thickness required for convection. Because heat is transferred rapidly across the convecting part of the insulating layer, any further increase in its thickness by the addition more basaltic material has no influence on the temperature at the top of the layer, which is the source of Post-Archaean mantle plumes. We equate the dense layer above the core with the seismically identified layer D″. Our analyses suggest the drop in plume temperatures produced by a dense insulating layer above the core will be about 40% once it starts to convect, which is consistent with the observed drop inferred from the decrease in the MgO content of komatiites and picrites at that time.

  17. Photometry and models of eight near-Earth asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaasalainen, M.; Pravec, Petr; Krugly, Yu. N.; Kotková, Lenka; Torppa, J.; Virtanen, J.; Kaasalainen, S.; Erikson, A.; Nathues, A.; Ďurech, J.; Wolf, M.; Lagerros, J. S. V.; Lindgren, M.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Koff, R.; Davies, J.; Mann, R.; Kušnirák, Peter; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Chiorny, V. G.; Belskaya, I. N.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 1 (2004), s. 178-196 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204; GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : asteroids * rotation * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.074, year: 2004

  18. Multi-wavelength observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shepard, M.K.; Clark, B. E.; Nolan, M. C.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Vilas, F.; Jarvis, K.; Lederer, S.; Lim, L.F.; McConnochie, T.; Bell, J.; Margot, J. L.; Rivkin, A. S.; Magrik, C.; Scheeres, D.J.; Pravec, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 1 (2008), s. 20-38 ISSN 0019-1035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids composition * radar observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.268, year: 2008

  19. Physical modeling of near-Earth Asteroid (29075) 1950 DA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Busch, M.W.; Giorgini, J. D.; Ostro, S. J.; Benner, L. A. M.; Jurgens, R. F.; Rose, R.; Hicks, M. D.; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Ireland, M.J.; Scheeres, D.J.; Broschart, S.B.; Magri, C.; Nolan, M. C.; Hine, A. A.; Margot, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 2 (2007), s. 608-621 ISSN 0019-1035 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA208/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * composition * dynamics * rotation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2007

  20. Thermal infrared observations of asteroid (99942) Apophis with Herschel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, T. G.; Kiss, C.; Scheirich, Peter; Pravec, Petr; O'Rourke, L.; Vilenius, E.; Altieri, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 566, June (2014), A22/1-A22/10 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0229; GA MŠk LG12001 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : minor planets * asteroids: individual * radiation mechanisms Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  1. New findings on asteroid spin-vector distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryszczynska, A.; La Spina, A.; Paolicchi, P.; Harris, A. W.; Breiter, S.; Pravec, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 1 (2007), s. 223-237 ISSN 0019-1035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * rotation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2007

  2. Binary asteroid population. 3. Secondary rotations and elongations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián; Naidu, S.P.; Pray, D. P.; Világi, J.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 267, March (2016), s. 267-295 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0229; GA ČR GA15-07193S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids * rotation * dynamics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.131, year: 2016

  3. Very low strengths of interplanetary meteoroids and small asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popova, O. P.; Borovička, Jiří; Hartman, W.K.; Spurný, Pavel; Gnos, E.; Nemtchinov, I. V.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 10 (2011), s. 1525-1550 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteoroids * small asteroids * photographic observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2011

  4. Developing an Asteroid Rotational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Gena; Williams, Miguel; Linder, Tyler; Pakey, Donald

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical asteroid rotational theory from first principles. Starting at first principles provides a firm foundation for computer simulations which can be used to analyze multiple variables at once such as size, rotation period, tensile strength, and density. The initial theory will be presented along with early models of applying the theory to the asteroid population. Early results confirm previous work by Pravec et al. (2002) that show the majority of the asteroids larger than 200m have negligible tensile strength and have spin rates close to their critical breakup point. Additionally, results show that an object with zero tensile strength has a maximum rotational rate determined by the object’s density, not size. Therefore, an iron asteroid with a density of 8000 kg/m^3 would have a minimum spin period of 1.16h if the only forces were gravitational and centrifugal. The short-term goal is to include material forces in the simulations to determine what tensile strength will allow the high spin rates of asteroids smaller than 150m.

  5. An Investigation of the Ranges of Validity of Asteroid Thermal Models for Near-Earth Asteroid Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, M.; Jedicke, R.; Trilling, D. E.

    2018-02-01

    The majority of known asteroid diameters are derived from thermal-infrared observations. Diameters are derived using asteroid thermal models that approximate their surface temperature distributions and compare the measured thermal-infrared flux with model-dependent predictions. The most commonly used thermal model is the Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM), which is usually perceived as superior to other models like the Fast-Rotating Model (FRM). We investigate the applicability of the NEATM and the FRM to thermal-infrared observations of Near-Earth Objects using synthetic asteroids with properties based on the real Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population. We find the NEATM to provide more accurate diameters and albedos than the FRM in most cases, with a few exceptions. The modeling results are barely affected by the physical properties of the objects, but we find a large impact of the solar phase angle on the modeling results. We conclude that the NEATM provides statistically more robust diameter estimates for NEAs observed at solar phase angles less than ∼65°, while the FRM provides more robust diameter estimates for solar phase angles greater than ∼65°. We estimate that <5% of all NEA diameters and albedos derived up to date are affected by systematic effects that are of the same order of magnitude as the typical thermal model uncertainties. We provide statistical correction functions for diameters and albedos derived using the NEATM and FRM as a function of solar phase angle.

  6. ASTEROID POLARIMETRIC DATABASE V6.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Polarimetric Database (APD) is a collection of asteroid polarimetry results compiled by D.F. Lupishko and S.V. Vasiliev of Karazin Kharkiv National...

  7. ASTEROID PHOTOMETRIC CATALOG V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Photometric Catalog (3rd update), Lagerkvist, et.al., 1993 [LAGERKVISTETAL1993], is a compilation of all asteroid lightcurve photometry published up to...

  8. The Nature of C Asteroid Regolith Revealed from the Jbilet Winselwan CM Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Le, Loan; Kring, David; Cato, Michael; Fagan, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    C-class asteroids frequently exhibit reflectance spectra consistent with thermally metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites, or a mixture of phyllosilicate-rich material along with regions where they are absent. One particularly important example appears to be asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of the Hayabusa 2 mission, although most spectra of Ryugu are featureless, suggesting a heterogeneous regolith. Here we explore an alternative cause of dehydration of regolith of C-class asteroids - impact shock melting. Impact shock melting has been proposed to ex-plain some mineralogical characteristics of CB chondrites, but has rarely been considered a major process for hydrous carbonaceous chondrites.

  9. Slowly increasing elongations of non-spherical asteroids caused by collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, Tomáš; Pravec, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 454, č. 2 (2015), s. 1704-1710 ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : numerical methods * minor planets * asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.952, year: 2015

  10. Looking a gift horse in the mouth: Evaluation of wide-field asteroid photometric surveys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harris, A. W.; Pravec, Petr; Warner, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 221, č. 1 (2012), s. 226-235 ISSN 0019-1035 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids * rotation * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2012

  11. Discovery of a Satellite around a Near-Earth Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    the data necessary for these determinations, observations will be continued during the present period of good visibility that lasts until September-October 1997. For this reason the discoverers have initiated an international observation campaign devoted to the study of this intriguing object and now involving astronomers from many countries. How common are such satellites? Satellites in orbit around small bodies in the solar system - asteroids and cometary nuclei - have been predicted on theoretical grounds for a long time, even though there is no consensus among planetary scientists about the actual numbers of such systems. Hints about the existence of asteroid satellites also come from the presence of double impact craters on the Moon and other planetary surfaces. This suggests that the projectiles forming these craters were `double' asteroids. Moreover, measurements obtained when an asteroid passes in front of a relatively bright star (a so-called `occultation') have on a few occasions shown features which could be interpreted as due to the presence of a satellite. However, because of the difficult nature of such measurements, it has never been possible to draw unambiguous conclusions. The existence of double asteroids was invoked earlier by Petr Pravec and Gerhard Hahn to explain the unusual features observed in the lightcurves of two other Earth-approaching asteroids 1991 VH and 1994 AW1 . In the case of Dionysus , however, it is possible to predict eclipse events and to confirm them by subsequent measurements. There is therefore mounting evidence that asteroid binary systems might be comparatively common. Observational programmes like the present one by the DLR and Ondrejov groups will help to verify this possibility. Where to find additional information Detailed and up-to-date information about (3671) Dionysus can be found in the Web at the following URL: http://earn.dlr.de/dionysus. Notes: [1] This institute and its parent organisation are known in Germany as

  12. Reflectance spectroscopy and asteroid surface mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, M.J.; Bell, J.F.; Cruikshank, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Information available from reflectance spectroscopy on the surface mineralogy of asteroids is discussed. Current spectral interpretive procedures used in the investigations of asteroid mineralogy are described. Present understanding of the nature and history of asteroids is discussed together with some still unresolved issues such as the source of ordinary chondrites. 100 refs

  13. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  14. Geochemical and biologic constraints on the Archaean atmosphere and climate – A possible solution to the faint early Sun paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Brid, Dennis K.; Sleep, Norman H.

    into account the apparent growth of Earth continents (Collerson and Kamber 1999) and the absence of land vegetation during the Precambrian for the evolution of the surface albedo, and a model for the abundance and properties of clouds that takes into account the lower abundance of biogenic cloud condensation......There is ample geological evidence that Earth’s climate resembled the present during the Archaean, despite a much lower solar luminosity. This was cast as a paradox by Sagan and Mullen in 1972. Several solutions to the paradox have been suggested, mostly focusing on adjustments of the radiative...... properties of Earth’s atmosphere e.g. Kasting (1993), by increasing the mixing ratio of CO2 and/or adding various other greenhouse gasses. We have used banded iron formation (BIF), which are chemical sediments precipitated out of the Archaean ocean to characterize the composition of the atmosphere...

  15. Project RAMA: Reconstructing Asteroids Into Mechanical Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jason; Fagin, Max; Snyder, Michael; Joyce, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Many interesting ideas have been conceived for building space-based infrastructure in cislunar space. From O'Neill's space colonies, to solar power satellite farms, and even prospecting retrieved near earth asteroids. In all the scenarios, one thing remained fixed - the need for space resources at the outpost. To satisfy this need, O'Neill suggested an electromagnetic railgun to deliver resources from the lunar surface, while NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission called for a solar electric tug to deliver asteroid materials from interplanetary space. At Made In Space, we propose an entirely new concept. One which is scalable, cost effective, and ensures that the abundant material wealth of the inner solar system becomes readily available to humankind in a nearly automated fashion. We propose the RAMA architecture, which turns asteroids into self-contained spacecraft capable of moving themselves back to cislunar space. The RAMA architecture is just as capable of transporting conventional-sized asteroids on the 10-meter length scale as transporting asteroids 100 meters or larger, making it the most versatile asteroid retrieval architecture in terms of retrieved-mass capability. This report describes the results of the Phase I study funded by the NASA NIAC program for Made In Space to establish the concept feasibility of using space manufacturing to convert asteroids into autonomous, mechanical spacecraft. Project RAMA, Reconstituting Asteroids into Mechanical Automata, is designed to leverage the future advances of additive manufacturing (AM), in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and in-situ manufacturing (ISM) to realize enormous efficiencies in repeated asteroid redirect missions. A team of engineers at Made In Space performed the study work with consultation from the asteroid mining industry, academia, and NASA. Previous studies for asteroid retrieval have been constrained to studying only asteroids that are both large enough to be discovered, and small enough to be

  16. Study of the Asteroid Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodniza, Alberto; Pereira, Mario

    2018-06-01

    Asteroid Florence was discovered at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia (March 1981). Paul Chodas, manager of CNEOS-JPL said: “Florence is the largest asteroid to pass by our planet this close since the NASA program to detect and track near-Earth asteroids began” [1]. The asteroid passed 7.1 million kilometers away from the earth [2]. The GDSCC-NASA discovered that the asteroid has two small moons. The diameter of Florence is 4.5 kilometers, and the sizes of the two moons are probably between 100 – 300 meters across. The inner moon has a rotation period around Florence of about 8 hours, and the outer moon has a period of about 25 hours [3]. From our Observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we captured several pictures, videos and astrometry data during several hours during three days. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and also appears at the web page of NEODyS [4]. The pictures were captured with the following equipment: CGE PRO 1400 CELESTRON and STL-1001 SBIG camera. Astrometry and photometry was carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements and the rotation period. Summary and conclusions: We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity = 0.422548 +/- 0.000994, semi-major axis = 1.76675 +/- 0.00313 A.U, orbital inclination = 22.128 +/- 0.029 deg, longitude of the ascending node = 336.0960 +/- 0.0013 deg, argument of perihelion = 27.861 +/- 0.016, mean motion = 0.41970 +/- 0.00112 deg/d, perihelion distance = 1.0202151 +/- 5.27e-5 A.U, aphelion distance = 2.51329 +/- 0.00625 A.U, absolute magnitude = 14.4. The parameters were calculated based on 281 observations. Dates: 2017 September 01 to 05 with mean residual = 0.19 arcseconds. The asteroid has an orbital period of 2.35 years (857.74 days). The rotation period of the asteroid is 2.3 hours. Note: Spaceweather published our video on September 1-2017 [5].[1] https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/large-asteroid-to-safely-pass-earth-on-sept-1[2] http

  17. 207Pb-206Pb zircon ages of eastern and western Dharwar craton, southern India : Evidence for contemporaneous Archaean crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibam, B.; Goswami, J. N.; Srinivasan, R.

    2009-04-01

    Dharwar craton is one of the major Archaean crustal blocks in the Indian subcontinent. The craton is comprised of two blocks, western and eastern. The western domain is underlain by orthogneisses and granodiorites (ca. 2.9-3.3 Ga) collectively termed as Peninsular Gneiss [e.g., 1] interspersed with older tracts of metasedimentary and metamorphosed igneous suites (Sargur Group and Dharwar Group; [2]). The eastern part of the craton is dominated by Late Archaean (2.50-2.75 Ga) granitoids and their gneissic equivalents. They are interspersed with schist belts (also of Sargur Group and Dharwar Group), which are lithologically similar to the Dharwar Supergroup in the western block, but are in different metamorphic dress. Here we report 207Pb-206Pb age of zircons separated from the metasedimentary and gneissic samples from the two blocks to constrain the evolution of the Dharwar craton during the early Archaean. Detrital zircons of the metasedimentary rocks from both the blocks show a wide range of overlapping ages between ~2.9 to >3.5 Ga. Zircon ages of the orthogneisses from the two blocks showed that most of the analysed grains of the eastern Dharwar block are found to be of the age as old as the western Dharwar gneisses. Imprints of younger events could be discerned from the presence of overgrowths in zircons from the studied samples throughout the craton. Our data suggest that crust forming cycles in the two blocks of the Dharwar craton occurred contemporaneously during the Archaean. References [1] Beckinsale, R.D., Drury, S.A., Holt, R.W. (1980) Nature 283, 469-470. [2] Swami Nath J., Ramakrishnan M., Viswanatha M.N. (1976) Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind., 107, 149-175.

  18. Volcanism on differentiated asteroids (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Dawn spacecraft's investigation of 4 Vesta, best-preserved of the early-forming differentiated asteroids, prompts a reappraisal of factors controlling igneous activity on such bodies. Analogy with melt transfer in zones of partial melting on Earth implies that silicate melts moved efficiently within asteroid mantles in complex networks of veins and dikes, so that only a few percent of the mantle consisted of melt at any one time. Thus even in cases where large amounts of mantle melting occurred, the melts did not remain in the mantle to form "magma oceans", but instead migrated to shallow depths. The link between magma flow rate and the stresses needed to keep fractures open and allow flow fast enough to avoid excessive cooling implies that only within asteroids with radii more than ~190-250 km would continuous magma flow from mantle to surface be possible. In all smaller asteroids (including Vesta) magma must have accumulated in sills at the base of the lithosphere (the conductively controlled ~10 km thick thermal boundary layer) or in crustal magma reservoirs near its base. Magma would then have erupted intermittently to the surface from these steadily replenished reservoirs. The average rates of eruption to the surface (or shallow intrusion) should balance the magma production rate, but since magma could accumulate and erupt intermittently from these reservoirs, the instantaneous eruption rates could be hundreds to thousands of cubic m/s, comparable to historic basaltic eruption rates on Earth and very much greater than the average mantle melting rate. The absence of asteroid atmospheres makes explosive eruptions likely even if magmas are volatile-poor. On asteroids with radii less than ~100 km, gases and sub-mm pyroclastic melt droplets would have had speeds exceeding the escape speed assuming a few hundred ppm volatiles, and only cm sized or larger clasts would have been retained. On larger bodies almost all pyroclasts will have returned to the surface

  19. Asteroid retrieval missions enabled by invariant manifold dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Joan Pau; García Yárnoz, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Near Earth Asteroids are attractive targets for new space missions; firstly, because of their scientific importance, but also because of their impact threat and prospective resources. The asteroid retrieval mission concept has thus arisen as a synergistic approach to tackle these three facets of interest in one single mission. This paper reviews the methodology used by the authors (2013) in a previous search for objects that could be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs (or Easily Retrievable Objects, a.k.a. EROs). This methodology consisted of a heuristic pruning and an impulsive manoeuvre trajectory optimisation. Low thrust propulsion on the other hand clearly enables the transportation of much larger objects due to its higher specific impulse. Hence, in this paper, low thrust retrieval transfers are sought using impulsive trajectories as first guesses to solve the optimal control problem. GPOPS-II is used to transcribe the continuous-time optimal control problem to a nonlinear programming problem (NLP). The latter is solved by IPOPT, an open source software package for large-scale NLPs. Finally, a natural continuation procedure that increases the asteroid mass allows to find out the largest objects that could be retrieved from a given asteroid orbit. If this retrievable mass is larger than the actual mass of the asteroid, the asteroid retrieval mission for this particular object is said to be feasible. The paper concludes with an updated list of 17 EROs, as of April 2016, with their maximum retrievable masses by means of low thrust propulsion. This ranges from 2000 tons for the easiest object to be retrieved to 300 tons for the least accessible of them.

  20. Spin states of asteroids in the Eos collisional family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbo', M.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Bolin, B.; Jedicke, R.; Ďurech, J.; Cibulková, H.; Pravec, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Behrend, R.; Marchis, F.; Antonini, P.; Arnold, L.; Audejean, M.; Bachschmidt, M.; Bernasconi, L.; Brunetto, L.; Casulli, S.; Dymock, R.; Esseiva, N.; Esteban, M.; Gerteis, O.; de Groot, H.; Gully, H.; Hamanowa, Hiroko; Hamanowa, Hiromi; Krafft, P.; Lehký, M.; Manzini, F.; Michelet, J.; Morelle, E.; Oey, J.; Pilcher, F.; Reignier, F.; Roy, R.; Salom, P. A.; Warner, B. D.

    2018-01-01

    Eos family was created during a catastrophic impact about 1.3 Gyr ago. Rotation states of individual family members contain information about the history of the whole population. We aim to increase the number of asteroid shape models and rotation states within the Eos collision family, as well as to revise previously published shape models from the literature. Such results can be used to constrain theoretical collisional and evolution models of the family, or to estimate other physical parameters by a thermophysical modeling of the thermal infrared data. We use all available disk-integrated optical data (i.e., classical dense-in-time photometry obtained from public databases and through a large collaboration network as well as sparse-in-time individual measurements from a few sky surveys) as input for the convex inversion method, and derive 3D shape models of asteroids together with their rotation periods and orientations of rotation axes. We present updated shape models for 15 asteroids and new shape model determinations for 16 asteroids. Together with the already published models from the publicly available DAMIT database, we compiled a sample of 56 Eos family members with known shape models that we used in our analysis of physical properties within the family. Rotation states of asteroids smaller than ∼ 20 km are heavily influenced by the YORP effect, whilst the large objects more or less retained their rotation state properties since the family creation. Moreover, we also present a shape model and bulk density of asteroid (423) Diotima, an interloper in the Eos family, based on the disk-resolved data obtained by the Near InfraRed Camera (Nirc2) mounted on the W.M. Keck II telescope.

  1. Spectral Classification of Asteroids by Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Ma, Yue-hua; Zhao, Hai-bin; Lu, Xiao-ping

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing spectral and photometric data of asteroids, a variety of classification methods for asteroids have been proposed. This paper classifies asteroids based on the observations in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Moving Object Catalogue (MOC) by using the random forest algorithm. In combination with the present taxonomies of Tholen, Bus, Lazzaro, and DeMeo, and the principal component analysis, we have classified 48642 asteroids according to their SDSS magnitudes at the g, r, i, and z wavebands. In this way, these asteroids are divided into 8 (C, X, S, B, D, K, L, and V) classes.

  2. Spectral Classification of Asteroids by Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhao, H. B.; Lu, X. P.

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing asteroid spectral and photometric data, a variety of classification methods for asteroids have been proposed. This paper classifies asteroids based on the observations of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Moving Object Catalogue (MOC) by using the random forest algorithm. With the training data derived from the taxonomies of Tholen, Bus, Lazzaro, DeMeo, and Principal Component Analysis, we classify 48642 asteroids according to g, r, i, and z SDSS magnitudes. In this way, asteroids are divided into 8 spectral classes (C, X, S, B, D, K, L, and V).

  3. A Martian origin for the Mars Trojan asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, D.; Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.; Aharonson, O.

    2017-08-01

    Seven of the nine known Mars Trojan asteroids belong to an orbital cluster1,2 named after its largest member, (5261) Eureka. Eureka is probably the progenitor of the whole cluster, which formed at least 1 Gyr ago3. It has been suggested3 that the thermal YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect spun up Eureka, resulting in fragments being ejected by the rotational-fission mechanism. Eureka's spectrum exhibits a broad and deep absorption band around 1 μm, indicating an olivine-rich composition4. Here we show evidence that the Trojan Eureka cluster progenitor could have originated as impact debris excavated from the Martian mantle. We present new near-infrared observations of two Trojans ((311999) 2007 NS2 and (385250) 2001 DH47) and find that both exhibit an olivine-rich reflectance spectrum similar to Eureka's. These measurements confirm that the progenitor of the cluster has an achondritic composition4. Olivine-rich reflectance spectra are rare amongst asteroids5 but are seen around the largest basins on Mars6. They are also consistent with some Martian meteorites (for example, Chassigny7) and with the material comprising much of the Martian mantle8,9. Using numerical simulations, we show that the Mars Trojans are more likely to be impact ejecta from Mars than captured olivine-rich asteroids transported from the main belt. This result directly links specific asteroids to debris from the forming planets.

  4. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, James [Private address, 3210 Apache Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15241 (United States); Chesley, Steven R., E-mail: jimbaer1@earthlink.net [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia ) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  5. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, James; Chesley, Steven R.

    2017-08-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  6. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, James; Chesley, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia ) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  7. Highly refractory Archaean peridotite cumulates: Petrology and geochemistry of the Seqi Ultramafic Complex, SW Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Szilas

    2018-05-01

    large-scale melting event(s, which resulted in the ultra-depleted cratonic keel under the North Atlantic Craton. Hence, a better understanding of such Archaean ultramafic complexes may provide constraints on the geodynamic setting of Earth's first continents and the corresponding SCLM. Keywords: North Atlantic Craton, Archaean, Dunite, Platinum-group elements, Ultra-depleted mantle, Fiskefjord

  8. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2014-01-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Franceville basin, Gabon, is mainly known for its high-grade uranium deposits, which are the only ones known to act as natural nuclear fission reactors. Previous work in the Kiéné region investigated the nature of the fluids responsible for these natural nuclear reactors. The present work focuses on the top of the Archaean granitic basement, specifically, to identify and date the successive alteration events that affected this basement just below the unconformity separating it from the Palaeoproterozoic basin. Core from four drill holes crosscutting the basin-basement unconformity have been studied. Dating is based on U-Pb isotopic analyses performed on monazite. The origin of fluids is discussed from the study of fluid inclusion planes (FIP) in quartz from basement granitoids. From the deepest part of the drill holes to the unconformable boundary with the basin, propylitic alteration assemblages are progressively replaced by illite and locally by a phengite + Fe chlorite ± Fe oxide assemblage. Illitic alteration is particularly strong along the sediment-granitoid contact and is associated with quartz dissolution. It was followed by calcite and anhydrite precipitation as fracture fillings. U-Pb isotopic dating outlines three successive events: a 3.0-2.9-Ga primary magmatic event, a 2.6-Ga propylitic alteration and a late 1.9-Ga diagenetic event. Fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests the circulation of three types of fluids: (1) a Na-Ca-rich diagenetic brine, (2) a moderately saline (diagenetic + meteoric) fluid, and (3) a low-salinity fluid of probable meteoric origin. These fluids are similar to those previously identified within the overlying sedimentary rocks of the Franceville basin. Overall, the data collected in this study show that the Proterozoic-Archaean unconformity has operated as a major flow corridor for fluids circulation, around 1.9 Ga. highly saline diagenetic brines; hydrocarbon-rich fluids derived from organic matter

  9. The Steward Observatory asteroid relational database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Alvarezdelcastillo, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    The Steward Observatory Asteroid Relational Database (SOARD) was created as a flexible tool for undertaking studies of asteroid populations and sub-populations, to probe the biases intrinsic to asteroid databases, to ascertain the completeness of data pertaining to specific problems, to aid in the development of observational programs, and to develop pedagogical materials. To date, SOARD has compiled an extensive list of data available on asteroids and made it accessible through a single menu-driven database program. Users may obtain tailored lists of asteroid properties for any subset of asteroids or output files which are suitable for plotting spectral data on individual asteroids. The program has online help as well as user and programmer documentation manuals. The SOARD already has provided data to fulfill requests by members of the astronomical community. The SOARD continues to grow as data is added to the database and new features are added to the program.

  10. Shape and spin of asteroid 967 Helionape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolovska, G.; Kostov, A.; Donchev, Z.; Bebekovska, E. Vchkova; Kuzmanovska, O.

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of the spin and shape parameters of the asteroids is very important for understanding of the conditions during the creation of our planetary system and formation of asteroid populations. The main belt asteroid and Flora family member 967 Helionape was observed during five apparitions. The observations were made at the Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory (BNAO) Rozhen, since March 2006 to March 2016. Lihtcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen et al. (2001)), applied on 12 relative lightcurves obtained at various geometric conditions of the asteroid, reveals the spin vector, the sense of rotation and the preliminary shape model of the asteroid. Our aim is to contribute in increasing the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters. This could be done with dense lightcurves, obtained during small number of apparitions, in combination with sparse data produced by photometric asteroid surveys such as the Gaia satellite (Hanush (2011)).

  11. Physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (153591) 2001 SN263 from radar and optical light curve observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Becker, T.M.; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Magri, C.; Pravec, Petr; Taylor, P.A.; Oey, J.; Higgins, D.; Világi, J.; Kornoš, L.; Galád, A.; Gajdoš, Š.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Molotov, I.E.; Hicks, M. D.; Carbognani, A.; Warner, B. D.; Vachier, F.; Marchis, F.; Pollock, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 248, March (2015), s. 499-515 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0229 Grant - others:SAV(SK) Vega1/0670/13 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids * near- Earth objects * satellites of asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2015

  12. The elusive Hadean enriched reservoir revealed by 142Nd deficits in Isua Archaean rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Hanika; Boyet, Maud; Blichert-Toft, Janne; O'Neil, Jonathan; Rosing, Minik T; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-01

    The first indisputable evidence for very early differentiation of the silicate Earth came from the extinct (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer. (142)Nd excesses measured in 3.7-billion-year (Gyr)-old rocks from Isua (southwest Greenland) relative to modern terrestrial samples imply their derivation from a depleted mantle formed in the Hadean eon (about 4,570-4,000 Gyr ago). As dictated by mass balance, the differentiation event responsible for the formation of the Isua early-depleted reservoir must also have formed a complementary enriched component. However, considerable efforts to find early-enriched mantle components in Isua have so far been unsuccessful. Here we show that the signature of the Hadean enriched reservoir, complementary to the depleted reservoir in Isua, is recorded in 3.4-Gyr-old mafic dykes intruding into the Early Archaean rocks. Five out of seven dykes carry (142)Nd deficits compared to the terrestrial Nd standard, with three samples yielding resolvable deficits down to -10.6 parts per million. The enriched component that we report here could have been a mantle reservoir that differentiated owing to the crystallization of a magma ocean, or could represent a mafic proto-crust that separated from the mantle more than 4.47 Gyr ago. Our results testify to the existence of an enriched component in the Hadean, and may suggest that the southwest Greenland mantle preserved early-formed heterogeneities until at least 3.4 Gyr ago.

  13. A Field Trip to the Archaean in Search of Darwin’s Warm Little Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Damer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s original intuition that life began in a “warm little pond” has for the last three decades been eclipsed by a focus on marine hydrothermal vents as a venue for abiogenesis. However, thermodynamic barriers to polymerization of key molecular building blocks and the difficulty of forming stable membranous compartments in seawater suggest that Darwin’s original insight should be reconsidered. I will introduce the terrestrial origin of life hypothesis, which combines field observations and laboratory results to provide a novel and testable model in which life begins as protocells assembling in inland fresh water hydrothermal fields. Hydrothermal fields are associated with volcanic landmasses resembling Hawaii and Iceland today and could plausibly have existed on similar land masses rising out of Earth’s first oceans. I will report on a field trip to the living and ancient stromatolite fossil localities of Western Australia, which provided key insights into how life may have emerged in Archaean, fluctuating fresh water hydrothermal pools, geological evidence for which has recently been discovered. Laboratory experimentation and fieldwork are providing mounting evidence that such sites have properties that are conducive to polymerization reactions and generation of membrane-bounded protocells. I will build on the previously developed coupled phases scenario, unifying the chemical and geological frameworks and proposing that a hydrogel of stable, communally supported protocells will emerge as a candidate Woese progenote, the distant common ancestor of microbial communities so abundant in the earliest fossil record.

  14. Metal availability and the expanding network of microbial metabolisms in the Archaean eon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eli K.; Jelen, Benjamin I.; Giovannelli, Donato; Raanan, Hagai; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2017-09-01

    Life is based on energy gained by electron-transfer processes; these processes rely on oxidoreductase enzymes, which often contain transition metals in their structures. The availability of different metals and substrates has changed over the course of Earth's history as a result of secular changes in redox conditions, particularly global oxygenation. New metabolic pathways using different transition metals co-evolved alongside changing redox conditions. Sulfur reduction, sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis appeared between about 3.8 and 3.4 billion years ago. The oxidoreductases responsible for these metabolisms incorporated metals that were readily available in Archaean oceans, chiefly iron and iron-sulfur clusters. Oxygenic photosynthesis appeared between 3.2 and 2.5 billion years ago, as did methane oxidation, nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification. These metabolisms rely on an expanded range of transition metals presumably made available by the build-up of molecular oxygen in soil crusts and marine microbial mats. The appropriation of copper in enzymes before the Great Oxidation Event is particularly important, as copper is key to nitrogen and methane cycling and was later incorporated into numerous aerobic metabolisms. We find that the diversity of metals used in oxidoreductases has increased through time, suggesting that surface redox potential and metal incorporation influenced the evolution of metabolism, biological electron transfer and microbial ecology.

  15. The Archaean Granny Smith gold deposit, western Australia: age and Pb-isotope tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, V.J.; McNaughton, N.J.; Groves, D.I.; Ridley, J.R.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Granny Smith gold deposits are situated within a greenstone sequence in the Laverton-Leonora area of the Northeastern Goldfields Province of the Archaean Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. The greenstone sequence (U-Pb zircon age of 2677±6 Ma, felsic pyroclastic rock) was intruded by the Granny Smith Granodiorite at 2665±4 Ma. Gold mineralisation is located along a reactivated N-S Stricking, thrust which wraps around the granitoid intrusion, and within the granitoid intrusion. Initial lead-isotope compositions of the Granny Smith Granodiorite and ore-fluid Pb, estimated from K-feldspar and galena and lead tellurides, respectively, are slightly different. Calculations based on Pb isotope data for the host rocks, and the U-Pb zircon age of the Granny Smith Granodiorite, suggest that ore-fluid Pb was derived from a source with a similar initial lead-isotopic composition to the source of the Granny Smith Granodiorite but about 30 million years after the intrusion of the granitoid. The Pb-isotope data for granitoids of the Northeastern Goldfields fall in a distinct field different to that of the granitoids of the Norseman area and those from Kambalda to Menzies. (authors)

  16. Photometry of faint asteroids and satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degewij, J.

    1978-01-01

    The smaller asteroids, having diameters of about 1 km, appear to rotate faster than do the larger asteroids (approximately 200 km diameter). Most of the bodies may be nearly spherical, probably due to a collisional erosion process in the Main Belt of asteroids. The distributions of diameter versus number were studied for low albedo (C, for carbonaceous) and high albedo (S, for silicaceous) type asteroids in the main belt, down to diameters of 25 km. Among the smaller bodies the S type asteroids are relatively more abundant, probably due to greater crushing strength for S type asteroids. This indicates that both optical types have also different properties in the interior of the body. Areas with slightly different reflectivity over the surface of an asteroid were detected; the rotational light variation of asteroid 4 (Vesta) was found to be caused by spots on its surface. Colorimetry and infrared radiometry of some Hilda asteroids, Trojans and the fainter satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, all having diameters between 100 and 200 km, show that a mixture of types exist. If some asteroids are nearly expended nuclei of comets that lost most of their volatile gaseous material, then their cometary activity is expected to be extinct or at least weak. (Auth.)

  17. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

    2013-11-01

    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  18. Asteroid exploration and utilization: The Hawking explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Alan; Date, Medha; Duarte, Manny; Erian, Neil; Gafka, George; Kappler, Peter; Patano, Scott; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar; Radovich, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources which may exist on asteroids could have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. With the possibly limitless opportunities that exist, it is clear that asteroids are the next step for human existence in space. This report comprises the efforts of NEW WORLDS, Inc. to develop a comprehensive design for an asteroid exploration/sample return mission. This mission is a precursor to proof-of-concept missions that will investigate the validity of mining and materials processing on an asteroid. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on two utilization scenarios: (1) moving an asteroid to an advantageous location for use by Earth; and (2) mining an asteroids and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plane for humans to utilize asteroid resources. The report concentrates specifically on the selection of the most promising asteroids for exploration and the development of an exploration scenario. Future utilization as well as subsystem requirements of an asteroid sample return probe are also addressed.

  19. Radar and optical observations and physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (136617) 1994 CC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brozovic, M.; Benner, L. A. M.; Taylor, P.A.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Scheeres, D.J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Pollock, J.; Pravec, Petr; Galád, Adrián; Fang, J.; Margot, J. L.; Busch, M.W.; Shepard, M.K.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K.M.; Haislip, J.B.; LaCluyze, A.; Jao, J.; Slade, M. A.; Lawrence, K. J.; Hicks, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 1 (2011), s. 241-256 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107 Grant - others:SAV(SK) Vega 2/0016/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * radar observations * near-Earth objects * satellites of asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.385, year: 2011

  20. Colorimetry and magnitudes of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowell, E.; Lumme, K.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper, 1500 UBV observations are analyzed by a new rather general multiple scattering theory which provided clear insight into previously poorly-recognized optical nature of asteroid surfaces. Thus, phase curves are shown to consist of a surface-texture controlled component, due to singly scattered light, and a component due to multiple scattering. Phase curve shapes can be characterized by a single parameter, the multiple scattering factor, Q. As Q increases, the relative importance of the opposition effect diminishes. Asteroid surfaces are particulate and strikingly similar to texture, being moderately porous and moderately rough on a scale greater than the wavelength of light. In concequence, Q (and also the phase coefficient) correlate well with geometric albedo, and there exists a purely photometric means of determining albedos and diameters.

  1. The asteroid 2014 JO25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodniza, Alberto; Pereira, Mario

    2017-10-01

    The asteroid 2014 JO25 was discovered by A. D. Grauer at the Mt. Lemmon Survey on May 2014, and Joe Masiero used observations from the NEOWISE in 2014 to estimate a diameter of 650 meters [1]. However, using the radio telescope at Arecibo-Puerto Rico, astronomers obtained radar images on April 17-2017 and Edgar Rivera Valentín (scientist at Arecibo) said: “We found 2014 JO25 is a contact binary asteroid, two space rocks that were originally separate bodies, and each segment is about 640 meters and 670 meters, for a total of about 1.3 km long. Its rotation is of 3.5 hours” [2]. This asteroid flew past Earth on April 19 at a distance of about 4.6 lunar distances from the Earth. This was the closest approach by an asteroid since 4179 Toutatis. Toutatis flew past Earth on September 2004 at a distance of about 4 lunar distances from the Earth [3]. In April 12-2020 the asteroid will be at a minimum possible distance of 0.1617280 A.U from Earth [4]. From our observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we obtained a lot of pictures. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center [5] and also appears at the web page of NEODyS [6]. Astrometry and photometry were carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements. We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity=0.88454+/-0.00152, semi-major axis= 2.0573+/- 0.0216 A.U, orbital inclination=25.22+/-0.10 deg, longitude of the ascending node =30.6530+/-0.0032 deg, argument of perihelion=49.586+/-0.012 deg, mean motion = 0.33402+/-0.00527 deg/d, perihelion distance=0.237524+/-0.000644 A.U, aphelion distance=3.8770+/-0.0449 A.U, absolute magnitude =18.1. The parameters were calculated based on 164 observations. Dates: 2017 April: 22 to 24 with mean residual=0.22 arcseconds.The asteroid has an orbital period of 2.95 years.[1] https://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2014JO25/2014JO25_planning.html[2] http://earthsky.org/astronomy-essentials/large-asteroid-2014-jo25-close-april-19-2017-how-to-see[3] https

  2. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  3. Physical studies of asteroids. XXXII. Rotation periods and UBVRI-colours for selected asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piironen, J.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Erikson, A.; Oja, T.; Magnusson, P.; Festin, L.; Nathues, A.; Gaul, M.; Velichko, F.

    1998-03-01

    We present lightcurves of selected asteroids. Most of the asteroids were included to obtain refined spin periods. Enhanced periods were determined for 11 Parthenope, 306 Unitas and 372 Palma. We confirmed the spin periods of 8 Flora, 13 Egeria, 71 Niobe, 233 Asterope, 291 Alice, 409 Aspasia, 435 Ella and 512 Taurinensis. We determined also BV-colours for most of the included asteroids and UBVRI-colours for a total of 22 asteroids.

  4. Asteroid families, dynamics and astrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.G.; Gibson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The proper elements and family assignments for the 1227 Palomar-Leiden Survey asteroids of high quality were tabulated. In addition to the large table, there are also auxiliary tables of Mars crossers and commensurate objects, histograms of the proper element distributions, and a discussion. Probably the most important part of the discussion describes the Mars crossing boundary, how the closest distances of approach to Mars and Jupiter are calculated, and why the observed population of Mars crossers should bombard that planet episodically rather than uniformly. Analytical work was done to derive velocity distributions of family forming events from proper element distributions subject to assumptions which may be appropriate for cratering events. Software was developed for a microcomputer to permit plotting of the proper elements. Three orthogonal views are generated and stereo pairs can be printed when desired. This program was created for the study of asteroid families. The astrometry task is directed toward measuring and reducing positions on faint comets and the minor planets with less common orbits. The observational material is CCD frames taken with the Palomar 1.5 m telescope. Positions of 10 comets and 16 different asteroids were published on the Minor Planet Circulars

  5. GRASPING THE NATURE OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Deshapriya, J. D. P. [LESIA—Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma) (Italy); Bernardi, F. [SpaceDyS, via Mario Giuntini 63, I-56023 Cascina (Pisa) (Italy); Luise, F. De [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, via Mentore Maggini snd, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Perozzi, E. [Deimos Space, Strada Buchesti 75-77, Bucharest (Romania); Rossi, A. [IFAC—CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Micheli, M., E-mail: davide.perna@obspm.fr [ESA—NEOCC, ESRIN, via Galileo Galilei 64, I-00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Through their delivery of water and organics, near-Earth objects (NEOs) played an important role in the emergence of life on our planet.  However, they also pose a hazard to the Earth, as asteroid impacts could significantly affect our civilization. Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) are those that, in principle, could possibly impact the Earth within the next century, producing major damage. About 1600 PHAs are currently known, from an estimated population of 4700 ± 1450. However, a comprehensive characterization of the PHA physical properties is still missing. Here we present spectroscopic observations of 14 PHAs, which we have used to derive their taxonomy, meteorite analogs, and mineralogy. Combining our results with the literature, we investigated how PHAs are distributed as a function of their dynamical and physical properties. In general, the “carbonaceous” PHAs seem to be particularly threatening, because of their high porosity (limiting the effectiveness of the main deflection techniques that could be used in space) and low inclination and minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) with the Earth (favoring more frequent close approaches). V-type PHAs also present low MOID values, which can produce frequent close approaches (as confirmed by the recent discovery of a limited space weathering on their surfaces). We also identified those specific objects that deserve particular attention because of their extreme rotational properties, internal strength, or possible cometary nature. For PHAs and NEOs in general, we identified a possible anti-correlation between the elongation and the rotational period, in the range of P{sub rot} ≈ 5–80 hr. This would be compatible with the behavior of gravity-dominated aggregates in rotational equilibrium. For periods ≳80–90 hr, such a trend stops, possibly under the influence of the YORP effect and collisions. However, the statistics is very low, and further observational and theoretical work is required

  6. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  7. Lorre cluster: an outcome of recent asteroid collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.; Dell'Oro, A.; Cellino, A.; Knezevic, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Here we show an example of a young asteroid cluster located in a dynamically stable region, which was produced by partial disruption of a primitive body about 30 km in size. According to our estimation it is only 1.9±0.3 Myr old, thus its post-impact evolution is very limited. The parent body had a large orbital inclination, and was subject to collisions with typical impact speeds higher by a factor of 2 than in the most common situations encountered in the main belt. For the first time we have at disposal the observable outcome of a very recent event to study high-speed collisions involving primitive asteroids.

  8. Geotechnical Tests on Asteroid Simulant Orgueil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander D'marco

    2017-01-01

    In the last 100 years, the global population has more than quadrupled to over seven billion people. At the same time, the demand for food and standard of living has been increasing which has amplified the global water use by nearly eight times from approximately 500 to 4000 cu km per yr from 1900 to 2010. With the increasing concern to sustain the growing population on Earth it is necessary to seek other approaches to ensure that our planet will have resources for generations to come. In recent years, the advancement of space travel and technology has allowed the idea of mining asteroids with resources closer to becoming a reality. During the duration of the internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center, several geotechnical tests were conducted on BP-1 lunar simulant and asteroid simulant Orgueil. The tests that were conducted on BP-1 was to practice utilizing the equipment that will be used on the asteroid simulant and the data from those tests will be omitted from report. Understanding the soil mechanics of asteroid simulant Orgueil will help provide basis for future technological advances and prepare scientists for the conditions they may encounter when mining asteroids becomes reality in the distant future. Distinct tests were conducted to determine grain size distribution, unconsolidated density, and maximum density. Once the basic properties are known, the asteroid simulant will be altered to different levels of compaction using a vibrator table to see how compaction affects the density. After different intervals of vibration compaction, a miniature vane shear test will be conducted. Laboratory vane shear testing is a reliable tool to investigate strength anisotropy in the vertical and horizontal directions of a very soft to stiff saturated fine-grained clayey soil. This test will provide us with a rapid determination of the shear strength on the undisturbed compacted regolith. The results of these tests will shed light on how much torque is necessary to drill

  9. Recycling of the Archaean continental crust: the case study of the Gavião, State of Bahia, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M. Santos; Peucat, J. J.; Martin, H.; Sabaté, P.

    1998-09-01

    The Gavião block, located to the west of the São Francisco Craton (State of Bahia, NE Brazil), is the oldest crustal block so far recognised in South America—3.42 Ga. In its southern part, the Gavião block has been divided into three domains on the basis of 207Pb/ 206Pb dating on single zircons and monazites combined with Sr and Nd isotopic data and major and trace element geochemical modelling. These are: (1) an Archaean juvenile domain which consists of grey gneisses (Bernada massif) which evidence mantle extraction around 3.3 Ga; (2) an Archaean domain (3.24-3.16 Ga) either recycled, or juvenile with crustal contamination, consisting of trondhjemitic grey gneisses (Aracatu massif) and K-rich calc-alkaline granitic gneisses (Mariana and Serra do Eixo massifs); (3) a Paleoproterozoic recycled domain consisting mainly of the Umburanas granites, which yielded inherited zircons ages ranging from 3.1 to 2.8 Ga, whereas the monazite age is ca 2.0 Ga. The Aracatu and Mariana massifs are cut by granites at ca 2.0 Ga the same age of the Serra da Franga massif. The Gavião block is a type example of Archaean continental crust (3.2 Ga) that has been recycled through partial melting events mainly in Paleoproterozoic times during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.0-2.1 Ga). Brasiliano cooling ages are recorded by the Rb-Sr system of biotite-whole rock pairs ca 500 Ma.

  10. Update on an Interstellar Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    Whats the news coming from the research world on the interstellar asteroid visitor, asteroid 1I/Oumuamua? Read on for an update from a few of the latest studies.What is Oumuamua?In lateOctober2017, the discovery of minor planet 1I/Oumuamua was announced. This body which researchers first labeled asa comet and later revised to an asteroid had just zipped around the Sun and was already in the process of speeding away whenwe trained our telescopes on it. Its trajectory, however, marked it as being a visitor from outside our solar system: the first knownvisitorof its kind.Since Oumuamuasdiscovery, scientists have been gathering as many observations of this bodyas possible before it vanishes into the distance. Simultaneously, theorists have leapt at the opportunity to explain its presence and the implications its passage has on our understanding of our surroundings. Here we present just a few of the latest studies that have been published on this first detected interstellar asteroid including several timelystudies published in our new journal, Research Notes of the AAS.The galactic velocity of Oumuamua does not coincide with any of the nearest stars to us. [Mamajek 2018]Where Did Oumuamua Come From?Are we sure Oumuamua didnt originate in our solar system andget scattered into a weird orbit? Jason Wright (The Pennsylvania State University) demonstrates via a series of calculations that no known solar system body could have scattered Oumuamua onto its current orbit nor could any stillunknown object bound to our solar system.Eric Mamajek (Caltech and University of Rochester) showsthat thekinematics of Oumuamua areconsistent with what we might expect of interstellar field objects, though he argues that its kinematics suggest its unlikely to have originated from many of the neareststellar systems.What AreOumuamuas Properties?Oumuamuas light curve. [Bannister et al. 2017]A team of University of Maryland scientists led by Matthew Knight captured a light curve of Oumuamua using

  11. The young Datura asteroid family Spins, shapes, and population estimate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokrouhlický, D.; Pravec, Petr; Ďurech, J.; Bolin, B.; Jedicke, R.; Kušnirák, Peter; Galád, Adrián; Hornoch, Kamil; Kryszczynska, A.; Colas, F.; Moskovitz, N.; Thirouin, A.; Nesvorný, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 598, February (2017), A91/1-A91/19 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0229 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01308S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : celestial mechanics * minor planets * asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  12. Evolution of the Gondwanaland Archaean Shield: ion microprobe zircon dating and southwestern Australia/Wilkes Land, Antartica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovering, J.F.; Comaford, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The ion microprobe has been used to study 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages on 20μm-sized sites on single zircon grains from coastal rocks on either side of the rift in the Gondwanaland Archaean Shield between southwestern Australia and Wilkes Land, Antarctica. The ages on individual sites on zircon grains from a variety of rock types from southwestern Australia show a range from 1600 m.y. to about 3400 m.y., with an inverse dependence on the uranium abundance at each site. Ages of zircons from rocks from the Antartic region show a range from 1600 m.y. to 3100 m.y

  13. Utilization of an H-reversal trajectory of a solar sail for asteroid deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shengping; Li Junfeng; Zeng Xiangyuan

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Asteroids have a possibility of impacting the Earth and always represent a threat. This paper proposes a way of changing the orbit of the asteroid to avoid an impact. A solar sail evolving in an H-reversal trajectory is utilized for asteroid deflection. Firstly, the dynamics of the solar sail and the characteristics of the H-reversal trajectory are analyzed. Then, the attitude of the solar sail is optimized to guide the sail to impact the target asteroid along an H-reversal trajectory. The impact velocity depends on two important parameters: the minimum solar distance along the trajectory and lightness number of the solar sail. A larger lightness number and a smaller solar distance lead to a higher impact velocity. Finally, the deflection capability of a solar sail impacting the asteroid along the H-reversal trajectory is discussed. The results show that a 10 kg solar sail with a lead-time of one year can move Apophis out of a 600-m keyhole area in 2029 to eliminate the possibility of its resonant return in 2036. (editor's recommendation)

  14. Asteroid size distributions for the main belt and for asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzev, A.; Kazantzeva, L.

    2017-12-01

    The asteroid-size distribution for he Eos family was constructed. The WISE database containing the albedo p and the size D of over 80,000 asteroids was used. The b parameter of the power-law dependence has a minimum at some average values of the asteroid size of the family. A similar dependence b(D) exists for the whole asteroid belt. An assumption on the possible similarity of the formation mechanisms of the asteroid belt as a whole and separate families is made.

  15. Spectroscopy of near-Earth asteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, René; Nathues, Andreas; Lagerkvist, Claes-Ingvar

    2006-01-01

    We present spectra and taxonomic classifications of 12 Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and 2 inner Main Belt asteroids. The observations were carried out with the ESO 3.5 m NTT and the Danish 1.54 m telescope at La Silla, Chile. Eleven of the investigated NEAs belong to the S class while only one C-t...

  16. Lightcurve Photometry of Six Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Observations from 2012 January to March lead to the determination of the rotation periods for six main-belt asteroids: 33 Polyhymnia, P = 18.604 ± 0.004 h; 467 Laura, P = 37.4 ± 0.1 h; 825 Tanina, P = 6.940 ± 0.001 h; 1421 Esperanto, P = 21.982 ± 0.005 h; 3481 Xianglupeak, P = 5.137 ± 0.003 h; and 4350 Shibecha, which had two possible solutions, P = 2.890 ± 0.001 h and P = 5.778 ± 0.002 h.

  17. Absence of satellites of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J.D.; Levenson, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of satellites within 0.1-7.0 arcmin of minor planets noted in the present CCD imaging survey is judged consistent with previous theoretical studies of collisions in which it is held that satellites would have to be larger than about 30 km in order to be collisionally stable. In view of tidal stability, the only main belt asteroid satellites which could conceivably possess stability over eons are near-contact binaries. Any recent collisional debris would be chaotic and collisionally unstable. 15 references

  18. Ideas and perspectives: hydrothermally driven redistribution and sequestration of early Archaean biomass – the “hydrothermal pump hypothesis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Duda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaean hydrothermal chert veins commonly contain abundant organic carbon of uncertain origin (abiotic vs. biotic. In this study, we analysed kerogen contained in a hydrothermal chert vein from the ca. 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation (Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Catalytic hydropyrolysis (HyPy of this kerogen yielded n-alkanes up to n-C22, with a sharp decrease in abundance beyond n-C18. This distribution ( ≤  n-C18 is very similar to that observed in HyPy products of recent bacterial biomass, which was used as reference material, whereas it differs markedly from the unimodal distribution of abiotic compounds experimentally formed via Fischer–Tropsch-type synthesis. We therefore propose that the organic matter in the Archaean chert veins has a primarily microbial origin. The microbially derived organic matter accumulated in anoxic aquatic (surface and/or subsurface environments and was then assimilated, redistributed and sequestered by the hydrothermal fluids (hydrothermal pump hypothesis.

  19. UV Spectroscopy of Metallic Asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, N. J.; Becker, T. M.; Retherford, K. D.; Roth, L.; Feaga, L. M.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2017-09-01

    Asteroid (16) Psyche is the largest M-type asteroid, and the planned destination of the NASA Discovery mission Psyche and the proposed ESA M5 mission Heavy Metal. Psyche is considered to be the exposed core of a differentiated asteroid, whose mantle has been stripped by collisions; but other histories have been proposed. We observed Psyche with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, to obtain a full ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of both of Psyche's hemispheres. We seek to test three possible scenarios for Psyche's origin: Is Psyche the exposed core of a differentiated asteroid? Is it an asteroid with high olivine content that has been space-weathered? Or did Psyche accrete as-is in a highly-reducing environment early in the history of the solar system? We will present the UV spectra and their implications for Psyche's history.

  20. The Mission Accessibility of Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Abell, P. A.; Adamo, D. R.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Taylor, P.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The population of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) that may be accessible for human space flight missions is defined by the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). The NHATS is an automated system designed to monitor the accessibility of, and particular mission opportunities offered by, the NEA population. This is analogous to systems that automatically monitor the impact risk posed to Earth by the NEA population. The NHATS system identifies NEAs that are potentially accessible for future round-trip human space flight missions and provides rapid notification to asteroid observers so that crucial follow-up observations can be obtained following discovery of accessible NEAs. The NHATS was developed in 2010 and was automated by early 2012. NHATS data are provided via an interactive web-site, and daily NHATS notification emails are transmitted to a mailing list; both resources are available to the public.

  1. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M.; Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L.; Vachier, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured

  2. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Beauvalet, L. [National Observatory, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L. [Carl Sagan Center at the SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Vachier, F., E-mail: byang@eso.org [Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides, Paris (France)

    2016-04-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  3. Rifting an Archaean Craton: Insights from Seismic Anisotropy Patterns in E. Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Currie, C. A.; van Wijk, J.; Albaric, J.

    2016-12-01

    Few places worldwide offer opportunities to study active deformation of deeply-keeled cratonic lithosphere. The magma-rich Eastern rift transects the eastern edge of the Archaean Tanzania craton in northeastern Tanzania, which has been affected by a large-scale mantle upwelling. Abundant xenolith locales offer constraints on mantle age, composition, and physical properties. Our aim is to evaluate models for magmatic fluid-alteration (metasomatism) and deformation of mantle lithosphere along the edge of cratons by considering spatial variations in the direction and magnitude of seismic anisotropy, which is strongly influenced by mantle flow patterns along lithosphere-asthenosphere topography, fluid-filled cracks (e.g., dikes), and pre-existing mantle lithosphere strain fabrics. Waveforms of teleseismic earthquakes (SKS, SKKS) recorded on the 39-station CRAFTI-CoLiBREA broadband array in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania are used to determine the azimuth and amount of shear-wave splitting accrued as seismic waves pass through the uppermost mantle and lithosphere at the craton edge. Lower crustal earthquakes enable evaluation of seismic anisotropy throughout the crust along the rift flanks and beneath the heavily intruded Magadi and Natron basins, and the weakly intruded Manyara basin. Our results and those of earlier studies show a consistent N50E splitting direction within the craton, with delay times of ca. 1.5 s, and similar direction east of the rift in thinner Pan-African lithosphere. Stations within the rift zone are rotated to a N15-35E splitting, with the largest delay times of 2.5 s at the margin of the heavily intruded Magadi basin. The short length scale of variations and rift-parallel splitting directions are similar to patterns in the Main Ethiopian rift attributed to melt-filled cracks or oriented pockets rising from the base of the lithosphere. The widespread evidence for mantle metasomatism and magma intrusion to mid-crustal levels suggests that

  4. Asteroid Shapes Are Always Close To Fluid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, Paolo; Comito, C.; Hestroffer, D.; Richardson, D. C.

    2010-10-01

    The simple evidence that asteroid are composed by solid rocks suggests that their shape can be rather far from the theoretical equilibrium for rotating fluid bodies. The possible fragmented ("rubble-pile") nature of most of them has suggested interpretations based on elasto-plastic models (such as the Mohr-Coulomb theory) that take into account the static behavior of a granular structure. However, these approaches did not incorporate explicitly the possible evolution of shapes in time due to external factors such as crater forming impacts or tidal deformations. We revisited the theory of equilibrium shapes for fluids, quantitatively evaluating - by appropriate metrics - the distance of the observed shapes from fluid equilibrium. This distance turns out to be much smaller than previously expected. On the basis of this evidence, we simulated numerically the evolution of gravitational aggregates having a small degree of internal friction, consistent with the theoretical findings. Our results offer a global scenario for the evolution of asteroid shapes under the action of gradual stresses due to minor impacts, tidal forces and seismic shaking. We show that actual asteroid shapes are consistent with the evolution of aggregates tending towards minimum free energy states. We are able to explain the samples of observed shapes obtained by different techniques. Our findings strongly support a highly porous and fragmented nature for most asteroids, at least in an external layer. Reference: Tanga et al. 2009: ApJ Letters, 706, 1, L197-L202 Acknowledgments: PT and CC have been supported by the "Programme Nationale de Planetologie" of France; DCR acknowledges support by the NASA (grant no. NNX08AM39G issued through the Office of Space Science) and by the NSF (grant no. AST0708110).

  5. Looking into the evolution of granular asteroids in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Tardivel, Simon

    2017-06-01

    By now it has been accepted that most of the small asteroids in the Solar System are granular aggregates kept together by gravitational and possibly, cohesive forces. These aggregates can form, deform and disrupt over millennia subjected to different internal and external factors that would ultimately determine how they evolve over time. Parameters such as porosity, cohesive and tensile strength, angles of friction, particle size distributions, stress states, heterogeneity and yield criteria among others, determine how these granular systems will react when subjected to different, changing, external factors. These external factors include solar photon momentum, gravitational tides, micro- and macro-impacts and are believed to have produced and shaped the current asteroid population. In our research we use a combination of Soil Mechanics theory, Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) Simulations and Orbital Mechanics in order to understand how simulated, homogeneous and heterogeneous, ellipsoidal and spherical gravitational aggregates, a crude but useful representation of an asteroid, evolve when rotated to the point of disruption. Then, we compare our results to the shapes of observed asteroids as well as to the disruption patterns of a few active asteroids. Our results lead us to believe that the different shapes of observed asteroids as well as their unique disruption patterns could give us clues about their internal structure, strength and geophysical properties in general.

  6. Autonomous vision-based navigation for proximity operations around binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Fernandez, Jesus; Ortega-Hernando, Guillermo

    2018-06-01

    Future missions to small bodies demand higher level of autonomy in the Guidance, Navigation and Control system for higher scientific return and lower operational costs. Different navigation strategies have been assessed for ESA's asteroid impact mission (AIM). The main objective of AIM is the detailed characterization of binary asteroid Didymos. The trajectories for the proximity operations shall be intrinsically safe, i.e., no collision in presence of failures (e.g., spacecraft entering safe mode), perturbations (e.g., non-spherical gravity field), and errors (e.g., maneuver execution error). Hyperbolic arcs with sufficient hyperbolic excess velocity are designed to fulfil the safety, scientific, and operational requirements. The trajectory relative to the asteroid is determined using visual camera images. The ground-based trajectory prediction error at some points is comparable to the camera Field Of View (FOV). Therefore, some images do not contain the entire asteroid. Autonomous navigation can update the state of the spacecraft relative to the asteroid at higher frequency. The objective of the autonomous navigation is to improve the on-board knowledge compared to the ground prediction. The algorithms shall fit in off-the-shelf, space-qualified avionics. This note presents suitable image processing and relative-state filter algorithms for autonomous navigation in proximity operations around binary asteroids.

  7. Asteroid Redirection Mission Evaluation Using Multiple Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, Michael C. F.; Emami, M. Reza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a low-thrust tugboat redirection method is assessed using multiple spacecraft for a target range of small near-Earth asteroids. The benefits of a landed configuration of tugboat spacecraft in formation are examined for the redirection of a near-Earth asteroid. The tugboat method uses a gimballed thruster with a highly collimated ion beam to generate a thrust on the asteroid. The target asteroid range focuses on near-Earth asteroids smaller than 150 m in diameter, and carbonaceous (C-type) asteroids, due to the volatiles available for in-situ utilization. The assessment focuses primarily on the three key parameters, i.e., the asteroid mass redirected, the timeframe for redirection, and the overall system cost. An evaluation methodology for each parameter is discussed in detail, and the parameters are employed to determine the expected return and feasibility of the redirection mission. The number of spacecraft employed is optimized along with the electrical power needed for each spacecraft to ensure the highest possible return on investment. A discussion of the optimization results and the benefits of spacecraft formation for the tugboat method are presented.

  8. Predictions of asteroid hazard to the Earth for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Nikita; Sokolov, Leonid; Polyakhova, Elena; Oskina, Kristina

    2018-05-01

    Early detection and investigation of possible collisions and close approaches of asteroids with the Earth are necessary to exept the asteroid-comet hazard. The difficulty of prediction of close approaches and collisions associated with resonant returns after encounters with the Earth due to loss of precision in these encounters. The main research object is asteroid Apophis (99942), for which we found many possible orbits of impacts associated with resonant returns. It is shown that the early orbit change of Apophis allows to avoid main impacts, associated with resonant returns. Such a change of the orbit, in principle, is feasible. We also study the possible impacts with the Ground asteroid 2015 RN35. We present 21 possible collisions in this century, including 7 collisions with large gaps presented in NASA website. The results of observations by the telescope ZA-320M at Pulkovo Obser-vatory of the three near-Earth asteroids, namely, 7822, 20826, 68216, two of which 7822 and 68216 are potentially hazardous, are presented.

  9. NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) Trajectory Validation and Robutness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno V.; Ozimek, Martin T.; Atchison, Justin A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission will be the first to test the concept of a kinetic impactor. Several studies have been made on asteroid redirection and impact mitigation, however, to this date no mission tested the proposed concepts. An impact study on a representative body allows the measurement of the effects on the target's orbit and physical structure. With this goal, DART's objective is to verify the effectiveness of the kinetic impact concept for planetary defense. The spacecraft uses solar electric propulsion to escape Earth, fly by (138971) 2001 CB21 for impact rehearsal, and impact Didymos-B, the secondary body of the binary (65803) Didymos system. This work focuses on the heliocentric transfer design part of the mission with the validation of the baseline trajectory, performance comparison to other mission objectives, and assessment of the baseline robustness to missed thrust events. Results show a good performance of the selected trajectory for different mission objectives: latest possible escape date, maximum kinetic energy on impact, shortest possible time of flight, and use of an Earth swing-by. The baseline trajectory was shown to be robust to a missed thrust with 1% of fuel margin being enough to recover the mission for failures of more than 14 days.

  10. Prospects for asteroid mass determination from close encounters between asteroids: ESA's Gaia space mission and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivantsov, Anatoliy; Hestroffer, Daniel; Eggl, Siegfried

    2018-04-01

    We present a catalog of potential candidates for asteroid mass determination based on mutual close encounters of numbered asteroids with massive perturbers (D>20 km). Using a novel geometric approach tuned to optimize observability, we predict optimal epochs for mass determination observations. In contrast to previous studies that often used simplified dynamical models, we have numerically propagated the trajectories of all numbered asteroids over the time interval from 2013 to 2023 using relativistic equations of motion including planetary perturbations, J2 of the Sun, the 16 major asteroid perturbers and the perturbations due to non-sphericities of the planets. We compiled a catalog of close encounters between asteroids where the observable perturbation of the sky plane trajectory is greater than 0.5 mas so that astrometric measurements of the perturbed asteroids in the Gaia data can be leveraged. The catalog v1.0 is available at ftp://dosya.akdeniz.edu.tr/ivantsov.

  11. Infrared spectral reflectances of asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Veeder, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    This review compares the types of compositional information produced by three complementary techniques used in infrared observations of asteroid surfaces: broadband JHKL photometry, narrow band photometry, and multiplex spectroscopy. The high information content of these infrared observations permits definitive interpretations of asteroid surface compositions in terms of the major meteoritic minerals (olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, hydrous silicates, and metallic Ni-Fe). These studies emphasize the individuality of asteroid surface compositions, the inadequacy of simple comparisons with spectra of meteorites, and the need to coordinate spectral measurements of all types to optimize diagnostic capabilities.

  12. BILLIARDS: A Demonstration Mission for Hundred-Meter Class Near-Earth Asteroid Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Matthew; Sloane, Joshua; Ortiz, Oliver; Barbee, Brent William

    2015-01-01

    Collisions from near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have the potential to cause widespread harm to life on Earth. The hypervelocity nature of these collisions means that a relatively small asteroid (about a quartermile in diameter) could cause a global disaster. Proposed strategies for deflecting or disrupting such a threatening asteroid include detonation of a nuclear explosive device (NED) in close proximity to the asteroid, as well as intercepting the asteroid with a hypervelocity kinetic impactor. NEDs allow for the delivery of large amounts of energy to a NEA for a given mass launched from the Earth, but have not yet been developed or tested for use in deep space. They also present safety and political complications, and therefore may only be used when absolutely necessary. Kinetic impactors require a relatively simple spacecraft compared to NEDs, but also deliver a much lower energy for a given launch mass. To date, no demonstration mission has been conducted for either case, and such a demonstration mission must be conducted prior to the need to utilize them during an actual scenario to ensure that an established, proven system is available for planetary defense when the need arises. One method that has been proposed to deliver a kinetic impactor with impact energy approaching that of an NED is the "billiard-ball" approach. This approach would involve capturing an asteroid approximately ten meters in diameter with a relatively small spacecraft (compared to the launch mass of an equivalent direct kinetic impactor), and redirecting it into the path of an Earth-threatening asteroid. This would cause an impact which would disrupt the Earth-threatening asteroid or deflect it from its Earth-crossing trajectory. The BILLIARDS Project seeks to perform a demonstration of this mission concept in order to establish a protocol that can be used in the event of an impending Earth/asteroid collision. In order to accomplish this objective, the mission must (1) rendezvous with a

  13. OSIRIS-REx: Sample Return from Asteroid (101955) Bennu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Balram-Knutson, S. S.; Beshore, E.; Boynton, W. V.; Drouet d'Aubigny, C.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Enos, H. L.; Golish, D. R.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Howell, E. S.; Bennett, C. A.; Morton, E. T.; Nolan, M. C.; Rizk, B.; Roper, H. L.; Bartels, A. E.; Bos, B. J.; Dworkin, J. P.; Highsmith, D. E.; Lorenz, D. A.; Lim, L. F.; Mink, R.; Moreau, M. C.; Nuth, J. A.; Reuter, D. C.; Simon, A. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Bryan, B. H.; Ballouz, R.; Barnouin, O. S.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Hamilton, V. E.; Walsh, K. J.; Chesley, S. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. E.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Daly, M. G.; Emery, J. P.; McCoy, T. J.; McMahon, J. W.; Scheeres, D. J.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Sandford, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    In May of 2011, NASA selected the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security- Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission as the third mission in the New Frontiers program. The other two New Frontiers missions are New Horizons, which explored Pluto during a flyby in July 2015 and is on its way for a flyby of Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69 on January 1, 2019, and Juno, an orbiting mission that is studying the origin, evolution, and internal structure of Jupiter. The spacecraft departed for near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu aboard an United Launch Alliance Atlas V 411 evolved expendable launch vehicle at 7:05 p.m. EDT on September 8, 2016, on a seven-year journey to return samples from Bennu. The spacecraft is on an outbound-cruise trajectory that will result in a rendezvous with Bennu in November 2018. The science instruments on the spacecraft will survey Bennu to measure its physical, geological, and chemical properties, and the team will use these data to select a site on the surface to collect at least 60 g of asteroid regolith. The team will also analyze the remote-sensing data to perform a detailed study of the sample site for context, assess Bennu's resource potential, refine estimates of its impact probability with Earth, and provide ground-truth data for the extensive astronomical data set collected on this asteroid. The spacecraft will leave Bennu in 2021 and return the sample to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) on September 24, 2023.

  14. On relative velocity in very young asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaev, A.; Plávalová, E.

    2018-04-01

    Asteroid families are groups of minor planets that have a common origin in catastrophic breakup events. The very young compact asteroid clusters are a natural laboratory in which to study impact processes and the dynamics of asteroid orbits. In the first part of the paper, we define the term very young asteroid families (VYF), that is to say, younger than 1.6 Myrs, and explain why we have defined this group as being separate from young families (younger than 100 Myr), due to specific characteristics, in particularly, non-gravitational forces which have a very small effect (which could be negligible) on their dynamics and the role of the initial conditions in VYFs as being more significant. Due to these facts, the way we study VYFs may be different relative to young families. For the most part, the calculation of VYFs' normal component of relative velocity using backward numerical integration, exhibited a clear, deep minimum, which was close to the breakup epoch. The age estimations found while employing this method were in excellent agreement with the established age estimations used by other authors. We confirmed our results with the established age estimation of the Hobson family (365 ± 67 kyrs). Concerning the Emilkowalsky family, we confirmed the results of Nesvorný and Vokrouhlický (2006) (220 ± 30 kyrs), obtaining a far clearer result using the relative velocity method rather than single-orbital element convergence. The case of the Datura family is more complex to study, mainly due to its 9:16 resonance with Mars. We have exemplified that the z-component of relative velocity may prove to be a powerful and useful criterion for VYF age estimations. The studied value of relative velocity may contain information about the ejection velocity. As an additional outcome of this paper, we have introduced two new members of two different VYFs; one new member of the Emilkowalsky family and one of the Hobson family.

  15. Asteroid Spectroscopy: A Declaration of Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F.

    1995-09-01

    One of the shibboleths of asteroid spectroscopy for the past 25 years has been that a detailed knowledge of meteoritics is essential for proper interpretation of asteroid spectra. In fact, several recent spectroscopic discoveries have overturned long-standing models based on popular interpretations of meteorite data. A case can be made that spectroscopists could have made much faster progress if they had worked in total isolation from meteoritics. Consider the first three spectral classes identified in the 1970s: Vesta: The very first asteroid spectrum was unambigously basaltic, yet some meteoriticists have persistently resisted the obvious conclusion that the HED clan comes from Vesta, because A) Vesta is "impossibly" far from the known dynamical escape hatches; and B) the HED O-isotope data "establishes" a lirlk with pallasites and IIIAB irons, suggesting that their parent was some other completely disrupted asteroid. The discovery of a "dynamically impossible" extended family of basaltic fragments extending from Vesta to the 3:1 resonance [1] makes it clear that HEDs must originate on Vesta, and that dynamical, physical and isotopic arguments all led in the wrong direction. Stony: In the early 1970s meteorite fall statistics led to an expectation that many of the larger asteroids would be ordinary chondrites. When the most common class of asteroids proved to have silicate absorption bands, many concluded that these objects were the expected ordinary chondrite parent asteroids. The later discovery that S-type spectra do not actually resemble OCs was rationalized with imaginary "space weathering" processes (which have never been observed or simulated despite 20 years of wasted effort). Now that the real weathering trends in S asteroids have been resolved [2] and asteroids which actually do look like OCs discovered [3], it is clear that the eDhre controversy over S asteroid composition was a blind alley that could have been avoided by taking the spectra at face

  16. Cohesion of Mm- to Cm-Sized Asteroid Simulant Grains: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Julie; Colwell, Joshua E.; Dove, Adrienne; Jarmak, Stephanie; Anderson, Seamus

    2017-10-01

    The regolith covering the surfaces of asteroids and planetary satellites is very different from terrestrial soil particles and subject to environmental conditions very different from what is found on Earth. The loose, unconsolidated granular material has angular-shaped grains and a broad size distribution. On small and airless bodies (Earth surface gravity, the cohesion behavior of the regolith grains will dictate the asteroid’s surface morphology and its response to impact or spacecraft contact.Previous laboratory experiments on low-velocity impacts into regolith simulant with grain sizes landing missions to small bodies such as asteroids or Martian moons.

  17. Planetary Defense From Space: Part 2 (Simple) Asteroid Deflection Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2006-06-01

    A system of two space bases housing missiles for an efficient Planetary Defense of the Earth from asteroids and comets was firstly proposed by this author in 2002. It was then shown that the five Lagrangian points of the Earth Moon system lead naturally to only two unmistakable locations of these two space bases within the sphere of influence of the Earth. These locations are the two Lagrangian points L1 (in between the Earth and the Moon) and L3 (in the direction opposite to the Moon from the Earth). In fact, placing missiles based at L1 and L3 would enable the missiles to deflect the trajectory of incoming asteroids by hitting them orthogonally to their impact trajectory toward the Earth, thus maximizing the deflection at best. It was also shown that confocal conics are the only class of missile trajectories fulfilling this “best orthogonal deflection” requirement. The mathematical theory developed by the author in the years 2002 2004 was just the beginning of a more expanded research program about the Planetary Defense. In fact, while those papers developed the formal Keplerian theory of the Optimal Planetary Defense achievable from the Earth Moon Lagrangian points L1 and L3, this paper is devoted to the proof of a simple “(small) asteroid deflection law” relating directly the following variables to each other:the speed of the arriving asteroid with respect to the Earth (known from the astrometric observations);the asteroid's size and density (also supposed to be known from astronomical observations of various types);the “security radius” of the Earth, that is, the minimal sphere around the Earth outside which we must force the asteroid to fly if we want to be safe on Earth. Typically, we assume the security radius to equal about 10,000 km from the Earth center, but this number might be changed by more refined analyses, especially in the case of “rubble pile” asteroids;the distance from the Earth of the two Lagrangian points L1 and L3 where the

  18. On the metal-rich surfaces of (16) Psyche and other M-type asteroids from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbo, Marco; Matter, A.; Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids belonging to the spectroscopic M-type exhibit a quasi featureless and moderately red reflectance spectrum and a geometric visible albedo between 0.1 and 0.3. These asteroids were initially thought to be metallic cores of differentiated asteroids that were exposed to space by a catastrophic disruption by impacts. Later, this view has been challenged by the detection of silicates and hydration spectroscopic bands on these bodies. Unveiling the physical properties of the surfaces of these asteroids, and identifying their meteorite analogs is a challenge from remote-sensing observations. Nevertheless, these are crucial problems, important for estimating the number of asteroids that underwent differentiation in the early phases of the formation of our solar system. The thermal inertia is a sensitive indicator for the presence of metal in the regolith on the surfaces of asteroids. We developed a new thermophysical model that allow us to derive the value of the thermal inertia from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared. We report on our investigation of the thermal inertia of M-type asteroids, including the asteroids (16) Psyche, for which we obtained a thermal inertia value anomalously high compared to the thermal inertia values of other asteroids in the same size range. From the thermal inertia and model of heat conductivity that accounts for different values of the packing fraction (a measure of the degree of compaction of the regolith particles) the regolith grain size is derived.

  19. Geochemical evidence for subduction in the early Archaean from quartz-carbonate-fuchsite mineralization, Isua Supracrustal Belt, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    Quartz, carbonate and fuchsite (chromian muscovite) is a common metasomatic assemblage observed in orogenic gold systems, both in Phanerozoic convergent margin settings, and within supracrustal and greenstone belts of Precambrian rocks. Geologic and geochemical observations in younger orogenic...... systems suggest that ore-forming metasomatic fluids are derived from subduction-related devolitilization reactions, implying that orogenic Au-deposits in Archaean and Proterozoic supracrustal rock suites are related to subduction-style plate tectonics beginning early in Earth history. Justification...... with Phanerozoic orogenic deposits and that this type of metasomatism is a unique result of subduction-related processes. Fuchsite from the ISB has a δ18O and δD of 7.7 to 17.9‰ and -115 to -61‰, respectively. δ18O of quartz from the same rocks is between 10.3 and 18.6‰. Muscovite-quartz oxygen isotope thermometry...

  20. PROPERTIES OF NEAR-SUN ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Asteroids near the Sun can attain equilibrium temperatures sufficient to induce surface modification from thermal fracture, desiccation, and decomposition of hydrated silicates. We present optical observations of nine asteroids with perihelia <0.25 AU (sub-solar temperatures {>=}800 K) taken to search for evidence of thermal modification. We find that the broadband colors of these objects are diverse but statistically indistinguishable from those of planet-crossing asteroids having perihelia near 1 AU. Furthermore, images of these bodies taken away from perihelion show no evidence for on-going mass-loss (model-dependent limits {approx}<1 kg s{sup -1}) that might result from thermal disintegration of the surface. We conclude that, while thermal modification may be an important process in the decay of near-Sun asteroids and in the production of debris, our new data provide no evidence for it.

  1. Chelyabinsk: Portrait of an asteroid airburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, David A.; Boslough, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Video and audio from hundreds of smartphones and dashboard cameras combined with seismic, acoustic, and satellite measurements provide the first precise documentation of a 10 000-ton asteroid explosion.

  2. Shaping asteroid models using genetic evolution (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, P.; Dudziński, G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present SAGE (shaping asteroid models using genetic evolution), an asteroid modelling algorithm based solely on photometric lightcurve data. It produces non-convex shapes, orientations of the rotation axes and rotational periods of asteroids. The main concept behind a genetic evolution algorithm is to produce random populations of shapes and spin-axis orientations by mutating a seed shape and iterating the process until it converges to a stable global minimum. We tested SAGE on five artificial shapes. We also modelled asteroids 433 Eros and 9 Metis, since ground truth observations for them exist, allowing us to validate the models. We compared the derived shape of Eros with the NEAR Shoemaker model and that of Metis with adaptive optics and stellar occultation observations since other models from various inversion methods were available for Metis.

  3. Chelyabinsk: Portrait of an asteroid airburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kring, David A.; Boslough, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Video and audio from hundreds of smartphones and dashboard cameras combined with seismic, acoustic, and satellite measurements provide the first precise documentation of a 10 000-ton asteroid explosion

  4. SAWYER ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Partial spectral data for the plots presented in S. Sawyer's PhD Thesis, 'A High Resolution Spectroscopic Survey of Low Albedo Main Belt Asteroids', 1991.

  5. Families Among High-Inclination Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.; Cellino, A.; Knezevic, Z.

    2012-05-01

    We review briefly the most important results of the classification of high-inclination asteroids into families performed by Novakovic et al.(Icarus, 2011,216) and present some new results about a very interesting (5438) Lorre cluster.

  6. ASTEROID SPIN VECTORS V4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a tabulation of determinations of asteroid pole orientations gathered from the literature from 1932 through 1995. It is an updated (Dec. 1995) version of the...

  7. First record of 1.2 Ga quartz dioritic magmatism in the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and its significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Y.; McNaughton, N.J.; Groves, D.I.; Dunphy, J.M. [University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia). Centre for Strategic Mineral Deposits, Department of Geology and Geophysics

    1999-06-01

    Ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon dating. Pb-Nd isotope tracer studies and major, trace and rare-earth element analyses have identified, for the first time. a Mesoproterozoic (1.2 Ga) quartz diorite intrusion in the central part of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton. Western Australia The quartz diorite is characterised by intergrowths of quartz and plagioclase, having low A/CNK (0 8). low K{sub 2}O (0.28 wt%), Ba (54 ppm), Rb (11 ppm), Sr (92 ppm), Pb (13 ppm), U (1.7 ppm) and Th (6 ppm) contents, high Nd (41 ppm), Sm (10.5 ppm), Zr (399 ppm). Nb (18.5 ppm). Y (57.5 ppm) and Sc (19 ppm) contents. a low Pb isotope two-stage model {mu} value (6.3), and a primitive initial e{sub Nd} value (+3.4) at 1.2 Ga. It is interpreted that the 1.2 Ga quartz diorite was derived from a predominantly mantle source, with minor crustal contamination, possibly from the surrounding Archaean monzogranites or their source region, during magma ascent. The age (1215 {+-} 11 Ma) of the intrusion overlaps with the timing of a major continental collisional orogeny in the Albany-Fraser Orogen, about 400km south, and is broadly coeval with the diamond-bearing Argyle lamproites in the east Kimberley Block. This study extends the history of granitoid magmatism in the central craton by more than 1.0 billion years (2.6 to 1.2 Ga), and has implications for isotopic data interpretations of tectonothermal events in the craton. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 33 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Optimized Bucket Wheel Design for Asteroid Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Nallapu, Ravi Teja; Thoesen, Andrew; Garvie, Laurence; Asphaug, Erik; Thangavelautham, Jekanthan

    2017-01-01

    Current spacecraft need to launch with all of their required fuel for travel. This limits the system performance, payload capacity, and mission flexibility. One compelling alternative is to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) by extracting fuel from small bodies in local space such as asteroids or small satellites. Compared to the Moon or Mars, the microgravity on an asteroid demands a fraction of the energy for digging and accessing hydrated regolith just below the surface. Previous ...

  9. Asteroids Lightcurves Analysis: 2016 November - 2017 June

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognani, Albino; Bacci, Paolo; Buzzi, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Twelve near-Earth asteroids were observed from 2016 November through 2017 June to find the synodic rotation period and lightcurve amplitudes for each asteroid. Results are reported for 2329 Orthos, (138846) 2000 VJ61, (326683) 2002 WP, (489337) 2006 UM, (494706) 2005 GL9, 2005 TF, 2017 BJ30, 2017 BQ6, 2017 CS, 2017 DC36, 2017 GK4, and 2017 JA2.

  10. Dynamical properties of the Watsonia asteroid family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirvoulis, G.; Novakovic, B.; Knezevic, Z.; Cellino, A.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: In recent years, a rare class of asteroids has been discovered [1], with its distinguishing characteristic being the anomalous polarimetric properties of its members. Named Barbarians, after (234) Barbara, the prototype of the class, these asteroids show negative polarization at unusually high phase-angles compared to normal asteroids. Motivated by the fact that some of the few discovered Barbarians seemed to be related to the Watsonia asteroid family, Cellino et al. [2] performed a search for more Barbarians among its members. A positive result of this search led to the conclusion that Watsonia is indeed an important repository of Barbarian asteroids. Based on these findings, we decided to analyze this family in detail. Basic information: According to available data, Watsonia is an L-type asteroid family, located in the middle of the main asteroid belt (2.68 < a_{p} < 2.82 au), with low to moderate orbital eccentricities (0.1 < e_{p} < 0.15) and relatively high inclinations (16.5^{o} < i_{p} < 18^{o}). Methodology: The first step in our study is to derive a reliable list of Watsonia family members. To that purpose, we first calculate the synthetic proper elements [3] of an extended catalogue including numbered, as well as multi and single opposition asteroids, in a wide region around the family. To this catalogue we apply the Hierarchical Clustering Method (HCM)[4] to determine the membership of the family, coinciding with the requirement that all confirmed neighboring Barbarians are included (see figure). To detect potential interlopers and refine the membership list, additional data such as the SDSS colors and WISE albedos are used. Moreover, we identify all relevant resonances and analyze the dynamical characteristics of the region occupied by the family. Then we estimate the age of the family, and finally, we perform numerical integrations of test particles to investigate possible dynamical links to other known Barbarians and to the near

  11. Collisional fragmentation of asteroids and its implication on the physical properties of Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, P.

    Collisions are at the origin of catastrophic disruptions in the asteroid Main Belt. This is witnessed by the observation of asteroid families, each composed of asteroids which originated from a single parent body, broken-up by a collision with another asteroid. Understanding the collisional process and its outcome properties is not only necessary in order to study the collisional evolution of small body population or the planetary formation, it is also strongly required in the context of mitigation strategies aimed at deviating a threatening asteroid. In the last three years, for the first time we have successfully performed numerical simulations of high speed collisions between small bodies which account for the production of gravitationally reaccumulated bodies. More precisely, we have developped a procedure which divides the process into two phases. Using a 3D SPH hydrocode, the fragmentation of the solid target through crack propagation is first computed. Then the simulation of the gravitational evolution and possible piecewise reaccumulation of the parent body is performed using the parallel N-body code pkdgrav. Our first simulations using monolithic parent bodies have succeeded in reproducing fundamental properties of some well-identified asteroid families, showing that gravitational re-accumulations following disruptive collisions are the key process accounting for the existence of asteroid families. Then, we have investigated the effect of the internal structure of the parent body on the outcome properties. We have thus shown that family parent bodies are likely to have already been pre-shattered by small impacts before being disrupted by a major event. We then suggested that the most likely internal structure of large asteroids in the main belt is not monolithic but rather composed of macroscopic fractures and voids. We will make a review of these simulations in three different impact regimes, from highly catastrophic to barely disruptive. In particular we

  12. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  13. Abodes for life in carbonaceous asteroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2011-05-01

    Thermal evolution models for carbonaceous asteroids that use new data for permeability, pore volume, and water circulation as input parameters provide a window into what are arguably the earliest habitable environments in the Solar System. Plausible models of the Murchison meteorite (CM) parent body show that to first-order, conditions suitable for the stability of liquid water, and thus pre- or post-biotic chemistry, could have persisted within these asteroids for tens of Myr. In particular, our modeling results indicate that a 200-km carbonaceous asteroid with a 40% initial ice content takes almost 60 Myr to cool completely, with habitable temperatures being maintained for ˜24 Myr in the center. Yet, there are a number of indications that even with the requisite liquid water, thermal energy sources to drive chemical gradients, and abundant organic "building blocks" deemed necessary criteria for life, carbonaceous asteroids were intrinsically unfavorable sites for biopoesis. These controls include different degrees of exothermal mineral hydration reactions that boost internal warming but effectively remove liquid water from the system, rapid (1-10 mm yr -1) inward migration of internal habitable volumes in most models, and limitations imposed by low permeabilities and small pore sizes in primitive undifferentiated carbonaceous asteroids. Our results do not preclude the existence of habitable conditions on larger, possibly differentiated objects such as Ceres and the Themis family asteroids due to presumed longer, more intense heating and possible long-lived water reservoirs.

  14. An ISU study of asteroid mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    During the 1990 summer session of the International Space University, 59 graduate students from 16 countries carried out a design project on using the resources of near-earth asteroids. The results of the project, whose full report is now available from ISU, are summarized. The student team included people in these fields: architecture, business and management, engineering, life sciences, physical sciences, policy and law, resources and manufacturing, and satellite applications. They designed a project for transporting equipment and personnel to a near-earth asteroid, setting up a mining base there, and hauling products back for use in cislunar space. In addition, they outlined the needed precursor steps, beginning with expansion of present ground-based programs for finding and characterizing near-earth asteroids and continuing with automated flight missions to candidate bodies. (To limit the summer project's scope the actual design of these flight-mission precursors was excluded.) The main conclusions were that asteroid mining may provide an important complement to the future use of lunar resources, with the potential to provide large amounts of water and carbonaceous materials for use off earth. However, the recovery of such materials from presently known asteroids did not show an economic gain under the study assumptions; therefore, asteroid mining cannot yet be considered a prospective business.

  15. Asteroid Origins Satellite (AOSAT) I: An On-orbit Centrifuge Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightholder, Jack; Thoesen, Andrew; Adamson, Eric; Jakubowski, Jeremy; Nallapu, Ravi; Smallwood, Sarah; Raura, Laksh; Klesh, Andrew; Asphaug, Erik; Thangavelautham, Jekan

    2017-04-01

    Exploration of asteroids, comets and small moons (small bodies) can answer fundamental questions relating to the formation of the solar system, the availability of resources, and the nature of impact hazards. Near-earth asteroids and the small moons of Mars are potential targets of human exploration. But as illustrated by recent missions, small body surface exploration remains challenging, expensive, and fraught with risk. Despite their small size, they are among the most extreme planetary environments, with low and irregular gravity, loosely bound regolith, extreme temperature variation, and the presence of electrically charged dust. Here we describe the Asteroid Origins Satellite (AOSAT-I), an on-orbit, 3U CubeSat centrifuge using a sandwich-sized bed of crushed meteorite fragments to replicate asteroid surface conditions. Demonstration of this CubeSat will provide a low-cost pathway to physical asteroid model validation, shed light on the origin and geophysics of asteroids, and constrain the design of future landers, rovers, resource extractors, and human missions. AOSAT-I will conduct scientific experiments within its payload chamber while operating in two distinct modes: (1) as a nonrotating microgravity laboratory to investigate primary accretion, and (2) as a rotating centrifuge producing artificial milligravity to simulate surface conditions on asteroids, comets and small moons. AOSAT-I takes advantage of low-cost, off-the-shelf components, modular design, and the rapid assembly and instrumentation of the CubeSat standard, to answer fundamental questions in planetary science and reduce cost and risk of future exploration.

  16. Exploration of the Moon and Asteroids by Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Bakerman, M. N.; Buxner, S.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2014, the Exploration of the Moon and Asteroids by Secondary Students, or ExMASS, program provides an opportunity for students to participate in authentic scientific research. The ExMASS program is an effort managed by the Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE). Led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute and Johnson Space Center, CLSE is one of nine teams comprising NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Over the course of one academic year, 10 teams of U.S. high school students conduct their own scientific investigations of Earth's Moon, or asteroids, with guidance from a scientist advisor. The program includes two elements: 1) two guided-inquiry introductory research activities that builds student knowledge of current lunar/asteroid science and lunar/asteroid data, and 2) an open-inquiry research project in which the students apply their knowledge to a self-defined project. Because the research is student-driven, it is not necessarily original research; original research is therefore not required. However, one team's research has been published in a professional journal. At the end of the school year, teams submit an abstract and research poster which are scored by a panel a judges. The top four scoring teams gather virtually to give short presentations to the judges. After presentations and time for Q&A, the judges choose one team to present in person at the Exploration Science Forum (ESF). The posters of all finalist schools are displayed at the ESF. The ExMASS program is evaluated by collecting data on changes in students' lunar/asteroid content knowledge, student attitudes toward science and science careers, and student perceptions of the processes of science in which their team participated. Exit surveys for teachers, students, and advisors are also distributed at the end of each program year to gather general feedback about the program and its impact. Results of this data from the first two years of the Ex

  17. Comets, Asteroids and Rubble Piles: not just debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The National Center for Interactive Learning at the Space Science Institute (NCIL @ SSI) is developing a variety of asteroids related education activities as part of several E/PO projects, including Finding NEO (funded through NSF and NASA SMD); Great Balls of Fire! (funded through NSF); and a partnership with the WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) mission. These activities range from a web site to traveling exhibits in three different sizes. The Killer Asteroids web site (www.killerasteroids.org) includes background information on comets and asteroids as well as a number of interactive activities and games. These include a game that compares the risk of death from an asteroid impact to other hazards; a game and video vignettes on the role of backyard astronomers in light curve research; a physics-based asteroid deflection game; and a Google Earth -based "drop a rock on your house" activity. In addition, the project is developing a small, portable exhibit suitable for use in libraries or visitors centers. Great Balls of Fire! includes two separate traveling exhibitions: a 3000 square foot exhibition for science centers, and a 500 square foot version for smaller venues. Both will begin national tours in the summer of 2011. The Great Balls of Fire! exhibit program includes a free Education Program for docents and educators, and an Outreach Program to amateur astronomers around the country through the Astronomical Society of the Pacific’s (ASP) Astronomy from the Ground Up program. The project will facilitate partnerships between host venues and local astronomy clubs that can interact with the public using a toolkit of activities developed by ASP. Great Balls of Fire! Represents a collaboration between scientists, educators, exhibit designers, graphic artists, evaluators, education researchers, and three teams of middle school students who acted as advisors. The project’s exhibit design firm is Jeff Kennedy Associates Inc. We will present a summary of the

  18. International CJMT-1 Workshop on Asteroidal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Wing-Huen

    2014-03-01

    An international workshop on asteroidal science was held between October 16 and 17, 2012, at the Macau University of Science and Technology gathering together experts on asteroidal study in China, Japan, Macao and Taiwan. For this reason, we have called it CJMT-1 Workshop. Though small in sizes, the asteroids orbiting mainly between the orbit of Mars and of Jupiter have important influence on the evolution of the planetary bodies. Topics ranging from killer asteroids to space resources are frequently mentioned in news reports with prominence similar to the search for water on Mars. This also means that the study of asteroids is very useful in exciting the imagination and interest in science of the general public. Several Asian countries have therefore developed long-term programs integrating ground-based observations and space exploration with Japan being the most advanced and ambitious as demonstrated by the very successful Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa. In this volume we will find descriptions of the mission planning of Hayabusa II to the C-type near-Earth asteroid, 1999 JU3. Not to be outdone, China's Chang-E 2 spacecraft was re-routed to a flyby encounter with asteroid 4179 Toutatis in December 2012. It is planned that in the next CJMT workshop, we will have the opportunity to learn more about the in-depth data analysis of the Toutatis observations and the progress reports on the Hayabusa II mission which launch date is set to be July 2014. Last but not least, the presentations on the ground-based facilities as described in this volume will pave the way for coordinated observations of asteroidal families and Trojan asteroids - across Asia from Taiwan to Uzbekistan. Such international projects will serve as an important symbol of good will and peaceful cooperation among the key members of this group. Finally, I want to thank the Space Science Institute, Macao University of Science and Technology, for generous support, and its staff members

  19. REPEATING FAST RADIO BURSTS FROM HIGHLY MAGNETIZED PULSARS TRAVELING THROUGH ASTEROID BELTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Z. G.; Wang, J. S.; Huang, Y. F.; Wu, X. F.

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, Spitler et al. and Scholz et al. reported their detections of 16 additional bright bursts in the direction of the fast radio burst (FRB) 121102. This repeating FRB is inconsistent with all of the catastrophic event models put forward previously for hypothetically non-repeating FRBs. Here, we propose a different model, in which highly magnetized pulsars travel through the asteroid belts of other stars. We show that a repeating FRB could originate from such a pulsar encountering a large number of asteroids in the belt. During each pulsar-asteroid impact, an electric field induced outside of the asteroid has such a large component parallel to the stellar magnetic field that electrons are torn off the asteroidal surface and accelerated to ultra-relativistic energies instantaneously. The subsequent movement of these electrons along magnetic field lines will cause coherent curvature radiation, which can account for all of the properties of an FRB. In addition, this model can self-consistently explain the typical duration, luminosity, and repetitive rate of the 17 bursts of FRB 121102. The predicted occurrence rate of repeating FRB sources may imply that our model would be testable in the next few years.

  20. Comparison of the orbital properties of Jupiter Trojan asteroids and Trojan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Schmidt, Jrgen

    2018-06-01

    In a previous paper we simulated the orbital evolution of dust particles from the Jupiter Trojan asteroids ejected by the impacts of interplanetary particles, and evaluated their overall configuration in the form of dust arcs. Here we compare the orbital properties of these Trojan dust particles and the Trojan asteroids. Both Trojan asteroids and most of the dust particles are trapped in the Jupiter 1:1 resonance. However, for dust particles, this resonance is modified because of the presence of solar radiation pressure, which reduces the peak value of the semi-major axis distribution. We find also that some particles can be trapped in the Saturn 1:1 resonance and higher order resonances with Jupiter. The distributions of the eccentricity, the longitude of pericenter, and the inclination for Trojans and the dust are compared. For the Trojan asteroids, the peak in the longitude of pericenter distribution is about 60 degrees larger than the longitude of pericenter of Jupiter; in contrast, for Trojan dust this difference is smaller than 60 degrees, and it decreases with decreasing grain size. For the Trojan asteroids and most of the Trojan dust, the Tisserand parameter is distributed in the range of two to three.

  1. REPEATING FAST RADIO BURSTS FROM HIGHLY MAGNETIZED PULSARS TRAVELING THROUGH ASTEROID BELTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Z. G.; Wang, J. S.; Huang, Y. F. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F., E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-09-20

    Very recently, Spitler et al. and Scholz et al. reported their detections of 16 additional bright bursts in the direction of the fast radio burst (FRB) 121102. This repeating FRB is inconsistent with all of the catastrophic event models put forward previously for hypothetically non-repeating FRBs. Here, we propose a different model, in which highly magnetized pulsars travel through the asteroid belts of other stars. We show that a repeating FRB could originate from such a pulsar encountering a large number of asteroids in the belt. During each pulsar-asteroid impact, an electric field induced outside of the asteroid has such a large component parallel to the stellar magnetic field that electrons are torn off the asteroidal surface and accelerated to ultra-relativistic energies instantaneously. The subsequent movement of these electrons along magnetic field lines will cause coherent curvature radiation, which can account for all of the properties of an FRB. In addition, this model can self-consistently explain the typical duration, luminosity, and repetitive rate of the 17 bursts of FRB 121102. The predicted occurrence rate of repeating FRB sources may imply that our model would be testable in the next few years.

  2. Asteroid mass estimation using Markov-chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltala, Lauri; Granvik, Mikael

    2017-11-01

    Estimates for asteroid masses are based on their gravitational perturbations on the orbits of other objects such as Mars, spacecraft, or other asteroids and/or their satellites. In the case of asteroid-asteroid perturbations, this leads to an inverse problem in at least 13 dimensions where the aim is to derive the mass of the perturbing asteroid(s) and six orbital elements for both the perturbing asteroid(s) and the test asteroid(s) based on astrometric observations. We have developed and implemented three different mass estimation algorithms utilizing asteroid-asteroid perturbations: the very rough 'marching' approximation, in which the asteroids' orbital elements are not fitted, thereby reducing the problem to a one-dimensional estimation of the mass, an implementation of the Nelder-Mead simplex method, and most significantly, a Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. We describe each of these algorithms with particular focus on the MCMC algorithm, and present example results using both synthetic and real data. Our results agree with the published mass estimates, but suggest that the published uncertainties may be misleading as a consequence of using linearized mass-estimation methods. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges with the algorithms as well as future plans.

  3. Radar and optical observations and physical modeling of near-Earth Asteroid 10115 (1992 SK)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Busch, M.; Ostro, S. J.; Benner, L. A. M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Jurgens, R. F.; Rose, R.; Magri, C.; Pravec, Petr; Scheeres, D.J.; Broschart, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 1 (2006), s. 145-155 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604; GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * radar * rotation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2006

  4. Spin Rate of Asteroid (54509) 2000 PH5 Increasing Due to the YORP Effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, P.A.; Margot, J. L.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Scheeres, D.J.; Pravec, Petr; Lowry, S.C.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Nolan, M. C.; Ostro, S. J.; Benner, L. A. M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Magri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 316, č. 5822 (2007), s. 274-277 ISSN 0036-8075 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids rotation * near-Earth objects * radar observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 26.372, year: 2007

  5. On the shapes and spins of “rubble pile” asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harris, A. W.; Fahnestock, E.G.; Pravec, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 199, č. 2 (2009), s. 310-318 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * rotational dynamics * tides of solid body Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2009

  6. Lightcurves and synodic periods for asteroids 1998 ST49, (13154) and (27529)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galád, Adrián

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, 1-2 (2007), s. 77-82 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2007

  7. Radar Imaging of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostro, S. J.; Margot, J. L.; Benner, L. A. M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Scheeres, D.J.; Fahnestock, E.G.; Broschart, S.B.; Bellerose, J.; Nolan, M. C.; Magri, C.; Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Rose, R.; Jurgens, R. F.; De Jong, E. M.; Suzuki, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 5803 (2006), s. 1276-1280 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binary asteroid * radar imaging Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 30.028, year: 2006

  8. Dynamical Configuration of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scheeres, D.J.; Fahnestock, E.G.; Ostro, S. J.; Margot, J. L.; Benner, L. A. M.; Broschart, S.B.; Bellerose, J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Nolan, M. C.; Magri, C.; Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Rose, R.; Jurgens, R. F.; De Jong, E. M.; Suzuki, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 5803 (2006), s. 1280-1283 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binary asteroid * dynamics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 30.028, year: 2006

  9. Near-Earth asteroid (3200) Phaethon: Characterization of its orbit, spin state, and thermophysical parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanuš, J.; Delbo, M.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Pravec, Petr; Emery, J.P.; Ali-Lagoa, V.; Bolin, B.; Devogele, M.; Dyvig, R.; Galád, A.; Jedicke, R.; Kornoš, L.; Kušnirák, Peter; Licandro, J.; Reddy, V.; Rivet, J.-P.; Világi, J.; Warner, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 592, August (2016), A34/1-A34/15 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0229 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : minor planets * asteroids * photometric techniques Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  10. Retrograde spins of near-Earth asteroids from the Yarkovsky effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    La Spina, A.; Paolicchi, P.; Kryszczynska, A.; Pravec, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 428, č. 6981 (2004), s. 400-401 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : asteroid spins * dynamics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 32.182, year: 2004

  11. Keck observations of near-Earth asteroids in the thermal infrared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Delbó, M.; Harris, A. W.; Binzel, R. P.; Pravec, Petr; Davies, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2003), s. 116-130 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204; GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : asteroids * infrared observtions * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.611, year: 2003

  12. The January 7, 2015, superbolide over Romania and structural diversity of meter-sized asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jiří; Spurný, Pavel; Grigore, V.I.; Svoreň, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 143, SI (2017), s. 147-158 ISSN 0032-0633 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00761S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteor * meteoroid * asteroid Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2016

  13. Spheroidal models of the exterior gravitational field of Asteroids Bennu and Castalia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, Josef; Bezděk, Aleš; Pešek, I.; Henych, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 272, July (2016), s. 70-79 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids surfaces * near-Earth objects * geophysics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.131, year: 2016

  14. The distribution of radioelements in archaean granites of the Kaapvaal Craton, with implications for the source of uranium in the Witwatersrand Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Meyer, M.; Ferraz, M.F.; Drennan, G.R.

    1989-05-01

    Approximately 500 samples from the Archaean granitic basement of the southern Kaapvaal Craton have been analysed, for U and Th. When viewed in conjunction with geological relationships, the radioelement distribution patterns in the Archaean basement provide contraints regarding the origin of uranium in the Witwatersrand Basin. Granites in the Baberton region are sub-divided into three magnetic cycles, the earliest cycle comprising tonalite-trondhjemite gneisses, the intermediate cycle comprising literally extensive K-rich batholiths and the final stage consisting of discrete intrusive granitic plutons. Uranium and thorium contents vary as a function of age and rock type, an increase progressively from the first cycle through to the third cycle. Certain of the late granite plutons may have been S-type in origin, have relatively low Th/U ratios, high U contents, and are characterized by accessory minerals dominated by monazite-like phases. The late granite plutons with highest radioelement contents appear to have formed circa 2,8 Ga, an age which coincides with granulite facies metamorphism and uranium-thorium depletion in the lower crust, as recrorded in the Vredeford crustal profile. Uranium has been leached from portions of the regolith profile, but also concentrated into leucoxene-rich zones derived from the breakdown of pre-existing titanium-bearing phases. The widespread development of an uraniferous leucoxene protore in weathered source rocks of the Witwatersrand Basin has relevance to the genesis of authigenic U-Ti phases (brannerite) in the reefs themselves. The study of radioelement distribution in Archaean granites adjacent to the Witwatersrand Basin provides a framework within which considerations regarding the origin of the uranium deposits in the basin can be viewed. The secular evolution of the Archaean granitic basement, hydrothermal processes, and palaeoweathering all played a role in the formation of the Witwatersrand deposits

  15. Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2015-08-01

    Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or

  16. Matched Filter Processing for Asteroid Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gural, Peter S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.; Gleason, Arianna E.

    2005-10-01

    Matched filter (MF) processing has been shown to provide significant performance gains when processing stellar imagery used for asteroid detection, recovery, and tracking. This includes extending detection ranges to fainter magnitudes at the noise limit of the imagery and operating in dense cluttered star fields as encountered at low Galactic latitudes. The MF software has been shown to detect 40% more asteroids in high-quality Spacewatch imagery relative to the currently implemented approaches, which are based on moving target indicator (MTI) algorithms. In addition, MF detections were made in dense star fields and in situations in which the asteroid was collocated with a star in an image frame, cases in which the MTI algorithms failed. Thus, using legacy sensors and optics, improved detection sensitivity is achievable by simply upgrading the image-processing stream. This in turn permits surveys of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population farther from opposition, for smaller sizes, and in directions previously inaccessible to current NEA search programs. A software package has been developed and made available on the NASA data services Web site that can be used for asteroid detection and recovery operations utilizing the enhanced performance capabilities of MF processing.

  17. Spectroscopy and Photometry of CAI-rich asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Cellino, A.; Surdej, J.

    2017-09-01

    Asteroids with an anomalous amount of primitive elements, formed in ancient times in the solar nebula, exist. Our study confirms their nature and provides hints to the interpretation of the ancient evolution of asteroids.

  18. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  19. Stability Analysis of Spacecraft Motion in the Vicinity of Asteroids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of my proposal is to determine the stability of a spacecraft when in the vicinity of an asteroid. Orbiting an asteroid is a difficult task. The unique...

  20. Rock legends the asteroids and their discoverers

    CERN Document Server

    Murdin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book relates the history of asteroid discoveries and christenings, from those of the early pioneering giants of Hersehel and Piazzi to modern-day amateurs. Moving from history and anecdotal information to science, the book's structure is provided by the names of the asteroids, including one named after the author. Free from a need to conform to scientific naming conventions, the names evidence hero-worship, sycophancy, avarice, vanity, whimsy, erudition and wit, revealing the human side of astronomers, especially where controversy has followed the christening. Murdin draws from extensive historical records to explore the debate over these names. Each age reveals its own biases and preferences in the naming process. < Originally regarded as “vermin of the skies,” asteroids are minor planets, rocky scraps left over from the formation of the larger planets, or broken fragments of worlds that have collided. Their scientific classification as “minor” planets makes them seem unimportant, but over th...

  1. Integrated science and engineering for the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, D.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission will survey near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu to understand its physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties, assess its resource potential, refine the impact hazard, and return a sample of this body to the Earth [1]. This mission is scheduled for launch in 2016 and will rendezvous with the asteroid in 2018. Sample return to the Earth follows in 2023. The OSIRIS-REx mission has the challenge of visiting asteroid Bennu, characterizing it at global and local scales, then selecting the best site on the asteroid surface to acquire a sample for return to the Earth. Minimizing the risk of exploring an unknown world requires a tight integration of science and engineering to inform flight system and mission design. Defining the Asteroid Environment: We have performed an extensive astronomical campaign in support of OSIRIS-REx. Lightcurve and phase function observations were obtained with UA Observatories telescopes located in southeastern Arizona during the 2005--2006 and 2011--2012 apparitions [2]. We observed Bennu using the 12.6-cm radar at the Arecibo Observatory in 1999, 2005, and 2011 and the 3.5-cm radar at the Goldstone tracking station in 1999 and 2005 [3]. We conducted near-infrared measurements using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii in September 2005 [4]. Additional spectral observations were obtained in July 2011 and May 2012 with the Magellan 6.5-m telescope [5]. We used the Spitzer space telescope to observe Bennu in May 2007 [6]. The extensive knowledge gained as a result of our telescopic characterization of Bennu was critical in the selection of this object as the OSIRIS-REx mission target. In addition, we use these data, combined with models of the asteroid, to constrain over 100 different asteroid parameters covering orbital, bulk, rotational, radar

  2. Magmatism during the accretion of the late Archaean Dharwar Craton (South India): sanukitoids and related rocks in their geological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, J.-F.; Martin, H.; Jayananda, M.; Peucat, J.-J.

    2003-04-01

    The South Indian Dharwar Craton assembled during the late-Archaean (ca. 2.5 Ga). This event was associated with intense granite genesis and emplacement. Based on petrography and geochemistry, 4 main types of late Archaean granitoids were distinguished: (1) Anatectic granites (and diatexites), formed by partial melting of TTG gneisses; (2) Classical TTGs; (3) Sanukitoids, generated by interaction between slab melts (TTG) and mantle peridotite; (4) The high HFSE Closepet granite, interpreted as derived from partial melting of a mantle metasomatized by slab melts (TTG). While the 3 later groups all are interpreted as resulting from slab melt/mantle wedge interactions, their differences are related to decreasing felsic melt/peridotite ratios during the ascent “slab melts” in the mantle wedge above an active subduction zone. Field data together with geochronology and isotope geochemistry allow to subdivide the Dharwar craton into three main domains: (1) The Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) is an old (3.3 2.9 Ga ), stable continental block with limited amounts of 2.5 Ga old anatectic granites. (2) The Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) is subdivided into two parts: (2a) West of Kolar Schist Belt, a region of 3.0-2.7 Ga old basement intruded by 2.5 Ga old anatectic granites; (2b) East of Kolar, an area featuring mainly 2.5 Ga old diatexites and granites, derived of partial melting of a newly accreted TTG crust. Anatectic granites are ubiquitous, and late in the cratonic evolution; they witnessed generalized melting of a juvenile crust. In contrast, deep-originated granites emplaced before this melting and are restricted to the boundaries between the blocks. This structure of distinct terranes separated by narrow bands operating as channels for deep-originated magmas provides independent evidences for a two-stage evolution: an arc accretion context for the TTG, sanukitoids and related rocks, immediately followed by high temperature reworking of the newly accreted craton

  3. Asteroid 2008 TC3 Breakup and Meteorite Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fioretti, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of meteorites from the impact of asteroid 2008 TC3 in the Nubian Desert of Sudan on October 7, 2008, marked the first time meteorites were collected from an asteroid observed in space by astronomical techniques before impacting. Search teams from the University of Khartoum traced the location of the strewn field and collected about 660 meteorites in four expeditions to the fall region, all of which have known fall coordinates. Upon further study, the Almahata Sitta meteorites proved to be a mixed bag of mostly ureilites (course grained, fine grained, and sulfide-metal assemblages), enstatite chondrites (EL3-6, EH3, EH5, breccias) and ordinary chondrites (H5-6, L4-5). One bencubbinite-like carbonaceous chondrite was identified, as well as one unique Rumuruti-like chondrite and an Enstatite achondrite. New analysis: The analysed meteorites so far suggest a high 30-40 percent fraction of non-ureilites among the recovered samples, but that high fraction does not appear to be in agreement with the meteorites in the University of Khartoum (UoK) collection. Ureilites dominate the meteorites that were recovered by the Sudanese teams. To better understand the fraction of recovered materials that fell to Earth, a program has been initiated to type the meteorites in the UoK collection in defined search areas. At this meeting, we will present some preliminary results from that investigation.

  4. Incoming asteroid! what could we do about it?

    CERN Document Server

    Lunan, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Lately there have been more and more news stories on objects from space – such as asteroids, comets, and meteors – whizzing past Earth. One even exploded in the atmosphere over a Russian city in 2012, causing real damage and injuries. Impacts are not uncommon in our Solar System, even on Earth, and people are beginning to realize that we must prepare for such an event here on Earth.   What if we knew there was going to be an impact in 10 years’ time? What could we do? It’s not so far in the future that we can ignore the threat, and not so soon that nothing could be done. The author and his colleagues set out to explore how they could turn aside a rock asteroid, one kilometer in diameter, within this 10-year timescale.   Having set themselves this challenge, they identified the steps that might be taken, using technologies that are currently under development or proposed. They considered an unmanned mission, a follow-up manned mission, and a range of final options, along with ways to reduce the worst...

  5. SAFARI: Searching Asteroids For Activity Revealing Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Anthony; Chandler, Colin Orion; Mommert, Michael; Sheppard, Scott; Trujillo, Chadwick A.

    2018-06-01

    We present results on one of the deepest and widest systematic searches for active asteroids, objects in the main-belt which behave dynamically like asteroids but display comet-like comae. This activity comes from a variety of sources, such as the sublimation of ices or rotational breakup, the former of which offers an opportunity to study a family of protoplanetary ices different than those seen in comets and Kuiper Belt objects. Indications of activity may be detected through visual or spectroscopic evidence of gas or dust emissions. However, these objects are still poorly understood, with only about 25 identified to date. We looked for activity indicators with a pipeline that examined ~35,000 deep images taken with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) mounted on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. Our pipeline was configured to perform astrometry on DECam images and produce thumbnail images of known asteroids in the field to be examined by eye for signs of activity. We detected three previously identified active asteroids, one of which has shown repeated signs of activity in these data. Our proof of concept demonstrates 1) our novel informatics approach can locate active asteroids 2) DECam data are well suited to search for active asteroids. We will discuss the design structure of our pipeline, adjustments that had to be made for the specific dataset to improve performance, and the the significance of detecting activity in the main-belt. The authors acknowledge funding for this project through NSF grant number AST-1461200.

  6. Structural observations and U-Pb mineral ages from igneous rocks at the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary in the Salahmi Schist Belt, central Finland: constraints on tectonic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietikäinen, K.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area in Vieremä, central Finland, contains part of Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary. In the east, the area comprises Archaean gneiss and the Salahmi Schist Belt. The rocks of the schist belt are turbiditic metagreywackes, with well-preserved depositional structures, occurring as Proterozoic wedge-shaped blocks, and staurolite schists, the latter representing higher-strained and metamorphosed equivalents of the metagreywackes. In the west of the area there is an Archaean gneiss block, containing strongly elongated structures, and deformed Svecofennian supracrustal rocks, which are cut by deformed granitoids. These are juxtaposed with the schist belt. The boundaries of these tectonometamorphic blocks are narrow, highly strained mylonites and thrust zones. The metamorphic grade of the supracrustal rocks increases from east to west, the increase being stepwise across the mylonitic block boundaries. The rocks are more deformed from east to west with younger structures overprinting. In the staurolite schists of the Salahmi Schist Belt, the most prominent structure is a lineation (L2 that overprints the bedding and axial plane foliation. In Sorronmäki quarry, at the western boundary of the schist belt, this Palaeoproterozoic lineation dominates all the structures in tonalite gneiss, which gives a U-Pb age of 2731±6 Ma. Southeast of the quarry, at the same boundary, the Salahmi schists have been overturned towards the northeast, suggesting that the Archaean gneiss at Sorronmäki has been thrust towards the northeast over these rocks. In the western part of the study area, the Leppikangas granodiorite that intrudes the Svecofennian supracrustal rocks gives a U-Pb age of 1891+6 Ma. In the granodiorite, a strong lineation formed by the intersection of two foliations, which maybe L2 is associated with thrusting towards the northeast. The monazite age of the Archaean Sorronmäki gneiss is 1817+3 Ma, and the titanite age of the Svecofennian

  7. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  8. Asteroid families - Physical properties and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.R.; Paolicchi, P.; Zappala, V.; Binzel, R.P.; Bell, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Asteroid families are considered to be fragments from collisional destruction of precursor bodies. However, results available on the inferred mineralogy, size distributions, and spins of family members do not confirm the expectations of the traditional model. Only a handful of nearly 100 proposed families, most of them populous, have distributions of inferred mineralogies consistent with simple cosmochemical models for parent bodies. It is suggested that most catastrophic collisions may not result in observable families, but rather in a spray of smaller particles, thus accounting for the small number of confirmed and consistent families, despite evidence for extensive collisional evolution of asteroids. 52 refs

  9. Veritas Asteroid Family Still Holds Secrets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.

    2012-12-01

    Veritas asteroid family has been studied for about two decades. These studies have revealed many secrets, and a respectable knowledge about this family had been collected. Here I will present many of these results and review the current knowledge about the family. However, despite being extensively studied, Veritas family is still a mystery. This will be illustrated through the presentation of the most interesting open problems. Was there a secondary collision within this family? Does asteroid (490) Veritas belong to the family named after it? How large was the parent body of the family? Finally, some possible directions for future studies that aims to address these questions are discussed as well.

  10. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  11. Applications of granular-dynamics numerical simulations to asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D. C.; Michel, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Yu, Y.; Ballouz, R.-L.; Matsumura, S.

    2014-07-01

    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a totally different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). (1) We carried out impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes under Earth's gravity [5] and compared the results to laboratory experiments [6] in support of JAXA's Hayabusa 2 asteroid sample-return mission. We tested different projectile shapes and confirmed that the 90-degree cone was the most efficient at excavating mass when impacting 5-mm-diameter glass beads. Results are sensitive to the normal coefficient of restitution and the coefficient of static friction. Preliminary experiments in micro-gravity for similar impact conditions show both the amount of ejected mass and the timescale of the impact process increase, as expected. (2) It has been found (e.g., [7,8]) that ''fresh'' (unreddened) Q-class asteroids have a high probability of recent planetary encounters (˜1 Myr; also see [9]), suggesting that surface refreshening may have occurred due to tidal effects. As an application of the potential effect of tidal interactions, we carried out simulations of Apophis' predicted 2029 encounter with the Earth to see whether regolith motion might occur, using a range of plausible material parameters

  12. NEOCAM: Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission: Bridging the Gulf between Telescopic Observations and the Chemical and Mineralogical Compositions of Asteroids or Diogenes A: Diagnostic Observation of the Geology of Near Earth Spectrally-Classified Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of meteorites have yielded a wealth of scientific information based on highly detailed chemical and isotopic studies possible only in sophisticated terrestrial laboratories. Telescopic studies have revealed an enormous (greater than 10(exp 5)) number of physical objects ranging in size from a few tens of meters to several hundred kilometers, orbiting not only in the traditional asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter but also throughout the inner solar system. Many of the largest asteroids are classed into taxonomic groups based on their observed spectral properties and are designated as C, D. X, S or V types (as well as a wide range in sub-types). These objects are certainly the sources far the meteorites in our laboratories, but which asteroids are the sources for which meteorites? Spectral classes are nominally correlated to the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the asteroid itself based on studies of the spectral changes induced in meteorites due to exposure to a simulated space environment. While laboratory studies have produced some notable successes (e.g. the identification of the asteroid Vesta as the source of the H, E and D meteorite classes), it is unlikely that we have samples of each asteroidal spectral type in our meteorite collection. The correlation of spectral type and composition for many objects will therefore remain uncertain until we can return samples of specific asteroid types to Earth for analyses. The best candidates for sample return are asteroids that already come close to the Earth. Asteroids in orbit near 1 A.U. have been classified into three groups (Aten, Apollo & Amor) based on their orbital characteristics. These Near Earth Objects (NEOs) contain representatives of virtually all spectral types and sub-types of the asteroid population identified to date. Because of their close proximity to Earth, NEOs are prime targets for asteroid missions such as the NEAR-Shoemaker NASA Discovery Mission to Eros and the

  13. Contextual Student Learning through Authentic Asteroid Research Projects using a Robotic Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoette, Vivian L.; Puckett, Andrew W.; Linder, Tyler R.; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Rector, Travis A.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Meredith, Kate; Caughey, Austin L.; Brown, Johnny E.; McCarty, Cameron B.; Whitmore, Kevin T.

    2015-11-01

    Skynet is a worldwide robotic telescope network operated by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with active observing sites on 3 continents. The queue-based observation request system is simple enough to be used by middle school students, but powerful enough to supply data for research scientists. The Skynet Junior Scholars program, funded by the NSF, has teamed up with professional astronomers to engage students from middle school to undergraduates in authentic research projects, from target selection through image analysis and publication of results. Asteroid research is a particularly fruitful area for youth collaboration that reinforces STEM education standards and can allow students to make real contributions to scientific knowledge, e.g., orbit refinement through astrometric submissions to the Minor Planet Center. We have created a set of projects for youth to: 1. Image an asteroid, make a movie, and post it to a gallery; 2. Measure the asteroid’s apparent motion using the Afterglow online image processor; and 3. Image asteroids from two or more telescopes simultaneously to demonstrate parallax. The apparent motion and parallax projects allow students to estimate the distance to their asteroid, as if they were the discoverer of a brand new object in the solar system. Older students may take on advanced projects, such as analyzing uncertainties in asteroid orbital parameters; studying impact probabilities of known objects; observing time-sensitive targets such as Near Earth Asteroids; and even discovering brand new objects in the solar system.Images are acquired from among seven Skynet telescopes in North Carolina, California, Wisconsin, Canada, Australia, and Chile, as well as collaborating observatories such as WestRock in Columbus, Georgia; Stone Edge in El Verano, California; and Astronomical Research Institute in Westfield, Illinois.

  14. A Fragment-Cloud Model for Breakup of Asteroids with Varied Internal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; Stokan, Ed; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    As an asteroid descends toward Earth, it deposits energy in the atmosphere through aerodynamic drag and ablation. Asteroid impact risk assessments rely on energy deposition estimates to predict blast overpressures and ground damage that may result from an airburst, such as the one that occurred over Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013. The rates and altitudes at which energy is deposited along the entry trajectory depend upon how the bolide fragments, which in turn depends upon its internal structure and composition. In this work, we have developed an analytic asteroid fragmentation model to assess the atmospheric energy deposition of asteroids with a range of structures and compositions. The modeling approach combines successive fragmentation of larger independent pieces with aggregate debris clouds released with each fragmentation event. The model can vary the number and masses of fragments produced, the amount of mass released as debris clouds, the size-strength scaling used to increase the robustness of smaller fragments, and other parameters. The initial asteroid body can be seeded with a distribution of independent fragment sizes amid a remaining debris mass to represent loose rubble pile conglomerations, can be given an outer regolith later, or can be defined as a coherent or fractured monolith. This approach enables the model to represent a range of breakup behaviors and reproduce detailed energy deposition features such as multiple flares due to successive burst events, high-altitude regolith blow-off, or initial disruption of rubble piles followed by more energetic breakup of the constituent boulders. These capabilities provide a means to investigate sensitivities of ground damage to potential variations in asteroid structure.

  15. Hungaria asteroid region telescopic spectral survey (HARTSS) I: Stony asteroids abundant in the Hungaria background population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2017-07-01

    The Hungaria asteroids remain as survivors of late giant planet migration that destabilized a now extinct inner portion of the primordial asteroid belt and left in its wake the current resonance structure of the Main Belt. In this scenario, the Hungaria region represents a ;purgatory; for the closest, preserved samples of the asteroidal material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. Deciphering the surface composition of these unique samples may provide constraints on the nature of the primordial building blocks of the terrestrial planets. We have undertaken an observational campaign entitled the Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) to record near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra in order to characterize their taxonomy, surface mineralogy, and potential meteorite analogs. The overall objective of HARTSS is to evaluate the compositional diversity of asteroids located throughout the Hungaria region. This region harbors a collisional family of Xe-type asteroids, which are situated among a background (i.e., non-family) of predominantly S-complex asteroids. In order to assess the compositional diversity of the Hungaria region, we have targeted background objects during Phase I of HARTSS. Collisional family members likely reflect the composition of one original homogeneous parent body, so we have largely avoided them in this phase. We have employed NIR instruments at two ground-based telescope facilities: the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), and the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). Our data set includes the NIR spectra of 42 Hungaria asteroids (36 background; 6 family). We find that stony S-complex asteroids dominate the Hungaria background population (29/36 objects; ∼80%). C-complex asteroids are uncommon (2/42; ∼5%) within the Hungaria region. Background S-complex objects exhibit considerable spectral diversity as band parameter measurements of diagnostic absorption features near 1- and 2-μm indicate that several

  16. High but balanced sedimentation and subsidence rates (Moodies Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt), followed by basin collapse: Implication for Archaean tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubeck, Christoph; Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.

    2010-05-01

    Archaean tectonophysical models distinguish between thick, rigid and thin, mobile crust; from these the major mechanisms and rates for continental growth are derived. Archaean sedimentary rocks, preserved in metamorphosed and highly deformed greenstone belts, can contribute to constrain these models by estimating subsidence rates, derived from the combination of facies changes and precise age dates. Largely siliciclastic strata of the Moodies Group form the topmost unit of the Barberton Supergroup of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), South Africa, represent one of the world's oldest unmetamorphosed quartz-rich sedimentary sequences, and reach ca. 3500m thick (Lowe and Byerly, 2007). Large parts of the Moodies Group were deposited in apparent sedimentary continuity in alluvial, fluvial, shoreline and shallow-marine environments (e.g., Eriksson, 1979; Heubeck and Lowe, 1994). Distinctive sources and variations in facies indicate that Moodies deposition occurred at times in several basins. In several now tectonically separated regions, a regional basaltic lava (unit MdL of Anhaeusser, 1968) separates a lower unit (ca. 2000m thick and possibly representing an extensional setting) from an upper unit (ca. 1500m thick and characterized by progressive unconformities, rapidly changing facies, thicknesses, and sandstone petrographic composition). Single zircons separated from a felsic air-fall tuff of the middle Moodies Group and immediately overlying the basaltic lava in the Saddleback Syncline were dated on the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP RG. Out of 24 dated grains, two near-concordant groups have mean ages of 3230,6+-6,1Ma (2σ; n=9) and 3519+-7 Ma (2σ; n=9), respectively. We interpret the former age as representing the depositional age of the tuff, the latter as representing inherited zircons from underlying Onverwacht-age basement. The interpreted depositional age of the Moodies tuff is indistinguishable from numerous similar ages from felsic and dacitic volcanics at the

  17. Selection for Protein Kinetic Stability Connects Denaturation Temperatures to Organismal Temperatures and Provides Clues to Archaean Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Luisa Romero-Romero

    Full Text Available The relationship between the denaturation temperatures of proteins (Tm values and the living temperatures of their host organisms (environmental temperatures: TENV values is poorly understood. Since different proteins in the same organism may show widely different Tm's, no simple universal relationship between Tm and TENV should hold, other than Tm≥TENV. Yet, when analyzing a set of homologous proteins from different hosts, Tm's are oftentimes found to correlate with TENV's but this correlation is shifted upward on the Tm axis. Supporting this trend, we recently reported Tm's for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins that mirror a proposed environmental cooling over long geological time, while remaining a shocking ~50°C above the proposed ancestral ocean temperatures. Here, we show that natural selection for protein kinetic stability (denaturation rate can produce a Tm↔TENV correlation with a large upward shift in Tm. A model for protein stability evolution suggests a link between the Tm shift and the in vivo lifetime of a protein and, more specifically, allows us to estimate ancestral environmental temperatures from experimental denaturation rates for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins. The TENV values thus obtained match the proposed ancestral ocean cooling, support comparatively high Archaean temperatures, and are consistent with a recent proposal for the environmental temperature (above 75°C that hosted the last universal common ancestor. More generally, this work provides a framework for understanding how features of protein stability reflect the environmental temperatures of the host organisms.

  18. Late Archaean-early Proterozoic source ages of zircons in rocks from the Paleozoic orogen of western Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, R P; Priem, H N.A. [Laboratorium voor Isotopen-Geologie, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Den Tex, E [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. voor Aardwetenschappen

    1982-08-01

    U-Pb data are reported for nine suites of zircons and three monazites from the Paleozoic orogen in western Galicia: one paragneiss and six orthogneisses from the early Paleozoic basement, and two Carboniferous (ca. 310 Ma old) intrusions of two-mica granite. New whole-rock Rb-Sr analyses, along with earlier data, indicate an age of ca. 470-440 Ma (Ordovician) for the emplacement of the granitic precursors of the orthogneisses. Monazite from the paragneiss also yields an U-Pb age of ca. 470 Ma. From the high initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios an involvement of Precambrian continental crust material is evident in the generation of the early Paleozoic suite of granites, while the zircon U-Pb data give evidence of the presence of about 3.0-2.0 Ga old (late Archaean-early Proterozoic) components in the source material. Zircons from the oldest sedimentary rocks in the area, now present as catazonal paragneisses and a likely source for the granites, likewise reveal a provenance age of 3.0-2.0 Ga.

  19. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS): Stony Asteroids Abundant in the Background and Family Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2016-10-01

    The Hungaria region represents a "purgatory" for the closest, preserved samples of the material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. The Hungaria region harbors a collisional family of Xe-type asteroids, which are situated among a background of predominantly S-complex asteroids. Deciphering their surface composition may provide constraints on the nature of the primordial building blocks of the terrestrial planets. We hypothesize that planetesimals in the inner part of the primordial asteroid belt experienced partial- to full-melting and differentiation, the Hungaria region should retain any petrologically-evolved material that formed there.We have undertaken an observational campaign entitled the Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) to record near-infrared (NIR) spectra to characterize taxonomy, surface mineralogy, and potential meteorite analogs. We used NIR instruments at two ground-based facilities (NASA IRTF; TNG). Our data set includes spectra of 82 Hungaria asteroids (61 background; 21 family), 65 were observed during HARTSS. We compare S-complex background asteroids to calibrations developed via laboratory analyses of ordinary chondrites, and to our analyses (EPMA, XRD, VIS+NIR spectra) of 11 primitive achondrite (acapulcoite-lodranite clan) meteorites.We find that stony S-complex asteroids dominate the Hungaria background population (~80%). Background objects exhibit considerable spectral diversity, when quantified by spectral band parameter measurements, translates to a variety of surface compositions. Two main meteorite groups are represented within the Hungaria background: unmelted, nebular L chondrites (and/or L chondrites), and partially-melted primitive achondrites. H-chondrite mineralogies appear to be absent from the Hungaria background. Xe-type Hungaria family members exhibit spectral homogeneity, consistent with the hypothesis that the family was derived from the disruption of a parent body analogous to an enstatite

  20. Twenty-one Asteroid Lightcurves at Asteroids Observers (OBAS) - MPPD: Nov 2016 - May 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Vicente; Fornas, G.; Lozano, Juan; Rodrigo, Onofre; Fornas, A.; Carreño, A.; Arce, Enrique; Brines, Pedro; Herrero, David

    2018-01-01

    We report on the analysis of photometric observations of 21 main-belt asteroids (MBA) done by Asteroids Observers (OBAS). This work is part of the Minor Planet Photometric Database task that was initiated by a group of Spanish amateur astronomers. We have managed to obtain a number of accurate and complete lightcurves as well as some additional incomplete lightcurves to help analysis at future oppositions.

  1. The infrared spectrum of asteroid 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R. R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of asteroid Eros has been determined from its infrared spectrum (0.9-2.7 micrometers; 28/cm resolution). Major minerals include metallic Ni-Fe and pyroxene; no spectroscopic evidence for olivine or plagioclase feldspar was found. The IR spectrum of Eros is most consistent with a stony-iron composition.

  2. Asteroids Dynamic Site-AstDyS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The AstDyS online information service (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys/) contains data on numbered and multi - opposition asteroids, including orbital elements, their uncertainty, proper elements, ephemerides with uncertainty, and more. AstDyS also provides additional scientific output computed from the raw observational data. This value added currently includes: more accurate orbits computed with advanced dynamical and observational error model s; their uncertainty, as expressed by the covariance matrix formalism; ephemerides computed on request for each observer, with uncertainty; mean and proper orbital elements (for this output, AstDyS is the primary source worldwide); statistical quality control, providing a rigorous observational error model. All this is available with a sophisticated web interface, providing multiple search functions and online computations as well as complete orbital and residual files. There are several ways in which the A stDyS service could be expanded and improved in the next future, like the explicit classification of asteroids into asteroid families, the classification of resonant asteroids, and an updated self - consistent population model (to be used, e.g., for survey simulations). The IAU Division I endorsed the proposal for AstDyS to become an IAU (permanent) service, which would include the IAU supervision of the AstDyS system, keeping under control the quality of the work and the continuous update under conditions of scientific competition.

  3. Study of the Asteroid 2009 DL46

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodniza, Alberto Quijano

    2017-06-01

    2009 DL46 was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey on 2009-February 28. This asteroid has a diameter of about 194 meters (119 to 268 meters) [1], and Brian Warner has obtained a rotation period of at least 10 hours [2]. The asteroid 2009 DL46 flew past Earth on May 24/2016 at a distance of about 6.2 lunar distances (0.0158293668567628 A.U) [3]. The NEOWISE mission had a great likelihood to observing this asteroid in early May. Radiotelescopes of Goldstone and Arecibo had planned to make observations of 2009 DL46. “Using the Goldstone facility, we had planned to make radar observations of 2009 DL46” said Landis, Rob R. (HQ-DG000). This asteroid is on list for possible human mission targets. From our Observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we captured several pictures, videos and astrometry data during several hours during three days. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and also appears at the web page of NEODyS [4]. The pictures and data of the asteroid were captured with the following equipment: CGE PRO 1400 CELESTRON (f/11 Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope) and STL-1001 SBIG camera.. Astrometry was carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements. Summary and conclusions: We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity = 0.30731 +/- 0.00025, semi-major axis = 1.460279 +/- 0.000532 A.U, orbital inclination = 7.9503 +/- 0.0048 deg, longitude of the ascending node = 63.45053 +/- 0.00034 deg, argument of perihelion = 159.8804 +/- 0.0024 deg, mean motion = 0.558535 +/- 0.000305 deg/d, perihelion distance = 1.01151363 +/- 3.39e-6 A.U, aphelion distance = 1.90904 +/- 0.00106 A.U, absolute magnitude = 22.5. The parameters were calculated based on 83 observations. Dates: 2016 May: 18 to 21 with mean residual = 0.29 arcseconds. The asteroid has an orbital period of 1.76 years (644.53 days).[1] http://newton.dm.unipi.it/neodys/index.php?pc=1.1.9&n=2009DL46.[2] http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2009DL46/2009DL46_planning.html[3] http

  4. Split Active Asteroid P/2016 J1 (PANSTARRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Man-To; Jewitt, David; Du, Xinnan

    2017-10-01

    We present a photometric and astrometric study of the split active asteroid P/2016 J1 (PANSTARRS). Separation occurred either in 2012 May to June, or 2010 April, with a separation speed Vsep = 0.70 ± 0.02 m s-1 for the former scenario and 0.83 ± 0.06 m s-1 for the latter. The two fragments (hereafter J1-A and J1-B) have similar, Sun-like colors that are comparable to the colors of primitive C- and G-type asteroids. With a nominal comet-like albedo, pR = 0.04, the effective, dust-contaminated cross sections are estimated to be 2.4 km2 (J1-A) and 0.5 km2 (J1-B). We estimate that the nucleus radii lie in the range 140 times of 2016 J1 are both short compared to the age of the solar system, raising the question of why this object still exists. We suggest that formerly buried ice became exposed at the surface, perhaps via a minor impact, and that sublimation torques then rapidly drove the body to breakup. Further disintegration events are anticipated owing to the rotational instability. Reference: Hui, M.-T., Jewitt, D. and Du, X., 2017. AJ, 153(4), p.141.

  5. Elements of planetary protection against asteroid and comet hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

    2018-05-01

    The principles of protection against asteroid-comet hazard should constitute the main priority of the modern Proto-cosmic civilization on the planet Earth. Any impact of a fairly large asteroid or cometary nucleus with a size of 1 to 20 or more kilometers will lead to a global catastrophe and, perhaps, to the death of Mankind. Forces in order to withstand such a blow of the cosmic body during large space invasions, we do not have and, most likely, will not be for a long time . We need as soon as possible to create technical facilities and systems for long-term comfortable living of large colonies of people on the Moon, Mars, Venus and Mercury, having arranged there some elements of the biosphere. In these colonies people should live in extraterrestrial space settlements, and should periodically and constantly "outplay" scenarios of reliable and guaranteed re-population of the planet Earth by people. Such periodic "exercises" on the actual modeling of the return to the "post-catastrophic" Earth should ensure the survival of humanity even in the worst versions of the consequences of possible dangerous space invasions. That is, we should always be ready for the repopulation on the Earth by people and for the reconstruction of the basic elements of the man's biosphere.

  6. Formation of the wide asynchronous binary asteroid population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; McMahon, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new mechanism for the formation of the wide asynchronous binary population. These binary asteroids have wide semimajor axes relative to most near-Earth and main belt asteroid systems. Confirmed members have rapidly rotating primaries and satellites that are not tidally locked. Previously suggested formation mechanisms from impact ejecta, from planetary flybys, and directly from rotational fission events cannot satisfy all of the observations. The newly hypothesized mechanism works as follows: (1) these systems are formed from rotational fission, (2) their satellites are tidally locked, (3) their orbits are expanded by the binary Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (BYORP) effect, (4) their satellites desynchronize as a result of the adiabatic invariance between the libration of the secondary and the mutual orbit, and (5) the secondary avoids resynchronization because of the YORP effect. This seemingly complex chain of events is a natural pathway for binaries with satellites that have particular shapes, which define the BYORP effect torque that acts on the system. After detailing the theory, we analyze each of the wide asynchronous binary members and candidates to assess their most likely formation mechanism. Finally, we suggest possible future observations to check and constrain our hypothesis.

  7. Asteroid 4 Vesta: A Fully Differentiated Dwarf Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David

    2014-01-01

    One conclusion derived from the study of meteorites is that some of them - most irons, stony irons, some achondrites - hail from asteroids that were heated to the point where metallic cores and basaltic crusts were formed. Telescopic observations show that there remains only one large asteroid with a basaltic crust, 4 Vesta; present day mean radius 263 km. The largest clan of achondrites, the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites, represent the crust of their parent asteroid. Diogenites are cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust whilst eucrites are cumulate gabbros, diabases and basalts from the upper crust. Howardites are impact-engendered breccias of diogenites and eucrites. A strong case can be made that HEDs are derived from Vesta. The NASA Dawn spacecraft orbited Vesta for 14 months returning data allowing geological, mineralogical, compositional and geophysical interpretations of Vesta's surface and structure. Combined with geochemical and petrological observations of HED meteorites, differentiation models for Vesta can be developed. Proto-Vesta probably consisted of primitive chondritic materials. Compositional evidence, primarily from basaltic eucrites, indicates that Vesta was melted to high degree (>=50%) which facilitated homogenization of the silicate phase and separation of immiscible Fe,Ni metal plus Fe sulphide into a core. Geophysical models based on Dawn data support a core of 110 km radius. The silicate melt vigorously convected and initially followed a path of equilibrium crystallization forming a harzburgitic mantle, possibly overlying a dunitic restite. Once the fraction of crystals was sufficient to cause convective lockup, the remaining melt collected between the mantle and the cool thermal boundary layer. This melt undergoes fractional crystallization to form a dominantly orthopyroxenite (diogenite) lower crust. The initial thermal boundary layer of primitive chondritic material is gradually replaced by a

  8. Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous: mission overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A. F.; Santo, A. G.; Heeres, K. J.; Landshof, J. A.; Farquhar, R. W.; Gold, R. E.; Lee, S. C.

    1997-10-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission, the first launch of NASA's Discovery Program, will be the first mission to orbit an asteroid. NEAR will make the first comprehensive scientific measurements of an asteroid's surface composition, geology, physical properties, and internal structure. NEAR launched successfully on February 17, 1996, aboard a Delta II-7925. It will orbit the 20-km-diameter near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros for about 1 year, at a minimum orbit radius of about 35 km from the center of the asteroid. The NEAR is a solar-powered, three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a launch mass including propellant of 805 kg. NEAR uses X band telemetry to the NASA Deep Space Network, with the data rates at Eros up to 8.8 kbits/s using a 34-m High Efficiency (HEF) dish, and up to 26.5 kbits/s using a 70-m dish. A solid-state recorder is accommodated with a memory capacity of 1.8 Gbytes. Attitude control is to 1.7 mrad, line-of-sight pointing stability is within 50 μrad over 1 s, and post processing attitude knowledge is within 50 μrad. NEAR accommodates 56 kg of instruments and provides them with 84 W. The instruments are a multispectral imager (MSI), a near-infrared spectrograph (NIS), an X ray/gamma ray spectrometer (XRS/GRS), a magnetometer (MAG), and a laser rangefinder (NLR), while a radio science (RS) investigation uses the coherent X band transponder. NEAR will make a flyby of the C-type asteroid 253 Mathilde in June 1997 and will rendezvous with 433 Eros in February 1999. It will execute an initial slow flyby of Eros, with a flyby speed of 5 m/s and a closest approach distance of 500 km. Subsequently, its orbit will be lowered to 35 km. The NEAR Mission Operations Center and the Science Data Center are at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. The Science Data Center will maintain the entire NEAR data set on-line, and data from all instruments can be accessed by every member of the NEAR Science Team. Data, including images, are released over

  9. MASCOT2, a Lander to Characterize the Target of an Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Deflection Test (AIM) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Krause, C.; Cozzoni, B.; Lange, C.; Grundmann, J. T.; Grimm, C.; Ho, T.-M.; Herique, A.; Plettemeier, D.; Grott, M.; Auster, H.-U.; Hercik, D.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Philippe, C.; Küppers, M.; Grieger, B.; Gil Fernandez, J.; Grygorczuk, J.

    2017-09-01

    In the course of the AIDA/AIM mission studies [1,2] a lander, MASCOT2, has been studied to be deployed on the moon of the binary Near-Earth Asteroid system, (65803) Didymos. The AIDA technology demonstration mission, composed of a kinetic impactor, DART, and an observing spacecraft, AIM, has been designed to deliver vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact and key physical properties of the target asteroid. This will enable derivation of the impact response of the object as a function of its physical properties, a crucial quantitative point besides the qualitative proof that the asteroid has been deflected at all. A landed asset on the target asteroid greatly supports analyzing its dynamical state, mass, geophysical properties, surface and subsurface structure. The lander's main instrument is a bistatic, low frequency radar (LFR) [3a,b] to sound the interior structure of the asteroid. It is supported by a camera (MasCAM) [4], a radiometer (MARA)[5], an accelerometer (DACC [9]), and, optionally regarding the science case, also a magnetometer (MasMAG)[6].

  10. Detailed Pictures of Multiple Asteroid Systems in the Main-Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Enriquez, J. E.; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Durech, J.

    2011-12-01

    Since their discovery less than 10 years ago, ~200 known multiple asteroid systems have been studied with a combination of observing techniques, including adaptive optics, lightcurve photometry, and mid-infrared spectrophotometry. Those observations show that ~15 large (D>100km) asteroids that are known to possess km-sized satellite(s) (22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, ...) share common orbital characteristics, implying a common formation scenario: e.g. catastrophic disruption or ejection after an oblique impact. More than 70 smaller (10-15km) binary asteroid systems have been detected through anomalies in their lightcurves and are believed to have formed by fission due to the YORP effect. By comparison with meteorite analog densities, mid-IR data reveal that these systems have a significant porosity (larger than 30%) implying a rubble-pile interior. We will review these key results and discuss their implications for the interior of asteroids in the light of recent space mission results. Future explorations using new ground-based facilities and space mission concepts will be also discussed. This work is supported by the NSF grant AAG-0807468 and NASA grant NNX11AD62G

  11. Early investigations of Ceres and the discovery of Pallas historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    An asteroid scholar, Cunningham in this book picks up where his Discovery of the First Asteroid, Ceres left off in telling the story of the impact created by the discovery of this new class of object in the early 1800s. The best and brightest minds of mathematics, science, and philosophy were fascinated by Ceres, and figures as diverse as Gauss, Herschel, Brougham, Kant, and Laplace all contributed something to the conversation. The first few chapters deal with the mathematical and philosophical aspects of the discovery, and the rivalry between Germany and France that so affected science and astronomy of that era. The jockeying for glory over the discovery of Ceres by both Piazzi and Bode is examined in detail, as is the reception given to Herschel’s use of the word 'asteroid.' Archival research that reveals the creator of the word 'asteroid' is presented in this book. Astronomy was a truly cosmopolitan field at the time, spanning across various disciplines, and the discovery of Pallas, a story completely t...

  12. A reduced estimate of the number of kilometre-sized near-Earth asteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, D; Helin, E; Lawrence, K; Pravdo, S

    2000-01-13

    Near-Earth asteroids are small (diameters Earth (they come within 1.3 AU of the Sun). Most have a chance of approximately 0.5% of colliding with the Earth in the next million years. The total number of such bodies with diameters > 1 km has been estimated to be in the range 1,000-2,000, which translates to an approximately 1% chance of a catastrophic collision with the Earth in the next millennium. These numbers are, however, poorly constrained because of the limitations of previous searches using photographic plates. (One kilometre is below the size of a body whose impact on the Earth would produce global effects.) Here we report an analysis of our survey for near-Earth asteroids that uses improved detection technologies. We find that the total number of asteroids with diameters > 1 km is about half the earlier estimates. At the current rate of discovery of near-Earth asteroids, 90% will probably have been detected within the next 20 years.

  13. Compositional Investigation of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid 66063 (1998 RO1): A Potentially Undifferentiated Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Gaffey, M. J.; Landis, R. R.; Jarvis, K. S.

    2005-01-01

    It is now thought that approximately 16% of all asteroids among the near-Earth population may be binary objects. Several independent lines of evidence, such as the presence of doublet craters on the Earth and Moon [1, 2], complex lightcurves of near-Earth objects exhibiting mutual events [3], and radar images of near-Earth asteroids revealing distinct primary and secondary objects, have supported this conclusion [4]. To date at least 23 near-Earth objects have been discovered as binary systems with expectations that many more have yet to be identified or recognized. Little is known about the physical characteristics of binary objects except that they seem to have fairly rapid rotation rates, generally have primaries in the approx. 1 km diameter range with smaller secondaries on the order of a few hundred meters, and apart from a few exceptions, are in synchronous orbits [4, 5]. Previously only two of these binary near-Earth asteroids (1998 ST27 and 2003 YT1) have been characterized in terms of detailed mineralogical investigations [6, 7]. Such investigations are required to fully understand the formation mechanisms of these binary objects and their possible source regions. In addition, detailed knowledge of these objects may play an important role for planning future spacecraft missions and for the development of impact mitigation strategies. The work presented here represents a continued effort to characterize this particular sub-group of the near- Earth asteroid population.

  14. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E

    2008-11-11

    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  15. Rock strength measurements on Archaean basement granitoids recovered from scientific drilling in the active Koyna seismogenic zone, western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Deepjyoti; Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Misra, Surajit; Roy, Sukanta; Singh, Santosh K.; Sinha, Amalendu; Gupta, Harsh; Bansal, B. K.; Nayak, Shailesh

    2017-08-01

    Reservoir triggered earthquakes have been occurring in the Koyna area, western India for the past five decades. Triaxial tests carried out on 181 core samples of Archaean granitoids underlying the Deccan Traps provide valuable constraints on rock strength properties in the Koyna seismogenic zone for the first time. The data include measurements on granite gneiss, granite, migmatitic gneiss and mylonitised granite gneiss obtained from boreholes KBH-3, KBH-4A, KBH-5 and KBH-7 located in the western and eastern margins of the seismic zone. Salient results are as follows. (i) Increase of rock strength with increasing confining pressure allow determination of the linearized failure envelopes from which the cohesive strength and angle of internal friction are calculated. (ii) Variable differential stresses at different depths are the manifestations of deformation partitioning in close association of fault zone(s) or localized fracture zones. (iii) Fractures controlled by naturally developed weak planes such as cleavage and fabric directly affect the rock strength properties, but the majority of failure planes developed during triaxial tests is not consistent with the orientations of pre-existing weak planes. The failure planes may, therefore, represent other planes of weakness induced by ongoing seismic activity. (iv) Stress-strain curves confirm that axial deformation is controlled by the varying intensity of pre-existing shear in the granitoids, viz., mylonite, granite gneiss and migmatitic gneiss. (v) Frequent occurrences of low magnitude earthquakes may be attributed to low and variable rock strength of the granitoids, which, in turn, is modified by successive seismic events.

  16. Tracing meteorite source regions through asteroid spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina Ana

    By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, gives the best representation of meteorite source bodies. By linking meteorites to NEOs, and linking NEOs to their most likely main-belt source locations, we seek to gain insight into the original solar system formation locations for different meteorite classes. To forge the first link between meteorites and NEOs, we have developed a three dimensional method for quantitative comparisons between laboratory measurements of meteorites and telescopic measurements of near-Earth objects. We utilize meteorite spectra from the Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) database and NEO data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Using the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) as a mathematical tool, we treat asteroid and meteorite spectra identically in the calculation of 1-micron and 2-micron geometric band centers and their band area ratios (BARs). Using these identical numerical parameters we quantitatively compare the spectral properties of S-, Sq-, Q- and V-type NEOs with the spectral properties of the meteorites in the H, L, LL and HED meteorite classes. For each NEO spectrum, we assign a set of probabilities for it being related to each of these meteorite classes. Our NEO- meteorite correlation probabilities are then convolved with NEO-source region probabilities to yield a final set of meteorite-source region correlations. An apparent (significant at the 2.1-sigma level) source region signature is found for the H chondrites to be preferentially delivered to the inner solar system through the 3:1 mean motion resonance. A 3:1 resonance H chondrite source region is consistent with the short cosmic ray exposure ages known for H chondrites. The spectroscopy of asteroids is subject to several sources of inherent error. The source region model used a variety of S-type spectra without

  17. Reverse Asteroids: Searching for an Effective Tool to Combat Asteroid Belt Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, F.; Eisenhamer, B.

    2014-12-01

    The public 'knows' that asteroid belts are densely packed and dangerous for spaceships to cross. Visuals from "Star Wars" to, unfortunately, the recent "Cosmos" TV series have firmly established this astronomical misconception. However, even scientifically correct graphics, such as the Minor Planet Center's plot of the inner solar system, reinforces that view. Each pixel in the image is more than a million kilometers in width, making an accurate representation of the object density impossible.To address this widespread misconception, we are investigating an educational exercise built around a computer interactive that we call "Reverse Asteroids". In the arcade classic video game, the asteroids came to the player's spaceship. For our reverse implementation, we consider an inquiry-based activity in which the spaceship must go hunting for the asteroids, using a database of real objects in our solar system. Both 3D data visualization and basic statistical analysis play crucial roles in bringing out the true space density within the asteroid belt, and perhaps a reconciliation between imagination and reality. We also emphasize that a partnership of scientists and educators is fundamental to the success of such projects.

  18. Cratering statistics on asteroids: Methods and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C.

    2014-07-01

    Crater size-frequency distributions (SFDs) on the surfaces of solid-surfaced bodies in the solar system have provided valuable insights about planetary surface processes and about impactor populations since the first spacecraft images were obtained in the 1960s. They can be used to determine relative age differences between surficial units, to obtain absolute model ages if the impactor flux and scaling laws are understood, to assess various endogenic planetary or asteroidal processes that degrade craters or resurface units, as well as assess changes in impactor populations across the solar system and/or with time. The first asteroid SFDs were measured from Galileo images of Gaspra and Ida (cf., Chapman 2002). Despite the superficial simplicity of these studies, they are fraught with many difficulties, including confusion by secondary and/or endogenic cratering and poorly understood aspects of varying target properties (including regoliths, ejecta blankets, and nearly-zero-g rubble piles), widely varying attributes of impactors, and a host of methodological problems including recognizability of degraded craters, which is affected by illumination angle and by the ''personal equations'' of analysts. Indeed, controlled studies (Robbins et al. 2014) demonstrate crater-density differences of a factor of two or more between experienced crater counters. These inherent difficulties have been especially apparent in divergent results for Vesta from different members of the Dawn Science Team (cf. Russell et al. 2013). Indeed, they have been exacerbated by misuse of a widely available tool (Craterstats: hrscview.fu- berlin.de/craterstats.html), which incorrectly computes error bars for proper interpretation of cumulative SFDs, resulting in derived model ages specified to three significant figures and interpretations of statistically insignificant kinks. They are further exacerbated, and for other small-body crater SFDs analyzed by the Berlin group, by stubbornly adopting

  19. Application of photometric models to asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowell, E.; Dominque, D.; Hapke, B.

    1989-01-01

    The way an asteroid or other atmosphereless solar system body varies in brightness in response to changing illumination and viewing geometry depends in a very complicated way on the physical and optical properties of its surface and on its overall shape. The authors summarize the formulation and application of recent photometric models by Hapke and by Lumme and Bowell. In both models, the brightness of a rough and porous surface is parametrized in terms of the optical properties of individual particles, by shadowing between particles, and by the way in which light scattered among collections of particles. Both models succeed in their goal of fitting the observed photometric behavior of a wide variety of bodies, but neither has led to a very complete understanding of the properties of asteroid regoliths, primarily because in most cases the parameters in the present models cannot be adequately constrained by observations of integral brightness alone over a restricted range of phase angles

  20. The Bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning

    2004-01-01

    targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus....... Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected......The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target...

  1. Computation of Asteroid Proper Elements: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The recent advances in computation of asteroid proper elements are briefly reviewed. Although not representing real breakthroughs in computation and stability assessment of proper elements, these advances can still be considered as important improvements offering solutions to some practical problems encountered in the past. The problem of getting unrealistic values of perihelion frequency for very low eccentricity orbits is solved by computing frequencies using the frequency-modified Fourier transform. The synthetic resonant proper elements adjusted to a given secular resonance helped to prove the existence of Astraea asteroid family. The preliminary assessment of stability with time of proper elements computed by means of the analytical theory provides a good indication of their poorer performance with respect to their synthetic counterparts, and advocates in favor of ceasing their regular maintenance; the final decision should, however, be taken on the basis of more comprehensive and reliable direct estimate of their individual and sample average deviations from constancy.

  2. Heavy Metal - Exploring a magnetised metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, J.-E.; Andrews, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    We propose an ESA/M5 spacecraft mission to orbit and explore (16) Psyche - the largest M-class metallic asteroid in the main belt. Recent estimates of the shape, 279×232×189 km and mass, 2.7×1019 kg of (16) Psyche make it one of the largest and densest of asteroids, 4.5 g cm-3, and together with the high surface radar reflectivity and the spectral data measured from Earth it is consistent with a bulk composition rich in iron-nickel. (16) Psyche orbits the Sun with semi-major axis 2.9 AU, 3º inclination, and is as yet unexplored in-situ.

  3. Asteroids - the modern challenge of celestial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikova, Smiliana

    2002-11-01

    Among the most powerful statements in Science are those that mark absolute limits to knowledge. For example, Relativity and Quantum Theory touched the limits of speed and accuracy. Deterministic Chaos - the new scientific paradigma of our days, also falls in this class theories. Chaos means complexity in space and unpredictability in time. It shows the limit of our basic counting system and leads to a limited predictability of the long time dynamical evolution. Perhaps for that reason, in 1986 Sir James Lighthill remarked for all physicists: "We collectively wish to apologize for having misled the general educated public by spreading ideas about the determinism of systems satisfying Newton's laws of motion that, after 1960, were proved incorrect." Our main thesis is that Asteroid Dynamics is the arena where the drama Chaos versus predictability is initiated and developed. The aim of the present research is to show the way in which Deterministic Chaos restricts the long term dynamical predictability of asteroid motions.

  4. Formation and Evolution of Binary Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, K. J.; Jacobson, S. A.

    Satellites of asteroids have been discovered in nearly every known small-body population, and a remarkable aspect of the known satellites is the diversity of their properties. They tell a story of vast differences in formation and evolution mechanisms that act as a function of size, distance from the Sun, and the properties of their nebular environment at the beginning of solar system history and their dynamical environment over the next 4.5 G.y. The mere existence of these systems provides a laboratory to study numerous types of physical processes acting on asteroids, and their dynamics provide a valuable probe of their physical properties otherwise possible only with spacecraft. Advances in understanding the formation and evolution of binary systems have been assisted by (1) the growing catalog of known systems, increasing from 33 to ~250 between the Merline et al. (2002) chapter in Asteroids III and now; (2) the detailed study and long-term monitoring of individual systems such as 1999 KW4 and 1996 FG3, (3) the discovery of new binary system morphologies and triple systems, (4) and the discovery of unbound systems that appear to be end-states of binary dynamical evolutionary paths. Specifically for small bodies (diameter smaller than 10 km), these observations and discoveries have motivated theoretical work finding that thermal forces can efficiently drive the rotational disruption of small asteroids. Long-term monitoring has allowed studies to constrain the system's dynamical evolution by the combination of tides, thermal forces, and rigid-body physics. The outliers and split pairs have pushed the theoretical work to explore a wide range of evolutionary end-states.

  5. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  6. ASTEROID SIZING BY RADIOGALAXY OCCULTATION AT 5 GHZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.; Muinonen, K.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala (Finland); Bach, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Radioobservatorium Effelsberg, Max-Planck-Str. 28, D-53902 Bad Münstereifel-Effelsberg (Germany); Petrov, L., E-mail: kimmo.lehtinen@nls.fi [Astrogeo Center, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Stellar occultations by asteroids observed at visual wavelengths have been an important tool for studying the size and shape of asteroids and for revising the orbital parameters of asteroids. At radio frequencies, a shadow of an asteroid on the Earth is dominated by diffraction effects. Here, we show, for the first time, that a single observation of an occultation of a compact radio source at a frequency of 5 GHz can be used to derive the effective size of the occulting object and to derive the distance between the observer and the center of the occultation path on the Earth. The derived diameter of the occulting object, asteroid (115) Thyra, is 75 ± 6 km. The observed occultation profile shows features that cannot be explained by diffraction of a single asteroid.

  7. The comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.; Neugebauer, M.; Weissman, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission is designed to answer the many questions raised by the Halley missions by exploring a cometary nucleus in detail, following it around its orbit and studying its changing activity as it moves closer to and then away from the Sun. In addition, on its way to rendezvous with the comet, CRAF will fly by a large, primitive class main belt asteroid and will return valuable data for comparison with the comet results. The selected asteroid is 449 Hamburga with a diameter of 88 km and a surface composition of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The expected flyby date is January, 1998. The CRAF spacecraft will continue to make measurements in orbit around the cometary nucleus as they both move closer to the Sun, until the dust and gas hazard becomes unsafe. At that point the spacecraft will move in and out between 50 and 2,500 kilometers to study the inner coma and the cometary ionosphere, and to collect dust and gas samples for onboard analysis. Following perihelion, the spacecraft will make a 50,000 km excursion down the comet's tail, further investigating the solar wind interaction with the cometary atmosphere. The spacecraft will return to the vicinity of the nucleus about four months after perihelion to observe the changes that have taken place. If the spacecraft remains healthy and adequate fuel is still onboard, an extended mission to follow the comet nucleus out to aphelion is anticipated

  8. Progress in clinical research of asteroid hyalosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xue Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Asteroid Hyalosis(AHis a common clinical disease, which has been considered a benign disorder as it rarely impairs visual acuity. It was often discovered when the patient was treated for other eye diseases. The mechanism was unclear. Its characteristic B-ultrasound property makes the B-ultrasound a very helpful diagnostic technique. In the case of the patients with other fundus diseases associated with AH, optical coherence tomography(OCTand fluorescein angiography(FAmay be used to reduce the interference from asteroid bodies, therefore improve the fundus visibility. Recent studies have shown that AH can incorporate with many other eye diseases. For example, in patients with cataracts, asteroid hyalosis can cause surface calcification of silicone plate intraocular lenses, which in most cases may lead to the need for explantation of the calcified intraocular lenses. The efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy(PPV, the removal of some, or all, of the eye's vitreous humor for AH remains controversial. In this paper, we provide a review of the recent literature on AH disease: the etiology, diagnosis and treatment. We hope to thus improve the awareness and outcomes of AH disease.

  9. Asteroids in the High Cadence Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, J.; Fuentes, C.; Förster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; San Martín, J.; Littín, J.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera-Vives, G.; Estévez, P. A.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Martínez, J.; de Jaeger, Th.; Hamuy, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the serendipitous observations of solar system objects imaged during the High cadence Transient Survey 2014 observation campaign. Data from this high-cadence wide-field survey was originally analyzed for finding variable static sources using machine learning to select the most-likely candidates. In this work, we search for moving transients consistent with solar system objects and derive their orbital parameters. We use a simple, custom motion detection algorithm to link trajectories and assume Keplerian motion to derive the asteroid’s orbital parameters. We use known asteroids from the Minor Planet Center database to assess the detection efficiency of the survey and our search algorithm. Trajectories have an average of nine detections spread over two days, and our fit yields typical errors of {σ }a∼ 0.07 {au}, σ e ∼ 0.07 and σ i ∼ 0.°5 in semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination, respectively, for known asteroids in our sample. We extract 7700 orbits from our trajectories, identifying 19 near-Earth objects, 6687 asteroids, 14 Centaurs, and 15 trans-Neptunian objects. This highlights the complementarity of supernova wide-field surveys for solar system research and the significance of machine learning to clean data of false detections. It is a good example of the data-driven science that Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will deliver.

  10. DISINTEGRATING ASTEROID P/2013 R3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David; Li, Jing [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    Splitting of the nuclei of comets into multiple components has been frequently observed but, to date, no main-belt asteroid has been observed to break up. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we find that main-belt asteroid P/2013 R3 consists of 10 or more distinct components, the largest up to 200 m in radius (assumed geometric albedo of 0.05) each of which produces a coma and comet-like dust tail. A diffuse debris cloud with total mass ∼2 × 10{sup 8} kg further envelopes the entire system. The velocity dispersion among the components, ΔV ∼ 0.2-0.5 m s{sup –1}, is comparable to the gravitational escape speeds of the largest members, while their extrapolated plane-of-sky motions suggest a break up between 2013 February and September. The broadband optical colors are those of a C-type asteroid. We find no spectral evidence for gaseous emission, placing model-dependent upper limits to the water production rate ≤1 kg s{sup –1}. Breakup may be due to a rotationally induced structural failure of the precursor body.

  11. Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, O. A.

    2008-06-01

    We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

  12. Asteroid Lightcurves from Xingming Observatory: 2017 - 2017 June

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanjie; Yeh, Tingshuo; Li, Bin; Gao, Xing

    2018-01-01

    The lightcurves of main-belt asteroids 963, 1025, 2019, and 17814 and near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) 459872, 2014 JO25, and 2017 BS32 were obtained using Xingming Observatory (Code C42) from 2016 March to 2017 March. The absolute magnitudes of these asteroids range from H = 11.6 to 27.3, corresponding to a diameter range of 14 m to 14 km. The derived synodic rotation periods range between 0.1 to 10 h.

  13. Methods of determination of periods in the motion of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, R.; Schubart, J.

    Numerical techniques for the analysis of fundamental periods in asteroidal motion are evaluated. The specific techniques evaluated were: the periodogram analysis procedure of Wundt (1980); Stumpff's (1937) system of algebraic transformations; and Labrouste's procedure. It is shown that the Labrouste procedure permitted sufficient isolation of single oscillations from the quasi-periodic process of asteroidal motion. The procedure was applied to the analysis of resonance in the motion of Trojan-type and Hilda-type asteroids, and some preliminary results are discussed.

  14. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

  15. Antimatter applied for Earth protection from asteroid collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satori, Shin; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Kuriki, Kyoichi

    1990-01-01

    An Earth protection system against asteroids and meteorites in colliding orbit is proposed. The system consists of detection and deorbiting systems. Analyses are given for the resolution of microwave optics, the detectability of radar, the orbital plan of intercepting operation, and the antimatter mass require for totally or partially blasting the asteroid. Antimatter of 1 kg is required for deorbiting an asteroid 200 m in diameter. An experimental simulation of antimatter cooling and storage is planned. The facility under construction is discussed.

  16. Anchoring a lander on an asteroid using foam stabilization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has proposed several missions to land a craft on an asteroid and potentially to return samples from it. While large asteroids in the asteroid belt can exhibit a...

  17. THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROID 2004 BL86: A FRAGMENT OF A DIFFERENTIATED ASTEROID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Takir, Driss; Corre, Lucille Le [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell Road, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gary, Bruce L. [Hereford Arizona Observatory, Hereford, AZ 85615 (United States); Thomas, Cristina A. [NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hardersen, Paul S. [Department of Space Studies, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 (United States); Ogmen, Yenal [Green Island Observatory, Geçitkale, Maǧusa, via Mersin 10  North Cyprus (Turkey); Benni, Paul [Acton Sky Portal, 3 Concetta Circle, Acton, MA 01720 (United States); Kaye, Thomas G. [Raemor Vista Observatory, Sierra Vista, AZ 85650 (United States); Gregorio, Joao [Atalaia Group, Crow Observatory (Portalegre) Travessa da Cidreira, 2 rc D, 2645-039 Alcabideche (Portugal); Garlitz, Joe [1155 Hartford Street, Elgin, OR 97827 (United States); Polishook, David [Weizmann Institute of Science, Herzl Street 234, Rehovot, 7610001 (Israel); Nathues, Andreas, E-mail: reddy@psi.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-09-20

    The physical characterization of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) is important for impact hazard assessment and evaluating mitigation options. Close flybys of PHAs provide an opportunity to study their surface photometric and spectral properties that enable the identification of their source regions in the main asteroid belt. We observed PHA (357439) 2004 BL86 during a close flyby of the Earth at a distance of 1.2 million km (0.0080 AU) on 2015 January 26, with an array of ground-based telescopes to constrain its photometric and spectral properties. Lightcurve observations showed that the asteroid was a binary and subsequent radar observations confirmed the binary nature and gave a primary diameter of 300 m and a secondary diameter of 50–100 m. Our photometric observations were used to derive the phase curve of 2004 BL86 in the V-band. Two different photometric functions were fitted to this phase curve, the IAU H–G model and the Shevchenko model. From the fit of the H–G function we obtained an absolute magnitude of H = 19.51 ± 0.02 and a slope parameter of G = 0.34 ± 0.02. The Shevchenko function yielded an absolute magnitude of H = 19.03 ± 0.07 and a phase coefficient b = 0.0225 ± 0.0006. The phase coefficient was used to calculate the geometric albedo (Ag) using the relationship found by Belskaya and Schevchenko, obtaining a value of Ag = 40% ± 8% in the V-band. With the geometric albedo and the absolute magnitudes derived from the H–G and the Shevchenko functions we calculated the diameter (D) of 2004 BL86, obtaining D = 263 ± 26 and D = 328 ± 35 m, respectively. 2004 BL86 spectral band parameters and pyroxene chemistry are consistent with non-cumulate eucrite meteorites. A majority of these meteorites are derived from Vesta and are analogous with surface lava flows on a differentiated parent body. A non-diagnostic spectral curve match using the Modeling for Asteroids tool yielded a best-match with non-cumulate eucrite Bereba. Three other

  18. THE ORIGIN OF ASTEROID 162173 (1999 JU3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campins, Humberto; De León, Julia; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gayon-Markt, Julie; Delbo, Marco; Michel, Patrick; Licandro, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroid (162173) 1999 JU 3 (henceforth JU 3 ) is a potentially hazardous asteroid and the target of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Hayabusa-2 sample return mission. JU 3 is also a backup target for two other sample return missions: NASA's OSIRIS-REx and the European Space Agency's Marco Polo-R. We use dynamical information to identify an inner-belt, low-inclination origin through the ν 6 resonance, more specifically, the region with 2.15 AU 3 is 0.07 ± 0.01, and this inner-belt region contains four well-defined low-albedo asteroid families (Clarissa, Erigone, Polana, and Sulamitis), plus a recently identified background population of low-albedo asteroids outside these families. Only two of these five groups, the background and the Polana family, deliver JU 3 -sized asteroids to the ν 6 resonance, and the background delivers significantly more JU 3 -sized asteroids. The available spectral evidence is also diagnostic; the visible and near-infrared spectra of JU 3 indicate it is a C-type asteroid, which is compatible with members of the background, but not with the Polana family because it contains primarily B-type asteroids. Hence, this background population of low-albedo asteroids is the most likely source of JU 3

  19. SUBMILLIMETER LIGHTCURVES OF ASTEROIDS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Submillimeter lightcurves of large asteroids Ceres, Davida, Io, Juno, Pallas, Vesta, and Victoria, observed at the Heinrich-Hertz Submillimeter Telescope from...

  20. The Nature of C Asteroid Regolith from Meteorite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Komatsu, M.; Jenniskens, P.; Le, L.; Yin, Q.-Z; Kebukawa, Y.; Fries, M.

    2013-01-01

    Regolith from C (and related) asteroid bodies are a focus of the current missions Dawn at Ceres, Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS REx. An asteroid as large as Ceres is expected to be covered by a mature regolith, and as Hayabusa demonstrated, flat and therefore engineeringly-safe ponded deposits will probably be the sampling sites for both Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS REx. Here we examine what we have learned about the mineralogy of fine-grained asteroid regolith from recent meteorite studies and the examination of the samples harvested from asteroid Itokawa by Hayabusa.

  1. Capturing asteroids into bound orbits around the earth: Massive early return on an asteroid terminal defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear explosives may be used to capture small asteroids (e.g., 20--50 meters in diameter) into bound orbits around the earth. The captured objects could be used for construction material for manned and unmanned activity in Earth orbit. Asteroids with small approach velocities, which are the ones most likely to have close approaches to the Earth, require the least energy for capture. They are particularly easy to capture if they pass within one Earth radius of the surface of the Earth. They could be intercepted with intercontinental missiles if the latter were retrofit with a more flexible guiding and homing capability. This asteroid capture-defense system could be implemented in a few years at low cost by using decommissioned ICMs. The economic value of even one captured asteroid is many times the initial investment. The asteroid capture system would be an essential part of the learning curve for dealing with larger asteroids that can hit the earth

  2. Variation in Surficial Hydrated Minerals on Large Low-Albedo Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Emery, Joshua P.; Howell, Ellen S.

    2017-10-01

    Observations of asteroids in the 3-µm spectral region, where absorptions diagnostic for hydrated minerals are found, show low-albedo asteroid spectra can be classified into at least 3 groups (Takir et al. 2013, Rivkin et al. 2015). While definitions of these groups vary between authors, they hold in common a group with spectra like what we see for CM/CI meteorites, one group with spectra like that of Ceres, and a group with spectra that have been interpreted as ice frost. The relationship between these groups is not yet clear. One possibility is that the spectrum reflects (no pun intended) the formation location for the asteroids and that a given object is undifferentiated and homogeneous in the composition of its hydrated minerals. However, models of the thermal and chemical evolution of large, low-albedo asteroids suggests that differentiation may be more common than we had thought, and impacts could exhume once-deep layers or expose complicated mixes of salts and silicates (for instance, Castillo-Rogez et al. LPSC 2017 model of Ceres). In this case, we might expect variation in the 3-µm spectral region to be seen on the surfaces of some objects as they rotate. We will present evidence for such variation in the spectrum of two large asteroids, 704 Interamnia (306 km diameter) and 324 Bamberga (220 km diameter). In the first case, Interamnia’s spectrum seems to have a combination of Ceres- and CM/CI-like features and has aspects where one or another component is dominant, while Bamberga’s spectrum is not easily placed in previously-defined groups.

  3. Is the Eureka cluster a collisional family of Mars Trojan asteroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Apostolos A.; Borisov, Galin; Dell'Oro, Aldo; Cellino, Alberto; Bagnulo, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    We explore the hypothesis that the Eureka family of sub-km asteroids in the L5 region of Mars could have formed in a collision. We estimate the size distribution index from available information on family members; model the orbital dispersion of collisional fragments; and carry out a formal calculation of the collisional lifetime as a function of size. We find that, as initially conjectured by Rivkin et al. (2003), the collisional lifetime of objects the size of (5261) Eureka is at least a few Gyr, significantly longer than for similar-sized Main Belt asteroids. In contrast, the observed degree of orbital compactness is inconsistent with all but the least energetic family-forming collisions. Therefore, the family asteroids may be ejecta from a cratering event sometime in the past ∼ 1 Gyr if the orbits are gradually dispersed by gravitational diffusion and the Yarkovsky effect (Ćuk et al., 2015). The comparable sizes of the largest family members require either negligible target strength or a particular impact geometry under this scenario (Durda et al., 2007; Benavidez et al., 2012). Alternatively, the family may have formed by a series of YORP-induced fission events (Pravec et al., 2010). The shallow size distribution of the family is similar to that of small MBAs (Gladman et al., 2009) interpreted as due to the dominance of this mechanism for Eureka-family-sized asteroids (Jacobson et al., 2014). However, our population index estimate is likely a lower limit due to the small available number of family asteroids and observational incompleteness. Future searches for fainter family members, further observational characterisation of the known Trojans' physical properties as well as orbital and rotational evolution modelling will help distinguish between different formation models.

  4. Detailed Analysis of the Asteroid Pair (6070) Rheinland and (54827) 2001 NQ8

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokrouhlický, D.; Pravec, Petr; Ďurech, J.; Hornoch, Kamil; Kušnirák, Peter; Galád, Adrián; Vraštil, J.; Kučáková, Hana; Pollock, J.; Ortiz, J.L.; Morales, N.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Pray, D. P.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Inasaridze, R.Ya.; Ayvazian, V.; Molotov, I.E.; Colazo, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, č. 6 (2017), 270/1-270/17 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00774S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01308S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : minor planets * asteroids * general Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  5. X-Ray Micro-Tomography Applied to Nasa's Materials Research: Heat Shields, Parachutes and Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Francesco; Borner, Arnaud; Ferguson, Joseph C.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Stern, Eric C.; Barnard, Harold S.; Macdowell, Alastair A.; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray micro-tomography is used to support the research on materials carried out at NASA Ames Research Center. The technique is applied to a variety of applications, including the ability to characterize heat shield materials for planetary entry, to study the Earth- impacting asteroids, and to improve broadcloths of spacecraft parachutes. From micro-tomography images, relevant morphological and transport properties are determined and validated against experimental data.

  6. Split Active Asteroid P/2016 J1 (PANSTARRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Man-To; Jewitt, David [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Du, Xinnan, E-mail: pachacoti@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present a photometric and astrometric study of the split active asteroid P/2016 J1 (PANSTARRS). The two components (hereafter J1-A and J1-B) separated either ∼1500 days (2012 May to June) or 2300 days (2010 April) prior to the current epoch, with a separation speed V {sub sep} = 0.70 ± 0.02 m s{sup −1} for the former scenario and 0.83 ± 0.06 m s{sup −1} for the latter. Keck photometry reveals that the two fragments have similar, Sun-like colors that are comparable to the colors of primitive C- and G-type asteroids. With a nominal comet-like albedo, p{sub R} = 0.04, the effective, dust-contaminated cross sections are estimated to be 2.4 km{sup 2} for J1-A and 0.5 km{sup 2} for J1-B. We estimate that the nucleus radii lie in the range 140 ≲  R {sub N} ≲ 900 m for J1-A and 40 ≲  R {sub N} ≲ 400 m for J1-B. A syndyne–synchrone simulation shows that both components have been active for 3–6 months, by ejecting dust grains at speeds ∼0.5 m s{sup −1} with rates ∼1 kg s{sup −1} for J1-A and 0.1 kg s{sup −1} for J1-B. In its present orbit, the rotational spin-up and devolatilization times of 2016 J1 are very small compared to the age of the solar system, raising the question of why this object still exists. We suggest that ice that was formerly buried within this asteroid became exposed at the surface, perhaps via a small impact, and that sublimation torques then rapidly drove it to breakup. Further disintegration events are anticipated owing to the rotational instability.

  7. Asteroid thermal modeling in the presence of reflected sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    A new derivation of simple asteroid thermal models is presented, investigating the need to account correctly for Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation when IR observations contain substantial reflected sunlight. The framework applies to both the NEATM and related thermal models. A new parameterization of these models eliminates the dependence of thermal modeling on visible absolute magnitude H, which is not always available. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the potential impact of violating Kirchhoff's law on estimates of physical parameters such as diameter and IR albedo, with an emphasis on NEOWISE results. The NEOWISE papers use ten different models, applied to 12 different combinations of WISE data bands, in 47 different combinations. The most prevalent combinations are simulated and the accuracy of diameter estimates is found to be depend critically on the model and data band combination. In the best case of full thermal modeling of all four band the errors in an idealized model the 1σ (68.27%) confidence interval is -5% to +6%, but this combination is just 1.9% of NEOWISE results. Other combinations representing 42% of the NEOWISE results have about twice the CI at -10% to +12%, before accounting for errors due to irregular shape or other real world effects that are not simulated. The model and data band combinations found for the majority of NEOWISE results have much larger systematic and random errors. Kirchhoff's law violation by NEOWISE models leads to errors in estimation accuracy that are strongest for asteroids with W1, W2 band emissivity ɛ12 in both the lowest (0.605 ≤ɛ12 ≤ 0 . 780), and highest decile (0.969 ≤ɛ12 ≤ 0 . 988), corresponding to the highest and lowest deciles of near-IR albedo pIR. Systematic accuracy error between deciles ranges from a low of 5% to as much as 45%, and there are also differences in the random errors. Kirchhoff's law effects also produce large errors in NEOWISE estimates of pIR, particularly for high

  8. The binary near-Earth Asteroid (175706) 1996 FG(3) - An observational constraint on its orbital evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scheirich, Peter; Pravec, Petr; Jacobson, S.A.; Ďurech, J.; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Mottola, S.; Mommert, M.; Hellmich, S.; Pray, D. P.; Polishook, D.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Inasaridze, R.Ya.; Kvaratskhelia, O.I.; Ayvazian, V.; Slyusarev, I.; Pittichova, J.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Gillon, M.; Galád, A.; Pollock, J.; Licandro, J.; Ali-Lagoa, V.; Brinsfield, J.; Molotov, I.E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 245, January (2015), s. 56-63 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107; GA ČR GAP209/12/0229 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids * dynamics * near-Earth object Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2015

  9. Tactile Earth and Space Science Materials for Students with Visual Impairments: Contours, Craters, Asteroids, and Features of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2011-01-01

    New tactile curriculum materials for teaching Earth and planetary science lessons on rotation=revolution, silhouettes of objects from different views, contour maps, impact craters, asteroids, and topographic features of Mars to 11 elementary and middle school students with sight impairments at a week-long residential summer camp are presented…

  10. The Hawaii trails project: comet-hunting in the main asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, H. H.

    2009-10-01

    Context: The mysterious solar system object 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro is dynamically asteroidal, yet displays recurrent comet-like dust emission. Two scenarios were hypothesized to explain this unusual behavior: 1) 133P is a classical comet from the outer solar system that has evolved onto a main-belt orbit or 2) 133P is a dynamically ordinary main-belt asteroid on which subsurface ice has recently been exposed. If 1) is correct, the expected rarity of a dynamical transition onto an asteroidal orbit implies that 133P could be alone in the main belt. In contrast, if 2) is correct, other icy main-belt objects should exist and could also exhibit cometary activity. Aims: Believing 133P to be a dynamically ordinary, yet icy main-belt asteroid, I set out to test the primary prediction of the hypothesis: that 133P-like objects should be common and could be found by an appropriately designed observational survey. Methods: I conducted just such a survey - the Hawaii Trails Project - of selected main-belt asteroids in a search for objects displaying cometary activity. Optical observations were made of targets selected from among the Themis, Koronis, and Veritas asteroid families, the Karin asteroid cluster, and low-inclination, kilometer-scale outer-belt asteroids, using the Lulin 1.0 m, small and moderate aperture research telescope system (SMARTS) 1.0 m, University of Hawaii 2.2 m, southern astrophysical research (SOAR) 4.1 m, Gemini North 8.1 m, Subaru 8.2 m, and Keck I 10 m telescopes. Results: I made 657 observations of 599 asteroids, discovering one active object now known as 176P/LINEAR, leading to the identification of the new cometary class of main-belt comets (MBCs). These results suggest that there could be ~100 currently active MBCs among low-inclination, kilometer-scale outer-belt asteroids. Physically and statistically, MBC activity is consistent with initiation by meter-sized impactors. The estimated rate of impacts and sizes of resulting active sites, however

  11. Asteroid 1997 XF11 Could Collide with Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, B. G.

    1999-09-01

    Early in 1998, the 2-km asteroid 1997 XF11 became of interest as a possible danger to the earth because it would clearly pass within--possibly well within--the earth's sphere of influence on 2028 Oct. 26 (IAUC 6837). Given the usual model of the solar system, the 2028 passage was entirely predictable in that there was then no possibility of collision with the earth (IAUC 6879). Nevertheless, despite this predictability, several colleagues insisted on estimating impact probabilities, with results ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-1117) ; although this latter figure by Muinonen may be technically correct, it surely invites the imagination of bizarre scenarios that would increase it. Surprisingly, despite a stated desire for ``peer review'' of pronouncements of an asteroid hazard, there was no consideration that 1997 XF11 might have posed a danger to the earth a few years after 2028. Given the 88-day arc of observations, the uncertainty in the 2028 miss distance meant that the object's revolution period, currently 1.73 years, could subsequently have been anything from 1.53 to 1.99 years. Furthermore, the essentially linear annual change of 4000 km in the minimum distance between the earth's orbit and the object's descending node would reduce this distance to zero during the late 2030s. Given the possibility of a post-2028 earth-resonant period such as 5/3, 7/4, 9/5 or 12/7 years, it was also predictable that there existed trajectories for 1997 XF11, entirely consistent with the available observations, that would yield an earth impact during this timeframe. A possible deep impact in 2040, a grazing impact in 2037 and other passages within 2 or 3 earth radii were in fact found. Although the chaos induced in 2028 renders the calculation of impact probabilities rather difficult, a simplistic argument gives a value of about 10(-5) in at least one of the relevant years (albeit at a very specific time). This is larger than the estimated annual 10(-6) impact probability for unknown

  12. Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS): A Space-Based System Concept for Revolutionizing Earth Protection and Utilization of Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Antol, Jeffrey; Kay-Bunnell, Linda; Werner, Martin R.; Park, Sang-Young; Kumar, Renjith R.

    2002-01-01

    There exists an infrequent, but significant hazard to life and property due to impacting asteroids and comets. There is currently no specific search for long-period comets, smaller near-Earth asteroids, or smaller short-period comets. These objects represent a threat with potentially little or no warning time using conventional ground-based telescopes. These planetary bodies also represent a significant resource for commercial exploitation, long-term sustained space exploration, and scientific research. The Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) would expand the current detection effort to include long-period comets, as well as small asteroids and short-period comets capable of regional destruction. A space-based detection system, despite being more costly and complex than Earth-based initiatives, is the most promising way of expanding the range of detectable objects, and surveying the entire celestial sky on a regular basis. CAPS is a future spacebased system concept that provides permanent, continuous asteroid and comet monitoring, and rapid, controlled modification of the orbital trajectories of selected bodies. CAPS would provide an orbit modification system capable of diverting kilometer class objects, and modifying the orbits of smaller asteroids for impact defense and resource utilization. This paper provides a summary of CAPS and discusses several key areas and technologies that are being investigated.

  13. Asteroid mass estimation with Markov-chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltala, Lauri; Granvik, Mikael

    2017-10-01

    Estimates for asteroid masses are based on their gravitational perturbations on the orbits of other objects such as Mars, spacecraft, or other asteroids and/or their satellites. In the case of asteroid-asteroid perturbations, this leads to a 13-dimensional inverse problem at minimum where the aim is to derive the mass of the perturbing asteroid and six orbital elements for both the perturbing asteroid and the test asteroid by fitting their trajectories to their observed positions. The fitting has typically been carried out with linearized methods such as the least-squares method. These methods need to make certain assumptions regarding the shape of the probability distributions of the model parameters. This is problematic as these assumptions have not been validated. We have developed a new Markov-chain Monte Carlo method for mass estimation which does not require an assumption regarding the shape of the parameter distribution. Recently, we have implemented several upgrades to our MCMC method including improved schemes for handling observational errors and outlier data alongside the option to consider multiple perturbers and/or test asteroids simultaneously. These upgrades promise significantly improved results: based on two separate results for (19) Fortuna with different test asteroids we previously hypothesized that simultaneous use of both test asteroids would lead to an improved result similar to the average literature value for (19) Fortuna with substantially reduced uncertainties. Our upgraded algorithm indeed finds a result essentially equal to the literature value for this asteroid, confirming our previous hypothesis. Here we show these new results for (19) Fortuna and other example cases, and compare our results to previous estimates. Finally, we discuss our plans to improve our algorithm further, particularly in connection with Gaia.

  14. A basin on an unstable ground: Correlation of the Middle Archaean Moodies Basin, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnemueller, Frank; Heubeck, Christoph; Kirstein, Jens; Gamper, Antonia

    2010-05-01

    time and immediately predates the initiation of basin shortening. Basin compartmentalization was likely due to the movement along a group of major faults (Sheba, Haki, Barbrook, Saddleback Faults) between the present Saddleback and Eureka Synclines, creating at least two subbasins in late Moodies time. Even though sediment provenance thus became localized, intensive Archaean weathering likely contributed to generate petrographically similar quartz-rich sandstones in fault-bounded minibasins. The late-Moodies minibasins may have become connected occasionally, allowing concurrent deposition of thin BIFs. A similar phase of movement along the major transcurrent Inyoka Fault may be responsible for the distinct petrographic character of Moodies sandstones south of that fault.

  15. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies: Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen P. Nutman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite siliceous rocks – known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880–3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthogneisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7% and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%, as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%, with domains with apatite habit now occupied by intergrowths of muscovite + quartz ± Fe-oxides ± baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays ± silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%, but with petrographic

  16. Archaean Gold Mineralization in an Extensional Setting: The Structural History of the Kukuluma and Matandani Deposits, Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimba D. Kwelwa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three major gold deposits, Matandani, Kukuluma, and Area 3, host several million ouncez (Moz of gold, along a ~5 km long, WNW trend in the E part of the Geita Greenstone Belt, NW Tanzania. The deposits are hosted in Archaean volcanoclastic sediment and intrusive diorite. The geological evolution of the deposits involved three separate stages: (1 an early stage of syn-sedimentary extensional deformation (D1 around 2715 Ma; (2 a second stage involving overprinting ductile folding (D2–4 and shearing (D5–6 events during N-S compression between 2700 and 2665 Ma, coeval with the emplacement of the Kukuluma Intrusive Complex; and (3 a final stage of extensional deformation (D7 accommodated by minor, broadly east-trending normal faults, preceded by the intrusion of felsic porphyritic dykes at ~2650 Ma. The geometry of the ore bodies at Kukuluma and Matandani is controlled by the distribution of magnetite-rich meta-ironstone, near the margins of monzonite-diorite bodies of the Kukuluma Intrusive Complex. The lithological contacts acted as redox boundaries, where high-grade mineralization was enhanced in damage zones with higher permeability, including syn-D3 hydrothermal breccia, D2–D3 fold hinges, and D6 shears. The actual mineralizing event was syn-D7, and occurred in an extensional setting that facilitated the infiltration of mineralizing fluids. Thus, whilst gold mineralization is late-tectonic, ore zone geometries are linked to older structures and lithological boundaries that formed before gold was introduced. The deformation-intrusive history of the Kukuluma and Matandani deposits is near identical to the geological history of the world-class Nyankanga and Geita Hill deposits in the central part of the Geita Greenstone Belt. This similarity suggests that the geological history of much of the greenstone belt is similar. All major gold deposits in the Geita Greenstone Belt lack close proximity to crustal-scale shear zones; they are associated

  17. Investigating the origin of the asteroids and early findings on Vesta historical studies in asteroid research

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Clifford J

    2017-01-01

    This book assesses the origin of asteroids by analyzing the discovery of Vesta in 1807. Wilhelm Olbers, who discovered Vesta, suggested that the asteroids were the result of a primordial planet’s explosion. Cunningham studies that idea in detail through the writings of Sir David Brewster in Scotland, the era's most prolific writer about the asteroids. He also examines the link between meteorites and asteroids, revealing a synergy between Ernst Chladni, Romantic symbolism, and the music of the spheres. Vesta was a lightning rod for controversy throughout the nineteenth century with observers arguing over its size and color, and the astounding notion that it was self-luminous. It was also a major force for change, as new methods in the field of celestial mechanics were developed to study the orbital perturbations it is subject to. A large selection of private correspondence and scientific papers complete the first comprehensive historical study of Vesta ever published. With a synoptic look at the four astero...

  18. A SEARCH FOR ASTEROIDS, MOONS, AND RINGS ORBITING WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Howell, Steve B.; Kawaler, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Do white dwarfs host asteroid systems? Although several lines of argument suggest that white dwarfs may be orbited by large populations of asteroids, transits would provide the most direct evidence. We demonstrate that the Kepler mission has the capability to detect transits of white dwarfs by asteroids. Because white-dwarf asteroid systems, if they exist, are likely to contain many asteroids orbiting in a spatially extended distribution, discoveries of asteroid transits can be made by monitoring only a small number of white dwarfs, compatible with Kepler's primary mission, which is to monitor stars with potentially habitable planets. Possible future missions that survey 10 times as many stars with similar sensitivity and minute-cadence monitoring can establish the characteristics of asteroid systems around white dwarfs, such as the distribution of asteroid sizes and semimajor axes. Transits by planets would be more dramatic, but the probability that they will occur is lower. Ensembles of planetary moons and/or the presence of rings around planets can also produce transits detectable by Kepler. The presence of moons and rings can significantly increase the probability that Kepler will discover planets orbiting white dwarfs, even while monitoring only a small number of them.

  19. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, P.; Barucci, M.A.; Drummond, J.D.; Lumme, K.; Surdej, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of asteroid lightcurve inversion and the information available from photometry are reviewed. General tools as well as specific techniques for shape and pole determinations are summarized and their advantages and shortcomings are discussed. The authors present the results obtained so far in this very active field and discuss their significance in the general context of asteroid research and planetary formation

  20. Capture orbits around asteroids by hitting zero-velocity curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Hongwei; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Guangfu

    2017-12-01

    The problem of capturing a spacecraft from a heliocentric orbit into a high parking orbit around binary asteroids is investigated in the current study. To reduce the braking Δ V, a new capture strategy takes advantage of the three-body gravity of the binary asteroid to lower the inertial energy before applying the Δ V. The framework of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) is employed for the binary asteroid system. The proposed capture strategy is based on the mechanism by which inertial energy can be decreased sharply near zero-velocity curves (ZVCs). The strategy has two steps, namely, hitting the target ZVC and raising the periapsis by a small Δ V at the apoapsis. By hitting the target ZVC, the positive inertial energy decreases and becomes negative. Using a small Δ V, the spacecraft inserts into a bounded orbit around the asteroid. In addition, a rotating mass dipole model is employed for elongated asteroids, which leads to dynamics similar to that of the CR3BP. With this approach, the proposed capture strategy can be applied to elongated asteroids. Numerical simulations validate that the proposed capture strategy is applicable for the binary asteroid 90 Antiope and the elongated asteroid 216 Kleopatra.

  1. Earth-approaching asteroids: Populations, origin, and compositional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Helin, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    Origin, physical properties, and discovery history of smaller asteroids are reviewed. They appear to link the main belt objects, namely the comets and meteorites. Physical observations suggest that a wide variety of compositional types are represented among the near-earth asteroids; the apparent rarity of carbonaceous objects is stated.

  2. Forging Asteroid-Meteorite Relationships Through Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbine, T. H.; Binzel, R. P.; Bus, S. J.; Buchanan, P. C.; Hinrichs, J. L.; Meibom, A.; Hiroi, T.; Sunshine, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra were obtained for 196 asteroids as part of SMASSIR. SMASSIR focused on observing asteroids assumed to be one of the following: (1) olivine-rich, (2) objects with "Vesta-like spectra" (the "Vestoids"), and (3) postulated meteorite parent bodies.

  3. Mothe-Diniz Asteroid Dynamical Families V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe-Diniz, T.; Roig, F.; Carvano, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    This dataset contains an updated compilation of asteroid families and clusters, resulting from the application of the Hierarchical Clustering Method (HCM) on a set of around 120,000 asteroids with available proper elements. Whenever available, the classification in the Bus taxonomy is provided for family members, based on spectra from the SMASS, SMASS2 and S3OS2 spectroscopic surveys.

  4. Mechanisms for strain localization within Archaean craton: A structural study from the Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone, north-central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saheli; Patole, Vishal; Saha, Lopamudra; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2015-04-01

    The transformation of palaeo-continents involve breakup, dispersal and reassembly of cratonic blocks by collisional suturing that develop a network of orogenic (mobile) belts around the periphery of the stable cratons. The nature of deformation in the orogenic belt depends on the complex interaction of fracturing, plastic deformation and diffusive mass transfer. Additionally, the degree and amount of melting during regional deformation is critical as the presence of melt facilitates the rate of diffusive mass transfer and weakens the rock by reducing the effective viscosity of the deformed zone. The nature of strain localization and formation of ductile shear zones surrounding the cratonic blocks have been correlated with Proterozoic-Palaeozoic supercontinent assembly (Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana reconstruction). Although, a pre-Columbia supercontinent termed as Kenorland has been postulated, there is no evidence that supports the notion due to lack of the presence of shear zones within the Archaean cratonic blocks. In this contribution, we present the detailed structural analysis of ductile shear zones within the Bundelkhand craton. The ductlile shear zone is termed as Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone (BTZ) that extends east-west for nearly 300 km throughout the craton with a width of two-three kilometer . In the north-central India, the Bundelkhand craton is exposed over an area of 26,000 sq. The craton is bounded by Central Indian Tectonic zone in the south, the Great Boundary fault in the west and by the rocks of Lesser Himalaya in the north. A series of tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite gneiss are the oldest rocks of the Bundelkhand craton that also contains a succession of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks comprising of banded iron formation, quartzite, calc-silicate and ultramafic rocks. K-feldspar bearing granites intrude the tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite and the supracrustal rocks during the time span of 2.1 to 2.5 Ga. The TTGs near Babina, in central

  5. Near-Earth asteroids: Metals occurrence, extraction, and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Richard

    Near-earth asteroids occur in three principle types of orbits: Amor, Apollo, and Aten. Amor asteroids make relatively close (within 0.3 AU) approaches to the earth's orbit, but do not actually overlap it. Apollo asteroids spend most of their time outside the earth's orbital path, but at some point of close approach to the sun, they cross the orbit of the earth. Aten asteroids are those whose orbits remain inside the earth's path for the majority of their time, with semi-major axes less than 0.1 AU. Near-earth orbit asteroids include: stones, stony-irons, irons, carbonaceous, and super-carbonaceous. Metals within these asteroids include: iron, nickel, cobalt, the platinum group, aluminum, titanium, and others. Focus is on the extraction of ferrous and platinum group metals from the stony-iron asteroids, and the iron asteroids. Extraction of the metal fraction can be accomplished through the use of tunnel-boring-machines (TBM) in the case of the stony-irons. The metals within the story-iron asteroids occur as dispersed granules, which can be separated from the stony fraction through magnetic and gaseous digestion separation techniques. The metal asteroids are processes by drilling and gaseous digestion or by gaseous digestion alone. Manufacturing of structures, housings, framing networks, pressure vessels, mirrors, and other products is accomplished through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal coating on advanced composites and on the inside of contour-defining inflatables (CDI). Metal coatings on advanced composites provide: resistance to degradation in the hostile environments of space; superior optical properties; superior heat dissipation; service as wear coatings; and service as evidential coatings. Metal coatings on the inside of CDI produce metal load-bearing products. Fibers such as graphite, kevlar, glass, ceramic, metal, etc., can be incorporated in the metal coatings on the inside of CDI producing metal matrix products which exhibit high strength

  6. Multi-color lightcurve observation of the asteroid (163249) 2002 GT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, M.; Abe, S.

    2014-07-01

    NASA's Deep Impact/EPOXI spacecraft plans to encounter the asteroid (163249) 2002 GT, classified as a PHA (Potentially Hazardous Asteroid), on January 4, 2020. However, the taxonomic type and spin state of 2002 GT remain to be determined. We have carried out ground-based multi-color (B-V-R-I) lightcurve observations taking advantage of the 2002 GT Characterization Campaign by NASA. Multi-color lightcurve measurements allow us to estimate the rotation period and obtain strong constraints on the shape and pole orientation. Here we found that the rotation period of 2002 GT is estimated to be 3.7248 ± 0.1664 h. In mid-2013, 2002 GT passed at 0.015 au from the Earth, resulting an exceptional opportunity for ground-based characterization. Using the 0.81-m telescope of the Tenagra Observatory (110°52'44.8''W, +31°27'44.4''N, 1312 m) in Arizona, USA, and the Johnson-Cousins BVRI filters, we have found lightcurves of 2002 GT (Figure). The Tenagra II 0.81-m telescope is used for research of the Hayabusa2 target Asteroid (162173) 1999 JU_3. The lightcurves (relative magnitude) show that the rotation period of 2002 GT, the target of NASA's Deep Impact/EPOXI spacecraft, is estimated to be 3.7248 ± 0.1664 hr. On June 9, 2013, we had 7 hours of ground-based observations on 2002 GT from 4:00 to 11:00 UTC. The number of comparison stars for differential photometry was 34. Because of tracking the fast-moving asteroid, it was necessary to have the same comparison star among the fields of vision. We have also obtained absolute photometry of 2002 GT on June 13, 2013.

  7. Distant retrograde orbits and the asteroid hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Ettore; Ceccaroni, Marta; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Rossi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) gained a novel wave of fame in space mission design because of their numerous advantages within the framework of the US plans for bringing a large asteroid sample in the vicinity of the Earth as the next target for human exploration. DROs are stable solutions of the three-body problem that can be used whenever an object, whether of natural or artificial nature, is required to remain in the neighborhood of a celestial body without being gravitationally captured by it. As such, they represent an alternative option to Halo orbits around the collinear Lagrangian points L1 and L2. Also known under other names ( e.g., quasi-satellite orbits, cis-lunar orbits, family- f orbits) these orbital configurations found interesting applications in several mission profiles, like that of a spacecraft orbiting around the small irregularly shaped satellite of Mars Phobos or the large Jovian moon Europa. In this paper a basic explanation of the DRO dynamics is presented in order to clarify some geometrical properties that characterize them. Their accessibility is then discussed from the point of view of mission analysis under different assumptions. Finally, their relevance within the framework of the present asteroid hazard protection programs is shown, stressing the significant increase in warning time they would provide in the prediction of impactors coming from the direction of the Sun.

  8. Galileo photometry of asteroid 243 Ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Fanale, F.; Granahan, J.; McEwen, A.S.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.

    1996-01-01

    Galileo imaging observations over phase angles 19.5?? to 109.8?? are combined with near-opposition Earth-based data to derive the photometric properties of Ida. To first order these properties are uniform over the surface and well modeled at ?? = 0.55 ??m by Hapke parameters ????0 = 0.22, h = 0.020, B0 = 1.5, g = -0.33, and ?? = 18?? with corresponding geometric albedo p = 0.21??0.030.01 and Bond albedo AB = 0.081??0.0170.008. Ida's photometric properties are more similar to those of "average S-asteroids" (P. Helfenstein and J. Veverka 1989, Asteroids II, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson) than are those of 951 Gaspra. Two primary color units are identified on Ida: Terrain A exhibits a spectrum with relatively shallower 1-??m absorption and a relatively steeper red spectral slope than average Ida, while Terrain B has a deeper 1-??m absorption and a less steep red slope. The average photometric properties of Ida and Terrain A are similar while those of Terrain B differ mostly in having a slightly higher value of ????0 (0.22 versus 0.21), suggesting that Terrain B consists of slightly brighter, more transparent regolith particles. Galileo observations of Ida's satellite Dactyl over phase angles 19.5?? to 47.6?? suggest photometric characteristics similar to those of Ida, the major difference being Dactyl's slightly lower albedo (0.20 compared to 0.21). ?? 1990 Academic Press, Inc.

  9. RGB Colors of the Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoyuan; Zhang, Xiaofei; University of Western Australia, Youth Astronomy Teachers' Link

    2017-10-01

    We use SPIRIT I&II telescopes which has 43cm diameter, to observe around 50 Jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to the limiting magnitude of our equipment, We only choose some bright asteriods as our targets.To testify the feasibility of using RGB Bayer filter system for research project, we use the RGB Bayer filter system instead of the Johnson-Cousins BVR filters system. Once proved, the photometry data will be significantly enlarged. More collected data can be used on scientific researches and more scholars can do relevant researches by using the RGB Bayer filter system. What we did is using a software called Astrometrica to measure the magnitude of the asteroids under RGB filter. Then we transform the RGB data to BVR data. Later on we calculate the color index by using those BVR data from our calculations. The final step to do the statistic work and make graphs, and compare it with the former research data. We are aim to find same result as the research before, or why there are differnt result.We are still in the process of handling the data, so the final result will be released at the conference. This project is based on data acquired using the SPIRIT robotic telescopes at The University of Western Australia. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Paul Luckas, SPIRIT Program Manager.The project is supported by The University of Western Australia, Youth Astronomy Teachers' Link.

  10. The Probable Ages of Asteroid Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    There has been considerable debate recently over the ages of the Hirayama families, and in particular if some of the families are very oung(u) It is a straightforward task to estimate the characteristic time of a collision between a body of a given diameter, d_o, by another body of diameter greater of equal to d_1. What is less straightforward is to estimate the critical diameter ratio, d_1/d_o, above which catastrophic disruption occurs, from which one could infer probable ages of the Hirayama families, by knowing the diameter of the parent body, d_o. One can gain some insight into the probable value of d_1/d_o, and of the likely ages of existing families, from the plot below. I have computed the characteristic time between collisions in the asteroid belt of a size ratio greater of equal to d_1/d_o, for 4 sizes of target asteroids, d_o. The solid curves to the lower right are the characteristic times for a single object...

  11. SEM and TEM Observation of the Surfaces of the Fine-Grained Particles Retrieved from the Muses-C Regio on the Asteroid 25413 Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Tanaka, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Konno, M.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Surface materials on airless solar system bodies exposed to interplanetary space are gradually changed their visible to near-infrared reflectance spectra by the process called "space weathering", which makes the spectra darker and redder. Hapke et al. proposed a model of space weathering: vapor deposition of nanophase reduced iron (npFe(sup 0)) on the surfaces of the grains within the very surface of lunar regolith. This model has been proved by detailed observation of the surfaces of the lunar soil grains by transmission electron microscope (TEM). They demonstrated that npFe(sup 0) was formed by a combination of vapor deposition and irradiation effects. In other words, both micrometeorite impacts and irradiation by solar wind and galactic cosmic ray play roles on the space weathering on the Moon. Because there is a continuum of reflectance spectra from those of Q-type asteroids (almost the same as those of ordinary chondrites) to those of S-type asteroids, it is strongly suggested that reflectance spectra of asteroids composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials were modified over time to those of S-type asteroids due to space weathering. It is predicted that a small amount of npFe(sup 0) on the surface of grains in the asteroidal regolith composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials is the main agent of asteroidal space weathering.

  12. Catastrophic Disruption of Asteroids: First Simulations with Explicit Formation of Spinning Rigid and Semi-rigid Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; Richardson, D. C.

    2007-10-01

    We have made major improvements in simulations of asteroid disruption by computing explicitly aggregate formations during the gravitational reaccumulation of small fragments, allowing us to obtain information on their spin and shape. First results will be presented taking as examples asteroid families that we reproduced successfully with previous less sophisticated simulations. In the last years, we have simulated successfully the formation of asteroid families using a SPH hydrocode to compute the fragmentation following the impact of a projectile on the parent body, and the N-body code pkdgrav to compute the mutual interactions of the fragments. We found that fragments generated by the disruption of a km-size asteroid can have large enough masses to be attracted by each other during their ejection. Consequently, many reaccumulations take place. Eventually most large fragments correspond to gravitational aggregates formed by reaccumulation of smaller ones. Moreover, formation of satellites occurs around the largest and other big remnants. In these previous simulations, when fragments reaccumulate, they merge into a single sphere whose mass is the sum of their masses. Thus, no information is obtained on the actual shape of the aggregates, their spin, ... For the first time, we have now simulated the disruption of a family parent body by computing explicitly the formation of aggregates, along with the above-mentioned properties. Once formed these aggregates can interact and/or collide with each other and break up during their evolution. We will present these first simulations and their possible implications on properties of asteroids generated by disruption. Results can for instance be compared with data provided by the Japanese space mission Hayabusa of the asteroid Itokawa, a body now understood to be a reaccumulated fragment from a larger parent body. Acknowledgments: PM and DCR acknowledge supports from the French Programme National de Planétologie and grants

  13. An initial perspective of S-asteroid subtypes within asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. S.; Gaffey, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Many main belt asteroids cluster around certain values of semi-major axis (a), inclination (i), and eccentricity (e). Hirayama was the first to notice these concentrations which he interpreted as evidence of disruptions of larger parent bodies. He called these clusters 'asteroid families'. The term 'families' is increasingly reserved for genetic associations to distinguish them from clusters of unknown or purely dynamical origin (e.g. the Phocaea cluster). Members of a genetic asteroid family represent fragments derived from various depths within the original parent planetesimal. Thus, family members offer the potential for direct examination of the interiors of parent bodies which have undergone metamorphism and differentiation similar to that occurring in the inaccessible interiors of terrestrial planets. The differentiation similar to that occurring in the inaccessible interiors of terrestrial planets. The condition that genetic family members represent the fragments of a parent object provides a critical test of whether an association (cluster in proper element space) is a genetic family. Compositions (types and relative abundances of materials) of family members must permit the reconstruction of a compositionally plausible parent body. The compositions of proposed family members can be utilized to test the genetic reality of the family and to determine the type and degree of internal differentiation within the parent planetesimal. The interpretation of the S-class mineralogy provides a preliminary evaluation of family memberships. Detailed mineralogical and petrological analysis was done based on the reflectance spectra of 39 S-type asteroids. The result is a division of the S-asteroid class into seven subtypes based on compositional differences. These subtypes, designated S(I) to S(VII), correspond to surface silicate assemblages ranging from monomineralic olivine (dunites) through olivine-pyroxene mixtures to pure pyroxene or pyroxene-feldspar mixtures

  14. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  15. The Kovdor-2015 experiment: study of the parameters of a conductive layer of dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD Layer) in the Archaean crystalline basement of the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Velikhov, E. P.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Kolobov, V. V.; Kolesnikov, V. E.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Korotkova, T. G.; Ivonin, V. V.; Ryazantsev, P. A.; Birulya, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper addresses the Kovdor-2015 Experiment involving frequency electromagnetic soundings of the Archaean basement of the Earth's crust in the southwestern part of the Kola Peninsula. Eleven soundings were carried out using two transmitting arrangements, 85 km apart. Each arrangement consisted of two mutually orthogonal grounded electric dipoles of 1.5 km long. The distances between the source and the receiver were 25 and 50 km. Interpretation of the results took into account the influence of displacement currents and static distortions. It is found that there is an intermediate conductive layer of the dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD layer) with a longitudinal conductivity of about one siemens at depths ranging from 1.5-2 to 5-7 km. The results are interpreted in the terms of geodynamics.

  16. On the metamorphic history of an Archaean granitoid greenstone terrane, East Pilbara, Western Australia, using the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijbrans, J.R.; McDougall, I.

    1987-01-01

    Age spectrum analyses of blue-green hornblendes from amphibolites from the Western Shaw Belt, East Pilbara, Western Australia, indicate an age of at least 3200 Ma for early regional metamorphism. Ages on hornblende and muscovite from the narrow contact zone with the adjacent Yule Batholith probably data updoming of the granitoid gneiss terranes at 2950 Ma. Hornblendes from within the Shaw Batholith and from a contact zone of a post-tectonic granitoid yield ages of 2840-2900 Ma, indicating either prolonged high temperatures within the granitoid gneiss terranes or a separate thermal pulse associated with the intrusion of post-tectonic granitoids. The preservation of very old hornblendes in a narrow greenstone belt surrounded by massive granitoid gneiss domes indicates that remarkable contrasts in metamorphic geotherms existed over short distances during the Late Archaean, suggesting that updoming occurred during a period of rapid tectonism. (orig.)

  17. On the metamorphic history of an Archaean granitoid greenstone terrane, East Pilbara, Western Australia, using the /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectrum technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijbrans, J.R.; McDougall, I.

    1987-07-01

    Age spectrum analyses of blue-green hornblendes from amphibolites from the Western Shaw Belt, East Pilbara, Western Australia, indicate an age of at least 3200 Ma for early regional metamorphism. Ages on hornblende and muscovite from the narrow contact zone with the adjacent Yule Batholith probably data updoming of the granitoid gneiss terranes at 2950 Ma. Hornblendes from within the Shaw Batholith and from a contact zone of a post-tectonic granitoid yield ages of 2840-2900 Ma, indicating either prolonged high temperatures within the granitoid gneiss terranes or a separate thermal pulse associated with the intrusion of post-tectonic granitoids. The preservation of very old hornblendes in a narrow greenstone belt surrounded by massive granitoid gneiss domes indicates that remarkable contrasts in metamorphic geotherms existed over short distances during the Late Archaean, suggesting that updoming occurred during a period of rapid tectonism.

  18. BILLIARDS: Baseline Instrumented Lithology Lander, Inspector and Asteroid Redirection Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Matthew; Sloane, Joshua; Ortiz, Oliver; Barbee, Brent

    2015-01-01

    BILLIARDS Baseline Instrumented Lithology Lander, Inspector, and Asteroid Redirection Demonstration System Proposed demonstration mission for Billiard-Ball concept Select asteroid pair with natural close approach to minimize cost and complexity Primary Objectives Rendezvous with a small (10m), near Earth (alpha) asteroid Maneuver the alpha asteroid to a collision with a 100m (beta) asteroid Produce a detectable deflection or disruption of the beta asteroid Secondary objectives Contribute knowledge of asteroid composition and characteristics Contribute knowledge of small-body formation Opportunity for international collaboration

  19. Trojan Asteroid Lightcurves: Probing Internal Structure and the Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. L.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of the small bodies of the solar system reveal important clues about the condensation and formation of planetesimal bodies, and ultimately planets in planetary systems. Dynamics of small bodies have been utilized to model giant planet migration within our solar system, colors have been used to explore compositional gradients within the protoplanetary disk, & studies of the size-frequency distribution of main belt asteroids may reveal compositional dependences on planetesimal strength limiting models of planetary growth from collisional aggregration. Studies of the optical lightcurves of asteroids also yield important information on shape and potential binarity of asteroidal bodies. The K2 mission has allowed for the unprecedented collection of Trojan asteroid lightcurves on a 30 minute cadence for baselines of 10 days, in both the L4 and L5 Trojan clouds. Preliminary results from the K2 mission suggest that Trojan asteroids have bulk densities of 1 g/cc and a binary fraction ≤ 33 percent (Ryan et al., 2017, Astronomical Journal, 153, 116), however Trojan lightcurve data is actively being collected via the continued K2 mission. We will present updated results of bulk density and binary fraction of the Trojan asteroids and compare these results to other small body populations, including Hilda asteroids, transNeptunian objects and comet nuclei to test dynamical models of the origins of these populations.

  20. Generalized Calibration of the Polarimetric Albedo Scale of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupishko, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    Six different calibrations of the polarimetric albedo scale of asteroids have been published so far. Each of them contains its particular random and systematic errors and yields its values of geometric albedo. On the one hand, this complicates their analysis and comparison; on the other hand, it becomes more and more difficult to decide which of the proposed calibrations should be used. Moreover, in recent years, new databases on the albedo of asteroids obtained from the radiometric surveys of the sky with the orbital space facilities (the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), the Japanese astronomical satellite AKARI (which means "light"), the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Survey Explorer (NEOWISE)) have appeared; and the database on the diameters and albedos of asteroids obtained from their occultations of stars has substantially increased. Here, we critically review the currently available calibrations and propose a new generalized calibration derived from the interrelations between the slope h and the albedo and between P min and the albedo. This calibration is based on all of the available series of the asteroid albedos and the most complete data on the polarization parameters of asteroids. The generalized calibration yields the values of the polarimetric albedo of asteroids in the system unified with the radiometric albedos and the albedos obtained from occultations of stars by asteroids. This, in turn, removes the difficulties in their comparison, joint analysis, etc.

  1. Size distributions of member asteroids in seven Hirayama families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Takao; Ishida, Keiichi.

    1990-01-01

    The size distributions of asteroids in the seven Hirayama families are studied for newly assigned member asteroids in the diameter range of about 10 to 100 km. The size distributions for the different families are expressed by the power-law functions with distinctly different power-law indices. The power-law indices for families with small mean orbital inclinations are about 2.5 to 3.0. On the other hand, the power-law indices for families with large mean orbital inclinations are significantly smaller than 2.5. This indicates that the smaller asteroids were removed preferentially from these families after their formation. It is thought that the smaller asteroids left behind the families were dispersed into the main belt. It is consistent with the fact that the power-law index for the size distribution of asteroids with diameters smaller than 25 km in the main belt is larger than the power-law indices for the size distributions of asteroids in the families. This segregation due to the asteroid size can be caused by a drag force caused by the ambient matter deposited on the invariable place of the solar system during the early evolutionary stage. (author)

  2. Electric solar-wind sail for asteroid touring missions and planetary protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, P.

    2014-07-01

    long time, moving from asteroid to asteroid in a bit similar way as, e.g., Mars rovers move from rock to rock on the planet's surface. After starting from the Earth, the mission would slowly spiral outward, making rendezvous with interesting asteroids along the way, as well as flybys or even a larger number of asteroids as opportunities arise. The spacecraft would do remote sensing of the bodies and perhaps also deploy small CubeSat-sized expendable landers on them (the mother spacecraft cannot land on an asteroid or else it would lose the E-sail tethers). The mission would first explore near-Earth objects, then pass through the main belt and end up with the Trojans, exploring asteroids in rendezvous and flyby modes all the time. Asteroids in roughly circular orbits and at low inclination would be the easiest and most likely targets for rendezvous mode encounters, while there would be less restrictions for flyby mode observations. Besides for pure asteroid science, the E-sail could also be used for planetary protection, either through direct propulsive deflection of a dangerous asteroid [4] or by accelerating a relatively lightweight impactor spacecraft to a retrograde orbit and in that way maximizing the available deflecting impact energy for given impactor mass. E-sails could take a number of such impactors to retrograde storage orbits from which they could be commanded to impact a dangerous asteroid with relatively short warning time. Such impactor fleet would not be dangerous to the Earth because the vehicles can be designed to burn completely in the atmosphere, in the unlikely event that due to some mishap one of them would collide with the Earth. The E-sail has potentially large applicability to asteroids as it promises ''free'' transportation in the solar system. As a next step, a solar-wind test mission is needed to demonstrate the technology in the authentic environment.

  3. Redox effects in ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of reflectance spectra to mean ferrous iron content and olivine and pyroxene proportion enhancements in the course of metamorphic oxidation is presently used to examine whether metamorphically-induced ranges in mineralogy, and corresponding spectral parameters, may explain the observed variations in S-asteroid rotational spectra. The predicted spectral variations within any one chondrite class are, however, insufficient to account for S-asteroid rotational spectra, and predicted spectral-range slopes have a sign opposite to the rotational measurements. Metamorphic oxidation is found unable to account for S-asteroid rotational spectra.

  4. Reanalysis of Asteroid Families Structure Through Visible Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J.; Roig, F.; Lazzaro, D.

    In this work we re-analyse the presence of interlopers in asteroid families based on a larger spectral database and on a family determination which makes use of a larger set of proper elements. The asteroid families were defined using the HCM method (Zappalà et al. 1995) on the set of proper elements for 110,000 asteroids available at the Asteroid Dynamic Site (AstDyS http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys )). The spectroscopic analysis is performed using spectra on the 0.44-0.92 μ m range observed by the SMASS Xu et al. 1995, SMASSII (Bus and Binzel, 2002) and 3OS2 (Lazzaro et al. 2002) surveys, which together total around 2140 asteroids with observed spectra. The asteroid taxonomy used is the Bus taxonomy (Bus et al. 2000). A total of 22 two families were analysed . The families of Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, and Koronis were found to be spectrally homogeneous, which confirms previous studies. The Veritas family, on the other hand, which is quoted in the literature as an heterogeneous family was found to be quite homogeneous in the present work. The Eos family is noteworthy for being at one time spectrally heterogeneous and quite different from the background population. References Bus, S. J., and R. P. Binzel 2002. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey - The Observations. Icarus 158, 106-145. Bus, S. J., R. P. Binzel, and T. H. Burbine 2000. A New Generation of Asteroid Taxonomy. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, vol. 35, Supplement, p.A36 35, 36 +. Lazzaro, D., C. A. Angeli, T. Mothe-Diniz, J. M. Carvano, R. Duffard, and M. Florczak 2002. The superficial characterization of a large sample of asteroids: the S3OS2. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 34, 859 +. Xu, S., R. P. Binzel, T. H. Burbine, and S. J. Bus 1995. Small main-belt asteroid spectroscopic survey: Initial results. Icarus 115, 1-35. Zappala, V., P. Bendjoya, A. Cellino, P. Farinella, and C. Froeschle 1995. Asteroid families: Search of a 12

  5. NEOWISE REACTIVATION MISSION YEAR ONE: PRELIMINARY ASTEROID DIAMETERS AND ALBEDOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S.; Stevenson, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: cnugent@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 7956 asteroids detected in the first year of the NEOWISE Reactivation mission. Of those, 201 are near-Earth asteroids and 7755 are Main Belt or Mars-crossing asteroids. 17% of these objects have not been previously characterized using the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or “NEOWISE” thermal measurements. Diameters are determined to an accuracy of ∼20% or better. If good-quality H magnitudes are available, albedos can be determined to within ∼40% or better.

  6. Photometry and shape modeling of Mars crosser asteroid (1011 Laodamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolovska G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of photometric observations of Mars crosser asteroid 1011 Laodamia conducted at Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen over a twelve year interval (2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013 is made. Based on the obtained lightcurves the spin vector, sense of rotation, and preliminary shape model of (1011 Laodamia have been determined using the lightcurve inversion method. The aim of this investigation is to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters and to contribute in improving the model in combination with other techniques and sparse data produced by photometric asteroid surveys such as Pan-STARRS or GAIA.

  7. Design and validation of a GNC system for missions to asteroids: the AIM scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellacani, A.; Kicman, P.; Suatoni, M.; Casasco, M.; Gil, J.; Carnelli, I.

    2017-12-01

    Deep space missions, and in particular missions to asteroids, impose a certain level of autonomy that depends on the mission objectives. If the mission requires the spacecraft to perform close approaches to the target body (the extreme case being a landing scenario), the autonomy level must be increased to guarantee the fast and reactive response which is required in both nominal and contingency operations. The GNC system must be designed in accordance with the required level of autonomy. The GNC system designed and tested in the frame of ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) system studies (Phase A/B1 and Consolidation Phase) is an example of an autonomous GNC system that meets the challenging objectives of AIM. The paper reports the design of such GNC system and its validation through a DDVV plan that includes Model-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop testing. Main focus is the translational navigation, which is able to provide online the relative state estimation with respect to the target body using exclusively cameras as relative navigation sensors. The relative navigation outputs are meant to be used for nominal spacecraft trajectory corrections as well as to estimate the collision risk with the asteroid and, if needed, to command the execution of a collision avoidance manoeuvre to guarantee spacecraft safety

  8. DETECTION OF WATER AND/OR HYDROXYL ON ASTEROID (16) Psyche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takir, Driss; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Shepard, Michael K.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2017-01-01

    In order to search for evidence of hydration on M-type asteroid (16) Psyche, we observed this object in the 3 μ m spectral region using the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD: 1.9–4.2 μ m) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Our observations show that Psyche exhibits a 3 μ m absorption feature, attributed to water or hydroxyl. The 3 μ m absorption feature is consistent with the hydration features found on the surfaces of water-rich asteroids, attributed to OH- and/or H 2 O-bearing phases (phyllosilicates). The detection of a 3 μ m hydration absorption band on Psyche suggests that this asteroid may not be a metallic core, or it could be a metallic core that has been impacted by carbonaceous material over the past 4.5 Gyr. Our results also indicate rotational spectral variations, which we suggest reflect heterogeneity in the metal/silicate ratio on the surface of Psyche.

  9. DETECTION OF WATER AND/OR HYDROXYL ON ASTEROID (16) Psyche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takir, Driss [U.S. Geological Survey, Astrogeology Science Center, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Reddy, Vishnu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Sanchez, Juan A. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E Fort Lowell Road, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Shepard, Michael K. [Department of Geography and Geosciences, Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, 400 E. Second Street, Bloomsburg, PA 17815 (United States); Emery, Joshua P., E-mail: dtakir@usgs.gov [Earth and Planetary Science Department, Planetary Geosciences Institute, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In order to search for evidence of hydration on M-type asteroid (16) Psyche, we observed this object in the 3 μ m spectral region using the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD: 1.9–4.2 μ m) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Our observations show that Psyche exhibits a 3 μ m absorption feature, attributed to water or hydroxyl. The 3 μ m absorption feature is consistent with the hydration features found on the surfaces of water-rich asteroids, attributed to OH- and/or H{sub 2}O-bearing phases (phyllosilicates). The detection of a 3 μ m hydration absorption band on Psyche suggests that this asteroid may not be a metallic core, or it could be a metallic core that has been impacted by carbonaceous material over the past 4.5 Gyr. Our results also indicate rotational spectral variations, which we suggest reflect heterogeneity in the metal/silicate ratio on the surface of Psyche.

  10. Detection of Water and/or Hydroxyl on Asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takir, Driss; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Shepard, Michael K.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2017-01-01

    In order to search for evidence of hydration on M-type asteroid (16) Psyche, we observed this object in the 3 μm spectral region using the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD: 1.9-4.2 μm) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Our observations show that Psyche exhibits a 3 μm absorption feature, attributed to water or hydroxyl. The 3 μm absorption feature is consistent with the hydration features found on the surfaces of water-rich asteroids, attributed to OH- and/or H2O-bearing phases (phyllosilicates). The detection of a 3 μm hydration absorption band on Psyche suggests that this asteroid may not be a metallic core, or it could be a metallic core that has been impacted by carbonaceous material over the past 4.5 Gyr. Our results also indicate rotational spectral variations, which we suggest reflect heterogeneity in the metal/silicate ratio on the surface of Psyche.

  11. High precision predictions for near-Earth asteroids: the strange case of (3908) Nyx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnocchia, D.; Chesley, S. R.; Tholen, D. J.; Micheli, M.

    2014-08-01

    In November 2004 radar delay measurements of near-Earth asteroid (3908) Nyx obtained at the Arecibo radio telescope turned out to be away from the orbital prediction. We prove that this discrepancy was caused by a poor astrometric treatment and an incomplete dynamical model, which did not account for nongravitational perturbations. To improve the astrometric treatment, we remove known star catalog biases, apply suitable weights to the observations, and use an aggressive outlier rejection scheme. The main issue related to the dynamical model is having not accounted for the Yarkovsky effect. Including the Yarkovsky perturbation in the model makes the orbital prediction and the radar measurements statistically consistent by both reducing the offset and increasing the prediction uncertainty to a more realistic level. This analysis shows the sensitivity of high precision predictions to the astrometric treatment and the Yarkovsky effect. By using the full observational dataset we obtain a detection of the Yarkovsky effect acting on Nyx corresponding to an orbital drift m/year. In turn, we derive constraints on thermal inertia and bulk density. In particular, we find that the bulk density of Nyx is around 1 g/cm, possibly less. To make sure that our results are not corrupted by an asteroid impact or a close approach with a perturbing asteroid not included in our dynamical model, we show that the astrometry provides no convincing evidence of an impulsive variation of Nyx's velocity while crossing the main belt region.

  12. Asteroids and Meteorites from Venus? Only the Earth Goddess Knows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones, Henry; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Alvarellos, José L.

    2018-04-01

    No meteorites from Venus have been found; indeed, some find theirexistence unlikely because of the perceived difficulty of launchingrocks at speeds above 10 km/s and traversing the planet's 93 baratmosphere. [1] Nonetheless, we keep hope alive, since cosmochemistssay they can identify Cytherean meteorites, should candidates be found[2]. Gladman et al. [3] modeled the exchange of impact ejecta betweenthe terrestrial planets, but did not consider meteorites launched fromVenus in any detail. At the time of Gladman's work, no asteroids thatremained entirely within Earth's orbit were known. 14 suchEarth-interior objects with good orbits have now been discovered, andare known as Atiras, for the Pawnee goddess of the Earth. The largestknown member of the class is 163693 Atira, a binary whose componentshave diameters of approximately 4.8 and 1 km. Discovery of Atiras isvery incomplete because they can only be seen at small solarelongations [4]. Greenstreet et al. [5] modeled the orbitaldistribution of Atiras from main-belt asteroidal and cometary sourceregions, while Ribeiro et al. [6] mapped the stability region ofhypothetical Atiras and integrated the orbits of clones of 12 realAtiras for 1 million years. 97% of the clones survived for 1 Myrimpact with Venus was the most common fate of those that met theirends. We have performed orbital integrations of 1000 clones of each ofthe known Atiras, and of hypothetical ejecta that escape Venus afterasteroid impacts, for 10-100 Myr. The latter calculations usetechniques like those of Alvarellos et al. [7] and Zahnle et al. [8]for transfer amongst Jupiter's galilean satellites. Our goals are toestimate the fraction of Atiras that are ejecta launched from Venus,the time spent in space by hypothetical meteorites from Venus, and therate at which such meteorites strike the Earth.[1] Gilmore M., et al (2017). Space Sci. Rev. 212, 1511. [2] JourdanF., Eroglu E. (2017). MAPS 52, 884. [3] Gladman B.J., etal. (1996). Science 271, 1387. [4

  13. Identification of families among highly inclined asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    2006-07-01

    A dataset of 3652 high-inclination numbered asteroids was analyzed to search for dynamical families. A fully automated multivariate data analysis technique was applied to identify the groupings. Thirteen dynamical families and twenty-two clumps were found. When taxonomic information is available, the families show cosmochemical consistency and support an interpretation based on a common origin from a single parent body. Four families and three clumps found in this work show a size distribution which is compatible with a formation due to a cratering event on the largest member of the family, and also three families have B- or related taxonomic types members, which represents a 14% of the B-types classified by Bus and Binzel [2002. Icarus 158, 146-177].

  14. Asteroid orbital error analysis: Theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinonen, K.; Bowell, Edward

    1992-01-01

    We present a rigorous Bayesian theory for asteroid orbital error estimation in which the probability density of the orbital elements is derived from the noise statistics of the observations. For Gaussian noise in a linearized approximation the probability density is also Gaussian, and the errors of the orbital elements at a given epoch are fully described by the covariance matrix. The law of error propagation can then be applied to calculate past and future positional uncertainty ellipsoids (Cappellari et al. 1976, Yeomans et al. 1987, Whipple et al. 1991). To our knowledge, this is the first time a Bayesian approach has been formulated for orbital element estimation. In contrast to the classical Fisherian school of statistics, the Bayesian school allows a priori information to be formally present in the final estimation. However, Bayesian estimation does give the same results as Fisherian estimation when no priori information is assumed (Lehtinen 1988, and reference therein).

  15. Comets, Asteroids, Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, the delivery of water, organics, and prebiotic chemicals to the Biosphere of Earth during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Ga) period of heavy bombardment by comets and asteroids has become more widely accepted. Comets are still largely regarded as frigid, pristine bodies of protosolar nebula material that are devoid of liquid water and therefore unsuitable for life. Complex organic compounds have been observed in comets and on the water-rich asteroid 1998 KY26 and near IR observations have indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar that has resurfacing suggesting cryovolcanic outgassing. Spacecraft observations of the chemical compositions and characteristics of the nuclei of several comets (Halley, Borrelly, Wild 2, and Tempel 1) have shown that comets contain complex organic chemicals; that water is the predominant volatile; and that extremely high temperatures (approx. 350-400 K) can be reached on the surfae of the very black (albedo approx. 0.03) nuclei of comets when they approach the Sun. Impact craters and pinnacles observed on comet Wild 2 suggest a thick crust. Episodic outbursts and jets from the nuclei of several comets indicate that localized regimes of liquid water and water vapor can periodically exist beneath the comet crust. The Deep Impact mission found the temperature of the nucleus of comet Tempel 1 at 1.5 AU varied from a minimum of 280 plus or minus 8 K the 330K (57 C) on the sunlit side. In this paper it is argued that that pools and films of liquid water exist (within a wide range of temperatures) in cavities and voids just beneath the hot, black crust. The possibility of liquid water existing over a wide range of temperatures significantly enhances the possibility that comets might contain niches suitable for the growth of microbial communities and ecosystems. These regimes would be ideal for the growth of psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic

  16. Linking the collisional history of the main asteroid belt to its dynamical excitation and depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Durda, Daniel D.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Levison, Harold F.

    2005-12-01

    The main belt is believed to have originally contained an Earth mass or more of material, enough to allow the asteroids to accrete on relatively short timescales. The present-day main belt, however, only contains ˜5×10 Earth masses. Numerical simulations suggest that this mass loss can be explained by the dynamical depletion of main belt material via gravitational perturbations from planetary embryos and a newly-formed Jupiter. To explore this scenario, we combined dynamical results from Petit et al. [Petit, J. Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., 2001. The primordial excitation and clearing of the asteroid belt. Icarus 153, 338-347] with a collisional evolution code capable of tracking how the main belt undergoes comminution and dynamical depletion over 4.6 Gyr [Bottke, W.F., Durda, D., Nesvorny, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H., 2005. The fossilized size distribution of the main asteroid belt. Icarus 175, 111-140]. Our results were constrained by the main belt's size-frequency distribution, the number of asteroid families produced by disruption events from diameter D>100 km parent bodies over the last 3-4 Gyr, the presence of a single large impact crater on Vesta's intact basaltic crust, and the relatively constant lunar and terrestrial impactor flux over the last 3 Gyr. We used our model to set limits on the initial size of the main belt as well as Jupiter's formation time. We find the most likely formation time for Jupiter was 3.3±2.6 Myr after the onset of fragmentation in the main belt. These results are consistent with the estimated mean disk lifetime of 3 Myr predicted by Haisch et al. [Haisch, K.E., Lada, E.A., Lada, C.J., 2001. Disk frequencies and lifetimes in young clusters. Astrophys. J. 553, L153-L156]. The post-accretion main belt population, in the form of diameter D≲1000 km planetesimals, was likely to have been 160±40 times the current main belt's mass. This corresponds to 0.06-0.1 Earth masses, only a small fraction

  17. Geographos asteroid flyby and autonomous navigation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C.; Pines, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Patz, B.J.; Perron, D.C. [Coleman Research Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1993-02-22

    Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE), also known as Clementine, is a collection of science experiments conducted in near-earth with the goal of demonstrating Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) developed technologies. The 785 lb (fully fueled) spacecraft will be launched into low Earth orbit in February 1994 together with a Star 37 solid kick motor and interstage. After orbit circulation using Clementine`s 110 lb Delta-V thruster, the Star 37 will execute a trans-lunar injection burn that will send the spacecraft toward lunar obit. The 110-lb will then be used in a sequence of burns to insert Clementine into a trimmed, polar orbit around the moon. After a two month moon mapping mission, Clementine will execute burns to leave lunar orbit, sling-shot around Earth, and flyby the moon on a 9.4 million km journey toward the asteroid Geographos. After about three months in transit, Clementine will attempt a flyby with a closest point of approach of 100 km from the asteroid on August 31, 1994. During its approach to Geographos, Clementine will be tracked by the Deep Space Network (DSN) and receive guidance updates. The last update and correction burn will occur about one day out of the flyby. Multiple experiments will be performed at key events during the mission that utilize Clementine`s SDIO-derived resources, including its Star Trackers, UV/Vis camera, infrared sensors (NWIR and LWIR), and high resolution laser radar (HIRes/LIDAR). In addition to the evaluation of SDIO algorithms and sensors, high resolution imagery will be obtained while the spacecraft is in Earth orbit, lunar obit and during the Geographos flyby. This paper describes the results of a study on the precision guidance, navigation, and intercept strategy for the flyby mission.

  18. Compositional characterization of asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan; Reddy, Vishnu; Shepard, Michael K.; Thomas, Cristina; Cloutis, Edward

    2016-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectra (0.7-2.5 microns) of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Rotationally-resolved spectra were obtained during three nights between December 2015 and February 2016. These data have been combined with three-dimensional shape models of Psyche generated with the SHAPE software package (Magri et al. 2007). From each spectrum, the band center, band depth and spectral slope were measured. We found that the band center varies from 0.92 to 0.94 microns with rotation phase, with an average value of 0.932±0.006 microns. The band depth was found to vary from 1.0 to 1.5±0.1%. Spectral slope values range from 0.25 to 0.35±0.01 microns-1, with rotation phase. We observed a possible anti-correlation between band depth and radar albedo. Using the band depth along with a new laboratory spectral calibration we estimated that Psyche has an average orthopyroxene abundance of 6±1%. The mass-deficit region of Psyche (longitudes ~ 0°-40°), characterized by having the highest radar albedo of the asteroid, also shows the highest value for the spectral slope and the minimum band depth, while the antipode of this region (longitudes ~ 180°-230°), where the radar albedo reaches its lowest value, shows a maximum in band depth and less steep spectral slopes. These results could suggest that the metal-poor antipode region has thicker regolith rich in pyroxene compared to the mass-deficit region.

  19. Driven by Affect to Explore Asteroids, the Moon, and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingatantrige Perera, Jude Viranga

    Affect is a domain of psychology that includes attitudes, emotions, interests, and values. My own affect influenced the choice of topics for my dissertation. After examining asteroid interiors and the Moon's thermal evolution, I discuss the role of affect in online science education. I begin with asteroids, which are collections of smaller objects held together by gravity and possibly cohesion. These "rubble-pile" objects may experience the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE). When a collection of particles of similar densities, but of different sizes, is shaken, smaller particles will move parallel to the local gravity vector while larger objects will do the opposite. Thus, when asteroids are shaken by impacts, they may experience the BNE as possibly evidenced by large boulders seen on their surfaces. I found while the BNE is plausible on asteroids, it is confined to only the outer layers. The Moon, which formed with a Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO), is the next topic of this work. The LMO is due to the Moon forming rapidly after a giant impact between the proto-Earth and another planetary body. The first 80% of the LMO solidified rapidly at which point a floatation crust formed and slowed solidification of the remaining LMO. Impact bombardment during this cooling process, while an important component, has not been studied in detail. Impacts considered here are from debris generated during the formation of the Moon. I developed a thermal model that incorporates impacts and find that impacts may have either expedited or delayed LMO solidification. Finally, I return to affect to consider the differences in attitudes towards science between students enrolled in fully-online degree programs and those enrolled in traditional, in-person degree programs. I analyzed pre- and post-course survey data from the online astrobiology course Habitable Worlds. Unlike their traditional program counterparts, students enrolled in online programs started the course with better attitudes towards science

  20. Deep Interior: Radio Reflection Tomographic Imaging of Earth-Crossing Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Safaeinili, A.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Yeomans, D.; Plaut, J.

    2004-12-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) present an important scientific question and an intriguing space hazard. They are scrutinized by a number of large, dedicated groundbased telescopes, and their diverse compositions are represented by thousands of well-studied meteorites. A successful program of NEO spacecraft exploration has begun, and we are proposing Deep Interior as the next logical step. Our mission objective is to image the deep interior structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT), in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that these important members of the solar system are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Asteroid Interiors. Our mission's RRT technique is like a CAT scan from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and measure interior material dielectric properties. Exteriors. We use color imaging to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Diversity. We first visit a common, primitive, S-type asteroid. We next visit an asteroid that was perhaps blasted from the surface of a differentiated asteroid. We attain an up-close and inside look at two taxonomic archetypes spanning an important range of NEO mass and spin rate. Scientific focus is achieved by keeping our payload simple: Radar. A 30-m (tip-to-tip) cross-dipole antenna system operates at 5 and 15-MHz, with electronics heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and antenna heritage from IMAGE and LACE. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate >1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few 100 m or more. They bracket the diversity of solar system materials that we are likely to

  1. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  2. An interstellar origin for Jupiter's retrograde co-orbital asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namouni, F.; Morais, M. H. M.

    2018-06-01

    Asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 was discovered recently in Jupiter's co-orbital region with a retrograde motion around the Sun. The known chaotic dynamics of the outer Solar system have so far precluded the identification of its origin. Here, we perform a high-resolution statistical search for stable orbits and show that asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 has been in its current orbital state since the formation of the Solar system. This result indicates that (514107) 2015 BZ509 was captured from the interstellar medium 4.5 billion years in the past as planet formation models cannot produce such a primordial large-inclination orbit with the planets on nearly coplanar orbits interacting with a coplanar debris disc that must produce the low-inclination small-body reservoirs of the Solar system such as the asteroid and Kuiper belts. This result also implies that more extrasolar asteroids are currently present in the Solar system on nearly polar orbits.

  3. NEAR EARTH ASTEROID TRACKING V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) project began as a collaborative effort with the United States Air Force (USAF) in December 1995. It concentrated on the...

  4. The principle of equivalence and the Trojan asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, R.; Vucetich, H.

    1986-05-01

    An analysis of the Trojan asteroids motion has been carried out in order to set limits to possible violations to the principle of equivalence. Preliminary results, in agreement with general relativity, are reported. (author)

  5. Task-Specific Asteroid Simulants for Ground Testing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will produce at least four asteroid simulants at high fidelity for mineral content and particle size, created through standardized inputs and documented...

  6. Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system produces water and hydrogen-rich syngas for propellant production, life support consumables, and...

  7. HARDERSEN IRTF ASTEROID NIR REFLECTANCE SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes average near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra for 68 main-belt asteroids that were observed at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF),...

  8. EARTH ASTEROID DBP 24COLOR SURVEY V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photometric spectra covering the range 0.32 - 1.08 micrometers for 285 numbered asteroids, as published in Chapman & Gaffey (1979b) and McFadden, et al. (1984).

  9. The CASLEO Polarimetric Survey of Main Belt Asteroids: Updated results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cellino, A.; Cañada-Assandri, M.

    2011-10-01

    We present updated results of the polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina, using the 2.15 m telescope and the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters. The goals of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids belonging to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. The survey began in 2003, and data for a sample of more than 170 asteroids have been obtained, most of them having been polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we find phase-polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for several taxonomic classes.

  10. Physical characterization of asteroid surfaces from photometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.

    1989-01-01

    Rigorous photometric models, like Hapke's equation, can be applied to the analysis of disk-integrated phase curves in order to estimate a variety of regolith physical properties (average particle single-scattering albedo, particle transparency, soil compaction and large-scale roughness). Unfortunately, unambiguous interpretation is difficult due to uncertainties introduced by the irregular shapes of many asteroids and because Earth-based observations are often restricted to small phase angles (<30 degrees). In this chapter, the authors explore in detail how incomplete phase-angle coverage and nonsphericity of asteroids limits the reliable determination of Hapke's photometric parameters from asteroid phase curves. From obtainable Earth-based observations, it is possible to derive useful relative comparisons of single-scattering albedos, opposition-surge amplitudes, and regolith compaction states for different asteroids

  11. REDDY MAIN BELT ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  12. The size distribution of the earth-approaching asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery circumstances of the first asteroids ever observed outside the earth's atmosphere but within the neighborhood of the earth-moon system are described. Four natural objects with diameters in the range 5-50 m were detected during a search for earth-approaching asteroids conducted each month at the 0.91-m Spacewatch Telescope at Kitt Peak. An additional 19 earth approachers with sizes in the range 50 m to 5 km were discovered. These obervations determine the cumulative flux of asteroids near earth as a function of absolute magnitude. For asteroids larger than about 100 m, a power-law dependence with exponent of about 0.9 is observed, consistent with their evolution from the main-belt population. At about 10 m, the flux is more than two orders of magnitude greater than this power-law extrapolation.

  13. Spectral properties of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; de Leon, J.; Boaca, I. L.; Gherase, R. M.; Nedelcu, D. A.; INT students, I. N. G.

    2017-09-01

    We studied the spectral distributions of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits (NEACOs) in order to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among these objects. We present the spectral observations for 19 NEACOs obtained with Isaac Newton Telescope and Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Although initially classified as asteroid, one of our targets - 2007 VA85 was confirmed to be active comet 333P/LINEAR on its 2016 appearance. We found that the NEACOs population is a mixing of different compositional classes.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H

    1990-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Myco...

  15. Geodynamic evolution of the West Africa between 2.2 and 2 Ga: the Archaean style of the Birimian greenstone belts and the sedimentary basins in northeastern Ivory-Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, M.; Pouclet, A.; Delor, C.; Simeon, Y.; Alric, G.

    1996-01-01

    The litho-structural features of Palaeo-proterozoic terrains of northeastern Ivory-Coast, greenstones belts and then sedimentary basin Birimian), are similar to those of Archaean terrains. Their early deformation is only voluminal deformation due to granitoid intrusions, mainly between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga. The shortening deformation (main deformation) is expressed by right folds and transcurrent shear zones ca 2.1 Ga. Neither thrust deformation nor high pressure metamorphic assemblages are known. This pattern of flexible and hot crust, at least between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga, is pole apart to a collisional pattern, proposed for West African Craton by some authors. The Archaean/Palaeo-proterozoic boundary would not represent a drastic change of the geodynamic evolution of the crust. (authors). 60 refs., 5 figs., 6 photos

  16. LONG-TERM STABLE EQUILIBRIA FOR SYNCHRONOUS BINARY ASTEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Synchronous binary asteroids may exist in a long-term stable equilibrium, where the opposing torques from mutual body tides and the binary YORP (BYORP) effect cancel. Interior of this equilibrium, mutual body tides are stronger than the BYORP effect and the mutual orbit semimajor axis expands to the equilibrium; outside of the equilibrium, the BYORP effect dominates the evolution and the system semimajor axis will contract to the equilibrium. If the observed population of small (0.1-10 km diameter) synchronous binaries are in static configurations that are no longer evolving, then this would be confirmed by a null result in the observational tests for the BYORP effect. The confirmed existence of this equilibrium combined with a shape model of the secondary of the system enables the direct study of asteroid geophysics through the tidal theory. The observed synchronous asteroid population cannot exist in this equilibrium if described by the canonical 'monolithic' geophysical model. The 'rubble pile' geophysical model proposed by Goldreich and Sari is sufficient, however it predicts a tidal Love number directly proportional to the radius of the asteroid, while the best fit to the data predicts a tidal Love number inversely proportional to the radius. This deviation from the canonical and Goldreich and Sari models motivates future study of asteroid geophysics. Ongoing BYORP detection campaigns will determine whether these systems are in an equilibrium, and future determination of secondary shapes will allow direct determination of asteroid geophysical parameters.

  17. Software Development for Asteroid and Variable Star Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweckard, Teaghen; Clason, Timothy; Kenney, Jessica; Wuerker, Wolfgang; Palser, Sage; Giles, Tucker; Linder, Tyler; Sanchez, Richard

    2018-01-01

    The process of collecting and analyzing light curves from variable stars and asteroids is almost identical. In 2016 a collaboration was created to develop a simple fundamental way to study both asteroids and variable stars using methods that would allow the process to be repeated by middle school and high school students.Using robotic telescopes at Cerro Tololo (Chile), Yerkes Observatory (US), and Stone Edge Observatory (US) data were collected on RV Del and three asteroids. It was discovered that the only available software program which could be easily installed on lab computers was MPO Canopus. However, after six months it was determined that MPO Canopus was not an acceptable option because of the steep learning curve, lack of documentation and technical support.Therefore, the project decided that the best option was to design our own python based software. Using python and python libraries we developed code that can be used for photometry and can be easily changed to the user's needs. We accomplished this by meeting with our mentor astronomer, Tyler Linder, and in the beginning wrote two different programs, one for asteroids and one for variable stars. In the end, though, we chose to combine codes so that the program would be capable of performing photometry for both moving and static objects.The software performs differential photometry by comparing the magnitude of known reference stars to the object being studied. For asteroids, the image timestamps are used to obtain ephemeris of the asteroid from JPL Horizons automatically.

  18. Telerobotic Perception During Asteroid and Mars Regolith Operations Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Steven; Zeitlin, Nancy (Compiler); Mueller, Robert (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Current space telerobotic systems are constrained to only operating in bright light and dust-free conditions. This project will study the effects of difficult lighting and dust conditions on telerobotic perception systems to better assess and refine regolith operations on other neighboring celestial bodies. In partnership with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and Caterpillar, Inc., optical, LiDAR and RADAR sensing equipment will be used in performing the study. This project will create a known dust environment in the Swamp Works Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) Laboratory regolith test bin to characterize the behavior of the sensing equipment in various calibrated lighting and dust conditions. It will also identify potential methods for mitigating the impacts of these undesirable conditions on the performance of the sensing equipment. Enhancing the capability of telerobotic perception systems will help improve life on earth for those working in dangerous, dusty mining conditions, as well as help advance the same technologies used for safer self-driving automobiles in various lighting and weather conditions. It will also prove to be a critical skill needed for advancing robotic and human exploration throughout our solar system, for activities such as mining on an asteroid or pioneering the first colony on Mars.

  19. Spectroscopic Evidence for the Asteroidal Nature of the July 2009 Jovian Impactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey; Orton, Glenn; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Fletcher, Leigh; Depater, Imke; Hammel, Heidi

    2010-05-01

    The collision of a large object with Jupiter on July 19, 2009, heated its atmosphere, modified its composition and generated a prominent field of deposited particulate debris. Low-resolution 7-24 μm spectroscopy of the impact field obtained using the T-ReCS mid-infrared camera/spectrometer on Gemini/South on 24 July 2009 has revealed an excess 9-μm absorption in the impact debris in addition to that supplied by hot ammonia created in the impact. We have searched for candidate materials that would best fit the spectral feature near 9 μm, and find that the feature cannot be matched with candidate materials in Jupiter's atmosphere. A search through a large suite of gaseous and solid absorption spectra (c.f Lisse et al. 2008, 2009) revealed that the major competent matches were for (a) obsidian, a glassy silica, and (b) quartz and cristobalite, crystalline silicas, kinetic alteration products of primitive body ferromagnesian silicates formed at high pressures and temperatures over 1500 K. There are also weak features at 10 - 11 um consistent with olivine absorptions. While the high temperatures required to create silicas are also high enough to destroy the non-refractory water and organics dominating icy cometary bodies, and thus destroy their spectral signal, there was no detectable absorption due to pyroxene materials, which, along with olivines in roughly equal measure, comprise the majority of refractory silicaceous species found in comets (Lisse et al. 2007). This suggests that the impacting body was not a comet, but an olivine-rich differentiated body similar to asteroids that are abundant in the outer regions of the main asteroid belt (Lodders and Fegley 1998). We speculate that the weak structural strength of bulk cometary material causes a comet impactor to catastrophically disrupt at higher altitudes and lower temperatures than a strong, dense asteroidal body, so that the cometary refractory dust component remains relatively cold and unaltered through

  20. AsteroidFinder - the space-borne telescope to search for NEO Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, M.; Mosebach, H.; Schubert, J.; Michaelis, H.; Mottola, S.; Kührt, E.; Schindler, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the mission profile as well as the optical configuration of the space-borne AsteroidFinder telescope. Its main objective is to retrieve asteroids with orbits interior to the earth's orbit. The instrument requires high sensitivity to detect asteroids with a limiting magnitude of equal or larger than 18.5mag (V-Band) and astrometric accuracy of 1arcsec (1σ). This requires a telescope aperture greater than 400cm2, high image stability, detector with high quantum efficiency (peak > 90%) and very low noise, which is only limited by zodiacal background. The telescope will observe the sky between 30° and 60° in solar elongation. The telescope optics is based on a Cook type TMA. An effective 2°×2° field of view (FOV) is achieved by a fast F/3.4 telescope with near diffraction-limited performance. The absence of centre obscuration or spiders in combination with an accessible intermediate field plane and exit pupil allow for efficient stray light mitigation. Design drivers for the telescope are the required point spread function (PSF) values, an extremely efficient stray light suppression (due to the magnitude requirement mentioned above), the detector performance, and the overall optical and mechanical stability for all orientations of the satellite. To accommodate the passive thermal stabilization scheme and the necessary structural stability, the materials selection for the telescope main structure and the mirrors are of vital importance. A focal plane with four EMCCD detectors is envisaged. The EMCCD technology features shorter integration times, which is in favor regarding the pointing performance of the satellite. The launch of the mission is foreseen for the year 2013 with a subsequent mission lifetime of at least 1 year.

  1. Investigating the Source of Water and/or Hydroxyl on Asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takir, D.; Reddy, V.; Sanchez, J. A.; Shepard, M. K.; Emery, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Asteroid (16) Psyche will be visited by the Psyche mission, which was selected by NASA and will be launched in 2022 as the 14th Discovery mission. Psyche is thought to be one of the most massive exposed metallic core in the asteroid belt. The high radar albedos, thermal inertia, and density of Psyche revealed that this asteroid is composed of almost entirely of Fe-Ni metal. Psyche is also characterized by moderately red spectra and the presence of weak features (attributed to silicates) in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) region (0.3-2.5 µm). Recent NIR observations also showed rotational spectral variations indicating a possible change in the metal/silicate ratio on the surface of this asteroid. Additionally, we observed Psyche in the 3-µm spectral region using the long-wavelength cross-dispersed (LXD: 1.9-4.2 µm) mode of the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Our observations revealed that Psyche exhibits a 3-µm feature, more likely attributed to water- and/or hydroxyl molecules. While the source of water and/or hydroxyl on Psyche remains unclear, we proposed a few possible mechanisms for their formation: (1) the water/hydroxyl-rich materials detected on Psyche might have been delivered to its surface by carbonaceous impactors (like on Vesta), (2) Psyche may not be entirely exposed metallic, instead, its surface has a core-mantle boundary of a differentiated body that was disrupted by impacts (e.g., Pallasite-like), or (3) the water/hydroxyl-rich materials detected on Psyche is produced by Solar wind implantation (like on the Moon). In this talk we will discuss these three possible mechanisms and hypotheses and how they can be tested prior to the launch of the Psyche spacecraft using predictive laboratory measurements and modeling, and during the spacecraft encounter with the asteroid using the mission main instruments that will include the multispectral imagers, the gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer, and the dual

  2. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevres Fernandez, Lee Roger; Bos, Brent

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission constitutes the “first-of-its-kind” project to thoroughly characterize a near-Earth asteroid. The selected asteroid is (101955) 1999 RQ36 (a.k.a. Bennu). The mission launched in September 2016, and the spacecraft will reach its asteroid target in 2018 and return a sample to Earth in 2023. The spacecraft that will travel to, and collect a sample from, Bennu has five integrated instruments from national and international partners. NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample and document asteroid sample stowage. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Analysis of spacecraft imagery acquired by the TAGCAMS during cruise to the target asteroid Bennu was performed using custom codes developed in MATLAB. Assessment of the TAGCAMS in-flight performance using flight imagery was done to characterize camera performance. One specific area of investigation that was targeted was bad pixel mapping. A recent phase of the mission, known as the Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) maneuver, provided images that were used for the detection and confirmation of “questionable” pixels, possibly under responsive, using image segmentation analysis. Ongoing work on point spread function morphology and camera linearity and responsivity will also be used for calibration purposes and further analysis in preparation for proximity operations around Bennu. Said analyses will provide a broader understanding

  3. Hybrid Guidance Control for a Hypervelocity Small Size Asteroid Interceptor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebenay, Melak M.; Lyzhoft, Joshua R.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets and/or asteroids that have orbits in proximity with Earth's own orbit. NEOs have collided with the Earth in the past, which can be seen at such places as Chicxulub crater, Barringer crater, and Manson crater, and will continue in the future with potentially significant and devastating results. Fortunately such NEO collisions with Earth are infrequent, but can happen at any time. Therefore it is necessary to develop and validate techniques as well as technologies necessary to prevent them. One approach to mitigate future NEO impacts is the concept of high-speed interceptor. This concept is to alter the NEO's trajectory via momentum exchange by using kinetic impactors as well as nuclear penetration devices. The interceptor has to hit a target NEO at relative velocity which imparts a sufficient change in NEO velocity. NASA's Deep Impact mission has demonstrated this scenario by intercepting Comet Temple 1, 5 km in diameter, with an impact relative speed of approximately 10 km/s. This paper focuses on the development of hybrid guidance navigation and control (GNC) algorithms for precision hypervelocity intercept of small sized NEOs. The spacecraft's hypervelocity and the NEO's small size are critical challenges for a successful mission as the NEO will not fill the field of view until a few seconds before intercept. The investigation needs to consider the error sources modeled in the navigation simulation such as spacecraft initial state uncertainties in position and velocity. Furthermore, the paper presents three selected spacecraft guidance algorithms for asteroid intercept and rendezvous missions. The selected algorithms are classical Proportional Navigation (PN) based guidance that use a first order difference to compute the derivatives, Three Plane Proportional Navigation (TPPN), and the Kinematic Impulse (KI). A manipulated Bennu orbit that has been changed to impact Earth will be used as a demonstrative example to compare the

  4. Greenland from Archaean to Quaternary, Descriptive text to the 1995 Geological Map of Greenland 1:2 500 000, 2nd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsbeek, Feiko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The geological development of Greenland spans a period of nearly 4 Ga, from Eoarchaean to the Quaternary. Greenland is the largest island on Earth with a total area of 2 166 000 km2, but only c. 410 000 km2 are exposed bedrock, the remaining part being covered by a major ice sheet (the Inland Ice reaching over 3 km in thickness. The adjacent offshore areas underlain by continental crust have an area of c. 825 000 km2. Greenland is dominated by crystalline rocks of the Precambrian shield, which formed during a succession of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic orogenic events and stabilised as a part of the Laurentian shield about 1600 Ma ago. The shield area can be divided into three distinct types of basement provinces: (1 Archaean rocks (3200–2600 Ma old, with local older units up to >3800Ma that were almost unaffected by Proterozoic or later orogenic activity; (2 Archaean terrains reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic around 1900–1750 Ma ago; and (3 terrains mainly composed of juvenile Palaeoproterozoic rocks (2000–1750 Ma in age.Subsequent geological developments mainly took place along the margins of the shield. During the Proterozoic and throughout the Phanerozoic major sedimentary basins formed, notably in North and North-East Greenland, in which sedimentary successions locally reaching 18 km in thickness were deposited. Palaeozoic orogenic activity affected parts of these successions in the Ellesmerian fold belt of North Greenland and the East Greenland Caledonides; the latter also incorporates reworked Precambrian crystalline basement complexes. Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins developed along the continent–ocean margins in North, East and West Greenland and are now preserved both onshore and offshore. Their development was closely related to continental break-up with formation of rift basins. Initial rifting in East Greenland in latest Devonian to earliest Carboniferous time and succeeding phases culminated with the

  5. Exploration of faint absorption bands in the reflectance spectra of the asteroids by method of optimal smoothing: Vestoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; McFadden, L. A.; Golubeva, L. F.

    2007-04-01

    An optimization method of smoothing noisy spectra was developed to investigate faint absorption bands in the visual spectral region of reflectance spectra of asteroids and the compositional information derived from their analysis. The smoothing algorithm is called "optimal" because the algorithm determines the best running box size to separate weak absorption bands from the noise. The method is tested for its sensitivity to identifying false features in the smoothed spectrum, and its correctness of forecasting real absorption bands was tested with artificial spectra simulating asteroid reflectance spectra. After validating the method we optimally smoothed 22 vestoid spectra from SMASS1 [Xu, Sh., Binzel, R.P., Burbine, T.H., Bus, S.J., 1995. Icarus 115, 1-35]. We show that the resulting bands are not telluric features. Interpretation of the absorption bands in the asteroid spectra was based on the spectral properties of both terrestrial and meteorite pyroxenes. The bands located near 480, 505, 530, and 550 nm we assigned to spin-forbidden crystal field bands of ferrous iron, whereas the bands near 570, 600, and 650 nm are attributed to the crystal field bands of trivalent chromium and/or ferric iron in low-calcium pyroxenes on the asteroids' surface. While not measured by microprobe analysis, Fe 3+ site occupancy can be measured with Mössbauer spectroscopy, and is seen in trace amounts in pyroxenes. We believe that trace amounts of Fe 3+ on vestoid surfaces may be due to oxidation from impacts by icy bodies. If that is the case, they should be ubiquitous in the asteroid belt wherever pyroxene absorptions are found. Pyroxene composition of four asteroids of our set is determined from the band position of absorptions at 505 and 1000 nm, implying that there can be orthopyroxenes in all range of ferruginosity on the vestoid surfaces. For the present we cannot unambiguously interpret of the faint absorption bands that are seen in the spectra of 4005 Dyagilev, 4038

  6. Association between meteor showers and asteroids using multivariate criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, B. A.; Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Meteoroid streams are fragments of matter produced by comets or asteroids which intersects the orbit of Earth. Meteor showers are produced when Earth intersects these streams of matter. The discoveries of active asteroids and extinct comets open a new view of the relation between these objects as possible parent bodies at the origin of meteor showers. Aims: The aim of this work is to identify the asteroids that can produce or re-populate meteoroid streams by determining the similarity of their orbits and orbital evolution over 10 000 yr. Methods: The identification was carried out by evaluating several well known D-criteria metrics, the orbits being taken from the IAU Meteor Data Center database and from IAU Minor Planet Center. Finally, we analyzed the physical properties and the orbital stability (in the Lyapunov time sense) of the candidates as well as their possible relationship with meteorites. Results: 206 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) were associated as possible parent bodies with 28 meteor showers, according to at least two of the criterion used. 50 of them satisfied all the criteria. Notable finds are: binary asteroid 2000UG11 associated with Andromedids (AND), while the tumbling asteroid (4179)Toutatis could be associated with October Capricornids (OCC). Other possible good candidates are 2004TG10, 2008EY5, 2010CF55, 2010TU149 and 2014OY1. These objects have low albedo, therefore can be primitive objects. Asteroid 2007LW19 which is a fast rotator and most probably has monolithic structure and so its physical characteristic does not support the association found based on the dynamical criteria.

  7. UV Reflectance of Jupiter's Moon Europa and Asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T. M.; Retherford, K. D.; Roth, L.; Hendrix, A.; McGrath, M. A.; Cunningham, N.; Feaga, L. M.; Saur, J.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Walhund, J. E.; Molyneux, P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface reflectance observations of solar system objects in the UV are not only complimentary to longer wavelength observations for identifying surface composition, but can also reveal new and meaningful information about the surfaces of those bodies. On Europa, far-UV (FUV) spectral observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) show that the surface lacks a strong water ice absorption edge near 165 nm, which is intriguing because such a band has been detected on most icy satellites. This may suggest that radiolytic processing by Jupiter's magnetosphere has altered the surface, causing absorption at wavelengths longward of the H2O edge, masking this feature. Additionally, the FUV spectra are blue (increasing albedo with shorter wavelengths), and regions that are observed to be dark in the visible appear bright in the FUV. This spectral inversion, also observed on the Moon and some asteroids, may provide insight into the properties of the surface material and how they are processed.We also explore the UV reflectance spectra of the main belt asteroid (16) Psyche. This asteroid is believed to be the metallic remnant core of a differentiated asteroid, stripped of its mantle through collisions. However, there is speculation that the asteroid could have formed as-is from highly reduced metal-rich material near the Sun early in the formation of the solar system. Further, spectral observations in the infrared have revealed pyroxene and hydroxyl on the asteroid's surface, complicating the interpretation that (16) Psyche is a pure metallic object. Laboratory studies indicate that there are diagnostic spectral features in the UV that could be useful for determining the surface composition. We obtained HST observations of Psyche from 160 - 300 nm. Preliminary results show a featureless, red-sloped spectrum, inconsistent with significant amounts of pyroxene on the surface. We will present the spectra of Europa and the asteroid (16) Psyche and discuss the unique details

  8. Stability Limits for Rubble Pile Asteroid Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The stability of rubble pile asteroids are explored analytically, using simple models for their constituent components. Specifically, we look at the stability of spherical components resting and potentially rolling on each other as a function of their relative sizes, configuration and number. This talk will present some recent results in this problem. Of specific interest is a 5:1 limit on the elongation of a rubble pile body for stability, which is interestingly the same extreme elongation found for the first interstellar object. This limit is for a rubble pile consisting of stacked spheres, resting on each other in a straight line. If there are 5 or less bodies resting on each other in this configuration, there is an interval of spin rates for which the configuration is stable. If there are 6 or more bodies stacked as such, the spin rate for it to stabilize is beyond the spin rate at which it fissions. The talk will also explore additional results for different configurations of bodies resting on each other.

  9. Un asteroide proveniente de la Luna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.

    El descubrimiento de un débil objeto en movimiento por el telescopio Spacewatch (un instrumento dedicado a la búsqueda de Asteroides Cercanos a la Tierra) en 1991, ha generado una gran controversia en la comunidad planetaria. El objeto, denominado 1991 VG, tiene elementos orbitales llamativamente similares a los de la Tierra, lo que ha llevado a B. G. Marsden a aventurar:``El objeto podría ser una nave espacial en retorno (IAUC 5387)". Luego de analizar las características dinámicas de 1991 VG y las diferentes hipótesis sobre su origen, favorecemos la alternativa de que el objeto es un gran fragmento de material eyectado de la Luna durante un reciente impacto (en las últimas decenas de miles de años). El hallazgo en 1983 en la Antártida de meteoritos con composición tipo lunar, confirma la posibilidad de que material de la superficie del satélite puede ser eyectado a velocidades superiores a la de escape del sistema Tierra-Luna y alcance órbitas heliocéntricas. Los elementos orbitales de 1991 VG corresponden a los valores alcanzados por partículas que apenas escapan de la gravedad lunar y entran en órbitas heliocéntricas a través del punto Lagrangiano exterior del sistema Tierra-Sol.

  10. Accuracy of calibrated data from the SDSS moving object catalog, absolute magnitudes, and probable lightcurves for several asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galád, Adrián

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 514, May (2010), A55/1-A55/10 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107 Grant - others:Vega(SK) 2/0016/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : minor planets * asteroids * photometric Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  11. Radar and photometric observations and shape modeling of contact binary near-Earth Asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magri, C.; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Taylor, P.A.; Fernandez, Y.R.; Mueller, M.; Vervack, R.J.; Benner, L. A. M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Ostro, S. J.; Scheeres, D.J.; Hicks, M. D.; Rhoades, H.; Somers, J.M.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Kouprianov, V.V.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Molotov, I.E.; Busch, M.W.; Margot, J. L.; Benishek, V.; Protitch-Benishek, V.; Galád, Adrián; Higgins, D.; Kušnirák, Peter; Pray, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 1 (2011), s. 210-227 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107 Grant - others:SAV(SK) Vega2/0016/09; NASA (US) NNX10AP87G; NASA (US) NNX10AP87G Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * photometry * radar observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.385, year: 2011

  12. Human health and performance considerations for near earth asteroids (NEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2013-11-01

    Humans are considered as a system in the design of any deep space exploration mission. The addition of many potential near asteroid (NEA) destinations to the existing multiple mission architecture for Lunar and Mars missions increases the complexity of human health and performance issues that are anticipated for exploration of space. We suggest that risks to human health and performance be analyzed in terms of the 4 major parameters related to multiple mission architecture: destination, duration, distance and vehicle design. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of exploration tasks related to sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in mission architecture and exploration task design. Key mission parameters are strongly impacted by duration and distance. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) limits mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age, gender and stage of the solar cycle. Duration also impacts mission architectures including countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; and behavioral and psychological issues resulting from isolation and confinement. Distance affects communications and limits abort and return options for a NEA mission. These factors are anticipated to have important effects on crew function and autonomous operations, as well as influence medical capability, supplies and training requirements of the crew. The design of a habitat volume that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from earth will require an

  13. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics GPU-Acceleration Tool for Asteroid Fragmentation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruchenko, Sergey K.; Schäfer, Christoph M.; Maindl, Thomas I.

    2017-10-01

    The impact threat of near-Earth objects (NEOs) is a concern to the global community, as evidenced by the Chelyabinsk event (caused by a 17-m meteorite) in Russia on February 15, 2013 and a near miss by asteroid 2012 DA14 ( 30 m diameter), on the same day. The expected energy, from either a low-altitude air burst or direct impact, would have severe consequences, especially in populated regions. To mitigate this threat one of the methods is employment of large kinetic-energy impactors (KEIs). The simulation of asteroid target fragmentation is a challenging task which demands efficient and accurate numerical methods with large computational power. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) lead to a major increase 10 times and more in the performance of the computation of astrophysical and high velocity impacts. The paper presents a new implementation of the numerical method smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using NVIDIA-GPU and the first astrophysical and high velocity application of the new code. The code allows for a tremendous increase in speed of astrophysical simulations with SPH and self-gravity at low costs for new hardware. We have implemented the SPH equations to model gas, liquids and elastic, and plastic solid bodies and added a fragmentation model for brittle materials. Self-gravity may be optionally included in the simulations.

  14. A Study Regarding the Possibility of True Polar Wander on the Asteroid Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Dombard, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The asteroid 4 Vesta, with an average diameter of ~525 km, is the second most massive asteroid in the solar system. Most of our knowledge about this differentiated asteroid comes from the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite class of meteorites that originated from Vesta, images provided by Hubble Space Telescope, and data from the Dawn spacecraft that orbited Vesta from July 2011 to September 2012. Notably, these close-range data confirmed what Hubble images suggested: a highly oblate shape in which the equatorial radius is ~60 km greater than the polar radius, a shape consistent with Vesta's short rotational period of ~5.3 hr. These images also revealed the presence of two large impact craters near the asteroid's south pole. Rheasilvia, the younger and larger crater at ~500 km in diameter, is superimposed over Veneneia, ~400 km in diameter. The occurrence of two large impacts near a pole, which possesses a relatively small area (less than 30% of the surface), is highly improbable. Thus, we investigate the possibility of True Polar Wander. We hypothesize that the integrated mass deficit of these two basins applied a torque to the lithosphere to reorient the surface relative to the spin axis and thereby placing these basins near the pole. In order for this phenomenon to occur, however, the lithosphere needs to be pliable enough to allow relaxation of the ancient rotational bulge and concurrent development of the current bulge. We have previously explored whether the lithosphere of Vesta could support the large-scale (~20 vertical km) topography of the basins (short answer: it can). Here, we explore whether this lithosphere could also permit True Polar Wander. We use the Finite Element Method and a viscoelastic rheology to simulate the relaxation of an oblate Vesta under a range of plausible thermal scenarios consistent with Vesta's expected budget of long-lived radiogenic nuclides. Our results indicate that under reasonable thermal conditions, the relaxation of the

  15. Analysis of the rotation period of asteroids (1865) Cerberus, (2100) Ra-Shalom, and (3103) Eger – search for the YORP effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďurech, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Baransky, A.R.; Breiter, S.; Burkhonov, O.A.; Cooney, W.R.; Fuller, V.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Gross, J.; Inasaridze, R.Ya.; Kaasalainen, M.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Kvaratshelia, O.I.; Litvinenko, E.A.; Macomber, B.; Marchis, F.; Molotov, I.E.; Oey, J.; Polishook, D.; Pollock, J.; Pravec, Petr; Sárneczky, K.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Slyusarev, I.; Stephens, R.; Szabó, G.; Terrell, D.; Vachier, F.; Vanderplate, Z.; Viikinkoski, M.; Warner, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 547, November (2012), A10/1-A10/9 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0229 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : minor planets * asteroids * data analysis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.084, year: 2012

  16. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. V. The unusual polarimetric behavior of V-type asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; López-Sisterna, C.; Calandra, M. F.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We present the results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained using the CASPROF and CASPOL polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation and CASPOL is a polarimeter based on a CCD detector, which allows us to observe fainter objects with better signal-to-noise ratio. Results: The survey began in 1995 and data on a large sample of asteroids were obtained until 2012. A second period began in 2013 using a polarimeter with a more sensitive detector in order to study small asteroids, families, and special taxonomic groups. We obtained 55 polarimetric measurements for 28 V-type main belt asteroids, all of them polarimetrically observed for the first time. The data obtained in this survey let us find polarimetric parameters for (1459) Magnya and for a group of 11 small V-type objects with similar polarimetric behavior. These polarization curves are unusual since they show a shallow minimum and a small inversion angle in comparison with (4) Vesta, although they have a steeper slope at α0. This polarimetric behavior could be explained by differences in the regoliths of these asteroids. The observations of (2579) Spartacus, and perhaps also (3944) Halliday, indicate a inversion angle larger than 24-25°. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  17. Automated Classification of Asteroids into Families at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Zoran; Milani, Andrea; Cellino, Alberto; Novaković, Bojan; Spoto, Federica; Paolicchi, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    We have recently proposed a new approach to the asteroid family classification by combining the classical HCM method with an automated procedure to add newly discovered members to existing families. This approach is specifically intended to cope with ever increasing asteroid data sets, and consists of several steps to segment the problem and handle the very large amount of data in an efficient and accurate manner. We briefly present all these steps and show the results from three subsequent updates making use of only the automated step of attributing the newly numbered asteroids to the known families. We describe the changes of the individual families membership, as well as the evolution of the classification due to the newly added intersections between the families, resolved candidate family mergers, and emergence of the new candidates for the mergers. We thus demonstrate how by the new approach the asteroid family classification becomes stable in general terms (converging towards a permanent list of confirmed families), and in the same time evolving in details (to account for the newly discovered asteroids) at each update.

  18. A retrograde co-orbital asteroid of Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Veillet, Christian

    2017-03-29

    Recent theoretical work in celestial mechanics has revealed that an asteroid may orbit stably in the same region as a planet, despite revolving around the Sun in the sense opposite to that of the planet itself. Asteroid 2015 BZ 509 was discovered in 2015, but with too much uncertainty in its measured orbit to establish whether it was such a retrograde co-orbital body. Here we report observations and analysis that demonstrates that asteroid 2015 BZ 509 is indeed a retrograde co-orbital asteroid of the planet Jupiter. We find that 2015 BZ 509 has long-term stability, having been in its current, resonant state for around a million years. This is long enough to preclude precise calculation of the time or mechanism of its injection to its present state, but it may be a Halley-family comet that entered the resonance through an interaction with Saturn. Retrograde co-orbital asteroids of Jupiter and other planets may be more common than previously expected.

  19. PRODUCTION OF NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS ON RETROGRADE ORBITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, S.; Gladman, B.; Ngo, H.; Granvik, M.; Larson, S.

    2012-01-01

    While computing an improved near-Earth object (NEO) steady-state orbital distribution model, we discovered in the numerical integrations the unexpected production of retrograde orbits for asteroids that had originally exited from the accepted main-belt source regions. Our model indicates that ∼0.1% (a factor of two uncertainty) of the steady-state NEO population (perihelion q < 1.3 AU) is on retrograde orbits. These rare outcomes typically happen when asteroid orbits flip to a retrograde configuration while in the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and then live for ∼0.001 to 100 Myr. The model predicts, given the estimated near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population, that a few retrograde 0.1-1 km NEAs should exist. Currently, there are two known MPC NEOs with asteroidal designations on retrograde orbits which we therefore claim could be escaped asteroids instead of devolatilized comets. This retrograde NEA population may also answer a long-standing question in the meteoritical literature regarding the origin of high-strength, high-velocity meteoroids on retrograde orbits.

  20. Three dimensional modelling for the target asteroid of HAYABUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Asada, N.; Hashimoto, T.; Saito, J.

    Hayabusa program is the first sample return mission of Japan. This was launched at May 9 2003, and will arrive at the target asteroid 25143 Itokawa on June 2005. The spacecraft has three optical navigation cameras, which are two wide angle ones and a telescopic one. The telescope with a filter wheel was named AMICA (Asteroid Multiband Imaging CAmera). We are going to model a shape of the target asteroid by this telescope; expected resolution: 1m/pixel at 10 km in distanc, field of view: 5.7 squared degrees, MPP-type CCD with 1024 x 1000 pixels. Because size of the Hayabusa is about 1x1x1 m, our goal is shape modeling with about 1m in precision on the basis of a camera system with scanning by rotation of the asteroid. This image-based modeling requires sequential images via AMICA and a history of distance between the asteroid and Hayabusa provided by a Laser Range Finder. We established a system of hierarchically recursive search with sub-pixel matching of Ground Control Points, which are picked up with Susan Operator. The matched dataset is restored with a restriction of epipolar geometry, and the obtained a group of three dimensional points are converted to a polygon model with Delaunay Triangulation. The current status of our development for the shape modeling is displayed.

  1. Dust arcs in the region of Jupiter's Trojan asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Aims: The surfaces of the Trojan asteroids are steadily bombarded by interplanetary micrometeoroids, which releases ejecta of small dust particles. These particles form the faint dust arcs that are associated with asteroid clouds. Here we analyze the particle dynamics and structure of the arc in the region of the L4 Trojan asteroids. Methods: We calculate the total cross section of the L4 Trojan asteroids and the production rate of dust particles. The motion of the particles is perturbed by a variety of forces. We simulate the dynamical evolution of the dust particles, and explore the overall features of the Trojan dust arc. Results: The simulations show that the arc is mainly composed of grains in the size range 4-10 microns. Compared to the L4 Trojan asteroids, the dust arc is distributed more widely in the azimuthal direction, extending to a range of [30, 120] degrees relative to Jupiter. The peak number density does not develop at L4. There exist two peaks that are azimuthally displaced from L4.

  2. Candidate Binary Trojan and Hilda Asteroids from Rotational Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnett, Sarah M.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph R.; Bauer, James M.; Kramer, Emily A.

    2017-10-01

    Jovian Trojans (hereafter, Trojans) are asteroids in stable orbits at Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrange points, and Hilda asteroids are inwards of the Trojans in 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. Due to their special dynamical properties, observationally constraining the formation location and dynamical histories of Trojans and HIldas offers key input for giant planet migration models. A fundamental parameter in assessing formation location is the bulk density - with low-density objects associated with an ice-rich formation environment in the outer solar system and high-density objects typically linked to the warmer inner solar system. Bulk density can only be directly measured during a close fly-by or by determining the mutual orbits of binary asteroid systems. With the aim of determining densities for a statistically significant sample of Trojans and Hildas, we are undertaking an observational campaign to confirm and characterize candidate binary asteroids published in Sonnett et al. (2015). These objects were flagged as binary candidates because their large NEOWISE brightness variations imply shapes so elongated that they are not likely explained by a singular equilibrium rubble pile and instead may be two elongated, gravitationally bound asteroids. We are obtaining densely sampled rotational light curves of these possible binaries to search for light curve features diagnostic of binarity and to determine the orbital properties of any confirmed binary systems by modeling the light curve. We compare the We present an update on this follow-up campaign and comment on future steps.

  3. Hayabusa2 Sampler: Collection of Asteroidal Surface Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hirotaka; Okazaki, Ryuji; Tachibana, Shogo; Sakamoto, Kanako; Takano, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Miura, Yayoi; Abe, Masanao; Hasegawa, Sunao; Noguchi, Takaaki

    2017-07-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the asteroid exploration probe "Hayabusa2" in December 3rd, 2014, following the 1st Hayabusa mission. With technological and scientific improvements from the Hayabusa probe, we plan to visit the C-type asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and to sample surface materials of the C-type asteroid that is likely to be different from the S-type asteroid Itokawa and contain more pristine materials, including organic matter and/or hydrated minerals, than S-type asteroids. We developed the Hayabusa2 sampler to collect a minimum of 100 mg of surface samples including several mm-sized particles at three surface locations without any severe terrestrial contamination. The basic configuration of the sampler design is mainly as same as the 1st Hayabusa (Yano et al. in Science, 312(5778):1350-1353, 2006), with several minor but important modifications based on lessons learned from the Hayabusa to fulfill the scientific requirements and to raise the scientific value of the returned samples.

  4. Human spaceflight and an asteroid redirect mission: Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    The planning of human spaceflight programmes is an exercise in careful rationing of a scarce and expensive resource. Current NASA plans are to develop the new capability for human-rated launch into space to replace the Space Transportation System (STS), more commonly known as the Space Shuttle, combined with a heavy lift capability, and followed by an eventual Mars mission. As an intermediate step towards Mars, NASA proposes to venture beyond Low Earth Orbit to cis-lunar space to visit a small asteroid which will be captured and moved to lunar orbit by a separate robotic mission. The rationale for this and how to garner support from the scientific community for such an asteroid mission are discussed. Key points that emerge are that a programme usually has greater legitimacy when it emerges from public debate, mostly via a Presidential Commission, a report by the National Research Council or a Decadal Review of science goals etc. Also, human spaceflight missions need to have support from a wide range of interested communities. Accordingly, an outline scientific case for a human visit to an asteroid is made. Further, it is argued here that the scientific interest in an asteroid mission needs to be included early in the planning stages, so that the appropriate capabilities (here the need for drilling cores and carrying equipment to, and returning samples from, the asteroid) can be included.

  5. Observing the variation of asteroid thermal inertia with heliocentric distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozitis, B.; Green, S. F.; MacLennan, E.; Emery, J. P.

    2018-06-01

    Thermal inertia is a useful property to characterize a planetary surface, since it can be used as a qualitative measure of the regolith grain size. It is expected to vary with heliocentric distance because of its dependence on temperature. However, no previous investigation has conclusively observed a change in thermal inertia for any given planetary body. We have addressed this by using NEOWISE data and the Advanced Thermophysical Model to study the thermophysical properties of the near-Earth asteroids (1036) Ganymed, (1580) Betulia, and (276 049) 2002 CE26 as they moved around their highly eccentric orbits. We confirm that the thermal inertia values of Ganymed and 2002 CE26 do vary with heliocentric distance, although the degree of variation observed depends on the spectral emissivity assumed in the thermophysical modelling. We also confirm that the thermal inertia of Betulia did not change for three different observations obtained at the same heliocentric distance. Depending on the spectral emissivity, the variations for Ganymed and 2002 CE26 are potentially more extreme than that implied by theoretical models of heat transfer within asteroidal regoliths, which might be explained by asteroids having thermal properties that also vary with depth. Accounting for this variation reduces a previously observed trend of decreasing asteroid thermal inertia with increasing size, and suggests that the surfaces of small and large asteroids could be much more similar than previously thought. Furthermore, this variation can affect Yarkovsky orbital drift predictions by a few tens of per cent.

  6. Asteroid Origins Satellite (AOSAT): Science in a CubeSat Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, V.; Cotto-Figueroa, D.; Noviello, J.; Asphaug, E.; Morris, M.

    2015-01-01

    Both the study of primary accretion and the surface properties of asteroids are important for the field of planetary science. The Asteroid Origins Satellite (AOSAT) will help study these subjects by creating a long duration microgravity laboratory.

  7. Orbits of the Asteroids Discovered at the Molėtai Observatory in 2000–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Černis K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents statistics of the asteroids observed and discovered at the Molėtai Observatory, Lithuania in 2000–2004 within the project for astrometric observations of the near-Earth objects (NEOs, the main belt asteroids and comets. CCD observations of asteroids were obtained with the 35/51 cm Maksutov-type meniscus telescope and the 1.65 m Ritchey-Chretien reflector. In the Minor Planet Circulars and the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (2000–2004 we published 6629 astrometric positions of 1114 asteroids. Among them 78 were newly discovered asteroids at Molėtai, a few NEOs were found by our team independently. For the 67 asteroids discovered at Molėtai the precise orbits were calculated. Because of small number of observations, a few asteroids have low-precision orbits and some asteroids have been lost. For seven objects we present their ephemerides for 2015.

  8. Rotational rates of very small asteroids - 123 Brunhild, 376 Geometria, 437 Rhodia and 1224 Fantasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci, M. A.; di Martino, M.

    1984-07-01

    This paper presents observations of four small main belt asteroids (D Geometria, an accurate rotational period was determined. For the other two asteroids, 437 Rhodia and 1224 Fantasia, only tentative periods are suggested.

  9. Anomalous uranium concentration in Archaean basement Shear at Dhani Basri and its significance on Southern Margin of Alwar sub-basin, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahi, B.; Shaji, T.S.; Sharma, G.S.; Yadav, O.P.; Nanda, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Prominent shear zones cutting through the basement and cover rocks of Delhi Supergroup have been recognized in Dhani Basri - Ramewala sector of Dausa district, Rajasthan. One such shear zone traversing the granite gneiss (Archaean basement) has been observed at Dhani Basri. The sheared rock is exposed in the form of a small hump and gives appearance of quartzite due to intense silicification. Grab samples collected from the shear zone rock analysed upto 93 ppm U 3 O 8 and <10 ppm ThO 2 , which is anomalous in comparison to unsheared rock which analysed 51 ppm eU 3 O 8 , upto 5 ppm U 3 O 8 and 80 ppm ThO 2 . Gamma-ray logging of boreholes drilled by GSI across this shear zone indicated uranium mineralization of the order of 0.030% eU 3 O 8 x 5.40 m and the primary radioactive mineral has been identified as uraninite. The extension of Dhani Basri shear zone inside the cover rocks of Meso-Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup of rocks of Alwar sub-basin is of paramount importance in locating unconformity related as well as hydrothermal vein type uranium mineralization. (author)

  10. An Archaean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite Association of the Kursk Block (Voronezh Massif): Composition, Age, and Correlation with the Ukrainian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savko, K. A.; Samsonov, A. V.; Larionov, A. N.; Korish, E. Kh.; Bazikov, N. S.

    2018-01-01

    Framing of the Archaean greenstone belts of the Kursk Block (KB) of the East Sarmatia preserves rocks of the TTG association: those do not form massifs with distinct boundaries, but occur as fields gradually transiting into gneisses and migmatites. According to Sm-Nd isotope-geochemical data, the TTG are characterized by positive values of ɛNd(2960) = +0.3…+1.6 and protolith model ages of T Nd( DM) = 3100-3200 Ma. Magmatic protoliths of the Kursk Block TTG were formed about 2960 Ma by melting from a juvenile basite source. These age estimates are significantly younger than heterochronous (3.19, 3.13 and 3.07 Ga) TTGs of the Middle Dnieper granite-greenstone terrane. On the other hand, the similarity of ɛNd(T) implies a single source of their protoliths. Consequently, the KB TTGs, apparently, are a result of transformation of an older sial crust preserved within the Middle Dnieper Block.

  11. Galileo Photometry of Asteroid 951 Gaspra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Lee, P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Breneman, H.; Head, J.W.; Murchie, S.; Fanale, F.; Robinson, M.; Clark, B.; Granahan, J.; Garbeil, H.; McEwen, A.S.; Kirk, R.L.; Davies, M.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Wagner, R.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.; Pilcher, C.

    1994-01-01

    Galileo images of Gaspra make it possible for the first time to determine a main-belt asteroid's photometric properties accurately by providing surface-resolved coverage over a wide range of incidence and emission angles and by extending the phase angle coverage to phases not observable from Earth. We combine Earth-based telescopic photometry over phase angles 2?? ??? ?? ??? 25?? with Galileo whole-disk and disk-resolved data at 33?? ??? ?? ??? 51?? to derive average global photometric properties in terms of Hapke's photometric model. The microscopic texture and particle phase-function behavior of Gaspra's surface are remarkably like those of other airless rocky bodies such as the Moon. The macroscopic surface roughness parameter, ??̄ = 29??, is slightly larger than that reported for typical lunar materials. The particle single scattering albedo, ??́0 = 0.36 ?? 0.07, is significantly larger than for lunar materials, and the opposition surge amplitude, B0 = 1.63 ?? 0.07, is correspondingly smaller. We determine a visual geometric albedo pv = 0.22 ?? 0.06 for Gaspra, in close agreement with pv = 0.22 ?? 0.03 estimated from Earth-based observations. Gaspra's phase integral is 0.47, and the bolometric Bond albedo is estimated to be 0.12 ?? 0.03. An albedo map derived by correcting Galileo images with our average global photometric function reveals subdued albedo contrasts of ??10% or less over Gaspra's northern hemisphere. Several independent classification algorithms confirm the subtle spectral heterogeneity reported earlier (S. Mottola, M. DiMartino, M. Gonano-Beurer, H. Hoffman, and G. Neukum, 1993, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, pp. 421-424; M. J. S. Belton et al., 1992, Science 257, 1647-1652). Whole-disk colors (0.41 ??? ?? ??? 0.99 ??m) vary systematically with longitude by about ??5%, but color differences as large as 30% occur locally. Colors vary continuously between end-member materials whose areal distribution correlates with regional topography. Infrared

  12. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Asteroid(4) Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori M.; Landsman, Wayne; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Mutchler, Max J.; Russell, Christopher T.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a comprehensive review of the UV-visible spectrum and rotational lightcurve of Vesta combining new observations by Hubble Space Telescope and Swift with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer observations. The geometric albedos of Vesta from 220 nm to 953 nm arc derived by carefully comparing these observations from various instruments at different times and observing geometries. Vesta has a rotationally averaged geometric albedo of 0.09 at 250 nm, 0.14 at 300 nm, 0.26 at 373 nm, 0.38 at 673 nm, and 0.30 at 950 nm. The linear spectral slope in the ultraviolet displays a sharp minimum ncar sub-Earth longitude of 20deg, and maximum in the eastern hemisphere. This is completely consistent with the distribution of the spectral slope in the visible wavelength. The uncertainty of the measurement in the ultraviolet is approx.20%, and in the visible wavelengths better than 10%. The amplitude of Vesta's rotational lightcurves is approx.10% throughout the range of wavelengths we observed, but is smaller at 950 nm (approx.6%) ncar the 1-micron mafic band center. Contrary to earlier reports, we found no evidence for any difference between the phasing of the ultraviolet and visible/ncar-infrared lightcurves with respect to sub-Earth longitude. Vesta's average spectrum between 220 and 950 nm can well be described by measured reflectance spectra of fine particle howardite-like materials of basaltic achondrite meteorites. Combining this with the in-phase behavior of the ultraviolet, visible. and ncar-infrared lightcurves, and the spectral slopes with respect to the rotational phase, we conclude that there is no global ultraviolet/visible reversal on Vesta. Consequently, this implies lack of global space weathering on Vesta. Keyword,: Asteroid Vesta; Spectrophotometry; Spectroscopy; Ultraviolet observations; Hubble Space Telescope observations

  13. Trojan and Hilda asteroid lightcurves. I - Anomalously elongated shapes among Trojans (and Hildas?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.; Binzel, Richard P.; Tholen, David J.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Goguen, Jay

    1988-01-01

    A comparison of the available sample of lightcurves for 26 Trojan and Hilda asteroids with belt asteroid lightcurves shows the former to be distinguished by a higher incidence of high amplitudes rgan belt asteroids of comparable size, suggesting more elongated shapes; they currently have, moreover, only a few percent of the main-belt asteroids' collision frequency. A more modest collisional evolution that may have affected the relative degree of fragmentation of these bodies, and thus their shapes, is inferred.

  14. Results of the 2017 Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Pedro; Loera-Gonzalez, Pablo; Olguin, Lorenzo; Saucedo-Morales, Julio C.; Ayala-Gómez, Sandra A.; Garza, Jaime R.

    2018-04-01

    We report the results for the first semester of the 2017 Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign. Asteroid 1218 Aster (synodic period of 3.1581 ± 0.0002 h and amplitude of 0.35 mag) was well observed and showed slight variations of its lightcurve at the end of the seven week observing window. An uncertain, but long, period of 93.23 ± 0.02 h and amplitude of 0.36 mag were estimated for 2733 Hamina from sparse data. Asteroid 8443 Svecica was also well observed and yielded a period of 20.9905 ± 0.0015 h and amplitude of 0.65 mag. Observations of NEA (143404) 2003 BD44 also resulted in an uncertain and long period of 78.617 ± 0.009 h and amplitude of 0.66 mag with a sparsely covered lightcurve.

  15. Asteroid Observations with NCSFCT’s AZT-8 Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukhov, O.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The asteroid observations of the small Solar System bodies were carried out with the AZT-8 telescope (D=0.7 m, f/4 of the National Center of Space Facilities Control and Testing (NCSFCT during 2010-2013. The telescope is located near Yevpatoria, the observatory code according IAU is B17. The observational program included perturbed main belt asteroids and NEO’s for the GAIA FUN-SSO Company. The MPC database contains more than 4500 asteroids positions and magnitudes obtained during this period at AZT-8 telescope. The article presents analysis of the positional accuracy of B17 observations obtained from the comparison with the JPL HORIZONS ephemeris, and data from AstDyS-2 and NEODyS-2 web services.

  16. A New Equilibrium State for Singly Synchronous Binary Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, Oleksiy; Unukovych, Vladyslav; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of rotation states of small asteroids is governed by the Yarkovsky–O’Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack (YORP) effect, nonetheless some asteroids can stop their YORP evolution by attaining a stable equilibrium. The same is true for binary asteroids subjected to the binary YORP (BYORP) effect. Here we discuss a new type of equilibrium that combines these two, which is possible in a singly synchronous binary system. This equilibrium occurs when the normal YORP, the tangential YORP, and the BYORP compensate each other, and tidal torques distribute the angular momentum between the components of the system and dissipate energy. If unperturbed, such a system would remain singly synchronous in perpetuity with constant spin and orbit rates, as the tidal torques dissipate the incoming energy from impinging sunlight at the same rate. The probability of the existence of this kind of equilibrium in a binary system is found to be on the order of a few percent.

  17. Asteroid body-fixed hovering using nonideal solar sails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiang-Yuan; Jiang, Fang-Hua; Li, Jun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The problem of body-fixed hovering over an asteroid using a compact form of nonideal solar sails with a controllable area is investigated. Nonlinear dynamic equations describing the hovering problem are constructed for a spherically symmetric asteroid. Numerical solutions of the feasible region for body-fixed hovering are obtained. Different sail models, including the cases of ideal, optical, parametric and solar photon thrust, on the feasible region is studied through numerical simulations. The influence of the asteroid spinning rate and the sail area-to-mass ratio on the feasible region is discussed. The required orientations for the sail and their corresponding variable lightness numbers are given for different hovering radii to identify the feasible region of the body-fixed hovering. An attractive scenario for a mission is introduced to take advantage of solar sail hovering. (paper)

  18. OBSERVED ASTEROID SURFACE AREA IN THE THERMAL INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  19. Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Lee, R.; Le, L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the many unexpected observations of asteroid 433 Eros by the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission was the many ponds of fine-grained materials [1-3]. The ponds have smooth surfaces, and define equipotential surfaces up to 10's of meters in diameter [4]. The ponds have a uniformly sub-cm grain size and appear to be cohesive or indurated to some degree, as revealed by slumping. The ponds appear to be concentrated within 30 degrees of the equator of Eros, where gravity is lowest. There is some insight into the mineralogy and composition of the ponds surfaces from NEAR spectroscopy [2,4,5,6]. Compared to the bulk asteroid, ponds: (1) are distinctly bluer (high 550/760 nm ratio), (2) have a deeper 1um mafic band, (3) have reflectance elevated by 5%.

  20. A Cubesat Asteroid Mission: Propulsion Trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Bur, Michael J.; Burke, Laura M.; Fittje, James E.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Fincannon, James; Packard, Thomas W.; Martini, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    A conceptual design was performed for a 6-U cubesat for a technology demonstration to be launched on the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) test launch EM-1, to be launched into a free-return translunar trajectory. The mission purpose was to demonstrate use of electric propulsion systems on a small satellite platform. The candidate objective chosen was a mission to visit a Near-Earth asteroid. Both asteroid fly-by and asteroid rendezvous missions were analyzed. Propulsion systems analyzed included cold-gas thruster systems, Hall and ion thrusters, incorporating either Xenon or Iodine propellant, and an electrospray thruster. The mission takes advantage of the ability of the SLS launch to place it into an initial trajectory of C3=0.

  1. Comets, Asteroids, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, the role of comets in the delivery of water, organics, and prebiotic chemicals to the Biosphere of Earth during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Ga) period of heavy bombardment has become more widely accepted. However comets are still largely regarded as frigid, pristine bodies of protosolar nebula material that are entirely devoid of liquid water and consequently unsuitable for life in any form. Complex organic compounds have been observed comets and on the water rich asteroid 1998 KY26, which has color and radar reflectivity similar to the carbonaceous meteorites. Near infrared observations have indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar with resurfacing that may indicate cryovolcanic outgassing and the Cassini spacecraft has detected water-ice geysers on Saturn s moon Enceladus. Spacecraft observations of the chemical compositions and characteristics of the nuclei of several comets (Halley, Borrelly, Wild 2, and Tempel 1) have now firmly established that comets contain a suite of complex organic chemicals; water is the predominant volatile; and that extremely high temperatures (approx.350-400 K) can be reached on the surface of the very black (albedo-0.03) nuclei when the comets are with 1.5 AU from the Sun. Impact craters and pinnacles observed on comet Wild 2 suggest a thick crust and episodic outbursts and jets observed on the nuclei of several comets are interpreted as indications that localized regimes of liquid water and water vapor can periodically exist beneath the crust of some comets. The Deep Impact observations indicate that the temperature on the nucleus of of comet Tempel 1 at 1.5 AU varied from 330K on the sunlit side to a minimum of 280+/-8 K. It is interesting that even the coldest region of the comet surface was slightly above the ice/liquid water phase transition temperature. These results suggest that pools and films of liquid water can exist in a wide

  2. Evidence for ground-ice occurrence on asteroid Vesta using Dawn bistatic radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E. M.; Heggy, E.; Kofman, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    From 2011 to 2012, the Dawn spacecraft orbited asteroid Vesta, the first of its two targets in the asteroid belt, and conducted the first bistatic radar (BSR) experiment at a small-body, during which Dawn's high-gain communications antenna is used to transmit radar waves that scatter from Vesta's surface toward Earth at high incidence angles just before and after occultation of the spacecraft behind the asteroid. Among the 14 observed mid-latitude forward-scatter reflections, the radar cross section ranges from 84 ± 8 km2 (near Saturnalia Fossae) to 3,588 ± 200 km2 (northwest of Caparronia crater), implying substantial spatial variation in centimeter- to decimeter-scale surface roughness. The compared distributions of surface roughness and subsurface hydrogen concentration [H]—measured using data from Dawn's BSR experiment and Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRaND), respectively—reveal the occurrence of heightened subsurface [H] with smoother terrains that cover tens of square kilometers. Furthermore, unlike on the Moon, we observe no correlation between surface roughness and surface ages on Vesta—whether the latter is derived from lunar or asteroid-flux chronology [Williams et al., 2014]—suggesting that cratering processes alone are insufficient to explain Vesta's surface texture at centimeter-to-decimeter scales. Dawn's BSR observations support the hypothesis of transient melting, runoff and recrystallization of potential ground-ice deposits, which are postulated to flow along fractures after an impact, and provide a mechanism for the smoothing of otherwise rough, fragmented impact ejecta. Potential ground-ice presence within Vesta's subsurface was first proposed by Scully et al. [2014], who identified geomorphological evidence for transient water flow along several of Vesta's crater walls using Dawn Framing Camera images. While airless, differentiated bodies such as Vesta and the Moon are thought to have depleted their initial volatile content

  3. Lightcurve Analysis for Near-Earth Asteroid (143404) 2003 BD44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakis, Tom; Warner, Brian D.; Skiff, Brian A.

    2018-01-01

    The synodic rotation period has been determined for the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) (143404) 2003 BD44. The asteroid was observed during three intervals with a rotation period on the order of 79 h determined in each case. The lightcurve exhibited rapidly changing morphology as the asteroid approached. Data have submitted to the ALCDEF database.

  4. Thermal Inertia of near-Earth Asteroids and Strength of the Yarkovsky Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delbo, Marco; Dell'Oro, A.; Harris, A. W.; Mottola, S.; Mueller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal inertia is the physical parameter that controls the temperature distribution over the surface of an asteroid. It affects the strength of the Yarkovsky effect, which causes orbital drift of km-sized asteroids and is invoked to explain the delivery of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) from the main

  5. Surface Properties of Asteroids from Mid-Infrared Observations and Thermophysical Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael

    The subject of this work is the physical characterization of asteroids, focusing on the thermal inertia of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Thermal inertia governs the Yarkovsky effect, a non-gravitational force which significantly alters the orbits of asteroids up to \\sim 20 km in diameter. Yet, very

  6. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-07-01

    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.

  7. Recent Radar Astrometry of Asteroid 2004 MN4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, J. D.; Benner, L. A. M.; Nolan, M. C.; Ostro, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    Arecibo (2380-MHz) delay-Doppler radar astrometry obtained in late January of 2005 significantly corrected 2004 MN4's orbit. Doppler-shifted echoes were acquired 4.8-sigma away from the predicted frequency on Jan 27, while range to the object on Jan 29 was found to be 747 km (2.8-sigma) closer to Earth than the pre-radar orbit solution predicted. Incorporation of these radar measurements into least-squares orbit solution #82 resulted in a new predicted Earth encounter on 2029-Apr-13 of 36000 +/- 9900 km (3-sigma formal uncertainties), or 5.6 +/- 1.6 Earth radii, from Earth's center. This is inside geosynchronous orbit and 27700 km (4.3 Earth radii) closer to Earth than predicted by the pre-radar ephemeris -- a 5-sigma change compared to the pre-radar orbit solution, illustrating the problematic nature of prediction and statistical analysis when only single-apparition optical data-sets are available. The current data-set does not permit reliable trajectory propagation to encounters later than 2029; this may not be possible until data from 2012-2013 are available. The corrected nominal approach distance in 2029 is approximately twice the classical Roche limit and closer than any known past or future approach by a natural object larger than 10 m, other than those detected after already impacting the Earth or it's atmosphere. Such close approaches by objects as large as 2004 MN4 (D ≳ 0.3 km) are currently thought to occur at ≳ 1000-year intervals on average. 2004 MN4 is expected to reach 3rd magnitude for observers in Europe, western Asia, and Africa, and thus be visible to the unaided eye. The asteroid's disk will be 2-4 arcseconds across and potentially resolvable with small ground-based telescopes.

  8. The geocentric particulate distribution: Cometary, asteroidal, or space debris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Ratcliff, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Definition of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) particulate environment has been refined considerably with the analysis of data from NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Measurements of the impact rates from particulates ranging from sub-micron to millimetres in dimension and, especially, information on their directionality has permitted new scrunity of the sources of the particulates. Modelling of the dynamics of both bound (Earth orbital) and unbound (hyperbolic interplanetary) particulates intercepting LDEF's faces leads to the conclusion that the source is dominantly interplanetary for particle dimensions of greater than some 5 microns diameter; however the anisotropy below this dimension demands lower velocities and is compatible with an orbital component. Characteristics of the LDEF interplanetary component are compatible with familiar meteoroid sources and deep space measurements. Understanding of the orbital component which exceeds the interplanetary flux by a factor of 4 is less clear; although the very small particulates in orbit have been associated with space debris (Lawrance and Brownlee, 1986) this data conflicts with other measurements (McDonnell, Carey and Dixon, 1984) at the same epoch. By analysis of trajectories approaching the Earth and its atmosphere, we have shown that a significant contribution could be captured by aerocapture, i.e., atmospheric drag, from either asteroidal or cometary sources; such enhancement is unlikely however to provide the temporal and spatial fluctuations observed by the LDEF Interplanetary Dust Experiment (Mullholland et al. 1992). A further new mechanism is also examined, that of aerofragmentation capture, where an atmospheric grazing trajectory, which would not normally lead to capture, leads to fragmentation by thermal or mechanical shock; the microparticulates thus created can be injected in large numbers, but only into short-lifetime orbits. The concentration in one particular orbit plane, could explain the

  9. The Use of Nuclear Explosives To Disrupt or Divert Asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearborn, D S; Patenaude, S; Managan, R A

    2007-02-20

    Nuclear explosives are a mature technology with well-characterized effects. Proposed utilizations include a near asteroid burst to ablate surface material and nudge the body to a safer orbit, or a direct sub-surface burst to fragment the body. For this latter method, previous estimates suggest that for times as short as 1000 days, over 99.999% of the material is diverted, and no longer impacts the Earth, a huge mitigation factor. To better understand these possibilities, we have used a multidimensional radiation/hydrodynamics code to simulate sub-surface and above surface bursts on an inhomogeneous, 1 km diameter body with an average density of 2 g/cc. The body, or fragments (up to 750,000) are then tracked along 4 representative orbits to determine the level of mitigation achieved. While our code has been well tested in simulations on terrestrial structures, the greatest uncertainty in these results lies in the input. These results, particularly the effort to nudge a body into a different orbit, are dependant on NEO material properties, like the dissipation of unconsolidated material in a low gravity environment, as well as the details on an individual body's structure. This problem exists in simulating the effect of any mitigation technology. In addition to providing an greater understanding of the results of applying nuclear explosives to NEO-like bodies, these simulations suggest what must be learned about these bodies to improve the predictive capabilities. Finally, we will comment on some of the popular misinformation abounding about the utility of nuclear explosives.

  10. Mitigation-relevant science with Don Quijote - a European-led mission to a near-Earth asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.; Galvez, A.; Benz, W.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Green, S. F.; Michel, P.; Valsecchi, G.; Paetzold, M.; Haeusler, B.; Carnelli, I.

    The Don Quijote concept includes a rendezvous spacecraft and an impactor vehicle The main aim of the mission is to carry out an experiment to demonstrate the modification of a near-Earth asteroid s orbit in a controlled way as a first step in establishing mitigation measures against an eventual hazardous object In particular the spacecraft would study the physical properties of the target asteroid and the effects of a kinetic impact on its dynamical state It is also expected that some spacecraft resources will be available for more general solar-system science investigations The Don Quijote mission is currently at the phase-A stage during which a number of European consortia of industrial and scientific partners will study its technical feasibility and potential scientific return The basic mission concept current scientific issues and the possibilities for international participation in the mission will be discussed

  11. EVIDENCE FOR GAS FROM A DISINTEGRATING EXTRASOLAR ASTEROID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B.; Dufour, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report high-resolution spectroscopic observations of WD 1145+017—a white dwarf that was recently found to be transitted by multiple asteroid-sized objects within its tidal radius. We discovered numerous circumstellar absorption lines with linewidths of ∼300 km s −1 from Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, possibly from several gas streams produced by collisions among the actively disintegrating objects. The atmosphere of WD 1145+017 is polluted with 11 heavy elements, including O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V:, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni. Evidently, we are witnessing the active disintegration and subsequent accretion of an extrasolar asteroid

  12. Volume and mass distribution in selected families of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, I.; Leliwa-Kopystynski, J.

    2014-07-01

    Members of five asteroid families (Vesta, Eos, Eunomia, Koronis, and Themis) were identified using the Hierarchical Clustering Method (HCM) for a data set containing 292,003 numbered asteroids. The influence of the choice of the best value of the parameter v_{cut} that controls the distances of asteroids in the proper elements space a, e, i was investigated with a step as small as 1 m/s. Results are given in a set of figures showing the families on the planes (a, e), (a, i), (e, i). Another form for the presentation of results is related to the secular resonances in the asteroids' motion with the giant planets, mostly with Saturn. Relations among asteroid radius, albedo, and absolute magnitude allow us to calculate the volumes of individual members of an asteroid family. After summation, the volumes of the parent bodies of the families were found. This paper presents the possibility and the first results of using a combined method for asteroid family identifications based on the following items: (i) Parameter v_{cut} is established with precision as high as 1 m/s; (ii) the albedo (if available) of the potential members is considered for approving or rejecting the family membership; (iii) a color classification is used for the same purpose as well. Searching for the most reliable parameter values for the family populations was performed by means of a consecutive application of the HCM with increasing parameter v_{cut}. The results are illustrated in the figure. Increasing v_{cut} in steps as small as 1 m/s allowed to observe the computational strength of the HCM: the critical value of the parameter v_{cut} (see the breaking-points of the plots in the figure) separates the assemblage of potential family members from 'an ocean' of background asteroids that are not related to the family. The critical values of v_{cut} vary from 57 m/s for the Vesta family to 92 m/s for the Eos family. If the parameter v_{cut} surpasses its critical value, the number of HCM

  13. EVIDENCE FOR GAS FROM A DISINTEGRATING EXTRASOLAR ASTEROID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles CA 90095-1562 (United States); Dufour, P., E-mail: sxu@eso.org, E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: dufourpa@astro.umontreal.ca [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes (iREx), Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2016-01-10

    We report high-resolution spectroscopic observations of WD 1145+017—a white dwarf that was recently found to be transitted by multiple asteroid-sized objects within its tidal radius. We discovered numerous circumstellar absorption lines with linewidths of ∼300 km s{sup −1} from Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, possibly from several gas streams produced by collisions among the actively disintegrating objects. The atmosphere of WD 1145+017 is polluted with 11 heavy elements, including O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V:, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni. Evidently, we are witnessing the active disintegration and subsequent accretion of an extrasolar asteroid.

  14. Trojan, Hilda, and Cybele asteroids - New lightcurve observations and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, Richard P.; Sauter, Linda M.

    1992-01-01

    Lightcurve observations of 23 Trojan, Hilda, and Cybele asteroids are presently subjected to a correction procedure for multiple-aspect lightcurves, followed by a quantitative, bias-corrected analysis of lightcurve amplitude distributions for all published data on these asteroids. While the largest Trojans are found to have a higher mean-lightcurve amplitude than their low-albedo, main-belt counterparts, the smaller Trojans and all Hildas and Cybeles display lightcurve properties resembling main-belt objects. Only the largest Trojans have retained their initial forms after subsequent collisional evolution; 90 km may accordingly represent a transitional magnitude between primordial objects and collision fragments.

  15. Guide to the universe asteroids, comets, and dwarf planets

    CERN Document Server

    Rivkin, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series covers asteroids, comets, and dwarf planets-those small bodies that revolve the Sun-and provides readers with the most up-to-date understanding of the current state of scientific knowledge about them. Scientifically sound, but written with the student in mind, Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets is an excellent first step for researching the exciting scientific discoveries of the smallest celestial bodies in the solar system.||The book will introduce students to all of the areas of research surrounding the subject, answering many intr

  16. The AKARI IRC asteroid flux catalogue: updated diameters and albedos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Müller, T. G.; Usui, F.; Hasegawa, S.

    2018-05-01

    The AKARI IRC all-sky survey provided more than twenty thousand thermal infrared observations of over five thousand asteroids. Diameters and albedos were obtained by fitting an empirically calibrated version of the standard thermal model to these data. After the publication of the flux catalogue in October 2016, our aim here is to present the AKARI IRC all-sky survey data and discuss valuable scientific applications in the field of small body physical properties studies. As an example, we update the catalogue of asteroid diameters and albedos based on AKARI using the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM). We fit the NEATM to derive asteroid diameters and, whenever possible, infrared beaming parameters. We fit groups of observations taken for the same object at different epochs of the survey separately, so we compute more than one diameter for approximately half of the catalogue. We obtained a total of 8097 diameters and albedos for 5170 asteroids, and we fitted the beaming parameter for almost two thousand of them. When it was not possible to fit the beaming parameter, we used a straight line fit to our sample's beaming parameter-versus-phase angle plot to set the default value for each fit individually instead of using a single average value. Our diameters agree with stellar-occultation-based diameters well within the accuracy expected for the model. They also match the previous AKARI-based catalogue at phase angles lower than 50°, but we find a systematic deviation at higher phase angles, at which near-Earth and Mars-crossing asteroids were observed. The AKARI IRC All-sky survey is an essential source of information about asteroids, especially the large ones, since, it provides observations at different observation geometries, rotational coverages and aspect angles. For example, by comparing in more detail a few asteroids for which dimensions were derived from occultations, we discuss how the multiple observations per object may already provide three

  17. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2004-12-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth in the future. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT), in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that these important members of the solar system are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission's RRT technique is analogous to doing a ``CAT scan" of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate >1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use a redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Deep interior has two targets (S-type 1999 ND43 and V-type Nyx ) whose composition bracket the diversity of solar system materials that we are likely to encounter, and are richly complementary.

  18. Preliminary design of an asteroid hopping mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheppa, Michael D.

    In 2010, NASA announced that its new vision is to support private space launch operations. It is anticipated that this new direction will create the need for new and innovative ideas that push the current boundaries of space exploration and contain the promise of substantial gain, both in research and capital. The purpose of the study is to plan and estimate the feasibility of a mission to visit a number of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). The mission would take place before the end of the 21st century, and would only use commercially available technology. Throughout the mission design process, while holding astronaut safety paramount, it was the goal to maximize the return while keeping the cost to a minimum. A mission of the nature would appeal to the private space industry because it could be easily adapted and set into motion. The mission design was divided into three main parts; mission timeline, vehicle design and power sources, with emphasis on nuclear and solar electric power, were investigated. The timeline and associated trajectories were initially selected using a numerical estimation and then optimized using Satellite Tool Kit (STK) 9.s's Design Explorer Optimizer [1]. Next, the spacecraft was design using commercially available parts that would support the mission requirements. The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) was and instrumental piece in maximizing the number of NEAs visited. Once the spacecraft was designed, acceptable power supply options were investigated. The VASIMR VX-200 requires 200 kilowatts of power to maintain thrust. This creates the need for a substantial power supply that consists of either a nuclear reactor of massive solar arrays. STK 9.1's Design Explorer Optimizer was able to create a mission time line that allowed for the exploration of seven NEAs in under two years, while keeping the total mission DeltaV under 71 kilometers per second. Based on these initial findings, it is determined that a mission of this

  19. NASA's Human Mission to a Near-Earth Asteroid: Landing on a Moving Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Lincoln, William P.; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian approach for comparing the productivity and cost-risk tradeoffs of sending versus not sending one or more robotic surveyor missions prior to a human mission to land on an asteroid. The expected value of sample information based on productivity combined with parametric variations in the prior probability an asteroid might be found suitable for landing were used to assess the optimal number of spacecraft and asteroids to survey. The analysis supports the value of surveyor missions to asteroids and indicates one launch with two spacecraft going simultaneously to two independent asteroids appears optimal.

  20. Preliminary Examination of Particles Recovered from the Surface of the Asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Ebihara, M.; Kimura, M.; Kitajima, F.; Kotsugi, M.; Ito, S.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Naraoka, H.; Noguchi, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft arrived at S-type Asteroid 25143 Itokawa in November 2006, and reveal astounding features of the small asteroid (535 x 294 x 209 m). Near-infrared spectral shape indicates that the surface of this body has an olivinerich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering. Based on the surface morphological features observed in high-resolution images of Itokawa s surface, two major types of boulders were distinguished: rounded and angular boulders. Rounded boulders seem to be breccias, while angular boulders seem to have severe impact origin. Although the sample collection did not be made by normal operations, it was considered that some amount of samples, probably small particles of regolith, was collected from MUSES-C regio on the Itokawa s surface. The sample capsule was successfully recovered on the earth on June 13, 2010, and was opened at curation facility of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), Sagamihara, Japan. A large number of small particles were found in the sample container. Preliminary analysis with SEM/EDX at the curation facility showed that at least more than 1500 grains were identified as rocky particles, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa. Minerals (olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, high-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe sulfide, Fe-Ni metal, chromite, Ca phosphate), roughly estimated mode the minerals and rough measurement of the chemical compositions of the silicates show that these particles are roughly similar to LL chondrites. Although their size are mostly less than 10 m, some larger particles of about 100 m or larger were also identified. A part of the sample (probably several tens particles) will be selected by Hayabusa sample curation team and examined preliminary in Japan within one year after the sample recovery in prior to detailed analysis phase. Hayabusa Asteroidal Sample Preliminary