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Sample records for arcab two-component system

  1. A small protein that mediates the activation of a two-component system by another two-component system

    OpenAIRE

    Kox, Linda F.F.; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2000-01-01

    The PmrA–PmrB two-component system of Salmonella enterica controls resistance to the peptide antibiotic polymyxin B and to several antimicrobial proteins from human neutrophils. Transcription of PmrA-activated genes is induced by high iron, but can also be promoted by growth in low magnesium in a process that requires another two-component system, PhoP–PhoQ. Here, we define the genetic basis for the interaction between the PhoP–PhoQ and PmrA–PmrB systems. We have identified pmrD as a PhoP-act...

  2. Interaction Analysis of a Two-Component System Using Nanodiscs.

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    Patrick Hörnschemeyer

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are the major means by which bacteria couple adaptation to environmental changes. All utilize a phosphorylation cascade from a histidine kinase to a response regulator, and some also employ an accessory protein. The system-wide signaling fidelity of two-component systems is based on preferential binding between the signaling proteins. However, information on the interaction kinetics between membrane embedded histidine kinase and its partner proteins is lacking. Here, we report the first analysis of the interactions between the full-length membrane-bound histidine kinase CpxA, which was reconstituted in nanodiscs, and its cognate response regulator CpxR and accessory protein CpxP. Using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy in combination with interaction map analysis, the affinity of membrane-embedded CpxA for CpxR was quantified, and found to increase by tenfold in the presence of ATP, suggesting that a considerable portion of phosphorylated CpxR might be stably associated with CpxA in vivo. Using microscale thermophoresis, the affinity between CpxA in nanodiscs and CpxP was determined to be substantially lower than that between CpxA and CpxR. Taken together, the quantitative interaction data extend our understanding of the signal transduction mechanism used by two-component systems.

  3. Two-component systems and toxinogenesis regulation in Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Chloé; Popoff, Michel R

    2015-05-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins ever known. They are mostly produced by Clostridium botulinum but also by other clostridia. BoNTs associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs) to form complexes of various sizes. Toxin production is highly regulated through complex networks of regulatory systems involving an alternative sigma factor, BotR, and at least 6 recently described two-component systems (TCSs). TCSs allow bacteria to sense environmental changes and to respond to various stimuli by regulating the expression of specific genes at a transcriptional level. Several environmental stimuli have been identified to positively or negatively regulate toxin synthesis; however, the link between environmental stimuli and TCSs is still elusive. This review aims to highlight the role of TCSs as a central point in the regulation of toxin production in C. botulinum.

  4. Efficient two-component relativistic method for large systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Hiromi [Department of Chemitsry and Biochemistry, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    This paper reviews a series of theoretical studies to develop efficient two-component (2c) relativistic method for large systems by the author’s group. The basic theory is the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method for many-electron Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. The local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme can effectively produce the 2c relativistic Hamiltonian, and the divide-and-conquer (DC) method can achieve linear-scaling of Hartree-Fock and electron correlation methods. The frozen core potential (FCP) theoretically connects model potential calculations with the all-electron ones. The accompanying coordinate expansion with a transfer recurrence relation (ACE-TRR) scheme accelerates the computations of electron repulsion integrals with high angular momenta and long contractions.

  5. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

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    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  6. The Fractional Virial Potential Energy in Two-Component Systems

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    Caimmi, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, $phi=phi(y,m$, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, $m=M_j/ M_i$ by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of $m$ is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the $({sf O}yphi$ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is $y=R_j/R_i$, and the fractional virial potential energy is $phi=(E_{ji}_mathrm{vir}/(E_{ij}_mathrm{vir}$. Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of $N=16$ elliptical galaxies (EGs on the $({sf O}yphi$ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, $m$, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, $Xi_u=R_u/r_u^dagger$, $u=i,j$, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, $y$, or fractional scaling radii, $y^dagger=r_j^dagger/r_i^dagger$, deduced from sample objects.

  7. Initial data problems for the two-component Camassa-Holm system

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    Xiaohuan Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the study of some properties of the two-component Camassa-Holm system. By constructing two sequences of solutions of the two-component Camassa-Holm system, we prove that the solution map of the Cauchy problem of the two-component Camassa-Holm system is not uniformly continuous in $H^s(\\mathbb{R}$, $s>5/2$.

  8. Two-Component Super AKNS Equations and Their Finite-Dimensional Integrable Super Hamiltonian System

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    Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a matrix Lie superalgebra, two-component super AKNS system is constructed. By making use of monononlinearization technique of Lax pairs, we find that the obtained two-component super AKNS system is a finite-dimensional integrable super Hamiltonian system. And its Lax representation and r-matrix are also given in this paper.

  9. Two-Component Super AKNS Equations and Their Finite-Dimensional Integrable Super Hamiltonian System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Yu; Jingwei Han

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a matrix Lie superalgebra, two-component super AKNS system is constructed. By making use of monononlinearization technique of Lax pairs, we find that the obtained two-component super AKNS system is a finite-dimensional integrable super Hamiltonian system. And its Lax representation and $r$ -matrix are also given in this paper.

  10. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

    2013-07-09

    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  11. Variational derivation of two-component Camassa-Holm shallow water system

    CERN Document Server

    Ionescu-Kruse, Delia

    2012-01-01

    By a variational approach in the Lagrangian formalism, we derive the nonlinear integrable two-component Camassa-Holm system (1). We show that the two-component Camassa-Holm system (1) with the plus sign arises as an approximation to the Euler equations of hydrodynamics for propagation of irrotational shallow water waves over a flat bed. The Lagrangian used in the variational derivation is not a metric.

  12. Chloroplast two-component systems: evolution of the link between photosynthesis and gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Allen, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction, consisting of sensor kinases and response regulators, is the predominant signalling mechanism in bacteria. This signalling system originated in prokaryotes and has spread throughout the eukaryotic domain of life through endosymbiotic, lateral gene transfer from the bacterial ancestors and early evolutionary precursors of eukaryotic, cytoplasmic, bioenergetic organelles—chloroplasts and mitochondria. Until recently, it was thought that two-component systems i...

  13. Comparative analysis of wolbachia genomes reveals streamlining and divergence of minimalist two-component systems.

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    Christensen, Steen; Serbus, Laura Renee

    2015-03-24

    Two-component regulatory systems are commonly used by bacteria to coordinate intracellular responses with environmental cues. These systems are composed of functional protein pairs consisting of a sensor histidine kinase and cognate response regulator. In contrast to the well-studied Caulobacter crescentus system, which carries dozens of these pairs, the streamlined bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis encodes only two pairs: CckA/CtrA and PleC/PleD. Here, we used bioinformatic tools to compare characterized two-component system relays from C. crescentus, the related Anaplasmataceae species Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and 12 sequenced Wolbachia strains. We found the core protein pairs and a subset of interacting partners to be highly conserved within Wolbachia and these other Anaplasmataceae. Genes involved in two-component signaling were positioned differently within the various Wolbachia genomes, whereas the local context of each gene was conserved. Unlike Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, Wolbachia two-component genes were more consistently found clustered with metabolic genes. The domain architecture and key functional residues standard for two-component system proteins were well-conserved in Wolbachia, although residues that specify cognate pairing diverged substantially from other Anaplasmataceae. These findings indicate that Wolbachia two-component signaling pairs share considerable functional overlap with other α-proteobacterial systems, whereas their divergence suggests the potential for regulatory differences and cross-talk.

  14. Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xingguo; HUANG Wei; WU Qingyu

    2006-01-01

    Two-component systems are signal transduction systems which enable bacteria to regulate cellular functions in response to changing environmental conditions. The unicellular Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has become a model organism for a range of biochemical and molecular biology studies aiming at investigating environmental stress response. The publication of the complete genome sequence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 provided a tremendous stimulus for research in this field, and at least 80 open reading frames were identified as members of the two-component signal transduction systems in this single species of cyanobacteria. To date, functional roles have been determined for only a limited number of such proteins. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the two-component signal transduction systems in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and describes recent achievements in elucidating the functional roles of these systems.

  15. Stochastic study of information transmission and population stability in a generic bacterial two-component system

    CERN Document Server

    Mapder, Tarunendu; Banik, Suman K

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the role of fluctuations in signal propagation and on gene regulation in monoclonal bacterial population have been extensively pursued based on the machinery of two-component system. The bacterial two-component system shows noise utilisation through its inherent plasticity. The fluctuations propagation takes place using the phosphotransfer module and the feedback mechanism during gene regulation. To delicately observe the noisy kinetics the generic cascade needs stochastic investigation at the mRNA and protein levels. To this end, we propose a theoretical framework to investigate the noisy signal transduction in a generic two-component system. The model shows reliability in information transmission through quantification of several statistical measures. We further extend our analysis to observe the protein distribution in a population of cells. Through numerical simulation, we identify the regime of the kinetic parameter set that generates a stability switch in the steady state distribution of prot...

  16. Global dissipative solutions for the two-component Camassa-Holm shallow water system

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    Yujuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a continuous semigroup of globally defined weak dissipative solutions for the two-component Camassa-Holm system. Such solutions are established by using a new approach based on characteristics a set of new variables overcoming the difficulties inherent in multi-component systems.

  17. The Qualitative Analysis of a Solution of a Series Maintenance System with Two Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOWei-hua; YANGMing-zeng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, firstly we study the series maintenance system with two components, obtain its exsistence and uniqueness of a dynamic state nonnegative solution by strongly continuous semigroups of operators theory. Then we prove that 0 is the eigenvalue of the system's host operators, and finally we study the eigenvector of the eigenvalue 0.

  18. A novel two-component system involved in secretion stress response in Streptomyces lividans.

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    Sonia Gullón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Misfolded proteins accumulating outside the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane can interfere with the secretory machinery, hence the existence of quality factors to eliminate these misfolded proteins is of capital importance in bacteria that are efficient producers of secretory proteins. These bacteria normally use a specific two-component system to respond to the stress produced by the accumulation of the misfolded proteins, by activating the expression of HtrA-like proteases to specifically eliminate the incorrectly folded proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overproduction of alpha-amylase in S. lividans causing secretion stress permitted the identification of a two-component system (SCO4156-SCO4155 that regulates three HtrA-like proteases which appear to be involved in secretion stress response. Mutants in each of the genes forming part of the two-genes operon that encodes the sensor and regulator protein components accumulated misfolded proteins outside the cell, strongly suggesting the involvement of this two-component system in the S. lividans secretion stress response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first time that a specific secretion stress response two-component system is found to control the expression of three HtrA-like protease genes in S. lividans, a bacterium that has been repeatedly used as a host for the synthesis of homologous and heterologous secretory proteins of industrial application.

  19. A novel two-component system found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J. P.; Gosmann, S.; Nowak, E.;

    2005-01-01

    We report the identification of a novel two-component system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We show that the putative histidine kinase with the genomic locus tag Rv3220c is able to self-phosphorylate in the presence of Mg2+/ATP and subsequently transfer the phosphoryl group to a novel response...

  20. Geometric Integrability of Two-Component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton Systems

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    SONG Juu-Feng; QU Chang-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the two-component Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton systems are geometrically integrable, namely they describe pseudo-spherical surfaces. As a consequence, their infinite number o, conservation laws are directly constructed. In addition, a class of nonlocal symmetries depending on the pseudo-potentials are obtained.

  1. Engineering bacterial two-component system PmrA/PmrB to sense lanthanide ions.

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    Liang, Haihua; Deng, Xin; Bosscher, Mike; Ji, Quanjiang; Jensen, Mark P; He, Chuan

    2013-02-13

    The Salmonella PmrA/PmrB two-component system uses an iron(III)-binding motif on the cell surface to sense the environmental or host ferric level and regulate PmrA-controlled gene expression. We replaced the iron(III)-binding motif with a lanthanide-binding peptide sequence that is known to selectively recognize trivalent lanthanide ions. The newly engineered two-component system (PmrA/PmrB) can effectively sense lanthanide ion and regulate gene expression in E. coli . This work not only provides the first known lanthanide-based sensing and response in live cells but also demonstrates that the PmrA/PmrB system is a suitable template for future synthetic biology efforts to construct bacteria that can sense and respond to other metal ions in remediation or sequestration.

  2. The CpxRA two-component system is essential for Citrobacter rodentium virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Giannakopoulou, Natalia; Zhu, Lei; Gross, Jeremy; Salmon, Kristiana; Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu; Daigle, France; Le Moual, Hervé; Gruenheid, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a murine intestinal pathogen used as a model for the foodborne human pathogens enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. During infection, these pathogens use two-component signal transduction systems to detect and adapt to changing environmental conditions. In E. coli, the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system responds to envelope stress by modulating the expression of a myriad of genes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that cpxRA was expressed in the colon of C57BL/6J mice infected with C. rodentium. To determine whether CpxRA plays a role during C. rodentium infection, a cpxRA deletion strain was generated and found to have a colonization defect during infection. This defect was independent of an altered growth rate or a defective type III secretion system, and single-copy chromosomal complementation of cpxRA restored virulence. The C. rodentium strains were then tested in C3H/HeJ mice, a lethal intestinal infection model. Mice infected with the ΔcpxRA strain survived infection, whereas mice infected with the wild-type or complemented strains succumbed to infection. Furthermore, we found that the cpxRA expression level was higher during early infection than at a later time point. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system is essential for the in vivo virulence of C. rodentium. In addition, these data suggest that fine-tuned cpxRA expression is important for infection. This is the first study that identifies a C. rodentium two-component transduction system required for pathogenesis. This study further indicates that CpxRA is an interesting target for therapeutics against enteric pathogens.

  3. Bioinformatics analysis of two-component regulatory systems in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhiqiang; ZHONG Yang; ZHANG Jian; HE Youyu; WU Yang; JIANG Juan; CHEN Jiemin; LUO Xiaomin; QU Di

    2004-01-01

    Sixteen pairs of two-component regulatory systems are identified in the genome of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228 strain, which is newly sequenced by our laboratory for Medical Molecular Virology and Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, by using bioinformatics analysis. Comparative analysis of the twocomponent regulatory systems in S. epidermidis and that of S.aureus and Bacillus subtilis shows that these systems may regulate some important biological functions, e.g. growth,biofilm formation, and expression of virulence factors in S.epidermidis. Two conserved domains, i.e. HATPase_c and REC domains, are found in all 16 pairs of two-component proteins.Homologous modelling analysis indicates that there are 4similar HATPase_c domain structures of histidine kinases and 13 similar REC domain structures of response regulators,and there is one AMP-PNP binding pocket in the HATPase_c domain and three active aspartate residues in the REC domain. Preliminary experiment reveals that the bioinformatics analysis of the conserved domain structures in the two-component regulatory systems in S. epidermidis may provide useful information for discovery of potential drug target.

  4. Periodic and Solitary Wave Solutions of Two Component Zakharov-Yajima-Oikawa System, Using Madelung's Approach

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    Anca Visinescu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the multiple scales method, the interaction between two bright and one dark solitons is studied. Provided that a long wave-short wave resonance condition is satisfied, the two-component Zakharov-Yajima-Oikawa (ZYO completely integrable system is obtained. By using a Madelung fluid description, the one-soliton solutions of the corresponding ZYO system are determined. Furthermore, a discussion on the interaction between one bright and two dark solitons is presented. In particular, this problem is reduced to solve a one-component ZYO system in the resonance conditions.

  5. On the inspection policy of a two-component parallel system with failure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zequeira, Romulo I. [ISTIT, Equipe Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: romulo.zequeira@utt.fr; Berenguer, Christophe [ISTIT, Equipe Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.fr

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we study a two-component standby system which can successfully operate upon a demand if at least one component is not failed. We assume that failures can be detected only by periodic inspections. We consider that the failure of one component can modify the (conditional) failure probability of the component still alive with probability p and do not interact with probability 1-p. For that failure interaction scheme we obtain the system reliability function for the case of staggered inspections. We compare staggered and non-staggered inspections through numerical examples considering constant hazard rates.

  6. Design principles in two component systems and his-asp phosphorelays

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadó López, Baldiri

    2016-01-01

    L’objectiu d’aquesta tesi és trobar principis generals que permetin relacionar l’estructura i les propietats funcionals dels circuits moleculars de transducció de senyals two-component systems (TCS) i his-asp phosphorelays (PR). La tesi s’inicia revisant els mètodes usats per a l’estudi de principis de disseny en sistemes moleculars i alguns dels resultats obtinguts fins ara, i discutint la importància de l’estudi dels principis de disseny. A continuació, explorem els proteomes seqüenc...

  7. The Two-Component Virial Theorem and the Physical Properties of Stellar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas; Ribeiro; Capelato; de Carvalho RR

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by present indirect evidence that galaxies are surrounded by dark matter halos, we investigate whether their physical properties can be described by a formulation of the virial theorem that explicitly takes into account the gravitational potential term representing the interaction of the dark halo with the baryonic or luminous component. Our analysis shows that the application of such a "two-component virial theorem" not only accounts for the scaling relations displayed by, in particular, elliptical galaxies, but also for the observed properties of all virialized stellar systems, ranging from globular clusters to galaxy clusters.

  8. Two-Component Signal Transduction System SaeRS Positively Regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis Glucose Metabolism

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    Qiang Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.

  9. Global solutions for the two-component Camassa-Holm system

    CERN Document Server

    Grunert, K; Raynaud, X

    2011-01-01

    We prove existence of a global conservative solution of the Cauchy problem for the two-component Camassa-Holm (2CH) system on the line, allowing for nonvanishing and distinct asymptotics at plus and minus infinity. The solution is proven to be smooth as long as the density is bounded away from zero. Furthermore, we show that by taking the limit of vanishing density in the 2CH system, we obtain the global conservative solution of the (scalar) Camassa-Holm equation, which provides a novel way to define and obtain these solutions. Finally, it is shown that while solutions of the 2CH system have infinite speed of propagation, singularities travel with finite speed.

  10. Phosphate sink containing two-component signaling systems as tunable threshold devices.

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    Munia Amin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology aims to design de novo biological systems and reengineer existing ones. These efforts have mostly focused on transcriptional circuits, with reengineering of signaling circuits hampered by limited understanding of their systems dynamics and experimental challenges. Bacterial two-component signaling systems offer a rich diversity of sensory systems that are built around a core phosphotransfer reaction between histidine kinases and their output response regulator proteins, and thus are a good target for reengineering through synthetic biology. Here, we explore the signal-response relationship arising from a specific motif found in two-component signaling. In this motif, a single histidine kinase (HK phosphotransfers reversibly to two separate output response regulator (RR proteins. We show that, under the experimentally observed parameters from bacteria and yeast, this motif not only allows rapid signal termination, whereby one of the RRs acts as a phosphate sink towards the other RR (i.e. the output RR, but also implements a sigmoidal signal-response relationship. We identify two mathematical conditions on system parameters that are necessary for sigmoidal signal-response relationships and define key parameters that control threshold levels and sensitivity of the signal-response curve. We confirm these findings experimentally, by in vitro reconstitution of the one HK-two RR motif found in the Sinorhizobium meliloti chemotaxis pathway and measuring the resulting signal-response curve. We find that the level of sigmoidality in this system can be experimentally controlled by the presence of the sink RR, and also through an auxiliary protein that is shown to bind to the HK (yielding Hill coefficients of above 7. These findings show that the one HK-two RR motif allows bacteria and yeast to implement tunable switch-like signal processing and provides an ideal basis for developing threshold devices for synthetic biology applications.

  11. The sae locus of Staphylococcus aureus encodes a two-component regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, A T; Calzolari, A; Cataldi, A A; Bogni, C; Nagel, R

    1999-08-01

    Sae is a regulatory locus that activates the production of several exoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus. A 3.4-kb fragment of a S. aureus genomic library, screened with a probe adjacent to the transposon insertion of a sae::Tn551 mutant, was cloned into a bifunctional vector. This fragment was shown to carry the sae locus by restoration of exoprotein production in sae mutants. The sae locus was mapped to the SmaI-D fragment of the staphylococcal chromosome by pulse-field electrophoresis. Sequence analysis of the cloned fragment revealed the presence of two genes, designated saeR and saeS, encoding a response regulator and a histidine protein kinase, respectively, with high homology to other bacterial two-component regulatory systems.

  12. Addition Formulae of Discrete KP, q-KP and Two-Component BKP Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Li, Chuan-Zhong; He, Jing-Song

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we construct the addition formulae for several integrable hierarchies, including the discrete KP, the q-deformed KP, the two-component BKP and the D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchies. With the help of the Hirota bilinear equations and τ functions of different kinds of KP hierarchies, we prove that these addition formulae are equivalent to these hierarchies. These studies show that the addition formula in the research of the integrable systems has good universality. Supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. LY15A010004, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11201251, 11571192 and the Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo under Grant No. 2015A610157. Jingsong He is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11271210, K.C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  13. Two-component system YvqEC-dependent bacterial resistance against vancomycin in Bacillus thuringiensis.

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    Zhang, Shumeng; Hu, Yimin; Fan, Qingyun; Wang, Xun; He, Jin

    2015-08-01

    YvqEC is one of the two-component signal transduction systems that may respond to cell envelope stress and enable cells to adjust multiple cellular functions. It consists of a histidine kinase YvqE and a response regulator YvqC. In this study, we separately constructed a single gene mutant ΔyvqE and a double gene mutant ΔyvqEC in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 through a homing endonucleases I-SceI mediated markerless gene deletion method. We found that the deletion of either yvqE or yvqEC weakened the resistance of B. thuringiensis against vancomycin. We also identified nine operons that may be involved in the cellular metabolism regulated by YvqC. This study not only enriches our understanding of bacterial resistance mechanisms against vancomycin, but also helps investigate the functions of YvqEC.

  14. WalRK two component system of Bacillus anthracis responds to temperature and antibiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Alisha; Gopalani, Monisha; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-04-17

    WalRK Two Component System (TCS) of Bacillus anthracis forms a functional TCS. This report elaborates upon the WalRK genomic architecture, promoter structure, promoter activity and expression under various stress conditions in B. anthracis. 5' RACE located the WalRK functional promoter within 317 bp region upstream of WalR. Reporter gene assays demonstrated maximal promoter activity during early growth phases indicating utility in exponential stages of growth. qRT-PCR showed upregulation of WalRK transcripts during temperature and antibiotic stress. However, WalR overexpression did not affect the tested antibiotic MIC values in B. anthracis. Collectively, these results confirm that WalRK responds to cell envelope stress in B. anthracis.

  15. The SaeRS Two-Component System of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Yeo, Won-Sik; Bae, Taeok

    2016-01-01

    In the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system (TCS) plays a major role in controlling the production of over 20 virulence factors including hemolysins, leukocidins, superantigens, surface proteins, and proteases. The SaeRS TCS is composed of the sensor histidine kinase SaeS, response regulator SaeR, and two auxiliary proteins SaeP and SaeQ. Since its discovery in 1994, the sae locus has been studied extensively, and its contributions to staphylococcal virulence and pathogenesis have been well documented and understood; however, the molecular mechanism by which the SaeRS TCS receives and processes cognate signals is not. In this article, therefore, we review the literature focusing on the signaling mechanism and its interaction with other global regulators. PMID:27706107

  16. Bacillus subtilis Two-Component System Sensory Kinase DegS Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation in Its Input Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Kobir, Ahasanul; Søndergaard, Elsebeth Oline;

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity...

  17. P2CS: a two-component system resource for prokaryotic signal transduction research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méjean Vincent

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the escalation of high throughput prokaryotic genome sequencing, there is an ever-increasing need for databases that characterise, catalogue and present data relating to particular gene sets and genomes/metagenomes. Two-component system (TCS signal transduction pathways are the dominant mechanisms by which micro-organisms sense and respond to external as well as internal environmental changes. These systems respond to a wide range of stimuli by triggering diverse physiological adjustments, including alterations in gene expression, enzymatic reactions, or protein-protein interactions. Description We present P2CS (Prokaryotic 2-Component Systems, an integrated and comprehensive database of TCS signal transduction proteins, which contains a compilation of the TCS genes within 755 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes and 39 metagenomes. P2CS provides detailed annotation of each TCS gene including family classification, sequence features, functional domains, as well as genomic context visualization. To bypass the generic problem of gene underestimation during genome annotation, we also constituted and searched an ORFeome, which improves the recovery of TCS proteins compared to searches on the equivalent proteomes. Conclusion P2CS has been developed for computational analysis of the modular TCSs of prokaryotic genomes and metagenomes. It provides a complete overview of information on TCSs, including predicted candidate proteins and probable proteins, which need further curation/validation. The database can be browsed and queried with a user-friendly web interface at http://www.p2cs.org/.

  18. Photoisomerization-induced morphology and transparency transition in an azobenzene based two-component organogel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinhua; Liu, Xue; Chen, Liming; Mao, Yueyuan; Lan, Haichuang; Yi, Tao

    2015-11-15

    A two-component gel containing long chain alkylated gallic acid (GA) and photochromic phenazopyridine (PAP) was prepared. The gel was thoroughly characterized by UV-visible and IR spectra, SEM and POM images, XRD diffraction and dynamic oscillatory measurements. The structure and transparency of the two-component gel can be reversibly changed by alternative UV light irradiation and warming in the palm of the hand. This kind of soft material has potential application in upscale surface functional materials.

  19. The Evolution of Two-Component Systems in Bacteria RevealsDifferent Strategies for Niche Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric; Huang, Katherine; Arkin, Adam

    2006-09-13

    Two-component systems including histidine protein kinasesrepresent the primary signal transduction paradigm in prokaryoticorganisms. To understand how these systems adapt to allow organisms todetect niche-specific signals, we analyzed the phylogenetic distributionof nearly 5000 histidine protein kinases from 207 sequenced prokaryoticgenomes. We found that many genomes carry a large repertoire of recentlyevolved signaling genes, which may reflect selective pressure to adapt tonew environmental conditions. Both lineage-specific gene family expansionand horizontal gene transfer play major roles in the introduction of newhistidine kinases into genomes; however, there are differences in howthese two evolutionary forces act. Genes imported via horizontal transferare more likely to retain their original functionality as inferred from asimilar complement of signaling domains, while gene family expansionaccompanied by domain shuffling appears to be a major source of novelgenetic diversity. Family expansion is the dominantsource of newhistidine kinase genes in the genomes most enriched in signalingproteins, and detailed analysis reveals that divergence in domainstructure and changes in expression patterns are hallmarks of recentexpansions. Finally, while these two modes of gene acquisition arewidespread across bacterial taxa, there are clear species-specificpreferences for which mode is used.

  20. A hybrid two-component system protein from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 was involved in chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Tu, Ran; Wu, Lixian; Hong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Sanfeng

    2011-09-20

    We here report the sequence and functional analysis of org35 of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, which was originally identified to be able to interact with NifA in yeast-two-hybrid system. The org35 encodes a hybrid two-component system protein, including N-terminal PAS domains, a histidine kinase (HPK) domain and a response regulator (RR) domain in C-terminal. To determine the function of the Org35, a deletion-insertion mutant in PAS domain [named Sp7353] and a complemental strain Sp7353C were constructed. The mutant had reduced chemotaxis ability compared to that of wild-type, and the complemental strain was similar to the wild-type strain. These data suggested that the A. brasilense org35 played a key role in chemotaxis. Variants containing different domains of the org35 were expressed, and the functions of these domains were studied in vitro. Phosphorylation assays in vitro demonstrated that the HPK domain of Org35 possessed the autokinase activity and that the phosphorylated HPK was able to transfer phosphate groups to the RR domain. The result indicated Org35 was a phosphorylation-communicating protein.

  1. A two component system is involved in acid adaptation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Wei; Qu, Xiaojun; Chen, Zhangting; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Lanwei

    2012-05-20

    The Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is of vital importance to the food industry, especially to the dairy industry. Two component systems (TCSs) are one of the most important mechanisms for environmental sensing and signal transduction in the majority of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A typical TCS consists of a histidine protein kinase (HPK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR). To investigate the functions of TCSs during acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus, we used quantitative PCR to reveal how TCSs expression changes during acid adaptation. Two TCSs (JN675228/JN675229 and JN675230/JN675231) and two HPKs (JN675236 and JN675240) were induced during acid adaptation. These TCSs were speculated to be related with the acid adaptation ability of L. bulgaricus. The mutants of JN675228/JN675229 were constructed in order to investigate the functions of JN675228/JN675229. The mutants showed reduced acid adaptation compared to that of wild type, and the complemented strains were similar to the wild-type strain. These observations suggested that JN675228 and JN675229 were involved in acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus. The interaction between JN675228 and JN675229 was identified by means of yeast two-hybrid system. The results indicated there is interaction between JN675228 and JN675229.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of the Brucella abortus BvrR/BvrS two-component regulatory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Viadas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-component BvrR/BvrS system is essential for Brucella abortus virulence. It was shown previously that its dysfunction alters the expression of some major outer membrane proteins and the pattern of lipid A acylation. To determine the genes regulated by BvrR/BvrS, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis using B. abortus RNA obtained from wild type and bvrR mutant cells grown in the same conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 127 differentially expressed genes were found: 83 were over expressed and 44 were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Two operons, the phosphotransferase system and the maltose transport system, were down-regulated. Several genes involved in cell envelope or outer membrane biogenesis were differentially expressed: genes for outer membrane proteins (omp25a, omp25d, lipoproteins, LPS and fatty acid biosynthesis, stress response proteins, chaperones, flagellar genes, and twelve genes encoding ABC transport systems. Ten genes related with carbon metabolism (pckA and fumB among others were up-regulated in the bvrR mutant, and denitrification genes (nirK, norC and nosZ were also regulated. Notably, seven transcriptional regulators were affected, including VjbR, ExoR and OmpR that were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Finally, the expression of eleven genes which have been previously related with Brucella virulence was also altered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All these data corroborate the impact of BvrR/BvrS on cell envelope modulation, confirm that this system controls the carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and suggest a cross-talk among some regulators to adjust the Brucella physiology to the shift expected to occur during the transit from the extracellular to the intracellular niche.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Two-component Signal Transduction System in Two Streptomycete Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu WEI; Yixue LI; Weihua WANG; Zhiwei CAO; Hong YU; Xiaojing WANG; Jing ZHAO; Hao TAN; Hao XU; Weihong JIANG

    2007-01-01

    Species of the genus Streptomyces are major bacteria responsible for producing most natural antibiotics. Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces avermitilis were sequenced in 2002 and 2003,respectively. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), consisting of a histidine sensor kinase (SK) and a cognate response regulator (RR), form the most common mechanism of transmembrane signal transduction in prokaryotes. TCSs in S. coelicolor A3(2) have been analyzed in detail. Here, we identify and classify the SK and RR of S. avermitilis and compare the TCSs with those of S. coelicolor A3(2) by computational approaches. Phylogenetic analysis of the cognate SK-RR pairs of the two species indicated that the cognate SK-RR pairs fall into four classes according to the distribution of their orthologs in other organisms. In addition to the cognate SK-RR pairs, some potential partners of non-cognate SK-RR were found, including those of unpaired SK and orphan RR and the cross-talk between different components in either strain. Our study provides new clues for further exploration of the molecular regulation mechanism of streptomycetes with industrial importance.

  4. Phylogenetic Classification Of Bartonella Species By Comparing The Two-Component System Response Regulator Feup Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhamad Abou-Hamdan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacterial genus Bartonella is classified in the alpha-2 Proteobacteria on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence comparison. The Bartonella two-component system feuPQ is found in nearly all bacterial species. We investigated the usefulness of the response regulator feuP gene sequence in the classification of 18 well characterized Bartonella species. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using parsimony neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood methods. Reliable classifications of most of the studied species were obtained. Bartonella were divided into two supported clades containing two supported clusters each. These results were similar to our previous data obtained with groEL ftsZ and ribC genes sequences. The wide range of feuP DNA sequence similarity 78.6 to 96.5 among Bartonella species makes it a promising candidate for multi-locus sequence typing MLST of clinical isolates. This is the first report proving the usefulness of feuP sequences in bartonellae classification at the species level.

  5. Functional characterization of WalRK: A two-component signal transduction system from Bacillus anthracis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS, consisting of a sensor histidine protein kinase and its cognate response regulator, are an important mode of environmental sensing in bacteria. Additionally, they have been found to regulate virulence determinants in several pathogens. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax and a bioterrorism agent, harbours 41 pairs of TCS. However, their role in its pathogenicity has remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that WalRK of B. anthracis forms a functional TCS which exhibits some species-specific functions. Biochemical studies showed that domain variants of WalK, the histidine kinase, exhibit classical properties of autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer to its cognate response regulator WalR. Interestingly, these domain variants also show phosphatase activity towards phosphorylated WalR, thereby making WalK a bifunctional histidine kinase/phosphatase. An in silico regulon determination approach, using a consensus binding sequence from Bacillus subtilis, provided a list of 30 genes that could form a putative WalR regulon in B. anthracis. Further, electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to show direct binding of purified WalR to the upstream regions of three putative regulon candidates, an S-layer protein EA1, a cell division ABC transporter FtsE and a sporulation histidine kinase KinB3. Our work lends insight into the species-specific functions and mode of action of B. anthracis WalRK.

  6. Evolutionary tuning of protein expression levels of a positively autoregulated two-component system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Gao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular adaptation relies on the development of proper regulatory schemes for accurate control of gene expression levels in response to environmental cues. Over- or under-expression can lead to diminished cell fitness due to increased costs or insufficient benefits. Positive autoregulation is a common regulatory scheme that controls protein expression levels and gives rise to essential features in diverse signaling systems, yet its roles in cell fitness are less understood. It remains largely unknown how much protein expression is 'appropriate' for optimal cell fitness under specific extracellular conditions and how the dynamic environment shapes the regulatory scheme to reach appropriate expression levels. Here, we investigate the correlation of cell fitness and output response with protein expression levels of the E. coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS. In response to phosphate (Pi-depletion, the PhoB/PhoR system activates genes involved in phosphorus assimilation as well as genes encoding themselves, similarly to many other positively autoregulated TCSs. We developed a bacteria competition assay in continuous cultures and discovered that different Pi conditions have conflicting requirements of protein expression levels for optimal cell fitness. Pi-replete conditions favored cells with low levels of PhoB/PhoR while Pi-deplete conditions selected for cells with high levels of PhoB/PhoR. These two levels matched PhoB/PhoR concentrations achieved via positive autoregulation in wild-type cells under Pi-replete and -deplete conditions, respectively. The fitness optimum correlates with the wild-type expression level, above which the phosphorylation output saturates, thus further increase in expression presumably provides no additional benefits. Laboratory evolution experiments further indicate that cells with non-ideal protein levels can evolve toward the optimal levels with diverse mutational strategies. Our results suggest that the natural

  7. Characterization of an archaeal two-component system that regulates methanogenesis in Methanosaeta harundinacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs are a major mechanism used by bacteria in response to environmental changes. Although many sequenced archaeal genomes encode TCSs, they remain poorly understood. Previously, we reported that a methanogenic archaeon, Methanosaeta harundinacea, encodes FilI, which synthesizes carboxyl-acyl homoserine lactones, to regulate transitions of cellular morphology and carbon metabolic fluxes. Here, we report that filI, the cotranscribed filR2, and the adjacent filR1 constitute an archaeal TCS. FilI possesses a cytoplasmic kinase domain (histidine kinase A and histidine kinase-like ATPase and its cognate response regulator. FilR1 carries a receiver (REC domain coupled with an ArsR-related domain with potential DNA-binding ability, while FilR2 carries only a REC domain. In a phosphorelay assay, FilI was autophosphorylated and specifically transferred the phosphoryl group to FilR1 and FilR2, confirming that the three formed a cognate TCS. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-qPCR using an anti-FilR1 antibody, FilR1 was shown to form in vivo associations with its own promoter and the promoter of the filI-filR2 operon, demonstrating a regulatory pattern common among TCSs. ChIP-qPCR also detected FilR1 associations with key genes involved in acetoclastic methanogenesis, acs4 and acs1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed the in vitro tight binding of FilR1 to its own promoter and those of filI-filR2, acs4, and mtrABC. This also proves the DNA-binding ability of the ArsR-related domain, which is found primarily in Archaea. The archaeal promoters of acs4, filI, acs1, and mtrABC also initiated FilR1-modulated expression in an Escherichia coli lux reporter system, suggesting that FilR1 can up-regulate both archaeal and bacterial transcription. In conclusion, this work identifies an archaeal FilI/FilRs TCS that regulates the methanogenesis of M. harundinacea.

  8. Connecting two-component regulatory systems by a protein that protects a response regulator from dephosphorylation by its cognate sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Akinori; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental question in signal transduction is how an organism integrates multiple signals into a cellular response. Here we report the mechanism by which the Salmonella PmrA/PmrB two-component system responds to the signal controlling the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system. We establish that the PhoP-activated PmrD protein binds to the phosphorylated form of the response regulator PmrA, preventing both its intrinsic dephosphorylation and that promoted by its cognate sensor kinase PmrB. This re...

  9. A Two-Component Regulatory System Integrates Redox State and Population Density Sensing in Pseudomonas putida▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Piñar, Regina; Ramos, Juan Luis; Rodríguez-Herva, José Juan; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A two-component system formed by a sensor histidine kinase and a response regulator has been identified as an element participating in cell density signal transduction in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. It is a homolog of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa RoxS/RoxR system, which in turn belongs to the RegA/RegB family, described in photosynthetic bacteria as a key regulatory element. In KT2440, the two components are encoded by PP_0887 (roxS) and PP_0888 (roxR), which are transcribed in a single unit. Ch...

  10. Two-component systems in microbial communities: approaches and resources for generating and analyzing metagenomic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction represents the main mechanism by which bacterial cells interact with their environment. The functional diversity of two-component systems and their relative importance in the different taxonomic groups and ecotypes of bacteria has become evident with the availability of several hundred genomic sequences. The vast majority of bacteria, including many high rank taxonomic units, while being components of complex microbial communities remain uncultured (i.e., have not been isolated or grown in the laboratory). Environmental genomic data from such communities are becoming available, and in addition to its profound impact on microbial ecology it will propel molecular biological disciplines beyond the traditional model organisms. This chapter describes the general approaches used in generating environmental genomic data and how that data can be used to advance the study of two component-systems and signal transduction in general.

  11. The curvature of semidirect product groups associated with two-component Hunter-Saxton systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlmann, Martin, E-mail: kohlmann@ifam.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Applied Mathematics, University of Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-06-03

    In this paper, we study two-component versions of the periodic Hunter-Saxton equation and its {mu}-variant. Considering both equations as a geodesic flow on the semidirect product of the circle diffeomorphism group Diff(S) with a space of scalar functions on S we show that both equations are locally well posed. The main result of this paper is that the sectional curvature associated with the 2HS is constant and positive and that 2{mu}HS allows for a large subspace of positive sectional curvature. The issues of this paper are related to some of the results for 2CH and 2DP presented in Escher et al (2011 J. Geom. Phys. 61 436-52).

  12. The curvature of semidirect product groups associated with two-component Hunter-Saxton systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Martin

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we study two-component versions of the periodic Hunter-Saxton equation and its μ-variant. Considering both equations as a geodesic flow on the semidirect product of the circle diffeomorphism group Diff( S) with a space of scalar functions on S we show that both equations are locally well posed. The main result of this paper is that the sectional curvature associated with the 2HS is constant and positive and that 2µHS allows for a large subspace of positive sectional curvature. The issues of this paper are related to some of the results for 2CH and 2DP presented in Escher et al (2011 J. Geom. Phys. 61 436-52).

  13. The Campylobacter jejuni CprRS two-component regulatory system regulates aspects of the cell envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis, Campylobacter jejuni is a significant human pathogen. C. jejuni lives commensally in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, but tolerates variable environments during transit to a susceptible host. A two-component regulatory system, CprRS, w...

  14. Cloning of a two-component signal transduction system of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strain BXPF65

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, JWYF; Maynard, Scott; Goodwin, PH

    1998-01-01

    A putative two-component signal transduction system was amplified and cloned from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans isolate BXPF65. The 620 bp amplified fragment was sequenced and analyzed with the BLAST Enhanced Alignment Utility (BEAUTY). BEAUTY ana...

  15. Comparative analysis of two-component signal transduction systems of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, M.W.H.J. de; Francke, C.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus group are ubiquitously present in the environment and can adapt to a wide range of environmental fluctuations. In bacteria, these adaptive responses are generally mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), which consist of a histidine kinase (HK) and

  16. The multi-step phosphorelay mechanism of unorthodox two-component systems in E. coli realizes ultrasensitivity to stimuli while maintaining robustness to noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Rae; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2006-12-01

    E. coli has two-component systems composed of histidine kinase proteins and response regulator proteins. For a given extracellular stimulus, a histidine kinase senses the stimulus, autophosphorylates and then passes the phosphates to the cognate response regulators. The histidine kinase in an orthodox two-component system has only one histidine domain where the autophosphorylation occurs, but a histidine kinase in some unusual two-component systems (unorthodox two-component systems) has two histidine domains and one aspartate domain. So, the unorthodox two-component systems have more complex phosphorelay mechanisms than orthodox two-component systems. In general, the two-component systems are required to promptly respond to external stimuli for survival of E. coli. In this respect, the complex multi-step phosphorelay mechanism seems to be disadvantageous, but there are several unorthodox two-component systems in E. coli. In this paper, we investigate the reason why such unorthodox two-component systems are present in E. coli. For this purpose, we have developed simplified mathematical models of both orthodox and unorthodox two-component systems and analyzed their dynamical characteristics through extensive computer simulations. We have finally revealed that the unorthodox two-component systems realize ultrasensitive responses to external stimuli and also more robust responses to noises than the orthodox two-component systems.

  17. Vortices with scalar condensates in two-component Ginzburg-Landau systems

    CERN Document Server

    Forgacs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In a class of two-component Ginzburg-Landau models (TCGL) with a U(1)$\\times$U(1) symmetric potential, vortices with a condensate at their core may have significantly lower energies than the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) ones. On the example of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH) above the critical temperature for protons we show that the ANO vortices become unstable against core-condensation, while condensate-core (CC) vortices are stable. For LMH the ratio of the masses of the two types of condensates, $M=m_2/m_1$ is large, and then as a consequence the energy per flux quantum of the vortices, $E_n/n$ becomes a non-monotonous function of the number of flux quanta, $n$. This leads to yet another manifestation of neither type 1 nor type 2, (type 1.5) superconductivity: superconducting and normal domains coexist while various "giant" vortices form. We note that LMH provides a particularly clean example of type 1.5 state as the interband coupling between electronic and protonic Cooper-pairs is forbidden.

  18. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium BaeSR two-component system positively regulates sodA in response to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, P; Collao, B; Álvarez, R; Salinas, H; Morales, E H; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P; Gil, F

    2013-10-01

    In response to antibiotics, bacteria activate regulatory systems that control the expression of genes that participate in detoxifying these compounds, like multidrug efflux systems. We previously demonstrated that the BaeSR two-component system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) participates in the detection of ciprofloxacin, a bactericidal antibiotic, and in the positive regulation of mdtA, an efflux pump implicated in antibiotic resistance. In the present work, we provide further evidence for a role of the S. Typhimurium BaeSR two-component system in response to ciprofloxacin treatment and show that it regulates sodA expression. We demonstrate that, in the absence of BaeSR, the transcript levels of sodA and the activity of its gene product are lower. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusions, we demonstrate that BaeR regulates sodA by a direct interaction with the promoter region.

  19. Two-component signal transduction pathways regulating growth and cell cycle progression in a bacterium: a system-level analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Skerker

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems, comprised of histidine kinases and their response regulator substrates, are the predominant means by which bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. These systems allow cells to adapt to prevailing conditions by modifying cellular physiology, including initiating programs of gene expression, catalyzing reactions, or modifying protein-protein interactions. These signaling pathways have also been demonstrated to play a role in coordinating bacterial cell cycle progression and development. Here we report a system-level investigation of two-component pathways in the model organism Caulobacter crescentus. First, by a comprehensive deletion analysis we show that at least 39 of the 106 two-component genes are required for cell cycle progression, growth, or morphogenesis. These include nine genes essential for growth or viability of the organism. We then use a systematic biochemical approach, called phosphotransfer profiling, to map the connectivity of histidine kinases and response regulators. Combining these genetic and biochemical approaches, we identify a new, highly conserved essential signaling pathway from the histidine kinase CenK to the response regulator CenR, which plays a critical role in controlling cell envelope biogenesis and structure. Depletion of either cenK or cenR leads to an unusual, severe blebbing of cell envelope material, whereas constitutive activation of the pathway compromises cell envelope integrity, resulting in cell lysis and death. We propose that the CenK-CenR pathway may be a suitable target for new antibiotic development, given previous successes in targeting the bacterial cell wall. Finally, the ability of our in vitro phosphotransfer profiling method to identify signaling pathways that operate in vivo takes advantage of an observation that histidine kinases are endowed with a global kinetic preference for their cognate response regulators. We propose that this

  20. Two-Component Systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis—Structure-Based Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tucker, Paul; Nowak, Elzbieta; Morth, Jens Preben

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains few two‐component systems compared to many other bacteria, possibly because it has more serine/threonine signaling pathways. Even so, these two‐component systems appear to play an important role in early intracellular survival of the pathogen as well...

  1. The Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY two-component system is a virulence determinant in the urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgellis Dimitris

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Salmonella enterica BarA-SirA, the Erwinia carotovora ExpS-ExpA, the Vibrio cholerae BarA-VarA and the Pseudomonas spp GacS-GacA all belong to the same orthologous family of two-component systems as the Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY. In the first four species it has been demonstrated that disruption of this two-component system leads to a clear reduction in virulence of the bacteria. Our aim was to determine if the Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY two-component system is connected with virulence using a monkey cystitis model. Results Cystitis was generated in Macaque fascularis monkeys by infecting the bladder with a 1:1 mixture of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate DS17 and a derivative where the uvrY gene had been disrupted with a kanamycin resistance gene. Urine was collected through bladder punctuation at subsequent time intervals and the relative amount of uvrY mutant was determined. This showed that inactivation of the UvrY response regulator leads to a reduced fitness. In similar competitions in culture flasks with Luria Broth (LB the uvrY mutant rather had a higher fitness than the wild type. When the competitions were done in flasks with human urine the uvrY mutant initially had a lower fitness. This was followed by a fluctuation in the level of mutant in the long-term culture, with a pattern that was specific for the individual urines that were tested. Addition of LB to the different urine competition cultures however clearly led to a consistently higher fitness of the uvrY mutant. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that the BarA-UvrY two-component system is a determinant for virulence in a monkey cystitis model. The observed competition profiles strengthen our previous hypothesis that disruption of the BarA-UvrY two-component system impairs the ability of the bacteria to switch between different carbon sources. The urine in the bladder contains several different carbon sources and its composition changes over

  2. Reciprocal regulation as a source of ultrasensitivity in two-component systems with a bifunctional sensor kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Straube

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems, where the phosphorylation state of a regulator protein is modulated by a sensor kinase, are common in bacteria and other microbes. In many of these systems, the sensor kinase is bifunctional catalyzing both, the phosphorylation and the dephosphorylation of the regulator protein in response to input signals. Previous studies have shown that systems with a bifunctional enzyme can adjust the phosphorylation level of the regulator protein independently of the total protein concentrations--a property known as concentration robustness. Here, I argue that two-component systems with a bifunctional enzyme may also exhibit ultrasensitivity if the input signal reciprocally affects multiple activities of the sensor kinase. To this end, I consider the case where an allosteric effector inhibits autophosphorylation and, concomitantly, activates the enzyme's phosphatase activity, as observed experimentally in the PhoQ/PhoP and NRII/NRI systems. A theoretical analysis reveals two operating regimes under steady state conditions depending on the effector affinity: If the affinity is low the system produces a graded response with respect to input signals and exhibits stimulus-dependent concentration robustness--consistent with previous experiments. In contrast, a high-affinity effector may generate ultrasensitivity by a similar mechanism as phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles with distinct converter enzymes. The occurrence of ultrasensitivity requires saturation of the sensor kinase's phosphatase activity, but is restricted to low effector concentrations, which suggests that this mode of operation might be employed for the detection and amplification of low abundant input signals. Interestingly, the same mechanism also applies to covalent modification cycles with a bifunctional converter enzyme, which suggests that reciprocal regulation, as a mechanism to generate ultrasensitivity, is not restricted to two-component

  3. Fermionization of two-component few-fermion systems in a one-dimensional harmonic trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Lindgren, E.; Rotureau, J.; Forssén, C.;

    2014-01-01

    The nature of strongly interacting Fermi gases and magnetism is one of the most important and studied topics in condensed-matter physics. Still, there are many open questions. A central issue is under what circumstances strong short-range repulsive interactions are enough to drive magnetic...... correlations. Recent progress in the field of cold atomic gases allows to address this question in very clean systems where both particle numbers, interactions and dimensionality can be tuned. Here we study fermionic few-body systems in a one dimensional harmonic trap using a new rapidly converging effective......-interaction technique, plus a novel analytical approach. This allows us to calculate the properties of a single spin-down atom interacting with a number of spin-up particles, a case of much recent experimental interest. Our findings indicate that, in the strongly interacting limit, spin-up and spin-down particles want...

  4. Lignin Structure and Aggregation Behavior in a Two-Component Ionic Liquid Solvent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bylin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are of potential interest in the processing of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, the ionic liquid co-solvent system of 1-methylimidazole (MIM and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate (EMIMAc was used to solvate LignoBoost lignin fractionated from black liquor obtained from a kraft paper mill. Lignin ethanol-precipitated (LEP and ethanol-soluble (LES fractions were characterized via gel permeation chromatography (GPC and 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR to determine structural characteristics and their relationship to polymer solubility in the system. Polymer integrity and solubility were optimal at ~20% lignin loading (w/w. Results showed that LEPs were generally of higher apparent molecular weight (Mw and enriched with condensed/aliphatic ether linkages and aliphatic hydroxyls. The LESs had a lower apparent Mw and were enriched with carboxylic and phenolic groups. This newly gained knowledge on lignin fractionation and aggregation in the present solvent system provides future opportunities for tuning fractionation/extraction to suit a specific biomass-derived product, e.g., carbon fibers.

  5. SELF-SIMILAR SOLUTIONS AND BLOW-UP PHENOMENA FOR A TWO-COMPONENT SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouming ZHOU; Chunlai MU; Liangchen WANG

    2013-01-01

    In this article,we consider a two-component nonlinear shallow water system,which includes the famous 2-component Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi equations as special cases.The local well-posedess for this equations is established.Some sufficient conditions for blow-up of the solutions in finite time are given.Moreover,by separation method,the self-similar solutions for the nonlinear shallow water equations are obtained,and which local or global behavior can be determined by the corresponding Emden equation.

  6. Regulatory Role of the MisR/S Two-Component System in Hemoglobin Utilization in Neisseria meningitidis▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Outer membrane iron receptors are some of the major surface entities that are critical for meningococcal pathogenesis. The gene encoding the meningococcal hemoglobin receptor, HmbR, is both independently transcribed and transcriptionally linked to the upstream gene hemO, which encodes a heme oxygenase. The MisR/S two-component system was previously determined to regulate hmbR transcription, and its hemO and hmbR regulatory mechanisms were characterized further here. The expression of hemO and...

  7. Stochastic kinetic model of two component system signalling reveals all-or-none, graded and mixed mode stochastic switching responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierzek, Andrzej M; Zhou, Lu; Wanner, Barry L

    2010-03-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are prevalent signal transduction systems in bacteria that control innumerable adaptive responses to environmental cues and host-pathogen interactions. We constructed a detailed stochastic kinetic model of two component signalling based on published data. Our model has been validated with flow cytometry data and used to examine reporter gene expression in response to extracellular signal strength. The model shows that, depending on the actual kinetic parameters, TCSs exhibit all-or-none, graded or mixed mode responses. In accordance with other studies, positively autoregulated TCSs exhibit all-or-none responses. Unexpectedly, our model revealed that TCSs lacking a positive feedback loop exhibit not only graded but also mixed mode responses, in which variation of the signal strength alters the level of gene expression in induced cells while the regulated gene continues to be expressed at the basal level in a substantial fraction of cells. The graded response of the TCS changes to mixed mode response by an increase of the translation initiation rate of the histidine kinase. Thus, a TCS is an evolvable design pattern capable of implementing deterministic regulation and stochastic switches associated with both graded and threshold responses. This has implications for understanding the emergence of population diversity in pathogenic bacteria and the design of genetic circuits in synthetic biology applications. The model is available in systems biology markup language (SBML) and systems biology graphical notation (SBGN) formats and can be used as a component of large-scale biochemical reaction network models.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of drug efflux genes by EvgAS, a two-component system in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yoko; Oshima, Taku; Mori, Hirotada; Aono, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    2003-10-01

    A constitutively active mutant of histidine kinase sensor EvgS was found to confer multi-drug resistance (MDR) to an acrA-deficient Escherichia coli, indicating the relationship between the two-component system EvgAS and the expression of the MDR system. The observed MDR also depended on an outer-membrane channel, TolC. Microarray and S1 mapping assays indicated that, in the presence of this constitutive mutant EvgS, the level of transcription increased for some MDR genes, including the drug efflux genes emrKY, yhiUV, acrAB, mdfA and tolC. Transcription in vitro of emrK increased by the addition of phosphorylated EvgA. Transcription activation of tolC by the activated EvgS was, however, dependent on both EvgAS and PhoPQ (Mg(2+)-responsive two-component system), in agreement with the presence of the binding site (PhoP box) for the regulator PhoP in the tolC promoter region. Transcription in vitro of yhiUV also appears to require an as-yet-unidentified additional transcriptional factor besides EvgA. Taken together we propose that the expression of the MDR system is under a complex regulatory network, including the phosphorylated EvgA serving as the master regulator.

  9. Bacillus subtilis Two-Component System Sensory Kinase DegS Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation in Its Input Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jers, Carsten; Kobir, Ahasanul; Søndergaard, Elsebeth Oline; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity. The phosphorylation state of the response regulator DegU also does not confer a straightforward “on/off” response; it is fine-tuned and at different levels triggers different sub-regulons. Here we describe serine phosphorylation of the DegS sensing domain, which stimulates its kinase activity. We demonstrate that DegS phosphorylation can be carried out by at least two B. subtilis Hanks-type kinases in vitro, and this stimulates the phosphate transfer towards DegU. The consequences of this process were studied in vivo, using phosphomimetic (Ser76Asp) and non-phosphorylatable (Ser76Ala) mutants of DegS. In a number of physiological assays focused on different processes regulated by DegU, DegS S76D phosphomimetic mutant behaved like a strain with intermediate levels of DegU phosphorylation, whereas DegS S76A behaved like a strain with lower levels of DegU phophorylation. These findings suggest a link between DegS phosphorylation at serine 76 and the level of DegU phosphorylation, establishing this post-translational modification as an additional trigger for this two-component system. PMID:21304896

  10. Bacillus subtilis two-component system sensory kinase DegS is regulated by serine phosphorylation in its input domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Jers

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity. The phosphorylation state of the response regulator DegU also does not confer a straightforward "on/off" response; it is fine-tuned and at different levels triggers different sub-regulons. Here we describe serine phosphorylation of the DegS sensing domain, which stimulates its kinase activity. We demonstrate that DegS phosphorylation can be carried out by at least two B. subtilis Hanks-type kinases in vitro, and this stimulates the phosphate transfer towards DegU. The consequences of this process were studied in vivo, using phosphomimetic (Ser76Asp and non-phosphorylatable (Ser76Ala mutants of DegS. In a number of physiological assays focused on different processes regulated by DegU, DegS S76D phosphomimetic mutant behaved like a strain with intermediate levels of DegU phosphorylation, whereas DegS S76A behaved like a strain with lower levels of DegU phophorylation. These findings suggest a link between DegS phosphorylation at serine 76 and the level of DegU phosphorylation, establishing this post-translational modification as an additional trigger for this two-component system.

  11. Novel two-component regulatory systems play a role in biofilm formation of Lactobacillus reuteri rodent isolate 100-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-04-01

    This study characterized the two-component regulatory systems encoded by bfrKRT and cemAKR, and assessed their influence on biofilm formation by Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23. A method for deletion of multiple genes was employed to disrupt the genetic loci of two-component systems. The operons bfrKRT and cemAKR showed complementary organization. Genes bfrKRT encode a histidine kinase, a response regulator and an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter with a bacteriocin-processing peptidase domain, respectively. Genes cemAKR code for a signal peptide, a histidine kinase and a response regulator, respectively. Deletion of single or multiple genes in the operons bfrKRT and cemAKR did not affect cell morphology, growth or the sensitivity to various stressors. However, gene disruption affected biofilm formation; this effect was dependent on the carbon source. Deletion of bfrK or cemA increased sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in vitro. Glucose-dependent biofilm formation was particularly increased by deletion of cemK. The expression of cemK and cemR was altered by deletion of bfrK, indicating cross-talk between these two regulatory systems. These results may contribute to our understanding of the genetic factors related to the biofilm formation and competitiveness of L. reuteri in intestinal ecosystems.

  12. Identification and characterization of the two-component NtrY/NtrX regulatory system in Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Ishida

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Azospirillum brasilense open reading frames (ORFs exhibited homology with the two-component NtrY/NtrX regulatory system from Azorhizobium caulinodans. These A. brasilense ORFs, located downstream to the nifR3ntrBC operon, were isolated, sequenced and characterized. The present study suggests that ORF1 and ORF2 correspond to the A. brasilense ntrY and ntrX genes, respectively. The amino acid sequences of A. brasilense NtrY and NtrX proteins showed high similarity to sensor/kinase and regulatory proteins, respectively. Analysis of lacZ transcriptional fusions by the ß-galactosidase assay in Escherichia coli ntrC mutants showed that the NtrY/NtrX proteins failed to activate transcription of the nifA promoter of A. brasilense. The ntrYX operon complemented a nifR3ntrBC deletion mutant of A. brasilense for nitrate-dependent growth, suggesting a possible cross-talk between the NtrY/X and NtrB/C sensor/regulator pairs. Our data support the existence of another two-component regulatory system in A. brasilense, the NtrY/NtrX system, probably involved in the regulation of nitrate assimilation.

  13. Analysis of the BarA/UvrY two-component system in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Binnenkade

    Full Text Available The BarA/UvrY two-component system is well conserved in species of the γ-proteobacteria and regulates numerous processes predominantly by controlling the expression of a subset of noncoding small RNAs. In this study, we identified and characterized the BarA/UvrY two-component system in the gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Functional interaction of sensor kinase BarA and the cognate response regulator UvrY was indicated by in vitro phosphotransfer studies. The expression of two predicted small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs, CsrB1 and CsrB2, was dependent on UvrY. Transcriptomic analysis by microarrays revealed that UvrY is a global regulator and directly or indirectly affects transcript levels of more than 200 genes in S. oneidensis. Among these are genes encoding key enzymes of central carbon metabolism such as ackA, aceAB, and pflAB. As predicted of a signal transduction pathway that controls aspects of central metabolism, mutants lacking UvrY reach a significantly higher OD than the wild type during aerobic growth on N-acetylglucosamine (NAG while under anaerobic conditions the mutant grew more slowly. A shorter lag phase occurred with lactate as carbon source. In contrast, significant growth phenotypes were absent in complex medium. Based on these studies we hypothesize that, in S. oneidensis MR-1, the global BarA/UvrY/Csr regulatory pathway is involved in central carbon metabolism processes.

  14. Two-Component Regulatory Systems – implication in the quorum sensing mechanisms and bacteriocin production in lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia–Mara Ditu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For lactic acid bacteria, the mechanisms of quorum sensing and response are mediated by peptides or pheromones that interfere with the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMP called bacteriocins, when these molecules reach a certain critical level of concentration. Generally, the synthesis and activity of pheromones is adjusted by means of a two-component regulatory system. The observation that some microorganisms, in particular lactic acid bacteria, produce bacteriocins according to the cell density, has led to the discovery of the involvement of QS mechanisms in the synthesis of these peptides. Bacteriocins synthesis is inducible, the process requiring the extracellular accumulation of peptides that functions as chemical messengers activators of bacteriocins synthesis. This minireview presents the molecular architecture and functions of two-component regulatory systems and ABC transporters implicated in the synthesis and secretion of nisin, one of the most studied bacteriocin. The elucidation of the intimate mechanisms of bacteriocins synthesis is equally of biotechnological and medical importance, opening interesting perspectives for the development of improved technologies for the production of bacteriocins with good yields, and also, for increasing the beneficial anti-infective roles of probiotic bacteria when administered in vivo.

  15. Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoonsik Cho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Calprotectin, the most abundant cytoplasmic protein in neutrophils, suppresses the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by sequestering the nutrient metal ions Zn and Mn. Here we show that calprotectin can also enhance the activity of the SaeRS two component system (TCS, a signaling system essential for production of over 20 virulence factors in S. aureus. The activity of the SaeRS TCS is repressed by certain divalent ions found in blood or neutrophil granules; however, the Zn bound-form of calprotectin relieves this repression. During staphylococcal encounter with murine neutrophils or staphylococcal infection of the murine peritoneal cavity, calprotectin increases the activity of the SaeRS TCS as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α, resulting in higher murine mortality. These results suggest that, under certain conditions, calprotectin can be exploited by S. aureus to increase bacterial virulence and host mortality.

  16. Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hoonsik; Jeong, Do-Won; Liu, Qian; Yeo, Won-Sik; Vogl, Thomas; Skaar, Eric P; Chazin, Walter J; Bae, Taeok

    2015-07-01

    Calprotectin, the most abundant cytoplasmic protein in neutrophils, suppresses the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by sequestering the nutrient metal ions Zn and Mn. Here we show that calprotectin can also enhance the activity of the SaeRS two component system (TCS), a signaling system essential for production of over 20 virulence factors in S. aureus. The activity of the SaeRS TCS is repressed by certain divalent ions found in blood or neutrophil granules; however, the Zn bound-form of calprotectin relieves this repression. During staphylococcal encounter with murine neutrophils or staphylococcal infection of the murine peritoneal cavity, calprotectin increases the activity of the SaeRS TCS as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α, resulting in higher murine mortality. These results suggest that, under certain conditions, calprotectin can be exploited by S. aureus to increase bacterial virulence and host mortality.

  17. Characterization of a two-component regulatory system from Acinetobacter baumannii that controls biofilm formation and cellular morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaras, Andrew P; Flagler, Michael J; Dorsey, Caleb W; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Actis, Luis A

    2008-11-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii forms biofilms on abiotic surfaces, a phenotype that may explain its ability to survive in nosocomial environments and to cause device-related infections in compromised patients. The biofilm proficiency of the 19606 type strain depends on the production of pili, cell-surface appendages assembled via the CsuAB-A-B-C-D-E chaperone-usher secretion system. The screening of a bank of isogenic insertion derivatives led to the identification of a biofilm-deficient derivative in which a transposon insertion disrupted a gene predicted to encode the response regulator of a two-component regulatory system. This gene, which was named bfmR, is required for the expression of the Csu pili chaperone-usher assembly system. This coding region is followed by an ORF encoding a putative sensor kinase that was named bfmS, which plays a less relevant role in biofilm formation when cells are cultured in rich medium. Further examination showed that the bfmR mutant was capable of attaching to abiotic surfaces, although to levels significantly lower than those of the parental strain, when it was cultured in a chemically defined minimal medium. Additionally, the morphology of planktonic cells of this mutant, when grown in minimal medium, was drastically affected, while adherent mutant cells were indistinguishable in shape and size from the parental strain. Together, these results indicate that BfmR is part of a two-component regulatory system that plays an important role in the morphology of A. baumannii 19606 cells and their ability to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces.

  18. Activation of the Campylobacter jejuni FlgSR two-component system is linked to the flagellar export apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Stephanie N; Hendrixson, David R

    2009-04-01

    Activation of sigma(54)-dependent gene expression essential for formation of flagella in Campylobacter jejuni requires the components of the inner membrane-localized flagellar export apparatus and the FlgSR two-component regulatory system. In this study, we characterized the FlgS sensor kinase and how activation of the protein is linked to the flagellar export apparatus. We found that FlgS is localized to the C. jejuni cytoplasm and that His141 of FlgS is essential for autophosphorylation, phosphorelay to the cognate FlgR response regulator, motility, and expression of sigma(54)-dependent flagellar genes. Mutants with incomplete flagellar export apparatuses produced wild-type levels of FlgS and FlgR, but they were defective for signaling through the FlgSR system. By using genetic approaches, we found that FlgSR activity is linked to and downstream of the flagellar export apparatus in a regulatory cascade that terminates in expression of sigma(54)-dependent flagellar genes. By analyzing defined flhB and fliI mutants of C. jejuni that form flagellar export apparatuses that are secretion incompetent, we determined that formation of the apparatus is required to contribute to the signal sensed by FlgS to terminate in activation of expression of sigma(54)-dependent flagellar genes. Considering that the flagellar export apparatuses of Escherichia coli and Salmonella species influence sigma(28)-dependent flagellar gene expression, our work expands the signaling activity of the apparatuses to include sigma(54)-dependent pathways of C. jejuni and possibly other motile bacteria. This study indicates that these apparatuses have broader functions beyond flagellar protein secretion, including activation of essential two-component regulatory systems required for expression of sigma(54)-dependent flagellar genes.

  19. Structure of the response regulator ChrA in the haem-sensing two-component system of Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hiro; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sugimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    ChrA is a response regulator (RR) in the two-component system involved in regulating the degradation and transport of haem (Fe-porphyrin) in the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Here, the crystal structure of full-length ChrA is described at a resolution of 1.8 Å. ChrA consists of an N-terminal regulatory domain, a long linker region and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain. A structural comparison of ChrA with other RRs revealed substantial differences in the relative orientation of the two domains and the conformation of the linker region. The structural flexibility of the linker could be an important feature in rearrangement of the domain orientation to create a dimerization interface to bind DNA during haem-sensing signal transduction.

  20. Investigation of Self-Assembly of Two-Component Organogel System Based on Trigonal Acids and Aminobenzothiazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youbo Di

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported here the gelation behaviors of two-component organogel system based on different acids and aminobenzothiazole derivatives in various organic solvents. Their gelation behaviors in 20 solvents were tested as new organic gelators. It was shown that the molecular skeletons and substituted groups in these compounds played a crucial role in the gelation behavior of the mixtures. Only the binary mixture of 2-aminobenzothiazole and trigonal 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid with aromatic core could form organogels in ethanol and acetone. Morphological observations reveal that the microstructures of both xerogels showed similar wrinkle-shaped domains composed of sheet-like aggregates with many holes. Spectral studies reveal the hydrogen bonding interaction between the amide of the gelator and lamellar-like structure of the aggregates in both gels. The present investigation is a perspective to provide new clues for the design of new nanomaterials and functional textile materials with special microstructures.

  1. Characterization of the yehUT two-component regulatory system of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi and Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vanessa K; Pickard, Derek J; Barquist, Lars; Sivaraman, Karthikeyan; Page, Andrew J; Hart, Peter J; Arends, Mark J; Holt, Kathryn E; Kane, Leanne; Mottram, Lynda F; Ellison, Louise; Bautista, Ruben; McGee, Chris J; Kay, Sally J; Wileman, Thomas M; Kenney, Linda J; MacLennan, Calman A; Kingsley, Robert A; Dougan, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Proteins exhibiting hyper-variable sequences within a bacterial pathogen may be associated with host adaptation. Several lineages of the monophyletic pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) have accumulated non-synonymous mutations in the putative two-component regulatory system yehUT. Consequently we evaluated the function of yehUT in S. Typhi BRD948 and S. Typhimurium ST4/74. Transcriptome analysis identified the cstA gene, encoding a carbon starvation protein as the predominantly yehUT regulated gene in both these serovars. Deletion of yehUT had no detectable effect on the ability of these mutant Salmonella to invade cultured epithelial cells (S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium) or induce colitis in a murine model (S. Typhimurium only). Growth, metabolic and antimicrobial susceptibility tests identified no obvious influences of yehUT on these phenotypes.

  2. Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris: Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis and Deduction of Putative Cognate Pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Wu, Gang; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-01-20

    ABSTRACT-Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTS) composed of sensory histidine kinases (HK) and response regulators (RR), constitute a key element of the mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to changes in environments. A large number of TCSTSs including 59 putative HKs and 55 RRs were identified from the Desulfovibrio vulgaris genome, indicating their important roles in regulation of cellular metabolism. In this study, the structural and phylogenetic analysis of all putative TCSTSs in D. vulgaris was performed. The results showed D. vulgaris contained an unexpectedly large number of hybrid-type HKs, implying that multiple-step phosphorelay may be a common signal transduction mechanism in D. vulgaris. Most TCSTS components of D. vulgaris were found clustered into several subfamilies previously recognized in other bacteria and extensive co-evolution between D. vulgaris HKs and RRs was observed, suggesting that the concordance of HKs and RRs in cognate phylogenetic groups could be indicative of cognate TCSTSs...

  3. A Two-Component Regulatory System Impacts Extracellular Membrane-Derived Vesicle Production in Group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Resch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Export of macromolecules via extracellular membrane-derived vesicles (MVs plays an important role in the biology of Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have also recently been reported to produce MVs; however, the composition and mechanisms governing vesiculogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria remain undefined. Here, we describe MV production in the Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS, the etiological agent of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. M1 serotype GAS isolates in culture exhibit MV structures both on the cell wall surface and in the near vicinity of bacterial cells. A comprehensive analysis of MV proteins identified both virulence-associated protein substrates of the general secretory pathway in addition to “anchorless surface proteins.” Characteristic differences in the contents, distributions, and fatty acid compositions of specific lipids between MVs and GAS cell membrane were also observed. Furthermore, deep RNA sequencing of vesicular RNAs revealed that GAS MVs contained differentially abundant RNA species relative to bacterial cellular RNA. MV production by GAS strains varied in a manner dependent on an intact two-component system, CovRS, with MV production negatively regulated by the system. Modulation of MV production through CovRS was found to be independent of both GAS cysteine protease SpeB and capsule biosynthesis. Our data provide an explanation for GAS secretion of macromolecules, including RNAs, lipids, and proteins, and illustrate a regulatory mechanism coordinating this secretory response.

  4. Identification of a U/Zn/Cu responsive global regulatory two-component system in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dan M; Overton, K Wesley; Liou, Megan J; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-12-30

    Despite the well-known toxicity of uranium (U) to bacteria, little is known about how cells sense and respond to U. The recent finding of a U-specific stress response in Caulobacter crescentus has provided a foundation for studying the mechanisms of U- perception in bacteria. To gain insight into this process, we used a forward genetic screen to identify the regulatory components governing expression of the urcA promoter (PurcA ) that is strongly induced by U. This approach unearthed a previously uncharacterized two-component system, named UzcRS, which is responsible for U-dependent activation of PurcA . UzcRS is also highly responsive to zinc and copper, revealing a broader specificity than previously thought. Using ChIP-seq, we found that UzcR binds extensively throughout the genome in a metal-dependent manner and recognizes a noncanonical DNA-binding site. Coupling the genome-wide occupancy data with RNA-seq analysis revealed that UzcR is a global regulator of transcription, predominately activating genes encoding proteins that are localized to the cell envelope; these include metallopeptidases, multidrug-resistant efflux (MDR) pumps, TonB-dependent receptors and many proteins of unknown function. Collectively, our data suggest that UzcRS couples the perception of U, Zn and Cu with a novel extracytoplasmic stress response.

  5. The Role of CzcRS Two-Component Systems in the Heavy Metal Resistance of Pseudomonas putida X4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of different czcRS genes in metal resistance and the cross-link between czcRS and czcCBA in Pseudomonas putida X4 were studied to advance understanding of the mechanisms by which P. putida copes with metal stress. Similar to P. putida KT2440, two complete czcRS1 and czcRS2 two-component systems, as well as a czcR3 without the corresponding sensing component were amplified in P. putida X4. The histidine kinase genes czcS1 and czcS2 were inactivated and fused to lacZ by homologous recombination. The lacZ fusion assay revealed that Cd2+ and Zn2+ caused a decrease in the transcription of czcRS1, whereas Cd2+ treatment enhanced the transcription of czcRS2. The mutation of different czcRSs showed that all czcRSs are necessary to facilitate full metal resistance in P. putida X4. A putative gene just downstream of czcR3 is related to metal ion resistance, and its transcription was activated by Zn2+. Data from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR strongly suggested that czcRSs regulate the expression of czcCBA, and a cross-link exists between different czcRSs.

  6. The two-component signal transduction system YvcPQ regulates the bacterial resistance to bacitracin in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumeng; Li, Xinfeng; Wang, Xun; Li, Zhou; He, Jin

    2016-10-01

    YvcPQ is one of the two-component signal transduction systems that respond to specific stimuli and enable cells to adjust multiple cellular functions. It consists of a histidine kinase YvcQ and a response regulator YvcP. In this study, through searching the consensus sequence recognized by YvcP, we found four YvcP-binding motifs in the promoter regions of genes yvcR (BMB171_C4100), BMB171_C4385, kapD (BMB171_C4525) and BMB171_C4835 in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 which is a representative of Bacillus cereus group, and confirmed that these genes are regulated by YvcP. We compared the sequence of yvcPQ and its downstream genes in genus Bacillus, and found two different kinds of yvc locus, one was the yvcPQ-RS in B. subtilis species and the other was the yvcPQ-R-S1S2 in B. cereus group. Furthermore, we found that YvcP activates the transcription of yvcS1S2 (downstream of yvcR) to promote bacterial resistance to bacitracin and deletion of either yvcPQ operon or yvcS1S2 operon renders the bacterial cells more sensitive to bacitracin. This study enriched our understanding of both the YvcPQ's function and the mechanism of bacterial resistance to bacitracin.

  7. Comparative Expression Analysis of Two-Component System Members in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama eSingh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two component system (TCS is one of the key signal sensing machinery which enables species to sense environmental stimuli. It essentially comprises of three major components, sensory histidine kinase proteins (HKs, histidine phosphotransfer proteins (Hpts and response regulator proteins (RRs. The members of the TCS family have already been identified in Arabidopsis and rice but the knowledge about their functional indulgence during various abiotic stress conditions remains meagre. Current study is an attempt to carry out comprehensive analysis of the expression of TCS members in response to various abiotic stress conditions and in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis and rice using MPSS and publicly available microarray data. The analysis suggests that despite having almost similar number of genes, rice expresses higher number of TCS members during various abiotic stress conditions than Arabidopsis. We found that the TCS machinery is regulated by not only various abiotic stresses, but also by the tissue specificity. Analysis of expression of some representative members of TCS gene family showed their regulation by the diurnal cycle in rice seedlings, thus bringing-in another level of their transcriptional control. Thus, we report a highly complex and tight regulatory network of TCS members, as influenced by the tissue, abiotic stress signal and diurnal rhythm. The insights on the comparative expression analysis presented in this study may provide crucial leads towards dissection of diverse role(s of the various TCS family members in Arabidopsis and rice.

  8. Two-component systems are involved in the regulation of botulinum neurotoxin synthesis in Clostridium botulinum type A strain Hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Chloé; Brüggemann, Holger; Brueggemann, Holger; Mazuet, Christelle; Raffestin, Stéphanie; Cayet, Nadège; Popoff, Michel R

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum synthesizes a potent neurotoxin (BoNT) which associates with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs) to form complexes of various sizes. The bont and antp genes are clustered in two operons. In C. botulinum type A, bont/A and antp genes are expressed during the end of the exponential growth phase and the beginning of the stationary phase under the control of an alternative sigma factor encoded by botR/A, which is located between the two operons. In the genome of C. botulinum type A strain Hall, 30 gene pairs predicted to encode two-component systems (TCSs) and 9 orphan regulatory genes have been identified. Therefore, 34 Hall isogenic antisense strains on predicted regulatory genes (29 TCSs and 5 orphan regulatory genes) have been obtained by a mRNA antisense procedure. Two TCS isogenic antisense strains showed more rapid growth kinetics and reduced BoNT/A production than the control strain, as well as increased bacterial lysis and impairment of the bacterial cell wall structure. Three other TCS isogenic antisense strains induced a low level of BoNT/A and ANTP production. Interestingly, reduced expression of bont/A and antp genes was shown to be independent of botR/A. These results indicate that BoNT/A synthesis is under the control of a complex network of regulation including directly at least three TCSs.

  9. Two-component systems are involved in the regulation of botulinum neurotoxin synthesis in Clostridium botulinum type A strain Hall.

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    Chloé Connan

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum synthesizes a potent neurotoxin (BoNT which associates with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs to form complexes of various sizes. The bont and antp genes are clustered in two operons. In C. botulinum type A, bont/A and antp genes are expressed during the end of the exponential growth phase and the beginning of the stationary phase under the control of an alternative sigma factor encoded by botR/A, which is located between the two operons. In the genome of C. botulinum type A strain Hall, 30 gene pairs predicted to encode two-component systems (TCSs and 9 orphan regulatory genes have been identified. Therefore, 34 Hall isogenic antisense strains on predicted regulatory genes (29 TCSs and 5 orphan regulatory genes have been obtained by a mRNA antisense procedure. Two TCS isogenic antisense strains showed more rapid growth kinetics and reduced BoNT/A production than the control strain, as well as increased bacterial lysis and impairment of the bacterial cell wall structure. Three other TCS isogenic antisense strains induced a low level of BoNT/A and ANTP production. Interestingly, reduced expression of bont/A and antp genes was shown to be independent of botR/A. These results indicate that BoNT/A synthesis is under the control of a complex network of regulation including directly at least three TCSs.

  10. The two-component system CBO2306/CBO2307 is important for cold adaptation of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Yağmur; Isokallio, Marita; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2013-10-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a notorious foodborne pathogen. Its ability to adapt to and grow at low temperatures is of interest for food safety. Two-component systems (TCSs) have been reported to be involved in cold-shock and growth at low temperatures. Here we show the importance of TCS CBO2306/CBO2307 in the cold-shock response of C. botulinum ATCC 3502. The relative expression levels of the cbo2306 and cbo2307 were up to 4.4-fold induced in the cold-shocked cultures but negatively regulated in the late-log and stationary growth phase in relation to early logarithmic growth phase in non-shocked cultures. Importance of the CBO2306/CBO2307 in the cold stress was further demonstrated by impaired growth of insertional cbo2306 or cbo2307 knockout mutants in relation to the wild-type strain ATCC 3502. The results suggest that the TCS CBO2306/CBO2307 is important for cold-shock response and adaptation of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to low temperature.

  11. The YvqE two-component system controls biofilm formation and acid production in Streptococcus pyogenes.

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    Isaka, Masanori; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Matsui, Hideyuki; Zhang, Yan; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2016-07-01

    In Streptococcus pyogenes, proteins involved in determining virulence are controlled by stand-alone response regulators and by two-component regulatory systems. Previous studies reported that, compared to the parental strain, the yvqE sensor knockout strain showed significantly reduced growth and lower virulence. To determine the function of YvqE, we performed biofilm analysis and pH assays on yvqE mutants, and site-directed mutagenesis of YvqE. The yvqE deletion mutant showed a slower acid production rate, indicating that YvqE regulates acid production from sugar fermentation. The mutant strain, in which the Asp(26) residue in YvqE was replaced with Asn, affected biofilm formation, suggesting that this amino acid senses hydrogen ions produced by fermentative sugar metabolism. Signals received by YvqE were directly or indirectly responsible for inducing pilus expression. This study shows that at low environmental pH, biofilm formation in S. pyogenes is mediated by YvqE and suggests that regulation of pilus expression by environmental acidification could be directly under the control of YvqE.

  12. A hybrid two-component system of Tannerella forsythia affects autoaggregation and post-translational modification of surface proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe closely associated with both periodontal and periapical diseases. The ORF TF0022 of strain ATCC 43037 encodes a hybrid two-component system consisting of an N-terminal histidine kinase and a C-terminal response regulator. Disruption of the TF0022 locus enhanced autoaggregation of the broth-cultured cells. Comparative proteome analyses revealed that two S-layer proteins in the TF0022 mutant exhibited decreased apparent masses by denaturing gel electrophoresis, suggesting a deficiency in post-translational modification. Furthermore, the mutant decreased the production of a glycosyltransferase encoded by TF1061 that is located in a putative glycosylation-related gene cluster. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed reduced transcription of TF1061 and the associated genes in the TF0022 mutant. These results indicate that TF0022 upregulates the expression of the glycosylation-related genes and suggest modulation of the autoaggregation of T. forsythia cells by a possible post-translational modification of cell-surface components.

  13. PhoR/PhoP two component regulatory system affects biocontrol capability of Bacillus subtilis NCD-2

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    Qinggang Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bacillus subtilis strain NCD-2 is an important biocontrol agent against cotton verticillium wilt and cotton sore shin in the field, which are caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, respectively. A mutant of strain NCD-2, designated M216, with decreased antagonism to V. dahliae and R. solani, was selected by mini-Tn10 mutagenesis and in vitro virulence screening. The inserted gene in the mutant was cloned and identified as the phoR gene, which encodes a sensor kinase in the PhoP/PhoR two-component system. Compared to the wild-type strain, the APase activities of the mutant was decreased significantly when cultured in low phosphate medium, but no obvious difference was observed when cultured in high phosphate medium. The mutant also grew more slowly on organic phosphate agar and lost its phosphatidylcholine-solubilizing ability. The suppression of cotton seedling damping-off in vivo and colonization of the rhizosphere of cotton also decreased in the mutant strain when compared with the wild type strain. All of these characteristics could be partially restored by complementation of the phoR gene in the M216 mutant.

  14. PhoR/PhoP two component regulatory system affects biocontrol capability of Bacillus subtilis NCD-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinggang; Li, Shezeng; Lu, Xiuyun; Li, Baoqing; Ma, Ping

    2010-04-01

    The Bacillus subtilis strain NCD-2 is an important biocontrol agent against cotton verticillium wilt and cotton sore shin in the field, which are caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, respectively. A mutant of strain NCD-2, designated M216, with decreased antagonism to V. dahliae and R. solani, was selected by mini-Tn10 mutagenesis and in vitro virulence screening. The inserted gene in the mutant was cloned and identified as the phoR gene, which encodes a sensor kinase in the PhoP/PhoR two-component system. Compared to the wild-type strain, the APase activities of the mutant was decreased significantly when cultured in low phosphate medium, but no obvious difference was observed when cultured in high phosphate medium. The mutant also grew more slowly on organic phosphate agar and lost its phosphatidylcholine-solubilizing ability. The suppression of cotton seedling damping-off in vivo and colonization of the rhizosphere of cotton also decreased in the mutant strain when compared with the wild type strain. All of these characteristics could be partially restored by complementation of the phoR gene in the M216 mutant.

  15. Analysis of the virulence-associated RevSR two-component signal transduction system of Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jackie K; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Adams, Vicki M; Quinsey, Noelene S; Rood, Julian I

    2016-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes human gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) and food poisoning. Early studies showed that virulence was regulated by the VirSR two-component signal transduction system. However, our identification of the RevR orphan response regulator indicated that more than one system was involved in controlling virulence. To further characterize this virulence-associated regulator, gel mobility shift experiments, coupled with DNase I footprinting, were used to identify the RevR DNA binding sequence. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that an orphan sensor histidine kinase, CPE1757 (renamed RevS), was the cognate sensor of RevR. Interaction between RevS and RevR was demonstrated by use of a bacterial two-hybrid system and validated by protein-protein interaction studies using biolayer interferometry. To assess the involvement of RevS in virulence regulation, the revS gene was inactivated by Targetron insertion. When isogenic wild-type, revS and complemented revS strains were tested in a mouse myonecrosis model, the revS mutant was found to be attenuated in virulence, which was similar to the attenuation observed previously with the revR mutant. However, transcriptional analysis of selected RevR-regulated genes in the revS mutant revealed a different pattern of expression to a revR mutant, suggesting that the RevSR system is more complex than originally thought. Taken together, the results have led to the identification and characterization of the two essential parts of a new regulatory network that is involved in the regulation of virulence in C. perfringens.

  16. The Staphylococcus aureus ArlRS two-component system is a novel regulator of agglutination and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer N; Crosby, Heidi A; Spaulding, Adam R; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Malone, Cheryl L; Rosenthal, Carolyn B; Schlievert, Patrick M; Boyd, Jeffrey M; Horswill, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a prominent bacterial pathogen that is known to agglutinate in the presence of human plasma to form stable clumps. There is increasing evidence that agglutination aids S. aureus pathogenesis, but the mechanisms of this process remain to be fully elucidated. To better define this process, we developed both tube based and flow cytometry methods to monitor clumping in the presence of extracellular matrix proteins. We discovered that the ArlRS two-component system regulates the agglutination mechanism during exposure to human plasma or fibrinogen. Using divergent S. aureus strains, we demonstrated that arlRS mutants are unable to agglutinate, and this phenotype can be complemented. We found that the ebh gene, encoding the Giant Staphylococcal Surface Protein (GSSP), was up-regulated in an arlRS mutant. By introducing an ebh complete deletion into an arlRS mutant, agglutination was restored. To assess whether GSSP is the primary effector, a constitutive promoter was inserted upstream of the ebh gene on the chromosome in a wildtype strain, which prevented clump formation and demonstrated that GSSP has a negative impact on the agglutination mechanism. Due to the parallels of agglutination with infective endocarditis development, we assessed the phenotype of an arlRS mutant in a rabbit combined model of sepsis and endocarditis. In this model the arlRS mutant displayed a large defect in vegetation formation and pathogenesis, and this phenotype was partially restored by removing GSSP. Altogether, we have discovered that the ArlRS system controls a novel mechanism through which S. aureus regulates agglutination and pathogenesis.

  17. Two-component system cross-regulation integrates Bacillus anthracis response to heme and cell envelope stress.

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    Laura A Mike

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signaling systems (TCSs are one of the mechanisms that bacteria employ to sense and adapt to changes in the environment. A prototypical TCS functions as a phosphorelay from a membrane-bound sensor histidine kinase (HK to a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR that controls target gene expression. Despite significant homology in the signaling domains of HKs and RRs, TCSs are thought to typically function as linear systems with little to no cross-talk between non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Here we have identified several cell envelope acting compounds that stimulate a previously uncharacterized Bacillus anthracis TCS. Furthermore, this TCS cross-signals with the heme sensing TCS HssRS; therefore, we have named it HssRS interfacing TCS (HitRS. HssRS reciprocates cross-talk to HitRS, suggesting a link between heme toxicity and cell envelope stress. The signaling between HssRS and HitRS occurs in the parental B. anthracis strain; therefore, we classify HssRS-HitRS interactions as cross-regulation. Cross-talk between HssRS and HitRS occurs at both HK-RR and post-RR signaling junctions. Finally, HitRS also regulates a previously unstudied ABC transporter implicating this transporter in the response to cell envelope stress. This chemical biology approach to probing TCS signaling provides a new model for understanding how bacterial signaling networks are integrated to enable adaptation to complex environments such as those encountered during colonization of the vertebrate host.

  18. The KdpD/KdpE two-component system: integrating K⁺ homeostasis and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Zoë N; Dorus, Steve; Waterfield, Nicholas R

    2013-03-01

    The two-component system (TCS) KdpD/KdpE, extensively studied for its regulatory role in potassium (K(+)) transport, has more recently been identified as an adaptive regulator involved in the virulence and intracellular survival of pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, entero-haemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia pestis, Francisella species, Photorhabdus asymbiotica, and mycobacteria. Key homeostasis requirements monitored by KdpD/KdpE and other TCSs such as PhoP/PhoQ are critical to survival in the stressful conditions encountered by pathogens during host interactions. It follows these TCSs may therefore acquire adaptive roles in response to selective pressures associated with adopting a pathogenic lifestyle. Given the central role of K(+) in virulence, we propose that KdpD/KdpE, as a regulator of a high-affinity K(+) pump, has evolved virulence-related regulatory functions. In support of this hypothesis, we review the role of KdpD/KdpE in bacterial infection and summarize evidence that (i) KdpD/KdpE production is correlated with enhanced virulence and survival, (ii) KdpE regulates a range of virulence loci through direct promoter binding, and (iii) KdpD/KdpE regulation responds to virulence-related conditions including phagocytosis, exposure to microbicides, quorum sensing signals, and host hormones. Furthermore, antimicrobial stress, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress are associated with KdpD/KdpE activity, and the system's accessory components (which allow TCS fine-tuning or crosstalk) provide links to stress response pathways. KdpD/KdpE therefore appears to be an important adaptive TCS employed during host infection, promoting bacterial virulence and survival through mechanisms both related to and distinct from its conserved role in K(+) regulation.

  19. The KdpD/KdpE two-component system: integrating K⁺ homeostasis and virulence.

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    Zoë N Freeman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-component system (TCS KdpD/KdpE, extensively studied for its regulatory role in potassium (K(+ transport, has more recently been identified as an adaptive regulator involved in the virulence and intracellular survival of pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, entero-haemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia pestis, Francisella species, Photorhabdus asymbiotica, and mycobacteria. Key homeostasis requirements monitored by KdpD/KdpE and other TCSs such as PhoP/PhoQ are critical to survival in the stressful conditions encountered by pathogens during host interactions. It follows these TCSs may therefore acquire adaptive roles in response to selective pressures associated with adopting a pathogenic lifestyle. Given the central role of K(+ in virulence, we propose that KdpD/KdpE, as a regulator of a high-affinity K(+ pump, has evolved virulence-related regulatory functions. In support of this hypothesis, we review the role of KdpD/KdpE in bacterial infection and summarize evidence that (i KdpD/KdpE production is correlated with enhanced virulence and survival, (ii KdpE regulates a range of virulence loci through direct promoter binding, and (iii KdpD/KdpE regulation responds to virulence-related conditions including phagocytosis, exposure to microbicides, quorum sensing signals, and host hormones. Furthermore, antimicrobial stress, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress are associated with KdpD/KdpE activity, and the system's accessory components (which allow TCS fine-tuning or crosstalk provide links to stress response pathways. KdpD/KdpE therefore appears to be an important adaptive TCS employed during host infection, promoting bacterial virulence and survival through mechanisms both related to and distinct from its conserved role in K(+ regulation.

  20. Extrusion foaming of thermoplastic cellulose acetate from renewable resources using a two-component physical blowing agent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Windeck, C.; Hendriks, S.; Zepnik, S.; Wodke, T.

    2014-05-01

    Thermoplastic cellulose acetate (CA) is a bio-based polymer with optical, mechanical and thermal properties comparable to those of polystyrene (PS). The substitution of the predominant petrol-based PS in applications like foamed food trays can lead to a more sustainable economic practice. However, CA is also suitable for more durable applications as the biodegradability rate can be controlled by adjusting the degree of substitutions. The extrusion foaming of CA still has to overcome certain challenges. CA is highly hydrophilic and can suffer from hydrolytic degradation if not dried properly. Therefore, the influence of residual moisture on the melt viscosity is rather high. Beyond, the surface quality of foam CA sheets is below those of PS due to the particular foaming behaviour. This paper presents results of a recent study on extrusion foamed CA, using a two-component physical blowing agent system compromising HFO 1234ze as blowing agent and organic solvents as co-propellant. Samples with different co-propellants are processed on a laboratory single screw extruder at IKV. Morphology and surface topography are investigated with respect to the blowing agent composition and the die pressure. In addition, relationships between foam density, foam morphology and the propellants are analysed. The choice of the co-propellant has a significant influence on melt-strength, foaming behaviour and the possible blow-up ratio of the sheet. Furthermore, a positive influence of the co-propellant on the surface quality can be observed. In addition, the focus is laid on the effect of external contact cooling of the foamed sheets after the die exit.

  1. Evolutionary history of the OmpR/IIIA family of signal transduction two component systems in Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae

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    González-Candelas Fernando

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two component systems (TCS are signal transduction pathways which typically consist of a sensor histidine kinase (HK and a response regulator (RR. In this study, we have analyzed the evolution of TCS of the OmpR/IIIA family in Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae, two families belonging to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. LAB colonize nutrient-rich environments such as foodstuffs, plant materials and the gastrointestinal tract of animals thus driving the study of this group of both basic and applied interest. Results The genomes of 19 strains belonging to 16 different species have been analyzed. The number of TCS encoded by the strains considered in this study varied between 4 in Lactobacillus helveticus and 17 in Lactobacillus casei. The OmpR/IIIA family was the most prevalent in Lactobacillaceae accounting for 71% of the TCS present in this group. The phylogenetic analysis shows that no new TCS of this family has recently evolved in these Lactobacillaceae by either lineage-specific gene expansion or domain shuffling. Furthermore, no clear evidence of non-orthologous replacements of either RR or HK partners has been obtained, thus indicating that coevolution of cognate RR and HKs has been prevalent in Lactobacillaceae. Conclusions The results obtained suggest that vertical inheritance of TCS present in the last common ancestor and lineage-specific gene losses appear as the main evolutionary forces involved in their evolution in Lactobacillaceae, although some HGT events cannot be ruled out. This would agree with the genomic analyses of Lactobacillales which show that gene losses have been a major trend in the evolution of this group.

  2. A novel two-component signaling system facilitates uropathogenic Escherichia coli's ability to exploit abundant host metabolites.

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    Wentong Cai

    Full Text Available Two-component signaling systems (TCSs are major mechanisms by which bacteria adapt to environmental conditions. It follows then that TCSs would play important roles in the adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to host environments. However, no pathogen-associated TCS has been identified in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC. Here, we identified a novel TCS, which we termed KguS/KguR (KguS: α-ketoglutarate utilization sensor; KguR: α-ketoglutarate utilization regulator in UPEC CFT073, a strain isolated from human pyelonephritis. kguS/kguR was strongly associated with UPEC but was found only rarely among other E. coli including commensal and intestinal pathogenic strains. An in vivo competition assay in a mouse UTI model showed that deletion of kguS/kguR in UPEC CFT073 resulted in a significant reduction in its colonization of the bladders and kidneys of mice, suggesting that KguS/KguR contributed to UPEC fitness in vivo. Comparative proteomics identified the target gene products of KguS/KguR, and sequence analysis showed that TCS KguS/KguR and its targeted-genes, c5032 to c5039, are encoded on a genomic island, which is not present in intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Expression of the target genes was induced by α-ketoglutarate (α-KG. These genes were further shown to be involved in utilization of α-KG as a sole carbon source under anaerobic conditions. KguS/KguR contributed to the regulation of the target genes with the direct regulation by KguR verified using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In addition, oxygen deficiency positively modulated expression of kguS/kguR and its target genes. Taken altogether, this study describes the first UPEC-associated TCS that functions in controlling the utilization of α-ketoglutarate in vivo thereby facilitating UPEC adaptation to life inside the urinary tract.

  3. A novel two-component signaling system facilitates uropathogenic Escherichia coli's ability to exploit abundant host metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wentong; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Dell'anna, Giuseppe; Nicholson, Bryon; Barbieri, Nicolle L; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Feng, Yaping; Logue, Catherine M; Nolan, Lisa K; Li, Ganwu

    2013-01-01

    Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) are major mechanisms by which bacteria adapt to environmental conditions. It follows then that TCSs would play important roles in the adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to host environments. However, no pathogen-associated TCS has been identified in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Here, we identified a novel TCS, which we termed KguS/KguR (KguS: α-ketoglutarate utilization sensor; KguR: α-ketoglutarate utilization regulator) in UPEC CFT073, a strain isolated from human pyelonephritis. kguS/kguR was strongly associated with UPEC but was found only rarely among other E. coli including commensal and intestinal pathogenic strains. An in vivo competition assay in a mouse UTI model showed that deletion of kguS/kguR in UPEC CFT073 resulted in a significant reduction in its colonization of the bladders and kidneys of mice, suggesting that KguS/KguR contributed to UPEC fitness in vivo. Comparative proteomics identified the target gene products of KguS/KguR, and sequence analysis showed that TCS KguS/KguR and its targeted-genes, c5032 to c5039, are encoded on a genomic island, which is not present in intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Expression of the target genes was induced by α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). These genes were further shown to be involved in utilization of α-KG as a sole carbon source under anaerobic conditions. KguS/KguR contributed to the regulation of the target genes with the direct regulation by KguR verified using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In addition, oxygen deficiency positively modulated expression of kguS/kguR and its target genes. Taken altogether, this study describes the first UPEC-associated TCS that functions in controlling the utilization of α-ketoglutarate in vivo thereby facilitating UPEC adaptation to life inside the urinary tract.

  4. BarA-UvrY two-component system regulates virulence of uropathogenic E. coli CFT073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Mitra, Arindam; Herren, Christopher D; Lockatell, C Virginia; Johnson, David E; Zhu, Xiaoping; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a member of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, cause ∼80% of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in humans. UPEC initiates its colonization in epithelial cells lining the urinary tract with a complicated life cycle, replicating and persisting in intracellular and extracellular niches. Consequently, UPEC causes cystitis and more severe form of pyelonephritis. To further understand the virulence characteristics of UPEC, we investigated the roles of BarA-UvrY two-component system (TCS) in regulating UPEC virulence. Our results showed that mutation of BarA-UvrY TCS significantly decreased the virulence of UPEC CFT073, as assessed by mouse urinary tract infection, chicken embryo killing assay, and cytotoxicity assay on human kidney and uroepithelial cell lines. Furthermore, mutation of either barA or uvrY gene reduced the production of hemolysin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). The virulence phenotype was restored similar to that of wild-type by complementation of either barA or uvrY gene in trans. In addition, we discussed a possible link between the BarA-UvrY TCS and CsrA in positively and negatively controlling virulence in UPEC. Overall, this study provides the evidences for BarA-UvrY TCS regulates the virulence of UPEC CFT073 and may point to mechanisms by which virulence regulations are observed in different ways may control the long-term survival of UPEC in the urinary tract.

  5. The CroRS Two-Component Regulatory System Is Required for Intrinsic β-Lactam Resistance in Enterococcus faecalis

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    Comenge, Yannick; Quintiliani, Richard; Li, Ling; Dubost, Lionnel; Brouard, Jean-Paul; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Arthur, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis produces a specific penicillin-binding protein (PBP5) that mediates high-level resistance to the cephalosporin class of β-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of a locus encoding a previously uncharacterized two-component regulatory system of E. faecalis (croRS) led to a 4,000-fold reduction in the MIC of the expanded-spectrum cephalosporin ceftriaxone. The cytoplasmic domain of the sensor kinase (CroS) was purified and shown to catalyze ATP-dependent autophosphorylation followed by transfer of the phosphate to the mated response regulator (CroR). The croR and croS genes were cotranscribed from a promoter (croRp) located in the rrnC-croR intergenic region. A putative seryl-tRNA synthetase gene (serS) located immediately downstream from croS did not appear to be a target of CroRS regulation or to play a role in ceftriaxone resistance. A plasmid-borne croRp-lacZ fusion was trans-activated by the CroRS system in response to the presence of ceftriaxone in the culture medium. The fusion was also induced by representatives of other classes of β-lactam antibiotics and by inhibitors of early and late steps of peptidoglycan synthesis. The croRS null mutant produced PBP5, and expression of an additional copy of pbp5 under the control of a heterologous promoter did not restore ceftriaxone resistance. Deletion of croRS was not associated with any defect in the synthesis of the nucleotide precursor UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide or of the d-Ala4→l-Ala-l-Ala-Lys3 peptidoglycan cross-bridge. Thus, the croRS mutant was susceptible to ceftriaxone despite the production of PBP5 and the synthesis of wild-type peptidoglycan precursors. These observations constitute the first description of regulatory genes essential for PBP5-mediated β-lactam resistance in enterococci. PMID:14645279

  6. Molecular evolution of the two-component system BvgAS involved in virulence regulation in Bordetella.

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    Julien Herrou

    Full Text Available The whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis is closely related to Bordetella bronchiseptica, which is responsible for chronic respiratory infections in various mammals and is occasionally found in humans, and to Bordetella parapertussis, one lineage of which causes mild whooping cough in humans and the other ovine respiratory infections. All three species produce similar sets of virulence factors that are co-regulated by the two-component system BvgAS. We characterized the molecular diversity of BvgAS in Bordetella by sequencing the two genes from a large number of diverse isolates. The response regulator BvgA is virtually invariant, indicating strong functional constraints. In contrast, the multi-domain sensor kinase BvgS has evolved into two different types. The pertussis type is found in B. pertussis and in a lineage of essentially human-associated B. bronchiseptica, while the bronchiseptica type is associated with the majority of B. bronchiseptica and both ovine and human B. parapertussis. BvgS is monomorphic in B. pertussis, suggesting optimal adaptation or a recent population bottleneck. The degree of diversity of the bronchiseptica type BvgS is markedly different between domains, indicating distinct evolutionary pressures. Thus, absolute conservation of the putative solute-binding cavities of the two periplasmic Venus Fly Trap (VFT domains suggests that common signals are perceived in all three species, while the external surfaces of these domains vary more extensively. Co-evolution of the surfaces of the two VFT domains in each type and domain swapping experiments indicate that signal transduction in the periplasmic region may be type-specific. The two distinct evolutionary solutions for BvgS confirm that B. pertussis has emerged from a specific B. bronchiseptica lineage. The invariant regions of BvgS point to essential parts for its molecular mechanism, while the variable regions may indicate adaptations to different lifestyles. The

  7. Identification, Functional Characterization and Regulon Prediction of a Novel Two Component System Comprising BAS0540-BAS0541 of Bacillus anthracis

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    Gopalani, Monisha; Kandari, Divya; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Two component systems (TCSs) can be envisaged as complex molecular devices that help the bacteria to sense its environment and respond aptly. 41 TCSs are predicted in Bacillus anthracis, a potential bioterrorism agent, of which only four have been studied so far. Thus, the intricate signaling network contributed by TCSs remains largely unmapped in B. anthracis and needs comprehensive exploration. In this study, we functionally characterized one such system composed of BAS0540 (Response regulator) and BAS0541 (Histidine kinase). BAS0540-BAS0541, the closest homolog of CiaRH of Streptococcus in B. anthracis, forms a functional TCS with BAS0541 displaying autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphotransfer to BAS0540. BAS0540 was also found to accept phosphate from physiologically relevant small molecule phosphodonors like acetyl phosphate and carbamoyl phosphate. Results of qRT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated that BAS0540 exhibits a constitutive expression throughout the growth of B. anthracis. Regulon prediction for BAS0540 in B. anthracis was done in silico using the consensus DNA binding sequence of CiaR of Streptococcus. The predicted regulon of BAS0540 comprised of 23 genes, which could be classified into 8 functionally diverse categories. None of the proven virulence factors were a part of the predicted regulon, an observation contrasting with the regulon of CiaRH in Streptococci. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to show direct binding of purified BAS0540 to the upstream regions of 5 putative regulon candidates- BAS0540 gene itself; a gene predicted to encode cell division protein FtsA; a self–immunity gene; a RND family transporter gene and a gene encoding stress (heat) responsive protein. A significant enhancement in the DNA binding ability of BAS0540 was observed upon phosphorylation. Overexpression of response regulator BAS0540 in B. anthracis led to a prodigious increase of ~6 folds in the cell length, thereby conferring it a filamentous

  8. An Oxygen-Sensing Two-Component System in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex Regulates Biofilm, Intracellular Invasion, and Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tiffany L.; Boisvert, Nicole M.; Priebe, Gregory P.

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), which is a group of bacteria that cause chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can be associated with outbreaks carrying high morbidity and mortality. While investigating the genomic diversity of B. dolosa strains collected from an outbreak among CF patients, we previously identified fixL as a gene showing signs of strong positive selection. This gene has homology to fixL of the rhizobial FixL/FixJ two-component system. The goals of this study were to determine the functions of FixLJ and their role in virulence in B. dolosa. We generated a fixLJ deletion mutant and complemented controls in B. dolosa strain AU0158. Using a fixK-lacZ reporter we found that FixLJ was activated in low oxygen in multiple BCC species. In a murine pneumonia model, the B. dolosa fixLJ deletion mutant was cleared faster from the lungs and spleen than wild-type B. dolosa strain AU0158 at 7 days post infection. Interestingly, the fixLJ deletion mutant made more biofilm, albeit with altered structure, but was less motile than strain AU0158. Using RNA-seq with in vitro grown bacteria, we found ~11% of the genome was differentially expressed in the fixLJ deletion mutant relative to strain AU0158. Multiple flagella-associated genes were down-regulated in the fixLJ deletion mutant, so we also evaluated virulence of a fliC deletion mutant, which lacks a flagellum. We saw no difference in the ability of the fliC deletion mutant to persist in the murine model relative to strain AU0158, suggesting factors other than flagella caused the phenotype of decreased persistence. We found the fixLJ deletion mutant to be less invasive in human lung epithelial and macrophage-like cells. In conclusion, B. dolosa fixLJ is a global regulator that controls biofilm formation, motility, intracellular invasion/persistence, and virulence. PMID:28046077

  9. The prrAB Two-Component System Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Viability and Is Induced under Nitrogen-Limiting Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Haydel, Shelley E.; Malhotra, Vandana; Cornelison, Garrett L.; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis prrA-prrB (Rv0903c-Rv0902c) two-component regulatory system is expressed during intracellular growth in human macrophages and is required for early intracellular multiplication in murine macrophages, suggesting its importance in establishing infection. To better understand the function of the prrA-prrB two-component system, we defined the transcriptional characteristics of the prrA and prrB genes during exponential and stationary growth and upon exposure to diff...

  10. Origin and evolution of two-component debris discs and an application to the q$^1$ Eridani system

    CERN Document Server

    Schüppler, Christian; Löhne, Torsten; Booth, Mark; Kirchschlager, Florian; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Many debris discs reveal a two-component structure, with an outer Kuiper-belt analogue and a warm inner component whose origin is still a matter of debate. One possibility is that warm emission stems from an "asteroid belt" closer in to the star. We consider a scenario in which a set of giant planets is formed in an initially extended planetesimal disc. These planets carve a broad gap around their orbits, splitting up the disc into the outer and the inner belts. After the gas dispersal, both belts undergo collisional evolution in a steady-state regime. This scenario is explored with detailed collisional simulations involving realistic physics to describe a long-term collisional depletion of the two-component disc. We find that the inner disc may be able to retain larger amounts of material at older ages than thought before on the basis of simplified analytic models. We show that the proposed scenario is consistent with a suite of thermal emission and scattered light observational data for a bright two-tempera...

  11. Phosphorelay of non-orthodox two component systems functions through a bi-molecular mechanism in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Goran; Sheng, Xia; Ale, Angelique;

    2015-01-01

    the functional relevance of the dimerization of a non-orthodox or hybrid histidine kinase along which the phosphorelay takes place has been a subject of debate. We use a combination of molecular and genetic approaches, coupled to mathematical and statistical modelling, to demonstrate that the different possible...... intra- and inter-molecular mechanisms of phosphotransfer are formally non-identifiable in Escherichia coli expressing the ArcB non-orthodox histidine kinase used in anoxic redox control. In order to resolve this issue we further analyse the mathematical model in order to identify discriminatory...... in the histidine kinase. This is the first detailed mechanistic analysis of the molecular processes involved in non-orthodox two-component signalling and our results suggest strongly that dimerization facilitates more discriminatory proof-reading of external signals, via these allosteric reactions, prior to them...

  12. Analysis of the activity and regulon of the two-component regulatory system encoded by Cjj1484 and Cjj1483 of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial diarrheal disease throughout the world and a frequent commensal in the intestinal tract of poultry and many other animals. For maintaining optimal growth and ability to colonize various hosts, C. jejuni depends upon two-component regulatory system...

  13. Dissecting the regulon of the two-component system CvsSR: Identifying new virulence genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognition of environmental changes and regulation of genes that allow for adaption to those changes is essential for survival of bacteria. Two-component systems (TCSs) allow bacteria to sense and adapt to their environment. We previously identified the TCS CvsSR in the bacterial plant pathogen Pse...

  14. The development of a two-component force dynamometer and tool control system for dynamic machine tool research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development is presented of a tooling system that makes a controlled sinusoidal oscillation simulating a dynamic chip removal condition. It also measures the machining forces in two mutually perpendicular directions without any cross sensitivity.

  15. Pattern formation in a two-component reaction-diffusion system with delayed processes on a network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Julien; Asllani, Malbor; Fanelli, Duccio; Lauwens, Ben; Carletti, Timoteo

    2016-11-01

    Reaction-diffusion systems with time-delay defined on complex networks have been studied in the framework of the emergence of Turing instabilities. The use of the Lambert W-function allowed us to get explicit analytic conditions for the onset of patterns as a function of the main involved parameters, the time-delay, the network topology and the diffusion coefficients. Depending on these parameters, the analysis predicts whether the system will evolve towards a stationary Turing pattern or rather to a wave pattern associated to a Hopf bifurcation. The possible outcomes of the linear analysis overcome the respective limitations of the single-species case with delay, and that of the classical activator-inhibitor variant without delay. Numerical results gained from the Mimura-Murray model support the theoretical approach.

  16. The Vibrio cholerae VprA-VprB Two-Component System Controls Virulence Through Endotoxin Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    assay. All animal studies were carried out under protocols approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Texas at... antimicrobial peptides of the innate immune system bind to the membrane of Gram-negative pathogens via conserved, surface-exposed lipopolysaccharide (LPS... antimicrobial peptide polymyxin. However, the regulatory mechanisms of lipid A modification in V. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

  17. Differential Target Gene Activation by the Staphylococcus aureus Two-Component System saeRS ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Mainiero, Markus; Goerke, Christiane; Geiger, Tobias; Gonser, Christoph; Herbert, Silvia; Wolz, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    The saePQRS system of Staphylococcus aureus controls the expression of major virulence factors and encodes a histidine kinase (SaeS), a response regulator (SaeR), a membrane protein (SaeQ), and a lipoprotein (SaeP). The widely used strain Newman is characterized by a single amino acid change in the sensory domain of SaeS (Pro18 in strain Newman [SaeSP], compared with Leu18 in other strains [SaeSL]). SaeSP determines activation of the class I sae target genes (coa, fnbA, eap, sib, efb, fib, sa...

  18. A model system for pathogen detection using a two-component bacteriophage/bioluminescent signal amplification assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Nathan G.; Carroll, Richard J.; Applegate, Bruce M.

    2004-03-01

    Microbial contamination has become a mounting concern the last decade due to an increased emphasis of minimally processed food products specifically produce, and the recognition of foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. This research investigates a detection approach utilizing bacteriophage pathogen specificity coupled with a bacterial bioluminescent bioreporter utilizing the quorum sensing molecule from Vibrio fischeri, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). The 3-oxo-C6-HSL molecules diffuse out of the target cell after infection and induce bioluminescence from a population of 3-oxo-C6-HSL bioreporters (ROLux). E. coli phage M13, a well-characterized bacteriophage, offers a model system testing the use of bacteriophage for pathogen detection through cell-to-cell communication via a LuxR/3-oxo-C6-HSL system. Simulated temperate phage assays tested functionality of the ROLux reporter and production of 3-oxo-C6-HSL by various test strains. These assays showed detection limits of 102cfu after 24 hours in a varietry of detection formats. Assays incorporating the bacteriophage M13-luxI with the ROLux reporter and a known population of target cells were subsequently developed and have shown consistent detection limits of 105cfu target organisms. Measurable light response from high concentrations of target cells was almost immediate, suggesting an enrichment step to further improve detection limits and reduce assay time.

  19. Unsteady fluid dynamics of several mechanical prosthetic heart valves using a two component laser Doppler anemometer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, T; Modi, V J

    1997-10-01

    Five typical mechanical heart valves (Starr-Edwards, Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (c-c), Björk-Shiley monostrut, Bicer-Val, and St. Jude Medical) were tested in the mitral position under the pulsatile flow condition. The test program included measurements of velocity and turbulent stresses at 5 downstream locations. The study was carried out using a sophisticated cardiac simulator in conjunction with a highly sensitive 2 component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) system. The continuous monitoring of parametric time histories revealed useful details about the complex flow and helped to establish the locations and times of the peak parameter values. Based upon the nondimensional presentation of data, the following general conclusions can be made. First, all the 5 valve designs created elevated turbulent stresses during the accelerating and peak flow phases, presenting the possibility of thromboembolism and perhaps hemolysis. Second, the difference in valve configuration seemed to affect the flow characteristics; third, the bileaflet design of the St. Jude valve appeared to create a lower turbulence stress level.

  20. On Mechanics and Thermodynamics of a stellar galaxy in a two-component virial system and the Fundamental Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Secco, L

    2005-01-01

    The paper confirms the existence of a special configuration (among the infinite number of virial states) which a B stellar(Baryonic) component may assume inside a given D dark halo potential well.This satisfies the d'Alembert Principle of virtual works and its typical dimension works as a scale length (tidal radius)induced on the gravitational field of the bright component by the dark one.Its dynamic and thermodynamic properties are here analyzed in connection with the physical reason for the existence of the Fundamental Plane (FP) for ellipticals.The analysis is performed by using 2-component models with two power-law density profiles and two homogeneous cores and compared with some observable scaling relations for pressure supported ellipticals.The virial equilibrium stages of the 2-component system have to occur after a previous violent relaxation phase. If the stellar B component is allowed to cool slowly its virial evolution consists of a sequence of contractions with enough time to rearrange the virial ...

  1. Polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phoQ mutants is dependent on additional two-component regulatory systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutu, Alina D; Sgambati, Nicole; Strasbourger, Pnina;

    2013-01-01

    systems, ColRS and CprRS. Deletion of the colRS genes, individually or in tandem, abrogated the polymyxin resistance of a ΔphoQ mutant, as did individual or tandem deletion of cprRS. Individual deletion of colR or colS in a ΔphoQ mutant also suppressed 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, consistent...... with the known role of this modification in polymyxin resistance. Surprisingly, tandem deletion of colRS or cprRS in the ΔphoQ mutant or individual deletion of cprR or cprS failed to suppress 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, indicating that this modification alone is not sufficient for Pho......PQ-mediated polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa. Episomal expression of colRS or cprRS in tandem or of cprR individually complemented the Pm resistance phenotype in the ΔphoQ mutant, while episomal expression of colR, colS, or cprS individually did not. Highly polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutants of P. aeruginosa...

  2. On the characterization of dynamic supramolecular systems: a general mathematical association model for linear supramolecular copolymers and application on a complex two-component hydrogen-bonding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odille, Fabrice G J; Jónsson, Stefán; Stjernqvist, Susann; Rydén, Tobias; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the characterization of the dynamic (kinetically labile) association of supramolecular assemblies in solution is presented. It is an extension of the equal K (EK) model by the stringent use of linear algebra to allow for the simultaneous presence of an unlimited number of different units in the resulting assemblies. It allows for the analysis of highly complex dynamic equilibrium systems in solution, including both supramolecular homo- and copolymers without the recourse to extensive approximations, in a field in which other analytical methods are difficult. The derived mathematical methodology makes it possible to analyze dynamic systems such as supramolecular copolymers regarding for instance the degree of polymerization, the distribution of a given monomer in different copolymers as well as its position in an aggregate. It is to date the only general means to characterize weak supramolecular systems. The model was fitted to NMR dilution titration data by using the program Matlab, and a detailed algorithm for the optimization of the different parameters has been developed. The methodology is applied to a case study, a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular system, salen 4+porphyrin 5. The system is formally a two-component system but in reality a three-component system. This results in a complex dynamic system in which all monomers are associated to each other by hydrogen bonding with different association constants, resulting in homo- and copolymers 4n5m as well as cyclic structures 6 and 7, in addition to free 4 and 5. The system was analyzed by extensive NMR dilution titrations at variable temperatures. All chemical shifts observed at different temperatures were used in the fitting to obtain the DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees values producing the best global fit. From the derived general mathematical expressions, system 4+5 could be characterized with respect to above-mentioned parameters.

  3. The two-component regulatory systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa%铜绿假单胞菌的双组分系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利达; 黄彬

    2011-01-01

    双组分系统是存在于原核和少部分真核生物细胞中的信号转导系统,主要由组氨酸蛋白激酶和反应调节蛋白组成,通过感应外界环境信号、信号输入、磷酸基团传递、信号输出等环节调节基因表达,使细胞能更加适应环境变化.铜绿假单胞菌为条件致病菌,其双组分系统构成多样、功能复杂且参与介导耐药性产生,因此铜绿假单胞菌的双组分系统日益引起人们关注.本文对铜绿假单胞菌双组分系统的组成、信号转导机制、种类、研究方法及其临床意义进行了综述.%Two-component regulatory system exists in both Prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which is mainly composed with HPK and RR. By means of the signal input, phosphorylation, and output, it can regulate the adaptability of cells to the environment. As a major opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the main pathogens of nosocomial infection. Its drug-resistant strains increase year by year, the two-component system of which involved in the generation of drug resistance. Since the two-component system is essentially different from the system in human cells in signal transduc-tion, finding a new antibiotic target has great potential.

  4. Closing the loop: The PmrA/PmrB two-component system negatively controls expression of its posttranscriptional activator PmrD

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Akinori; Latifi, Tammy; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental question in biology is how an organism integrates multiple signals to mediate an appropriate cellular response. The PmrA/PmrB two-component system of Salmonella enterica can be activated independently by Fe3+, which is sensed by the PmrB protein, and in low Mg2+, which is sensed by the PhoQ protein. The low-Mg2+ activation requires pmrD, a PhoP/PhoQ-activated gene that activates the response regulator PmrA at a posttranscriptional level. We now report that pmrD expression is neg...

  5. The PmrA/PmrB Two-Component System of Legionella pneumophila Is a Global Regulator Required for Intracellular Replication within Macrophages and Protozoa▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Al-khodor, Souhaila; Kalachikov, Sergey; Morozova, Irina; Price, Christopher T.; Abu Kwaik, Yousef

    2008-01-01

    To examine the role of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system (TCS) of Legionella pneumophila in global gene regulation and in intracellular infection, we constructed pmrA and pmrB isogenic mutants by allelic exchange. Genome-wide microarray gene expression analyses of the pmrA and pmrB mutants at both the exponential and the postexponential phases have shown that the PmrA/PmrB TCS has a global effect on the expression of 279 genes classified into nine groups of genes encoding eukaryotic-like pro...

  6. Identification of the phosphorylation site of the histidine kinase of E. coli AtoS-AtoC two-component system

    OpenAIRE

    Filippou, P.S.; Kasemian, L. D.; Panagiotidis, C A; Kyriakidis, D A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Journal URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119877016/tocgroup The sensor histidine kinase AtoS together with AtoC/Az constitute a two-component signal transduction system (TCS) in E. coli, involved in the regulation of the atoDAEB operon. Upon activation by acetoacetate, AtoS autophosphorylates and subsequently phosphorylates AtoC which is essential for the transcriptional regulation of the atoDAEB operon, the products of which are involved in the catabolism of sho...

  7. Serotype- and strain- dependent contribution of the sensor kinase CovS of the CovRS two-component system to Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podbielski Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS two-component signal transduction system CovRS has been described to be important for pathogenesis of this exclusively human bacterial species. If this system acts uniquely in all serotypes is currently unclear. Presence of serotype- or strain-dependent regulatory circuits and polarity is an emerging scheme in Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenesis. Thus, the contribution of the sensor kinase (CovS of the global regulatory two-component signal transduction system CovRS on pathogenesis of several M serotypes was investigated. Results CovS mutation uniformly repressed capsule expression and hampered keratinocyte adherence in all tested serotypes. However, a serotype- and even strain-dependent contribution on survival in whole human blood and biofilm formation was noted, respectively. Conclusions These data provide new information on the action of the CovS sensor kinase and revealed that its activity on capsule expression and keratinocyte adherence is uniform across serotypes, whereas the influence on biofilm formation and blood survival is serotype or even strain dependent. This adds the CovRS system to a growing list of serotype-specific acting regulatory loci in S. pyogenes.

  8. The PprA-PprB two-component system activates CupE, the first non-archetypal Pseudomonas aeruginosa chaperone-usher pathway system assembling fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Caroline; Bernard, Christophe S; Calderon, Virginie; Yang, Liang; Filloux, Alain; Molin, Søren; Fichant, Gwennaele; Bordi, Christophe; de Bentzmann, Sophie

    2011-03-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has redundant molecular systems that contribute to its pathogenicity. Those assembling fimbrial structures promote complex organized community lifestyle. We characterized a new 5.8 kb genetic locus, cupE, that includes the conserved usher- and chaperone-encoding genes. This locus, widely conserved in different bacterial species, contains four additional genes encoding non-archetypal fimbrial subunits. We first evidenced that the cupE gene cluster was specifically expressed in biofilm conditions and was responsible for fibre assembly containing at least CupE1 protein, at the bacterial cell surface. These fimbriae not only played a significant role in the early stages (microcolony and macrocolony formation) but also in shaping 3D mushrooms during P. aeruginosa biofilm development. Using wide-genome transposon mutagenesis, we identified the PprAB two-component system (TCS) as a regulator of cupE expression, and further demonstrated the involvement of the PprAB TCS in direct CupE fimbrial assembly activation. Thus, this TCS represents a new regulatory element controlling the transition between planktonic and community lifestyles in P. aeruginosa.

  9. The Role of the Two-Component System BaeSR in Disposing Chemicals through Regulating Transporter Systems in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Feng Lin

    Full Text Available Bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs facilitate changes in gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. TCS BaeR regulons influence tigecycline susceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii through positively regulating the pump genes adeA and adeB. In this study, we demonstrate that an additional two transport systems, AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC, are also regulated by BaeSR. In the wild type and clinical tigecycline-resistant A. baumannii strains, gene expression of AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC increased after tigecycline induction, implicating their importance to tigecycline resistance in addition to AdeABC. Phenotypic microarray results showed that A. baumannii is vulnerable to certain chemicals, especially tannic acid, after deleting baeR, which was confirmed using the spot assay. The wild-type strain of A. baumannii also exhibited 1.6-fold and 4.4-fold increase in gene expression of adeJ and macB in the medium with 100 μg/mL tannic acid, but the increase was fully inhibited by baeR deletion. An electrophoretic motility shift assay based on an interaction between His-BaeR and the adeA, adeI and macA promoter regions did not demonstrate direct binding. In conclusion, A. baumannii can use the TCS BaeSR in disposing chemicals, such as tannic acid and tigecycline, through regulating the efflux pumps.

  10. Control of CydB and GltA1 expression by the SenX3 RegX3 two component regulatory system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretta Roberts

    Full Text Available Two component regulatory systems are used widely by bacteria to coordinate changes in global gene expression profiles in response to environmental signals. The SenX3-RegX3 two component system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has previously been shown to play a role in virulence and phosphate-responsive control of gene expression. We demonstrate that expression of SenX3-RegX3 is controlled in response to growth conditions, although the absolute changes are small. Global gene expression profiling of a RegX3 deletion strain and wild-type strain in different culture conditions (static, microaerobic, anaerobic, as well as in an over-expressing strain identified a number of genes with changed expression patterns. Among those were genes previously identified as differentially regulated in aerobic culture, including ald (encoding alanine dehydrogenase cyd,encoding a subunit of the cytochrome D ubiquinol oxidase, and gltA1, encoding a citrate synthase. Promoter activity in the upstream regions of both cydB and gltA1 was altered in the RegX3 deletion strain. DNA-binding assays confirmed that RegX3 binds to the promoter regions of ald, cydB and gltA1 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Taken together these data suggest a direct role for the SenX-RegX3 system in modulating expression of aerobic respiration, in addition to its role during phosphate limitation.

  11. A subfamily of putative cytokinin receptors is revealed by an analysis of the evolution of the two-component signaling system of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Nijuscha; Halawa, Mhyeddeen; Snel, Berend; Seidl, Michael F; Heyl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The two-component signaling system--the major signaling pathway of bacteria--is found among higher eukaryotes only in plants, where it regulates diverse processes, such as the signaling of the phytohormone cytokinin. Cytokinin is perceived by a hybrid histidine (His) kinase receptor, and the signal is transduced by a multistep phosphorelay system of His phosphotransfer proteins and different classes of response regulators (RRs). To shed light on the origin and evolution of the two-component signaling system members in plants, we conducted a comprehensive domain-based phylogenetic study across the relevant kingdoms, including Charophyceae algae, the group of green algae giving rise to land plants. Surprisingly, we identified a subfamily of cytokinin receptors with members only from the early diverging land plants Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens and then experimentally characterized two members of this subfamily. His phosphotransfer proteins of Charophyceae seemed to be more closely related to land plants than to other groups of green algae. Farther down the signaling pathway, the type-B RRs were found across all plant clades, but many members lack either the canonical Asp residue or the DNA binding domain. In contrast, the type-A RRs seemed to be limited to land plants. Finally, the analysis provided hints that one additional group of RRs, the type-C RRs, might be degenerated receptors and thus, of a different evolutionary origin than bona fide RRs.

  12. Searching for Potential Drug Targets in Two-component and Phosphorelay Signal-transduction Systems using Three-dimensional Cluster Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui CAI; Qing ZHANG; Shuo-Yong SHI; Da-Fu DING

    2005-01-01

    Two-component and phosphorelay signal transduction systems are central components in the virulence and antimicrobial resistance responses of a number of bacterial and fungal pathogens; in some cases, these systems are essential for bacterial growth and viability. Herein, we analyze in detail the conserved surface residue clusters in the phosphotransferase domain of histidine kinases and the regulatory domain of response regulators by using complex structure-based three-dimensional cluster analysis. We also investigatethe protein-protein interactions that these residue clusters participate in. The Spo0B-SpoOF complex structure was used as the reference structure, and the multiple aligned sequences of phosphotransferases and response regulators were paired correspondingly. The results show that a contiguous conserved residue cluster is formed around the active site, which crosses the interface of histidine kinases and response regulators. The conserved residue clusters of phosphotransferase and the regulatory domains are directly involved in the functional implementation of two-component signal transduction systems and are good targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  13. The Two-Component System CprRS Senses Cationic Peptides and Triggers Adaptive Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Independently of ParRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Luca; Jenssen, Håvard; Bains, Manjeet

    2012-01-01

    dependency on the CprRS and ParRS systems in a concentration-dependent manner. It was further demonstrated that, following exposure to inducing antimicrobial peptides, cprRS mutants did not become adaptively resistant to polymyxins as was observed for wild-type cells. Our microarray studies demonstrated...... that the CprRS system controlled a quite modest regulon, indicating that it was quite specific to adaptive peptide resistance. These findings provide greater insight into the complex regulation of LPS modification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which involves the participation of at least 4 two-component systems.......Cationic antimicrobial peptides pass across the outer membrane by interacting with negatively charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to outer membrane permeabilization in a process termed self-promoted uptake. Resistance can be mediated by the addition of positively charged arabinosamine through...

  14. Systems level analysis of two-component signal transduction systems in Erwinia amylovora: Role in virulence, regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundin George W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTs, consisting of a histidine kinase (HK and a response regulator (RR, represent a major paradigm for signal transduction in prokaryotes. TCSTs play critical roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions, and in bacterial pathogenesis. Most TCSTs in Erwinia amylovora have either not been identified or have not yet been studied. Results We used a systems approach to identify TCST and related signal transduction genes in the genome of E. amylovora. Comparative genomic analysis of TCSTs indicated that E. amylovora TCSTs were closely related to those of Erwinia tasmaniensis, a saprophytic enterobacterium isolated from apple flowers, and to other enterobacteria. Forty-six TCST genes in E. amylovora including 17 sensor kinases, three hybrid kinases, 20 DNA- or ligand-binding RRs, four RRs with enzymatic output domain (EAL-GGDEF proteins, and two kinases were characterized in this study. A systematic TCST gene-knockout experiment was conducted, generating a total of 59 single-, double-, and triple-mutants. Virulence assays revealed that five of these mutants were non-pathogenic on immature pear fruits. Results from phenotypic characterization and gene expression experiments indicated that several groups of TCST systems in E. amylovora control amylovoran biosynthesis, one of two major virulence factors in E. amylovora. Both negative and positive regulators of amylovoran biosynthesis were identified, indicating a complex network may control this important feature of pathogenesis. Positive (non-motile, EnvZ/OmpR, negative (hypermotile, GrrS/GrrA, and intermediate regulators for swarming motility in E. amylovora were also identified. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that TCSTs in E. amylovora played major roles in virulence on immature pear fruit and in regulating amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility. This suggested presence of regulatory networks governing

  15. A connecter-like factor, CacA, links RssB/RpoS and the CpxR/CpxA two-component system in Salmonella

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    Kato Akinori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria integrate numerous environmental stimuli when generating cellular responses. Increasing numbers of examples describe how one two-component system (TCS responds to signals detected by the sensor of another TCS. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined. Results Here, we report a connector-like factor that affects the activity of the CpxR/CpxA two-component system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We isolated a clone that induced the expression of a cpxP-lac gene fusion from a high-copy-number plasmid pool of random Salmonella genomic fragments. A 63-amino acid protein, CacA, was responsible for the CpxA/CpxR-dependent activation of the cpxP gene. The CpxR-activated genes cpxP and spy exhibited approximately 30% and 50% reductions in transcription, respectively, in a clean cacA deletion mutant strain in comparison to wild-type. From 33 response regulator (RR deletion mutants, we identified that the RssB regulator represses cacA transcription. Substitution mutations in a conserved -10 region harboring the RNA polymerase recognition sequence, which is well conserved with a known RpoS -10 region consensus sequence, rendered the cacA promoter RpoS-independent. The CacA-mediated induction of cpxP transcription was affected in a trxA deletion mutant, which encodes thioredoxin 1, suggesting a role for cysteine thiol-disulfide exchange(s in CacA-dependent Cpx activation. Conclusions We identified CacA as an activator of the CpxR/CpxA system in the plasmid clone. We propose that CacA may integrate the regulatory status of RssB/RpoS into the CpxR/CpxA system. Future investigations are necessary to thoroughly elucidate how CacA activates the CpxR/CpxA system.

  16. Contributions of Two-Component Regulatory Systems, Alternative σ Factors, and Negative Regulators to Listeria monocytogenes Cold Adaptation and Cold Growth

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    Chan, Yvonne C.; Hu, Yuewei; Chaturongakul, Soraya; Files, Kali D.; Bowen, Barbara M.; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to grow at refrigeration temperatures is critical for transmission of this foodborne pathogen. We evaluated the contributions of different transcriptional regulators and two-component regulatory systems to L. monocytogenes cold adaptation and cold growth. L. monocytogenes parent strain 10403S and selected isogenic null mutants in genes encoding four alternative σ factors (sigB, sigH, sigC, and sigL), two regulators of σB (rsbT and rsbV), two negative regulators (ctsR and hrcA), and 15 two-component response regulators were grown in brain heart infusion broth at 4°C with (i) a high-concentration starting inoculum (108 CFU/ml), (ii) a low-concentration starting inoculum (102 CFU/ml), and (iii) a high-concentration starting inoculum of cold-adapted cells. With a starting inoculum of 108 CFU/ml, null mutants in genes encoding selected alternative σ factors (ΔsigH, ΔsigC, and ΔsigL), a negative regulator (ΔctsR), regulators of σB (ΔrsbT and ΔrsbV), and selected two-component response regulators (ΔlisR, Δlmo1172, and Δlmo1060) had significantly reduced growth (P < 0.05) compared with the parent strain after 12 days at 4°C. The growth defect for ΔsigL was limited and was not confirmed by optical density (OD600) measurement data. With a starting inoculum of 102 CFU/ml and after monitoring growth at 4°C over 84 days, only the ΔctsR strain had a consistent but limited growth defect; the other mutant strains had either no growth defects or limited growth defects apparent at only one or two of the nine sampling points evaluated during the 84-day growth period (ΔsigB, ΔsigC, and Δlmo1172). With a 108 CFU/ml starting inoculum of cold-adapted cells, none of the mutant strains that had a growth defect when inoculation was performed with cells pregrown at 37°C had reduced growth as compared with the parent strain after 12 days at 4°C, suggesting a specific defect in the ability of these mutant strains to adapt to 4

  17. The VirS/VirR two-component system regulates the anaerobic cytotoxicity, intestinal pathogenicity, and enterotoxemic lethality of Clostridium perfringens type C isolate CN3685.

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    Ma, Menglin; Vidal, Jorge; Saputo, Juliann; McClane, Bruce A; Uzal, Francisco

    2011-01-25

    Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells cause both histotoxic infections (e.g., gas gangrene) and diseases originating in the intestines (e.g., hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis or lethal enterotoxemia). Despite their medical and veterinary importance, the molecular pathogenicity of C. perfringens vegetative cells causing diseases of intestinal origin remains poorly understood. However, C. perfringens beta toxin (CPB) was recently shown to be important when vegetative cells of C. perfringens type C strain CN3685 induce hemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis and lethal enterotoxemia. Additionally, the VirS/VirR two-component regulatory system was found to control CPB production by CN3685 vegetative cells during aerobic infection of cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. Using an isogenic virR null mutant, the current study now reports that the VirS/VirR system also regulates CN3685 cytotoxicity during infection of Caco-2 cells under anaerobic conditions, as found in the intestines. More importantly, the virR mutant lost the ability to cause hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis in rabbit small intestinal loops. Western blot analyses demonstrated that the VirS/VirR system mediates necrotizing enteritis, at least in part, by controlling in vivo CPB production. In addition, vegetative cells of the isogenic virR null mutant were, relative to wild-type vegetative cells, strongly attenuated in their lethality in a mouse enterotoxemia model. Collectively, these results identify the first regulator of in vivo pathogenicity for C. perfringens vegetative cells causing disease originating in the complex intestinal environment. Since VirS/VirR also mediates histotoxic infections, this two-component regulatory system now assumes a global role in regulating a spectrum of infections caused by C. perfringens vegetative cells.

  18. The Eukaryotic-Like Ser/Thr Kinase PrkC Regulates the Essential WalRK Two-Component System in Bacillus subtilis.

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    Elizabeth A Libby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bacteria contain both eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr phosphatases (eSTPs. Their role in bacterial physiology is not currently well understood in large part because the conditions where the eSTKs are active are generally not known. However, all sequenced Gram-positive bacteria have a highly conserved eSTK with extracellular PASTA repeats that bind cell wall derived muropeptides. Here, we report that in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the PASTA-containing eSTK PrkC and its cognate eSTP PrpC converge with the essential WalRK two-component system to regulate WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism. By continuously monitoring gene expression throughout growth, we consistently find a large PrkC-dependent effect on expression of several different WalR regulon genes in early stationary phase, including both those that are activated by WalR (yocH as well as those that are repressed (iseA, pdaC. We demonstrate that PrkC phosphorylates WalR in vitro and in vivo on a single Thr residue located in the receiver domain. Although the phosphorylated region of the receiver domain is highly conserved among several B. subtilis response regulators, PrkC displays specificity for WalR in vitro. Consistently, strains expressing a nonphosphorylatable WalR point mutant strongly reduce both PrkC dependent activation and repression of yocH, iseA, and pdaC. This suggests a model where the eSTK PrkC regulates the essential WalRK two-component signaling system by direct phosphorylation of WalR Thr101, resulting in the regulation of WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism in stationary phase. As both the eSTK PrkC and the essential WalRK two-component system are highly conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, these results may be applicable to further understanding the role of eSTKs in Gram-positive physiology and cell wall metabolism.

  19. Development and validation of a high-throughput cell-based screen to identify activators of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Julia J; Fortney, Kate R; Chen, Lan; Krieger, Andrew J; Lima, Bruno P; Wolfe, Alan J; Katz, Barry P; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Spinola, Stanley M

    2015-07-01

    CpxRA is a two-component signal transduction system (2CSTS) found in many drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In response to periplasmic stress, CpxA autophosphorylates and donates a phosphoryl group to its cognate response regulator, CpxR. Phosphorylated CpxR (CpxR-P) upregulates genes involved in membrane repair and downregulates multiple genes that encode virulence factors, which are trafficked across the cell membrane. Mutants that constitutively activate CpxRA in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Haemophilus ducreyi are avirulent in mice and humans, respectively. Thus, the activation of CpxRA has high potential as a novel antimicrobial/antivirulence strategy. Using a series of Escherichia coli strains containing a CpxR-P-responsive lacZ reporter and deletions in genes encoding CpxRA system components, we developed and validated a novel cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) for CpxRA activators. A screen of 36,000 compounds yielded one hit compound that increased reporter activity in wild-type cells. This is the first report of a compound that activates, rather than inhibits, a 2CSTS. The activity profile of the compound against CpxRA pathway mutants in the presence of glucose suggested that the compound inhibits CpxA phosphatase activity. We confirmed that the compound induced the accumulation of CpxR-P in treated cells. Although the hit compound contained a nitro group, a derivative lacking this group retained activity in serum and had lower cytotoxicity than that of the initial hit. This HTS is amenable for the screening of larger libraries to find compounds that activate CpxRA by other mechanisms, and it could be adapted to find activators of other two-component systems.

  20. Structural features of the two-component system LisR/LisK suggests multiple responses for the adaptation and survival of Listeria monocytogenes

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    Nelson Enrique Arenas Suarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we characterized the structure of the two-component regulatory system, LisR/LisK, in Listeria monocytogenes. To predict the structure of both proteins and the relationship between them, we employed several bioinformatic tools and databases. Based on our results, LisK protein is embedded in the cell membrane and its modular composition (HAMP, histidine kinase and ATPase domains is associated with its autophosphorylation (His-266. A stimulus-response likely determines the sequential signal propagation from the bacterial cell surface to its cytoplasmic components. According to our results, LisR is a cytoplasmic protein with a receptor domain (homologous to CheY that comprises a phosphoacceptor residue (Asp-52 and a DNA-binding domain, which may allow the transmission of a specific transcriptional response. LisR/LisK has been experimentally characterized both biochemically andfunctionally in other Bacilli pathophysiology; our structure-function approach may facilitate the design of suitable inhibitors.

  1. The LovK-LovR two-component system is a regulator of the general stress pathway in Caulobacter crescentus.

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    Foreman, Robert; Fiebig, Aretha; Crosson, Sean

    2012-06-01

    A conserved set of regulators control the general stress response in Caulobacter crescentus, including σ(T), its anti-σ factor NepR, the anti-anti-σ factor PhyR, and the transmembrane sensor kinase PhyK. We report that the soluble histidine kinase LovK and the single-domain response regulator LovR also function within the C. crescentus general stress pathway. Our genetic data support a model in which LovK-LovR functions upstream of σ(T) by controlling the phosphorylation state and thus anti-anti-σ activity of PhyR. Transcription of lovK and lovR is independently activated by stress through a mechanism that requires sigT and phyR. Conversely, lovK and lovR function together to repress transcription of the general stress regulon. Concordant with a functional role of the LovK-LovR two-component system as a negative regulator of the general stress pathway, lovK-lovR-null mutants exhibit increased cell survival after osmotic stress, while coordinate overexpression of lovK and lovR attenuates cell survival relative to that of the wild type. Notably, lovK can complement the transcriptional and cell survival defects of a phyK-null mutant when lovR is deleted. Moreover, in this same genetic background, σ(T)-dependent transcription is activated in response to osmotic stress. This result suggests that flavin-binding LOV (light, oxygen, or voltage) histidine kinases are competent to perceive cytoplasmic signals in addition to the environmental signal blue light. We conclude that the PhyK-PhyR and LovK-LovR two-component signaling systems coordinately regulate stress physiology in C. crescentus.

  2. Impact of the Staphylococcus epidermidis LytSR two-component regulatory system on murein hydrolase activity, pyruvate utilization and global transcriptional profile

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    Yu Fangyou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, mainly because of its ability to colonize implanted biomaterials by forming a biofilm. Extensive studies are focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation. The LytSR two-component regulatory system regulates autolysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the role of LytSR played in S. epidermidis remained unknown. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that lytSR knock-out in S. epidermidis did not alter susceptibility to Triton X-100 induced autolysis. Quantitative murein hydrolase assay indicated that disruption of lytSR in S. epidermidis resulted in decreased activities of extracellular murein hydrolases, although zymogram showed no apparent differences in murein hydrolase patterns between S. epidermidis strain 1457 and its lytSR mutant. Compared to the wild-type counterpart, 1457ΔlytSR produced slightly more biofilm, with significantly decreased dead cells inside. Microarray analysis showed that lytSR mutation affected the transcription of 164 genes (123 genes were upregulated and 41 genes were downregulated. Specifically, genes encoding proteins responsible for protein synthesis, energy metabolism were downregulated, while genes involved in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, amino acid transporters were upregulated. Impaired ability to utilize pyruvate and reduced activity of arginine deiminase was observed in 1457ΔlytSR, which is consistent with the microarray data. Conclusions The preliminary results suggest that in S. epidermidis LytSR two-component system regulates extracellular murein hydrolase activity, bacterial cell death and pyruvate utilization. Based on the microarray data, it appears that lytSR inactivation induces a stringent response. In addition, LytSR may indirectly enhance biofilm formation by altering the metabolic status of the bacteria.

  3. The Hybrid Histidine Kinase LadS Forms a Multicomponent Signal Transduction System with the GacS/GacA Two-Component System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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    Gaël Chambonnier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In response to environmental changes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to switch from a planktonic (free swimming to a sessile (biofilm lifestyle. The two-component system (TCS GacS/GacA activates the production of two small non-coding RNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, but four histidine kinases (HKs, RetS, GacS, LadS and PA1611, are instrumental in this process. RetS hybrid HK blocks GacS unorthodox HK autophosphorylation through the formation of a heterodimer. PA1611 hybrid HK, which is structurally related to GacS, interacts with RetS in P. aeruginosa in a very similar manner to GacS. LadS hybrid HK phenotypically antagonizes the function of RetS by a mechanism that has never been investigated. The four sensors are found in most Pseudomonas species but their characteristics and mode of signaling may differ from one species to another. Here, we demonstrated in P. aeruginosa that LadS controls both rsmY and rsmZ gene expression and that this regulation occurs through the GacS/GacA TCS. We additionally evidenced that in contrast to RetS, LadS signals through GacS/GacA without forming heterodimers, either with GacS or with RetS. Instead, we demonstrated that LadS is involved in a genuine phosphorelay, which requires both transmitter and receiver LadS domains. LadS signaling ultimately requires the alternative histidine-phosphotransfer domain of GacS, which is here used as an Hpt relay by the hybrid kinase. LadS HK thus forms, with the GacS/GacA TCS, a multicomponent signal transduction system with an original phosphorelay cascade, i.e. H1LadS→D1LadS→H2GacS→D2GacA. This highlights an original strategy in which a unique output, i.e. the modulation of sRNA levels, is controlled by a complex multi-sensing network to fine-tune an adapted biofilm and virulence response.

  4. The Hybrid Histidine Kinase LadS Forms a Multicomponent Signal Transduction System with the GacS/GacA Two-Component System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Redelberger, David; Fadel, Firas; Filloux, Alain; Sivaneson, Melissa; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Bordi, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental changes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to switch from a planktonic (free swimming) to a sessile (biofilm) lifestyle. The two-component system (TCS) GacS/GacA activates the production of two small non-coding RNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, but four histidine kinases (HKs), RetS, GacS, LadS and PA1611, are instrumental in this process. RetS hybrid HK blocks GacS unorthodox HK autophosphorylation through the formation of a heterodimer. PA1611 hybrid HK, which is structurally related to GacS, interacts with RetS in P. aeruginosa in a very similar manner to GacS. LadS hybrid HK phenotypically antagonizes the function of RetS by a mechanism that has never been investigated. The four sensors are found in most Pseudomonas species but their characteristics and mode of signaling may differ from one species to another. Here, we demonstrated in P. aeruginosa that LadS controls both rsmY and rsmZ gene expression and that this regulation occurs through the GacS/GacA TCS. We additionally evidenced that in contrast to RetS, LadS signals through GacS/GacA without forming heterodimers, either with GacS or with RetS. Instead, we demonstrated that LadS is involved in a genuine phosphorelay, which requires both transmitter and receiver LadS domains. LadS signaling ultimately requires the alternative histidine-phosphotransfer domain of GacS, which is here used as an Hpt relay by the hybrid kinase. LadS HK thus forms, with the GacS/GacA TCS, a multicomponent signal transduction system with an original phosphorelay cascade, i.e. H1LadS→D1LadS→H2GacS→D2GacA. This highlights an original strategy in which a unique output, i.e. the modulation of sRNA levels, is controlled by a complex multi-sensing network to fine-tune an adapted biofilm and virulence response. PMID:27176226

  5. The Two-component System RsrS-RsrR Regulates the Tetrathionate Intermediate Pathway for Thiosulfate Oxidation in Acidithiobacillus caldus

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    Zhaobao Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus is a common bioleaching bacterium that possesses a sophisticated and highly efficient inorganic sulfur compound metabolism network. Thiosulfate, a central intermediate in the sulfur metabolism network of A. caldus and other sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms, can be metabolized via the tetrathionate intermediate (S4I pathway catalyzed by thiosulfate:quinol oxidoreductase (Tqo or DoxDA and tetrathionate hydrolase (TetH. In A. caldus, there is an additional two-component system called RsrS-RsrR. Since rsrS and rsrR are arranged as an operon with doxDA and tetH in the genome, we suggest that the regulation of the S4I pathway may occur via the RsrS-RsrR system. To examine the regulatory role of the two-component system RsrS-RsrR on the S4I pathway, ΔrsrR and ΔrsrS strains were constructed in A. caldus using a newly developed markerless gene knockout method. Transcriptional analysis of the tetH cluster in the wild type and mutant strains revealed positive regulation of the S4I pathway by the RsrS-RsrR system. A 19bp inverted repeat sequence (IRS, AACACCTGTTACACCTGTT located upstream of the tetH promoter was identified as the binding site for RsrR by using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs in vitro and promoter-probe vectors in vivo. In addition, ΔrsrR and ΔrsrS strains cultivated in K2S4O6- medium exhibited significant growth differences when compared with the wild type. Transcriptional analysis indicated that the absence of rsrS or rsrR had different effects on the expression of genes involved in sulfur metabolism and signaling systems. Finally, a model of tetrathionate sensing by RsrS, signal transduction via RsrR, and transcriptional activation of tetH-doxDA was proposed to provide insights towards the understanding of sulfur metabolism in A. caldus. This study also provided a powerful genetic tool for studies in A. caldus.

  6. The Acinetobacter baumannii Two-Component System AdeRS Regulates Genes Required for Multidrug Efflux, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in a Strain-Specific Manner

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    Grace E. Richmond

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is able to persist in the environment and is often multidrug resistant (MDR, causing difficulties in the treatment of infections. Here, we show that the two-component system AdeRS, which regulates the production of the AdeABC multidrug resistance efflux pump, is required for the formation of a protective biofilm in an ex vivo porcine mucosal model, which mimics a natural infection of the human epithelium. Interestingly, deletion of adeB impacted only on the ability of strain AYE to form a biofilm on plastic and only on the virulence of strain Singapore 1 for Galleria mellonella. RNA-Seq revealed that loss of AdeRS or AdeB significantly altered the transcriptional landscape, resulting in the changed expression of many genes, notably those associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence interactions. For example, A. baumannii lacking AdeRS displayed decreased expression of adeABC, pil genes, com genes, and a pgaC-like gene, whereas loss of AdeB resulted in increased expression of pil and com genes and decreased expression of ferric acinetobactin transport system genes. These data define the scope of AdeRS-mediated regulation, show that changes in the production of AdeABC mediate important phenotypes controlled by AdeRS, and suggest that AdeABC is a viable target for antimicrobial drug and antibiofilm discovery.

  7. The Acinetobacter baumannii Two-Component System AdeRS Regulates Genes Required for Multidrug Efflux, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in a Strain-Specific Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Grace E.; Evans, Laura P.; Anderson, Michele J.; Wand, Matthew E.; Bonney, Laura C.; Ivens, Alasdair; Chua, Kim Lee; Webber, Mark A.; Sutton, J. Mark; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is able to persist in the environment and is often multidrug resistant (MDR), causing difficulties in the treatment of infections. Here, we show that the two-component system AdeRS, which regulates the production of the AdeABC multidrug resistance efflux pump, is required for the formation of a protective biofilm in an ex vivo porcine mucosal model, which mimics a natural infection of the human epithelium. Interestingly, deletion of adeB impacted only on the ability of strain AYE to form a biofilm on plastic and only on the virulence of strain Singapore 1 for Galleria mellonella. RNA-Seq revealed that loss of AdeRS or AdeB significantly altered the transcriptional landscape, resulting in the changed expression of many genes, notably those associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence interactions. For example, A. baumannii lacking AdeRS displayed decreased expression of adeABC, pil genes, com genes, and a pgaC-like gene, whereas loss of AdeB resulted in increased expression of pil and com genes and decreased expression of ferric acinetobactin transport system genes. These data define the scope of AdeRS-mediated regulation, show that changes in the production of AdeABC mediate important phenotypes controlled by AdeRS, and suggest that AdeABC is a viable target for antimicrobial drug and antibiofilm discovery. PMID:27094331

  8. Roles of two-component system AfsQ1/Q2 in regulating biosynthesis of the yellow-pigmented coelimycin P2 in Streptomyces coelicolor.

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    Chen, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Guosong; Zhu, Hong; He, Huiqi; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen; Jiang, Weihong; Lu, Yinhua

    2016-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that in Streptomyces coelicolor two-component system AfsQ1/Q2 activates the production of the yellow-colored coelimycin P2 (also named as yCPK) on glutamate-supplemented minimal medium, and the response regulator AfsQ1 could specifically bind to the intergenic region between two structural genes, cpkA and cpkD Here, a more in-depth investigation was performed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the role of AfsQ1/Q2 in regulating coelimycin P2 biosynthesis. Deletion of afsQ1/Q2 resulted in markedly decreased expression of the whole coelimycin P2 biosynthetic gene cluster. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that AfsQ1 bound only to the target site identified previously, but not to any other promoters in the gene cluster. Mutations of AfsQ1-binding motif only resulted in drastically reduced transcription of the cpkA/B/C operon (encoding three type I polyketide synthases) and intriguingly, led to enhanced expression of some coelimcyin P2 genes, particularly accA1 and scF These results suggested the direct role of AfsQ1/Q2 in regulating coelimycin production, which is directly mediated by the structural genes, but not the cluster-situated regulatory genes, and also implied that other unknown mechanisms may be involved in AfsQ1/Q2-mediated regulation of coelimycin P2 biosynthesis.

  9. The Campylobacter jejuni RacRS two-component system activates the glutamate synthesis by directly upregulating γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT

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    Anne-Xander evan der Stel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly conserved enzyme γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT plays an important role in metabolism of glutathione and glutamine. Yet, the regulation of ggt transcription in prokaryotes is poorly understood. In the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, GGT is important as it contributes to persistent colonization of the gut. Here we show that the GGT activity in C. jejuni is dependent on a functional RacRS (reduced ability to colonize two-component system. Electrophoretic mobility shift and luciferase reporter assays indicate that the response regulator RacR binds to a promoter region ~80 bp upstream of the ggt transcriptional start site, which contains a recently identified RacR DNA binding consensus sequence. RacR needs to be phosphorylated to activate the transcription of the ggt gene, which is the case under low oxygen conditions in presence of alternative electron acceptors. A functional GGT and RacR are needed to allow C. jejuni to grow optimally on glutamine as sole carbon source under RacR inducing conditions. However, when additional carbon sources are present C. jejuni is capable of utilizing glutamine independently of GGT. RacR is the first prokaryotic transcription factor known to directly upregulate both the cytoplasmic (glutamine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT as well as the periplasmic (GGT production of glutamate.

  10. A novel two-component system PdeK/PdeR regulates c-di-GMP turnover and virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fenghuan; Tian, Fang; Sun, Lei; Chen, Huamin; Wu, Maosen; Yang, Ching-Hong; He, Chenyang

    2012-10-01

    Two-component systems (TCS) consisting of histidine kinases (HK) and response regulators (RR) play essential roles in bacteria to sense environmental signals and regulate cell functions. One type of RR is involved in metabolism of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger. Although genomic studies predicted a large number of them existing in different bacteria, only a few have been studied. In this work, we characterized a novel TCS consisting of PdeK(PXO_01018)/PdeR(PXO_ 01019) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, which causes the bacterial leaf blight of rice. PdeR (containing GGDEF, EAL, and REC domains) was shown to have phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in vitro by colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The PDE activity of full-length PdeR needs to be triggered by HK PdeK. Deletion of pdeK or pdeR in X. oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99(A) had attenuated its virulence on rice. ΔpdeK and ΔpdeR secreted less exopolysaccharide than the wild type but there were no changes in terms of motility or extracellular cellulase activity, suggesting the activity of PdeK/PdeR might be specific.

  11. Regulation of natural competence by the orphan two-component system sensor kinase ChiS involves a non-canonical transmembrane regulator in Vibrio cholerae.

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    Yamamoto, Shouji; Mitobe, Jiro; Ishikawa, Takahiko; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo; Izumiya, Hidemasa

    2014-01-01

    In Vibrio cholerae, 41 chitin-inducible genes, including the genes involved in natural competence for DNA uptake, are governed by the orphan two-component system (TCS) sensor kinase ChiS. However, the mechanism by which ChiS controls the expression of these genes is currently unknown. Here, we report the involvement of a novel transcription factor termed 'TfoS' in this process. TfoS is a transmembrane protein that contains a large periplasmic domain and a cytoplasmic AraC-type DNA-binding domain, but lacks TCS signature domains. Inactivation of tfoS abolished natural competence as well as transcription of the tfoR gene encoding a chitin-induced small RNA essential for competence gene expression. A TfoS fragment containing the DNA-binding domain specifically bound to and activated transcription from the tfoR promoter. Intracellular TfoS levels were unaffected by disruption of chiS and coexpression of TfoS and ChiS in Escherichia coli recovered transcription of the chromosomally integrated tfoR::lacZ gene, suggesting that TfoS is post-translationally modulated by ChiS during transcriptional activation; however, this regulation persisted when the canonical phosphorelay residues of ChiS were mutated. The results presented here suggest that ChiS operates a chitin-induced non-canonical signal transduction cascade through TfoS, leading to transcriptional activation of tfoR.

  12. Functional characterization of the histidine kinase of the E. coli two-component signal transduction system AtoS-AtoC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Panagiota S; Kasemian, Lucy D; Panagiotidis, Christos A; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2008-09-01

    The Escherichia coli AtoS-AtoC two-component signal transduction system regulates the expression of the atoDAEB operon genes, whose products are required for short-chain fatty acid catabolism. In this study purified his-tagged wild-type and mutant AtoS proteins were used to prove that these proteins are true sensor kinases. The phosphorylated residue was identified as the histidine-398, which was located in a conserved Eta-box since AtoS carrying a mutation at this site failed to phosphorylate. This inability to phosphorylate was not due to gross structural alterations of AtoS since the H398L mutant retained its capability to bind ATP. Furthermore, the H398L mutant AtoS was competent to catalyze the trans-phosphorylation of an AtoS G-box (G565A) mutant protein which otherwise failed to autophosphorylate due to its inability to bind ATP. The formation of homodimers between the various AtoS proteins was also shown by cross-linking experiments both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. The CLO3403/CLO3404 two-component system of Clostridium botulinum E1 Beluga is important for cold shock response and growth at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Gerald; Derman, Yagmur; Kirk, David G; Palonen, Eveliina; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    In order to survive a temperature downshift, bacteria have to sense the changing environment and adjust their metabolism and structure. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) play a central role in sensing and responding to many different environmental stimuli. Although the nonproteolytic (group II) Clostridium botulinum represents a major hazard in chilled foods, the cold adaption mechanisms of group II C. botulinum organisms are not known. Here, we show that the CLO3403/CLO3404 TCS of C. botulinum E1 Beluga is involved in the cold shock response and growth at 12°C. Cold shock induced the expression of the genes encoding the histidine kinase (clo3403) and the response regulator (clo3404) by more than 100-fold after 5 h relative to their expression in a nonshocked culture at the corresponding time point. The involvement of CLO3403/CLO3404 in growth at low temperature was demonstrated by impaired growth of the insertional clo3403 and clo3404 knockout mutants at 12°C compared to the growth of the wild-type culture. Additionally, the inactivation of clo3403 had a negative effect on motility. The growth efficiency at 12°C of the TCS mutants and the motility of the kinase mutants were restored by introducing a plasmid harboring the operon of the CLO3403/CLO3404 TCS. The results suggest that the CLO3403/CLO3404 TCS is important for the cold tolerance of C. botulinum E1 Beluga.

  14. The Myxococcus xanthus Two-Component System CorSR Regulates Expression of a Gene Cluster Involved in Maintaining Copper Tolerance during Growth and Development

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    Sánchez-Sutil, María Celestina; Pérez, Juana; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Shimkets, Lawrence J.; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2013-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling member of the δ–Proteobacteria that exhibits a complex developmental cycle upon starvation. Development comprises aggregation and differentiation into environmentally resistant myxospores in an environment that includes fluctuations in metal ion concentrations. While copper is essential for M. xanthus cells because several housekeeping enzymes use it as a cofactor, high copper concentrations are toxic. These opposing effects force cells to maintain a tight copper homeostasis. A plethora of paralogous genes involved in copper detoxification, all of which are differentially regulated, have been reported in M. xanthus. The use of in-frame deletion mutants and fusions with the reporter gene lacZ has allowed the identification of a two-component system, CorSR, that modulates the expression of an operon termed curA consisting of nine genes whose expression slowly increases after metal addition, reaching a plateau. Transcriptional regulation of this operon is complex because transcription can be initiated at different promoters and by different types of regulators. These genes confer copper tolerance during growth and development. Copper induces carotenoid production in a ΔcorSR mutant at lower concentrations than with the wild-type strain due to lack of expression of a gene product resembling subunit III of cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase. This data may explain why copper induces carotenoid biosynthesis at suboptimal rather than optimal growth conditions in wild-type strains. PMID:23874560

  15. In silico characterization of three two-component systems of Ehrlichia canis and evaluation of a natural plant-derived inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E V; Silva, G; Cardozo, G P; Bitencourt, T A; França, S C; Fachin, A L; Marins, M

    2012-10-04

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) are important elements in the interaction of endobacteria with host cells. They are basically composed of two proteins, an environmental signal sensor and a response regulator, which activate genes involved in a wide range of bacterial responses to their environment. We analyzed three sets of genes corresponding to TCS of Ehrlichia canis, a common tick-borne canine pathogen and the etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in order to identify the characteristic domains of the sensor and response regulator components. Analysis of sequence alignments of the corresponding proteins indicated a high degree of similarity to other members of the Anaplasmataceae TCS proteins, demonstrating that they could be useful as universal targets for development of new drugs against these bacteria. We also evaluated by quantitative PCR inhibition of E. canis by (2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (BOA), the core compound of the plant phenolic compound DIMBOA, which shows inhibitory action against TCS of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefasciens. This bacterium exerts its pathogenicity by transferring oncogenic DNA (T-DNA) into plant cells; this transfer is mediated through a type-IV secretion system, which is regulated by the VirA/VirG TCS. The process of infection and pathogenesis of E. canis is associated with the secretion of effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm through a T4SS system, which blocks the cell defense response. We suggest that BOA, and possibly other plant phenolic compounds that are TCS inhibitors, can be exploited in the search for new antiehrlichial drugs to be used alone or as complements in the treatment of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

  16. Biophysical and physiological characterization of ZraP from Escherichia coli, the periplasmic accessory protein of the atypical ZraSR two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Härtlein, Isabelle; Rome, Kevin; de Rosny, Eve; Molton, Florian; Duboc, Carole; Gueguen, Erwan; Rodrigue, Agnès; Covès, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    The ZraSR system belongs to the family of TCSs (two-component signal transduction systems). In Escherichia coli, it was proposed to participate in zinc balance and to protect cytoplasmic zinc overload by sequestering this metal ion into the periplasm. This system controls the expression of the accessory protein ZraP that would be a periplasmic zinc scavenger. ZraPSR is functionally homologous with CpxPAR that integrates signals of envelope perturbation, including misfolded periplasmic proteins. The auxiliary periplasmic regulator CpxP inhibits the Cpx pathway by interacting with CpxA. Upon envelope stress sensing, the inhibitory function of CpxP is relieved, resulting in CpxR activation. Similarly to CpxPAR, ZraPSR probably plays a role in envelope stress response as a zinc-dependent chaperone activity was demonstrated for ZraP in Salmonella. We have purified ZraP from E. coli and shown that it is an octamer containing four interfacial metal-binding sites contributing to dimer stability. These sites are located close to the N-terminus, whereas the C-terminus is involved in polymerization of the protein to form a tetramer of dimers. In vitro, ZraP binds copper with a higher affinity than zinc and displays chaperone properties partially dependent on zinc binding. In vivo, zinc-bound ZraP is a repressor of the expression of the zraPSR operon. However, we have demonstrated that none of the Zra proteins are involved in zinc or copper resistance. We propose an integrated mechanism in which zinc is a marker of envelope stress perturbation and ZraPSR TCS is a sentinel sensing and responding to zinc entry into the periplasm.

  17. The essential yhcSR two-component signal transduction system directly regulates the lac and opuCABCD operons of Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Meiying Yan

    Full Text Available Our previous studies suggested that the essential two-component signal transduction system, YhcSR, regulates the opuCABCD operon at the transcriptional level, and the Pspac-driven opuCABCD partially complements the lethal effects of yhcS antisense RNA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the reason why yhcSR regulon is required for growth is still unclear. In this report, we present that the lac and opuC operons are directly transcriptionally regulated by YhcSR. Using real-time RT-PCR we showed that the down-regulation of yhcSR expression affected the transcription of lacA encoding galactose-6-phosphotase isomerase subunit LacA, and opuCA encoding a subunit of a glycine betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter. Promoter-lux reporter fusion studies further confirmed the transcriptional regulation of lac by YhcSR. Gel shift assays revealed that YhcR binds to the promoter regions of the lac and opuC operons. Moreover, the Pspac-driven lacABC expression in trans was able to partially complement the lethal effect of induced yhcS antisense RNA. Likewise, the Pspac-driven opuCABCD expression in trans complemented the growth defect of S. aureus in a high osmotic strength medium during the depletion of YhcSR. Taken together, the above data indicate that the yhcSR system directly regulates the expression of lac and opuC operons, which, in turn, may be partially associated with the essentiality of yhcSR in S. aureus. These results provide a new insight into the biological functions of the yhcSR, a global regulator.

  18. A Two-component NADPH Oxidase (NOX)-like System in Bacteria Is Involved in the Electron Transfer Chain to the Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase MsrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillan-Binard, Céline; Picciocchi, Antoine; Andrieu, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Jerome; Petit-Hartlein, Isabelle; Caux-Thang, Christelle; Vivès, Corinne; Nivière, Vincent; Fieschi, Franck

    2017-02-10

    MsrPQ is a newly identified methionine sulfoxide reductase system found in bacteria, which appears to be specifically involved in the repair of periplasmic proteins oxidized by hypochlorous acid. It involves two proteins: a periplasmic one, MsrP, previously named YedY, carrying out the Msr activity, and MsrQ, an integral b-type heme membrane-spanning protein, which acts as the specific electron donor to MsrP. MsrQ, previously named YedZ, was mainly characterized by bioinformatics as a member of the FRD superfamily of heme-containing membrane proteins, which include the NADPH oxidase proteins (NOX/DUOX). Here we report a detailed biochemical characterization of the MsrQ protein from Escherichia coli We optimized conditions for the overexpression and membrane solubilization of an MsrQ-GFP fusion and set up a purification scheme allowing the production of pure MsrQ. Combining UV-visible spectroscopy, heme quantification, and site-directed mutagenesis of histidine residues, we demonstrated that MsrQ is able to bind two b-type hemes through the histidine residues conserved between the MsrQ and NOX protein families. In addition, we identify the E. coli flavin reductase Fre, which is related to the dehydrogenase domain of eukaryotic NOX enzymes, as an efficient cytosolic electron donor to the MsrQ heme moieties. Cross-linking experiments as well as surface Plasmon resonance showed that Fre interacts with MsrQ to form a specific complex. Taken together, these data support the identification of the first prokaryotic two-component protein system related to the eukaryotic NOX family and involved in the reduction of periplasmic oxidized proteins.

  19. The Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PhoPQ two-component system is required for AvrXA21 activity, hrpG expression, and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Won; Jeong, Kyu-Sik; Han, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Eun; Phee, Bong-Kwan; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Ronald, Pamela

    2008-03-01

    The rice pathogen recognition receptor, XA21, confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains producing the type one system-secreted molecule, AvrXA21. X. oryzae pv. oryzae requires a regulatory two-component system (TCS) called RaxRH to regulate expression of eight rax (required for AvrXA21 activity) genes and to sense population cell density. To identify other key components in this critical regulatory circuit, we assayed proteins expressed in a raxR gene knockout strain. This survey led to the identification of the phoP gene encoding a response regulator that is up-regulated in the raxR knockout strain. Next we generated a phoP knockout strain and found it to be impaired in X. oryzae pv. oryzae virulence and no longer able to activate the response regulator HrpG (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity G) in response to low levels of Ca2+. The impaired virulence of the phoP knockout strain can be partially complemented by constitutive expression of hrpG, indicating that PhoP controls a key aspect of X. oryzae pv. oryzae virulence through regulation of hrpG. A gene encoding the cognate putative histidine protein kinase, phoQ, was also isolated. Growth curve analysis revealed that AvrXA21 activity is impaired in a phoQ knockout strain as reflected by enhanced growth of this strain in rice lines carrying XA21. These results suggest that the X. oryzae pv. oryzae PhoPQ TCS functions in virulence and in the production of AvrXA21 in partnership with RaxRH.

  20. Three distinct two-component systems are involved in resistance to the class I bacteriocins, Nukacin ISK-1 and nisin A, in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus uses two-component systems (TCSs to adapt to stressful environmental conditions. To colonize a host, S. aureus must resist bacteriocins produced by commensal bacteria. In a comprehensive analysis using individual TCS inactivation mutants, the inactivation of two TCSs, graRS and braRS, significantly increased the susceptibility to the class I bacteriocins, nukacin ISK-1 and nisin A, and inactivation of vraSR slightly increased the susceptibility to nukacin ISK-1. In addition, two ABC transporters (BraAB and VraDE regulated by BraRS and one transporter (VraFG regulated by GraRS were associated with resistance to nukacin ISK-1 and nisin A. We investigated the role of these three TCSs of S. aureus in co-culture with S. warneri, which produces nukacin ISK-1, and Lactococcus lactis, which produces nisin A. When co-cultured with S. warneri or L. lactis, the braRS mutant showed a significant decrease in its population compared with the wild-type, whereas the graRS and vraSR mutants showed slight decreases. Expression of vraDE was elevated significantly in S. aureus co-cultured with nisin A/nukacin ISK-1-producing strains. These results suggest that three distinct TCSs are involved in the resistance to nisin A and nukacin ISK-1. Additionally, braRS and its related transporters played a central role in S. aureus survival in co-culture with the strains producing nisin A and nukacin ISK-1.

  1. Two-component signal transduction system CBO0787/CBO0786 represses transcription from botulinum neurotoxin promoters in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

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    Zhen Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blocking neurotransmission, botulinum neurotoxin is the most poisonous biological substance known to mankind. Despite its infamy as the scourge of the food industry, the neurotoxin is increasingly used as a pharmaceutical to treat an expanding range of muscle disorders. Whilst neurotoxin expression by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum appears tightly regulated, to date only positive regulatory elements, such as the alternative sigma factor BotR, have been implicated in this control. The identification of negative regulators has proven to be elusive. Here, we show that the two-component signal transduction system CBO0787/CBO0786 negatively regulates botulinum neurotoxin expression. Single insertional inactivation of cbo0787 encoding a sensor histidine kinase, or of cbo0786 encoding a response regulator, resulted in significantly elevated neurotoxin gene expression levels and increased neurotoxin production. Recombinant CBO0786 regulator was shown to bind to the conserved -10 site of the core promoters of the ha and ntnh-botA operons, which encode the toxin structural and accessory proteins. Increasing concentration of CBO0786 inhibited BotR-directed transcription from the ha and ntnh-botA promoters, demonstrating direct transcriptional repression of the ha and ntnh-botA operons by CBO0786. Thus, we propose that CBO0786 represses neurotoxin gene expression by blocking BotR-directed transcription from the neurotoxin promoters. This is the first evidence of a negative regulator controlling botulinum neurotoxin production. Understanding the neurotoxin regulatory mechanisms is a major target of the food and pharmaceutical industries alike.

  2. The two-component signal transduction system ArlRS regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner.

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    Yang Wu

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to form biofilms on medical devices, Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a major pathogen of nosocomial infections. In this study, we investigated the role of the two-component signal transduction system ArlRS in regulating S. epidermidis biofilm formation. An ArlRS-deficient mutant, WW06, was constructed using S. epidermidis strain 1457 as a parental strain. Although the growth curve of WW06 was similar to that of SE1457, the mutant strain was unable to form biofilms in vitro. In a rabbit subcutaneous infection model, sterile disks made of polymeric materials were implanted subcutaneously followed with inoculation of WW06 or SE1457. The viable bacteria cells of WW06 recovered from biofilms on the embedded disks were much lower than that of SE1457. Complementation of arlRS genes expression from plasmid in WW06 restored biofilm-forming phenotype both in vivo and in vitro. WW06 maintained the ability to undergo initial attachment. Transcription levels of several genes involved in biofilm formation, including icaADBC, sigB, and sarA, were decreased in WW06, compared to SE1457; and icaR expression was increased in WW06, detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The biofilm-forming phenotype was restored by overexpressing icaADBC in WW06 but not by overexpressing sigB, indicating that ArlRS regulates biofilm formation through the regulation of icaADBC. Gel shift assay showed that ArlR can bind to the promoter region of the ica operon. In conclusion, ArlRS regulates S. epidermidis biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner, distinct from its role in S. aureus.

  3. A survey of HK, HPt, and RR domains and their organization in two-component systems and phosphorelay proteins of organisms with fully sequenced genomes

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    Baldiri Salvado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Component Systems and Phosphorelays (TCS/PR are environmental signal transduction cascades in prokaryotes and, less frequently, in eukaryotes. The internal domain organization of proteins and the topology of TCS/PR cascades play an important role in shaping the responses of the circuits. It is thus important to maintain updated censuses of TCS/PR proteins in order to identify the various topologies used by nature and enable a systematic study of the dynamics associated with those topologies. To create such a census, we analyzed the proteomes of 7,609 organisms from all domains of life with fully sequenced and annotated genomes. To begin, we survey each proteome searching for proteins containing domains that are associated with internal signal transmission within TCS/PR: Histidine Kinase (HK, Response Regulator (RR and Histidine Phosphotranfer (HPt domains, and analyze how these domains are arranged in the individual proteins. Then, we find all types of operon organization and calculate how much more likely are proteins that contain TCS/PR domains to be coded by neighboring genes than one would expect from the genome background of each organism. Finally, we analyze if the fusion of domains into single TCS/PR proteins is more frequently observed than one might expect from the background of each proteome. We find 50 alternative ways in which the HK, HPt, and RR domains are observed to organize into single proteins. In prokaryotes, TCS/PR coding genes tend to be clustered in operons. 90% of all proteins identified in this study contain just one of the three domains, while 8% of the remaining proteins combine one copy of an HK, a RR, and/or an HPt domain. In eukaryotes, 25% of all TCS/PR proteins have more than one domain. These results might have implications for how signals are internally transmitted within TCS/PR cascades. These implications could explain the selection of the various designs in alternative circumstances.

  4. Three distinct two-component systems are involved in resistance to the class I bacteriocins, Nukacin ISK-1 and nisin A, in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Yoshida, Yuuma; Zendo, Takeshi; Nagao, Junichi; Oogai, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yasunori; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakamura, Norifumi; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses two-component systems (TCSs) to adapt to stressful environmental conditions. To colonize a host, S. aureus must resist bacteriocins produced by commensal bacteria. In a comprehensive analysis using individual TCS inactivation mutants, the inactivation of two TCSs, graRS and braRS, significantly increased the susceptibility to the class I bacteriocins, nukacin ISK-1 and nisin A, and inactivation of vraSR slightly increased the susceptibility to nukacin ISK-1. In addition, two ABC transporters (BraAB and VraDE) regulated by BraRS and one transporter (VraFG) regulated by GraRS were associated with resistance to nukacin ISK-1 and nisin A. We investigated the role of these three TCSs of S. aureus in co-culture with S. warneri, which produces nukacin ISK-1, and Lactococcus lactis, which produces nisin A. When co-cultured with S. warneri or L. lactis, the braRS mutant showed a significant decrease in its population compared with the wild-type, whereas the graRS and vraSR mutants showed slight decreases. Expression of vraDE was elevated significantly in S. aureus co-cultured with nisin A/nukacin ISK-1-producing strains. These results suggest that three distinct TCSs are involved in the resistance to nisin A and nukacin ISK-1. Additionally, braRS and its related transporters played a central role in S. aureus survival in co-culture with the strains producing nisin A and nukacin ISK-1.

  5. The cold-induced two-component system CBO0366/CBO0365 regulates metabolic pathways with novel roles in group I Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Somervuo, Panu; Minton, Nigel P; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    The two-component system CBO0366/CBO0365 was recently demonstrated to have a role in cold tolerance of group I Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502. The mechanisms under its control, ultimately resulting in increased sensitivity to low temperature, are unknown. A transcriptomic analysis with DNA microarrays was performed to identify the differences in global gene expression patterns of the wild-type ATCC 3502 and a derivative mutant with insertionally inactivated cbo0365 at 37 and 15°C. Altogether, 150 or 141 chromosomal coding sequences (CDSs) were found to be differently expressed in the cbo0365 mutant at 37 or 15°C, respectively, and thus considered to be under the direct or indirect transcriptional control of the response regulator CBO0365. Of the differentially expressed CDSs, expression of 141 CDSs was similarly affected at both temperatures investigated, suggesting that the putative CBO0365 regulon was practically not affected by temperature. The regulon involved genes related to acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, motility, arsenic resistance, and phosphate uptake and transport. Deteriorated growth at 17°C was observed for mutants with disrupted ABE fermentation pathway components (crt, bcd, bdh, and ctfA), arsenic detoxifying machinery components (arsC and arsR), or phosphate uptake mechanism components (phoT), suggesting roles for these mechanisms in cold tolerance of group I C. botulinum. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed recombinant CBO0365 to bind to the promoter regions of crt, arsR, and phoT, as well as to the promoter region of its own operon, suggesting direct DNA-binding transcriptional activation or repression as a means for CBO0365 in regulating these operons. The results provide insight to the mechanisms group I C. botulinum utilizes in coping with cold.

  6. From high-temperature orientationally disordered mixed crystals to low-temperature complex formation in the two-component system (CH3)3CBr + Cl3CBr.

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    Barrio, María; Negrier, Philippe; Tamarit, Josep Ll; Mondieig, Denise

    2011-02-24

    The phase diagram of the two-component systems (CH(3))(3)CBr + Cl(3)CBr has been experimentally determined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction techniques from the low-temperature ordered phases to the liquid state. Before melting, both components have the same orientationally disordered (OD) face-centered cubic (FCC) and rhombohedral (R) phases, and the two-phase equilibria [FCC + L] and [R + FCC] are accounted for by means of the existence of an isomorphic relationship between the OD phases of pure compounds. The thermodynamic assessment of such equilibria enables us to get the excess properties of the involved OD phases and to rationalize the existence of a maximum and a minimum in the [R + FCC] equilibrium on the basis of the contribution of the entropic term in the excess Gibbs energy function. At low temperature, two complexes, (CH(3))(3)CBr:Cl(3)CBr (1:1) and (CH(3))(3)CBr:2Cl(3)CBr (1:2), appear. The structures of 1:1 and 1:2 complexes have been determined to be monoclinic (P2(1)/n, c, Z = 4) and hexagonal (P6(3), Z = 6). Within both "ordered" structures, the Cl(3)CBr entities of the asymmetric unit were found to be disordered so that sites have fractional occupancies of 0.75 and 0.25 for Cl and Br atoms, in the same way that it occurs for the low-temperature monoclinic (C2/c, Z = 32) phase of Cl(3)CBr. Finally, the existence of complexes is connected with the special intermolecular interactions appearing between a methyl group and a halogen, as previously inferred by Calvet et al. [T. Calvet et al. J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 110, 4841].

  7. Role of the two component signal transduction system CpxAR in conferring cefepime and chloramphenicol resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044.

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    Vijaya Bharathi Srinivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobe belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family of the γ-Proteobacteria class in the phylum Proteobacteria. Multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae have caused major therapeutic problems worldwide due to emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing strains. Two-component systems serve as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions including antibiotic stress. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we investigated the role of an uncharacterized cpxAR operon in bacterial physiology and antimicrobial resistance by generating isogenic mutant (ΔcpxAR deficient in the CpxA/CpxR component derived from the hyper mucoidal K1 strain K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. The behaviour of ΔcpxAR was determined under hostile conditions, reproducing stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal environment and deletion resulted in higher sensitivity to bile, osmotic and acid stresses. The ΔcpxAR was more susceptible to β-lactams and chloramphenicol than the wild-type strain, and complementation restored the altered phenotypes. The relative change in expression of acrB, acrD, eefB efflux genes were decreased in cpxAR mutant as evidenced by qRT-PCR. Comparison of outer membrane protein profiles indicated a conspicuous difference in the knock out background. Gel shift assays demonstrated direct binding of CpxR(KP to promoter region of ompC(KP in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The Cpx envelope stress response system is known to be activated by alterations in pH, membrane composition and misfolded proteins, and this systematic investigation reveals its direct involvement in conferring antimicrobial resistance against clinically significant antibiotics for the very first time. Overall results displayed in this report reflect the pleiotropic role of the Cpx

  8. The two-component system CpxR/A represses the expression of Salmonella virulence genes by affecting the stability of the transcriptional regulator HilD

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Palacios, Irene J.; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Calva, Edmundo; Bustamante, Víctor H.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica can cause intestinal or systemic infections in humans and animals mainly by the presence of pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2, containing 39 and 44 genes, respectively. The AraC-like regulator HilD positively controls the expression of the SPI-1 genes, as well as many other Salmonella virulence genes including those located in SPI-2. A previous report indicates that the two-component system CpxR/A regulates the SPI-1 genes: the absence of the sensor kinase CpxA, but not the absence of its cognate response regulator CpxR, reduces their expression. The presence and absence of cell envelope stress activates kinase and phosphatase activities of CpxA, respectively, which in turn controls the level of phosphorylated CpxR (CpxR-P). In this work, we further define the mechanism for the CpxR/A-mediated regulation of SPI-1 genes. The negative effect exerted by the absence of CpxA on the expression of SPI-1 genes was counteracted by the absence of CpxR or by the absence of the two enzymes, AckA and Pta, which render acetyl-phosphate that phosphorylates CpxR. Furthermore, overexpression of the lipoprotein NlpE, which activates CpxA kinase activity on CpxR, or overexpression of CpxR, repressed the expression of SPI-1 genes. Thus, our results provide several lines of evidence strongly supporting that the absence of CpxA leads to the phosphorylation of CpxR via the AckA/Pta enzymes, which represses both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 genes. Additionally, we show that in the absence of the Lon protease, which degrades HilD, the CpxR-P-mediated repression of the SPI-1 genes is mostly lost; moreover, we demonstrate that CpxR-P negatively affects the stability of HilD and thus decreases the expression of HilD-target genes, such as hilD itself and hilA, located in SPI-1. Our data further expand the insight on the different regulatory pathways for gene expression involving CpxR/A and on the complex regulatory network governing virulence in Salmonella. PMID:26300871

  9. Crosstalk between the HpArsRS two-component system and HpNikR is necessary for maximal activation of urease transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Beth M; West, Abby L; Gancz, Hanan; Servetas, Stephanie L; Pich, Oscar Q; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Hallinger, Daniel R; Forsyth, Mark H; Merrell, D Scott; Michel, Sarah L J

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori NikR (HpNikR) is a nickel dependent transcription factor that directly regulates a number of genes in this important gastric pathogen. One key gene that is regulated by HpNikR is ureA, which encodes for the urease enzyme. In vitro DNA binding studies of HpNikR with the ureA promoter (PureA ) previously identified a recognition site that is required for high affinity protein/DNA binding. As a means to determine the in vivo significance of this recognition site and to identify the key DNA sequence determinants required for ureA transcription, herein, we have translated these in vitro results to analysis directly within H. pylori. Using a series of GFP reporter constructs in which the PureA DNA target was altered, in combination with mutant H. pylori strains deficient in key regulatory proteins, we confirmed the importance of the previously identified HpNikR recognition sequence for HpNikR-dependent ureA transcription. Moreover, we identified a second factor, the HpArsRS two-component system that was required for maximum transcription of ureA. While HpArsRS is known to regulate ureA in response to acid shock, it was previously thought to function independently of HpNikR and to have no role at neutral pH. However, our qPCR analysis of ureA expression in wildtype, ΔnikR and ΔarsS single mutants as well as a ΔarsS/nikR double mutant strain background showed reduced basal level expression of ureA when arsS was absent. Additionally, we determined that both HpNikR and HpArsRS were necessary for maximal expression of ureA under nickel, low pH and combined nickel and low pH stresses. In vitro studies of HpArsR-P with the PureA DNA target using florescence anisotropy confirmed a direct protein/DNA binding interaction. Together, these data support a model in which HpArsRS and HpNikR cooperatively interact to regulate ureA transcription under various environmental conditions. This is the first time that direct "cross-talk" between HpArsRS and HpNikR at

  10. Crosstalk between the HpArsRS two-component system and HpNikR is necessary for maximal activation of urease transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M Carpenter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori NikR (HpNikR is a nickel dependent transcription factor that directly regulates a number of genes in this important gastric pathogen. One key gene that is regulated by HpNikR is ureA, which encodes for the urease enzyme. In vitro DNA binding studies of HpNikR with the ureA promoter (PureA previously identified a recognition site that is required for high affinity protein/DNA binding. As a means to determine the in vivo significance of this recognition site and to identify the key DNA sequence determinants required for ureA transcription, herein, we have translated these in vitro results to analysis directly within H. pylori. Using a series of GFP reporter constructs in which the PureA DNA target was altered, in combination with mutant H. pylori strains deficient in key regulatory proteins, we confirmed the importance of the previously identified HpNikR recognition sequence for HpNikR-dependent ureA transcription. Moreover, we identified a second factor, the HpArsRS two-component system that was required for maximum transcription of ureA. While HpArsRS is known to regulate ureA in response to acid shock, it was previously thought to function independently of HpNikR and to have no role at neutral pH. However, our qPCR analysis of ureA expression in wildtype, nikR and arsS single mutants as well as a nikR/arsS double mutant strain background showed reduced basal level expression of ureA when arsS was absent. Additionally, we determined that both HpNikR and HpArsRS were necessary for maximal expression of ureA under nickel, low pH and combined nickel and low pH stresses. In vitro studies of HpArsR-P with the PureA DNA target using florescence anisotropy confirmed a direct protein/DNA binding interaction. Together, these data support a model in which HpArsRS and HpNikR cooperatively interact to regulate ureA transcription under various environmental conditions. This is the first time that direct ‘cross-talk’ between Hp

  11. The two-component system CpxRA negatively regulates the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli involving sigma 32 and Lon protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL A. eDE LA CRUZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC is a significant cause of serious human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. EHEC strains contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE, which encodes virulence factors responsible for damaging the gut mucosa. The Cpx envelope stress response of E. coli is controlled by a two-component system consisting of a sensor histidine kinase (CpxA and a cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR. In this study, we investigated the role of CpxRA in the expression of LEE-encoded virulence factors of EHEC. We found that a mutation in cpxA significantly affected adherence of EHEC to human epithelial cells. Analysis of this mutant revealed the presence of high levels of CpxR which repressed transcription of grlA and ler, the main positive virulence regulators of the LEE, and influenced negatively the production of the type 3 secretion system–associated EspABD translocator proteins. It is known that CpxR activates rpoH (Sigma factor 32, which in turns activates transcription of the lon protease gene. We found that transcription levels of ler and grlA were significantly increased in the lon and cpxA lon mutants suggesting that lon is involved in down-regulating LEE genes. In addition, the Galleria mellonella model of infection was used to analyze the effect of the loss of the cpx and lon genes in EHEC’s ability to kill the larvae. We found that the cpxA mutant was significantly deficient at killing the larvae however, the cpxA lon mutant which overexpresses LEE genes in vitro, was unable to kill the larvae, suggesting that virulence in the G. mellonella model is T3SS independent and that CpxA modulates virulence through a yet unknown EHEC-specific factor. Our data provides new insights and broadens our scope into the complex regulatory network of the LEE in which the CpxA sensor kinase plays an important role in a cascade involving both global and virulence regulators.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of the two-component regulatory system VraSR in Staphylococcus aureus with low-level vancomycin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongbin; Xiong, Zhujia; Liu, Kuoyue; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Ruobing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to comprehensively identify the target genes regulated by the two-component regulatory system VraSR in Staphylococcus aureus and to clarify the role of VraSR in low-level vancomycin resistance. Expression of vraS was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). A clinical heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) strain B6D and a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain D7 that was induced from a meticillin-resistant S. aureus strain were selected to construct vraSR null mutants by allelic replacement. The vraSR-complemented strain B6D_c was also constructed by allelic replacement. Genes differentially expressed in the wild-type, vraSR null mutant and complemented strains were detected using RNA-Seq and were validated by qRT-PCR. Compared with vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus strains, expression of vraS was upregulated in all four isogenic hVISA strains. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the vraSR null mutants B6D-ΔvraSR and D7-ΔvraSR were significantly lower than in the wild-type strains B6D and D7 and the complemented strain B6D_c. RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR data showed that expression of genes encoding FmtA protein, foldase protein PrsA, capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis glycosyltransferase, TcaA, a putative membrane protein, and six hypothetical proteins was down regulated in both vraSR-null mutants B6D-ΔvraSR and D7-ΔvraSR. Most of these differentially expressed proteins are involved in cell wall biosynthesis, which is associated with vancomycin resistance in S. aureus. In conclusion, VraSR plays an important role in S. aureus strains with low-level vancomycin resistance. PrsA, FmtA, glycosyltransferase and TcaA are regulated directly or indirectly by VraSR.

  13. The Two-Component System CpxRA Negatively Regulates the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Involving σ32 and Lon protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Morgan, Jason K.; Ares, Miguel A.; Yáñez-Santos, Jorge A.; Riordan, James T.; Girón, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a significant cause of serious human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. EHEC strains contain a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encodes virulence factors responsible for damaging the gut mucosa. The Cpx envelope stress response of E. coli is controlled by a two-component system (TCS) consisting of a sensor histidine kinase (CpxA) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (CpxR). In this study, we investigated the role of CpxRA in the expression of LEE-encoded virulence factors of EHEC. We found that a mutation in cpxA significantly affected adherence of EHEC to human epithelial cells. Analysis of this mutant revealed the presence of high levels of CpxR which repressed transcription of grlA and ler, the main positive virulence regulators of the LEE, and influenced negatively the production of the type 3 secretion system–associated EspABD translocator proteins. It is known that CpxR activates rpoH (Sigma factor 32), which in turns activates transcription of the lon protease gene. We found that transcription levels of ler and grlA were significantly increased in the lon and cpxA lon mutants suggesting that lon is involved in down-regulating LEE genes. In addition, the Galleria mellonella model of infection was used to analyze the effect of the loss of the cpx and lon genes in EHEC's ability to kill the larvae. We found that the cpxA mutant was significantly deficient at killing the larvae however, the cpxA lon mutant which overexpresses LEE genes in vitro, was unable to kill the larvae, suggesting that virulence in the G. mellonella model is T3SS independent and that CpxA modulates virulence through a yet unknown EHEC-specific factor. Our data provides new insights and broadens our scope into the complex regulatory network of the LEE in which the CpxA sensor kinase plays an important role in a cascade involving both global and virulence regulators. PMID:26904510

  14. 两部件串联维修系统解的定性分析%The Qualitative Analysis of a Solution of a Series Maintenance System with Two Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫华; 杨明增

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, firstly we study the series maintenance system with two components, obtain its exsistence and uniqueness of a dynamic state nonnegative solution by strongly continuous semigroups of operators theory. Then we prove that 0 is the eigenvalue of the system's host operators, and finally we study the eigenvector of the eigenvalue 0.

  15. Two component theory and electron magnetic moment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The two-component formulation of quantum electrodynamics is studied. The relation with the usual Dirac formulation is exhibited, and the Feynman rules for the two-component form of the theory are presented in terms of familiar objects. The transformation from the Dirac theory to the two-component th

  16. Characterization of the mrgRS locus of the opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei: temperature regulates the expression of a two-component signal transduction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dance David AB

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophyte in tropical environments and an opportunistic human pathogen. This versatility requires a sensing mechanism that allows the bacterium to respond rapidly to altered environmental conditions. We characterized a two-component signal transduction locus from B. pseudomallei 204, mrgR and mrgS, encoding products with extensive homology with response regulators and histidine protein kinases of Escherichia coli, Bordetella pertussis, and Vibrio cholerae. Results The locus was present and expressed in a variety of B. pseudomallei human and environmental isolates but was absent from other Burkholderia species, B. cepacia, B. cocovenenans, B. plantarii, B. thailandensis, B. vandii, and B. vietnamiensis. A 2128 bp sequence, including the full response regulator mrgR, but not the sensor kinase mrgS, was present in the B. mallei genome. Restriction fragment length polymorphism downstream from mrgRS showed two distinct groups were present among B. pseudomallei isolates. Our analysis of the open reading frames in this region of the genome revealed that transposase and bacteriophage activity may help explain this variation. MrgR and MrgS proteins were expressed in B. pseudomallei 204 cultured at different pH, salinity and temperatures and the expression was substantially reduced at 25°C compared with 37°C or 42°C but was mostly unaffected by pH or salinity, although at 25°C and 0.15% NaCl a small increase in MrgR expression was observed at pH 5. MrgR was recognized by antibodies in convalescent sera pooled from melioidosis patients. Conclusion The results suggest that mrgRS regulates an adaptive response to temperature that may be essential for pathogenesis, particularly during the initial phases of infection. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are very closely related species that differ in their capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Modifications in this region of the genome may

  17. PhoP-PhoR two-component signal transduction systems in pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis%PhoPR双组份系统在结核分枝杆菌致病机制中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬博; 张万江

    2014-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction system (TCS) exists extensively in prokaryotic cell ,which plays a key role of regulation in the growth ,differentiation ,metabolism ,virulence ,persistence ,and pathogenicity .PhoPR two-component signal transduction system ,as one of two-component systems ,is the most basic and the most importantly sensitive to the envi-ronmental changes and makes corresponding certain reaction system adapt to changes in the host microenvironment .Therefore , PhoPR TCS which is an important regulatory system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to adapt to environmental change has been increasing concern ,even PhoPR TCS is becoming the new front-burner issue in the pathogenesis of M TB regulation of research .%双组份信号转导系统(Two-component signal transduction system ,TCS)广泛存在于原核生物细胞内,对细胞生长、分化、代谢、毒力、持留性、致病性等方面的调控发挥着重要作用。PhoPR TCS作为双组份系统中最基本、最重要的感应外界环境变化,并作出相应反应的调控系统,能够调控结核分枝杆菌(Mycobacterium Tuberculosis ,MTB)更好的适应宿主微环境变化。因此PhoPR TCS作为M TB适应环境变化的重要调控系统已愈来愈受关注,关于PhoPR TCS在M TB的致病机制调控方面的研究正在成为新的热点。

  18. Two Component Signal Transduction in Desulfovibrio Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luning, Eric; Rajeev, Lara; Ray, Jayashree; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17

    The environmentally relevant Desulfovibrio species are sulfate-reducing bacteria that are of interest in the bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated water. Among these, the genome of D. vulgaris Hildenborough encodes a large number of two component systems consisting of 72 putative response regulators (RR) and 64 putative histidinekinases (HK), the majority of which are uncharacterized. We classified the D. vulgaris Hildenborough RRs based on their output domains and compared the distribution of RRs in other sequenced Desulfovibrio species. We have successfully purified most RRs and several HKs as His-tagged proteins. We performed phospho-transfer experiments to verify relationships between cognate pairs of HK and RR, and we have also mapped a few non-cognate HK-RR pairs. Presented here are our discoveries from the Desulfovibrio RR categorization and results from the in vitro studies using purified His tagged D. vulgaris HKs and RRs.

  19. The Two-Component System CesRK Controls the Transcriptional Induction of Cell Envelope-Related Genes in Listeria monocytogenes in Response to Cell Wall-Acting Antibiotics▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Bygebjerg-Hove, Iver; Bonde, Mette; Nielsen, Pia Kiil; Nguyen, Thanh Ha; Gravesen, Anne; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.

    2008-01-01

    The two-component system CesRK of Listeria monocytogenes responds to cell wall-acting antibiotics. We show here that CesRK controls the transcription of several cell envelope-related genes. The CesRK-dependent induction of these genes may be viewed as an attempt by L. monocytogenes to protect itself against the damaging effects of cell wall-acting antibiotics. PMID:18456805

  20. The two-component system CesRK controls the transcriptional induction of cell envelope-related genes in Listeria monocytogenes in response to cell wall-acting antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Bygebjerg-Hove, Iver; Bonde, Mette; Nielsen, Pia Kiil; Nguyen, Thanh Ha; Gravesen, Anne; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H

    2008-07-01

    The two-component system CesRK of Listeria monocytogenes responds to cell wall-acting antibiotics. We show here that CesRK controls the transcription of several cell envelope-related genes. The CesRK-dependent induction of these genes may be viewed as an attempt by L. monocytogenes to protect itself against the damaging effects of cell wall-acting antibiotics.

  1. Two-component Duality and Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Peter G O

    2007-01-01

    A phenomenologically successful two-component hadronic duality picture led to Veneziano's amplitude, the fundamental first step to string theory. This picture is briefly recalled and its two components are identified as the open strings (mesons and baryons) and closed strings (Pomeron).

  2. An agr-like two-component regulatory system in Lactobacillus plantarum is involved in production of a novel cyclic peptide and regulation of adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturme, M.H.J.; Nakayama, J.; Molenaar, D.; Murakami, Y.; Kunugi, R.; Fujii, T.; Vaughan, E.E.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed a locus on the annotated Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 genome that showed homology to the staphylococcal agr quorum-sensing system and designated it lam for Lactobacillus agr-like module. Production of the lamBDCA transcript was shown to be growth phase dependent. Analysis of a resp

  3. Monoclonal antibody heterogeneity analysis and deamidation monitoring with high-performance cation-exchange chromatofocusing using simple, two component buffer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xuezhen; Kutzko, Joseph P; Hayes, Michael L; Frey, Douglas D

    2013-03-29

    The use of either a polyampholyte buffer or a simple buffer system for the high-performance cation-exchange chromatofocusing of monoclonal antibodies is demonstrated for the case where the pH gradient is produced entirely inside the column and with no external mixing of buffers. The simple buffer system used was composed of two buffering species, one which becomes adsorbed onto the column packing and one which does not adsorb, together with an adsorbed ion that does not participate in acid-base equilibrium. The method which employs the simple buffer system is capable of producing a gradual pH gradient in the neutral to acidic pH range that can be adjusted by proper selection of the starting and ending pH values for the gradient as well as the buffering species concentration, pKa, and molecular size. By using this approach, variants of representative monoclonal antibodies with isoelectric points of 7.0 or less were separated with high resolution so that the approach can serve as a complementary alternative to isoelectric focusing for characterizing a monoclonal antibody based on differences in the isoelectric points of the variants present. Because the simple buffer system used eliminates the use of polyampholytes, the method is suitable for antibody heterogeneity analysis coupled with mass spectrometry. The method can also be used at the preparative scale to collect highly purified isoelectric variants of an antibody for further study. To illustrate this, a single isoelectric point variant of a monoclonal antibody was collected and used for a stability study under forced deamidation conditions.

  4. Preliminary Crystallographic Studies of the Regulatory Domain of Response Regulator YycF from an Essential Two-Component Signal Transduction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H.; Heroux, A; Sequeira, R; Tang, L

    2009-01-01

    YycGF is a crucial signal transduction system for the regulation of cell-wall metabolism in low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, which include many important human pathogens. The response regulator YycF receives signals from its cognate histidine kinase YycG through a phosphotransfer reaction and elicits responses through regulation of gene expression. The N-terminal regulatory domain of YycF from Bacillus subtilis was overproduced and purified. The protein was crystallized and X-ray data were collected to 1.95 A resolution with a completeness of 97.7% and an overall Rmerge of 7.7%. The crystals belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 59.50, c = 79.06 A.

  5. Normal solution and transport coefficients to the Enskog-Landau kinetic equation for a two-component system of charged hard spheres The Chapman-Enskog method

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryn, A E; Tokarchuk, M V

    1999-01-01

    An Enskog-Landau kinetic equation for a many-component system of charged hard spheres is proposed. It has been obtained from the Liouville equation with modified boundary conditions by the method of nonequilibrium statistical operator. On the basis of this equation the normal solutions and transport coefficients such as bulk kappa and shear eta viscosities, thermal conductivity lambda, mutual diffusion D^{\\alpha\\beta} and thermal diffusion D_T^\\alpha have been obtained for a binary mixture in the first approximation using the Chapman-Enskog method. Numerical calculations of all transport coefficients for mixtures Ar-Kr, Ar-Xe, Kr-Xe with different concentrations of compounds have been evaluated for the cases of absence and presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. The results are compared with those obtained from other theories and experiment.

  6. The auxiliary protein complex SaePQ activates the phosphatase activity of sensor kinase SaeS in the SaeRS two-component system of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Do-Won; Cho, Hoonsik; Jones, Marcus B.; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Sun, Fei; Ji, Quanjiang; Liu, Qian; Scott N Peterson; He, Chuan; Bae, Taeok

    2012-01-01

    In bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), dephosphorylation of phosphorylated response regulators is essential for resetting the activated systems to the pre-activation state. However, in the SaeRS TCS, a major virulence TCS of Staphylococcus aureus, the mechanism for dephosphorylation of the response regulator SaeR has not been identified. Here we report that two auxiliary proteins from the sae operon, SaeP and SaeQ, form a protein complex with the sensor kinase SaeS and activate...

  7. A two-component signal-transducing system is involved in competence and penicillin susceptibility in laboratory mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzi, E; Gasc, A M; Sicard, M A; Hakenbeck, R

    1994-05-01

    Penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been attributed so far to the production of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) variants with decreased affinities for beta-lactam antibiotics. Cefotaxime-resistant laboratory mutants, selected after several steps on increasing concentrations of this beta-lactam, become deficient in transformation as well. A DNA fragment conferring both cefotaxime resistance and transformation deficiency was isolated and cloned from the mutant C306. The cefotaxime resistance associated with this resistance determinant was not accompanied with apparent changes in PBP properties, and it mapped on the chromosome distinct from the known resistance determinants, genes encoding PBP2x, PBP1a or PBP2b. Determination of a 2265 bp DNA sequence of the resistance determinant revealed two open reading frames, ciaR and ciaH, whose deduced amino acid sequence identified the corresponding proteins as the response regulator and histidine kinase receptor, respectively (members of the two families of bacterial signal-transducing proteins). Two hydrophobic peptide regions divided the histidine kinase CiaH into two putative domains: an N-terminal extracellular sensor part, and an intracellular C-terminal domain with the conserved His-226 residue, the presumed phosphorylation site. The single point mutations responsible for cefotaxime-resistance and transformation deficiency of C306 and of another two independently isolated cefotaxime-resistant mutants were each located in the C-terminal half of CiaH. A small extracellular protein, the competence factor, is required for induction of competence. Neither C306 nor the transformants obtained with the mutated ciaH gene produced competence factor, and exogenous competence factor could not complement the transformation deficiency, indicating that the signal-transducing system cia is involved in early steps of competence regulation.

  8. In the Staphylococcus aureus Two-Component System sae, the Response Regulator SaeR Binds to a Direct Repeat Sequence and DNA Binding Requires Phosphorylation by the Sensor Kinase SaeS ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Fei; Li, Chunling; Jeong, Dowon; Sohn, Changmo; He, Chuan; Bae, Taeok

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the SaeRS two-component system to control the expression of many virulence factors such as alpha-hemolysin and coagulase; however, the molecular mechanism of this signaling has not yet been elucidated. Here, using the P1 promoter of the sae operon as a model target DNA, we demonstrated that the unphosphorylated response regulator SaeR does not bind to the P1 promoter DNA, while its C-terminal DNA binding domain alone does. The DNA binding activity of full-length Sae...

  9. Two-component Abelian sandpile models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, F C; Pyatov, P; Rittenberg, V

    2009-04-01

    In one-component Abelian sandpile models, the toppling probabilities are independent quantities. This is not the case in multicomponent models. The condition of associativity of the underlying Abelian algebras imposes nonlinear relations among the toppling probabilities. These relations are derived for the case of two-component quadratic Abelian algebras. We show that Abelian sandpile models with two conservation laws have only trivial avalanches.

  10. Two-component PhoB-PhoR regulatory system and ferric uptake regulator sense phosphate and iron to control virulence genes in type III and VI secretion systems of Edwardsiella tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Smarajit; Sivaraman, J; Leung, Ka Yin; Mok, Yu-Keung

    2011-11-11

    Inorganic phosphate (P(i)) and iron are essential nutrients that are depleted by vertebrates as a protective mechanism against bacterial infection. This depletion, however, is sensed by some pathogens as a signal to turn on the expression of virulence genes. Here, we show that the PhoB-PhoR two-component system senses changes in P(i) concentration, whereas the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) senses changes in iron concentration in Edwardsiella tarda PPD130/91 to regulate the expression of type III and VI secretion systems (T3SS and T6SS) through an E. tarda secretion regulator, EsrC. In sensing low P(i) concentration, PhoB-PhoR autoregulates and activates the phosphate-specific transport operon, pstSCAB-phoU, by binding directly to the Pho box in the promoters of phoB and pstS. PhoB also binds with EsrC simultaneously on the promoter of an E. tarda virulence protein, evpA, to regulate directly the transcription of genes from T6SS. In addition, PhoB requires and interacts with PhoU to activate esrC and suppress fur indirectly through unidentified regulators. Fur, on the other hand, senses high iron concentration and binds directly to the Fur box in the promoter of evpP to inhibit EsrC binding to the same region. In addition, Fur suppresses transcription of phoB, pstSCAB-phoU, and esrC indirectly via unidentified regulators, suggesting negative cross-talk with the Pho regulon. Physical interactions exist between Fur and PhoU and between Fur and EsrC. Our findings suggest that T3SS and T6SS may carry out distinct roles in the pathogenicity of E. tarda by responding to different environmental factors.

  11. Exposure of a 23F Serotype Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Is Associated with Selective Upregulation of Genes Encoding the Two-Component Regulatory System 11 (TCS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Cockeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μg/mL for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P<0.014–0.0006 upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11, consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen.

  12. Exposure of a 23F Serotype Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Is Associated with Selective Upregulation of Genes Encoding the Two-Component Regulatory System 11 (TCS11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Jenny A.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Dickens, Caroline; Anderson, Ronald; Feldman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F) to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μg/mL) for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P < 0.014–0.0006) upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11), consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen. PMID:25013815

  13. Progression on the research of two-component signal transduction system in fungus and its inhibitors%真菌双组分信号转导系统及其抑制剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐西光; 张子平; 程波

    2011-01-01

    双组分信号转导系统存在于包括真菌在内的大部分低等真核生物、原核生物及一些植物中.真菌双组分信号转导蛋白在细胞新陈代谢、毒力以及致病性等方面具有重要作用,且目前在人类细胞中尚未发现双组分信号转导系统.因此,探明真菌双组分信号转导系统的机制,可为抑制剂的设计和寻找提供多个“靶点”,从而研制出能够抗致病性真菌而不对宿主细胞造成损伤的新型抗真菌药物.本文就近年来真菌双组分信号转导系统及其潜在抑制剂进行综述.%Two-component signal transduction system, which plays an important role in cell metabolism, virulence and pathoge-nicity, has been found in most lower eukaryotes, prokaryotes and some plants, yet not in human cells. Well-understanding of the mechanism may be helpful for inhibitor designing, which has antifungal effect without damage to host cell. Recent literatures about two-component signal transduction system in fungi and potential inhibitors are reviewed.

  14. Bioinformatics analysis of two-component signal transduction systems of Bacillus thuringiensis%苏云金芽孢杆菌双组份信号转导系统的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清仪; 王阶平; 程钢; 刘钟慧; 范文瑾; 何进

    2011-01-01

    苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis)能产生杀虫晶体蛋白等多种活性成分,是目前应用最广泛的微生物杀虫剂.本文采用生物信息学方法,系统分析了由本实验室完成全基因组测序的苏云全芽孢杆菌YBT-1520、CT-43和BMB171 3个菌株的双组分信号转导系统(Two-component signal traducction system,TCS)的分布、结构及功能,并初步构建了部分TCS的调控网络关系图.本研究旨在为深入研究苏云金芽孢杆菌的生长、代谢以及毒力因子的表达与调控,全面了解伴孢晶体的形成机制开辟新的研究方向.%Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains, which can produce insecticidal crystal proteins, were widely used as biological pesticides. In this paper, we comprehensively analyzed the distributions, structures and putative biological functions of two-component transduction systems (TCS) from the genomes of Bt strains YBT-1520, CT-43 and BMB171, which have been sequenced by our laboratory. And more importantly, we constructed a preliminary TCS regulatory networks. This study should open a novel research direction in Bt for the growth, metabolism, regulator of toxic gene expression, as well as the formation mechanism of parasporal crystals.

  15. Development and characterization of two-component albedo based neutron individual monitoring system using thermoluminescent detectors; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de um sistema de monitoracao individual de neutrons tipo albedo de duas componentes usando detectores termoluminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcelo Marques

    2008-07-01

    A TLD-albedo based two-component neutron individual monitoring system was developed and characterized in this work. The monitor consists of a black plastic holder, an incident neutron boron loaded shield, a moderator polyethylene body (to increase its response), two pairs of TLD-600 and TLD-700 (one pair to each component) and an adjustable belt. This monitoring system was calibrated in thermal neutron fields and in 70 keV, 144 keV, 565 keV, 1.2 MeV and 5 MeV monoenergetic neutron fields. In addition, it was calibrated in {sup 252C}f(D{sub 2}O), {sup 252}Cf, {sup 241}Am-B, {sup 241}Am-Be and {sup 238}Pu-Be source fields. For the latter, the lower detection levels are, respectively, 0.009 mSv, 0.06 mSv, 0.12 mSv, 0.09 mSv and 0.08 mSv. The participation in an international intercomparison sponsored by IAEA with simulated workplace fields validated the system. The monitoring system was successfully characterized in the ISO 21909 standard and in an IRD - the Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - technical regulation draft. Nowadays, the neutron individual system is in use by IRD for whole body individual monitoring of five institutions, which comprehend several activities. (author)

  16. The ABC transporter HrtAB confers resistance to hemin toxicity and is regulated in a hemin-dependent manner by the ChrAS two-component system in Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Lori A; Schmitt, Michael P

    2010-09-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of the severe respiratory disease diphtheria, utilizes hemin and hemoglobin as iron sources for growth in iron-depleted environments. Because of the toxicity of high levels of hemin and iron, these compounds are often tightly regulated in bacterial systems. In this report, we identify and characterize the C. diphtheriae hrtAB genes, which encode a putative ABC type transporter involved in conferring resistance to the toxic effects of hemin. Deletion of the hrtAB genes in C. diphtheriae produced increased sensitivity to hemin, which was complemented by a plasmid harboring the cloned hrtAB locus. The HrtAB system was not involved in the uptake and use of hemin as an iron source. The hrtAB genes are located on the C. diphtheriae genome upstream from the chrSA operon, which encodes a previously characterized two-component signal transduction system that regulates gene expression in a heme-dependent manner. The hrtB promoter is activated by the ChrAS system in the presence of hemin or hemoglobin, and mutations in the chrSA genes abolish heme-activated expression from the hrtB promoter. It was also observed that transcription from the hrtB promoter is reduced in a dtxR deletion mutant, suggesting that DtxR is required for optimal expression of hrtAB. Previous studies proposed that the ChrS sensor kinase may be responsive to an environmental signal, such as hemin. We show that specific point mutations in the ChrS N-terminal transmembrane domain result in a reduced ability to activate the hrtB promoter in the presence of a heme source, suggesting that this putative sensor region is essential for the detection of a signal produced in response to hemin exposure. This study shows that the HrtAB system is required for protection from hemin toxicity and that expression of the hrtAB genes is regulated by the ChrAS two-component system. This study demonstrates a direct correlation between the detection of heme or a heme

  17. Two-component model of solar plages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jianping(李建平); DING; Mingde(丁明德); FANG; Cheng(方成)

    2002-01-01

    By use of the 2-m Mcmath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Peak, the high-quality spectra of a plage with moderate brightness near the center of solar disk were obtained. The data include seven spectral lines, which are Hα, Hβ, CaII H and K lines and the infrared triplet. With the consideration of fine structures of solar plages, a two-component atmospheric model is constructed by keeping the cool component to be the quiet atmosphere. Three cases of the hot component are given for different filling factors where the temperature and density distribution are adjusted in order to reproduce the seven observed spectral profiles. We also briefly discuss the influence of the column density at the base of the corona, m0, and the macro-turbulent velocity on the required filling factor and computed profiles. The two-component model is compared with precious one-component semi-empirical models. The limitation of the model is pointed out and further improvement is indicated.

  18. 隐藏嗜酸菌Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5双组分信号转导系统%Two-component signal transduction system of Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余水静; 彭艳平; 邓扬悟; 郭燕华; 刘荷英

    2013-01-01

      为了探索隐藏嗜酸菌(Acidiphilium cryptum)对多变极端矿山环境条件的感知和反应分子机制,预测和分析了隐藏嗜酸菌JF-5菌株的双组分信号转导系统(Two-component signal transduction system, TCS)的分布、结构及功能。鉴定了9对成对TCSs、2个杂合结构TCSs、3个孤儿组氨酸蛋白激酶(HK)和5个孤儿反应调节蛋白(RR);发现5个TCSs参与隐藏嗜酸菌对重金属响应转录调控;大多数HKs的N-末端具有接受信号的跨膜区、HAMP或PAS等结构域,RRs主要是OmpR亚家族,占总RRs的40%以上;从进化关系上来看,一些处在进化树同一分支上的共同聚簇TCS基因可能具有相同的进化途径。本研究结果可为研究隐藏嗜酸菌在极端环境中适应性分子机制提供新的方向。%In order to explore the molecular mechanism of Acidiphilium cryptum response to extreme conditions in the mine environment, the distributions, structures and putative biological functions of two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) in A. cryptum JF-5 are predicated and analyzed. And 9 TCSs, 2 hybrid histidine kinases (HK), 3 orphan HKs and 5 orphan response regulator proteins (RR) were identified. Five TCSs were involved in the transcription regulation of A. cryptum response to heavy metal. The most N-terminal regions of HKs were characterized by the presence of transmembrane helices, HAMPs, or PAS domains. More than 40 percent of putative RRs were classified into OmpR subfamily. From the evolutionary relationship, the common clustering TCS genes in the same branch of the evolutionary tree may have the same evolutionary pathway. Our results should open a novel research direction in A. cryptum for molecular mechanism of the adaptation in the extreme environment.

  19. Two-Component Description for Relativistic Fermions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Qi; SANG Wen-Long; YANG Lan-Fei

    2009-01-01

    We propose a two-component form to describe massive relativistic fermions in gauge theories. Relations between the Green's functions in this form and those in the conventional four-component form are derived. It is shown that the S-matrix elements in both forms are exactly the same. The description of the fermion in the new form simplifies significantly the γ-matrix algebra in the four-component form. In particular, in perturbative calculations the propagator of the fermion is a scalar function. As examples, we use this form to reproduce the relativistic spectrum of hydrodron atom, the S-matrix of e+ e-→μ+ μ- and QED one-loop vacuum polarization of photon.

  20. Post-transcriptional control of the Escherichia coli PhoQ-PhoP two-component system by multiple sRNAs involves a novel pairing region of GcvB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Coornaert

    Full Text Available PhoQ/PhoP is a central two-component system involved in magnesium homeostasis, pathogenicity, cell envelope composition, and acid resistance in several bacterial species. The small RNA GcvB is identified here as a novel direct regulator of the synthesis of PhoQ/PhoP in Escherichia coli, and this control relies on a novel pairing region of GcvB. After MicA, this is the second Hfq-dependent small RNA that represses expression of the phoPQ operon. Both MicA and GcvB bind phoPQ mRNA in vivo and in vitro around the translation initiation region of phoP. Binding of either small RNA is sufficient to inhibit ribosome binding and induce mRNA degradation. Surprisingly, however, MicA and GcvB have different effects on the levels of the PhoP protein and therefore on the expression of the PhoP regulon. These results highlight the complex connections between small RNAs and transcriptional regulation networks in bacteria.

  1. In the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system sae, the response regulator SaeR binds to a direct repeat sequence and DNA binding requires phosphorylation by the sensor kinase SaeS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Li, Chunling; Jeong, Dowon; Sohn, Changmo; He, Chuan; Bae, Taeok

    2010-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the SaeRS two-component system to control the expression of many virulence factors such as alpha-hemolysin and coagulase; however, the molecular mechanism of this signaling has not yet been elucidated. Here, using the P1 promoter of the sae operon as a model target DNA, we demonstrated that the unphosphorylated response regulator SaeR does not bind to the P1 promoter DNA, while its C-terminal DNA binding domain alone does. The DNA binding activity of full-length SaeR could be restored by sensor kinase SaeS-induced phosphorylation. Phosphorylated SaeR is more resistant to digestion by trypsin, suggesting conformational changes. DNase I footprinting assays revealed that the SaeR protection region in the P1 promoter contains a direct repeat sequence (GTTAAN(6)GTTAA [where N is any nucleotide]). This sequence is critical to the binding of phosphorylated SaeR. Mutational changes in the repeat sequence greatly reduced both the in vitro binding of SaeR and the in vivo function of the P1 promoter. From these results, we concluded that SaeR recognizes the direct repeat sequence as a binding site and that binding requires phosphorylation by SaeS.

  2. VicRK two-component signal transduction system of Streptococcus mutans%变异链球菌的VicRK双组分信号传导系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田媛媛

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans(S.nuaans), which is considered as the chief pathogen of human caries, possesses the ability to form biofilm via sucrose-dependent adhesion, genesis and endure acids in the biofilm that may ultimately lead to dental caries. VicRK is one of the 13 putative two-component signal transduction systems of S.mutans that modulate the expression of cariogeneisis related virulence factors. This review summarized the mechanism, structural organization, physiological characteristics and the impact on the cariogenesis capabilities of VicRK, as well as the correlation between VicRK and VicX in S.mutans.%变异链球菌是人类龋病的主要病原菌,它通过蔗糖依赖性黏附形成生物膜并在其中产酸耐酸,最终导致龋病.VicRK是变异链球菌13种双组分信号传导系统之一,可调节变异链球菌致龋性毒力相关因子的表达.本文就VicRK的作用机制、结构组成、生理特性,及其对变异链球菌致龋性的影响,VicRK和VicX间的关系等研究进展作一综述.

  3. Two-component signal transduction system and the virulence-related characteristics of Streptococcus mutans%双组分信号传导系统与变异链球菌的致病相关特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娇

    2011-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction system (TCSTS) plays an important role in the expression of virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans, such as the competence development, the formation of biofilm, the stability of structure, the production of bacteriocin, and the properties of acid production and resistance. It provides many ecological advantages to compete and survive in the dental plaque. This article is a review about the composition of TCSTS of Streptococcus mutans, the effect of TCSTS on the virulence-related characteristics of Streptococcus mutans, and the application significance of TCSTS.%双组分信号传导系统(TCSTS)在变异链球菌感受态形成、生物膜形成、结构稳定、菌素产生、产酸耐酸特性等毒力因子表达方面起着重要的作用,为其在菌斑生物膜中的竞争和生存提供了诸多生态性优势.本文就变异链球菌TCSTS的组成、TCSTS对变异链球菌致病相关特性的影响、TCSTS的应用意义等作一综述.

  4. On a periodic two-component Hunter-Saxton equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohlmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We determine the solution of the geodesic equation associated with a periodic two-component Hunter-Saxton system on a semidirect product obtained from the diffeomorphism group of the circle, modulo rigid rotations, and a space of scalar functions. In particular, we compute the time of breakdown of the geodesic flow. As a further goal, we establish a local well-posedness result for the two-component Hunter-Saxton system in the smooth category. The paper gets in line with some recent results for the generalized Hunter-Saxton equation provided by Escher, Wu and Wunsch in [J. Escher, Preprint 2010] and [H. Wu, M. Wunsch, arXiv:1009.1688v1 [math.AP

  5. Tobacco two-component gene NTHK2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using a previously isolated tobacco two- component gene NTHK1 as a probe, we screened a cDNA library and obtained a homologous gene designated NTHK2. Sequencing analysis revealed that NTHK2 encoded a putative ethylene receptor homolog and contained a histidine kinase domain and a receiver domain. In the histidine kinase domain, the histidine at the phosphorylation site was replaced by an asparagine. Southern analysis indicated that NTHK2 was present at low copies in tobacco genome. The expression of NTHK2 was studied using a competitive RT-PCR method. It was found that, in young flower buds, NTHK2 was expressed abundantly, while in other organs or tissues, it was expressed in a low level. When leaf was subjected to wounding (cutting) treatment, NTHK2 expression was increased. When tobacco seedlings were stressed with PEG and heat shock, NTHK2 transcription was also enhanced. Other treatments showed little effects. These results indicated that NTHK2 might be involved in the developmental processes and in plant responses to some environmental stresses.

  6. Regulation of the AbrA1/A2 two-component system in Streptomyces coelicolor and the potential of its deletion strain as a heterologous host for antibiotic production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rico

    Full Text Available The Two-Component System (TCS AbrA1/A2 from Streptomyces coelicolor M145 is a negative regulator of antibiotic production and morphological differentiation. In this work we show that it is able to auto-regulate its expression, exerting a positive induction of its own operon promoter, and that its activation is dependent on the presence of iron. The overexpression of the abrA2 response regulator (RR gene in the mutant ΔabrA1/A2 results in a toxic phenotype. The reason is an excess of phosphorylated AbrA2, as shown by phosphoablative and phosphomimetic AbrA2 mutants. Therefore, non-cognate histidine kinases (HKs or small phospho-donors may be responsible for AbrA2 phosphorylation in vivo. The results suggest that in the parent strain S. coelicolor M145 the correct amount of phosphorylated AbrA2 is adjusted through the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation activity rate of the HK AbrA1. Furthermore, the ABC transporter system, which is part of the four-gene operon comprising AbrA1/A2, is necessary to de-repress antibiotic production in the TCS null mutant. Finally, in order to test the possible biotechnological applications of the ΔabrA1/A2 strain, we demonstrate that the production of the antitumoral antibiotic oviedomycin is duplicated in this strain as compared with the production obtained in the wild type, showing that this strain is a good host for heterologous antibiotic production. Thus, this genetically modified strain could be interesting for the biotechnology industry.

  7. The PorX response regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY two-component system does not directly regulate the Type IX secretion genes but binds the PorL subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxence S Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Type IX secretion system (T9SS is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion of surface attachment of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of the porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we showed that PorX does not bind and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  8. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  9. Complement-mediated opsonization of invasive group A Streptococcus pyogenes strain AP53 is regulated by the bacterial two-component cluster of virulence responder/sensor (CovRS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Balsara, Rashna D; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2013-09-20

    Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strain AP53 is a primary isolate from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis. These AP53 cells contain an inactivating mutation in the sensor component of the cluster of virulence (cov) responder (R)/sensor (S) two-component gene regulatory system (covRS), which enhances the virulence of the primary strain, AP53/covR(+)S(-). However, specific mechanisms by which the covRS system regulates the survival of GAS in humans are incomplete. Here, we show a key role for covRS in the regulation of opsonophagocytosis of AP53 by human neutrophils. AP53/covR(+)S(-) cells displayed potent binding of host complement inhibitors of C3 convertase, viz. Factor H (FH) and C4-binding protein (C4BP), which concomitantly led to minimal C3b deposition on AP53 cells, further showing that these plasma protein inhibitors are active on GAS cells. This resulted in weak killing of the bacteria by human neutrophils and a corresponding high death rate of mice after injection of these cells. After targeted allelic alteration of covS(-) to wild-type covS (covS(+)), a dramatic loss of FH and C4BP binding to the AP53/covR(+)S(+) cells was observed. This resulted in elevated C3b deposition on AP53/covR(+)S(+) cells, a high level of opsonophagocytosis by human neutrophils, and a very low death rate of mice infected with AP53/covR(+)S(+). We show that covRS is a critical transcriptional regulator of genes directing AP53 killing by neutrophils and regulates the levels of the receptors for FH and C4BP, which we identify as the products of the fba and enn genes, respectively.

  10. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  11. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria citH gene is expressed early in the infection process of tomato and is positively regulated by the TctDE two-component regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Rosenberg, Tally; Burdman, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper. Previously, we have reported the adaptation of a recombinase- or resolvase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) approach to identify Xcv genes that are specifically induced during its interaction with tomato. Analysis of some of these genes revealed that a citH (citrate transporter) homologous gene contributes to Xcv virulence on tomato. Here, we demonstrate that the citH product indeed facilitates citrate uptake by showing the following: citH is specifically needed for Xcv growth in citrate, but not in other carbon sources; the citH promoter is specifically induced by citrate; and the concentration of citrate from tomato leaf apoplast is considerably reduced following growth of the wild-type and a citH-complemented strain, but not the citH mutant. We also show that, in the Xcv-tomato interaction, the promoter activity of the citH gene is induced as early as 2.5h after Xcv is syringe infiltrated into tomato leaves, and continues to be active for at least 96h after inoculation. We identified an operon containing a two-component regulatory system homologous to tctD/tctE influencing citH expression in Xcv, as well as its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The expression of hrp genes does not seem to be affected in the citH mutant, and this mutant cannot be complemented for growth in planta when co-inoculated with the wild-type strain, indicating that citrate uptake in the apoplast is important for the virulence of Xcv.

  12. Characterization of Streptococcus thermophilus two-component systems: In silico analysis, functional analysis and expression of response regulator genes in pure or mixed culture with its yogurt partner, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenard, Benoît; Rasoava, Niriaina; Fourcassié, Pascal; Monnet, Véronique; Boyaval, Patrick; Rul, Françoise

    2011-12-02

    The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus) is widely used in the dairy industry. As a food bacterium, it has to cope with changing environments such as milk, yogurt, as well as the digestive tract, after the product has been ingested. In bacteria, two-component systems (TCS) are one of the most prevalent mechanisms to sense and respond appropriately to a wide range of signals. They are typically composed of a sensor kinase (HK) that detects a stimulus and a response regulator (RR) which acts as a transcriptional regulator. Our objective was to make an inventory of the TCS present in S. thermophilus LMD-9 and investigate the contribution of each TCS to LMD-9 growth in milk. For that purpose, we performed in silico, transcriptomic as well as functional analysis. The LMD-9 genome presented 6 complete TCS with both HK and RR (TCS 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9) and 2 orphan RRs (RR01 and 08) with truncated HK. Our in silico analysis revealed that for 5 TCS out of the 8, orthologs with known functions were found in other bacterial species whereas for TCS02, 4 and 6 the function of the orthologs are unidentified. Transcriptomic studies (using quantitative PCR) revealed that all S. thermophilus LMD-9 response regulator genes were expressed in milk; they were expressed at different levels and with different profiles during growth. In mixed culture with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus), the S. thermophilus partner in yogurt, the expression of four S. thermophilus LMD-9 response regulator increased; two of them, rr02 and rr09, increased by a factor of 6. These results indicate that the presence of L. bulgaricus induces regulatory changes in S. thermophilus. We also demonstrated that a response regulator (rr02) can exert its regulatory function on its target genes even when expressed at very low levels. We showed that RR05-an ortholog of Bacillus subtilis YycF or Staphylococcus aureus WalR-was essential for the growth of S

  13. Two component micro injection moulding for moulded interconnect devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    2008-01-01

    Moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) contain huge possibilities for many applications in micro electro-mechanical-systems because of their capability of reducing the number of components, process steps and finally in miniaturization of the product. Among the available MID process chains, two...... and a reasonable adhesion between them. • Selective metallization of the two component plastic part (coating one polymer with metal and leaving the other one uncoated) To overcome these two main issues in MID fabrication for micro applications, the current Ph.D. project explores the technical difficulties...

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Two-Component Signal Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschiedrich, Christopher P; Keidel, Victoria; Szurmant, Hendrik

    2016-09-25

    Two-component systems (TCS) comprising sensor histidine kinases and response regulator proteins are among the most important players in bacterial and archaeal signal transduction and also occur in reduced numbers in some eukaryotic organisms. Given their importance to cellular survival, virulence, and cellular development, these systems are among the most scrutinized bacterial proteins. In the recent years, a flurry of bioinformatics, genetic, biochemical, and structural studies have provided detailed insights into many molecular mechanisms that underlie the detection of signals and the generation of the appropriate response by TCS. Importantly, it has become clear that there is significant diversity in the mechanisms employed by individual systems. This review discusses the current knowledge on common themes and divergences from the paradigm of TCS signaling. An emphasis is on the information gained by a flurry of recent structural and bioinformatics studies.

  15. Two-Component Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa Equation and Its Symmetry Reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Chang-Zheng; YAO Ruo-Xia; LI Zhi-Bin

    2004-01-01

    @@ It is shown that two-component Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI) equation, i.e. a generalization of the well-known WKI equation, is obtained from the motion of space curves in Euclidean geometry, and it is exactly a system for the graph of the curves when the curve motion is governed by the two-component modified Korteweg-de Vries flow. Group-invariant solutions of the two-component WKI equation which corresponds to an optimal system of its Lie point symmetry groups are obtained, and its similarity reductions to systems of ordinary differential equations are also given.

  16. Budding Transition of Asymmetric Two-component Lipid Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Jean; Andelman, David

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model that accounts for the budding transition of asymmetric two-component lipid domains, where the two monolayers (leaflets) have different average compositions controlled by independent chemical potentials. Assuming a coupling between the local curvature and local lipid composition in each of the leaflets, we discuss the morphology and thermodynamic behavior of asymmetric lipid domains. The membrane free-energy contains three contributions: the bending energy, the line tension, and a Landau free-energy for a lateral phase separation. Within a mean-field treatment, we obtain various phase diagrams containing fully budded, dimpled, and flat states as a function of the two leaflet compositions. The global phase behavior is analyzed, and depending on system parameters, the phase diagrams include one-phase, two-phase and three-phase regions. In particular, we predict various phase coexistence regions between different morphologies of domains, which may be observed in multi-component membranes or ves...

  17. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik;

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists...

  18. Exact two-component relativistic energy band theory and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Rundong; Zhang, Yong; Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian, E-mail: liuwj@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-01-28

    An exact two-component (X2C) relativistic density functional theory in terms of atom-centered basis functions is proposed for relativistic calculations of band structures and structural properties of periodic systems containing heavy elements. Due to finite radial extensions of the local basis functions, the periodic calculation is very much the same as a molecular calculation, except only for an Ewald summation for the Coulomb potential of fluctuating periodic monopoles. For comparison, the nonrelativistic and spin-free X2C counterparts are also implemented in parallel. As a first and pilot application, the band gaps, lattice constants, cohesive energies, and bulk moduli of AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) are calculated to compare with other theoretical results.

  19. Two-component micro injection moulding for hearing aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Two-component (2k) injection moulding is an important process technique at the present state of technology, and it is growing rapidly in the field of precision micro moulding. Besides combining different material properties in the same product, two-component moulding can eliminate many assembly s...

  20. An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then…

  1. Role of functionality in two-component signal transduction: A stochastic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Alok Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Arnab; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Banik, Suman K.

    2014-03-01

    We present a stochastic formalism for signal transduction processes in a bacterial two-component system. Using elementary mass action kinetics, the proposed model takes care of signal transduction in terms of a phosphotransfer mechanism between the cognate partners of a two-component system, viz., the sensor kinase and the response regulator. Based on the difference in functionality of the sensor kinase, the noisy phosphotransfer mechanism has been studied for monofunctional and bifunctional two-component systems using the formalism of the linear noise approximation. Steady-state analysis of both models quantifies different physically realizable quantities, e.g., the variance, the Fano factor (variance/mean), and mutual information. The resultant data reveal that both systems reliably transfer information of extracellular environment under low external stimulus and in a high-kinase-and-phosphatase regime. We extend our analysis further by studying the role of the two-component system in downstream gene regulation.

  2. Travelling wave solutions for some two-component shallow water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutykh, Denys; Ionescu-Kruse, Delia

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we perform a unified analysis of travelling wave solutions to three different two-component systems which appear in shallow water theory. Namely, we analyze the celebrated Green-Naghdi equations, the integrable two-component Camassa-Holm equations and a new two-component system of Green-Naghdi type. In particular, we are interested in solitary and cnoidal-type solutions, as two most important classes of travelling waves that we encounter in applications. We provide a complete phase-plane analysis of all possible travelling wave solutions which may arise in these models. In particular, we show the existence of new type of solutions.

  3. Two-component generalizations of the periodic Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi equations

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Lenells, Jonatan

    2010-01-01

    We use geometric methods to study two natural two-component generalizations of the periodic Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi equations. We show that these generalizations can be regarded as geodesic equations on the semidirect product of the diffeomorphism group of the circle $\\Diff(S^1)$ with some space of sufficiently smooth functions on the circle. Our goals are to understand the geometric properties of these two-component systems and to prove local well-posedness in various function spaces. Furthermore, we perform some explicit curvature calculations for the two-component Camassa-Holm equation, giving explicit examples of large subspaces of positive curvature.

  4. Hamiltonian of a homogeneous two-component plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essén, Hanno; Nordmark, A

    2004-03-01

    The Hamiltonian of one- and two-component plasmas is calculated in the negligible radiation Darwin approximation. Since the Hamiltonian is the phase space energy of the system its form indicates, according to statistical mechanics, the nature of the thermal equilibrium that plasmas strive to attain. The main issue is the length scale of the magnetic interaction energy. In the past a screening length lambda=1/square root of r(e)n], with n number density and r(e) classical electron radius, has been derived. We address the question whether the corresponding longer screening range obtained from the classical proton radius is physically relevant and the answer is affirmative. Starting from the Darwin Lagrangian it is nontrivial to find the Darwin Hamiltonian of a macroscopic system. For a homogeneous system we resolve the difficulty by temporarily approximating the particle number density by a smooth constant density. This leads to Yukawa-type screened vector potential. The nontrivial problem of finding the corresponding, divergence free, Coulomb gauge version is solved.

  5. Preparation and frictional investigation of the two-components silanes deposited on alumina surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kośla, K.; Grobelny, J.; Cichomski, M., E-mail: mcichom@uni.lodz.pl

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • The two-component silane films on the alumina surface were obtained by a combination of soft lithography and vapor phase deposition method. • The effectiveness of modification procedure was monitored by AFM topography images. • By using gas phase deposition method succeeded in obtaining a good reproduction of pattern. • Silane films with low surface free energy and coefficient of friction values were obtained. • The frictional performance in milli-Newton load range of one- and two-component films was investigated by microtribometry. - Abstract: Functionalization and pattering technique that permits two-component pattern-specific modification of alumina surface with silanes molecules are reported. The method relies on a two-component molecular system that simultaneously decreases coefficient of friction of the alumina surface and provides uniform chemical functionality suitable for further elaboration. Pattern/two-component modification is achieved via gas-phase deposition of the silanes using polydimethylsiloxane stamp. The frictional behaviors of the two-component films of the silane molecules with different chain length covalently absorbed on alumina surfaces, were characterized by the ball-disk (microtribometer) tester. The surfaces of the substrate modified by two-component molecular films were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The measured tribological results showed that the mixing of the fluoroalkylsilane and alkylsilane enhance the lubrication and decrease the friction compared to the one-component thin films.

  6. Circulation Condition of Two-component Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the report we point out that there exists an intrinsic difference in the internal symmetry of the two components spin-1/2 Bose condensates from that of spinor Bose condensates of the atoms with hyperfine states of nonzero integer-spins,which gives rise to a new topological constrain on the circulation for this two-component spin-1/2 Bose condensates.It is shown that the SU(2) symmetry of the spin-1/2 Bose condensate implies a

  7. Itinerant Ferromagnetism in a Polarized Two-Component Fermi Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massignan, Pietro; Yu, Zhenhua; Bruun, Georg

    2013-01-01

    We analyze when a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas becomes thermodynamically unstable against phase separation. We focus on the strongly polarized limit, where the free energy of the homogeneous mixture can be calculated accurately in terms of well-defined quasiparticles, the repul......We analyze when a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas becomes thermodynamically unstable against phase separation. We focus on the strongly polarized limit, where the free energy of the homogeneous mixture can be calculated accurately in terms of well-defined quasiparticles...

  8. Identification and functional assay of the interaction motifs in the partner protein OsNAR2.1 of the two-component system for high-affinity nitrate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Daimin; Tao, Jinyuan; Miller, Anthony J; Fan, Xiaorong; Xu, Guohua

    2014-10-01

    A partner protein, NAR2, is essential for high-affinity nitrate transport of the NRT2 protein in plants. However, the NAR2 motifs that interact with NRT2s for their plasma membrane (PM) localization and nitrate transporter activity have not been functionally characterized. In this study, OsNAR2.1 mutations with different carbon (C)-terminal deletions and nine different point mutations in the conserved regions of NAR2 homologs in plants were generated to explore the essential motifs involved in the interaction with OsNRT2.3a. Screening using the membrane yeast two-hybrid system and Xenopus oocytes for nitrogen-15 ((15)N) uptake demonstrated that either R100G or D109N point mutations impaired the OsNAR2.1 interaction with OsNRT2.3a. Western blotting and visualization using green fluorescent protein fused to either the N- or C-terminus of OsNAR2.1 indicated that OsNAR2.1 is expressed in both the PM and cytoplasm. The split-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)/BiFC analyses indicated that OsNRT2.3a was targeted to the PM in the presence of OsNAR2.1, while either R100G or D109N mutation resulted in the loss of OsNRT2.3a-YFP signal in the PM. Based on these results, arginine 100 and aspartic acid 109 of the OsNAR2.1 protein are key amino acids in the interaction with OsNRT2.3a, and their interaction occurs in the PM but not cytoplasm.

  9. Phase separation and dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kean Loon; Jørgensen, Nils Byg; Liu, I-Kang;

    2016-01-01

    The miscibility of two interacting quantum systems is an important testing ground for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates enable the investigation of this scenario in a particularly well controlled setting. In a homogeneous system, the transition...

  10. Entanglement Properties in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Di-You

    2016-10-01

    We investigate entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement of in two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of the nonlinear interatomic interaction, interspecies interaction. Entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement have the similar properties. More entanglement can be generated by adjusting the nonlinear interatomic interaction and control the time interval of the entanglement by adjusting interspecies interaction.

  11. Two component injection moulding: Present and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Two component injection moulding has widespread industrial applications. Still the technology is yet to gain its full potential in highly demanding and technically challenging applications areas. The smart use of this technology can open the doors for cost effective and convergent manufacturing...

  12. TWO-COMPONENT JETS AND THE FANAROFF-RILEY DICHOTOMY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.; Sauty, C.

    2010-01-01

    Transversely stratified jets are observed in many classes of astrophysical objects, ranging from young stellar objects, mu-quasars, to active galactic nuclei and even in gamma-ray bursts. Theoretical arguments support this transverse stratification of jets with two components induced by intrinsic fe

  13. Dynamics of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Eunsil

    I explored the vortex dynamics in homonuclear species two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) based on the knowledge of vortex dynamics in one-component BECs. The vortex dynamics in BECs depends on the background fields induced by different external potentials and other vortices. The motion of vortices is numerically computed and the numerical results are compared to the theoretical formulas where possible. In the study of the vortex-vortex interaction dynamics in one-component BECs, a power law relationship between the motion of the vortices and their separation distance is depicted. In addition to that, the relationship between the linear and the angular velocities of the vortices is found to be similar to the relationship between the tangential and the angular velocities of classical fluid vortices. In the case of two-component BEC dynamics, two different cases are studied: one without atomic inter-conversion between the two components and the other with atomic inter-conversion. The stability analysis of the two-component BECs is conducted to identify the stable regions as well as the regions of mixed and separated states. When a vortex is seeded in one component, this vortex induces a hump in the other component at the same location as the vortex, which leads to the vortex-hump dynamics. The vortex-hump-vortex-hump interaction dynamics without atomic inter-conversion depicts a power law relation between the motion of vortex-humps and the separation distance; whereas, the vortex-hump-vortex-hump interaction dynamics with atomic inter-conversion reveals a more complex relation between the motion of vortex-humps and the separation distance.

  14. Modulational instability of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, G R; Nahm, K; Jin, Guang-Ri; Kim, Chul Koo; Nahm, Kyun

    2004-01-01

    We study modulational instability of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in a deep optical lattice, which is modelled as a coupled discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. The excitation spectrum and the modulational instability condition of the total system are presented analytically. In the long-wavelength limit, our results agree with the homogeneous two-component Bose-Einstein condensates case. The discreteness effects result in the appearance of the modulational instability for the condensates in miscible region. The numerical calculations confirm our analytical results and show that the interspecies coupling can transfer the instability from one component to another.

  15. Discrete kink dynamics in hydrogen-bonded chains: The two-component model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpan, V.M.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth;

    2004-01-01

    are fixed) and two-component models. The effect of stability switchings, discovered previously for a class of one-component kink-bearing models, is shown to exist in these two-component models as well. However, the presence of the second component, i.e., the softness of the heavy-ion sublattice, brings...... principal differences, like a significant difference in the stability switchings behavior for the kinks and the antikinks. Water-filled carbon nanotubes are briefly discussed as possible realistic systems, where topological discrete (anti)kink states might exist....

  16. Domain Walls and Textured Vortices in a Two-Component Ginzburg-Landau Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2005-01-01

    We look for domain wall and textured vortex solutions in a two-component Ginzburg-Landau model inspired by two-band superconductivity. The two-dimensional two-component model, with equal coherence lengths and no magnetic field, shows some interesting properties. In the absence of a Josephson type...... coupling between the two order parameters a ''textured vortex'' is found by analytical and numerical solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equations. With a Josephson type coupling between the two order parameters we find the system to split up in two domains separated by a domain wall, where the order parameter...

  17. Block algebra in two-component BKP and D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong

    2013-11-01

    We construct generalized additional symmetries of a two-component BKP hierarchy defined by two pseudo-differential Lax operators. These additional symmetry flows form a Block type algebra with some modified (or additional) terms because of a B type reduction condition of this integrable hierarchy. Further we show that the D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy, which is a reduction of the two-component BKP hierarchy, possess a complete Block type additional symmetry algebra. That D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy has a similar algebraic structure as the bigraded Toda hierarchy which is a differential-discrete integrable system.

  18. Block algebra in two-component BKP and D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanzhong, E-mail: lichuanzhong@nbu.edu.cn; He, Jingsong, E-mail: hejingsong@nbu.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2013-11-15

    We construct generalized additional symmetries of a two-component BKP hierarchy defined by two pseudo-differential Lax operators. These additional symmetry flows form a Block type algebra with some modified (or additional) terms because of a B type reduction condition of this integrable hierarchy. Further we show that the D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy, which is a reduction of the two-component BKP hierarchy, possess a complete Block type additional symmetry algebra. That D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy has a similar algebraic structure as the bigraded Toda hierarchy which is a differential-discrete integrable system.

  19. Ultrasound Assisted Co-aggregation of a Two-component System with Multicolor Emission and Its Response to Aoid%超声促进两组分多彩发光体系分子聚集体的共组装及其对酸的响应行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭东; 刘倩; 许秀芳; 兰海闯; 曹新华; 陈黎明; 刘斌; 易涛

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a two-component gel/micro-crystal system including amino acid and imidazole-based derivatives with blue and red emission, respectively, is designed and obtained. The two emission colors are convenient for the study of the co-aggregation of the two molecules via double channel confocal laser scanning microscopy. The two-component system could response to ultrasound with the morphology change from the mixture of club-shaped microcrystals and helical fibers by a thermal process to homogenous fibers exposing to sonication. Further evidence for the co-aggregation of the two compo- nents was obtained from circular dichromism (CD), IR spectra and X-ray powder diffraction. The self-assembly process be- tween the two components was also studied by optimized molecular geometry calculation. Moreover, the co-aggregation obtained by the sonication then heating-cooling process, could not be destroyed by repeated heating-cooling. The gel-sol process could be further repeated for many times, suggesting that the co-aggregated gel was thermal-stable. It can be deduced that sonication weakened the intermolecular interaction between congeneric molecules and promoted the intermolecular hy- drogen bonding between the two components. The results indicate that cooperation of the sonication and thermal processes is an effective way to prohibit phase separation and to promote gelation in the gel/micro-crystal system. Thus, a light harvest system is achieved by co-aggregation of the two components at nanoscale by means of sonication. The emission color of these two-component gels can be tuned by changing the ratio of the two compounds. These gels are sensitive to acid, giving clear spectral variation, accompanied by a gel to sol transition. The morphology of the two-component system is changed from a fiber structure to vesicles without phase separation when responding to acid and metal ions. Moreover, both the gel state and the morphology can be reversed by further addition of

  20. Instabilities on crystal surfaces: The two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlon, E.; van Beijeren, H.; Mazzeo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The free energy of crystal surfaces that can be described by the two-component body-centered solid-on-solid model has been calculated in a mean-field approximation. The system may model ionic crystals with a bcc lattice structure (for instance CsCl). Crossings between steps are energetically favored

  1. Light Responsive Two-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel: A Sensitive Platform for Humidity Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Samai, Suman

    2016-02-15

    The supramolecular assembly of anionic azobenzene dicarboxylate and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) formed a stimuli responsive hydrogel with a critical gelation concentration (CGC) of 0.33 wt%. This self-sustainable two-component system was able to repair damage upon light irradiation. Moreover, it was successfully employed in the fabrication of highly sensitive humidity sensors for the first time.

  2. Two-Component Multi-Parameter Time-Frequency Electromagnetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangZhou; DongWeibin; HeTiezhi

    2003-01-01

    The two-component multi-parameter time-frequency electromagnetic method, used for the development of oilfields,makes use of both the traditional individual conductivity parameters of oil-producing layers and the dispersion information of the conductivity, i.e., the induced polarization parameter. The frequency-domain dispersion data is used to delineate the contacts between oil and water and the time domain dBz/dt component is used to estimate the depths to the un-known reservoirs so as to offer significant data in many aspects for oil exploration and detection.

  3. Interaction potentials and thermodynamic properties of two component semiclassical plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.; Ismagambetova, T. N. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, 71 al-Farabi Av., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan); Gabdullin, M. T. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, NNLOT, 71 al-Farabi Av., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, the effective interaction potential in two component semiclassical plasma, taking into account the long-range screening and the quantum-mechanical diffraction effects at short distances, is obtained on the basis of dielectric response function method. The structural properties of the semiclassical plasma are considered. The thermodynamic characteristics (the internal energy and the equation of state) are calculated using two methods: the method of effective potentials and the method of micropotentials with screening effect taken into account by the Ornstein-Zernike equation in the HNC approximation.

  4. A polaritonic two-component Bose-Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, M J; Brandao, F G S L; Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Exhibition Road, SW7 2PE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.hartmann@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-03-15

    We demonstrate that polaritons in an array of interacting micro-cavities with strong atom-photon coupling can form a two-component Bose-Hubbard model in which both polariton species are protected against spontaneous emission as their atomic part is stored in two ground states of the atoms. The parameters of the effective model can be tuned via the driving strength of external lasers and include attractive and repulsive polariton interactions. We also describe a method to measure the number statistics in one cavity for each polariton species independently.

  5. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments.

  6. Recent advances in description of few two-component fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Kartavtsev, O I

    2012-01-01

    Overview of the recent advances in description of the few two-component fermions is presented. The zero-range interaction limit is generally considered to discuss the principal aspects of the few-body dynamics. Significant attention is paid to detailed description of two identical fermions of mass $m$ and a distinct particle of mass $m_1$; two universal $L^P = 1^-$ bound states arise for mass ratio $m/m_1$ increasing up to the critical value $\\mu_c \\approx 13.607$, beyond which the Efimov effect takes place. The topics considered include rigorous treatment of the few-fermion problem in the zero-range interaction limit, low-dimensional results, the four-body energy spectrum, crossover of the energy spectra for $m/m_1$ near the critical value $\\mu_c $, and properties of potential-dependent states. At last, enlisted are the problems, whose solution is in due course.

  7. No electrostatic supersolitons in two-component plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheest, Frank, E-mail: frank.verheest@ugent.be [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B–9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Lakhina, Gurbax S., E-mail: lakhina@iigm.iigs.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai (India); Hellberg, Manfred A., E-mail: hellberg@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2014-06-15

    The concept of acoustic supersolitons was introduced for a very specific plasma with five constituents, and discussed only for a single set of plasma parameters. Supersolitons are characterized by having subsidiary extrema on the sides of a typical bipolar electric field signature, or by association with a root beyond double layers in the fully nonlinear Sagdeev pseudopotential description. It was subsequently found that supersolitons could exist in several plasma models having three constituent species, rather than four or five. In the present paper, it is proved that standard two-component plasma models cannot generate supersolitons, by recalling and extending results already in the literature, and by establishing the necessary properties of a more recent model.

  8. Two-component jet simulations: Combining analytical and numerical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Matsakos, T; Trussoni, E; Tsinganos, K; Vlahakis, N; Sauty, C; Mignone, A

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations as well as theoretical studies of YSO jets suggest the presence of two steady components: a disk wind type outflow needed to explain the observed high mass loss rates and a stellar wind type outflow probably accounting for the observed stellar spin down. In this framework, we construct numerical two-component jet models by properly mixing an analytical disk wind solution with a complementary analytically derived stellar outflow. Their combination is controlled by both spatial and temporal parameters, in order to address different physical conditions and time variable features. We study the temporal evolution and the interaction of the two jet components on both small and large scales. The simulations reach steady state configurations close to the initial solutions. Although time variability is not found to considerably affect the dynamics, flow fluctuations generate condensations, whose large scale structures have a strong resemblance to observed YSO jet knots.

  9. Two-component coupled KdV equations and its connection with the generalized Harry Dym equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowicz, Ziemowit, E-mail: ziemek@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, Wrocław pl. M. Borna 9, 50-205 Wrocław (Poland)

    2014-01-15

    It is shown that three different Lax operators in the Dym hierarchy produce three generalized coupled Harry Dym equations. These equations transform, via the reciprocal link, to the coupled two-component Korteweg de Vries (KdV) system. The first equation gives us known integrable two-component KdV system, while the second reduces to the known symmetrical two-component KdV equation. The last one reduces to the Drienfeld-Sokolov equation. This approach gives us new Lax representation for these equations.

  10. Two-component coupled KdV equations and its connection with the generalized Harry Dym equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowicz, Ziemowit

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that three different Lax operators in the Dym hierarchy produce three generalized coupled Harry Dym equations. These equations transform, via the reciprocal link, to the coupled two-component Korteweg de Vries (KdV) system. The first equation gives us known integrable two-component KdV system, while the second reduces to the known symmetrical two-component KdV equation. The last one reduces to the Drienfeld-Sokolov equation. This approach gives us new Lax representation for these equations.

  11. Two-component Brownian coagulation: Monte Carlo simulation and process characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo Zhao; Chu guang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The compositional distribution within aggregates of a given size is essential to the functionality of composite aggregates that are usually enlarged by rapid Brownian coagulation.There is no analytical solution for the process of such two-component systems.Monte Carlo method is an effective numerical approach for two-component coagulation.In this paper,the differentially weighted Monte Carlo method is used to investigate two-component Brownian coagulation,respectively,in the continuum regime,the freemolecular regime and the transition regime.It is found that ( 1 ) for Brownian coagulation in the continuum regime and in the free-molecular regime,the mono-variate compositional distribution,i.e.,the number density distribution function of one component amount (in the form of volume of the component in aggregates) satisfies self-preserving form the same as particle size distribution in mono-component Brownian coagulation; (2) however,for Brownian coagulation in the transition regime the mono-variate compositional distribution cannot reach self-similarity; and (3) the bivariate compositional distribution,i.e.,the combined number density distribution function of two component amounts in the three regimes satisfies a semi self-preserving form.Moreover,other new features inherent to aggregative mixing are also demonstrated; e.g.,the degree of mixing between components,which is largely controlled by the initial compositional mass fraction,improves as aggregate size increases.

  12. Bloch Oscillations of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Huai-Qiang; WANG Zhi-Cheng; JIN Kang; TAN Lei

    2006-01-01

    @@ We study the Bloch oscillations of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in spin-dependent optical lattices. The influence of the intercomponent atom interaction on the system is discussed in detail Accelerated breakdown of the Bloch oscillations and revival phenomena are found respectively for the repulsive and attractive case. For both the cases, the system will finally be set in a quantum self-trapping state due to dynamical instability.

  13. In vivo study of the two-component signaling network in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms commonly use ‘two-component’ signaling systems for sensing environmental conditions, with members being present in nearly all bacterial and archaeal genomes in different numbers. Prototypical two-component systems are comprised of a sensory histidine kinase and a response regulator protein that is phosphorylated by the kinase. The regulator typically acts as a transcription factor regulating gene expression. Due to their prevalence in microorganisms, a basic understanding of th...

  14. Two-component perfect fluid in FRW universe

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    We propose the cosmological model which allows to describe on equal footing the evolution of matter in the universe on the time interval from the inflation till the domination of dark energy. The matter is considered as a two-component perfect fluid imitated by homogeneous scalar fields between which there is energy exchange. Dark energy is represented by the cosmological constant, which is supposed invariable during the whole evolution of the universe. The matter changes its equation of state with time, so that the era of radiation domination in the early universe smoothly passes into the era of a pressureless gas, which then passes into the late-time epoch, when the matter is represented by a gas of low-velocity cosmic strings. The inflationary phase is described as an analytic continuation of the energy density in the very early universe into the region of small negative values of the parameter which characterizes typical time of energy transfer from one matter component to another. The Hubble expansion ra...

  15. A minimal model for two-component dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Sonja; Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E. [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 9,D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We propose and study a new minimal model for two-component dark matter. The model contains only three additional fields, one fermion and two scalars, all singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Two of these fields, one fermion and one scalar, are odd under a Z{sub 2} symmetry that renders them simultaneously stable. Thus, both particles contribute to the observed dark matter density. This model resembles the union of the singlet scalar and the singlet fermionic models but it contains some new features of its own. We analyze in some detail its dark matter phenomenology. Regarding the relic density, the main novelty is the possible annihilation of one dark matter particle into the other, which can affect the predicted relic density in a significant way. Regarding dark matter detection, we identify a new contribution that can lead either to an enhancement or to a suppression of the spin-independent cross section for the scalar dark matter particle. Finally, we define a set of five benchmarks models compatible with all present bounds and examine their direct detection prospects at planned experiments. A generic feature of this model is that both particles give rise to observable signals in 1-ton direct detection experiments. In fact, such experiments will be able to probe even a subdominant dark matter component at the percent level.

  16. A minimal model for two-component dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Esch, Sonja; Yaguna, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    We propose and study a new minimal model for two-component dark matter. The model contains only three additional fields, one fermion and two scalars, all singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Two of these fields, one fermion and one scalar, are odd under a $Z_2$ symmetry that renders them simultaneously stable. Thus, both particles contribute to the observed dark matter density. This model resembles the union of the singlet scalar and the singlet fermionic models but it contains some new features of its own. We analyze in some detail its dark matter phenomenology. Regarding the relic density, the main novelty is the possible annihilation of one dark matter particle into the other, which can affect the predicted relic density in a significant way. Regarding dark matter detection, we identify a new contribution that can lead either to an enhancement or to a suppression of the spin-independent cross section for the scalar dark matter particle. Finally, we define a set of five benchmarks models compatibl...

  17. A minimal model for two-component dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Sonja; Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2014-09-01

    We propose and study a new minimal model for two-component dark matter. The model contains only three additional fields, one fermion and two scalars, all singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Two of these fields, one fermion and one scalar, are odd under a Z 2 symmetry that renders them simultaneously stable. Thus, both particles contribute to the observed dark matter density. This model resembles the union of the singlet scalar and the singlet fermionic models but it contains some new features of its own. We analyze in some detail its dark matter phenomenology. Regarding the relic density, the main novelty is the possible annihilation of one dark matter particle into the other, which can affect the predicted relic density in a significant way. Regarding dark matter detection, we identify a new contribution that can lead either to an enhancement or to a suppression of the spin-independent cross section for the scalar dark matter particle. Finally, we define a set of five benchmarks models compatible with all present bounds and examine their direct detection prospects at planned experiments. A generic feature of this model is that both particles give rise to observable signals in 1-ton direct detection experiments. In fact, such experiments will be able to probe even a subdominant dark matter component at the percent level.

  18. Dynamical principles of two-component genetic oscillators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Guantes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic oscillators based on the interaction of a small set of molecular components have been shown to be involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, the circadian rhythms, or the response of several signaling pathways. Uncovering the functional properties of such oscillators then becomes important for the understanding of these cellular processes and for the characterization of fundamental properties of more complex clocks. Here, we show how the dynamics of a minimal two-component oscillator is drastically affected by its genetic implementation. We consider a repressor and activator element combined in a simple logical motif. While activation is always exerted at the transcriptional level, repression is alternatively operating at the transcriptional (Design I or post-translational (Design II level. These designs display differences on basic oscillatory features and on their behavior with respect to molecular noise or entrainment by periodic signals. In particular, Design I induces oscillations with large activator amplitudes and arbitrarily small frequencies, and acts as an "integrator" of external stimuli, while Design II shows emergence of oscillations with finite, and less variable, frequencies and smaller amplitudes, and detects better frequency-encoded signals ("resonator". Similar types of stimulus response are observed in neurons, and thus this work enables us to connect very different biological contexts. These dynamical principles are relevant for the characterization of the physiological roles of simple oscillator motifs, the understanding of core machineries of complex clocks, and the bio-engineering of synthetic oscillatory circuits.

  19. Implementation of Two Component Advective Flow Solution in XSPEC

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Dipak; Mondal, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    Spectral and Temporal properties of black hole candidates can be explained reasonably well using Chakrabarti-Titarchuk solution of two component advective flow (TCAF). This model requires two accretion rates, namely, the Keplerian disk accretion rate and the halo accretion rate, the latter being composed of a sub-Keplerian, low angular momentum flow which may or may not develop a shock. In this solution, the relevant parameter is the relative importance of the halo (which creates the Compton cloud region) rate with respect to the Keplerian disk rate (soft photon source). Though this model has been used earlier to manually fit data of several black hole candidates quite satisfactorily, for the first time, we made it user friendly by implementing it into XSPEC software of GSFC/NASA. This enables any user to extract physical parameters of the accretion flows, such as two accretion rates, the shock location, the shock strength etc. for any black hole candidate. We provide some examples of fitting a few cases usin...

  20. Analysis of proteins regulated by two-component signal transduction system saeRS in Staphylococcus epidermidis%表皮葡萄球菌双组分信号转导系统saeRS对相关蛋白调控的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄强; 王艳歌; 瞿涤

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用双向电泳技术对表皮葡萄球菌菌体蛋白进行蛋白质组学分析,寻找双组分信号转导系统saeRS的调控网络.方法 对表皮葡萄球菌1457双组分信号转导系统saeRS删除株与野生株菌体蛋白进行双向电泳差异比较;电泳图谱采用Image Master 2D Platinum软件分析;免疫印迹法验证saeRS调控的差异蛋白.结果 在表皮葡萄球菌1457双组分信号转导系统saeRS删除株与野生株蛋白质图谱中共发现23个差异表达的蛋白点(10个下调,13个上调).结论 蛋白质双向电泳技术可以成功应用于分析表皮葡萄球菌双组分信号转导系统saeRS的调控网络;此图谱为进一步研究saeRS在表皮葡萄球菌中的调控机制奠定了基础.%Objective To search for new proteins regulated by two-component signal transduction system saeRS, the proteomics of whole cellular proteins between saeRS deletion mutant and wild-type strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis) using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Methods Immobilized pH gradient (IPG) two-dimensional electrophoresis was adopted and the gels were analyzed with Image Master 2D Platinum software. Western blot was used to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Results We found 23 differentially expressed protein spots (10 down-regulated and 13 up-regulated) in 2-DE gels of saeRS deletion mutant and wild-type strain of S. epidermidis. Conclusion Two-dimensional electrophoresis of protein can be used to analyze the regulation network of two-component signal transduction system saeRS in S. epidermidis, and this provides basis for further study on saeRS regulation mechanism.

  1. Trapping of two-component matter-wave solitons by mismatched optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Law, K.J.H. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States)], E-mail: kevrekid@gmail.com; Malomed, B.A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2008-05-26

    We consider a one-dimensional model of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of periodic external potentials of opposite signs, acting on the two species. The interaction between the species is attractive, while intra-species interactions may be attractive too [the system of the bright-bright (BB) type], or of opposite signs in the two components [the gap-bright (GB) type]. We identify the existence and stability domains for soliton complexes of the BB and GB types. The evolution of unstable solitons leads to the establishment of oscillatory states. The increase of the strength of the nonlinear attraction between the species results in symbiotic stabilization of the complexes, despite the fact that one component is centered around a local maximum of the respective periodic potential.

  2. A two-component Frenkel-Kontorowa model for surface alloy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Daruka, I

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown by recent experiments that bulk immiscible metals (e.g. Ag/Cu, Ag/Co and Au/Ni) can form binary alloys on certain surfaces where the substrate mediates the elastic misfits between the two components, thus relieving the elastic strain in the overlayer. These novel surface alloys exhibit a rich phase structure. We formulate a two-component Frenkel-Kontorova model in one dimension to study surface alloy formation. This model can naturally incorporate dislocation formation that plays a crucial role in determining the actual structure of the system. Using energy minimization calculations we provide a phase diagram in terms of average alloy composition and the energy of mixing. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed to study the structure and interaction of the emerging dislocations.

  3. Design of Novel Mixer and Applicator for Two-Component Surgical Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Kevin; Kim, Yeong; Lee, Andy H.; Staricha, Kelly; Messersmith, Phillip; Glucksberg, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Current mixer and applicator devices on the market are not able to properly and efficiently mix two-component surgical adhesives in small volumes necessary to achieve economic viability. Furthermore, in these devices a significant amount of adhesive is wasted during the application process, as material within the dead space of the mixing chamber must be discarded. We have designed and demonstrated a new active mixer and applicator system capable of rapidly and efficiently mixing two components of an adhesive and applying it to the surgical site. Recently, Messersmith et al. have developed a tissue adhesive inspired by the mussel byssus and have shown that it is effective as a surgical sealant, and is especially suited for wet environments such as in fetal surgery. Like some other tissue sealants, this one requires that two components of differing viscosities be thoroughly mixed within a specified and short time period. Through a combination of compression and shear testing, we demonstrated that our device could effectively mix the adhesive developed by Messersmith et al. and improve its shear strength to significantly higher values than what has been reported for vortex mixing. Overall, our mixer and applicator system not only has potential applications in mixing and applying various adhesives in multiple surgical fields but also makes this particular adhesive viable for clinical use. PMID:26421090

  4. Real time propagation of the exact two component time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Joshua J.; Kasper, Joseph M.; Egidi, Franco; Sun, Shichao; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-09-01

    We report the development of a real time propagation method for solving the time-dependent relativistic exact two-component density functional theory equations (RT-X2C-TDDFT). The method is fundamentally non-perturbative and may be employed to study nonlinear responses for heavy elements which require a relativistic Hamiltonian. We apply the method to several group 12 atoms as well as heavy-element hydrides, comparing with the extensive theoretical and experimental studies on this system, which demonstrates the correctness of our approach. Because the exact two-component Hamiltonian contains spin-orbit operators, the method is able to describe the non-zero transition moment of otherwise spin-forbidden processes in non-relativistic theory. Furthermore, the two-component approach is more cost effective than the full four-component approach, with similar accuracy. The RT-X2C-TDDFT will be useful in future studies of systems containing heavy elements interacting with strong external fields.

  5. Different electronic charges in two-component superconductor by coherent state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuguang, E-mail: shixg@bjfu.edu.cn

    2015-07-17

    Recently, the different electronic charges, which are related to the different coupling constants with magnetic field, in the two-component superconductor have been studied in the frame of Ginzburg–Landau theory. In order to study the electronic charges in detail we suggest the wave function in the two-component superconductor to be in the coherent state. We find the different electronic charges exist not only in the coherent state but also in the incoherent state. But the ratio of the different charges in the coherent state is different from the ratio in the incoherence. The expressions of the coupling constants are given directly based on the coherence effects. We also discuss the winding number in such a system. - Highlights: • Suggest the wave function in two-component superconductor is coherent. • Interpret the existence of different electric charges by the coherent states. • Derive a new expression for the supercurrent. • Reveal the relation between different electric charges and winding number.

  6. Using structural information to change the phosphotransfer specificity of a two-component chemotaxis signalling complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H Bell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction pathways comprising histidine protein kinases (HPKs and their response regulators (RRs are widely used to control bacterial responses to environmental challenges. Some bacteria have over 150 different two-component pathways, and the specificity of the phosphotransfer reactions within these systems is tightly controlled to prevent unwanted crosstalk. One of the best understood two-component signalling pathways is the chemotaxis pathway. Here, we present the 1.40 A crystal structure of the histidine-containing phosphotransfer domain of the chemotaxis HPK, CheA(3, in complex with its cognate RR, CheY(6. A methionine finger on CheY(6 that nestles in a hydrophobic pocket in CheA(3 was shown to be important for the interaction and was found to only occur in the cognate RRs of CheA(3, CheY(6, and CheB(2. Site-directed mutagenesis of this methionine in combination with two adjacent residues abolished binding, as shown by surface plasmon resonance studies, and phosphotransfer from CheA(3-P to CheY(6. Introduction of this methionine and an adjacent alanine residue into a range of noncognate CheYs, dramatically changed their specificity, allowing protein interaction and rapid phosphotransfer from CheA(3-P. The structure presented here has allowed us to identify specificity determinants for the CheA-CheY interaction and subsequently to successfully reengineer phosphotransfer signalling. In summary, our results provide valuable insight into how cells mediate specificity in one of the most abundant signalling pathways in biology, two-component signal transduction.

  7. Mapping the Two-Component Atomic Fermi Gas to the Nuclear Shell-Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özen, C.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2014-01-01

    of the external potential becomes important. A system of two-species fermionic cold atoms with an attractive zero-range interaction is analogous to a simple model of nucleus in which neutrons and protons interact only through a residual pairing interaction. In this article, we discuss how the problem of a two......-component atomic fermi gas in a tight external trap can be mapped to the nuclear shell model so that readily available many-body techniques in nuclear physics, such as the Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) method, can be directly applied to the study of these systems. We demonstrate an application of the SMMC method...

  8. Modulational instability for a self-attractive two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sheng-Chang; Duan Wen-Shan

    2009-01-01

    By means of the multiple-scale expansion method, the coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations without an explicit external potential are obtained in two-dimensional geometry for a self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensate composed of different hyperfine states. The modulational instability of two-component condensate is investigated by using a simple technique. Based on the discussion about two typical cases, the explicit expression of the growth rate for a purely growing modulational instability and the optimum stable conditions are given and analysed analytically. The results show that the modulational instability of this two-dimensional system is quite different from that in a one-dimensional system.

  9. Two-component Fermions in Optical Lattice with Spatially Alternating Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Thi-Hai-Yen; Tran, Thi-Thu-Trang; Le, Duc-Anh

    2016-10-01

    We investigate two-component mass-imbalanced fermions in an optical lattice with spatially modulated interactions by using two-site dynamical mean field theory. At half-filling and zero temperature, the phase diagram of the system is analytically obtained, in which the metallic region is reduced with increasing the mass imbalance. The ground-state properties of the fermionic system are discussed from the behaviors of both the spin-dependent quasi-particle weight at the Fermi level and the double occupancy for each sublattice as functions of the local interaction strengths for various values of the mass imbalance.

  10. High-temperature superfluidity of the two-component Bose gas in a transition metal dichalcogenide bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2016-06-01

    The high-temperature superfluidity of two-dimensional dipolar excitons in two parallel transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) layers is predicted. We study Bose-Einstein condensation in the two-component system of dipolar A and B excitons. The effective mass, energy spectrum of the collective excitations, the sound velocity, and critical temperature are obtained for different TMDC materials. It is shown that in the Bogoliubov approximation, the sound velocity in the two-component dilute exciton Bose gas is always larger than in any one-component exciton system. The difference between the sound velocities for two-component and one-component dilute gases is caused by the fact that the sound velocity for a two-component system depends on the reduced mass of A and B excitons, which is always smaller than the individual mass of A or B exciton. Due to this fact, the critical temperature Tc for superfluidity for the two-component exciton system in a TMDC bilayer is about one order of magnitude higher than Tc in any one-component exciton system. We propose to observe the superfluidity of two-dimensional dipolar excitons in two parallel TMDC layers, which causes two opposite superconducting currents in each TMDC layer.

  11. Topological phases of two-component bosons in species-dependent artificial gauge potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Hai; Shi, Tao

    2016-08-01

    We study bosonic atoms with two internal states in artificial gauge potentials whose strengths are different for the two components. A series of topological phases for such systems is proposed using the composite fermion theory and the parton construction. It is found in exact diagonalization that some of the proposed states may be realized for simple contact interaction between bosons. The ground states and low-energy excitations of these states are modeled using trial wave functions. The effective field theories for these states are also constructed and reveal some interesting properties.

  12. Comparing numerical and analytical approaches to strongly interacting two-component mixtures in one dimensional traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellotti, Filipe Furlan; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We investigate one-dimensional harmonically trapped two-component systems for repulsive interaction strengths ranging from the non-interacting to the strongly interacting regime for Fermi-Fermi mixtures. A new and powerful mapping between the interaction strength parameters from a continuous......) and exact diagonalization) and analytically. Since DMRG results do not converge as the interaction strength is increased, analytical solutions are used as a benchmark to identify the point where these calculations become unstable. We use the proposed mapping to set a quantitative limit on the interaction...

  13. Two Component Injection Moulding for Moulded Interconnect Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) contain huge possibilities for many applications in micro electro-mechanical-systems because of their potential in reducing the number of components, process steps and finally in miniaturization of the product. Among the available MID process chains, two...

  14. Entanglement dynamics in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Ya-Jiang; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    Based on the exact solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for two-species Bose-Einstein condensates(BECs) consisting of two hyperfine states of the atoms coupled by a tuned adiabatic and time-varying Raman coupling,we obtain analytically the entanglement dynamics of the system with various initial states, particularly the SU(2)coherent state, for both of cases with and without the nonlinear interactions. It is shown that the effect of nonlinear interaction on the entanglement appears only in a longer time period depending on the BEC parameters.

  15. Instabilities in relativistic two-component (super)fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Haber, Alexander; Stetina, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We study two-fluid systems with nonzero fluid velocities and compute their sound modes, which indicate various instabilities. For the case of two zero-temperature superfluids we employ a microscopic field-theoretical model of two coupled bosonic fields, including an entrainment coupling and a non-entrainment coupling. We analyse the onset of the various instabilities systematically and point out that the dynamical two-stream instability can only occur beyond Landau's critical velocity, i.e., in an already energetically unstable regime. A qualitative difference is found for the case of two normal fluids, where certain transverse modes suffer a two-stream instability in an energetically stable regime if there is entrainment between the fluids. Since we work in a fully relativistic setup, our results are very general and of potential relevance for (super)fluids in neutron stars and, in the non-relativistic limit of our results, in the laboratory.

  16. Analytical solution and meaning of feasible regions in two-component three-way arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidikia, Nematollah; Abdollahi, Hamid; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Rajkó, Róbert

    2016-10-01

    Although many efforts have been directed to the development of approximation methods for determining the extent of feasible regions in two- and three-way data sets; analytical determination (i.e. using only finite-step direct calculation(s) instead of the less exact numerical ones) of feasible regions in three-way arrays has remained unexplored. In this contribution, an analytical solution of trilinear decomposition is introduced which can be considered as a new direct method for the resolution of three-way two-component systems. The proposed analytical calculation method is applied to the full rank three-way data array and arrays with rank overlap (a type of rank deficiency) loadings in a mode. Close inspections of the analytically calculated feasible regions of rank deficient cases help us to make clearer the information gathered from multi-way problems frequently emerged in physics, chemistry, biology, agricultural, environmental and clinical sciences, etc. These examinations can also help to answer, e.g., the following practical question: "Is two-component three-way data with proportional loading in a mode actually a three-way data array?" By the aid of the additional information resulted from the investigated feasible regions of two-component three-way data arrays with proportional profile in a mode, reasons for the inadequacy of the seemingly trilinear data treatment methods published in the literature (e.g., U-PLS/RBL-LD that was used for extraction of quantitative and qualitative information reported by Olivieri et al. (Anal. Chem. 82 (2010) 4510-4519)) could be completely understood.

  17. Arabidopsis ethylene-response gene ETR1: Similiarity of product to two-component regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Kwok, S.F.; Bleecker, A.B.; Meyerowitz, E.M. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1993-10-22

    Ethylene behaves as a hormone in plants, regulating such aspects of growth and development as fruit ripening, flower senescence, and abscission. Ethylene insensitivity is conferred by dominant mutations in the ETR1 gene early in the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana. The ETR1 gene was cloned by the method of chromosome walking. Each of the four known etr1 mutant alleles contains a missense mutation near the amino terminus of the predicted protein. Although the sequence of the amino-terminal half of the deduced ETR1 protein appears to be novel, the carboxyl-terminal half is similar in sequence to both components of the prokaryotic family of signal transducers known as the two-component systems. Thus, an early step in ethylene signal transduction in plants may involve transfer of phosphate as in prokaryotic two-component systems. The dominant etr1-1 mutant gene conferred ethylene insensitivity to wild-type Arabidopsis plants when introduced by transformation.

  18. Phase Separation and Dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kean Loon; Liu, I-Kang; Wacker, Lars; Arlt, Jan J; Proukakis, Nick P

    2016-01-01

    The miscibility of two interacting quantum systems is an important testing ground for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates enable the investigation of this scenario in a particularly well controlled setting. In a homogeneous system, the transition between mixed and separated phases is fully characterised by a `miscibility parameter', based on the ratio of intra- to inter-species interaction strengths. Here we show, however, that this parameter is no longer the optimal one for trapped gases, for which the location of the phase boundary depends critically on atom numbers. We demonstrate how monitoring of damping rates and frequencies of dipole oscillations enables the experimental mapping of the phase diagram by numerical implementation of a fully self-consistent finite-temperature kinetic theory for binary condensates. The change in damping rate is explained in terms of surface oscillation in the immiscible regime, and counterflow instability in the miscible reg...

  19. Features of protein-protein interactions in two-component signaling deduced from genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert A; Szurmant, Hendrik; Hoch, James A; Hwa, Terence

    2007-01-01

    As more and more sequence data become available, new approaches for extracting information from these data become feasible. This chapter reports on one such method that has been applied to elucidate protein-protein interactions in bacterial two-component signaling pathways. The method identifies residues involved in the interaction through an analysis of over 2500 functionally coupled proteins and a precise determination of the substitutional constraints placed on one protein by its signaling mate. Once identified, a simple log-likelihood scoring procedure is applied to these residues to build a predictive tool for assigning signaling mates. The ability to apply this method is based on a proliferation of related domains within multiple organisms. Paralogous evolution through gene duplication and divergence of two-component systems has commonly resulted in tens of closely related interacting pairs within one organism with a roughly one-to-one correspondence between signal and response. This provides us with roughly an order of magnitude more protein pairs than there are unique, fully sequenced bacterial species. Consequently, this chapter serves as both a detailed exposition of the method that has provided more depth to our knowledge of bacterial signaling and a look ahead to what would be possible on a more widespread scale, that is, to protein-protein interactions that have only one example per genome, as the number of genomes increases by a factor of 10.

  20. Two-component hybrid time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühn, Michael [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weigend, Florian, E-mail: florian.weigend@kit.edu [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-01-21

    We report the implementation of a two-component variant of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for hybrid functionals that accounts for spin-orbit effects within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) for closed-shell systems. The influence of the admixture of Hartree-Fock exchange on excitation energies is investigated for several atoms and diatomic molecules by comparison to numbers for pure density functionals obtained previously [M. Kühn and F. Weigend, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 5341 (2013)]. It is further related to changes upon switching to the local density approximation or using the full TDDFT formalism instead of TDA. Efficiency is demonstrated for a comparably large system, Ir(ppy){sub 3} (61 atoms, 1501 basis functions, lowest 10 excited states), which is a prototype molecule for organic light-emitting diodes, due to its “spin-forbidden” triplet-singlet transition.

  1. Universal properties of a trapped two-component fermi gas at unitarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, D; von Stecher, J; Greene, Chris H

    2007-12-01

    We treat the trapped two-component Fermi system, in which unlike fermions interact through a two-body short-range potential having no bound state but an infinite scattering length. By accurately solving the Schrödinger equation for up to N=6 fermions, we show that no many-body bound states exist other than those bound by the trapping potential, and we demonstrate unique universal properties of the system: Certain excitation frequencies are separated by 2variant Planck's over 2piomega, the wave functions agree with analytical predictions and a virial theorem is fulfilled. Further calculations up to N=30 determine the excitation gap, an experimentally accessible universal quantity, and it agrees with recent predictions based on a density functional approach.

  2. Comparing numerical and analytical approaches to strongly interacting two-component mixtures in one dimensional traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, Filipe F.; Dehkharghani, Amin S.; Zinner, Nikolaj T.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate one-dimensional harmonically trapped two-component systems for repulsive interaction strengths ranging from the non-interacting to the strongly interacting regime for Fermi-Fermi mixtures. A new and powerful mapping between the interaction strength parameters from a continuous Hamiltonian and a discrete lattice Hamiltonian is derived. As an example, we show that this mapping does not depend neither on the state of the system nor on the number of particles. Energies, density profiles and correlation functions are obtained both numerically (density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and exact diagonalization) and analytically. Since DMRG results do not converge as the interaction strength is increased, analytical solutions are used as a benchmark to identify the point where these calculations become unstable. We use the proposed mapping to set a quantitative limit on the interaction parameter of a discrete lattice Hamiltonian above which DMRG gives unrealistic results.

  3. Analytical method for yrast line states in the interacting two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解炳昊; 景辉

    2002-01-01

    The yrast spectrum for the harmonically trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), omitting thedifference between the two components, has been studied using an analytical method. The energy eigenstates andeigenvalues for L=0,1,2,3 are given. We illustrate that there are different eigenstate behaviours between the even Land odd L cases for the two-component BEC in two dimensions. Except for symmetric states, there are antisymmetricstates for the permutation of the two components, which cannot reduce to those in a single condensate case when thevalue of L is odd.

  4. Correlations of the upper branch of 1D harmonically trapped two-component fermi gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharashi, Seyed Ebrahim; Blume, D

    2013-07-26

    We present highly accurate energy spectra and eigenfunctions of small 1D harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases with interspecies δ-function interactions, and analyze the correlations of the so-called upper branch (i.e., the branch that describes a repulsive Fermi gas consisting of atoms but no molecules) for positive and negative coupling constants. Changes of the two-body correlations as a function of the interspecies coupling strength reflect the competition of the interspecies interaction and the effective repulsion due to the Pauli exclusion principle, and are interpreted as a few-body analog of a transition from a nonmagnetic to a magnetic phase. Moreover, we show that the eigenstate ψadia of the infinitely strongly interacting system with |n1+n2|>2 and |n1-n2|Fermi-Fermi mapping function to the eigenfunction of the noninteracting single-component Fermi gas.

  5. Singular solutions of a modified two-component Camassa-Holm equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Darryl D; O Náraigh, Lennon; Tronci, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    The Camassa-Holm (CH) equation is a well-known integrable equation describing the velocity dynamics of shallow water waves. This equation exhibits spontaneous emergence of singular solutions (peakons) from smooth initial conditions. The CH equation has been recently extended to a two-component integrable system (CH2), which includes both velocity and density variables in the dynamics. Although possessing peakon solutions in the velocity, the CH2 equation does not admit singular solutions in the density profile. We modify the CH2 system to allow a dependence on the average density as well as the pointwise density. The modified CH2 system (MCH2) does admit peakon solutions in the velocity and average density. We analytically identify the steepening mechanism that allows the singular solutions to emerge from smooth spatially confined initial data. Numerical results for the MCH2 system are given and compared with the pure CH2 case. These numerics show that the modification in the MCH2 system to introduce the average density has little short-time effect on the emergent dynamical properties. However, an analytical and numerical study of pairwise peakon interactions for the MCH2 system shows a different asymptotic feature. Namely, besides the expected soliton scattering behavior seen in overtaking and head-on peakon collisions, the MCH2 system also allows the phase shift of the peakon collision to diverge in certain parameter regimes.

  6. TASI 2011 lectures notes: two-component fermion notation and supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    These notes, based on work with Herbi Dreiner and Howie Haber, discuss how to do practical calculations of cross sections and decay rates using two-component fermion notation, as appropriate for supersymmetry and other beyond-the-Standard-Model theories. Included are a list of two-component fermion Feynman rules for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and some example calculations.

  7. Relativistic two-component jet evolutions in 2D and 3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of astrophysical jets and theoretical arguments suggest a transverse stratification with two components induced by intrinsic features of the central engine (accretion disk + black hole). We study two-component jet dynamics for an inner fast low density jet, surrounded by a slower, dense

  8. Direct molecular dynamics simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for two-component plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A S; Hughto, J; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2012-06-01

    We determine the liquid-solid phase diagram for carbon-oxygen and oxygen-selenium plasma mixtures using two-phase molecular dynamics simulations. We identify liquid, solid, and interface regions using a bond angle metric. To study finite-size effects, we perform 27,648- and 55,296-ion simulations. To help monitor nonequilibrium effects, we calculate diffusion constants D(i). For the carbon-oxygen system we find that D(O) for oxygen ions in the solid is much smaller than D(C) for carbon ions and that both diffusion constants are 80 or more times smaller than diffusion constants in the liquid phase. There is excellent agreement between our carbon-oxygen phase diagram and that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This suggests that errors from finite-size and nonequilibrium effects are small and that the carbon-oxygen phase diagram is now accurately known. The oxygen-selenium system is a simple two-component model for more complex rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis ash compositions for an accreting neutron star. Diffusion of oxygen, in a predominantly selenium crystal, is remarkably fast, comparable to diffusion in the liquid phase. We find a somewhat lower melting temperature for the oxygen-selenium system than that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This is probably because of electron screening effects.

  9. Bioorthogonal two-component drug delivery in HER2(+) breast cancer mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapuarachchige, Sudath; Kato, Yoshinori; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-04-01

    The HER2 receptor is overexpressed in approximately 20% of breast cancers and is associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, and a poor prognosis. Trastuzumab is a first-line targeted drug used against HER2(+) breast cancers; however, at least 50% of HER2(+) tumors develop resistance to trastuzumab. To treat these patients, trastuzumab-based antibody-drug conjugates (ACDs) have been developed and are currently used in the clinic. Despite their high efficacy, the long circulation half-life and non-specific binding of cytotoxic ADCs can result in systemic toxicity. In addition, standard ADCs do not provide an image-guided mode of administration. Here, we have developed a two-component, two-step, pre-targeting drug delivery system integrated with image guidance to circumvent these issues. In this strategy, HER2 receptors are pre-labeled with a functionalized trastuzumab antibody followed by the delivery of drug-loaded nanocarriers. Both components are cross-linked by multiple bioorthogonal click reactions in situ on the surface of the target cell and internalized as nanoclusters. We have explored the efficacy of this delivery strategy in HER2(+) human breast cancer models. Our therapeutic study confirms the high therapeutic efficacy of the new delivery system, with no significant toxicity.

  10. The graphic representations for the one-dimensional solutions of problem from elastic mechanic deformations of two-component mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghenadie Bulgac

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we find the analytical solution of simple one-dimensional unsteady elastic problem of two-component mixture using Laplace integral transformation. The integral transformations simplify the initial motion systems for finding analytical solutions. The analytical solutions are represented as the graphic on time dependence in the fixed point of medium, and the graphic on the horizontal coordinate at the fixed time.

  11. Laser controlling chaotic region of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boli Xia; Wenhua Hai

    2005-01-01

    @@ For a weakly and periodically driven two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) the Melnikov chaotic solution and boundedness conditions are derived from a direct perturbation theory that leads to the chaotic regions in the parameter space.

  12. Competitive Adsorption of a Two-Component Gas on a Deformable Adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Usenko, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the competitive adsorption of a two-component gas on the surface of an adsorbent whose adsorption properties vary in adsorption due to the adsorbent deformation. The essential difference of adsorption isotherms for a deformable adsorbent both from the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherms of a two-component gas and from the adsorption isotherms of a one-component gas taking into account variations in adsorption properties of the adsorbent in adsorption is obtained. We establi...

  13. Impact of backmixing of the aqueous phase on two-component rare earth separation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sheng; CHENG Fuxiang; LIAO Chunsheng; YAN Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extraction based on mixer-settler is the major industrial method of rare earth (RE) separation.In the mixer-settler extraction process,due to the insufficient settling time in normal circumstances,backmixing of the aqueous phase could have significant impact on the process of RE extraction separation.Therefore on the basis of the extraction equilibrium and mass balance of the mixer-settler extraction process,here we developed a mathematic expression of the aqueous phase backmixing in a two-component separation process,and obtained a quantitative analysis of the backmixing effect on the purification process by the approximations according to certain hypotheses.Two extraction systems of La/Ce and Pr/Nd separation were chosen as the examples to analyze the backmixing effect,and the results showed that the aqueous backmixing had greater influence in the scrubbing segment than in the extraction segment,especially in the system with a high separation factor such as La/Ce separation.Therefore it was suggested that the aqueous backmixing effect should be well attended in the design and application of RE extraction separation.

  14. A new pair of hard-soft plastic combination for precision manufacturing of two component plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    of sealing between the Plug-Socket combination so, corrosive agents like human sweat, oil and dirt could corrode the contact pins inside the Socket house. The new design of the Socket is an improvement of the old design which contains a micro sealing ring. This 2k micro part was moulded by the use of State...... copolymers (TPE-S). By using this pair of materials, a demonstrator 2k micro part (Socket house for hearing aid) has been fabricated. This kind of socket is used in Receiver-in-the-canal hearing aid system to connect the receiver with hearing aid processors. The problem with the previous design was lack......-of-the-art two component micro moulding machine named Formica Plast from Desma Tec. The tests performed on the demonstrator showed potential for the material pair to be used in high precision two component moulding applications. The adhesion between the two materials, replication quality of the 2k part, sealing...

  15. A pair of two-component regulatory genes ecrA1/A2 in S.coelicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永泉; 岑沛霖; 陈时飞; 吴丹; 郑静

    2004-01-01

    Two-component genes are kinds of genetic elements involved in regulation of antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor. DNA microarray analysis revealed that ecrA1/A2, which mapped at distant sites from red locus and encode respectively the kinase and regulator, expressed coordinately with genes of Red specific biosynthetic pathway, ecrA1 and ecrA2 gene-disruptive mutants were constructed using homogenotisation by reciprocal double crossover. Fermentation data showed that the undecylprodigiosin (Red) level of production was lower than that of wild-type strain. However, the change of the actinorhodin (Act) production level was not significant compared with wild type. Thus, these experiment results confirmed that the two-component system ecrA 1/A2 was positive regulatory element for red gene cluster.

  16. Interference of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with a Coupling Drive in Presence of Dissipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The interference of the two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with a coupling drive in the presence of the dissipation is studied. We find that when the two-component Bose-Einstein condensates are initially in the coherent states, for the smaller dissipation parameters compared with that of the rf frequency ωrf, the interference intensity exhibits damply oscillation behavior, whereas when the dissipation parameters are larger than that of the ωrf, the interference intensity exhibits a fast attenuation behavior. As a comparison, the interference intensity in the absence of the dissipation is also studied. We conclude that the dissipation of the system can be evaluated by selecting the ωrf experimentally.

  17. Two-component Dirac-like Hamiltonian for generating quantum walk on one-, two- and three-dimensional lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, C M

    2013-10-03

    From the unitary operator used for implementing two-state discrete-time quantum walk on one-, two- and three- dimensional lattice we obtain a two-component Dirac-like Hamiltonian. In particular, using different pairs of Pauli basis as position translation states we obtain three different form of Hamiltonians for evolution on one-dimensional lattice. We extend this to two- and three-dimensional lattices using different Pauli basis states as position translation states for each dimension and show that the external coin operation, which is necessary for one-dimensional walk is not a necessary requirement for a walk on higher dimensions but can serve as an additional resource to control the dynamics. The two-component Hamiltonian we present here for quantum walk on different lattices can serve as a general framework to simulate, control, and study the dynamics of quantum systems governed by Dirac-like Hamiltonian.

  18. Dynamics of coupled simplest chaotic two-component electronic circuits and its potential application to random bit generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modeste Nguimdo, Romain, E-mail: Romain.Nguimdo@vub.ac.be [Applied Physics Research Group, APHY, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Tchitnga, Robert [Laboratory of Electronics, Automation and Signal Processing, Department of Physics, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang (Cameroon); Woafo, Paul [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering and Biological Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé (Cameroon)

    2013-12-15

    We numerically investigate the possibility of using a coupling to increase the complexity in simplest chaotic two-component electronic circuits operating at high frequency. We subsequently show that complex behaviors generated in such coupled systems, together with the post-processing are suitable for generating bit-streams which pass all the NIST tests for randomness. The electronic circuit is built up by unidirectionally coupling three two-component (one active and one passive) oscillators in a ring configuration through resistances. It turns out that, with such a coupling, high chaotic signals can be obtained. By extracting points at fixed interval of 10 ns (corresponding to a bit rate of 100 Mb/s) on such chaotic signals, each point being simultaneously converted in 16-bits (or 8-bits), we find that the binary sequence constructed by including the 10(or 2) least significant bits pass statistical tests of randomness, meaning that bit-streams with random properties can be achieved with an overall bit rate up to 10×100 Mb/s =1Gbit/s (or 2×100 Mb/s =200 Megabit/s). Moreover, by varying the bias voltages, we also investigate the parameter range for which more complex signals can be obtained. Besides being simple to implement, the two-component electronic circuit setup is very cheap as compared to optical and electro-optical systems.

  19. Transcriptional and proteomic analyses of two-component response regulators in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Yang, Liu; Zeng, Xianfei; Danzheng, Jiacuo; Zheng, Qing; Liu, Jiayun; Liu, Feng; Xin, Yijuan; Cheng, Xiaodong; Su, Mingquan; Ma, Yueyun; Hao, Xiaoke

    2015-07-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) have been reported to exhibit a sensing and responding role under drug stress that induces drug resistance in several bacterial species. However, the relationship between TCSs and multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been comprehensively analysed to date. In this study, 90 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were analysed using 15-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU)-variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing and repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep)-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The results showed that all of the isolates were of the Beijing lineage, and strains with a drug-susceptible phenotype had not diverged into similar genotype clusters. Expression analysis of 13 response regulators of TCSs using real-time PCR and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) proteomic analysis demonstrated that four response regulator genes (devR, mtrA, regX3 and Rv3143) were significantly upregulated in multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains compared with the laboratory strain H37Rv as well as drug-susceptible and isoniazid-monoresistant strains (PMycobacterium bovis BCG did not alter its sensitivity to the four antitubercular drugs. This suggests that upregulation of devR, which is common in MDR-TB strains, might be induced by drug stress and hypoxic adaptation following the acquisition of multidrug resistance.

  20. Modelling elliptical galaxies phase-space constraints on two-component (gamma1,gamma2) models

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, L

    1999-01-01

    In the context of the study of the properties of the mutual mass distribution of the bright and dark matter in elliptical galaxies, present a family of two-component, spherical, self-consistent galaxy models, where one density distribution follows a gamma_1 profile, and the other a gamma_2 profile [(gamma_1,gamma_2) models], with different total masses and ``core'' radii. A variable amount of Osipkov-Merritt (radial) orbital anisotropy is allowed in both components. For these models, I derive analytically the necessary and sufficient conditions that the model parameters must satisfy in order to correspond to a physical system. Moreover, the possibility of adding a black hole at the center of radially anisotropic gamma models is discussed, determining analytically a lower limit of the anisotropy radius as a function of gamma. The analytical phase-space distribution function for (1,0) models is presented, together with the solution of the Jeans equations and the quantities entering the scalar virial theorem. It...

  1. Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, N. J.; Benusiglio, A.; Prakash, M.

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the wetting behaviour of liquids on surfaces is important for a variety of industrial applications such as water-repellent coatings and lubrication. Liquid behaviour on a surface can range from complete spreading, as in the `tears of wine' effect, to minimal wetting as observed on a superhydrophobic lotus leaf. Controlling droplet movement is important in microfluidic liquid handling, on self-cleaning surfaces and in heat transfer. Droplet motion can be achieved by gradients of surface energy. However, existing techniques require either a large gradient or a carefully prepared surface to overcome the effects of contact line pinning, which usually limit droplet motion. Here we show that two-component droplets of well-chosen miscible liquids such as propylene glycol and water deposited on clean glass are not subject to pinning and cause the motion of neighbouring droplets over a distance. Unlike the canonical predictions for these liquids on a high-energy surface, these droplets do not spread completely but exhibit an apparent contact angle. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that these droplets are stabilized by evaporation-induced surface tension gradients and that they move in response to the vapour emitted by neighbouring droplets. Our fundamental understanding of this robust system enabled us to construct a wide variety of autonomous fluidic machines out of everyday materials.

  2. Two-component Langmuir monolayers and LB films of DPPC with partially fluorinated alcohol (F8H9OH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Hirano, Chikayo; Shibata, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of (perfluorooctyl)nonanol (F8H9OH) with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was systematically studied in two-component monolayers at air-water interface. The thermodynamic property and phase morphology of the monolayers were investigated by isotherm measurements and several microscopic methods such as Brewster angle microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM topographies for Langmuir-Blodgett films of F8H9OH exhibit the formation of monodispersed surface micelles. In the two-component system, the incorporation of F8H9OH induces condensation (or solidification) of DPPC monolayers. The excess Gibbs free energy and interaction parameter (or energy) of the two components were calculated from the isotherm data. Both the phase transition pressure for the coexistence of ordered and disordered phases and collapse pressure of monolayers vary with the mole fraction of F8H9OH, indicating binary miscibility between F8H9OH and DPPC within a monolayer state. The miscibility is also confirmed visually by in situ and ex situ microscopy at micro- and nanometer scales.

  3. Stochastic simulation of prokaryotic two-component signalling indicates stochasticity-induced active-state locking and growth-rate dependent bistability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Katy; Moinat, Maxim; Maarleveld, Timo R; Bruggeman, Frank J

    2014-07-29

    Signal transduction by prokaryotes almost exclusively relies on two-component systems for sensing and responding to (extracellular) signals. Here, we use stochastic models of two-component systems to better understand the impact of stochasticity on the fidelity and robustness of signal transmission, the outcome of autoregulatory gene expression and the influence of cell growth and division. We report that two-component systems are remarkably robust against copy number fluctuations of the signalling proteins they are composed of, which enhances signal transmission fidelity. Furthermore, we find that due to stochasticity these systems can get locked in an active state for extended time periods when (initially high) signal levels drop to zero. This behaviour can contribute to a bet-hedging adaptation strategy, aiding survival in fluctuating environments. Additionally, autoregulatory gene expression can cause two-component systems to become bistable at realistic parameter values. As a result, two sub-populations of cells can co-exist-active and inactive cells, which contributes to fitness in unpredictable environments. Bistability proved robust with respect to cell growth and division, and is tunable by the growth rate. In conclusion, our results indicate how single cells can cope with the inevitable stochasticity occurring in the activity of their two-component systems. They are robust to disadvantageous fluctuations that scramble signal transduction and they exploit beneficial stochasticity that generates fitness-enhancing heterogeneity across an isogenic population of cells.

  4. Modeling Thermal Dust Emission with Two Components: Application to the Planck High Frequency Instrument Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Finkbeiner et al. two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck High Frequency Instrument maps. This parameterization of the far-infrared dust spectrum as the sum of two modified blackbodies (MBBs) serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single-MBB dust emission model. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We also derive full-sky 6.'1 resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting the two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 μm data. Because our two-component model matches the dust spectrum near its peak, accounts for the spectrum's flattening at millimeter wavelengths, and specifies dust temperature at 6.'1 FWHM, our model provides reliable, high-resolution thermal dust emission foreground predictions from 100 to 3000 GHz. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration et al. single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz, and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales.

  5. Rabi Oscillations in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with a Coupling Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-Dong; FAN Wen-Bing; ZHOU Xiao-Ji; WANG Yi-Qiu; LIANG Jiu-Qing

    2002-01-01

    The Rabi oscillations in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with a coupling drive are studiedby means of a pair of bosonic operators. The coupling drive and initial phase difference will affect the amplitudeand the period of the Rabi oscillations. The Rabi oscillations will vanish in the evolution of the condensate densityfor some special initial phase differences (ψ = 0 or π). Our theory provides not only an analytical framework forquantitative predictions for two-component condensates, but also gives an intuitive understanding of some mysteriousfeatures observed in experiments and numerical. simulations.

  6. Low temperatures shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with unequal population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsheshdar, E.; Yavari, H.; Zangeneh, Z.

    2016-07-01

    By using the Green's functions method and linear response theory we calculate the shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with population imbalance (spin polarized) in the low temperatures limit. In the strong-coupling Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) region where a Feshbach resonance gives rise to tightly bound dimer molecules, a spin-polarized Fermi superfluid reduces to a simple Bose-Fermi mixture of Bose-condensed dimers and the leftover unpaired fermions (atoms). The interactions between dimer-atom, dimer-dimer, and atom-atom take into account to the viscous relaxation time (τη) . By evaluating the self-energies in the ladder approximation we determine the relaxation times due to dimer-atom (τDA) , dimer-dimer (τcDD ,τdDD) , and atom-atom (τAA) interactions. We will show that relaxation rates due to these interactions τDA-1 ,τcDD-1, τdDD-1, and τAA-1 have T2, T4, e - E /kB T (E is the spectrum of the dimer atoms), and T 3 / 2 behavior respectively in the low temperature limit (T → 0) and consequently, the atom-atom interaction plays the dominant role in the shear viscosity in this rang of temperatures. For small polarization (τDA ,τAA ≫τcDD ,τdDD), the low temperatures shear viscosity is determined by contact interaction between dimers and the shear viscosity varies as T-5 which has the same behavior as the viscosity of other superfluid systems such as superfluid neutron stars, and liquid helium.

  7. Structural studies of the activation of the two component receiver domain NTRC by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohaile, M J [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    Multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the N-terminal domain of the transcriptional enhancer NTRC (NiTrogen Regulatory protein C). This domain belongs to the family of receiver domains of two-component regulatory systems involved in signal transduction. Phosphorylation of NTRC at D54 leads to an activated form of the molecule which stimulates transcription of genes involved in nitrogen regulation. Three and four dimensional NMR techniques were used to determine an intermediate resolution structure of the unphosphorylated, inactive form of the N-terminal domain of NTRC. The structure is comprised of five {alpha}-helices and a five-stranded {beta}-sheet in a ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 5} topology. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of NTRC indicate that helix 4 and strand 5 are significantly more flexible than the rest of the secondary structure of the protein and that the loops making up the active site are flexible. The short lifetime of phospho-NTRC hampers the study of this form. However, conditions for determining the resonance assignments and, possibly, the three dimensional structure of phosphorylated NTRC have been obtained. Tentative assignments of the phosphorylated form indicate that the majority of the changes that NTRC experiences upon phosphorylation occur in helix 3, strand 4, helix 4, strand 5, and the loop between strand 5 and helix 5 (the 3445 face of NTRC) as well as near the site of phosphorylation. In order to examine a stable, activated form of the protein, constitutively active mutants of NTRC were investigated.

  8. Temporal Variability from the Two-Component Advective Flow Solution and Its Observational Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Broja G.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    In the propagating oscillatory shock model, the oscillation of the post-shock region, i.e., the Compton cloud, causes the observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). The evolution of QPO frequency is explained by the systematic variation of the Compton cloud size, i.e., the steady radial movement of the shock front, which is triggered by the cooling of the post-shock region. Thus, analysis of the energy-dependent temporal properties in different variability timescales can diagnose the dynamics and geometry of accretion flows around black holes. We study these properties for the high-inclination black hole source XTE J1550-564 during its 1998 outburst and the low-inclination black hole source GX 339-4 during its 2006-07 outburst using RXTE/PCA data, and we find that they can satisfactorily explain the time lags associated with the QPOs from these systems. We find a smooth decrease of the time lag as a function of time in the rising phase of both sources. In the declining phase, the time lag increases with time. We find a systematic evolution of QPO frequency and hard lags in these outbursts. In XTE J1550-564, the lag changes from hard to soft (i.e., from a positive to a negative value) at a crossing frequency (ν c) of ˜3.4 Hz. We present possible mechanisms to explain the lag behavior of high and low-inclination sources within the framework of a single two-component advective flow model.

  9. Structural studies of the activation of the two component receiver domain NTRC by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohaile, Michael James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    Multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the N-terminal domain of the transcriptional enhancer NTRC (NiTrogen Regulatory protein C). This domain belongs to the family of receiver domains of two-component regulatory systems involved in signal transduction. Phosphorylation of NTRC at D54 leads to an activated form of the molecule which stimulates transcription of genes involved in nitrogen regulation. Three and four dimensional NMR techniques were used to determine an intermediate resolution structure of the unphosphorylated, inactive form of the N-terminal domain of NTRC. The structure is comprised of five α-helices and a five-stranded β-sheet in a (β/α)5 topology. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of NTRC indicate that helix 4 and strand 5 are significantly more flexible than the rest of the secondary structure of the protein and that the loops making up the active site are flexible. The short lifetime of phospho-NTRC hampers the study of this form. However, conditions for determining the resonance assignments and, possibly, the three dimensional structure of phosphorylated NTRC have been obtained. Tentative assignments of the phosphorylated form indicate that the majority of the changes that NTRC experiences upon phosphorylation occur in helix 3, strand 4, helix 4, strand 5, and the loop between strand 5 and helix 5 (the 3445 face of NTRC) as well as near the site of phosphorylation. In order to examine a stable, activated form of the protein, constitutively active mutants of NTRC were investigated.

  10. A second order anti-diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for two-component flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagoutière Frédéric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We build a non-dissipative second order algorithm for the approximate resolution of the one-dimensional Euler system of compressible gas dynamics with two components. The considered model was proposed in [1]. The algorithm is based on [8] which deals with a non-dissipative first order resolution in Lagrange-remap formalism. In the present paper we describe, in the same framework, an algorithm that is second order accurate in time and space, and that preserves sharp interfaces. Numerical results reported at the end of the paper are very encouraging, showing the interest of the second order accuracy for genuinely non-linear waves. Nous construisons un algorithme d’ordre deux et non dissipatif pour la résolution approchée des équations d’Euler de la dynamique des gaz compressibles à deux constituants en dimension un. Le modèle que nous considérons est celui à cinq équations proposé et analysé dans [1]. L’algorithme est basé sur [8] qui proposait une résolution approchée à l’ordre un et non dissipative au moyen d’un splitting de type Lagrange-projection. Dans le présent article, nous décrivons, dans le même formalisme, un algorithme d’ordre deux en temps et en espace, qui préserve des interfaces « parfaites » entre les constituants. Les résultats numériques rapportés à la fin de l’article sont très encourageants ; ils montrent clairement les avantages d’un schéma d’ordre deux pour les ondes vraiment non linéaires.

  11. Impacts of photon bending on observational aspects of Two Component Advective Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arka

    2016-01-01

    Nature of photon trajectories in a curved spacetime around black holes are studied without constraining their motion to any plane. Impacts of photon bending are separately scrutinized for Keplerian and CENBOL components of Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) model. Parameters like Red shift, Bolometric Flux, temperature profile and time of arrival of photons are also computed.

  12. The Integrability of New Two-Component KdV Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziemowit Popowicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the bi-Hamiltonian representation of the two-component coupled KdV equations discovered by Drinfel'd and Sokolov and rediscovered by Sakovich and Foursov. Connection of this equation with the supersymmetric Kadomtsev-Petviashvilli-Radul-Manin hierarchy is presented. For this new supersymmetric equation the Lax representation and odd Hamiltonian structure is given.

  13. Modeling Thermal Dust Emission with Two Components: Application to the Planck HFI Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Meisner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    We apply the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck HFI maps. This parametrization of the far-infrared dust spectrum as the sum of two modified blackbodies serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single modified blackbody (MBB) dust emission model. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. (1999) based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We also derive full-sky 6.1' resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting the two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 micron data. Because our two-component model matches the dust spectrum near its peak, accounts for the spectrum's flattening at millimeter wavelengths, and specifies dust temperature at 6.1' FWHM, our model provides reliable, high-resolution thermal dust emission foreground predictions from 100 to...

  14. Phase of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with a Coupling Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhao-Xian; JIN Shuo; JIAO Zhi-Yong; WANG Ji-Suo

    2007-01-01

    By using the invariant theory, we study the phases of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with a coupling drive under the case that the strength of the interatomic interaction in each condensate equals the interspecies interaction. The dynamical and geometric phases are presented respectively. The Aharonov-Anandan phase is also obtained under the cyclical evolution.

  15. The dynamics of nonstationary solutions in one-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Bin-Bin; Hao Xue; Tian Qiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamical properties of nonstationary solutions in one-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. It gives three kinds of stationary solutions to this model and develops a general method of constructing nonstationary solutions. It obtains the unique features about general evolution and soliton evolution of nonstationary solutions in this model.

  16. A Two-Component Generalization of Burgers' Equation with Quasi-Periodic Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongfei; Xia, Tiecheng; Chen, Dengyuan

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we aim for the theta function representation of quasi-periodic solution and related crucial quantities for a two-component generalization of Burgers' equation. Our tools include the theory of algebraic curves, meromorphic functions, Baker-Akhiezer functions and the Dubrovin-type equations for auxiliary divisor. Eith these tools, the explicit representations for above quantities are obtained.

  17. Transport of a two-component mixture in one-dimensional channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borman, VD; Tronin, VN; Tronin, [No Value; Troyan, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The transport of a two-component gas mixture in subnanometer channels is investigated theoretically for an arbitrary filling of channels. Special attention is paid to consistent inclusion of density effects, which are associated both with the interaction and with a finite size of particles. The anal

  18. Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mathias; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider three-body recombination into deep dimers in a mass-imbalanced two-component atomic gas. We use an optical model where a phenomenological imaginary potential is added to the lowest adiabatic hyper-spherical potential. The consequent imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue corresponds...... to the decay rate or recombination probability of the three-body system. The method is formulated in details and the relevant qualitative features are discussed as functions of scattering lengths and masses. We use zero-range model in analyses of recent recombination data. The dominating scattering length...

  19. Kink-Like Wave and Compacton-Like Wave Solutions for a Two-Component Fornberg-Whitham Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyong Li

    2014-01-01

    systems, we study a two-component Fornberg-Whitham equation. Two types of bounded traveling wave solutions are found, that is, the kink-like wave and compacton-like wave solutions. The planar graphs of these solutions are simulated by using software Mathematica; meanwhile, two new phenomena are revealed; that is, the periodic wave solution can become the kink-like wave or compacton-like wave solution under some conditions, respectively. Exact implicit or parameter expressions of these solutions are given.

  20. Study on the Application of a New Solvent System (Ⅱ) Study on Application of Ambient Dry Two-component Polyurethane Coatings Thinner%新溶剂体系应用研究(二)在常温干燥双组分聚氨酯涂料稀释剂体系的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新泰; 何慧霞

    2012-01-01

    新溶剂体系是指由乙酸仲丁酯、甲氧基乙酸甲酯、甲氧基乙酸仲丁酯、聚酯油构成的溶剂体系,本文以这些新产品溶剂为对象,在常温干燥环境下的双纽分聚氨酯涂料中予以应用,考察溶剂的稀释剂性能,进行对比研究、%A new solvent system is composed of sec-butyl acetate, methyl methoxy acetate, methoxy butyl acetate and polyester oil. The common characteristics include low- toxicity or non-toxicity, new synthetic technology, low second pollution and high price/performance ratio. The paper also introduces the application results of the new solvent system in ambient dry tow- component polyurethane coatings thinner system. The contrast test between the new solvent system with the present solvents based oil benzene, xylene, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate and cyclohexanone etc. is also made.

  1. Dissecting the specificity of protein-protein interaction in bacterial two-component signaling: orphans and crosstalks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Procaccini

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of the myriads of signal transduction pathways in a cell is an outstanding challenge of systems biology. Such pathways are primarily mediated by specific but transient protein-protein interactions, which are difficult to study experimentally. In this study, we dissect the specificity of protein-protein interactions governing two-component signaling (TCS systems ubiquitously used in bacteria. Exploiting the large number of sequenced bacterial genomes and an operon structure which packages many pairs of interacting TCS proteins together, we developed a computational approach to extract a molecular interaction code capturing the preferences of a small but critical number of directly interacting residue pairs. This code is found to reflect physical interaction mechanisms, with the strongest signal coming from charged amino acids. It is used to predict the specificity of TCS interaction: Our results compare favorably to most available experimental results, including the prediction of 7 (out of 8 known interaction partners of orphan signaling proteins in Caulobacter crescentus. Surveying among the available bacterial genomes, our results suggest 15∼25% of the TCS proteins could participate in out-of-operon "crosstalks". Additionally, we predict clusters of crosstalking candidates, expanding from the anecdotally known examples in model organisms. The tools and results presented here can be used to guide experimental studies towards a system-level understanding of two-component signaling.

  2. An efficient implementation of two-component relativistic exact-decoupling methods for large molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Daoling; Weigend, Florian; Reiher, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We present an efficient algorithm for one- and two-component relativistic exact-decoupling calculations. The spin-orbit coupling was taken into account for the evaluation of relativistically transformed Hamiltonian. The relativistic decoupling transformation has to be evaluated with primitive functions so that the construction of the relativistic one-electron Hamiltonian becomes the bottleneck of the whole calculation for large molecules. We apply our recently developed local DLU scheme [J. Chem. Phys. 136 (2012) 244108] to accelerate this step. With our new implementation two-component relativistic density functional calculations can be performed invoking the resolution-of-identity density-fitting approximation and (Abelian as well as non-Abelian) point group symmetries to accelerate both the exact-decoupling and the two-electron part. The capability of our implementation is illustrated at the example of silver clusters with up to 309 atoms, for which the cohesive energy is calculated and extrapolated to the...

  3. Atomic Tunneling Effect in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with a Coupling Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAOZhi-Yong; YUZhao-Xian; YANGXin-Jian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the atomic population difference and the atomic tunneling current of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with a coupling drive. It is found that when the two-component Bose Einstein condensates are initially in the coherent states, the atomic population difference may exhibit the step structure, in which the numbers of the step increase with the decrease of the Rabi frequency and with the increment of the initial phase difference. The atomic population difference may exhibit collapses, and revivals, in which their periods are affected dramatically by the Rabi frequency and the initial phase difference. The atomic tunneling current may exhibit damping oscillation behaviors, and exist the step structure for the time range of 10-10 ~ 10-9 second.

  4. Two-component Fermi-liquid theory - Equilibrium properties of liquid metallic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, J.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1981-01-01

    It is reported that the transition of condensed hydrogen from an insulating molecular crystal phase to a metallic liquid phase, at zero temperature and high pressure, appears possible. Liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH), comprising interpenetrating proton and electron fluids, would constitute a two-component Fermi liquid with both a very high component-mass ratio and long-range, species-dependent bare interactions. The low-temperature equilibrium properties of LMH are examined by means of a generalization to the case of two components of the phenomenological Landau Fermi-liquid theory, and the low-temperature specific heat, compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient and spin susceptibility are given. It is found that the specific heat and the thermal expansion coefficient are vastly greater in the liquid than in the corresponding solid, due to the presence of proton quasiparticle excitations in the liquid.

  5. A hydrodynamic scheme for two-component winds from hot stars

    CERN Document Server

    Votruba, V; Kubát, J; Rätzel, D

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a time-dependent two-component hydrodynamics code to simulate radiatively-driven stellar winds from hot stars. We use a time-explicit van Leer scheme to solve the hydrodynamic equations of a two-component stellar wind. Dynamical friction due to Coulomb collisions between the passive bulk plasma and the line-scattering ions is treated by a time-implicit, semi-analytic method using a polynomial fit to the Chandrasekhar function. This gives stable results despite the stiffness of the problem. This method was applied to model stars with winds that are both poorly and well-coupled. While for the former case we reproduce the mCAK solution, for the latter case our solution leads to wind decoupling.

  6. Error Propagation in Equations for Geochemical Modeling of Radiogenic Isotopes in Two-Component Mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surendra P Verma

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents error propagation equations for modeling of radiogenic isotopes during mixing of two components or end-members. These equations can be used to estimate errors on an isotopic ratio in the mixture of two components, as a function of the analytical errors or the total errors of geological field sampling and analytical errors. Two typical cases (``Small errors'' and ``Large errors'') are illustrated for mixing of Sr isotopes. Similar examples can be formulated for the other radiogenic isotopic ratios. Actual isotopic data for sediment and basalt samples from the Cocos plate are also included to further illustrate the use of these equations. The isotopic compositions of the predicted mixtures can be used to constrain the origin of magmas in the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. These examples show the need of high quality experimental data for them to be useful in geochemical modeling of magmatic processes.

  7. Stability properties of vector solitons in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with tunable interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-Fei; Zhang Pei; He Wan-Quan; Liu Xun-Xu

    2011-01-01

    By using a unified theory of the formation of various types of vector-solitons in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with tunable interactions, we obtain a family of exact vector-soliton solutions for the coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations. Moreover, the Bogoliubov equation shows that there exists stable dark soliton in specific situations. Our results open up new ways in considerable experimental interest for the quantum control of multi-component Bose-Einstein condensates.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation process of two-component Fe-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewlocka, H.; Siedlecka, J.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation process of two-component Fe-Al alloys containing up to 7.2% Al and from 18 to 30% Al was studied. Kinetic measurements were conducted using the isothermal gravimetric method in the range of 1073-1223 K and 1073-1373 K for 50 hours. The methods used in studies of the mechanism of oxidation included: X-ray microanalysis, X-ray structural analysis, metallographic analysis and marker tests.

  9. Histidine Phosphotransfer Proteins in Fungal Two-Component Signal Transduction Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The histidine phosphotransfer (HPt) protein Ypd1 is an important participant in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae multistep two-component signal transduction pathway and, unlike the expanded histidine kinase gene family, is encoded by a single gene in nearly all model and pathogenic fungi. Ypd1 is essential for viability in both S. cerevisiae and in Cryptococcus neoformans. These and other aspects of Ypd1 biology, combined with the availability of structural and mutational data in S. cerevisiae, s...

  10. A Possible Two-Component Structure of the Non-Perturbative Pomeron

    CERN Document Server

    Gauron, P; Gauron, Pierre; Nicolescu, Basarab

    2000-01-01

    We propose a QCD-inspired two-component Pomeron form which gives an excellent description of the proton-proton, pi-proton, kaon-proton, gamma-proton and gamma-gamma total cross sections. Our fit has a better CHI2/dof for a smaller number of parameters as compared with the PDG fit. Our 2-Pomeron form is fully compatible with weak Regge exchange-degeneracy, universality, Regge factorization and the generalized vector dominance model.

  11. Two-component model of the interaction of an interstellar cloud with surrounding hot plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Provornikova, E. A.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Lallement, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a two-component gasdynamic model of an interstellar cloud embedded in a hot plasma. It is assumed that the cloud consists of atomic hydrogen gas, interstellar plasma is quasineutral. Hydrogen atoms and plasma protons interact through a charge exchange process. Magnetic felds and radiative processes are ignored in the model. The influence of heat conduction within plasma on the interaction between a cloud and plasma is studied. We consider the extreme case and assume that hot plasma...

  12. Evaluation of the operational parameters for NBI-driven fusion in low-gain tokamaks with two-component plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Low gain (Q ~ 1) fusion plasma systems are of interest for concepts of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. Operational regimes of large modern tokamaks are close to Q  ≈  1. Therefore, they can be considered as prototypes of neutron sources for fusion-fission hybrids. Powerful neutral beam injection (NBI) can support the essential population of fast particles compared with the Maxwellial population. In such two-component plasma, fusion reaction rate is higher than for Maxwellian plasma. Increased reaction rate allows the development of relatively small-size and relatively inexpensive neutron sources. Possible operating regimes of the NBI-heated tokamak neutron source are discussed. In a relatively compact device, the predictions of physics of two-component fusion plasma have some volatility that causes taking into account variations of the operational parameters. Consequent parameter ranges are studied. The feasibility of regimes with Q  ≈  1 is shown for the relatively small and low-power system. The effect of NBI fraction in total heating power is analyzed.

  13. Vortices in a rotating two-component Bose–Einstein condensate with tunable interactions and harmonic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei, E-mail: xfzhang@ntsc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600 (China); Du, Zhi-Jing [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600 (China); Tan, Ren-Bing [Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China); Dong, Rui-Fang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600 (China)

    2014-07-15

    We consider a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations modeling a rotating two-component Bose–Einstein condensate with tunable interactions and harmonic potential, with emphasis on the structure of vortex states by varying the strength of inter-component interaction, rotational frequency, and the aspect ratio of the harmonic potential. Our results show that the inter-component interaction greatly enhances the effect of rotation. For the case of isotropic harmonic potential and small inter-component interaction, the initial vortex structure remains unchanged. As the ratio of inter- to intra-component interactions increases, each component undergoes a transition from a vortex lattice (vortex line) in an isotropic (anisotropic) harmonic potential to an alternatively arranged stripe pattern, and eventually to the interwoven “serpentine” vortex sheets. Moreover, in the case of anisotropic harmonic potential the system can develop to a rotating droplet structure. -- Highlights: •Different vortex structures are obtained within the full parameter space. •Effects of system parameters on the ground state structure are discussed. •Phase transition between different vortex structures is also examined. •Present one possible way to obtain the rotating droplet structure. •Provide many possibilities to manipulate vortex in two-component BEC.

  14. Sub classification and targeted characterization of prophage-encoded two-component cell lysis cassette

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Srividhya; S Krishnaswamy

    2007-08-01

    Bacteriophage induced lysis of host bacterial cell is mediated by a two component cell lysis cassette comprised of holin and lysozyme. Prophages are integrated forms of bacteriophages in bacterial genomes providing a repertoire for bacterial evolution. Analysis using the prophage database (http://bicmku.in:8082) constructed by us showed 47 prophages were associated with putative two component cell lysis genes. These proteins cluster into four different subgroups. In this process, a putative holin (essd) and endolysin (ybcS), encoded by the defective lambdoid prophage DLP12 was found to be similar to two component cell lysis genes in functional bacteriophages like p21 and P1. The holin essd was found to have a characteristic dual start motif with two transmembrane regions and C-terminal charged residues as in class II holins. Expression of a fusion construct of essd in Escherichia coli showed slow growth. However, under appropriate conditions, this protein could be over expressed and purified for structure function studies. The second component of the cell lysis cassette, ybcS, was found to have an N-terminal SAR (Signal Arrest Release) transmembrane domain. The construct of ybcS has been over expressed in E. coli and the purified protein was functional, exhibiting lytic activity against E. coli and Salmonella typhi cell wall substrate. Such targeted sequence-structure-function characterization of proteins encoded by cryptic prophages will help understand the contribution of prophage proteins to bacterial evolution.

  15. The oligomeric assembly of the novel haem-degrading protein HbpS is essential for interaction with its cognate two-component sensor kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Bogel, Gabriele; Zou, Peijian; Groves, Matthew R

    2009-01-01

    HbpS, a novel protein of previously unknown function from Streptomyces reticuli, is up-regulated in response to haemin- and peroxide-based oxidative stress and interacts with the SenS/SenR two-component signal transduction system. In this study, we report the high-resolution crystal structures (2.2

  16. Phosphate sink containing two-component signaling systems as tunable threshold devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Munia; Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda

    2014-01-01

    and define key parameters that control threshold levels and sensitivity of the signal-response curve. We confirm these findings experimentally, by in vitro reconstitution of the one HK-two RR motif found in the Sinorhizobium meliloti chemotaxis pathway and measuring the resulting signal-response curve. We...

  17. A Sinorhizobium meliloti osmosensory two-component system required for cyclic glucan export and symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitts, Joel S; Carlyon, Rebecca E; Erickson, Jacob H; Moulton, Jason L; Barnett, Melanie J; Toman, Carol J; Long, Sharon R

    2008-07-01

    screen for novel symbiotic mutants of the nitrogen-fixing legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti uncovered a crucial role for the putative response regulator FeuP in the symbiotic infection process. Transcriptome analysis shows that FeuP controls the transcription of at least 16 genes, including ndvA, which encodes an ATP-dependent exporter of cyclic beta glucans. Loss of feuP function gives rise to traits associated with cyclic beta glucan biosynthetic defects, including poor growth and motility under hypoosmotic conditions, and the inability to invade plant tissue during the early stages of symbiotic infection. Analysis of cyclic glucans indicates that the feuP mutant is able to synthesize intracellular cyclic beta glucans, but is unable to export them. Cyclic beta glucan export can be restored to feuP mutant cells by constitutive expression of ndvA; likewise, the symbiotic phenotype of a feuP mutant is rescued by ectopic ndvA expression. We further show that the linked sensor kinase gene, feuQ, is also important for modulating ndvA transcription, and that signalling through the FeuP/FeuQ pathway is responsive to extracellular osmotic conditions, with low osmolarity stimulating ndvA expression.

  18. Thermal Regulation of Membrane Lipid Fluidity by a Two-Component System in "Bacillus Subtilis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeston, L. M.; Marciano, D.; Albanesi, D.; De Mendoza, D.; Delfino, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a simple and robust laboratory exercise on the regulation of membrane unsaturated fatty acid composition in bacteria by a decrease in growth temperature. We take advantage of the well characterized Des pathway of "Bacillus subtilis", composed of a [delta]5-desaturase (encoded by the "des" gene) and the canonical…

  19. Lipase expression in Pseudomonas alcaligenes is under the control of a two-component regulatory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeslak, Joanna; Gerritse, Gijs; van Merkerk, Ronald; Cool, Robbert H.; Quax, Wim J.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary observations in a large-scale fermentation process suggested that the lipase expression of Pseudomonas alcaligenes can be switched on by the addition of certain medium components, such as soybean oil. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of induction of lipase expression, we have set

  20. Disentangling the secondary relaxations in the orientationally disordered mixed crystals: cycloheptanol + cyclooctanol two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Julio C; Tamarit, Josep Ll; Pardo, Luis C; Barrio, María; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Droz-Rzoska, Aleksandra

    2010-05-13

    The dynamics of the pure compounds and mixed crystals formed between cycloheptanol (cC7-ol) and cyclooctanol (cC8-ol) has been studied by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy at temperatures near and above the orientational glass transition temperature. Both compounds are known to display at least one orientationally disordered (OD) phase of simple cubic symmetry, and within this phase, a continuous formation of mixed crystals was demonstrated in the past (Rute, M. A. et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 5914). The dielectric loss spectra of cC7-ol and cC8-ol show, in addition to the well-pronounced alpha-relaxation peaks with a continuous temperature shift (characteristic of the freezing of the molecular dynamics), secondary relaxations (beta and gamma for cC8-ol and gamma for cC7-ol) which are intramolecular in nature. The dynamics of several OD mixed crystals was recently studied (Singh, L. P.; Murthy, S. S. N. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 2606), and surprisingly enough one of the secondary relaxations was not evidenced. We show here by means of a careful set of measurements for several mixed crystals and of a detailed analysis procedure the existence of the secondary relaxations for the mixed crystals. The results, moreover, doubtless reinforce the physical origin of each of the secondary relaxations.

  1. Disentangling the secondary relaxations in the orientationally disordered mixed crystals: cycloheptanol + cyclooctanol two-component system

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of the pure compounds and mixed crystals formed between cycloheptanol (cC7-ol) and cyclooctanol (cC8-ol) has been studied by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy at temperatures near and above the orientational glass transition temperature. Both compounds are known to display at least one orientationally disordered (OD) phase of simple cubic symmetry, and within this phase, a continuous formation of mixed crystals was demonstrated in the past (Rute, M. A. et al. J. Phys. Ch...

  2. Predictions of Phase Distribution in Liquid-Liquid Two-Component Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Xiaodong; Duval, Walter M.

    2011-06-01

    Ground-based liquid-liquid two-component flow can be used to study reduced-gravity gas-liquid two-phase flows provided that the two liquids are immiscible with similar densities. In this paper, we present a numerical study of phase distribution in liquid-liquid two-component flows using the Eulerian two-fluid model in FLUENT, together with a one-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) that takes into account fluid particle interactions, such as coalescence and disintegration. This modeling approach is expected to dynamically capture changes in the interfacial structure. We apply the FLUENT-IATE model to a water-Therminol 59® two-component vertical flow in a 25-mm inner diameter pipe, where the two liquids are immiscible with similar densities (3% difference at 20°C). This study covers bubbly (drop) flow and bubbly-to-slug flow transition regimes with area-averaged void (drop) fractions from 3 to 30%. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experimental data indicate that for bubbly flows, the predictions of the lateral phase distributions using the FLUENT-IATE model are generally more accurate than those using the model without the IATE. In addition, we demonstrate that the coalescence of fluid particles is dominated by wake entrainment and enhanced by increasing either the continuous or dispersed phase velocity. However, the predictions show disagreement with experimental data in some flow conditions for larger void fraction conditions, which fall into the bubbly-to-slug flow transition regime. We conjecture that additional fluid particle interaction mechanisms due to the change of flow regimes are possibly involved.

  3. Two-component model of strong Langmuir turbulence - Scalings, spectra, and statistics of Langmuir waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Newman, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A simple two-component model of strong turbulence that makes clear predictions for the scalings, spectra, and statistics of Langmuir waves is developed. Scalings of quantities such as energy density, power input, dissipation power wave collapse, and number density of collapsing objects are investigated in detail and found to agree well with model predictions. The nucleation model of wave-packet formation is strongly supported by the results. Nucleation proceeds with energy flowing from background to localized states even in the absence of a driver. Modulational instabilities play little or no role in maintaining the turbulent state when significant density nonuniformities are present.

  4. Numerical simulation of two-component flow fluid - fluid in the microchannel T- type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeleva A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing methodology for calculating two-phase flows based on the method of fluid in the cells (VOF method, and the procedure for CSF accounting of surface tension forces in the microchannel are considered in the work. Mathematical modeling of two-component flow fluid -fluid in the T- microchannel conducted using this methodology. The following flow regimes studied slug flow, rivulet flow, parallel flow, dispersed (droplet flow, plug flow. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data done. Satisfactory agreement between the calculated values with the experimental data obtained.

  5. Dynamics of bubbles in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki

    2011-03-01

    The dynamics of a phase-separated two-component Bose-Einstein condensate are investigated, in which a bubble of one component moves through the other component. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal a variety of dynamics associated with the creation of quantized vortices. In two dimensions, a circular bubble deforms into an ellipse and splits into fragments with vortices, which undergo the Magnus effect. The Bénard-von Kármán vortex street is also generated. In three dimensions, a spherical bubble deforms into toruses with vortex rings. When two rings are formed, they exhibit leapfrogging dynamics.

  6. Three-wave interaction in two-component quadratic nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konotop, V. V.; Cunha, M. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    We investigate a two-component lattice with a quadratic nonlinearity and find with the multiple scale technique that integrable three-wave interaction takes place between plane wave solutions when these fulfill resonance conditions. We demonstrate that. energy conversion and pulse propagation known...... from three-wave interaction is reproduced in the lattice and that exact phase matching of parametric processes can be obtained in non-phase-matched lattices by tilting the interacting plane waves with respect to each other. [S1063-651X(99)15110-9]....

  7. Anisotropic pair superfluidity of trapped two-component Bose gases in an optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; He, Liang; Hofstetter, Walter

    2013-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the pair-superfluid phase of two-component ultracold gases with attractive inter-species interactions in an optical lattice. We establish the phase diagram for filling n = 1 at zero and finite temperatures, by applying bosonic dynamical mean-field theory, and observe stable pair-superfluid and charge-density wave quantum phases for asymmetric hopping of the two species. While the pair superfluid is found to be robust in the presence of a harmonic trap, we observe that it is destroyed already by a small population imbalance of the two species.

  8. A hybrid two-component Bose-Einstein condensate interferometer for measuring magnetic field gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Huang, Jiahao; Liu, Quan

    2017-03-01

    We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.

  9. Two-component colour dipole emission in the central region of onium-onium scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    1995-01-01

    The initial-state radiation of soft colour dipoles produced in the central region of onium-onium scattering via single QCD Pomeron exchange (BFKL) is calculated in the framework of Mueller's dipole approach. The resulting dipole production has a two-component structure. One is constant with energy while the other grows and possesses a power-law tail at appreciably large transverse distances from the collision axis. It may be related to the growth of the gluon distribution at small Bjorken-x.

  10. Optimization and control of two-component radially self-accelerating beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Christian; Eichelkraut, Toni; Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-11-23

    We report on the properties of radially self-accelerating intensity distributions consisting of two components in the angular frequency domain. We show how this subset of solutions, in literature also known as helicon beams, possesses peculiar characteristics that enable a better control over its properties. In this work, we present a step-by-step optimization procedure to achieve the best possible intensity contrast, a distinct rotation rate and long propagation lengths. All points are discussed on a theoretical basis and are experimentally verified.

  11. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperature of Russian Academy of Science, 125412, Russia, Moscow, Izhorskaya str. 13/2 (Russian Federation); Zelener, B. B. [Joint Institute for High Temperature of Russian Academy of Science, 125412, Russia, Moscow, Izhorskaya str. 13/2 (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 115409, Russia, Moscow, Kashirskoe sh. 31 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ε parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ε and γ = βe{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where β = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ε and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ε{sub crit}≈13(T{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.076),γ{sub crit}≈1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ε{sup −1}.

  12. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).

  13. Numerical analysis of a non equilibrium two-component two-compressible flow in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    We propose and analyze a finite volume scheme to simulate a non equilibrium two components (water and hydrogen) two phase flow (liquid and gas) model. In this model, the assumption of local mass non equilibrium is ensured and thus the velocity of the mass exchange between dissolved hydrogen and hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed finite. The proposed finite volume scheme is fully implicit in time together with a phase-by-phase upwind approach in space and it is discretize the equations in their general form with gravity and capillary terms We show that the proposed scheme satisfies the maximum principle for the saturation and the concentration of the dissolved hydrogen. We establish stability results on the velocity of each phase and on the discrete gradient of the concentration. We show the convergence of a subsequence to a weak solution of the continuous equations as the size of the discretization tends to zero. At our knowledge, this is the first convergence result of finite volume scheme in the case of two component two phase compressible flow in several space dimensions.

  14. Implications of Two-component Dark Matter Induced by Forbidden Channels and Thermal Freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    We consider a model of two-component dark matter based on a hidden $U(1)_D$ symmetry, in which relic densities of the dark matter are determined by forbidden channels and thermal freeze-out. The hidden $U(1)_D$ symmetry is spontaneously broken to a residual $\\mathbb{Z}_4$ symmetry, and the lightest $\\mathbb{Z}_4$ charged particle can be a dark matter candidate. Moreover, depending on the mass hierarchy in the dark sector, we have two-component dark matter. We show that the relic density of the lighter dark matter component can be determined by forbidden annihilation channels which require larger couplings compared to the normal freeze-out mechanism. As a result, a large self-interaction of the lighter dark matter component can be induced, which may solve small scale problems of $\\Lambda$CDM model. On the other hand, the heavier dark matter component is produced by normal freeze-out mechanism. We find that interesting implications emerge between the two dark matter components in this framework. We explore dete...

  15. Two-component model of the interaction of an interstellar cloud with surrounding hot plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Provornikova, E A; Lallement, R

    2011-01-01

    We present a two-component gasdynamic model of an interstellar cloud embedded in a hot plasma. It is assumed that the cloud consists of atomic hydrogen gas, interstellar plasma is quasineutral. Hydrogen atoms and plasma protons interact through a charge exchange process. Magnetic felds and radiative processes are ignored in the model. The influence of heat conduction within plasma on the interaction between a cloud and plasma is studied. We consider the extreme case and assume that hot plasma electrons instantly heat the plasma in the interaction region and that plasma flow can be described as isothermal. Using the two-component model of the interaction of cold neutral cloud and hot plasma, we estimate the lifetime of interstellar clouds. We focus on the clouds typical for the cluster of local interstellar clouds embedded in the hot Local Bubble and give an estimate of the lifetime of the Local interstellar cloud where the Sun currently travels. The charge transfer between highly charged plasma ions and neutr...

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Two-Phase Two-Component Flow with Disappearing Nonwetting Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Rebecca; Ippisch, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a recently discussed new technology, aimed at allowing an ongoing use of fossil fuels while preventing the produced CO2 to be released to the atmosphere. CSS can be modeled with two components (water and CO2) in two phases (liquid and CO2). To simulate the process, a multiphase flow equation with equilibrium phase exchange is used. One of the big problems arising in two-phase two-component flow simulations is the disappearance of the nonwetting phase, which leads to a degeneration of the equations satisfied by the saturation. A standard choice of primary variables, which is the pressure of one phase and the saturation of the other phase, cannot be applied here. We developed a new approach using the pressure of the nonwetting phase and the capillary pressure as primary variables. One important advantage of this approach is the fact that we have only one set of primary variables that can be used for the biphasic as well as the monophasic case. We implemented this new choice o...

  17. Two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    We present a class of exact solutions to the coupled (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated nonlinearity and a special external potential, which describe the evolution of two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media. We find a robust soliton solution, constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. For specific choices of the topological charge, the radial mode number and the modulation depth, the solitons may exist in various forms, such as the half-moon, necklace-ring, and sawtooth vortex-ring patterns. Our results show that the profile of such solitons can be effectively controlled by the topological charge, the radial mode number, and the modulation depth. - Highlights: • Two-component vector soliton clusters in defocusing Kerr-type media are reported. • These soliton clusters are constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. • The half-moon, necklace-ring and vortex-ring patterns are found. • The profile of these solitons can be effectively controlled by three soliton parameters.

  18. A theory of scintillation for two-component power law irregularity spectra: Overview and numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Charles S.; Rino, Charles L.

    2016-06-01

    We extend the power law phase screen theory for ionospheric scintillation to account for the case where the refractive index irregularities follow a two-component inverse power law spectrum. The two-component model includes, as special cases, an unmodified power law and a modified power law with spectral break that may assume the role of an outer scale, intermediate break scale, or inner scale. As such, it provides a framework for investigating the effects of a spectral break on the scintillation statistics. Using this spectral model, we solve the fourth moment equation governing intensity variations following propagation through two-dimensional field-aligned irregularities in the ionosphere. A specific normalization is invoked that exploits self-similar properties of the structure to achieve a universal scaling, such that different combinations of perturbation strength, propagation distance, and frequency produce the same results. The numerical algorithm is validated using new theoretical predictions for the behavior of the scintillation index and intensity correlation length under strong scatter conditions. A series of numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the morphologies of the intensity spectrum, scintillation index, and intensity correlation length as functions of the spectral indices and strength of scatter; retrieve phase screen parameters from intensity scintillation observations; explore the relative contributions to the scintillation due to large- and small-scale ionospheric structures; and quantify the conditions under which a general spectral break will influence the scintillation statistics.

  19. Differences in two-component signal transduction proteins among the genus Brucella: implications for host preference and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binnewies, Tim Terence; Ussery, David; Lavín, JL

    2010-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are the predominant bacterial signal transduction mechanisms. Species of the genus Brucella are genetically highly related and differ mainly in mammalian host adaptation and pathogenesis. In this study, TCS proteins encoded in the available genome sequences of Brucella...... species have been identified using bioinformatic methods. All the Brucella species share an identical set of TCS proteins, and the number of TCS proteins in the closely related opportunistic human pathogen Ochrobactrum anthropi was higher than in Brucella species as expected from its lifestyle. O....... anthropi lacks orthologs of the Brucella TCSs NodVW, TceSR and TcfSR, suggesting that these TCS proteins could be necessary for the adaptation of Brucella as an intracellular pathogen. This genomic analysis revealed the presence of a differential distribution of TCS pseudogenes among Brucella species...

  20. Odd-parity superconductors with two-component order parameters: Nematic and chiral, full gap, and Majorana node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venderbos, Jörn W. F.; Kozii, Vladyslav; Fu, Liang

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the recent experiment indicating that superconductivity in the doped topological insulator CuxBi2Se3 has an odd-parity pairing symmetry with rotational symmetry breaking, we study the general class of odd-parity superconductors with two-component order parameters in trigonal and hexagonal crystal systems. In the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction, we find two possible superconducting phases below Tc, a time-reversal-breaking (i.e., chiral) phase and an anisotropic (i.e., nematic) phase, and determine their relative energetics from the gap function in momentum space. The nematic superconductor generally has a full quasiparticle gap, whereas the chiral superconductor with a three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surface has point nodes with lifted spin degeneracy, resulting in itinerant Majorana fermions in the bulk and topological Majorana arcs on the surface.

  1. Relatedness between the two-component lantibiotics lacticin 3147 and staphylococcin C55 based on structure, genetics and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Orla

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two component lantibiotics, such as the plasmid-encoded lacticin 3147 produced by Lactococcus lactis DPC3147 and staphylococcin C55 produced by Staphylococcus aureus C55, represent an emerging subgroup of bacteriocins. These two bacteriocins are particularly closely related, exhibiting 86% (LtnA1 and C55α and 55% (LtnA2 and C55β identity in their component peptides. The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time for any two component bacteriocins, the significance of the relatedness between these two systems. Results So close is this relatedness that the hybrid peptide pairs LtnA1:C55β and C55α:LtnA2 were found to have activities in the single nanomolar range, comparing well with the native pairings. To determine whether this flexibility extended to the associated post-translational modification/processing machinery, the staphylococcin C55 structural genes were directly substituted for their lacticin 3147 counterparts in the ltn operon on the large conjugative lactococcal plasmid pMRC01. It was established that the lacticin LtnA1 post-translational and processing machinery could produce functionally active C55α, but not C55β. In order to investigate in closer detail the significance of the differences between LtnA1 and C55α, three residues in LtnA1 were replaced with the equivalent residues in C55α. Surprisingly, one such mutant LtnA1-Leu21Ala was not produced. This may be significant given the positioning of this residue in a putative lipid II binding loop. Conclusion It is apparent, despite sharing striking similarities in terms of structure and activity, that these two complex bacteriocins display some highly dedicated features particular to either system.

  2. SO(3,2) Structure and Distributions of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with Lower Excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-Biao

    2003-01-01

    The eigenstates describing two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) with weakly excitations have been found, by using the SO(3,2) algebraic mean-field approximation. We show that the two-component modified BEC (see Eq (26)) possesses uniquely super-Poissonian distribution in a fixcd magnetic ficld along z direction. The distribution will be uncertain, if B = 0.

  3. Output Rate of Atomic Four-Wave Mixing in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-Hua; LI Wei-Bing; PENG Ju-Cun

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, following the proposal of Heurich et al. [Phys. Rev. A63 (2001) 033605], we analyze and discuss output rate of atomic four-wave mixing in the two-component Bose-Einstein condensate under the condition of the steady state. The results show that the magnitude of the signal beam increases with the increase of the intensity of the probe beam, up to a saturated value, then it decreases as the probe beam increases. The influence of the interaction range on the signal beam is also predicted. In particular, it is worth while pointing out that in contrast to the previous solutions, our obtained analytical solutions are of very simple and explicit forms, which open the door for further investigating the related physical mechanisms.

  4. Dynamic form factor of two-component plasmas beyond the static local field approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Daligault, J

    2003-01-01

    The spectrum of ion density fluctuations in a strongly coupled plasma is described both within the static G(k, 0) and high-frequency G(k, infinity) local field approximation. By a direct comparison with molecular dynamics data, we find that for large coupling, G(k, 0) is inadequate. Based on this result, we employ the Zwanzig-Mori memory function approach to model the Thomson scattering cross section, i.e. the electron dynamic form factor S sub e sub e (k, omega) of a dense two-component plasma. We show the sensitivity of S sub e sub e (k, omega) to three approximations for G(k, omega).

  5. Histidine phosphotransfer proteins in fungal two-component signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, Jan S; West, Ann H

    2013-08-01

    The histidine phosphotransfer (HPt) protein Ypd1 is an important participant in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae multistep two-component signal transduction pathway and, unlike the expanded histidine kinase gene family, is encoded by a single gene in nearly all model and pathogenic fungi. Ypd1 is essential for viability in both S. cerevisiae and in Cryptococcus neoformans. These and other aspects of Ypd1 biology, combined with the availability of structural and mutational data in S. cerevisiae, suggest that the essential interactions between Ypd1 and response regulator domains would be a good target for antifungal drug development. The goal of this minireview is to summarize the wealth of data on S. cerevisiae Ypd1 and to consider the potential benefits of conducting related studies in pathogenic fungi.

  6. Phase diagram of two-component bosons on an optical lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, Ehud; Hofstetter, Walter; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2003-09-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the phase diagram of two-component bosons on an optical lattice. A new formalism is developed which treats the effective spin interactions in the Mott and superfluid phases on the same footing. Using this new approach we chart the phase boundaries of the broken spin symmetry states up to the Mott to superfluid transition and beyond. Near the transition point, the magnitude of spin exchange can be very large, which facilitates the experimental realization of spin-ordered states. We find that spin and quantum fluctuations have a dramatic effect on the transition, making it first order in extended regions of the phase diagram. When each species is at integer filling, an additional phase transition may occur, from a spin-ordered insulator to a Mott insulator with no broken symmetries. We determine the phase boundaries in this regime and show that this is essentially a Mott transition in the spin sector.

  7. Feshbach P -Q partitioning technique and the two-component Dirac equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Da-Wei; Pyshkin, P. V.; Yu, Ting; Lin, Hai-Qing; You, J. Q.; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-09-01

    We provide an alternative approach to relativistic dynamics based on the Feshbach projection technique. Instead of directly studying the Dirac equation, we derive a two-component equation for the upper spinor. This approach allows one to investigate the underlying physics in a different perspective. For particles with small mass such as the neutrino, the leading-order equation has a Hermitian effective Hamiltonian, implying there is no leakage between the upper and lower spinors. In the weak relativistic regime, the leading order corresponds to a non-Hermitian correction to the Pauli equation, which takes into account the nonzero possibility of finding the lower-spinor state and offers a more precise description.

  8. Images and Spectral Properties of Two Component Advective Flows Around Black Holes: Effects of Photon Bending

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arka; Ghosh, Himadri

    2016-01-01

    Two component advective flow (TCAF) successfully explains spectral and timing properties of black hole candidates. We study the nature of photon trajectories in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole and incorporate this in predicting images of TCAF with a black hole at the Centre. We also compute the emitted spectra. We employ a Monte-Carlo simulation technique to achieve our goal. For accurate prediction of the image and the spectra, null trajectories are generated without constraining the motion to any specific plane. Red shift, bolometric flux and corresponding temperature have been calculated with appropriate relativistic consideration. The centrifugal barrier dominated boundary layer or CENBOL near the inner region of the disk which acts as the Compton cloud is appropriately modelled as a thick accretion disk in Schwarzschild geometry for the purpose of imaging and computing spectra. The variations of spectra and image with physical parameters such as the accretion rate ($\\dot{m}_d$) and inclination...

  9. Preparation of two component Fibrin Glue and its clinical evaluation in skin grafts and flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue adhesive is one of the alternative to conventional suturing and has some added advantages. Fibrin glue has been used in obtaining haemostasis following trauma to spleen and liver. It has also been used in repair of dural tear and bronchial fistula. Fibrin glue is a biological tissue adhesive based on the final stage of coagulation wherein. Thrombin acting on fibrinogen converts it into fibrin. Thus, it has two components, one is fibrinogen and another is thrombin. We have prepared both components of fibrin glue. Fibrinogen was obtained from patient's own blood and thrombin from fresh frozen plasma of screened healthy donor. The glue was used in 20 cases requiring skin graft or flap. The results were compared with conventional suturing method. Use of the fibrin glue is simple, safe, cost effective, and rapid technique to fix the skin grafts and flaps with avoidance of peroperative bleeding and postoperative collection. It also has better overall results.

  10. Energy Spectrum of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jiu-Rong; LIU Jin-Ming; JING Hui; WANG Yu-Zhu

    2005-01-01

    With the method of Green's function, we investigate the energy spectra of two-component ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices. We find that there are two energy bands for each component. The critical condition of the superfluid-Mott insulator phase transition is determined by the energy band structure. We also find that the nearest neighboring and on-site interactions fail to change the structure of energy bands, but shift the energy bands only.According to the conditions of the phase transitions, three stable superfluid and Mott insulating phases can be found by adjusting the experiment parameters. We also discuss the possibility of observing these new phases and their transitions in further experiments.

  11. Atomic Tunneling Effect in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with a Coupling Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Zhi-Yong; YU Zhao-Xian; YANG Xin-Jian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the atomic population difference and the atomic tunneling current of twocomponent Bose-Einstein condensates with a coupling drive. It is found that when the two-component Bose-Einstein condensates are initially in the coherent states, the atomic population difference may exhibit the step structure, in which the numbers of the step increase with the decrease of the Rabi frequency and with the increment of the initial phase difference. The atomic population difference may exhibit collapses, and revivals, in which their periods are affected dramatically by the Rabi frequency and the initial phase difference. The atomic tunneling current may exhibit damping oscillation behaviors, and exist the step structure for the time range of 10-10 ~ 10-9 second.

  12. Two-component mixture model: Application to palm oil and exchange rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Palm oil is a seed crop which is widely adopt for food and non-food products such as cookie, vegetable oil, cosmetics, household products and others. Palm oil is majority growth in Malaysia and Indonesia. However, the demand for palm oil is getting growth and rapidly running out over the years. This phenomenal cause illegal logging of trees and destroy the natural habitat. Hence, the present paper investigates the relationship between exchange rate and palm oil price in Malaysia by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation via Newton-Raphson algorithm to fit a two components mixture model. Besides, this paper proposes a mixture of normal distribution to accommodate with asymmetry characteristics and platykurtic time series data.

  13. Two-component laser Doppler anemometer for measurement of velocity and turbulent shear stress near prosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Y R; Yoganathan, A P

    1985-01-01

    The velocity and turbulent shear stress measured in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves play a vital role in the design and evaluation of these devices. In the past hot wire/film and one-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) systems were used extensively to obtain these measurements. Hot wire/film anemometers, however, have some serious disadvantages, including the inability to measure the direction of the flow, the disturbance of the flow field caused by the probe, and the need for frequent calibration. One-component LDA systems do not have these problems, but they cannot measure turbulent shear stresses directly. Since these measurements are essential and are not available in the open literature, a two-component LDA system for measuring velocity and turbulent shear stress fields under pulsatile flow conditions was assembled under an FDA contract. The experimental methods used to create an in vitro data base of velocity and turbulent shear stress fields in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves of various designs in current clinical use are also discussed.

  14. The Formation of Bulges, Discs and Two Component Galaxies in the CANDELS Survey at z < 3

    CERN Document Server

    Margalef-Bentabol, Berta; Mortlock, Alice; Hartley, Will; Duncan, Kenneth; Ferguson, Harry C; Koekemoer, Anton M; Dekel, Avishai; Primack, Joel R

    2016-01-01

    We examine a sample of 1495 galaxies in the CANDELS fields to determine the evolution of two component galaxies, including bulges and discs, within massive galaxies at the epoch 1 < z < 3 when the Hubble sequence forms. We fit all of our galaxies' light profiles with a single S\\'ersic fit, as well as with a combination of exponential and S\\'ersic profiles. The latter is done in order to describe a galaxy with an inner and an outer component, or bulge and disc component. We develop and use three classification methods (visual, F-test and the RFF) to separate our sample into 1-component galaxies (disc/spheroids-like galaxies) and 2-component galaxies (galaxies formed by an 'inner part' or bulge and an 'outer part' or disc). We then compare the results from using these three different ways to classify our galaxies. We find that the fraction of galaxies selected as 2-component galaxies increases on average 50 per cent from the lowest mass bin to the most massive galaxies, and decreases with redshift by a fa...

  15. Osmotic Second Virial Coefficients of Aqueous Solutions from Two-Component Equations of State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeiriña, Claudio A; Widom, B

    2016-12-29

    Osmotic second virial coefficients in dilute aqueous solutions of small nonpolar solutes are calculated from three different two-component equations of state. The solutes are five noble gases, four diatomics, and six hydrocarbons in the range C1-C4. The equations of state are modified versions of the van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, and Peng-Robinson equations, with an added hydrogen-bonding term for the solvent water. The parameters in the resulting equations of state are assigned so as to reproduce the experimental values and temperature dependence of the density, vapor pressure, and compressibility of the solvent, the gas-phase second virial coefficient of the pure solute, the solubility and partial molecular volume of the solute, and earlier estimates of the solutes' molecular radii. For all 15 solutes, the calculations are done for 298.15 K, whereas for CH4, C2H6, and C3H8 in particular, they are also done as functions of temperature over the full range 278.15-348.15 K. The calculated osmotic virial coefficients are compared with earlier calculations of these coefficients for these solutes and also with the results derived from earlier computer simulations of model aqueous solutions of methane. They are also compared with the experimental gas-phase second virial coefficients of the pure gaseous solutes to determine the effect the mediation of the solvent has on the resulting solute-solute interactions in the solution.

  16. Adhesion-induced phase behavior of two-component membranes and vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhiparkouhi, Tahereh; Weikl, Thomas R; Discher, Dennis E; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2013-01-22

    The interplay of adhesion and phase separation is studied theoretically for two-component membranes that can phase separate into two fluid phases such as liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases. Many adhesion geometries provide two different environments for these membranes and then partition the membranes into two segments that differ in their composition. Examples are provided by adhering vesicles, by hole- or pore-spanning membranes, and by membranes supported by chemically patterned surfaces. Generalizing a lattice model for binary mixtures to these adhesion geometries, we show that the phase behavior of the adhering membranes depends, apart from composition and temperature, on two additional parameters, the area fraction of one membrane segment and the affinity contrast between the two segments. For the generic case of non-vanishing affinity contrast, the adhering membranes undergo two distinct phase transitions and the phase diagrams in the composition/temperature plane have a generic topology that consists of two two-phase coexistence regions separated by an intermediate one-phase region. As a consequence, phase separation and domain formation is predicted to occur separately in each of the two membrane segments but not in both segments simultaneously. Furthermore, adhesion is also predicted to suppress the phase separation process for certain regions of the phase diagrams. These generic features of the adhesion-induced phase behavior are accessible to experiment.

  17. ACOUSTIC WAVES EMISSION IN THE TWO-COMPONENT HEREDITARY-ELASTIC MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Polenov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. On the dynamics of two-component media a number of papers, which address the elastic waves in a homogeneous, unbounded fluid-saturated porous medium. In other studies address issues of dissipative processes in harmonic deformation hereditary elastic medium. In the article the dissipative processes of the viscoelastic porous medium, which hereditary properties are described by the core relaxation fractional exponential function U.N. Rabotnova integro-differential Boltzmann-Volterr ratio, harmonic deformation by the straining saturated incompressible liquid are investigated. Speed of wave propagation, absorption coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, logarithmic decrement, depending on fractional parameter γ, determining formulas received. The frequency logarithm and temperature graph dependences with the goal fractional parameter are constructed. Shows the dependences velocity and attenuation coefficient of the tangent of the phase angle of the logarithm of the temperature, and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient of the logarithm of the frequency. Dependencies the speed and the tangent of the phase angle of the frequency identical function of the logarithm of temperature.

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of two-component drop growth by stochastic coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, L.; Raga, G. B.; Baumgardner, D.

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of two-dimensional drop distributions is simulated in this study using a Monte Carlo method. The stochastic algorithm of Gillespie (1976) for chemical reactions in the formulation proposed by Laurenzi et al. (2002) was used to simulate the kinetic behavior of the drop population. Within this framework, species are defined as droplets of specific size and aerosol composition. The performance of the algorithm was checked by a comparison with the analytical solutions found by Lushnikov (1975) and Golovin (1963) and with finite difference solutions of the two-component kinetic collection equation obtained for the Golovin (sum) and hydrodynamic kernels. Very good agreement was observed between the Monte Carlo simulations and the analytical and numerical solutions. A simulation for realistic initial conditions is presented for the hydrodynamic kernel. As expected, the aerosol mass is shifted from small to large particles due to collection process. This algorithm could be extended to incorporate various properties of clouds such several crystals habits, different types of soluble CCN, particle charging and drop breakup.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of two-component drop growth by stochastic coalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfonso

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of two-dimensional drop distributions is simulated in this study using a Monte Carlo method. The stochastic algorithm of Gillespie (1976 for chemical reactions in the formulation proposed by Laurenzi et al. (2002 was used to simulate the kinetic behavior of the drop population. Within this framework, species are defined as droplets of specific size and aerosol composition. The performance of the algorithm was checked by a comparison with the analytical solutions found by Lushnikov (1975 and Golovin (1963 and with finite difference solutions of the two-component kinetic collection equation obtained for the Golovin (sum and hydrodynamic kernels. Very good agreement was observed between the Monte Carlo simulations and the analytical and numerical solutions. A simulation for realistic initial conditions is presented for the hydrodynamic kernel. As expected, the aerosol mass is shifted from small to large particles due to collection process. This algorithm could be extended to incorporate various properties of clouds such several crystals habits, different types of soluble CCN, particle charging and drop breakup.

  20. Photonic band-gap properties for two-component slow light

    CERN Document Server

    Ruseckas, J; Juzeliunas, G; Unanyan, R G; Otterbach, J; Fleischhauer, M

    2011-01-01

    We consider two-component "spinor" slow light in an ensemble of atoms coherently driven by two pairs of counterpropagating control laser fields in a double tripod-type linkage scheme. We derive an equation of motion for the spinor slow light (SSL) representing an effective Dirac equation for a massive particle with the mass determined by the two-photon detuning. By changing the detuning the atomic medium acts as a photonic crystal with a controllable band gap. If the frequency of the incident probe light lies within the band gap, the light tunnels through the sample. For frequencies outside the band gap, the transmission probability oscillates with increasing length of the sample. In both cases the reflection takes place into the complementary mode of the probe field. We investigate the influence of the finite excited state lifetime on the transmission and reflection coefficients of the probe light. We discuss possible experimental implementations of the SSL using alkali atoms such as Rubidium or Sodium.

  1. A feasibility study of using two-component polyurethane adhesive in constructing wooden structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Derikvand; Ghanbar Ebrahimi; Mehdi Tajvidi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a two-component polyurethane (PUR) adhesive, with special waterproof properties, in constructing wooden structures. We designed and conducted tests to compare the shear strength and adhesion per-formance of PUR with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesive on block-shear specimens constructed of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), fir (Abies alba Mill.), poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), sycamore (Platanus orientalis L.) and white walnut (Juglans cinerea L.). The values of the percentage of wood failure were also determined in specimens constructed with each adhesive. The highest shear strength values of both adhesives were obtained in specimens constructed of beech, while the lowest shear strength values were obtained in fir and poplar specimens. Average shear strength of the PUR adhesive was 16.5%higher than that of the PVAc adhesive. Specimens constructed of fir, poplar and sycamore were characterised by the highest percentages of wood failure, whereas the lowest average percentages of wood failure were obtained in beech and oak specimens. With the exception of oak specimens, there was no statistically significant difference between per-centage of wood failure among the PUR and PVAc adhesives. Generally, the PUR adhesive showed an acceptable adhesion performance on wood materials used in our study.

  2. Rotational properties of two-component Bose gases in the lowest Landau level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marius; Sreejith, Ganesh Jaya; Viefers, Susanne

    2015-03-01

    We study the rotational (yrast) spectra of dilute two-component atomic Bose gases in the low angular momentum regime, assuming equal interspecies and intraspecies interaction. Our analysis employs the composite fermion (CF) approach including a pseudospin degree of freedom. While the CF approach is not a priori expected to work well in this angular momentum regime, we show that composite fermion diagonalization gives remarkably accurate approximations to low energy states in the spectra. For angular momenta 0 = N), we find that the CF states span the full Hilbert space and provide a convenient set of basis states which, by construction, are eigenstates of the symmetries of the Hamiltonian. Within this CF basis, we identify a subset of the basis states with the lowest Λ-level kinetic energy. Diagonalization within this significally smaller subspace constitutes a major computational simplification and provides very close approximations to ground states and a number of low-lying states within each pseudospin and angular momentum channel. This work was financially supported by the Research Council of Norway and by NORDITA.

  3. Distribution, structure and diversity of “bacterial” genes encoding two-component proteins in the Euryarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark K. Ashby

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The publicly available annotated archaeal genome sequences (23 complete and three partial annotations, October 2005 were searched for the presence of potential two-component open reading frames (ORFs using gene category lists and BLASTP. A total of 489 potential two-component genes were identified from the gene category lists and BLASTP. Two-component genes were found in 14 of the 21 Euryarchaeal sequences (October 2005 and in neither the Crenarchaeota nor the Nanoarchaeota. A total of 20 predicted protein domains were identified in the putative two-component ORFs that, in addition to the histidine kinase and receiver domains, also includes sensor and signalling domains. The detailed structure of these putative proteins is shown, as is the distribution of each class of two-component genes in each species. Potential members of orthologous groups have been identified, as have any potential operons containing two or more two-component genes. The number of two-component genes in those Euryarchaeal species which have them seems to be linked more to lifestyle and habitat than to genome complexity, with most examples being found in Methanospirillum hungatei, Haloarcula marismortui, Methanococcoides burtonii and the mesophilic Methanosarcinales group. The large numbers of two-component genes in these species may reflect a greater requirement for internal regulation. Phylogenetic analysis of orthologous groups of five different protein classes, three probably involved in regulating taxis, suggests that most of these ORFs have been inherited vertically from an ancestral Euryarchaeal species and point to a limited number of key horizontal gene transfer events.

  4. Effects of external magnetic trap on two dark solitons of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Li; D. N. Wang

    2008-01-01

    Two dark solitons are considered in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with an external magnetic trap, and effects of the trap potential on their dynamics are investigated by the numerical simulation. The results show that the dark solitons attract, collide and repel periodically in two components as time changes, the time period depends strictly on the initial condition and the potential, and there are obvious self-trapping effects on the two dark solitons.

  5. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar; Grunwald, Ingo

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  6. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials - IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Grunwald, Ingo, E-mail: ingo.grunwald@ifam.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials - IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  7. Structural dynamics of the two-component response regulator RstA in recognition of promoter DNA element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chuan; Chang, Chung-ke; Chang, Chi-Fon; Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Fang, Pei-Ju; Yu, Tsunai; Chen, Sheng-Chia; Li, Yi-Ching; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Huang, Tai-huang

    2014-01-01

    The RstA/RstB system is a bacterial two-component regulatory system consisting of the membrane sensor, RstB and its cognate response regulator (RR) RstA. The RstA of Klebsiella pneumoniae (kpRstA) consists of an N-terminal receiver domain (RD, residues 1–119) and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD, residues 130–236). Phosphorylation of kpRstA induces dimerization, which allows two kpRstA DBDs to bind to a tandem repeat, called the RstA box, and regulate the expression of downstream genes. Here we report the solution and crystal structures of the free kpRstA RD, DBD and DBD/RstA box DNA complex. The structure of the kpRstA DBD/RstA box complex suggests that the two protomers interact with the RstA box in an asymmetric fashion. Equilibrium binding studies further reveal that the two protomers within the kpRstA dimer bind to the RstA box in a sequential manner. Taken together, our results suggest a binding model where dimerization of the kpRstA RDs provides the platform to allow the first kpRstA DBD protomer to anchor protein–DNA interaction, whereas the second protomer plays a key role in ensuring correct recognition of the RstA box. PMID:24990372

  8. A two-component generalization of the reduced Ostrovsky equation and its integrable semi-discrete analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, we propose a two-component generalization of the reduced Ostrovsky (Vakhnenko) equation, whose differential form can be viewed as the short-wave limit of a two-component Degasperis-Procesi (DP) equation. They are integrable due to the existence of Lax pairs. Moreover, we have shown that the two-component reduced Ostrovsky equation can be reduced from an extended BKP hierarchy with negative flow through a pseudo 3-reduction and a hodograph (reciprocal) transform. As a by-product, its bilinear form and N-soliton solution in terms of pfaffians are presented. One- and two-soliton solutions are provided and analyzed. In the second part of the paper, we start with a modified BKP hierarchy, which is a Bäcklund transformation of the above extended BKP hierarchy, an integrable semi-discrete analogue of the two-component reduced Ostrovsky equation is constructed by defining an appropriate discrete hodograph transform and dependent variable transformations. In particular, the backward difference form of above semi-discrete two-component reduced Ostrovsky equation gives rise to the integrable semi-discretization of the short wave limit of a two-component DP equation. Their N-soliton solutions in terms of pffafians are also provided.

  9. Large-scale Models Reveal the Two-component Mechanics of Striated Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jarosch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive explanation of striated muscle mechanics and contraction on the basis of filament rotations. Helical proteins, particularly the coiled-coils of tropomyosin, myosin and α-actinin, shorten their H-bonds cooperatively and produce torque and filament rotations when the Coulombic net-charge repulsion of their highly charged side-chains is diminished by interaction with ions. The classical “two-component model” of active muscle differentiated a “contractile component” which stretches the “series elastic component” during force production. The contractile components are the helically shaped thin filaments of muscle that shorten the sarcomeres by clockwise drilling into the myosin cross-bridges with torque decrease (= force-deficit. Muscle stretch means drawing out the thin filament helices off the cross-bridges under passive counterclockwise rotation with torque increase (= stretch activation. Since each thin filament is anchored by four elastic α-actinin Z-filaments (provided with forceregulating sites for Ca2+ binding, the thin filament rotations change the torsional twist of the four Z-filaments as the “series elastic components”. Large scale models simulate the changes of structure and force in the Z-band by the different Z-filament twisting stages A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Stage D corresponds to the isometric state. The basic phenomena of muscle physiology, i. e. latency relaxation, Fenn-effect, the force-velocity relation, the length-tension relation, unexplained energy, shortening heat, the Huxley-Simmons phases, etc. are explained and interpreted with the help of the model experiments.

  10. Perturbative treatment of spin-orbit coupling within spin-free exact two-component theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lan, E-mail: chenglanster@gmail.com [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Gauss, Jürgen, E-mail: gauss@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-10-28

    This work deals with the perturbative treatment of spin-orbit-coupling (SOC) effects within the spin-free exact two-component theory in its one-electron variant (SFX2C-1e). We investigate two schemes for constructing the SFX2C-1e SOC matrix: the SFX2C-1e+SOC [der] scheme defines the SOC matrix elements based on SFX2C-1e analytic-derivative theory, hereby treating the SOC integrals as the perturbation; the SFX2C-1e+SOC [fd] scheme takes the difference between the X2C-1e and SFX2C-1e Hamiltonian matrices as the SOC perturbation. Furthermore, a mean-field approach in the SFX2C-1e framework is formulated and implemented to efficiently include two-electron SOC effects. Systematic approximations to the two-electron SOC integrals are also proposed and carefully assessed. Based on benchmark calculations of the second-order SOC corrections to the energies and electrical properties for a set of diatomic molecules, we show that the SFX2C-1e+SOC [der] scheme performs very well in the computation of perturbative SOC corrections and that the “2eSL” scheme, which neglects the (SS|SS)-type two-electron SOC integrals, is both efficient and accurate. In contrast, the SFX2C-1e+SOC [fd] scheme turns out to be incompatible with a perturbative treatment of SOC effects. Finally, as a first chemical application, we report high-accuracy calculations of the {sup 201}Hg quadrupole-coupling parameters of the recently characterized ethylmercury hydride (HHgCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}) molecule based on SFX2C-1e coupled-cluster calculations augmented with second-order SOC corrections obtained at the Hartree-Fock level using the SFX2C-1e+SOC [der]/2eSL scheme.

  11. Two-component relativistic density-functional calculations of the dimers of the halogens from bromine through element 117 using effective core potential and all-electron methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitin, Alexander V; van Wüllen, Christoph

    2006-02-14

    A two-component quasirelativistic Hamiltonian based on spin-dependent effective core potentials is used to calculate ionization energies and electron affinities of the heavy halogen atom bromine through the superheavy element 117 (eka-astatine) as well as spectroscopic constants of the homonuclear dimers of these atoms. We describe a two-component Hartree-Fock and density-functional program that treats spin-orbit coupling self-consistently within the orbital optimization procedure. A comparison with results from high-order Douglas-Kroll calculations--for the superheavy systems also with zeroth-order regular approximation and four-component Dirac results--demonstrates the validity of the pseudopotential approximation. The density-functional (but not the Hartree-Fock) results show very satisfactory agreement with theoretical coupled cluster as well as experimental data where available, such that the theoretical results can serve as an estimate for the hitherto unknown properties of astatine, element 117, and their dimers.

  12. Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for relativistic two-component Hamiltonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Repisky, Michal; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-07-07

    We present a formulation of Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies for two-component Hamiltonians in the Kramers-restricted formalism. This low-order scaling technique can be used to enable correlated relativistic calculations for large molecular systems. We show that the working equations to compute the relativistic MP2 energy differ by merely a change of algebra (quaternion instead of real) from their non-relativistic counterparts. With a proof-of-principle implementation we study the effect of the nuclear charge on the magnitude of half-transformed integrals and show that for light elements spin-free and spin-orbit MP2 energies are almost identical. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of separation of charge distributions on the Coulomb and exchange energy contributions, which show the same long-range decay with the inter-electronic/atomic distance as for non-relativistic MP2. A linearly scaling implementation is possible if the proper distance behavior is introduced to the quaternion Schwarz-type estimates as for non-relativistic MP2.

  13. MECHANICAL RELAXATION TIME OF A TWO-COMPONENT EPOXY NETWORK-LiClO4 POLYMER ELECTROLYTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xinsheng; WU Shuyun; CHEN Donglin

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical relaxation time of a two-component epoxy network-LiClO4 system as a polymer electrolyte was investigated.The network is composed of diglycidyl ether of polyethylene glycol (DGEPEG) and triglycidyl ether of glycerol (TGEG),wherein LiClO4 was incorporated and acts as both the ionic carrier and the curing catalyst.As the relaxation time is informative to the segmental mobility,which is known to be essential for ionic conductivity,the average relaxation times of the specimens were determined through master curve construction.Experimental results showed that the salt concentration,molecular weight of PEG in DGEPEG and DGEPEG/TGEG ratio have profound effect on the relaxation time of the specimen.Among these factors,the former reinforces the network hains,leading to lengthen the relaxation time,whereas the latter two are in favour of the chain flexibility and show an opposite effect.The findings was rationalized in terms of the free volume concept.

  14. Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based M{\\o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory for relativistic two-component Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    We present a formulation of Laplace-transformed atomic orbital-based second-order M{\\o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) energies for two-component Hamiltonians in the Kramers-restricted formalism. This low-order scaling technique can be used to enable correlated relativistic calculations for large molecular systems. We show that the working equations to compute the relativistic MP2 energy differ by merely a change of algebra (quaternion instead of real) from their non-relativistic counterparts. With a proof-of-principle implementation we study the effect of the nuclear charge on the magnitude of half-transformed integrals and show that for light elements spin-free and spin-orbit MP2 energies are almost identical. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of separation of charge distributions on the Coulomb and exchange energy con- tributions, which show the same long-range decay with the inter-electronic / atomic distance as for non-relativistic MP2. A linearly scaling implementation is possible if the pro...

  15. 454 Transcriptome sequencing suggests a role for two-component signalling in cellularization and differentiation of barley endosperm transfer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Thiel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell specification and differentiation in the endosperm of cereals starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the endosperm transfer cells (ETCs. Besides the importance in assimilate transfer, ETCs are proposed to play an essential role in the regulation of endosperm differentiation by affecting development of proximate endosperm tissues. We attempted to identify signalling elements involved in early endosperm differentiation by using a combination of laser-assisted microdissection and 454 transcriptome sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 454 sequencing of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial state until functionality in transfer processes captured a high proportion of novel transcripts which are not available in existing barley EST databases. Intriguingly, the ETC-transcriptome showed a high abundance of elements of the two-component signalling (TCS system suggesting an outstanding role in ETC differentiation. All components and subfamilies of the TCS, including distinct kinds of membrane-bound receptors, have been identified to be expressed in ETCs. The TCS system represents an ancient signal transduction system firstly discovered in bacteria and has previously been shown to be co-opted by eukaryotes, like fungi and plants, whereas in animals and humans this signalling route does not exist. Transcript profiling of TCS elements by qRT-PCR suggested pivotal roles for specific phosphorelays activated in a coordinated time flow during ETC cellularization and differentiation. ETC-specificity of transcriptionally activated TCS phosphorelays was assessed for early differentiation and cellularization contrasting to an extension of expression to other grain tissues at the beginning of ETC maturation. Features of candidate genes of distinct phosphorelays and transcriptional activation of genes putatively implicated in hormone signalling pathways hint at a crosstalk of hormonal influences, putatively ABA and ethylene, and

  16. A Principle of Corresponding States for Two-Component, Self-Gravitating Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrogases are defined as two-component,large-scale celestial objects where the subsystems interact only via gravitation.The macrogas equation of state is formulated and compared to the van der Waals (VDWequation of state for ordinary gases.By analogy, it is assumed that real macroisothermal curves in macrogases occur as real isothermal curves in ordinary gases, where a phase transition(vapour-liquid observed in ordinary gases and gas-stars assumed in macrogases takesplace along a horizontal linein the macrovolume-macropressure{small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane.The intersections between real and theoretical(deduced from the equation of state macro isothermalcurves, make two regions of equal surface as for ordinary gases obeying the VDW equation of state.A numerical algorithm is developed for determining the following points of a selected theoretical macroisothermal curve on the {small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane:the three intersections with the related real macroisothermal curve,and the two extremum points (one maximum and one minimum. Different kinds of macrogases are studied in detail: UU, where U density profiles are flat, to be conceived as a simple guidance case; HH, where H density profiles obey the Hernquist (1990 law, which satisfactorily fits the observed spheroidal components of galaxies; HN/NH, where N density profiles obey the Navarro-Frenk-White (1995,1996, 1997 law, which satisfactorily fits the simulated nonbaryonic dark matter haloes.A different trend is shown by theoretical macroisothermal curves on the{small $({sf O}sX_mathrm{V}sX_mathrm{p}$} plane,according to whether density profiles are sufficiently mild (UU or sufficiently steep (HH, HN/NH.In the former alternative, no critical macroisothermal curve exists, below or above which the trend is monotonous. In the latter alternative, a critical macroisothermal curve exists, as shown by VDW gases, where the critical point may be defined as the horizontal

  17. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two-component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bondo, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Two-component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for combining different material properties in a single plastic product. It is also one of most industrially adaptive process chain for manufacturing so-called moulded interconnect devices (MID...

  18. Bose-Einstein condensation in a two-component Bose gas with harmonic oscillator interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulseoud, A. A.; Abbas, A. H.; Galal, A. A.; El-Sherbini, Th M.

    2016-07-01

    In this article a system containing two species of identical bosons interacting via a harmonic oscillator potential is considered. It is assumed that the number of bosons of each species is the same and that bosons belonging to the same species repel each other while those belonging to different species attract. The Hamiltonian is diagonalized and the energy spectrum of the system is written down. The behaviour of the system in the thermodynamic limit is studied within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, and thermodynamic parameters, such as the internal energy, entropy and specific heat capacity are calculated. It is shown that the system exhibits a single species Bose-Einstein condensation when the coupling strengths are equal and a dual species condensation when they are different.

  19. Exact periodic wave and soliton solutions in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua-Mei

    2007-01-01

    We present several families of exact solutions to a system of coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations. The model describes a binary mixture of two Bose-Einstein condensates in a magnetic trap potential. Using a mapping deformation method, we find exact periodic wave and soliton solutions, including bright and dark soliton pairs.

  20. A high-resolution study of surfactant partitioning and kinetic limitations for two-component internally mixed aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, S. R.; Petters, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), altering cloud properties and ultimately affecting climate through their effect on the radiative balance. Aerosol CCN activity depends in part on aerosol composition and surfactant compounds are of particular interest because surfactants are enriched at the water/air interface, resulting in a radial concentration gradient within the aqueous droplet. Accurate treatment of the surfactant concentration gradient complicates the otherwise straightforward predictions of CCN activity for aerosols of known composition. To accurately evaluate predictions made by theory, laboratory studies investigating the relationship between critical supersaturation and dry diameter of particles that include surfactants require significant reduction in measurement uncertainty for both water-uptake and CCN measurements. Furthermore, uncertainties remain regarding kinetic limitations to surfactant partitioning that could result in deviation from predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. This study attempts to address some of these issues through high-resolution analysis of CCN activity of two-component mixed surfactant/non-surfactant aerosols at different internal mixing ratios performed with and without a water-uptake time delay to ascertain whether or not the observed effects are kinetically limited. We present new data for the aerosols consisting of 1) the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with ammonium sulfate, 2) SDS with sodium chloride and 3) the strong non-ionic fluorosurfactant Zonyl with an organic proxy glucose. As a point of reference we also evaluated the mixture of ammonium sulfate with glucose. Aerosol activation diameters were determined using CCN analysis in conjunction with scanning mobility size classification and high sheath-to-aerosol flow ratios. This resulted in CCN-derived kappa values that could be determined within +/-5% relative error. To test whether dynamic surfactant partitioning

  1. VISCOELASTICITY AND IONIC CONDUCTIVITY OF TWO-COMPONENT EPOXY NETWORK CONTAINING LITHIUM PERCHLORATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xinsheng; BA Hengfei; QIAO Ziwen; CHEN Donglin; WANG Fosong

    1991-01-01

    Polymeric solid electrolyte system composed of triglycidyl ether of glycerol (TGEG), diglycidyl ether of polyethylene glycol (DGEPEG)and LiClO4 salt were synthesized. In this system the electrolyte has a pecularity that not merely can the LiClO4 provide ionic carriers, but also catalyze the crosslinking reaction without adding an usual curing agent. The effect of salt content and degree of crosslinking on the viscoelasticity and ionic conductivity were studied. Both WLF and VTF equations were used to treat the experimental data in order to elucidate the mechanism of ionic conduction. It was found that the ionic conductivity of the system is carried out through the segmental motion mechanism. However, the data must be treated with care. For example, in evaluating WLF parameters, the contribution concerned with ionic carrier generation with temperature to the conductivity must be differentiated from that concerned with segmental motion. Besides, the temperature range suitable to WLF equation must also be considered. For VTF equation, it might be inapplicable if the temperature is too low and close to the glass transition temperature of the specimen. Further study is needed in order to have a quantitative information on the limitation of these equations.

  2. Spatially resolved imaging of the two-component eta Crv debris disk with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Duchene, G; Wyatt, M; Kennedy, G; Sibthorpe, B; Lisse, C; Holland, W; Wisniewski, J; Clampin, M; Kalas, P; Pinte, C; Wilner, D; Booth, M; Horner, J; Matthews, B; Greaves, J

    2014-01-01

    We present far-infrared and sub-millimeter images of the eta Crv debris disk system obtained with Herschel and SCUBA-2, as well as Hubble Space Telescope visible and near-infrared coronagraphic images. In the 70 micron Herschel image, we clearly separate the thermal emission from the warm and cold belts in the system, find no evidence for a putative dust population located between them, and precisely determine the geometry of the outer belt. We also find marginal evidence for azimuthal asymmetries and a global offset of the outer debris ring relative to the central star. Finally, we place stringent upper limits on the scattered light surface brightness of the outer ring. Using radiative transfer modeling, we find that it is impossible to account for all observed properties of the system under the assumption that both rings contain dust populations with the same properties. While the outer belt is in reasonable agreement with the expectations of steady-state collisional cascade models, albeit with a minimum gr...

  3. Spatially resolved imaging of the two-component η Crv debris disk with Herschel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchêne, G.; Arriaga, P.; Kalas, P. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wyatt, M.; Kennedy, G. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sibthorpe, B. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Lisse, C. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Holland, W. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Wisniewski, J. [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Clampin, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 681, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pinte, C. [UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, France (UMI 3386) (France); Wilner, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Booth, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Horner, J. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Matthews, B. [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Greaves, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    We present far-infrared and submillimeter images of the η Crv debris disk system obtained with Herschel and SCUBA-2, as well as Hubble Space Telescope visible and near-infrared coronagraphic images. In the 70 μm Herschel image, we clearly separate the thermal emission from the warm and cold belts in the system, find no evidence for a putative dust population located between them, and precisely determine the geometry of the outer belt. We also find marginal evidence for azimuthal asymmetries and a global offset of the outer debris ring relative to the central star. Finally, we place stringent upper limits on the scattered light surface brightness of the outer ring. Using radiative transfer modeling, we find that it is impossible to account for all observed properties of the system under the assumption that both rings contain dust populations with the same properties. While the outer belt is in reasonable agreement with the expectations of steady-state collisional cascade models, albeit with a minimum grain size that is four times larger than the blow-out size, the inner belt appears to contain copious amounts of small dust grains, possibly below the blow-out size. This suggests that the inner belt cannot result from a simple transport of grains from the outer belt and rather supports a more violent phenomenon as its origin. We also find that the emission from the inner belt has not declined over three decades, a much longer timescale than its dynamical timescale, which indicates that the belt is efficiently replenished.

  4. The implicit contribution of slab modes to the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of particles interacting with two-component turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Shalchi, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We explore the transport of energetic particles in two-component turbulence in which the stochastic magnetic field is assumed to be a superposition of slab and two-dimensional modes. It is known that in magnetostatic slab turbulence, the motion of particles across the mean magnetic field is subdiffusive. If a two-dimensional component is added, diffusion is recovered. It was also shown before that in two-component turbulence, the slab modes do not explicitly contribute to the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. In the current paper the implicit contribution of slab modes is explored and it is shown that this contribution leads to a reduction of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. This effect improves the agreement between simulations and analytical theory. Furthermore, the obtained results are relevant for investigations of diffusive shock acceleration.

  5. Localization of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate in a two-dimensional bichromatic optical lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Kui-Tian, E-mail: kuitianxi@gmail.com; Li, Jinbin, E-mail: jinbin@nuaa.edu.cn; Shi, Da-Ning, E-mail: shi@nuaa.edu.cn

    2014-03-01

    We consider a weakly interacting two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) in a two-dimensional (2D) quasi-periodic bichromatic optical lattice (BOL). The problem is studied by means of split-step Crank–Nicolson method. The effects of weak intra- and inter-component interactions on localization of a two-component BEC are investigated. It is shown that in the quasi-2D regime, due to the enhanced disorder, there is no symmetry breaking like that in the one-dimensional (1D) case under a sine-typed potential, while configurations of density profiles are also quite different from that in the 1D case. By modulating interactions, the interplay of disorder and weak repulsive or attractive interactions is studied in detail. The cases with sine- and cosine-typed potentials acting on components 1 and 2 respectively are also discussed.

  6. Unstaggered-staggered solitons in two-component discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Malomed, Boris A; Van Gorder, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    We present stable bright solitons built of coupled unstaggered and staggered components in a symmetric system of two discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger (DNLS) equations with the attractive self-phase-modulation (SPM) nonlinearity, coupled by the repulsive cross-phase-modulation (XPM) interaction. These mixed modes are of a "symbiotic" type, as each component in isolation may only carry ordinary unstaggered solitons. The results are obtained in an analytical form, using the variational and Thomas-Fermi approximations (VA and TFA), and the generalized Vakhitov-Kolokolov (VK) criterion for the evaluation of the stability. The analytical predictions are verified against numerical results. Almost all the symbiotic solitons are predicted by the VA quite accurately, and are stable. Close to a boundary of the existence region of the solitons (which may feature several connected branches), there are broad solitons which are not well approximated by the VA, and are unstable.

  7. A comparative experimental evaluation of uncertainty estimation methods for two-component PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Troolin, Dan; Pothos, Stamatios; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty quantification in planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement is critical for proper assessment of the quality and significance of reported results. New uncertainty estimation methods have been recently introduced generating interest about their applicability and utility. The present study compares and contrasts current methods, across two separate experiments and three software packages in order to provide a diversified assessment of the methods. We evaluated the performance of four uncertainty estimation methods, primary peak ratio (PPR), mutual information (MI), image matching (IM) and correlation statistics (CS). The PPR method was implemented and tested in two processing codes, using in-house open source PIV processing software (PRANA, Purdue University) and Insight4G (TSI, Inc.). The MI method was evaluated in PRANA, as was the IM method. The CS method was evaluated using DaVis (LaVision, GmbH). Utilizing two PIV systems for high and low-resolution measurements and a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, data were acquired in a total of three cases: a jet flow and a cylinder in cross flow at two Reynolds numbers. LDV measurements were used to establish a point validation against which the high-resolution PIV measurements were validated. Subsequently, the high-resolution PIV measurements were used as a reference against which the low-resolution PIV data were assessed for error and uncertainty. We compared error and uncertainty distributions, spatially varying RMS error and RMS uncertainty, and standard uncertainty coverages. We observed that qualitatively, each method responded to spatially varying error (i.e. higher error regions resulted in higher uncertainty predictions in that region). However, the PPR and MI methods demonstrated reduced uncertainty dynamic range response. In contrast, the IM and CS methods showed better response, but under-predicted the uncertainty ranges. The standard coverages (68% confidence interval) ranged from

  8. Five new Fast Radio Bursts from the HTRU high latitude survey: first evidence for two-component bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Champion, D J; Kramer, M; Keith, M J; Bailes, M; Barr, E D; Bates, S D; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Flynn, C M L; Jameson, A; Johnston, S; Ng, C; Levin, L; Possenti, A; Stappers, B W; van Straten, W; Tiburzi, C; Lyne, A G

    2015-01-01

    The detection of five new fast radio bursts (FRBs) found in the High Time Resolution Universe high latitude survey is presented. The rate implied is 6$^{+4}_{-3}\\times~10^3$ (95%) FRBs sky$^{-1}$ day$^{-1}$ above a fluence of between 0.13 and 5.9 Jy ms for FRBs between 0.128 and 262 ms in duration. One of these FRBs has a clear two-component profile, each component is similar to the known population of single component FRBs and are separated by 2.4(4) ms. All the FRB components appear to be unresolved following deconvolution with a scattering tail and accounting for intra-channel smearing. The two-component FRB also has the highest dispersion measure (1629 pc cm$^{-3}$) of any FRB to-date. Many of the proposed models to explain FRBs use a single high energy event involving compact objects (such as neutron star mergers) and therefore cannot easily explain a two-component FRB. Models that are based on extreme versions of flaring, pulsing or orbital events however could produce multiple component profiles. The c...

  9. Localization of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional random potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Kui-Tian; Li, Jinbin, E-mail: jinbin@nuaa.edu.cn; Shi, Da-Ning, E-mail: shi@nuaa.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    We consider a weakly interacting two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) in a one-dimensional random speckle potential. The problem is studied with solutions of Gross–Pitaevskii (GP) equations by means of numerical method in Crank–Nicolson scheme. Properties of various cases owing to the competition of disorder and repulsive interactions of a cigar-shaped two-component BEC are discussed in detail. It is shown that in the central region, phase separation of a two-component BEC is not only affected by the intra- and inter-component interactions, but also influenced by the strength of the random speckle potential. Due to the strong disorder of the potential, the criterion of phase separation which is independent of the trap strength in an ordered potential, such as a harmonic potential, is no longer available. The influence of different random numbers generated by distinct processes on localization of BEC in the random potential is also investigated, as well as the configurations of the density profiles in the tail regions.

  10. Temporal variability from the two-component advective flow solution and its observational evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Broja G

    2016-01-01

    In the propagating oscillatory shock model, the oscillation of the post-shock region, i.e., the Compton cloud, causes the observed low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). The evolution of QPO frequency is explained by the systematic variation of the Compton cloud size, i.e., the steady radial movement of the shock front, which is triggered by the cooling of the post-shock region. Thus, analysis of energy-dependent temporal properties in different variability time scales can diagnose the dynamics and geometry of accretion flows around black holes. We study these properties for the high inclination black hole source XTE J1550-564 during its 1998 outburst and the low-inclination black hole source GX 339-4 during its 2006-07 outburst using RXTE/PCA data, and we find that they can satisfactorily explain the time lags associated with the QPOs from these systems. We find a smooth decrease of the time lag as a function of time in the rising phase of both sources. In the declining phase the time lag increase...

  11. Phase equilibria in DOPC/DPPC: Conversion from gel to subgel in two component mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Miranda L; Ziani, Latifa; Boudreau, Michelle; Davis, James H

    2009-11-07

    Biological membranes contain a mixture of phospholipids with varying degrees of hydrocarbon chain unsaturation. Mixtures of long chain saturated and unsaturated lipids with cholesterol have attracted a lot of attention because of the formation of two coexisting fluid bilayer phases in such systems over a broad range of temperature and composition. Interpretation of the phase behavior of such ternary mixtures must be based on a thorough understanding of the phase behavior of the binary mixtures formed with the same components. This article describes the phase behavior of mixtures of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) with 1,2-di-d(31)-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) between -20 and 50 degrees C. Particular attention has been paid to the phase coexistence below about 16 degrees C where the subgel phase appears. The changes in the shape of the spectrum (and its spectral moments) during the slow transformation process leads to the conclusion that below 16 degrees C the gel phase is metastable and the gel component of the two-phase mixture slowly transforms to the subgel phase with a slightly different composition. This results in a line of three-phase coexistence near 16 degrees C. Analysis of the transformation of the metastable gel domains into the subgel phase using the nucleation and growth model shows that the subgel domain growth is a two dimensional process.

  12. Biomimetic Nanofibrillation in Two-Component Biopolymer Blends with Structural Analogs to Spider Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Li, Liang-Bin; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Despite the enormous potential in bioinspired fabrication of high-strength structure by mimicking the spinning process of spider silk, currently accessible routes (e.g., microfluidic and electrospinning approaches) still have substantial function gaps in providing precision control over the nanofibrillar superstructure, crystalline morphology or molecular orientation. Here the concept of biomimetic nanofibrillation, by copying the spiders’ spinning principles, was conceived to build silk-mimicking hierarchies in two-phase biodegradable blends, strategically involving the stepwise integration of elongational shear and high-pressure shear. Phase separation confined on nanoscale, together with deformation of discrete phases and pre-alignment of polymer chains, was triggered in the elongational shear, conferring the readiness for direct nanofibrillation in the latter shearing stage. The orderly aligned nanofibrils, featuring an ultralow diameter of around 100 nm and the “rigid-soft” system crosslinked by nanocrystal domains like silk protein dopes, were secreted by fine nanochannels. The incorporation of multiscale silk-mimicking structures afforded exceptional combination of strength, ductility and toughness for the nanofibrillar polymer composites. The proposed spider spinning-mimicking strategy, offering the biomimetic function integration unattainable with current approaches, may prompt materials scientists to pursue biopolymer mimics of silk with high performance yet light weight.

  13. A two-component monooxygenase catalyzes both the hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol and the oxidative release of nitrite from 4-nitrocatechol in Bacillus sphaericus JS905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, V; Spain, J C

    1998-07-01

    Bacteria that metabolize p-nitrophenol (PNP) oxidize the substrate to 3-ketoadipic acid via either hydroquinone or 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (THB); however, initial steps in the pathway for PNP biodegradation via THB are unclear. The product of initial hydroxylation of PNP could be either 4-nitrocatechol or 4-nitroresorcinol. Here we describe the complete pathway for aerobic PNP degradation by Bacillus sphaericus JS905 that was isolated by selective enrichment from an agricultural soil in India. Washed cells of PNP-grown JS905 released nitrite in stoichiometric amounts from PNP and 4-nitrocatechol. Experiments with extracts obtained from PNP-grown cells revealed that the initial reaction is a hydroxylation of PNP to yield 4-nitrocatechol. 4-Nitrocatechol is subsequently oxidized to THB with the concomitant removal of the nitro group as nitrite. The enzyme that catalyzed the two sequential monooxygenations of PNP was partially purified and separated into two components by anion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. Both components were required for NADH-dependent oxidative release of nitrite from PNP or 4-nitrocatechol. One of the components was identified as a reductase based on its ability to catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and nitroblue tetrazolium. Nitrite release from either PNP or 4-nitrocatechol was inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor methimazole. Our results indicate that the two monooxygenations of PNP to THB are catalyzed by a single two-component enzyme system comprising a flavoprotein reductase and an oxygenase.

  14. A two-component monooxygenase catalyzes both the hydroxylation of p-nirophenol and the oxidative release of nitrite from 4-nitrocatechol in Bacillus sphaericus JS905

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadiyala, V.; Spain, J.C. [Air Force Research Lab., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Bacteria that metabolize p-nitrophenol (PNP) oxidize the substrate to 3-ketoadipic acid via either hydroquinone or 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (THB); however, initial steps in the pathway for PNP biodegradation via THB are unclear. The product of initial hydroxylation of PNP could be either 4-nitrocatechol or 4-nitroresorcinol. Here the authors describe the complete pathway for aerobic PNP degradation by Bacillus sphaericus JS905 that was isolated by selective enrichment from an agricultural soil in India. Washed cells of PNP-grown JS905 released nitrite in stoichiometric amounts from PNP and 4-nitrocatechol. Experiments with extracts obtained from PNP-grown cells revealed that the initial reaction is a hydroxylation of PNP to yield 4-nitrocatechol. 4-nitrocatechol is subsequently oxidized to THB with the concomitant removal of the nitro group as nitrite. The enzyme that catalyzed the two sequential monooxygenations of PNP was partially purified and separated into two components by anion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. Both components were required for NADH-dependent oxidative release of nitrite from PNP or 4-nitrocatechol. One of the components was identified as a reductase based on its ability to catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and nitroblue tetrazolium. Nitrite release from either PNP or 4-nitrocatechol was inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor methimazole. Their results indicate that the two monooxygenations of PNP to THB are catalyzed by a single two-component enzyme system comprising a flavoprotein reductase and an oxygenase.

  15. A novel two-component response regulator links rpf with biofilm formation and virulence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Pi Huang

    Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a serious disease that impacts citrus production worldwide, and X. axonopodis pv. citri is listed as a quarantine pest in certain countries. Biofilm formation is important for the successful development of a pathogenic relationship between various bacteria and their host(s. To understand the mechanisms of biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri strain XW19, the strain was subjected to transposon mutagenesis. One mutant with a mutation in a two-component response regulator gene that was deficient in biofilm formation on a polystyrene microplate was selected for further study. The protein was designated as BfdR for biofilm formation defective regulator. BfdR from strain XW19 shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with XAC1284 of X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306 and 30-100% identity with two-component response regulators in various pathogens and environmental microorganisms. The bfdR mutant strain exhibited significantly decreased biofilm formation on the leaf surfaces of Mexican lime compared with the wild type strain. The bfdR mutant was also compromised in its ability to cause canker lesions. The wild-type phenotype was restored by providing pbfdR in trans in the bfdR mutant. Our data indicated that BfdR did not regulate the production of virulence-related extracellular enzymes including amylase, lipase, protease, and lecithinase or the expression of hrpG, rfbC, and katE; however, BfdR controlled the expression of rpfF in XVM2 medium, which mimics cytoplasmic fluids in planta. In conclusion, biofilm formation on leaf surfaces of citrus is important for canker development in X. axonopodis pv. citri XW19. The process is controlled by the two-component response regulator BfdR via regulation of rpfF, which is required for the biosynthesis of a diffusible signal factor.

  16. Raman-shifted eye-safe aerosol lidar (REAL) in 2010: instrument status and two-component wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Shane D.

    2010-10-01

    This paper and corresponding seminar given on 20 September 2010 at the 16th International School for Quantum Electronics in Nesebar, Bulgaria, will describe the key hardware aspects of the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and recent advances in extracting two-component wind vector fields from the images it produces. The REAL is an eye-safe, ground-based, scanning, elastic aerosol backscatter lidar operating at 1.54 microns wavelength. Operation at this wavelength offers several advantages compared to other laser wavelengths including: (1) maximum eye-safety, (2) invisible beam, (3) superior performance photodetectors compared with those used at longer wavelengths, (4) low atmospheric molecular scattering when compared with operation at shorter wavelengths, (5) good aerosol backscattering, (6) atmospheric transparency, and (7) availability of optical and photonic components used in the modern telecommunations industry. A key issue for creating a high-performance direct-detection lidar at 1.5 microns is the use of InGaAs avalanche photodetectors that have active areas of at most 200 microns in diameter. The small active area imposes a maximum limitation on the field-of-view of the receiver (about 0.54 mrad full-angle for REAL). As a result, a key requirement is a transmitter that can produce a pulsed (>10 Hz) beam with low divergence (150 mJ), and short pulse-duration (lidars in that two components of motion can be sensed. (Doppler lidars can sense only the radial component of flow.) Two-component velocity estimation is done by computing two-dimensional cross-correlation functions (CCFs) and noting the displacement of the peak of the CCF with respect to the origin. Motion vectors derived from this method are compared with coincident sonic anemometer measurements at 1.6 km range. Preliminary results indicate the method performs best when the atmosphere is stable with light winds.

  17. Matter-Wave Solitons in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with Tunable Interactions and Time Varying Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣恒农; 左苗

    2011-01-01

    We present three families of exact matter-wave soliton solutions for an effective one-dimension two- component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with tunable interactions, harmonic potential and gain or loss term. We investigate the dynamics of bright-bright solitons, bright-dark solitons and dark-dark solitons for the time-dependent expulsive harmonic trap potential, periodically modulated harmonic trap potential, and kinklike modulated harmonic trap potential. Through the Feshbach resonance, these dynamics can be realized in experiments by suitable control of time-dependent trap parameters, atomic interactions, and interaction with thermal cloud.

  18. Quorum sensing by peptide pheromones and two-component signal-transduction systems in Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, Michiel; Quadri, Luis E.N.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Vos, Willem M. de

    1997-01-01

    Cell-density-dependent gene expression appears to be widely spread in bacteria. This quorum-sensing phenomenon has been well established in Gram-negative bacteria, where N-acyl homoserine lactones are the diffusible communication molecules that modulate cell-density-dependent phenotypes. Similarly,

  19. Enterococcal cytolysin: a novel two component peptide system that serves as a bacterial defense against eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher R; Coburn, Phillip S; Gilmore, Michael S

    2005-02-01

    The cytolysin is a novel, two-peptide lytic toxin produced by some strains of Enterococcus faecalis. It is toxic in animal models of enterococcal infection, and associated with acutely terminal outcome in human infection. The cytolysin exerts activity against a broad spectrum of cell types including a wide range of gram positive bacteria, eukaryotic cells such as human, bovine and horse erythrocytes, retinal cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and human intestinal epithelial cells. The cytolysin likely originated as a bacteriocin involved with niche control in the complex microbial ecologies associated with eukaryotic hosts. However, additional anti-eukaryotic activities may have been selected for as enterococci adapted to eukaryotic cell predation in water or soil ecologies. Cytolytic activity requires two unique peptides that possess modifications characteristic of the lantibiotic bacteriocins, and these peptides are broadly similar in size to most cationic eukaryotic defensins. Expression of the cytolysin is tightly controlled by a novel mode of gene regulation in which the smaller peptide signals high-level expression of the cytolysin gene cluster. This complex regulation of cytolysin expression may have evolved to balance defense against eukaryotic predators with stealth.

  20. The BaeSR two-component regulatory system mediates resistance to condensed tannins in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Smith, A.H.; Sundset, M.A.; Mackie, R.I.

    2008-01-01

    The gene expression profiles of Escherichia coli strains grown anaerobically with or without Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) extract were compared to identify tannin resistance strategies. The cell envelope stress protein gene spy and the multidrug transporter-encoding operon mdtABCD, both under the

  1. 二组分凝胶的研究进展及功能%The Research Progress and Functions of Two-component Supramolecular Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 靳清贤; 张莉; 刘鸣华

    2015-01-01

    超分子凝胶由小分子量胶凝剂在溶剂介质中通过多种非共价键的作用力自组装形成纳米纤维的交缠三维网络结构,从而将大量的溶剂分子束缚在其网络空间中,形成宏观可视的半固态软物质材料。其中二组分凝胶因其多功能化,具有更多的调控位点等成为了超分子凝胶领域的研究热点之一,本文主要介绍了功能分子掺杂的二组分凝胶,及其在分子识别、光电性能及手性传递方面的应用。%Supramolecular gels are semi-solid systems,in which liquid phase is immobilized by the formation a three-dimensional network composed of self-assembled gelator fibers and their entanglements. In comparison with gels constructed from individual molecules,two-component supramolecular gels have witnessed our eyes, owing to their tunability and responsiveness to different stimuli. This article mainly describes one type of two-component self-assembling gelation systems, in which one of the components forms a gel in its own right and the addition of the second component modifies the gelation process as a consequence of complex formation. The applications in molecular recognition, photoelectric properties, transfer of charity were also discussed.

  2. Influence of quantum diffraction and shielding on electron-ion collision in two-component semiclassical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The influence of quantum diffraction and shielding on the electron-ion collision process is investigated in two-component semiclassical plasmas. The eikonal method and micropotential taking into account the quantum diffraction and shielding are used to obtain the eikonal scattering phase shift and the eikonal collision cross section as functions of the collision energy, density parameter, Debye length, electron de Broglie wavelength, and the impact parameter. The result shows that the quantum diffraction and shielding effects suppress the eikonal scattering phase shift as well as the differential eikonal collision cross section, especially, in small-impact parameter regions. It is also shown that the quantum shielding effect on the eikonal collision cross section is more important in low-collision energies. In addition, it is found that the eikonal collision cross section increases with an increase in the density parameter. The variations of the eikonal cross section due to the quantum diffraction and shielding effects are also discussed.

  3. Functional assembly of camphor converting two-component Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases with a flavin reductase from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Willetts, Andrew; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Bäckvall, J-E

    2014-05-01

    The major limitation in the synthetic application of two-component Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases was addressed by identifying the 28-kDa flavin-reductase Fre from Escherichia coli as a suitable supplier of reduced FMN for these enzymes. Coexpression of Fre with either 2,5- or 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007 significantly enhanced the conversion of camphor and norcamphor serving as representative ketones. With purified enzymes, full conversion was achieved, while only slight amounts of product were formed in the absence of this flavin reductase. Fusion of the genes of Fre and DKCMOs into single open reading frame constructs resulted in unstable proteins exhibiting flavin reducing, but poor oxygenating activity, which led to overall decreased conversion of camphor.

  4. Temperature-controlled structure and kinetics of ripple phases in one- and two-component supported lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Crowe, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    ripples was seen. From height profiles of the AFM images, estimates of the amplitudes of the different ripple phases are reported. To elucidate the processes of ripple formation and disappearance, a ripple-phase DPPC lipid bilayer was taken through the pretransition in the cooling and the heating...... was heated from the ripple phase and into the ripple-phase/fluid-phase coexistence temperature region, the AFM images revealed that several dynamic properties of the ripple phase are important for the melting behavior of the lipid mixture. Onset of melting is observed at grain boundaries between different......Temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to visualize and study the structure and kinetics of ripple phases in one-component dipalmitoylphosphaticlylcholine (DPPC) and two-component dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC-DSPC) lipid bilayers...

  5. High Energy Positrons and Gamma Radiation from Decaying Constituents of a two-component Dark Atom Model

    CERN Document Server

    Belotsky, K; Kouvaris, C; Laletin, M

    2015-01-01

    We study a two component dark matter candidate inspired by the Minimal Walking Technicolor model. Dark matter consists of a dominant SIMP-like dark atom component made of bound states between primordial helium nuclei and a doubly charged technilepton, and a small WIMP-like component made of another dark atom bound state between a doubly charged technibaryon and a technilepton. This scenario is consistent with direct search experimental findings because the dominant SIMP component interacts too strongly to reach the depths of current detectors with sufficient energy to recoil and the WIMP-like component is too small to cause significant amount of events. In this context a metastable technibaryon that decays to $e^+e^+$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^+$ and $\\tau^+ \\tau^+$ can in principle explain the observed positron excess by AMS-02 and PAMELA, while being consistent with the photon flux observed by FERMI/LAT. We scan the parameters of the model and we find the best possible fit to the latest experimental data. We find that th...

  6. Promoter Escape with Bacterial Two-component σ Factor Suggests Retention of σ Region Two in the Elongation Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Shreya; Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2015-11-20

    The transition from the formation of the RNA polymerase (RNAP)-promoter open complex step to the productive elongation complex step involves "promoter escape" of RNAP. From the structure of RNAP, a promoter escape model has been proposed that suggests that the interactions between σR4 and RNAP and σR4 and DNA are destabilized upon transition to elongation. This accounts for the reduced affinity of σ to RNAP and stochastic release of σ. However, as the loss of interaction of σR4 with RNAP results in the release of intact σ, assessing this interaction remains challenging to be experimentally verified. Here we study the promoter escape model using a two-component σ factor YvrI and YvrHa from Bacillus subtilis that independently contributes to the functions of σR4 and σR2 in a RNAP-promoter complex. Our results show that YvrI, which mimics σR4, is released gradually as transcription elongation proceeds, whereas YvrHa, which mimics σR2 is retained throughout the elongation complexes. Thus our result validates the proposed model for promoter escape and also suggests that promoter escape involves little or no change in the interaction of σR2 with RNAP.

  7. A two-component jet model based on the Blandford-Znajek and Blandford-Payne processes

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Wei; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Wu, Qingwen; Wang, Jiu-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    We propose a two-component jet model consistent with the observations of several gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The jet consists of inner and outer components, and they are supposed to be driven by the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes, respectively. The baryons in the BP jet is accelerated centrifugally via the magnetic field anchored in the accretion disk. The BZ jet is assumed to be entrained a fraction of accreting matter leaving the inner edge of the accretion disk, and the baryons are accelerated in the conversion from electromagnetic energy to the kinetic energy. By fitting the Lorentz factors of some GRBs (GRB 030329, GRB 051221A, GRB 080413B) and AGNs (Cen A, Mkn 501 and Mkn 421) with this model, we constrain the physical parameters related to the accretion and outflow of these two kind of objects. We conclude that the spine/sheath structure of the jet from these sources can be interpreted naturally by the BZ and BP processes.

  8. A two-component histidine kinase Shk1 controls stress response, sclerotial formation and fungicide resistance in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yabing; Ge, Changyan; Liu, Shengming; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingguo

    2013-09-01

    Fungal histidine kinases (HKs) are involved in osmotic and oxidative stress responses, hyphal development, fungicide sensitivity and virulence. Members of HK class III are known to signal through the high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (HOG MAPK). In this study, we characterized the Shk1 gene (SS1G_12694.3), which encodes a putative class III HK, from the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Disruption of Shk1 resulted in resistance to phenylpyrrole and dicarboximide fungicides and increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress and H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress. The Shk1 mutant showed a significant reduction in vegetative hyphal growth and was unable to produce sclerotia. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and glycerol determination assays showed that the expression of SsHOG1 (the last kinase of the Hog pathway) and glycerol accumulation were regulated by the Shk1 gene, but PAK (p21-activated kinase) was not. In addition, the Shk1 mutant showed no change in virulence. All the defects were restored by genetic complementation of the Shk1 deletion mutant with the wild-type Shk1 gene. These findings indicate that Shk1 is involved in vegetative differentiation, sclerotial formation, glycerol accumulation and adaption to hyperosmotic and oxidative stresses, and to fungicides, in S. sclerotiorum. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, the role of two-component HKs in Sclerotinia.

  9. Phosphorescence lifetimes of organic light-emitting diodes from two-component time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühn, Michael [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weigend, Florian, E-mail: florian.weigend@kit.edu [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-12-14

    “Spin-forbidden” transitions are calculated for an eight-membered set of iridium-containing candidate molecules for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using two-component time-dependent density functional theory. Phosphorescence lifetimes (obtained from averaging over relevant excitations) are compared to experimental data. Assessment of parameters like non-distorted and distorted geometric structures, density functionals, relativistic Hamiltonians, and basis sets was done by a thorough study for Ir(ppy){sub 3} focussing not only on averaged phosphorescence lifetimes, but also on the agreement of the triplet substate structure with experimental data. The most favorable methods were applied to an eight-membered test set of OLED candidate molecules; Boltzmann-averaged phosphorescence lifetimes were investigated concerning the convergence with the number of excited states and the changes when including solvent effects. Finally, a simple model for sorting out molecules with long averaged phosphorescence lifetimes is developed by visual inspection of computationally easily achievable one-component frontier orbitals.

  10. A Cyclic di-GMP-binding Adaptor Protein Interacts with Histidine Kinase to Regulate Two-component Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linghui; Venkataramani, Prabhadevi; Ding, Yichen; Liu, Yang; Deng, Yinyue; Yong, Grace Lisi; Xin, Lingyi; Ye, Ruijuan; Zhang, Lianhui; Yang, Liang; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2016-07-29

    The bacterial messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) binds to a diverse range of effectors to exert its biological effect. Despite the fact that free-standing PilZ proteins are by far the most prevalent c-di-GMP effectors known to date, their physiological function and mechanism of action remain largely unknown. Here we report that the free-standing PilZ protein PA2799 from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa interacts directly with the hybrid histidine kinase SagS. We show that PA2799 (named as HapZ: histidine kinase associated PilZ) binds directly to the phosphoreceiver (REC) domain of SagS, and that the SagS-HapZ interaction is further enhanced at elevated c-di-GMP concentration. We demonstrate that binding of HapZ to SagS inhibits the phosphotransfer between SagS and the downstream protein HptB in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. In accordance with the role of SagS as a motile-sessile switch and biofilm growth factor, we show that HapZ impacts surface attachment and biofilm formation most likely by regulating the expression of a large number of genes. The observations suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby c-di-GMP mediates two-component signaling through a PilZ adaptor protein.

  11. A two-component jet model based on the Blandford-Znajek and Blandford-Payne processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Wu, Qingwen; Wang, Jiu-Zhou

    2012-07-01

    We propose a two-component jet model consistent with the observations of several gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The jet consists of inner and outer components, which are supposed to be driven by the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes, respectively. The baryons in the BP jet are accelerated centrifugally via the magnetic field anchored in the accretion disk. The BZ jet is assumed to be entrained in a fraction of accreting matter leaving the inner edge of the accretion disk, and the baryons are accelerated in the conversion from electromagnetic energy to kinetic energy. By fitting the Lorentz factors of some GRBs (GRB 030329, GRB 051221A and GRB 080413B) and AGNs (Cen A, Mkn 501 and Mkn 421) with this model, we constrain the physical parameters related to the accretion and outflow of these two kinds of objects. We conclude that the spine/sheath structure of the jet from these sources can be interpreted naturally by the BZ and BP processes.

  12. A two-component jet model based on the Blandford-Znajek and Blandford-Payne processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xie; Wei-Hua Lei; Yuan-Chuan Zou; Ding-Xiong Wang; Qingwen Wu; Jiu-Zhou Wang

    2012-01-01

    We propose a two-component jet model consistent with the observations of several gamma ray bursts(GRBs)and active galactic nuclei(AGNs).The jet consists of inner and outer components,which are supposed to be driven by the BlandfordZnajek(BZ)and Blandford-Payne(BP)processes,respectively.The baryons in the BP jet are accelerated centrifugally via the magnetic field anchored in the accretion disk.The BZ jet is assumed to be entrained in a fraction of accreting matter leaving the inner edge of the accretion disk,and the baryons are accelerated in the conversion from electromagnetic energy to kinetic energy.By fitting the Lorentz factors of some GRBs(GRB 030329,GRB 051221A and GRB 080413B)and AGNs(Cen A,Mkn 501 and Mkn 421)with this model,we constrain the physical parameters related to the accretion and outflow of these two kinds of objects.We conclude that the spine/sheath structure of the jet from these sources can be interpreted naturally by the BZ and BP processes.

  13. Micro-Structured Two-Component 3D Metamaterials with Negative Thermal-Expansion Coefficient from Positive Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jingyuan; Kadic, Muamer; Naber, Andreas; Wegener, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Controlling the thermal expansion of materials is of great technological importance. Uncontrolled thermal expansion can lead to failure or irreversible destruction of structures and devices. In ordinary crystals, thermal expansion is governed by the asymmetry of the microscopic binding potential, which cannot be adjusted easily. In artificial crystals called metamaterials, thermal expansion can be controlled by structure. Here, following previous theoretical work, we fabricate three-dimensional (3D) two-component polymer micro-lattices by using gray-tone laser lithography. We perform cross-correlation analysis of optical microscopy images taken at different sample temperatures. The derived displacement-vector field reveals that the thermal expansion and resulting bending of the bi-material beams leads to a rotation of the 3D chiral crosses arranged onto a 3D checkerboard pattern within one metamaterial unit cell. These rotations can compensate the expansion of the all positive constituents, leading to an effectively near-zero thermal length-expansion coefficient, or over-compensate the expansion, leading to an effectively negative thermal length-expansion coefficient. This evidences a striking level of thermal-expansion control.

  14. A highly efficient white-light-emitting diode based on a two-component polyfluorene/quantum dot composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayneko, S. V.; Samokhvalov, P. S.; Lypenko, D.; Nosova, G. I.; Berezin, I. A.; Yakimanskii, A. V.; Chistyakov, A. A.; Nabiev, I.

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are attracting great interest of the scientific community and industry because they can be grown on flexible substrates using relatively simple and inexpensive technologies (solution processes). However, a problem in the fabrication of white OLEDs is that it is difficult to achieve a balance between the intensities of individual emission components in the blue, green, and red spectral regions. In this work, we try to solve this problem by creating a two-component light-emitting diode based on modified polyfluorene (PF-BT), which efficiently emits in the blue-green region, and CdSe/ZnS/CdS/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots emitting in the orange-red region with a fluorescence quantum yield exceeding 90%. By changing the mass ratio of components in the active light-emitting composite within 40-50%, it is possible to transform the diode emission spectrum from cold to warm white light without loss of the diode efficiency. It is very likely that optimization of the morphology of multilayer light-emitting diodes will lead to further improvement of their characteristics.

  15. Maladaptive correlates of the failure to forgive self and others: further evidence for a two-component model of forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Scott R; Hertenstein, Matthew J; Wrobel, Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    In a sample composed of 162 young adults, we examined the generalizability of an orthogonal, 2-component model of forgiveness previously reported by Ross, Kendall, Matters, Rye, and Wrobel (2004). Furthermore, we examined the relationship of these two components with maladaptive personality characteristics as measured by the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1993), with an emphasis on Five-factor model markers of personality. Using multiple measures of forgiveness, principal components analysis supported a 2-component model representing self-forgiveness and other forgiveness. Despite the independence of self-forgiveness and other forgiveness, zero order correlations with SNAP scales supported convergent more than discriminant validity. In contrast, hierarchical multiple regression analyses emphasized the discriminant validity of self-forgiveness and other forgiveness. Among indices of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, Negative Temperament (+) was the sole predictor of self-forgiveness. In contrast, Positive Temperament (+), Aggression (-), and Histrionic PD (-) were most associated with other forgiveness. Overall, these findings support the validity of these factors and highlight the importance of self-forgiveness in clinical assessment.

  16. Images and spectral properties of two-component advective flows around black holes: effects of photon bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arka; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ghosh, Himadri

    2017-03-01

    Two-component advective flow (TCAF) successfully explains spectral and timing properties of black hole candidates. We study the nature of photon trajectories in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole and incorporate this in predicting images of TCAF with a black hole at the Centre. We also compute the emitted spectra. We employ a Monte Carlo simulation technique to achieve our goal. For accurate prediction of the image and the spectra, null trajectories are generated without constraining the motion to any specific plane. Redshift, bolometric flux and corresponding temperature have been calculated with appropriate relativistic consideration. The CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer or CENBOL near the inner region of the disc, which acts as the Compton cloud, is appropriately modelled as a thick accretion disc in Schwarzschild geometry for the purpose of imaging and computing spectra. The variations of spectra and image with physical parameters such as the accretion rate (dot{m}_d) and inclination angle are presented. We show that the gravitational bending effects of photons do change the spectral shape to some extent.

  17. Preparation and properties of high storage stability polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, F.; Tu, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new type of polyester polyol dispersion with good storage stability was prepared based on a hydrophilic monomer 5-sodium sulfodimethyl isophthalate (5-SIPM), and frequently-used monomers such as neopentyl glycol (NPG), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) by the transpolycondensation and polycondensation method. The polyester polyol dispersion was characterized by FTIR and GPC. The proper content of these monomers were determined by the performance of polyester dispersion: the content of TMP was 15wt%, the content of NPG was 7.5wt% and the hydrophilic monomer 5-SIPM content was 5wt%. Two-component waterborne polyurethane (2K-WPU) coatings were prepared by Bayhydur® XP2487/1 and polyester polyol dispersions, which were stored before and after at 40 ° for 6 weeks, the prepared films have no differences in drying time, adhesion, pencil hardness, gloss and chemical resistance, the result also reveals that the polyester polyol dispersion have excellent storage stability resistance.

  18. Numerical modeling of Non-isothermal two-phase two-component flow process with phase change phenomena in the porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Shao, H.; Thullner, M.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    In applications of Deep Geothermal reservoirs, thermal recovery processes, and contaminated groundwater sites, the multiphase multicomponent flow and transport processes are often considered the most important underlying physical process. In particular, the behavior of phase appearance and disappearance is the critical to the performance of many geo-reservoirs, and great interests exit in the scientific community to simulate this coupled process. This work is devoted to the modeling and simulation of two-phase, two components flow and transport in the porous medium, whereas the phase change behavior in non-isothermal conditions is considered. In this work, we have implemented the algorithm developed by Marchand, et al., into the open source scientific software OpenGeoSys. The governing equation is formulated in terms of molar fraction of the light component and mean pressure as the persistent primary variables, which leads to a fully coupled nonlinear PDE system. One of the important advantages of this approach is avoiding the primary variables switching between single phase and two phase zones, so that this uniform system can be applied to describe the behavior of phase change. On the other hand, due to the number of unkown variables closure relationships are also formulated to close the whole equation system by using the approach of complementarity constrains. For the numerical technical scheme: The standard Galerkin Finite element method is applied for space discretization, while a fully implicit scheme for the time discretization, and Newton-Raphson method is utilized for the global linearization, as well as the closure relationship. This model is verified based on one test case developed to simulate the heat pipe problem. This benchmark involves two-phase two-component flow in saturated/unsaturated porous media under non-isothermal condition, including phase change and mineral-water geochemical reactive transport processes. The simulation results will be

  19. Diagnostics for the structure of AGNs’broad line regions with reverberation mapping data:confirmation of the two-component broad line region model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the ten Reverberation Mapping(RM) sources with public data based on the two-component model of the Broad Line Region(BLR).In fitting their broad Hβ Mlines,six of them only need one Gaussian component,one of them has a double-peak profile,one has an irregular profile,and only two of them need two components,i.e.,a Very Broad Gaussian Component(VBGC) and an Inter-Mediate Gaussian Component(IMGC).The Gaussian components are assumed to come from two distinct regions in the two-component model;they are the Very Broad Line Region(VBLR) and the Inter-Mediate Line region(IMLR).The two sources with a two-component profile are Mrk 509 and NGC 4051.The time lags of the two components of both sources satisfy tIMLR/tVBLR=V 2VBLR/V 2IMLR,where tIMLR and tVBLR are the lags of the two components while VIMLR and VVBLR represent the mean gas velocities of the two regions,supporting the two-component model of the BLR of Active Galactic Nuclei(AGNs).The fact that most of these ten sources only have the VBGC confirms the assumption that RM mainly measures the radius of the VBLR;consequently,the radius obtained from the R-L relationship mainly represents the radius of VBLR.Moreover,NGC 4051,with a lag of about 5 days in the one component model,is an outlier on the R-L relationship as shown in Kaspi et al.(2005);however this problem disappears in our two-component model with lags of about 2 and 6 days for the VBGC and IMGC,respectively.

  20. Ground-state and rotational properties of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic plus quartic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guang-Ping [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yuan [The School of Physics and Mech-tronic Engineering, Sichuan University of Art and Science, DaZhou 635000 (China); Dong, Biao [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Lin-Xue [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhang, Xiao-Fei, E-mail: xfzhang@ntsc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China); Zhang, Shou-Gang, E-mail: szhang@ntsc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710600 (China)

    2015-10-02

    We consider a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate under extreme elongation in a harmonic plus quartic trap. The ground-state and rotational properties of such a system are numerically studied as a function of intra- and inter-component contact interactions, and of the rotational frequency. For the nonrotational case, we obtain the exact phase diagram showing the ground-state density distributions as contact-interactions varied. For both slowly and ultrarapidly rotational cases, we demonstrate that the vortex configurations depend strongly on the relative strength of the contact interactions, as well as on the rotational frequency. The controllable system may be used to investigate the interplay of interaction and rotation, and to explore more exotic quantum phases. - Highlights: • Quartic trap extends the parameter space to a fast rotating region. • Different ground state density distributions and novel vortex structures are obtained within the full parameter space. • Effects of the contact interactions and rotation are discussed in detail.

  1. Evolution of multidrug resistance during Staphylococcus aureus infection involves mutation of the essential two component regulator WalKR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Howden

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health threat, compounded by emergence of strains with resistance to vancomycin and daptomycin, both last line antimicrobials. Here we have performed high throughput DNA sequencing and comparative genomics for five clinical pairs of vancomycin-susceptible (VSSA and vancomycin-intermediate ST239 S. aureus (VISA; each pair isolated before and after vancomycin treatment failure. These comparisons revealed a frequent pattern of mutation among the VISA strains within the essential walKR two-component regulatory locus involved in control of cell wall metabolism. We then conducted bi-directional allelic exchange experiments in our clinical VSSA and VISA strains and showed that single nucleotide substitutions within either walK or walR lead to co-resistance to vancomycin and daptomycin, and caused the typical cell wall thickening observed in resistant clinical isolates. Ion Torrent genome sequencing confirmed no additional regulatory mutations had been introduced into either the walR or walK VISA mutants during the allelic exchange process. However, two potential compensatory mutations were detected within putative transport genes for the walK mutant. The minimal genetic changes in either walK or walR also attenuated virulence, reduced biofilm formation, and led to consistent transcriptional changes that suggest an important role for this regulator in control of central metabolism. This study highlights the dramatic impacts of single mutations that arise during persistent S. aureus infections and demonstrates the role played by walKR to increase drug resistance, control metabolism and alter the virulence potential of this pathogen.

  2. Two components of delayed rectifier K+ current in heart:molecular basis,functional diversity,and contribution to repolarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-hua CHENG; Itsuo KODAMA

    2004-01-01

    Delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) is the major outward current responsible for ventricular repolarization. Two components of IK (IKr and IKs) have been identified in many mammalian species including humans. IKr. plays a pivotal role in normal ventricular repolarization. A prolongation of action potential duration (APD) under a variety of conditions would favor the activation of IKs so that to prevent excessive repolarization delay causing early afterdepolarization. The pore-forming α subunits of IKr and IKs are composed of HERG (KCNH2) and KvLQT l (KCNQ l), respectively. KvLQT l is associated with a function-altering β subunit, minK to form IKs. HERG may be associated with minK (KCNE1) and/or minK-related protein (MiRP1) to form IKr, but the issue remains to be established. IKs is enhanced, whereas IKr is usually attenuated by β-adrenergic stimulation via cyclic adenosine 31,51-monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A-dependent pathways. There exist regional differences in the density of IKr and IKs transmurally (endo-epicardial) and along the apico-basal axis, contributing to the spatial heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization. A decrease of IKr or IKs by mutations in either HERG, KvLQTl, or KCNE family results in inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS) with high risk for Torsades de pointes (TdP)-type polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. As to the pharmacological treatment and prevention of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, selectively block of IKs is expected to be more beneficial than selectively block of IKr in terms of homogeneous prolongation of refractoriness at high heart rates especially in diseased hearts including myocardial ischemia.

  3. In vivo kinematics of two-component total ankle arthroplasty during non-weightbearing and weightbearing dorsiflexion/plantarflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kosugi, Shinichi; Takakura, Yoshinori; Sasho, Takahisa; Banks, Scott A

    2011-04-07

    Relatively high rates of loosening and implant failure have been reported after total ankle arthroplasty, especially in first and second generation implants. Abnormal kinematics and incongruency of the articular surface may cause increased loads applied to the implant with concomitant polyethylene wear, resulting in loosening and implant failure. The purpose of this study was to measure three-dimensional kinematics of two-component total ankle arthroplasty during non-weightbearing and weightbearing activities, and to investigate incongruency of the articular surfaces during these activities. Forty-seven patients with a mean age of 71 years were enrolled. Radiographs were taken at non-weightbearing maximal dorsiflexion and plantarflexion, and weightbearing maximal dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, and neutral position. 3D-2D model-image registration was performed using the radiographs and the three-dimensional implant models, and three-dimensional joint angles were determined. The implanted ankles showed 18.1±8.6° (mean±standard deviation) of plantarflexion, 0.1±0.7° of inversion, 1.2±2.0° of internal rotation, and 0.8±0.6mm of posterior translation of the talar component in the non-weightbearing activity, and 17.8±7.5° of plantarflexion, 0.4±0.5° of inversion, 1.8±2.0° of internal rotation, and 0.7±0.5mm of posterior translation in the weightbearing activity. There were no significant differences between the non-weightbearing and weightbearing kinematics except for the plantarflexion angle. Incongruency of the articular surface occurred in more than 75% of the ankles. Our observations will provide useful data against which kinematics of other implant designs, such as three-component total ankle arthroplasty, can be compared.

  4. Two-component mantle melting-mixing model for the generation of mid-ocean ridge basalts: Implications for the volatile content of the Pacific upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kei; Saal, Alberto E.; Myers, Corinne E.; Nagle, Ashley N.; Hauri, Erik H.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Niu, Yaoling

    2016-03-01

    We report major, trace, and volatile element (CO2, H2O, F, Cl, S) contents and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses from the Northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR) off-axis seamounts, the Quebrada-Discovery-GoFar (QDG) transform fault system, and the Macquarie Island. The incompatible trace element (ITE) contents of the samples range from highly depleted (DMORB, Th/La ⩽ 0.035) to enriched (EMORB, Th/La ⩾ 0.07), and the isotopic composition spans the entire range observed in EPR MORB. Our data suggest that at the time of melt generation, the source that generated the EMORB was essentially peridotitic, and that the composition of NMORB might not represent melting of a single upper mantle source (DMM), but rather mixing of melts from a two-component mantle (depleted and enriched DMM or D-DMM and E-DMM, respectively). After filtering the volatile element data for secondary processes (degassing, sulfide saturation, assimilation of seawater-derived component, and fractional crystallization), we use the volatiles to ITE ratios of our samples and a two-component mantle melting-mixing model to estimate the volatile content of the D-DMM (CO2 = 22 ppm, H2O = 59 ppm, F = 8 ppm, Cl = 0.4 ppm, and S = 100 ppm) and the E-DMM (CO2 = 990 ppm, H2O = 660 ppm, F = 31 ppm, Cl = 22 ppm, and S = 165 ppm). Our two-component mantle melting-mixing model reproduces the kernel density estimates (KDE) of Th/La and 143Nd/144Nd ratios for our samples and for EPR axial MORB compiled from the literature. This model suggests that: (1) 78% of the Pacific upper mantle is highly depleted (D-DMM) while 22% is enriched (E-DMM) in volatile and refractory ITE, (2) the melts produced during variable degrees of melting of the E-DMM controls most of the MORB geochemical variation, and (3) a fraction (∼65% to 80%) of the low degree EMORB melts (produced by ∼1.3% melting) may escape melt aggregation by freezing at the base of the oceanic lithosphere, significantly enriching it in

  5. Two-component density functional theory within the projector augmented-wave approach: Accurate and self-consistent computations of positron lifetimes and momentum distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Julia; Jomard, Gérald; Torrent, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Many techniques have been developed in the past in order to compute positron lifetimes in materials from first principles. However, there is still a lack of a fast and accurate self-consistent scheme that could handle accurately the forces acting on the ions induced by the presence of the positron. We will show in this paper that we have reached this goal by developing the two-component density functional theory within the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method in the open-source code abinit. This tool offers the accuracy of the all-electron methods with the computational efficiency of the plane-wave ones. We can thus deal with supercells that contain few hundreds to thousands of atoms to study point defects as well as more extended defects clusters. Moreover, using the PAW basis set allows us to use techniques able to, for instance, treat strongly correlated systems or spin-orbit coupling, which are necessary to study heavy elements, such as the actinides or their compounds.

  6. The weathervane model, a functional and structural organization of the two-component alkanesulfonate oxidoreductase SsuD from Xanthomonas citri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegos, V.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, P.S.L.; Balan, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: In Xanthomonas citri, the phytopathogen responsible for the canker citrus disease, we identified in the ssuABCDE operon, genes encoding the alkanesulfonate ABC transporter as well as the two enzymes responsible for oxido reduction of the respective substrates. SsuD and SsuE proteins represent a two-component system that can be assigned to the group of FMNH{sub 2} -dependent monooxygenases. How- ever, despite of the biochemical information about SsuD and SsuE orthologs from Escherichia coli, there is no structural information of how the two proteins work together. In this work, we used ultracentrifugation, SAXS data and molecular modeling to construct a structural/functional model, which consists of eight molecules organized in a weathervane shape. Through this model, SsuD ligand-binding site for NADPH{sub 2} and FMN substrates is clearly exposed, in a way that might allow the protein-protein interactions with SsuE. Moreover, based on molecular dynamics simulations of SsuD in apo state, docked with NADPH{sub 2}, FMN or both substrates, we characterized the residues of the pocket, the mechanism of substrate interaction and transfer of electrons from NADPH{sub 2} to FMN. This is the first report that links functional and biochemical data with structural analyses. (author)

  7. Two-component spin-coated Ag/CNT composite films based on a silver heterogeneous nucleation mechanism adhesion-enhanced by mechanical interlocking and chemical grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Kang, Zhixin; Bessho, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new method for the synthesis of silver carbon nanotube (Ag/CNT) composite films as conductive connection units for flexible electronic devices is presented. This method is about a two-component solution process by spin coating with an after-treatment annealing process. In this method, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as the core of silver heterogeneous nucleation, which can be observed and analyzed by a field-emission scanning electron microscope. With the effects of mechanical interlocking, chemical grafting, and annealing, the interfacial adhesive strength between films and PET sheets was enhanced to 12 N cm‑1. The tensile strength of the Ag/CNT composite films was observed to increase by 38% by adding 5 g l‑1 MWCNTs. In the four-probe method, the resistivity of Ag/CNT-5 declined by 78.2% compared with pristine Ag films. The anti-fatigue performance of the Ag/CNT composite films was monitored by cyclic bending deformation and the results revealed that the growth rate of electrical resistance during the deformation was obviously retarded. As for industrial application, this method provides an efficient low-cost way to prepare Ag/CNT composite films and can be further applied to other coating systems.

  8. Conductivity-depth imaging of fixed-wing time-domain electromagnetic data with pitch based on two-component measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Mei; Zhang, Qiong; Meng, Yang; Li, Jing; Lu, Yiming; Zhu, Kaiguang

    2017-01-01

    Conductivity-depth imaging (CDI) of data is generally applied in identifying conductive targets. CDI results will be affected by the bird attitude especially the pitch of the receiver coil due to the attitude, velocity of the aircraft and the wind speed. A CDI algorithm with consideration of pitch is developed based on two-component measurement. A table is established based on two-component B field response and the pitch is considered as a parameter in the table. Primary advantages of this method are immunity to pith errors and better resolution of conductive layers than results without consideration of pith. Not only the conductivity but also the pitch can be obtained from this algorithm. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate that the CDI results with pitch based on two-component measurement does a better job than the results without consideration of pitch and the pitch obtained is close to the true model in many circumstances.

  9. Conjugal transfer of the Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 symbiotic plasmid is governed through the concerted action of one- and two-component signal transduction regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Joaquina; Blanca-Ordóñez, Helena; Olivares, José; Sanjuán, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Conjugal transfer of Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmids are repressed by the transcriptional regulator RctA. Here we report on new key players in the signal transduction cascade towards S. meliloti pSym conjugation. We have identified S. meliloti pSymA gene SMa0974 as an orthologue of the R. etli rctB gene which is required to antagonize repression by RctA. In S. meliloti two additional genes, rctR and rctC participate in control of rctB expression. rctR (SMa0955) encodes a protein of the GntR family of transcriptional regulators involved in repression of rctB. A rctR mutant promotes pSymA conjugal transfer and displays increased transcription of tra, virB and rctB genes even in presence of wild-type rctA gene. Among genes repressed by RctR, rctC (SMa0961) encodes a response regulator required to activate rctB transcription and therefore for derepression of plasmid conjugative functions. We conclude that in both R. etli and S. meliloti pSym conjugal transfer is derepressed via rctB, however the regulatory cascades to achieve activation of rctB are probably different. Upstream of rctB, the S. meliloti pSym conjugal transfer is regulated through the concerted action of genes representing one- (rctR) and two-component (rctC) signal transduction systems in response to yet unidentified signals.

  10. Two-component signal transduction in Agaricus bisporus: a comparative genomic analysis with other basidiomycetes through the web-based tool BASID2CS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín, José L; García-Yoldi, Alberto; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A

    2013-06-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are signal transduction mechanisms present in many eukaryotes, including fungi that play essential roles in the regulation of several cellular functions and responses. In this study, we carry out a genomic analysis of the TCS proteins in two varieties of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The genomes of both A. bisporus varieties contain eight genes coding for TCS proteins, which include four hybrid Histidine Kinases (HKs), a single histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) protein and three Response Regulators (RRs). Comparison of the TCS proteins among A. bisporus and the sequenced basidiomycetes showed a conserved core complement of five TCS proteins including the Tco1/Nik1 hybrid HK, HPt protein and Ssk1, Skn7 and Rim15-like RRs. In addition, Dual-HKs, unusual hybrid HKs with 2 HK and 2 RR domains, are absent in A. bisporus and are limited to various species of basidiomycetes. Differential expression analysis showed no significant up- or down-regulation of the Agaricus TCS genes in the conditions/tissue analyzed with the exception of the Skn7-like RR gene (Agabi_varbisH97_2|198669) that is significantly up-regulated on compost compared to cultured mycelia. Furthermore, the pipeline web server BASID2CS (http://bioinformatics.unavarra.es:1000/B2CS/BASID2CS.htm) has been specifically designed for the identification, classification and functional annotation of putative TCS proteins from any predicted proteome of basidiomycetes using a combination of several bioinformatic approaches.

  11. Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM 43269 3-Ketosteroid 9 alpha-Hydroxylase, a Two-Component Iron-Sulfur-Containing Monooxygenase with Subtle Steroid Substrate Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusma, M.; Dijkhuizen, L.; van der Geize, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the biochemical characterization of a purified and reconstituted two-component 3-ketosteroid 9 alpha-hydroxylase (KSH). KSH of Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM 43269, consisting of a ferredoxin reductase (KshB) and a terminal oxygenase (KshA), was heterologously expressed in Escherichi

  12. Three-dimensional two-component velocity measurement of the flow field induced by the Vorticella picta microorganism using a confocal microparticle image velocimetry technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Moeto; Oishi, Masamichi; Oshima, Marie; Asai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-03-26

    Understanding the biological feeding strategy and characteristics of a microorganism as an actuator requires the detailed and quantitative measurement of flow velocity and flow rate induced by the microorganism. Although some velocimetry methods have been applied to examine the flow, the measured dimensions were limited to at most two-dimensional two-component measurements. Here we have developed a method to measure three-dimensional two-component flow velocity fields generated by the microorganism Vorticella picta using a piezoscanner and a confocal microscope. We obtained the two-component velocities of the flow field in a two-dimensional plane denoted as the XY plane, with an observation area of 455x341 mum(2) and the resolution of 9.09 mum per each velocity vector by a confocal microparticle image velocimetry technique. The measurement of the flow field at each height took 37.5 ms, and it was repeated in 16 planes with a 2.50 mum separation in the Z direction. We reconstructed the three-dimensional two-component flow velocity field. From the reconstructed data, the flow velocity field [u((x,y,z)),v((x,y,z))] in an arbitrary plane can be visualized. The flow rates through YZ and ZX planes were also calculated. During feeding, we examined a suction flow to the mouth of the Vorticella picta and measured it to be to 300 pls.

  13. Experimental research of the influence of particle size and fluidization velocity on zeolite drying in a two-component fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevski Jelena N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the kinetics research into the drying of fine grained material in a two-component fluidized bed. A review of theoretical and experimental investigations of aerodynamics of the fluidized bed is given, with a special insight into two-component fluidized beds, as well as the basics of heat and material transfer through a fluidized bed. Apart from the theoretical basis of convective drying of wet materials in a stagnant fluidized bed, the paper also emphasizes different approaches to fine grained material drying kinetics. Based on the experimental investigations, where zealots used as a representative of fine grained material and polyethylene as a representative of inert material (another component, an analysis of the influence of working parameters on drying in a two-component fluidized bed is performed. It is established that, apart from the influence of the considered parameters, such as fluidization velocity, diameter of fine grained material particles and drying agent temperature, on the drying curve, the participation of inert material can considerably increase the intensity of heat and material transfer in the fluidized bed. A comparison of the experimental drying curves of fine grained material in the two-component fluidized bed with the results from the studies by other authors shows satisfactory agreement.

  14. Dynamics of matrix-free Ca2+ in cardiac mitochondria: two components of Ca2+ uptake and role of phosphate buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, An-Chi; Liu, Ting; Winslow, Raimond L; O'Rourke, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is thought to provide an important signal to increase energy production to meet demand but, in excess, can also trigger cell death. The mechanisms defining the relationship between total Ca(2+) uptake, changes in mitochondrial matrix free Ca(2+), and the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) are not well understood. We quantitatively measure changes in [Ca(2+)](out) and [Ca(2+)](mito) during Ca(2+) uptake in isolated cardiac mitochondria and identify two components of Ca(2+) influx. [Ca(2+)](mito) recordings revealed that the first, MCU(mode1), required at least 1 µM Ru360 to be completely inhibited, and responded to small Ca(2+) additions in the range of 0.1 to 2 µM with rapid and large changes in [Ca(2+)](mito). The second component, MCU(mode2), was blocked by 100 nM Ru360 and was responsible for the bulk of total Ca(2+) uptake for large Ca(2+) additions in the range of 2 to 10 µM; however, it had little effect on steady-state [Ca(2+)](mito). MCU(mode1) mediates changes in [Ca(2+)](mito) of 10s of μM, even in the presence of 100 nM Ru360, indicating that there is a finite degree of Ca(2+) buffering in the matrix associated with this pathway. In contrast, the much higher Ca(2+) loads evoked by MCU(mode2) activate a secondary dynamic Ca(2+) buffering system consistent with calcium-phosphate complex formation. Increasing P(i) potentiated [Ca(2+)](mito) increases via MCU(mode1) but suppressed [Ca(2+)](mito) changes via MCU(mode2). The results suggest that the role of MCU(mode1) might be to modulate oxidative phosphorylation in response to intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, whereas MCU(mode2) and the dynamic high-capacity Ca(2+) buffering system constitute a Ca(2+) sink function. Interestingly, the trigger for PTP activation is unlikely to be [Ca(2+)](mito) itself but rather a downstream byproduct of total mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading.

  15. Internal Josephson-like tunnelling in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates affected by sign of the atomic interaction and external trapping potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Bo; Liu Xun-Xu

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the Josephson-like tunnelling in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates coupled with microwave field, which is in respond to various attractive and repulsive atomic interaction under the various aspect ratio of trapping potential. It is very interesting to find that the dynamic of Josephson-like tunnelling can be controlled from fast damped oscillations to nondamped oscillation, and relative number of atoms changes from asymmetric occupation to symmetric occupation correspondingly.

  16. A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars confronting GeV -ray excess from galactic centre and Fermi bubble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debasish Majumdar; Kamakshya Prasad Modak; Subhendu Rakshit

    2016-02-01

    We propose a two-component dark matter (DM) model, each component of which is a real singlet scalar, to explain results from both direct and indirect detection experiments. We put the constraints on the model parameters from theoretical bounds, PLANCK relic density results and direct DM experiments. The -ray flux is computed from DM annihilation in this framework and is then compared with the Fermi-LAT observations from galactic centre region and Fermi bubble.

  17. Dynamic properties of the energy loss of multi-MeV charged particles traveling in two-component warm dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Meng-Lei; Li, Da-Fang; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping

    2016-12-01

    The energy loss of multi-MeV charged particles moving in two-component warm dense plasmas (WDPs) is studied theoretically beyond the random-phase approximation. The short-range correlations between particles are taken into account via dynamic local field corrections (DLFC) in a Mermin dielectric function for two-component plasmas. The mean ionization states are obtained by employing the detailed configuration accounting model. The Yukawa-type effective potential is used to derive the DLFC. Numerically, the DLFC are obtained via self-consistent iterative operations. We find that the DLFC are significant around the maximum of the stopping power. Furthermore, by using the two-component extended Mermin dielectric function model including the DLFC, the energy loss of a proton with an initial energy of ˜15 MeV passing through a WDP of beryllium with an electronic density around the solid value ne≈3 ×1023cm-3 and with temperature around ˜40 eV is estimated numerically. The numerical result is reasonably consistent with the experimental observations [A. B. Zylsta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 215002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.215002]. Our results show that the partial ionization and the dynamic properties should be of importance for the stopping of charged particles moving in the WDP.

  18. The ground states and pseudospin textures of rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in harmonic plus quartic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Su-Ying

    2016-09-01

    The ground states of two-component miscible Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) confined in a rotating annular trap are obtained by using the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation method. The ground state density distribution of the condensates experiences a transition from a disc shape to an annulus shape either when the angular frequency increases and the width and the center height of the trap are fixed, or when the width and the center height of the trap increase and the angular frequency is fixed. Meantime the numerical solutions of the ground states of the trapped two-component miscible BECs with the same condition are obtained by using imaginary-time propagation method. They are in good agreement with the solutions obtained by the TF approximation method. The ground states of the trapped two-component immiscible BECs are also given by using the imaginary-time propagation method. Furthermore, by introducing a normalized complex-valued spinor, three kinds of pseudospin textures of the BECs, i.e., giant skyrmion, coaxial double-annulus skyrmion, and coaxial three-annulus skyrmion, are found. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91430109 and 11404198), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20111401110004), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014011005-3).

  19. Development of Waterborne Two Component Polyurethane Exterior Wall Overcoat Varnish%水性双组分聚氨酯外墙罩光清漆的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Combining the good pro coatings, waterborne two component perti PU es of solvent based two component PU coatings with low VOC of waterborne coatings has been being the research hotspot and development direction. The waterborne two component polyurethane exterior wall overcoat varnish with excellent film properties and very low VOC was prepared with core-shell hydroxyl acrylic emulsion as the chief film forming matter and waterborne polyisocyanate as curing agent.%水性双组分聚氨酯涂料兼有溶剂型双组分聚氨酯涂料的高性能和水性涂料的低VOC(挥发性有机化合物)特点,成为当前涂料研究的热点和发展方向。以核壳结构的羟基丙烯酸乳液为主要成膜物质,以水性异氰酸酯为固化剂,制得水性双组分聚氨酯外墙罩光清漆,所得涂膜性能优异且VOC含量极低。

  20. Analytic energy gradients for the spin-free exact two-component theory using an exact block diagonalization for the one-electron Dirac Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lan; Gauss, Jürgen

    2011-08-28

    We report the implementation of analytic energy gradients for the evaluation of first-order electrical properties and nuclear forces within the framework of the spin-free (SF) exact two-component (X2c) theory. In the scheme presented here, referred to in the following as SFX2c-1e, the decoupling of electronic and positronic solutions is performed for the one-electron Dirac Hamiltonian in its matrix representation using a single unitary transformation. The resulting two-component one-electron matrix Hamiltonian is combined with untransformed two-electron interactions for subsequent self-consistent-field and electron-correlated calculations. The "picture-change" effect in the calculation of properties is taken into account by considering the full derivative of the two-component Hamiltonian matrix with respect to the external perturbation. The applicability of the analytic-gradient scheme presented here is demonstrated in benchmark calculations. SFX2c-1e results for the dipole moments and electric-field gradients of the hydrogen halides are compared with those obtained from nonrelativistic, SF high-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess, and SF Dirac-Coulomb calculations. It is shown that the use of untransformed two-electron interactions introduces rather small errors for these properties. As a first application of the analytic geometrical gradient, we report the equilibrium geometry of methylcopper (CuCH(3)) determined at various levels of theory.

  1. Effects of the Acrylic Polyol Structure and the Selectivity of the Employed Catalyst on the Performance of Two-component Aqueous Polyurethane Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladin Gligoric

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of aqueous acrylic polyols (single step and multi step synthesis typehave been investigated for their performance in the two-component aqueous polyurethaneapplication, by using more selective catalysts. The aliphatic polyfunctional isocyanatesbased on hexamethylen diisocyanates have been employed as suitable hardeners. Thecomplex of zirconium, commercially known as K-KAT®XC-6212, and manganese (IIIcomplexes with mixed ligands based on the derivative of maleic acid have been used ascatalysts in this study. Both of the aqueous polyols give good results, in terms of applicationand hardness, when elevated temperatures and more selective catalysts are applied. A moreselective catalyst promotes the reaction between the isocyanate and polyol component. Thisincreases the percentage of urethane bonds and the degree of hardness in the films formedfrom the two components of aqueous polyurethane lacquers. The polyol based on the singlestep synthesis route is favourable concerning potlife and hardness. The obtained resultsshow that the performance of the two-component aqueous polyurethane coatings depends onthe polymer structure of the polyols as well as on the selectivity of the employed catalyst.

  2. Metabolic flux analysis of Escherichia coli creB and arcA mutants reveals shared control of carbon catabolism under microaerobic growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikel, Pablo I; Zhu, Jiangfeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Méndez, Beatriz S; Bennett, George N

    2009-09-01

    Escherichia coli has several elaborate sensing mechanisms for response to availability of oxygen and other electron acceptors, as well as the carbon source in the surrounding environment. Among them, the CreBC and ArcAB two-component signal transduction systems are responsible for regulation of carbon source utilization and redox control in response to oxygen availability, respectively. We assessed the role of CreBC and ArcAB in regulating the central carbon metabolism of E. coli under microaerobic conditions by means of (13)C-labeling experiments in chemostat cultures of a wild-type strain, DeltacreB and DeltaarcA single mutants, and a DeltacreB DeltaarcA double mutant. Continuous cultures were conducted at D = 0.1 h(-1) under carbon-limited conditions with restricted oxygen supply. Although all experimental strains metabolized glucose mainly through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, mutant strains had significantly lower fluxes in both the oxidative and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathways. Significant differences were also found at the pyruvate branching point. Both pyruvate-formate lyase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contributed to acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis from pyruvate, and their activity seemed to be modulated by both ArcAB and CreBC. Strains carrying the creB deletion showed a higher biomass yield on glucose compared to the wild-type strain and its DeltaarcA derivative, which also correlated with higher fluxes from building blocks to biomass. Glyoxylate shunt and lactate dehydrogenase were active mainly in the DeltaarcA strain. Finally, it was observed that the tricarboxylic acid cycle reactions operated in a rather cyclic fashion under our experimental conditions, with reduced activity in the mutant strains.

  3. Miscibility of Two Components in a Binary Mixture of 9-Phenyl Anthracene Mixed with Stearic Acid or Polymethyl Methacrylate at Air-Water Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. K. Paul; Md. N. Islam; D. Bhattacharjee; S. A. Hussain

    2007-01-01

    We report the miscibility characteristics of two components in a binary mixture of 9-phenyl anthracene (PA) mixed with stearic acid (SA) or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The behaviour of surface pressure versus area per molecule isotherms reveal that the area per molecule decreases systematically with increasing molefractions of PA. The characteristics of areas per molecule versus molefractions and collapse pressure vs molefraction indicate that various interactions involved among the sample and matrix molecules. The interaction scheme is found to change with the change in surface pressure and molefraction of mixing. Scanning electron microscopic study confirms the aggregation of PA molecules in the mixed films.

  4. Theoretical study on spin-forbidden transitions of osmium complexes by two-component relativistic time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Yutaka; Kamiya, Muneaki; Nakajima, Takahito

    2016-03-01

    We study spin-forbidden transitions of Os polypyridyl sensitizers by two-component relativistic time-dependent density functional theory with the spin-orbit interaction based on Tamm-Dancoff approximation. The absorption spectra, including spin-forbidden-transition peaks, for the Os complexes are reasonably reproduced in comparison with the experimental ones. The extension of the conjugated lengths in the Os complexes is investigated and found to be effective to enhance photo absorption for spin-allowed transitions as well as spin-forbidden ones. This study provides fruitful information for a design of new dyes in terms of conjugation lengths.

  5. Evidence of Two Component Accretion Flows as revealed by time lag properties: Results of Long-Term RXTE/ASM Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Long-term RXTE/ASM X-ray data of several Galactic black hole candidates (BHCs) are analyzed. The results of this analysis show the existence of two component accretion flow (TCAF) in both low-mass and high-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs & HMXBs). Large disks with long viscous timescales in the accreting matter with high angular momentum are prevalent in LMXBs due to processes like Roche lobe overflow, while small disks with little viscous delays are observed in HMXBs, primarily because of wind accretion. Two parameters are defined as photon indices, independent of the choice of a BHC, in order to find correlation between the two components, namely, the Keplerian disk component and the sub-Keplerian component, thereby estimating the time lag between two aforesaid timescales. Fluxes of hard and soft photons are observed to be anti-correlated with respect to these photon indices. The time lags give us an idea of the viscosity in the Keplerian component.

  6. AN ENTROPIC ORDER QUANTITY MODEL WITH FUZZY HOLDING COST AND FUZZY DISPOSAL COST FOR PERISHABLE ITEMS UNDER TWO COMPONENT DEMAND AND DISCOUNTED SELLING PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tripathy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of replenishment policy is suggested in an entropy order quantity model for a perishable product possessing fuzzy holding cost and fuzzy disposal cost. This model represents an appropriate combination of two component demand with discounted selling price, particularly over a finite time horizon. Its main aim lies in the need for an entropic cost of the cycle time is a key feature of specific perishable product like fruits, vegetables, food stuffs, fishes etc. To handle this multiplicity of objectives in a pragmatic approach, entropic ordering quantity model with discounted selling price during pre and post deterioration of perishable items to optimize its payoff is proposed. It has been imperative to demonstrate this model by analysis, which reveals some important characteristics of discounted structure. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the difference between the crisp and fuzzy cases in EOQ and EnOQ separately. This paper explores the economy of investing in economics of lot sizing in Fuzzy EOQ, Crisp EOQ and Crisp EnOQ models. The proposed paper reveals itself as a pragmatic alternative to other approaches based on two component demand function with very sound theoretical underpinnings but with few possibilities of actually being put into practice. The results indicate that this can become a good model and can be replicated by researchers in neighbourhood of its possible extensions.

  7. Fabrication and Investigation of Two-Component Film of 2,5-Diphenyloxazole and Octafluoronaphthalene Exhibiting Tunable Blue/Bluish Violet Fluorescence Based on Low Vacuum Physical Vapor Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic luminescent materials play an important role in the fields of light-emitting diodes and fluorescent imaging. Moreover, new synthetic approaches towards π-conjugated molecular systems with high fluorescence quantum efficiency are highly desired. Herein, different 2,5-diphenyloxazole-octafluoronaphthalene (DPO-OFN films with tunable fluorescence have been prepared by Low Vacuum Physical Vapor Deposition (LVPVD method. DPO-OFN films showed some changed properties, such as molecular vibration and fluorescence. All films exhibited blue/bluish violet fluorescence and showed blue shift, in comparison with pristine DPO. This work introduced a new method to fabricate two-component molecular materials with tunable blue/bluish violet luminescence properties and provided a new perspective to prepare organic luminescent film materials, layer film materials, cocrystal materials, and cocrystal film materials. Importantly, these materials have potential applications in the fields of next generation of photofunctional materials.

  8. Modelling diameter distributions of two-cohort forest stands with various proportions of dominant species: a two-component mixture model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlaski, Rafał; Roesch, Francis A

    2014-03-01

    In recent years finite-mixture models have been employed to approximate and model empirical diameter at breast height (DBH) distributions. We used two-component mixtures of either the Weibull distribution or the gamma distribution for describing the DBH distributions of mixed-species, two-cohort forest stands, to analyse the relationships between the DBH components, age cohorts and dominant species, and to assess the significance of differences between the mixture distributions and the kernel density estimates. The data consisted of plots from the Świętokrzyski National Park (Central Poland) and areas close to and including the North Carolina section of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (USA; southern Appalachians). The fit of the mixture Weibull model to empirical DBH distributions had a precision similar to that of the mixture gamma model, slightly less accurate estimate was obtained with the kernel density estimator. Generally, in the two-cohort, two-storied, multi-species stands in the southern Appalachians, the two-component DBH structure was associated with age cohort and dominant species. The 1st DBH component of the mixture model was associated with the 1st dominant species sp1 occurred in young age cohort (e.g., sweetgum, eastern hemlock); and to a lesser degree, the 2nd DBH component was associated with the 2nd dominant species sp2 occurred in old age cohort (e.g., loblolly pine, red maple). In two-cohort, partly multilayered, stands in the Świętokrzyski National Park, the DBH structure was usually associated with only age cohorts (two dominant species often occurred in both young and old age cohorts). When empirical DBH distributions representing stands of complex structure are approximated using mixture models, the convergence of the estimation process is often significantly dependent on the starting strategies. Depending on the number of DBHs measured, three methods for choosing the initial values are recommended: min.k/max.k, 0.5/1.5/mean

  9. The Two-Component Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (TC-QTAIM): The unified theory of localization/delocalization of electrons, nuclei and exotic elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Goli, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, pursuing our research program extending the atoms in molecules analysis into unorthodox domains, another key ingredient of the two-component quantum theory of atoms in molecules (TC-QTAIM) namely, the theory of localization/delocalization of quantum particles, is disclosed. The unified proposed scheme is able not only to deal with the localization/delocalization of electrons in/between atomic basins, but also to treat nuclei as well as exotic particles like positrons and muons equally. Based on the general reduced second order density matrices for indistinguishable quantum particles, the quantum fluctuations of atomic basins are introduced and then used as a gauge to quantify the localization/delocalization introducing proper indexes. The explicit mass-dependence of the proposed indexes is demonstrated and it is shown that a single localization/delocalization index is capable of being used for all kind of quantum particles regardless of their masses or charge content. For various non-Bor...

  10. Short-range intervortex interaction and interacting dynamics of half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Eto, Minoru; Nitta, Muneto

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction and dynamics of two half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. Using the Padé approximation for the vortex core profile, we calculate the intervortex potential, whose asymptotic form for a large distance has been derived by Eto et al. [Phys. Rev. A 83, 063603 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.063603]. Through numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equations, we reveal different kinds of dynamical trajectories of the vortices depending on the combinations of signs of circulations and the intercomponent density coupling. Under the adiabatic limit, we derive the equations of motion for the vortex coordinates, in which the motion is caused by the balance between Magnus force and the intervortex forces. The initial velocity of the vortex motion can be explained quantitatively by this point vortex approximation, but understanding the long-time behavior of the dynamics needs more consideration beyond our model.

  11. Dose- and time-dependent changes of micronucleus frequency and gene expression in the progeny of irradiated cells: Two components in radiation-induced genomic instability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huumonen, Katriina [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, 70701 Kuopio (Finland); Boman, Eeva; Heikkilä, Janne [Kuopio University Hospital, Cancer Center, P.O. Box 1777, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Höytö, Anne [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lahtinen, Tapani [Kuopio University Hospital, Cancer Center, P.O. Box 1777, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Luukkonen, Jukka [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Viluksela, Matti [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, 70701 Kuopio (Finland); Naarala, Jonne [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Juutilainen, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.juutilainen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Development with time of radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI) was studied. • Dose–response of micronuclei showed marked time-dependent changes. • A new model assuming two components in RIGI was found to fit with the data. • The persisting component of RIGI seems to be independent of dose above a threshold. • Increasing heterogeneity was characteristic to delayed gene expression changes. - Abstract: Murine embryonic C3H/10T½ fibroblasts were exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 or 5 Gy. To follow the development of radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI), the frequency of micronuclei was measured with flow cytometry at 2 days after exposure and in the progeny of the irradiated cells at 8 and 15 days after exposure. Gene expression was measured at the same points in time by PCR arrays profiling the expression of 84 cancer-relevant genes. The micronucleus results showed a gradual decrease in the slope of the dose–response curve between days 2 and 15. The data were consistent with a model assuming two components in RIGI. The first component is characterized by dose-dependent increase in micronuclei. It may persist more than ten cell generations depending on dose, but eventually disappears. The second component is more persistent and independent of dose above a threshold higher than 0.2 Gy. Gene expression analysis 2 days after irradiation at 5 Gy showed consistent changes in genes that typically respond to DNA damage. However, the consistency of changes decreased with time, suggesting that non-specificity and increased heterogeneity of gene expression are characteristic to the second, more persistent component of RIGI.

  12. A two-component system, an anti-sigma factor and two paralogous ECF sigma factors are involved in the control of general stress response in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rogério F; Kohler, Christian; Gomes, Suely L

    2011-06-01

    The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σ(T) is the master regulator of general stress response in Caulobacter crescentus and controls the expression of its paralogue σ(U). In this work we showed that PhyR and NepR act, respectively, as positive and negative regulators of σ(T) expression and function. Biochemical data also demonstrated that NepR directly binds σ(T) and the phosphorylated form of PhyR. We also described the essential role of the histidine kinase gene CC3474, here denominated phyK, for expression of σ(T)-dependent genes and for resistance to stress conditions. Additionally, in vivo evidence of PhyK-dependent phosphorylation of PhyR is presented. This study also identified a conserved cysteine residue (C95) located in the periplasmic portion of PhyK that is crucial for the function of the protein. Furthermore, we showed that PhyK, PhyR and σ(T) regulate the same set of genes and that σ(T) apparently directly controls most of its regulon. In contrast, σ(U) seems to have a very modest contribution to the expression of a subset of σ(T)-dependent genes. In conclusion, this report describes the molecular mechanism involved in the control of general stress response in C. crescentus.

  13. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of a Paper-and-Pencil Test for Measuring Two Components of Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Concerning the "Cardiovascular System"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzing, Stephan; van Driel, Jan H.; Jüttner, Melanie; Brandenbusch, Stefanie; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2013-01-01

    One main focus of teacher education research concentrates on teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). It has been shown that teachers' PCK correlates with teaching effectiveness as well as with students' achievement gains. Teachers' PCK should be analyzed as one of the main important components to evaluate professional…

  14. Role of the two-component regulatory system arlRS in ica operon and aap positive but non-biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Liu, Jingran; Jiang, Juan; Hu, Jian; Xu, Tao; Wang, Jiaxue; Qu, Di

    2014-11-01

    The ica operon and aap gene are important factors for Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. However, we found 15 out of 101 S. epidermidis strains isolated from patients had both the ica operon and the aap gene in the genome but could not form biofilms (ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates). Compared with standard strain RP62A, the 15 ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates had similar growth curves and initial attachment abilities, but had much lower apparent transcription levels of the icaA gene and significantly less production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA). Furthermore, the expression of accumulation-associated protein in ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates was much weaker than in RP62A. The mRNA levels of icaADBC transcription-related regulatory genes, including icaR, sarA, rsbU, srrA, arlRS and luxS, were measured in the 15 ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) clinical isolates. The mRNA levels of arlR and rsbU in all of the ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates were lower than in RP62A at 4 h. At 10 h, 14/15 of the isolates showed lower mRNA levels of arlR and rsbU than shown by RP62A. However, expression of sarA, luxS, srrA and icaR varied in different ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates. To further investigate the role of arlRS in biofilm formation, we analyzed icaA, sarA and rsbU transcription, PIA synthesis, Aap expression and biofilm formation in an arlRS deletion mutant of S. epidermidis strain 1457 and all were much less than in the wild type strain. This is consistent with the hypothesis that ArlRS may play an important role in regulating biofilm formation by the ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-)S. epidermidis clinical isolates and operate via both ica-dependent and Aap-dependent pathways.

  15. The Two-Component System ArlRS and Alterations in Metabolism Enable Staphylococcus aureus to Resist Calprotectin-Induced Manganese Starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Jana N.; Párraga Solórzano, Paola K.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    During infection the host imposes manganese and zinc starvation on invading pathogens. Despite this, Staphylococcus aureus and other successful pathogens remain capable of causing devastating disease. However, how these invaders adapt to host-imposed metal starvation and overcome nutritional immunity remains unknown. We report that ArlRS, a global staphylococcal virulence regulator, enhances the ability of S. aureus to grow in the presence of the manganese-and zinc-binding innate immune effector calprotectin. Utilization of calprotectin variants with altered metal binding properties revealed that strains lacking ArlRS are specifically more sensitive to manganese starvation. Loss of ArlRS did not alter the expression of manganese importers or prevent S. aureus from acquiring metals. It did, however, alter staphylococcal metabolism and impair the ability of S. aureus to grow on amino acids. Further studies suggested that relative to consuming glucose, the preferred carbon source of S. aureus, utilizing amino acids reduced the cellular demand for manganese. When forced to use glucose as the sole carbon source S. aureus became more sensitive to calprotectin compared to when amino acids are provided. Infection experiments utilizing wild type and calprotectin-deficient mice, which have defects in manganese sequestration, revealed that ArlRS is important for disease when manganese availability is restricted but not when this essential nutrient is freely available. In total, these results indicate that altering cellular metabolism contributes to the ability of pathogens to resist manganese starvation and that ArlRS enables S. aureus to overcome nutritional immunity by facilitating this adaptation. PMID:27902777

  16. Expression of Uptake Hydrogenase and Molybdenum Nitrogenase in Rhodobacter capsulatus Is Coregulated by the RegB-RegA Two-Component Regulatory System

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Purple photosynthetic bacteria are capable of generating cellular energy from several sources, including photosynthesis, respiration, and H2 oxidation. Under nutrient-limiting conditions, cellular energy can be used to assimilate carbon and nitrogen. This study provides the first evidence of a molecular link for the coregulation of nitrogenase and hydrogenase biosynthesis in an anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium. We demonstrated that molybdenum nitrogenase biosynthesis is under the control o...

  17. Calculations of electric dipole moments and static dipole polarizabilities based on the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    The analytical energy gradient and Hessian of the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method with regard to the components of the electric field are derived and used to calculate spin-orbit coupling (SOC) corrected dipole moments and dipole polarizabilities of molecules, which contain elements with high atomic number. Calculated 2c-NESC dipole moments and isotropic polarizabilities agree well with the corresponding four-component-Dirac Hartree-Fock or density functional theory values. SOC corrections for the electrical properties are in general small, but become relevant for the accurate prediction of these properties when the molecules in question contain sixth and/or seventh period elements (e.g., the SO effect for At2 is about 10% of the 2c-NESC polarizability). The 2c-NESC changes in the electric molecular properties are rationalized in terms of spin-orbit splitting and SOC-induced mixing of frontier orbitals with the same j = l + s quantum numbers.

  18. Calculations of electric dipole moments and static dipole polarizabilities based on the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2016-11-14

    The analytical energy gradient and Hessian of the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method with regard to the components of the electric field are derived and used to calculate spin-orbit coupling (SOC) corrected dipole moments and dipole polarizabilities of molecules, which contain elements with high atomic number. Calculated 2c-NESC dipole moments and isotropic polarizabilities agree well with the corresponding four-component-Dirac Hartree-Fock or density functional theory values. SOC corrections for the electrical properties are in general small, but become relevant for the accurate prediction of these properties when the molecules in question contain sixth and/or seventh period elements (e.g., the SO effect for At2 is about 10% of the 2c-NESC polarizability). The 2c-NESC changes in the electric molecular properties are rationalized in terms of spin-orbit splitting and SOC-induced mixing of frontier orbitals with the same j = l + s quantum numbers.

  19. OmpR, a response regulator of the two-component signal transduction pathway, influences inv gene expression in Yersinia enterocolitica O9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eBrzóstkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental control of invasin expression in Yersinia enterocolitica is mediated by a regulatory network composed of negative and positive regulators of inv gene transcription. Previously, we demonstrated that OmpR, a response regulator of the two-component signal transduction pathway EnvZ/OmpR, negatively regulates invasin gene expression in Y. enterocolitica O9 by direct interaction with the inv promoter region. This study was undertaken to clarify the role of OmpR in the inv regulatory circuit in which RovA protein has been shown to positively regulate inv transcription. Using ompR, rovA and ompR rovA Y. enterocolitica mutant backgrounds we showed that the inhibitory effect of OmpR on inv transcription may be observed only when RovA is present/active in Y. enterocolitica cells. To extend our research on inv regulation we examined the effect of OmpR on rovA gene expression. Analysis of rovA-lacZ transcriptional fusion in Y. enterocolitica wild-type and ompR background indicated that OmpR does not influence rovA expression. Thus, our results indicate that OmpR influences invasin expression directly via binding to the inv promoter, but not through modulation of rovA expression.

  20. A robust and efficient numerical method to compute the dynamics of the rotating two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Qinglin; Mauser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient numerical method to compute the dynamics of the rotating two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). Using the rotating Lagrangian coordinates transform \\cite{BMTZ2013}, we reformulate the original coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (CGPE) into new equations where the rotating term vanishes and the potential becomes time-dependent. A time-splitting Fourier pseudospectral method is proposed to simulate the new equations where the nonlocal Dipole-Dipole Interactions (DDI) are computed by a newly-developed Gaussian-sum (GauSum) solver \\cite{EMZ2015} which helps achieve spectral accuracy in space within $O(N\\log N)$ operations ($N$ is the total number of grid points). The new method is spectrally accurate in space and second order accurate in time, and the accuracies are confirmed numerically. Dynamical properties of some physical quantities, including the total mass, energy, center of mass and angular momentum expectation, are presented and confirmed nu...

  1. Re-growth of stellar disks in mature galaxies: The two component nature of NGC 7217 revisited with VIRUS-W

    CERN Document Server

    Fabricius, Maximilian H; Bender, Ralf; Drory, Niv; Goessl, Claus; Landriau, Martin; Saglia, Roberto P; Thomas, Jens; Williams, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the existence of two counter-rotating stellar disks in the early-type spiral galaxy NGC7217. We have obtained high-resolution optical spectroscopic data (R ~ 9000) with the new fiber-based Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W at the 2.7m telescope of the McDonald Observatory in Texas. Our analysis confirms the existence of two components. However, we find them to be co-rotating. The first component is the more luminous (~ 77% of the total light), has the higher velocity dispersion (~ 170 km/s) and rotates relatively slowly (projected $v_{max}$ = 50 km/s). The lower luminosity second component, (~ 23% of the total light), has a low velocity dispersion (~ 20 km/s) and rotates quickly (projected $v_{max}$ = 150 km/s). The difference in the kinematics of the two stellar components allows us to perform a kinematic decomposition and to measure the strengths of their Mg and Fe Lick indices separately. The rotational velocities and dispersions of the less luminous and faster component...

  2. Wake effect and stopping power for a charged ion moving in magnetized two-component plasmas: two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhang-Hu; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2010-08-01

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) model is proposed to study the wake field and stopping power induced by a nonrelativistic charged particle moving perpendicular to the external magnetic field in two-component plasmas. The effects of the magnetic field on the wake potential and the stopping due to the polarization of both the plasma ions and electrons are discussed. The velocity fields of plasma ions and electrons are investigated, respectively, in the weak and strong magnetic field cases. Our simulation results show that in the case of weak magnetic field and high ion velocity, the wakes exhibit typical V-shaped cone structures and the opening cone angles decrease with the increasing ion velocity. As the magnetic field becomes strong, the wakes lose their typical V-shaped structures and become highly asymmetrical. Similar results can be obtained in the case of low ion velocity and strong magnetic field. In addition, stopping power is calculated and compared with previous one-dimensional and full three-dimensional PIC results.

  3. A generalized two-component model of solar wind turbulence and ab initio diffusion mean free paths and drift lengthscales of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Wiengarten, Tobias; Engelbrecht, Eugene; Fichtner, Horst; Kleimann, Jens; Scherer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We extend a two-component model for the evolution of fluctuations in the solar wind plasma so that it is fully three-dimensional (3D) and also coupled self-consistently to the large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the background solar wind. The two classes of fluctuations considered are a high-frequency parallel-propagating wave-like piece and a low-frequency quasi-two-dimensional component. For both components, the nonlinear dynamics is dominanted by quasi-perpendicular spectral cascades of energy. Driving of the fluctuations, by, for example, velocity shear and pickup ions, is included. Numerical solutions to the new model are obtained using the Cronos framework, and validated against previous simpler models. Comparing results from the new model with spacecraft measurements, we find improved agreement relative to earlier models that employ prescribed background solar wind fields. Finally, the new results for the wave-like and quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations are used to calculate ab i...

  4. Quasiparticle density of states of 2H-NbSe2 single crystals revealed by low-temperature specific heat measurements according to a two-component model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jing; Shan Lei; Wang Yue; Xiao Zhi-Li; Wen Hai-Hu

    2008-01-01

    Low-temperature specific heat in a dichalcogenide superconductor 2H-NbSe2 is measured in various magnetic fields. It is found that the specific heat can be described very well by a simple model concerning two components corresponding to vortex normal core and ambient superconducting region, separately. For calculating the specific heat outside the vortex core region, we use the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) formalism under the assumption of a narrow distribution of the superconducting gaps. The field-dependent vortex core size in the mixed state of 2H-NbSe2, determined by using this model, can explain the nonlinear field dependence of specific heat coefficient γ(H), which is in good agreement with the previous experimental results and more formal calculations. With the high-temperature specific heat data, we can find that, in the multi-band superconductor 2H-NbSe2, the recovered density of states (or Fermi surface) below Tc under a magnetic field seems not to be gapped again by the charge density wave (CDW) gap, which suggests that the superconducting gap and the CDW gap may open on different Fermi surface sheets.

  5. Combining the spin-separated exact two-component relativistic Hamiltonian with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method for the treatment of spin-orbit splittings of light and heavy elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhanli; Li, Zhendong; Wang, Fan; Liu, Wenjian

    2017-02-01

    The spin-separated exact two-component (X2C) relativistic Hamiltonian [sf-X2C+so-DKHn, J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 137, 154114] is combined with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method with singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) for the treatment of spin-orbit splittings of open-shell molecular systems. Scalar relativistic effects are treated to infinite order from the outset via the spin-free part of the X2C Hamiltonian (sf-X2C), whereas the spin-orbit couplings (SOC) are handled at the CC level via the first-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) type of spin-orbit operator (so-DKH1). Since the exponential of single excitations, i.e., exp(T1), introduces sufficient spin orbital relaxations, the inclusion of SOC at the CC level is essentially the same in accuracy as the inclusion of SOC from the outset in terms of the two-component spinors determined variationally by the sf-X2C+so-DKH1 Hamiltonian, but is computationally more efficient. Therefore, such an approach (denoted as sf-X2C-EOM-CCSD(SOC)) can achieve uniform accuracy for the spin-orbit splittings of both light and heavy elements. For light elements, the treatment of SOC can even be postponed until the EOM step (denoted as sf-X2C-EOM(SOC)-CCSD), so as to further reduce the computational cost. To reveal the efficacy of sf-X2C-EOM-CCSD(SOC) and sf-X2C-EOM(SOC)-CCSD, the spin-orbit splittings of the (2)Π states of monohydrides up to the sixth row of the periodic table are investigated. The results show that sf-X2C-EOM-CCSD(SOC) predicts very accurate results (within 5%) for elements up to the fifth row, whereas sf-X2C-EOM(SOC)-CCSD is useful only for light elements (up to the third row but with some exceptions). For comparison, the sf-X2C-S-TD-DFT-SOC approach [spin-adapted open-shell time-dependent density functional theory, Mol. Phys., 2013, 111, 3741] is applied to the same systems. The overall accuracy (1-10%) is satisfactory.

  6. Flame-Retarding of Cotton/Polyester Blended Yarn Fabrics Using Two-Component Sequential Treatment; Nidankai shori ni yoru men/poriesuteru konboshifu no nannenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubokawa, Hiroo. [Textile Research Institute of Gunma Prefecture, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    Cotton/polyester (C/P) blended yarn fabrics were treated with several flame retardants used for poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) using pad-dry-cure method. The relationships between the chemical structures of the flame retardants and their partition into PET fibers were investigated. When tetrabromobisphenol A (TBP-A) was tested, the amount of sorption increased with increasing concentration of TBP-A in treating acetone solution, and reached 4.0%o.w.f. (% on the weight of the fibre) at 10 wt%. THis treated fabric was again treated with a flame retardant for cotton, Pyrovatex CP New, which contains dimethyl 2-(N-hydroxymethylcarbamovl)ethylphosphonate as a main component. However, sufficient flame retardancy was not obtained. The second partition of TBP-A to cotton during heating was thought to lower the sorption efficiency of Pyrovatex CP New. Based on this assumption, for the case of the two-component sequential treatment, the Pyrovatex CP New treatment, which generates covalent bonds with hydroxy groups of cellulose, should be carried out prior to the TBP-A treatment. When a C/P blended yarn fabric was treated with Pyrovatex CP New and then with TBP-A, the amount of sorption of Pyrovatex CP New was 9.6%o.w.f. and the amount of sorption of TBP-A was 4.6%o.w.f. The limiting oxygen index of the treated fabric was 27.2%, a sufficient value for flame retardancy. Fromthis result, it was concluded that the practica flame-retardant finishing of c/p blended yarn fabrics could be carried out by using a simple finishing machine. (author)

  7. Study on Azeotropic Point of Azeotrope with Two Components%对二元溶液体系共沸溶液共沸点的再探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲金华; 杨旭

    2014-01-01

    共沸溶液很早就被人们所发现并取得了大量的实验数据,然而,这种现象的理论研究却很少。本文从理论上推导出二元体系共沸液的共沸点与外压、组成和组分沸点的定量关系式,并据此计算了二元体系共沸溶液常压下的共沸点,结果与文献的实验数据有相当好的一致性。本文还对二元体系共沸溶液的存在范围,共沸点相对单组分沸点高低的定性判定作了分析,从而为共沸溶液的研究和应用提供了理论依据。%Azeotropic solution soon discovered by the people and made the experimental data, a lot of however, theoretical study of this phenomenon is rarely. Quantitative relationship between the theoretically deduced two azeotropic distillation liquid boiling point and external pressure, composition and component boiling point, two component azeotropic solution under atmospheric pressure boiling point was calculated accordingly, the result of experimental data and literature are quite agreement. This paper also points the existence range azeotropic solution of the two group, boiling point to determine relative single component boiling point of qualitative analysis is made, which provides a theoretical basis for the research and application of azeotropic solution.

  8. Design and evaluation of a solid sampler for the monitoring of airborne 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its prepolymers in two-component spray painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, C K; Vu-Duc, T; Savolainen, H

    1992-03-01

    An active, solvent-free solid sampler was developed for the collection of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) aerosol and prepolymers. The sampler was made of a filter impregnated with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine contained in a filter holder. Interferences with HDI were observed when a set of cellulose acetate filters and a polystyrene filter holder were used; a glass fiber filter and polypropylene filter cassette gave better results. The applicability of the sampling and analytical procedure was validated with a test chamber, constructed for the dynamic generation of HDI aerosol and prepolymers in commercial two-component spray paints (Desmodur N75) used in car refinishing. The particle size distribution, temporal stability, and spatial uniformity of the simulated aerosol were established in order to test the sampler. The monitoring of aerosol concentrations was conducted with the solid sampler paired to the reference impinger technique (impinger flasks contained 10 mL of 0.5 mg/mL 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine in toluene) under a controlled atmosphere in the test chamber. Analyses of derivatized HDI and prepolymers were carried out by using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection. The correlation between the solvent-free and the impinger techniques appeared fairly good (Y = 0.979X-0.161; R = 0.978), when the tests were conducted in the range of 0.1 to 10 times the threshold limit value (TLV) for HDI monomer and up to 60 micrograms/m3 (3 U.K. TLVs) for total -N=C=O groups.

  9. Design and evaluation of a solid sampler for the monitoring of airborne 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its prepolymers in two-component spray painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C.K.; Vu-Duc, T.; Savolainen, H. (Institut Universitaire de Medecine et d' Hygiene du Travail, Universite de Lausanne, (Switzerland))

    1992-03-01

    An active, solvent-free solid sampler was developed for the collection of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) aerosol and prepolymers. The sampler was made of a filter impregnated with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine contained in a filter holder. Interferences with HDI were observed when a set of cellulose acetate filters and a polystyrene filter holder were used; a glass fiber filter and polypropylene filter cassette gave better results. The applicability of the sampling and analytical procedure was validated with a test chamber, constructed for the dynamic generation of HDI aerosol and prepolymers in commercial two-component spray paints (Desmodur N75) used in car refinishing. The particle size distribution, temporal stability, and spatial uniformity of the simulated aerosol were established in order to test the sampler. The monitoring of aerosol concentrations was conducted with the solid sampler paired to the reference impinger technique (impinger flasks contained 10 mL of 0.5 mg/mL 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine in toluene) under a controlled atmosphere in the test chamber. Analyses of derivatized HDI and prepolymers were carried out by using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection. The correlation between the solvent-free and the impinger techniques appeared fairly good (Y = 0.979X-0.161; R = 0.978), when the tests were conducted in the range of 0.1 to 10 times the threshold limit value (TLV) for HDI monomer and up to 60 micrograms/m3 (3 U.K. TLVs) for total -N=C=O groups.

  10. A Two-Component para-Nitrophenol Monooxygenase Initiates a Novel 2-Chloro-4-Nitrophenol Catabolism Pathway in Rhodococcus imtechensis RKJ300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jun; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2015-11-13

    Rhodococcus imtechensis RKJ300 (DSM 45091) grows on 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP) and para-nitrophenol (PNP) as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources. In this study, by genetic and biochemical analyses, a novel 2C4NP catabolic pathway different from those of all other 2C4NP utilizers was identified with hydroxyquinol (hydroxy-1,4-hydroquinone or 1,2,4-benzenetriol [BT]) as the ring cleavage substrate. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the pnp cluster located in three operons is likely involved in the catabolism of both 2C4NP and PNP. The oxygenase component (PnpA1) and reductase component (PnpA2) of the two-component PNP monooxygenase were expressed and purified to homogeneity, respectively. The identification of chlorohydroquinone (CHQ) and BT during 2C4NP degradation catalyzed by PnpA1A2 indicated that PnpA1A2 catalyzes the sequential denitration and dechlorination of 2C4NP to BT and catalyzes the conversion of PNP to BT. Genetic analyses revealed that pnpA1 plays an essential role in both 2C4NP and PNP degradations by gene knockout and complementation. In addition to catalyzing the oxidation of CHQ to BT, PnpA1A2 was also found to be able to catalyze the hydroxylation of hydroquinone (HQ) to BT, revealing the probable fate of HQ that remains unclear in PNP catabolism by Gram-positive bacteria. This study fills a gap in our knowledge of the 2C4NP degradation mechanism in Gram-positive bacteria and also enhances our understanding of the genetic and biochemical diversity of 2C4NP catabolism.

  11. Modeling the monthly mean soil-water balance with a statistical-dynamical ecohydrology model as coupled to a two-component canopy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Kochendorfer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The statistical-dynamical annual water balance model of Eagleson (1978 is a pioneering work in the analysis of climate, soil and vegetation interactions. This paper describes several enhancements and modifications to the model that improve its physical realism at the expense of its mathematical elegance and analytical tractability. In particular, the analytical solutions for the root zone fluxes are re-derived using separate potential rates of transpiration and bare-soil evaporation. Those potential rates, along with the rate of evaporation from canopy interception, are calculated using the two-component Shuttleworth-Wallace (1985 canopy model. In addition, the soil column is divided into two layers, with the upper layer representing the dynamic root zone. The resulting ability to account for changes in root-zone water storage allows for implementation at the monthly timescale. This new version of the Eagleson model is coined the Statistical-Dynamical Ecohydrology Model (SDEM. The ability of the SDEM to capture the seasonal dynamics of the local-scale soil-water balance is demonstrated for two grassland sites in the US Great Plains. Sensitivity of the results to variations in peak green leaf area index (LAI suggests that the mean peak green LAI is determined by some minimum in root zone soil moisture during the growing season. That minimum appears to be close to the soil matric potential at which the dominant grass species begins to experience water stress and well above the wilting point, thereby suggesting an ecological optimality hypothesis in which the need to avoid water-stress-induced leaf abscission is balanced by the maximization of carbon assimilation (and associated transpiration. Finally, analysis of the sensitivity of model-determined peak green LAI to soil texture shows that the coupled model is able to reproduce the so-called "inverse texture effect", which consists of the observation that natural vegetation in dry climates tends

  12. Modeling the monthly mean soil-water balance with a statistical-dynamical ecohydrology model as coupled to a two-component canopy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Kochendorfer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The statistical-dynamical annual water balance model of Eagleson (1978 is a pioneering work in the analysis of climate, soil and vegetation interactions. This paper describes several enhancements and modifications to the model that improve its physical realism at the expense of its mathematical elegance and analytical tractability. In particular, the analytical solutions for the root zone fluxes are re-derived using separate potential rates of transpiration and bare-soil evaporation. Those potential rates, along with the rate of evaporation from canopy interception, are calculated using the two-component Shuttleworth-Wallace (1985 canopy model. In addition, the soil column is divided into two layers, with the upper layer representing the dynamic root zone. The resulting ability to account for changes in root-zone water storage allows for implementation at the monthly timescale. This new version of the Eagleson model is coined the Statistical-Dynamical Ecohydrology Model (SDEM. The ability of the SDEM to capture the seasonal dynamics of the local-scale soil-water balance is demonstrated for two grassland sites in the US Great Plains. Sensitivity of the results to variations in peak green Leaf Area Index (LAI suggests that the mean peak green LAI is determined by some minimum in root zone soil moisture during the growing season. That minimum appears to be close to the soil matric potential at which the dominant grass species begins to experience water stress and well above the wilting point, thereby suggesting an ecological optimality hypothesis in which the need to avoid water-stress-induced leaf abscission is balanced by the maximization of carbon assimilation (and associated transpiration. Finally, analysis of the sensitivity of model-determined peak green LAI to soil texture shows that the coupled model is able to reproduce the so-called "inverse texture effect", which consists of the observation that natural vegetation in dry climates tends

  13. Two Component Decomposition of Dual Polarimetric HH/VV SAR Data: Case Study for the Tundra Environment of the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ullmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a two component decomposition technique for HH/VV-polarized PolSAR (Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar data. The approach is a straight forward adaption of the Yamaguchi decomposition and decomposes the data into two scattering contributions: surface and double bounce under the assumption of a negligible vegetation scattering component in Tundra environments. The dependencies between the features of this two and the classical three component Yamaguchi decomposition were investigated for Radarsat-2 (quad and TerraSAR-X (HH/VV data for the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada. In situ data on land cover were used to derive the scattering characteristics and to analyze the correlation among the PolSAR features. The double bounce and surface scattering features of the two and three component scattering model (derived from pseudo-HH/VV- and quad-polarized data showed similar scattering characteristics and positively correlated-R2 values of 0.60 (double bounce and 0.88 (surface scattering were observed. The presence of volume scattering led to differences between the features and these were minimized for land cover classes of low vegetation height that showed little volume scattering contribution. In terms of separability, the quad-polarized Radarsat-2 data offered the best separation of the examined tundra land cover types and will be best suited for the classification. This is anticipated as it represents the largest feature space of all tested ones. However; the classes “wetland” and “bare ground” showed clear positions in the feature spaces of the C- and X-Band HH/VV-polarized data and an accurate classification of these land cover types is promising. Among the possible dual-polarization modes of Radarsat-2 the HH/VV was found to be the favorable mode for the characterization of the aforementioned tundra land cover classes due to the coherent acquisition and the preserved co-pol. phase. Contrary, HH/HV-polarized and VV

  14. The two-component theory for accommodation after laser treatment of presbyopia%激光老视术后调节的双因素理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JT Lin

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical results of the laser correction of presbyopia and the accommodation mechanisms based on the elasticity alteration hypothesis and the anterior-shift and lens-relaxation model.Methods:Using light propagation in an eye model,we derive the total refractive power changes as the function of lens-power,corneal-power,anterior chamber depth,globe axial length and the refractive indices of the lens,cornea and humors. Experimental data of lens stretching and accommodation were used to derive some semi-empirical equations for various eye parameters related to total power change. The accommodation amplitude after a laser treatment is described by a two-component Lin dynamic mode given by the anterior shift and lens relaxation. We also propose the Lin-Kadambi hypothesis for the elasticity increasing of sclera-ciliary muscle complex for efficient accommodation and minimum regression.Results:The accommodation amplitude(AA),which is about(73% to 76%) of the lens power change,has a non-linear response to the ciliary body contraction and to the lens thickness changes. We propose that the typical accommodation of 2.0 D after a laser procedure may be achieved by lens relaxation(LR) with radius change or by anterior shift(AS) or by combining LR and AS,where AS is the dominate contribution for aging lens with rigid lens capsule.Conclusion:Clinical results of laser presbyopia reversal(LAPR) may be analyzed by light propagation calculations and the accommodation mechanisms based on the elasticity alteration hypothesis and the anterior-shift and lens-relaxation dynamic model.%目的:对于"激光老视治疗"的临床结果及基于弹性改变假说及晶状体前移及晶状体松弛模式的眼调节机制进行分析.方法:根据光在模型眼中的传导原理,导出了总屈光力因晶状体与角膜屈光力、前房深度、眼轴长度及折射率而改变的函数.使用晶状体伸张及调节实验值导出与总屈光力变化相关的眼

  15. Path-Integral Monte Carlo Determination of the Fourth-Order Virial Coefficient for a Unitary Two-Component Fermi Gas with Zero-Range Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D

    2016-06-10

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b_{4} of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b_{4}, our b_{4} agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions.

  16. Development of a low emission gas blower considering a two-component firing; Entwicklung eines emissionsarmen Gasgeblaesebrenners. Unter Beruecksichtigung der Zweistoff-Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuellemann, J. [Blue-Fan Waermetechnik AG, Mastrils (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Through the NEFF supported development project, low nitrogen oxide gas blowers have been successfully developed, permitting realisation of the required low pollutant, largely combustion chamber independent combustion with waste gas recirculation inside the combustion head, up to an output of 700 kW. With the executed field systems it was verified that the values of the LRV92 are also reproducible in practice with the newly developed technique. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch das NEFF-unterstuetzte Entwicklungsprojekt ist es gelungen, stickoxidarme Geblaesebrenner zu entwickeln, die es ermoeglichen, die gefordert schadstoffarme, weitgehend brennraumunabhaengige Verbrennung mit brennkopfinterner Abgasrezirkulation zu realisieren, und zwar bis zu einem Leistungsbereich von 700 kW. Mit den realisierten Feldanlagen konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Werte der LRV92 mit der neu entwickelten Technik auch in der Praxis immer reproduzierbar sind. (orig.)

  17. Ripples and the formation of anisotropic lipid domains: Imaging two-component double bilayers by atomic force microscopy_copy_03

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leidy, C.; Kaasgaard, Thomas; Crowe, J.H.;

    2002-01-01

    . Intriguing straight-edged anisotropic fluid-phase domains were observed in the fluid-phase/ordered-phase coexistence temperature range, which resemble the fluid-phase/ordered-phase domain patterns observed in giant unilamellar vesicles composed of such phospholipid mixtures. With the high resolution provided......Direct visualization of the fluid-phase/ordered-phase domain structure in mica-supported bilayers composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine mixtures is performed with atomic force microscopy. The system studied is a double bilayer supported...... by atomic force microscopy, we investigated the origin of these anisotropic lipid domain patterns, and found that ripple phase formation is directly responsible for the anisotropic nature of these domains. The nucleation and growth of fluid-phase domains are found to be directed by the presence of ripples...

  18. Dual control of Sinorhizobium meliloti RpoE2 sigma factor activity by two PhyR-type two-component response regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Bénédicte; Sauviac, Laurent; Bruand, Claude

    2010-04-01

    RpoE2 is an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor involved in the general stress response of Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of the legume plant alfalfa. RpoE2 orthologues are widely found among alphaproteobacteria, where they play various roles in stress resistance and/or host colonization. In this paper, we report a genetic and biochemical investigation of the mechanisms of signal transduction leading to S. meliloti RpoE2 activation in response to stress. We showed that RpoE2 activity is negatively controlled by two paralogous anti-sigma factors, RsiA1 (SMc01505) and RsiA2 (SMc04884), and that RpoE2 activation by stress requires two redundant paralogous PhyR-type response regulators, RsiB1 (SMc01504) and RsiB2 (SMc00794). RsiB1 and RsiB2 do not act at the level of rpoE2 transcription but instead interact with the anti-sigma factors, and we therefore propose that they act as anti-anti-sigma factors to relieve RpoE2 inhibition in response to stress. This model closely resembles a recently proposed model of activation of RpoE2-like sigma factors in Methylobacterium extorquens and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, but the existence of two pairs of anti- and anti-anti-sigma factors in S. meliloti adds an unexpected level of complexity, which may allow the regulatory system to integrate multiple stimuli.

  19. Low-amplitude high frequency vibration down-regulates myostatin and atrogin-1 expression, two components of the atrophy pathway in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Benedetti, Laura; Galli, Daniela; Prè, Deborah; Silvani, Giulia; Crosetto, Nicola; Magenes, Giovanni; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a very widespread mechanical stimulus used in physical therapy, rehabilitation and fitness centres. It has been demonstrated that vibration induces improvements in muscular strength and performance and increases bone density. We investigated the effects of low-amplitude, high frequency vibration (HFV) at the cellular and tissue levels in muscle. We developed a system to produce vibrations adapted to test several parameters in vitro and in vivo. For in vivo experiments, we used newborn CD1 wild-type mice, for in vitro experiments, we isolated satellite cells from 6-day-old CD1 mice, while for proliferation studies, we used murine cell lines. Animals and cells were treated with high frequency vibration at 30 Hz. We analyzed the effects of mechanical stimulation on muscle hypertrophy/atrophy pathways, fusion enhancement of myoblast cells and modifications in the proliferation rate of cells. Results demonstrated that mechanical vibration strongly down-regulates atrophy genes both in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro experiments indicated that mechanical stimulation promotes fusion of satellite cells treated directly in culture compared to controls. Finally, proliferation experiments indicated that stimulated cells had a decreased growth rate compared to controls. We concluded that vibration treatment at 30 Hz is effective in suppressing the atrophy pathway both in vivo and in vitro and enhances fusion of satellite muscle cells.

  20. Decelerating relativistic two-component jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin an