WorldWideScience

Sample records for arca zebra comercializada

  1. [Mollusc diversity in an Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia) community, Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A S; Ruiz, L J; García, N; Alvarez, M

    2001-06-01

    The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods). The diversity indexes (H' = 2.087, J' = 0.392, 1/D = 0.528) were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind.) and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.); minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.). A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index alpha of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69% in number of individuals and 72% of biomass) followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 +/- 263 g m-2, shell included) was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela. PMID:11935909

  2. [Determination of processing conditions for obtaining a pepitona (Arca zebra) hydrolysate for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixeras, S; Luna, G

    1985-12-01

    For the purpose of obtaining two protein hydrolysates from peptiona (Arca zebra), to be used as nutritional ingredients in accepted food items destined for human consumption, the enzymes bromelain and papain were studied. The effect of adding each of these proteases, on the rate of hydrolysis and conversion extent of insoluble pepitona protein to soluble nitrogen, were examined. Distilled water was added to the raw material to give a 2:1 ratio of solvent to pepitona, and mixed to produce a slurry at a pH of 6.4-6.5, with a total nitrogen value of 0.97% (w/v). Optimum conditions of hydrolysis were found to be two hours at 40 degrees C for both enzymes, at a pH of 7 and 0.3 g enzyme/100 g pepitona for papain, and a 0.2 g enzyme/100 g pepitona at pH 6.4 normally found in pepitona in the case of bromelain.

  3. [Preparation and nutritional characteristics of a hydrolysate from pepitona (Arca zebra)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbej, J; Luna, G

    1985-12-01

    Two soluble products resulting from the hydrolysis of pepitona (Arca zebra) were prepared as flour. Papain at its optimum hydrolysis conditions, previously established, was the enzyme used (40 degrees C for two hours at a pH of 7 in the proportion of 0.3% weight/enzyme/100 g meat). The hydrolysate obtained was then subjected to two different dehydration techniques: drum drying at 121 degrees C and 18 seconds retention, and spray drying at 101 degrees C and 40 psi pressure. The products were then stored for a five-month period at a temperature of 25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C, time during which chemical determinations were performed in both hydrolysates. Findings showed that the time of storage does exert a significant effect of deterioration on the products. The greater and more significant quality losses occur during the first two months. The dehydration techniques used also affect significantly the soluble nitrogen content, and non-protein nitrogen and soluble solids content, as well as color of pepitona hydrolysates. Spray-drying dehydration technique does not have a significant deteriorating effect. Biological studies undertaken demonstrated that the quality of both hydrolysates is satisfactory from the nutritional and amino acid composition points of view. A protein efficiency ratio (PER) of 2.27 and 2.29 was determined for the hydrolysate dehydrated by drum drier and for the dehydrated by spray drier, respectively. With regard to amino acid composition, both had satisfactory levels of essential amino acids, with a lysine content of 6.9 g/100 g protein for the hydrolysate dehydrated by drum drying, and 8.6 g/100 g protein for the other hydrolysate dehydrated by spray drying. PMID:3842922

  4. The reaction of the Cape Mountain Zebra (Equus Zebra Zebra to certain chemical immobilisation drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Young

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available he physiological reactions evoked by M@99 and Aza- perone in the Cape Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra Zebra are discussed. Notes on clinical as well as physiological parameters are presented and it is concluded that these drugs can be used effectively in the capture of individuals of this rare mammal.

  5. Zebra: Searching for Rare Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula; Lioma, Christina;

    2012-01-01

    disease diagnostic hypotheses in the domain of medical IR. In this work, we build upon an existing vertical medical search engine, Zebra, that is focused on rare disease diagnosis. In previous work, Zebra has been evaluated using real-life medical cases of rare and difficult diseases, and has been found...... to be a useful and competitive tool for clinicians. In this work, we extend Zebra’s functionalities to optimise the task of medical diagnosis through search as follows: we add the option of grouping retrieved documents into clusters based on disease name occurrence, and we offer a ‘disease-ranking’ option...

  6. Last news on zebra pattern

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    The publications of the last three years concerning to studying of the most intriguing fine structure in type IV solar radio bursts - zebra pattern (ZP), are surveyed. The main attention is paid to new observations, irrespective of whether a paper does include detailed interpretation of an event or simply reports about the beginning of operation of a new tool. The radiation mechanism of the ZP on a double plasma resonance (DPR) remains the most widespread and standard, though ten alternative mechanisms were offered. However, in a number of works difficulties with the explanation of a complex zebra are noted, especially in a combination with fiber bursts and spikes. Therefore, several papers in which the radiation mechanism of a zebra on the DPR is improved, are considered in more detail. Without positional observations we have a great opportunity to follow the dynamics of flare processes using SDO / AIA images in several EUV lines. In the discussion, the debatable questions with the comparison of mechanism on...

  7. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Ito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor genes (AR have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species.

  8. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Melin

    Full Text Available The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight and 30 m (twilight zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage.

  9. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  10. Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh;

    Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls: what is the functional interaural canal? Ole Næsbye Larsen, Rasmus Salomon, Kenneth Kragh Jensen, and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark The middle ears of birds are...... gains and delays in the IAC can produce very different directionalities of the ears but it is still uncertain how interaural transmission gain and delay can be shaped by evolution by anatomical adaptations. A closer inspection of the zebra finch cranium using micro-CT scanning reveals that not only is...

  11. El "Arca" de No?? en las fuentes ??rabes

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Castillo, Concepci??n

    1991-01-01

    El conocido tema b??blico del Arca de No?? fue asimilado, como otros tantos, por la tradici??n musulmana. Espigando en las distintas fuentes ??rabes hemos reunido unos datos acerca del Arca bajo los apartados de descripci??n, habitantes, y recorrido y asentam.Umto, llegando a la conclusi??n de c??mo a trav??s de los siglos la tradici??n musulmana se ha encargado de a??adir datos que en la mayor??a de los casos se alejan bastante de su punto de origen.

  12. 77 FR 27817 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... (``Valuation Agent''). \\4\\ Each Unit will represent an equal, undivided interest in the net assets of the Trust... calculation of the value of the net assets of the Trust and the NAV.\\20\\ NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201(e)(2... Arca's ``circuit breaker'' rule. See NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.12. \\20\\ See Notice, supra note 3, 77...

  13. 78 FR 13103 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... affiliate exchanges, NYSE and NYSE MKT, are), and NYSE Group would continue to be 100% owned by NYSE..., Inc. (``NYSE Arca Equities''), its wholly owned subsidiary, continue to be controlled directly or... Arca Holdings, as well as 100% of the equity interest of NYSE Arca's affiliates, New York...

  14. Research continues on zebra mussel control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers are working on many fronts to learn methods for controlling and combatting zebra mussels, a species of mussel that can attach to the inside of water intakes at hydroelectric and thermal power plants, and can reduce or block water flow. Biologists at the University of Toledo in Ohio report that compounds from the African soapberry plant called lemmatoxins are lethal to zebra mussels. In laboratory tests, researchers have determined 1 to 2 milligrams of purified lemmatoxins per liter will kill the mussels. In field tests, biologist Harold Lee flushed water through a mussel-infested pipe. He found that the berry extract killed mussels in four to eight hours, making continuous treatment of water intake pipes unnecessary, according to a report in New Scientists. The University of Toledo participated in another project, funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. That project team included the cities of Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio, Finkbeiner, Pettis ampersand Strout, Ltd. consulting engineers, and researchers from Ohio's Case Western Reserve University. The team identified a chemical oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, as a cost-effective agent for controlling zebra mussels at water treatment plant intakes. Toledo has used the sodium hypochlorite and reports the chemical has cleared colonies of zebra mussels that had attached to the intake of its water treatment plant

  15. Dynamics of zebra finch and mockingbird vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimenser, Aylin

    Along with humans, whales, and bats, three groups of birds which include songbirds (oscines) such as the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) are the only creatures known to learn sounds by imitation. Numerous similarities between human and songbird vocalizations exist and, recently, it has been shown that Zebra Finch in particular possesses a gene, FoxP2, known to be involved in human language. This thesis investigates song development in Zebra Finches, as well as the temporal dynamics of song in Mockingbirds. Zebra Finches have long been the system of choice for studying vocal development, ontogeny, and complexity in birdsong. Physicists find them intriguing because the spectrally complex vocalizations of the Zebra Finch can exhibit sudden transitions to chaotic dynamics, period doubling & mode-locking phenomena. Mockingbirds, by contrast, provide an ideal system to examine the richness of an avian repertoire, since these musically versatile songbirds typically know upwards of 200 songs. To analyse birdsong data, we have developed a novel clustering algorithm that can be applied to the bird's syllables, tracing their dynamics back to the earliest stages of vocal development. To characterize birdsong we have used Fourier techniques, based upon multitaper spectral analysis, to optimally work around the constraints imposed by (Heisenberg's) time-frequency uncertainty principle. Furthermore, estimates that provide optimal compromise between frequency and temporal resolution have beautiful connections with solutions to the Helmholtz wave equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. We have used this connection to provide firm foundation for certain heuristics used in the literature to compute associated spectral derivatives and supply a pedagogical account here in this thesis. They are of interest because spectral derivatives emphasize sudden changes in the dynamics of the underlying phenomenon, and often provide a nice way to visualize

  16. Physical Conditions in the Source Region of a Zebra Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnov, L. V.; Karlický, M.; Stupishin, A. G.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the physical conditions in the source region of a zebra structure, observed with the Ondřejov radiospectrograph during the 1 August 2010 solar flare. To determine the gyro-frequency harmonic numbers of the observed zebra lines, we compute the magnetic field strength, the electron density, and their spatial scales in the source region of the zebra structure. The region where the flare occurred is analyzed using EUV (171 Å and 335 Å) observations. To determine the conditions in the zebra source region, the magnetic field structure is reconstructed using observed photospheric magnetic field data. By computing the dependence of the magnetic field vs. height in this reconstruction and by comparing the magnetic field strength derived from the zebra structure, we determine the dependence of the electron density vs. height in the zebra source-region. We identify the loops where the zebra structure was generated at heights of about 2.5 - 3.3 Mm. Assuming the barometric law for the electron density, we determine the temperature in the zebra source-region to be T ≈ 2.0 × 104 K. Comparing the obtained values of the temperature and electron density in the zebra source-region with a model of the solar atmosphere, we find that the zebra structure was generated in the transition region, in agreement with our previous results.

  17. Zebras and Biting Flies: Quantitative Analysis of Reflected Light from Zebra Coats in Their Natural Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Kenneth H.; Thatcher, Timothy D.; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and comparative evidence suggests that the striped coats of zebras deter biting fly attack, but the mechanisms by which flies fail to target black-and-white mammals are still opaque. Two hypotheses have been proposed: stripes might serve either to defeat polarotaxis or to obscure the form of the animal. To test these hypotheses, we systematically photographed free-living plains zebras in Africa. We found that black and white stripes both have moderate polarization signatures with a similar angle, though the degree (magnitude) of polarization in white stripes is lower. When we modeled the visibility of these signals from different distances, we found that polarization differences between stripes are invisible to flies more than 10 m away because they are averaged out by the flies’ low visual resolution. At any distance, however, a positively polarotactic insect would have a distinct signal to guide its visual approach to a zebra because we found that polarization of light reflecting from zebras is higher than from surrounding dry grasses. We also found that the stripes themselves are visible to flies at somewhat greater distances (up to 20 m) than the polarization contrast between stripes. Together, these observations support hypotheses in which zebra stripes defeat visually guided orienting behavior in flies by a mechanism independent of polarotaxis. PMID:27223616

  18. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  19. LEVANTAMENTO DAS PLANTAS MEDICINAIS CULTIVADAS E COMERCIALIZADAS POR HORTICULTORES NO MUNICÍPIO DE ITUVERAVA-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALDIANO, Lívia Cordaro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available On the survey of the use and the trade of medicinal plants is necessary in first place differentiatemany category of the yield. Some plants are traded such as, usually in dryness full kind or pulverized, others comelike extracts, others like distils oils or express and finally many of them are traded on the one chemical componentdefined kind. Then, the present work, has like achievement to rise all the varieties of medicinal plants cultivatedand traded by market gardeners of the municipal district Ituverava-SP. Were visited 15 market gardens, whichof them were applied a questionary to the responsible of the same, in period from July to August/2006.Amongthe cultivated plants, the kinds quotations are: Mint(Hortelã, Watercress(Agrião, Balm-mint (Erva-cidreira,”Capim-limão”, Cabbage (Couve,” Belladona”,” Picão”,” Mentrasso””, Erva Santa-maria”,” Boldo”,” Alfavaca”,”Canforim”, Basil( Manjericão, Wormwood ( Losna,Rosemary( Alecrim, Saffron (Açafrão.Mint was the plantthat showed higher eminence between the quotations above, being this cultivated and traded in 13 of 15 marketgarden studied. All of the market gardeners didn’t know how to answer, surely, the question about the utility ofeach plant traded, what shows the importance for information about the such subject. In agreement with the gainedfigures, could decide that the information about the medicinal plant’s cultivation are of huge importance for thecommunity, being that the same are cultivated and commercialized by the market gardeners of the municipal district Ituverava-SP, with eminence for mint.No levantamento do uso e comércio de plantas medicinais, é necessário, em primeiro lugar,distinguir diversas classes de produto. Algumas plantas são comercializadas como tais, geralmente em forma seca,inteiras ou pulverizadas, outras vêm como extratos, outras, como óleos destilados ou expressos, e finalmente váriassão comercializadas na forma de um

  20. Análise de amostras de flores de Calêndula (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) comercializadas na grande Curitiba

    OpenAIRE

    Lais Mondadori Otramario Santos; Luciana Aparecida de Oliveira; Eliane Patrícia Sichinel Tibulo; Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2015-01-01

    A espécie Calendula officinalis L. é uma planta herbácea pertencente à família Asteraceae, suas flores apresentam propriedades antimicrobianas, emolientes, antiinflamatórias e tonificantes da pele. Os flavonoides são utilizados como marcadores para avaliar a qualidade da droga vegetal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a identidade e qualidade de seis amostras de flores de C. officinalis L. comercializadas na Grande Curitiba (PR). Foram realizados os ensaios de identificação macrosc...

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Metriaclima zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Song, Xiao-Lei; Chen, Ling-Yun; Li, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Cichlid fish from East Africa are remarkable for phenotypic and behavioral diversity on a backdrop of genomic similarity. Metriaclima zebra is a member of the Cichlidae family. Here, we reported the complete mitogenome sequence of M. zebra, which was 16 582 bp and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete mitogenomes of M. zebra and 11 closely related Cichlidae species to approve the accuracy. The complete mitochondrial genome of the M. zebra would provide more information for the research of M. zebra and the evolution of Cichlidae family. PMID:26273916

  2. Cave crawling in zebra Finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    The middle ears of birds are acoustically coupled through an air-filled interaural canal, often illustrated and modelled as a simple tube. It allows sound to propagate through the skull from one ear to the other and considerably enhance the cues for directional hearing by interaction with the...... by anatomical adaptations during evolution. A closer inspection of the zebra finch cranium using micro-CT scanning reveals that not only is IAC trabeculated and irregularly shaped but it also communicates with a set of highly complex, air-filled canals in the skull extending to the base of the beak...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: zebra finch [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Taeniopygia_guttata_L.png Taeniopygia_gut...tata_NL.png Taeniopygia_guttata_S.png Taeniopygia_guttata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Taeniopygia+guttata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Taeniopygia+gut...tata&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Taeniopygia+guttata&t...=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Taeniopygia+guttata&t=NS ...

  4. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  5. Avaliação da Qualidade de Amostras de Plantas Medicinais Comercializadas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pamplona Cardozo Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drogas vegetais constituem uma das matérias-primas utilizadas na fabricação de fitoterápicos, além de serem largamente utilizadas pela população como recurso terapêutico. O mercado de produtos derivados de matéria-prima vegetal, com isso, se tornou alvo de investimentos de empresas do setor farmacêutico. O presente trabalho objetivou verificar a qualidade de drogas vegetais comercializadas no mercado brasileiro, utilizando-se conjuntamente métodos de análise simples e de baixo custo.Para tanto , foram usadas amostras de “centela”, “chá verde” e “espinheira santa”, obtidas em estabelecimentos comerciais, sendo sua identidade e qualidade avaliadas por meio de análises anatômicas e microquímicas. O estudo anatômico demonstrou que as três amostras de centela continham Centella asiatica, estando algumas em mau estado de conservação. Os contaminantes desta amostra eram principalmente outras partes do corpo vegetativo de C. asiatica, além de folhas de Poaceae e de outras espécies vegetais. Duas amostras de chá verde foram identificadas como Camellia sinensis e apresentavam caules da mesma espécie como contaminantes. A terceira amostra de chá verde era constituída por Ilex paraguariensis, sendo que folhas de Bambusoideae (Poaceae também foram encontradas. Uma das amostras de espinheira santa era constituída de Sorocea bonplandii. As demais continham folhas e fragmentos de caule de Maytenus ilicifolia. As três amostras de centela apresentaram saponinas triterpênicas. Todas as amostras de chá verde possuíam metilxantinas. Dessas, apenas aquelas constituídas por C. sinensis demonstraram a presença de flavonoides. As amostras de espinheira-santa apresentaram taninos condensados. Desse modo, as metodologias propostas forneceram resultados complementares que podem ser empregados no controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais.

  6. The zebra mussel: US utility implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreissena polymorpha, the freshwater macrofouling zebra mussel, was introduced to Lake St. Clair, near Detroit, Michigan, in 1985. It has since spread throughout Lake Erie. Its planktonic veliger larval stage disperses on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, making it likely to spread throughout most of the United States and southern Canada except for the southwestern and southern United State, where summer water temperatures are above tolerated levels. Veligers enter raw water systems on intake currents to settle and grow to adults attached by secreted byssal threads to hard surfaces. Accumulations of adults impede flow, aggravate sedimentation and corrosion, and foul small-diameter components. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5--2.0 m/sec. Mussels can reduce effective pipe diameters and foul intake structures, steam condensers, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Establishment of mussels in raw water systems should be prevented because subsequent removal is difficult and expensive. Mitigation procedures include manual removal, robotic cleaning, thermal backwashing, water jetting, application of molluscicides, and possibly line pigging and acidic chemical cleaning. Control technologies include oxidizing and non-oxidizing molluscicides, robotic cleaning, shell strainers, exposure of veligers to high voltage electrical fields, thermal backwashing and sand-filtration. The United States power industry can utilize extensive European experience with this species and domestic experience with the Asian clam in its development of effective controls for zebra mussel fouling

  7. Analysis of the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porwollik Steffen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is a Gram-negative pathogen that must successfully adapt to the broad fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved dioxygen encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, ArcA (Aerobic Respiratory Control helps the cells to sense and respond to the presence of dioxygen. The global role of ArcA in E. coli is well characterized; however, little is known about its role in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Results We compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type (WT strain (ATCC 14028s and its isogenic arcA mutant grown under anaerobic conditions. We found that ArcA directly or indirectly regulates 392 genes (8.5% of the genome; of these, 138 genes are poorly characterized. Regulation by ArcA in S. Typhimurium is similar, but distinct from that in E. coli. Thus, genes/operons involved in core metabolic pathways (e.g., succinyl-CoA, fatty acid degradation, cytochrome oxidase complexes, flagellar biosynthesis, motility, and chemotaxis were regulated similarly in the two organisms. However, genes/operons present in both organisms, but regulated differently by ArcA in S. Typhimurium included those coding for ethanolamine utilization, lactate transport and metabolism, and succinate dehydrogenases. Salmonella-specific genes/operons regulated by ArcA included those required for propanediol utilization, flagellar genes (mcpAC, cheV, Gifsy-1 prophage genes, and three SPI-3 genes (mgtBC, slsA, STM3784. In agreement with our microarray data, the arcA mutant was non-motile, lacked flagella, and was as virulent in mice as the WT. Additionally, we identified a set of 120 genes whose regulation was shared with the anaerobic redox regulator, Fnr. Conclusion(s We have identified the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Our results demonstrated that in S. Typhimurium, ArcA serves as a transcriptional regulator coordinating cellular metabolism, flagella

  8. FRUTAS COMERCIALIZADAS EM FEIRA LIVRE APRESENTAM MAIOR TEOR DE ȕ-CAROTENO E VALOR DE VITAMINA A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Maria Lopes AMORIM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Em países em desenvolvimento, como o Brasil, a maior parte da vitamina A da dieta é proveniente de carotenoides pró-vitamínicos A como Į-caroteno e, principalmente, ȕ-caroteno presentes em frutas e hortaliças. O conteúdo de carotenoides nas frutas pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, entre eles o local de comercialização. Assim, foram investigados a ocorrência e o conteúdo de Į- e ȕ-caroteno em cinco frutas (goiaba Paluma, kiwi, mamão Formosa, manga Haden e maracujá azedo comercializadas em três mercados e uma feira livre do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os carotenoides foram extraídos em acetona e analisados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, utilizando detector de arranjo de diodos. O Į-caroteno não foi encontrado em nenhuma amostra. O ȕ-caroteno foi identificado e quantificado em todas as frutas. Os teores de ȕ-caroteno e os valores de vitamina A das frutas comercializadas na feira livre, exceto no mamão, foram estatisticamente superiores aos daquelas comercializadas nos mercados. O maior conteúdo de ȕ-caroteno foi observado no maracujá (1,97mg/100g, seguido da manga Haden (1,47mg/100g, goiaba Paluma (1,05mg/100g, mamão Formosa (0,38mg/100g e kiwi (0,20mg/100g. O maracujá, a manga Haden e a goiaba Paluma mostraram-se excelentes fontes de pró-vitamina A para crianças e boas fontes para homens adultos. O mamão Formosa mostrou-se fonte de vitamina A para crianças. O maracujá, a manga Haden, a goiaba Paluma e o mamão Formosa mostraram-se fontes de ȕ-caroteno e contribuíram de forma importante para o suprimento das recomendações de vitamina A para homens adultos e crianças.

  9. Zebra and Quagga Mussel Distribution in North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The concern caused by the explosive spread of the zebra mussel, (Dreissena polymorpha), within the United States resulted in passage of the Nonindigenous Aquatic...

  10. A Minimally-Invasive Procedure for Sexing Young Zebra Finches

    OpenAIRE

    Soderstrom, Ken; Qin, Weixi; Leggett, Matthew H.

    2007-01-01

    Zebra finches have been widely used to study neurobiology underlying vocal development. Because only male zebra finches learn song, efficient developmental use of these animals requires early determination of sex at ages that precede maturation of secondary sex characteristics. We have developed a sex determination method that combines a forensics method of genomic DNA isolation (from very small blood samples) with PCR amplification from Z and W sex chromosomes (males are ZZ, females ZW). Thi...

  11. Zebra battery technologies for all electric smart car

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, T M; Bingham, Chris; Clark, R E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the operational behaviour and advantages of the high temperature, sodium nickel chloride (Zebra) battery, for use in all electric urban (city) vehicles. It is shown that an equivalent parallel electrical circuit can be employed to accurately simulate the electrochemical behaviour inherent in the most recent generation of Zebra cells. The experimental procedure is outlined and summary attributes of the investigation validated by both simulation studies, and experimentally,...

  12. El sentido de la historia en El Arca Rusa.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Ocaranza

    2007-01-01

    El Arca Rusa de Alexandr Sokurov es un magnífico espejismo, una imagen histórica evocada en una sola toma y secuencia audiovisual que no necesitó de montaje para el registro cinematográfico. La película, rodada en video de alta definición en el actual museo Hermitage de San Petersburgo, se despliega en un continuum, sin interrupciones ni quiebres de lo que parece ser la evocación de un tiempo perdido. Esta obra se convirtió en el largometraje filmado ininterrumpidamente más extenso de la hist...

  13. Zebra: An advanced PWR lattice code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zheng, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an, ShannXi, 710049 (China)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of an advanced PWR lattice code ZEBRA developed at NECP laboratory in Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.. The multi-group cross-section library is generated from the ENDF/B-VII library by NJOY and the 361-group SHEM structure is employed. The resonance calculation module is developed based on sub-group method. The transport solver is Auto-MOC code, which is a self-developed code based on the Method of Characteristic and the customization of AutoCAD software. The whole code is well organized in a modular software structure. Some numerical results during the validation of the code demonstrate that this code has a good precision and a high efficiency. (authors)

  14. Zebra: An advanced PWR lattice code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of an advanced PWR lattice code ZEBRA developed at NECP laboratory in Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.. The multi-group cross-section library is generated from the ENDF/B-VII library by NJOY and the 361-group SHEM structure is employed. The resonance calculation module is developed based on sub-group method. The transport solver is Auto-MOC code, which is a self-developed code based on the Method of Characteristic and the customization of AutoCAD software. The whole code is well organized in a modular software structure. Some numerical results during the validation of the code demonstrate that this code has a good precision and a high efficiency. (authors)

  15. 77 FR 34102 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... to Listing and Trading of the First Trust CBOE VIX Tail Hedge Index Fund Under NYSE Arca Equities... VIX Tail Hedge Index Fund under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 5.2(j)(3). The text of the proposed rule... an equity index called the CBOE S&P VIX Tail Hedge Index (``Index''). The Fund will normally...

  16. 77 FR 44291 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Relating to Listing and Trading of the First Trust CBOE VIX Tail Hedge Index Fund Under NYSE Arca Equities... Hedge Index Fund (``Fund'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 5.2(j)(3). The proposed rule change was... the CBOE S&P VIX Tail Hedge Index (``Index''). The Fund will normally invest at least 90% of its...

  17. 77 FR 68163 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the NYSE Arca Options Fee Schedule Relating to Pricing Applicable to Electronic Transactions in Non-Penny...

  18. 77 FR 34445 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... and Outsourcing Solutions, Inc. as an NYSE Arca ETP Holder and OTP Holder, Subject to Apex Clearing... Corporation, f/k/a Ridge Clearing and Outsourcing Solutions, Inc. (``Apex Clearing'') as an NYSE Arca ETP... Clearing & Outsourcing Solutions, Inc. Prior to the transaction, Ridge Clearing & Outsourcing...

  19. 78 FR 24276 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600 April 18, 2013. I. Introduction On February 14, 2013, NYSE Arca, Inc... Exchange Act Release No. 69008 (February 28, 2013), 78 FR 14600 (``Notice''). \\4\\ In Amendment No. 1, the...Shares Norwegian Krone Cash Rate Fund; iShares Singapore Dollar Cash Rate Fund; iShares Swedish...

  20. 77 FR 64153 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 5.2(j)(3) (``Investment Company Units''): NYSE Arca U.S. Equity Synthetic... the options it has sold accordingly. Secondary Investment Strategies The Fund may invest its remaining...), 73 FR 14618 (March 18, 2008), footnote 34. See also Investment Company Act Release No. 5847...

  1. 76 FR 36608 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change To List and Trade the Meidell Tactical Advantage ETF June 16, 2011. I. Introduction On April 15, 2011... Tactical Advantage ETF (``Fund'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600. The proposed rule change...

  2. 77 FR 75468 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1 and Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...'') of JPM XF Physical Copper Trust (``Trust'') pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201. J.P. Morgan.... 67965, 77 FR 61457 (October 9, 2012). \\14\\ See letters from Robert B. Bernstein, V&F, to Elizabeth M... Exchange proposes to list and trade the Shares under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201. J.P. Morgan...

  3. 77 FR 29419 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Requirements. \\6\\ Costs of carrying ETP inventories include the expense ratio, which includes the management... ratio equals 80%, and LMM take ratio equals 20%: \\9\\ \\8\\ The Exchange generally employs a maker-taker... on NYSE Arca. Participation rate is the percentage of NYSE Arca volume traded by the LMM. Make...

  4. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  5. The zebra finch neuropeptidome: prediction, detection and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annangudi Suresh P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among songbirds, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata is an excellent model system for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying complex behaviours such as vocal communication, learning and social interactions. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are cell-to-cell signalling molecules known to mediate similar behaviours in other animals. However, in the zebra finch, this information is limited. With the newly-released zebra finch genome as a foundation, we combined bioinformatics, mass-spectrometry (MS-enabled peptidomics and molecular techniques to identify the complete suite of neuropeptide prohormones and final peptide products and their distributions. Results Complementary bioinformatic resources were integrated to survey the zebra finch genome, identifying 70 putative prohormones. Ninety peptides derived from 24 predicted prohormones were characterized using several MS platforms; tandem MS confirmed a majority of the sequences. Most of the peptides described here were not known in the zebra finch or other avian species, although homologous prohormones exist in the chicken genome. Among the zebra finch peptides discovered were several unique vasoactive intestinal and adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 peptides created by cleavage at sites previously unreported in mammalian prohormones. MS-based profiling of brain areas required for singing detected 13 peptides within one brain nucleus, HVC; in situ hybridization detected 13 of the 15 prohormone genes examined within at least one major song control nucleus. Expression mapping also identified prohormone messenger RNAs in areas associated with spatial learning and social behaviours. Based on the whole-genome analysis, 40 prohormone probes were found on a commonly used zebra finch brain microarray. Analysis of these newly annotated transcripts revealed that six prohormone probes showed altered expression after birds heard song playbacks in a paradigm of song

  6. Song Recognition in Zebra Finches: Are There Sensitive Periods for Song Memorization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Male zebra finches learn to sing songs that they hear between 25 and 65 days of age, the sensitive period for song learning. In this experiment, male and female zebra finches were exposed to zebra finch songs either before (n = 9) or during (n = 4) the sensitive period. Following song exposure, recognition memory for the songs was assessed with an…

  7. Chemical regulation of spawning in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is chemically regulated, both by environmental chemical cues and by internal chemical mediators. In a model proposed for zebra mussels, chemicals from phytoplankton initially trigger spawning, and chemicals associated with gametes provide further stimulus for spawning. The response to environmental chemicals is internally mediated by a pathway utilizing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, a neurotransmitter), which acts directly on both male and female gonads. The role of serotonin and most other aspects of the model have been tested only on bivalves other than zebra mussels. The effect of serotonin on zebra mussel spawning was tested. Serotonin (10-5 and 10-3 M) injected into ripe males induced spawning, but injection of serotonin into females did not. Gametes were not released by 10-6 serotonin; in most cases, serotonin injection did not release gametes from immature recipients. Serotonin injection provides a reliable means for identifying ripe male zebra mussels and for obtaining zebra mussel sperm without the need for dissection.

  8. Zebra finch as a developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Siu-Shan; Wrabel, Anna; Nagai, Hiroki; Ladher, Raj K; Sheng, Guojun

    2015-11-01

    The domesticated zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a well-established animal model for studying vocal learning. It is also a tractable model for developmental analyses. The finch genome has been sequenced and methods for its transgenesis have been reported. Hatching and sexual maturation in this species takes only two weeks and three months, respectively. Finch colonies can be established relatively easily and its eggs are laid at a stage earlier than in other common avian experimental models, facilitating the analysis of very early avian development. Representing the Neoaves to which 95% of all bird species belong, the finch can potentially complement two existing, Galloanserae developmental models, the chick, and quail. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide for how to set up a finch colony in a conventional laboratory environment. Technical tips are offered to optimize hens' productivity and ensure a constant supply of fertilized finch eggs. Methods of handling finch eggs and embryos for subsequent embryological, cellular, or molecular analyses are also discussed. We conclude by emphasizing scientific values and cost effectiveness of maintaining a finch colony for avian developmental studies. genesis 53:669-677, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26385755

  9. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  10. Regulation of stem cells in the zebra fish hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H-T; Zon, L I

    2008-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been used extensively as a model for stem cell biology. Stem cells share the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types, making them ideal candidates for tissue regeneration or replacement therapies. Current applications of stem cell technology are limited by our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that control their proliferation and differentiation, and various model organisms have been used to fill these gaps. This chapter focuses on the contributions of the zebra fish model to our understanding of stem cell regulation within the hematopoietic system. Studies in zebra fish have been valuable for identifying new genetic and signaling factors that affect HSC formation and development with important implications for humans, and new advances in the zebra fish toolbox will allow other aspects of HSC behavior to be investigated as well, including migration, homing, and engraftment.

  11. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics

  12. FindZebra: A search engine for rare diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula; Lioma, Christina Amalia;

    2013-01-01

    queries and what factors contribute to successes and failures. Among diseases, rare (or orphan) diseases represent an especially challenging and thus interesting class to diagnose as each is rare, diverse in symptoms and usually has scattered resources associated with it. Methods: We use an evaluation...... approach for web search engines for rare disease diagnosis which includes 56 real life diagnostic cases, state-of-the-art evaluation measures, and curated information resources. In addition, we introduce FindZebra, a specialized (vertical) rare disease search engine. FindZebra is powered by open source...

  13. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coniglione R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  14. Monitoramento da contaminação por elementos traço em ostras comercializadas em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dias Cavalcanti

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de ostras comercializadas em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, foram monitoradas em relação ao conteúdo de elementos traço (Hg, Zn, Fe, Cu e Mn durante o período de um ano (março/2001 a fevereiro/2002. Mercúrio foi o principal contaminante encontrado nas ostras e o elemento que apresenta maior risco à saúde pública. Foram encontrados valores de concentração de Hg em ostras de até 551,12µg/kg (peso úmido. Esses valores sugerem que a ingestão de ostras deve ser feita com restrições, principalmente, pela população que vive de sua coleta como forma de subsistência, por crianças, e mulheres grávidas. A avaliação dos níveis de mercúrio em frutos do mar é um importante fator para avaliar o risco de contaminação por mercúrio em pessoas não ocupacionalmente expostas.

  15. 78 FR 48920 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... corporate governance and notice requirements. This current policy is appropriate in light of NYSE Arca... summarizing important Exchange corporate governance and notice requirements disseminated to all listed issuers... which have been altered by merger, acquisition, consolidation or other corporate action,...

  16. 77 FR 74723 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    .... \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65922 (December 9, 2011), 76 FR 78066 (December 15, 2011... systematization and manual execution of orders executed by open outcry. \\6\\ See NYSE Arca Options Rule 6.75(a)...

  17. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    OpenAIRE

    M.C.S. Barbosa; K.M. da S. Belletti; T.F. Corrêa; C.A.M. Santos

    2001-01-01

    Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establ...

  18. DETERMINAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DE POLPAS DE AÇAÍ CONGELADAS COMERCIALIZADAS NA CIDADE DE POUSO ALEGRE – MG

    OpenAIRE

    Mariza FARIA; Laila Brasil Domingues OLIVEIRA; Francisco Eduardo de Carvalho COSTA

    2012-01-01

    A demanda por açaí tem crescido gradativamente nos mercados nacional e internacional, devido seu caráter energético e nutritivo. No entanto, o fruto é extremamente manipulado durante toda cadeia de produção da polpa, o que propicia a presença de uma elevada carga microbiana, sendo este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sua deterioração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de polpas de açaí congeladas comercializadas em 12 estabelecimentos, n...

  19. 75 FR 30095 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Amending Its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61895 (April 13, 2010), 75 FR 20417. The Commission has carefully... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Amending...

  20. 77 FR 60735 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Gold Trust (``GLD''), Google Inc. (``GOOG''), and Amazon.com , Inc. (``AMZN'').\\12\\ According to the... 27, 2012), 77 FR 39535 (``NYSE Arca Notice'') and 67284 (June 27, 2012), 77 FR 39545 (``ISE Notice...\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 67631, 77 FR 49044 (August 15, 2012) and 67632, 77 FR...

  1. Annually recurring parthenogenesis in a zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D P; Baverstock, W; Al-Jaru, A; Hyland, K; Khazanehdari, K A

    2011-11-01

    A zebra shark, Stegostoma fasciatum, held in captivity at the Burj Al Arab aquarium, produced embryos and pups in the absence of a male. A total of 15 pups were produced from eggs laid within the aquarium over a period of four consecutive years commencing 2007. Parthenogenesis was confirmed through DNA analysis for three pups sampled during the first two consecutive egg cycles and is presumed to be the method of reproduction responsible thereafter. PMID:22026614

  2. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  3. The first complete mitochondrial genome of the Maylandia zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Dang, Xiao; Xu, Qiwu; Zhang, Dongya

    2016-09-01

    Maylandia zebra, a member of the family cichlid living in individual African lakes, are regarded as a significant evolution model. Recently the genome sequencing had been done, but there is no sufficient information about its mitochondria. Herein, we first assembled the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Maylandia zebra. It is a 16 582 bp long sequence with most mitogenome's characteristic structure, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 putative control region. The GC-content of our fresh sequence is 45.86%, similar to closely related species Oreochromis niloticus. The accuracy and utility of new determined mitogenome sequences can be verified by the phylogenetic analysis, based on whole mitogenome alignment with Neolamprologus brichardi, Pseudotropheus crabro, Oreochromis niloticu, which is closest relative to Maylandia zebra, and 6 others. Using the full mitogenome, we expect to address taxonomic issues and study the related evolution events. Moreover, this is the first report of the mitogenome of genus Maylandia. PMID:27158870

  4. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g-1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g-1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/108 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g-1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g-1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/108 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor PAH

  5. Modelling the effects of diving ducks on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van E.H.; Noordhuis, R.; Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Portielje, R.; Reeze, B.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    An individual-based model describing the growth of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) is presented. The model is spatially explicit and predicts length¿frequency distributions of zebra mussels. The parameters and model inputs with the strongest effect on the model outcomes were identified using a

  6. Are Horses Like Zebras, or Vice Versa? Children's Sensitivity to the Asymmetries of Directional Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Eleanor K.; Markman, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Adults exhibit strong preferences when framing symmetrical relations. Adults prefer, for example, "A zebra is like a horse" to "A horse is like a zebra," and "The bicycle is near the building" to "The building is near the bicycle." This is because directional syntax requires more typical or prominent items…

  7. Bioaccumulation of pathogenic bacteria and amoeba by zebra mussels and their presence in watercourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteo, R; Goñi, P; Miguel, N; Abadías, J; Valero, P; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (the zebra mussel) has been invading freshwater bodies in Europe since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Filter-feeding organisms can accumulate and concentrate both chemical and biological contaminants in their tissues. Therefore, zebra mussels are recognized as indicators of freshwater quality. In this work, the capacity of the zebra mussel to accumulate human pathogenic bacteria and protozoa has been evaluated and the sanitary risk associated with their presence in surface water has also been assessed. The results show a good correlation between the pathogenic bacteria concentration in zebra mussels and in watercourses. Zebra mussels could therefore be used as an indicator of biological contamination. The bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Salmonella spp.) and parasites (Cryptosporidium oocysts and free-living amoebae) detected in these mussels reflect a potential sanitary risk in water.

  8. The use of positive reinforcement in training zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marranzino, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) was used on 4 adult zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, housed at the Downtown Aquarium, Denver, to determine the ability of zebra sharks to become desensitized to various stimuli associated with veterinary procedures. One male and 3 female sharks were trained for 12 weeks. As a result of PRT, all 4 zebra sharks were desensitized to staying within a closed holding tank off of the main exhibit, the presence of multiple trainers in the closed holding tank, and tactile stimulation. One of the 4 zebra sharks was also successfully desensitized to the presence of a stretcher being brought into the holding tank. All of these procedures are common in veterinary examinations, and it is hoped that desensitization to these stimuli will reduce the stress associated with examinations. The training accomplished has allowed for easier maintenance of the zebra sharks by the aquarium staff and an improvement in the care of the sharks.

  9. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establish their quality control patterns. The results showed that all samples are authentic but the data obtained for the physico-chemical parameters differ from those related at the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed.

  10. La calidad de varias bebidas alcohólicas comercializadas en México y las consecuencias potenciales en la salud pública

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López-Naranjo; Israel Hanani Godínez-García; Reyes Flores-Hernández; Marina Altagracia-Martínez; Rebeca Córdova-Moreno

    2013-01-01

    México es uno de los países de Latino América con un alto consumo de alcohol. Cuarenta y ocho bebidas alcohólicas (BA) comercializadas en México fueron analizadas por métodos establecidos físico-químicos para la determinación de etanol y metanol; la espectroscopia de absorción atómica se utilizó para detectar la presencia en cantidades trazas de Cu, Pb y Cd. Las muestras BA analizadas para la determinación de metanol y para la detección de la presencia de los metales pesados tóxicos (cobre, p...

  11. Avaliação da concentração de flúor em águas minerais comercializadas no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Villena Rita S.; Borges Denise G.; Cury Jaime A.

    1996-01-01

    A utilização de flúor sistêmico deve ser controlada em termos de risco/benefício, pois enquanto a subdosagem não trouxer benefício anticárie, a sobredosagem estará associada com fluorose dental. Assim, uma das preocupações é o consumo de águas minerais, o qual tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Deste modo, foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de analisar a concentração de flúor em águas minerais comercializadas no Brasil. Foram analisadas 104 marcas comerciais, de diferentes regiões do País. Util...

  12. Antioxidant Activities of Hydrolysates of Arca Subcrenata Prepared with Three Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Liyan Song; Tingfei Li; Rongmin Yu; Chunyan Yan; Yu Zhao; Shengfang Ren

    2008-01-01

    In order to get products with antioxidant activity from Arca subcrenata Lischke, the optimal hydrolase and hydrolysis conditionswere investigated in the paper. Three proteases (neutrase, alcalase and papain) were applied to hydrolyze the homogenate of A. subcrenata. An orthogonaldesign was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions, and the pH-stat methods was used to determine the degree of hydrolysis. Viewed from the angle ofreducing power, such as scavenging activities against α,α-diphen...

  13. Antioxidant Activities of Hydrolysates of Arca Subcrenata Prepared with Three Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Liyan; Li, Tingfei; Yu, Rongmin; Yan, Chunyan; Ren, Shengfang; Zhao, Yu

    2008-01-01

    In order to get products with antioxidant activity from Arca subcrenata Lischke, the optimal hydrolase and hydrolysis conditions were investigated in the paper. Three proteases (neutrase, alcalase and papain) were applied to hydrolyze the homogenate of A. subcrenata. An orthogonal design was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions, and the pH-stat methods was used to determine the degree of hydrolysis. Viewed from the angle of reducing power, such as scavenging activities against α,α-diphenyl-...

  14. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  15. Metal distribution in coral reef complex Cayo Arcas in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Silke; Ponce de León, Claudia A; Sommer, Irene; Miceli, Susi; Fernández, Pilar; Rivas, Hilda; Galicia, Leopoldo

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the coral reef system Cayos Arcas and Triangulos in the Campeche Bank region, off the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico. No information has been generated before for the incorporation of natural and non-natural occurring metals, some of which are possibly endowed by the oil marine station Cayo Arcas. The multivariate exploratory study of the metals on the coral skeletons, showed the formation of two distinct groups. The metals that have the highest influence on the differentiation of the groups are the metals that are natural constituents of the coral skeletons, in particular Sr can explain much of the differences between the groups, and to a much lesser extent are the metals that could be indicators of pollution. This differentiation suggests that, in our case, the environment around the corals has a higher impact than the non-naturally occurring metals (and possible indicators of pollution). The two groups formed corresponded to: the coral cores influenced by open sea variables and the coral cores in the inner part of the keys which is less exposed to open sea variables. A chronological study was made to two samples that had the longest coral section and were situated in two clearly distinctive zones: an exposed surface subjected to high wave forces and another that was less exposed. Ni and Zn show an accumulation trend in both coral samples, while Ba showed an increase in incorporation around 1980 when the Cayo Arcas oil marine station was constructed.

  16. Food habits of diving ducks in the Great Lakes after the zebra mussel invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  17. Developmental origins of mosaic brain evolution: Morphometric analysis of the developing zebra finch brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2009-05-10

    In adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), the telencephalon occupies 64% of the entire brain. This fraction is similar to what is seen in parrots, but many other birds possess a significantly smaller telencephalon. The aim of the present study was to determine the developmental time course and cellular basis of telencephalic enlargement in zebra finches, and then to compare these findings with what is known about telencephalic enlargement in other birds. To this end we estimated the volumes of all major brain regions from serial sections in embryonic and post-hatching zebra finches. We also labeled proliferating cells with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and phosphorylated histone H3. An important finding to emerge from this work is that the telencephalon of zebra finches at hatching contains a thick proliferative subventricular zone (SVZ) that extends from the subpallium into the dorsal pallium. The data also show that the onset and offset of telencephalic neurogenesis are both delayed in zebra finches relative to quail (Galliformes). This delay in neurogenesis, in conjunction with the expanded SVZ, probably accounts for most of the telencephalic enlargement in passerines such as the zebra finch. In addition, passerines enlarged their telencephalon by decreasing the proportional size of their midbrain tectum. Because the presumptive tectum is proportionally smaller in zebra finches than quail before neurogenesis begins, this difference in tectum size cannot be due to evolutionary alterations in neurogenesis timing. Collectively these findings indicate that several different developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of a large telencephalon in passerines.

  18. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  19. Amyloidosis in a Captive Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Research Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shientag, Lisa J; Garlick, David S; Galati, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Five birds in a captive zebra finch research colony were diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis within a 7-mo period by means of postmortem Congo red staining and green birefringence under polarized light. The liver was the most frequently and usually the most seriously affected organ, followed by the spleen and then the kidney. All 5 birds had been clinically affected with various inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic conditions associated with amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in humans and animals. Immunohistochemistry using antisera against duck AA protein revealed that tissues from 2 of the 5 birds were positive for the presence of AA protein and systemic inflammation-associated amyloidosis. Although the development of AA amyloidosis has been associated with chronic inflammation, trauma, and various infectious and neoplastic diseases as well as possible genetic predispositions and stresses linked to overcrowding, the root causes for individual cases of AA amyloidosis are incompletely understood. As far as we know, this report is the first description of AA amyloidosis in captive, research zebra finches. PMID:27298248

  20. Copper Wire Arrays at the 1 MA Zebra Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Deeney, C.; Lepell, P. D.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Ouart, N.; Ivanov, V. V.

    2006-10-01

    Experiments to study the implosion dynamics and radiation characteristics of copper z-pinches have been fielded at the 1 MA Zebra facility. At Zebra, load diameters ranged from 8mm to 16mm, with 6 to 14 wires, and load masses of 80 to 200 μg. All arrays utilized 10 micron diameter wire. The impact of initial load mass and initial load diameter on the precursor and the stagnated plasma has been evaluated through spectroscopy, shadowgraphy, and fluence measurements. Plasma parameters have been extracted from modeling of the time-integrated L-shell spectra to study temperature and density variations as a function of spatial position and initial load configuration. Comparisons will be made with harder x-ray spectra and pinhole images to identify regions of highest temperature and density. Shadowgraphy has been fielded to study the formation of the precursor and the main implosion; significant structure is observed. Substantial radiation is observed from the precursor, with variations in the precursor associated with initial load configuration. *Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Reproduction in the zebra mare Equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Smuts

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive characteristics of Burchell's zebra mares are described using data collected from captive and free ranging animals and the reproductive tracts of 310 mares shot during a game cropping campaign. The pubertal interval in zebra mares ranges from age 16 to 22 months, succesful mating occurring for the first time at 23 months of age. Full reproductive capacity is attained at three years. Zebra mares are seasonally polyoestrous, with an average of 85 of all mating and foaling occurring during the wet summer months (October to March.

  2. Co-existence of zebra mussels and freshwater unionids: Population dynamics of Leptodea fragilis in a coastal wetland infested with zebra mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Amberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, thousands of live Leptodea fragilis were collected from a marsh located in the western basin of Lake Erie that was infested with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Despite the presence of zebra mussels at this site for a number of years, this L. fragilis population showed no signs of competition-induced changes in population dynamics. Biofouling was limited: fewer than 1% of the L. fragilis showed evidence of recent or past zebra mussel colonization. Successful recruitment occurred yearly, with multiple year classes collected that ranged in age from 1 to 12 years. However, age and shell length were not well correlated. Seventy-one percent of the individuals collected were 51-80 mm long, but ranged in age from 2 to 4.5 years. Three different patterns of growth or shell deposition were found. Some individuals grew rapidly, reaching 105 mm in 3.5 years, while others grew only 4.5 mm over the same time period. A few grew poorly during some years but very rapidly in others. Individuals with a shell length of 41 mm or more were sexually mature and females were more common than males. The strong recruitment and steady growth of this population showed no change between the years before and after the zebra mussel invasion, indicating that this marsh is functioning as a natural refugium from potential problems caused by zebra mussels.

  3. Additions and amendments to the bird and mammal lists of the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H Grobler

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The following account updates and amends various previous publications dealing with the birds and mammals of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP. In the case of birds, Roberts' Birds of South Africa numbers are used.

  4. Recognition and Reconstruction of Zebra Crossings on Roads from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zebra crossings provide guidance and warning to pedestrians and drivers, thereby playing an important role in traffic safety management. Most previous studies have focused on detecting zebra stripes but have not provided full information about the areas, which is critical to both driver assistance systems and guide systems for blind individuals. This paper presents a stepwise procedure for recognizing and reconstructing zebra crossings using mobile laser scanning data. First, we propose adaptive thresholding based on road surface partitioning to reduce the impact of intensity unevenness and improve the accuracy of road marking extraction. Then, dispersion degree filtering is used to reduce the noise. Finally, zebra stripes are recognized according to the rectangular feature and fixed size, which is followed by area reconstruction according to arrangement patterns. We test our method on three datasets captured by an Optech Lynx mobile mapping system. The total recognition rate of 90.91% demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  5. "Bird Song Metronomics": Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a "signal-derived pulse," or pulse(S), of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulse(S) significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulse(P)), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulses(S) that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulse(S) periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel

  6. Putative clinical piroplasmosis in a Burchell's zebra (Equus quagga burchelli : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lampen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old tame zebra gelding was presented after suffering from lethargy, nervousness, reported anaemia and icterus as well as a decreased appetite. These symptoms were seen over some months, with changing severity. The animal was immobilised, treated, and blood specimens were submitted for haematology and biochemistry. This report describes molecular characterisation of Theileria equi recovered from this animal, as well as the clinical findings, treatment and historical relevance of piroplasmosis in zebra in southern Africa.

  7. Removal of algae by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in western Lake Erie: a bioenergetics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for growth of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) individual was verified with observations on zebra mussel growth in western Lake Erie. The bioenergetics model was then applied to the zebra mussel population in the western basin of Lake Erie to estimate the removal of phytoplankton by mussels. According to the modeling results, the zebra mussel population consumed 5.0 million tonnes of phytoplankton, while 1.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was deposited in pseudofeces from the mussels. Thus, a total of 6.4 ± 2.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was removed from the water column by zebra mussel in western Lake Erie during 1990. Primary production was estimated to be 24.8 million tonnes; therefore, zebra mussel removed the equivalent of 26 ± 10% of the primary production for western Lake Erie.

  8. Effect of acute stresses on zebra fish (Danio rerio) metabolome measured by NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mian Yahya; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti; Champagne, Danielle L; van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-09-01

    We applied an acute stress model to zebra fish in order to measure the changes in the metabolome due to biological stress. This was done by submitting the fish to fifteen minutes of acute confinement (netting) stress, and then five minutes for the open field and light/dark field tests. A polar extract of the zebra fish was then subjected to (1)H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis of the spectra showed a clear separation associated to a wide range of metabolites between zebra fish that were submitted to open field and light/dark field tests. Alanine, taurine, adenosine, creatine, lactate, and histidine were high in zebra fish to which the light/dark field test was applied, regardless of stress, while acetate and isoleucine/lipids appeared to be higher in zebra fish exposed to the open field test. These results show that any change in the environment, even for a small period of time, has a noticeable physiological impact. This research provides an insight of how different mechanisms are activated under different environments to maintain the homeostasis of the body. It should also contribute to establish zebra fish as a model for metabolomics studies. PMID:25098933

  9. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to test substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Weber, Kerry L.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    A mobile bioassay trailer was used to assess the efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder (SDP) formulation for controlling zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from two midwestern lakes: Lake Carlos (Alexandria, Minnesota) and Shawano Lake (Shawano, Wisconsin). The effects of SDP exposure concentration and exposure duration on zebra mussel survival were evaluated along with the evaluation of a benthic injection application technique to reduce the amount of SDP required to induce zebra mortality.

  10. Gaze strategy in the free flying zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Eckmeier

    Full Text Available Fast moving animals depend on cues derived from the optic flow on their retina. Optic flow from translational locomotion includes information about the three-dimensional composition of the environment, while optic flow experienced during a rotational self motion does not. Thus, a saccadic gaze strategy that segregates rotations from translational movements during locomotion will facilitate extraction of spatial information from the visual input. We analysed whether birds use such a strategy by highspeed video recording zebra finches from two directions during an obstacle avoidance task. Each frame of the recording was examined to derive position and orientation of the beak in three-dimensional space. The data show that in all flights the head orientation was shifted in a saccadic fashion and was kept straight between saccades. Therefore, birds use a gaze strategy that actively stabilizes their gaze during translation to simplify optic flow based navigation. This is the first evidence of birds actively optimizing optic flow during flight.

  11. Ultrastructural and Histochemical Characterization of the Zebra Mussel Adhesive Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, Nikrooz

    Since their accidental introduction into the Great Lakes in mid- to late-1980s, the freshwater zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have colonized most lakes and waterways across eastern North America. Their rapid spread is partly attributed to their ability to tenaciously attach to hard substrates via an adhesive apparatus called the byssus, resulting in serious environmental and economic impacts. A detailed ultrastructural study of the byssus revealed a 10 nm adhesive layer at the attachment interface. Distributions of the main adhesive amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and its oxidizing (cross-linking) enzyme, catechol oxidase, were determined histochemically. It was found that, upon aging, DOPA levels remained high in the portion of the byssus closest to the interface, consistent with an adhesive role. In contrast, reduced levels of DOPA corresponded well with high levels of catechol oxidase in the load-bearing component of the byssus, presumably forming cross-links and increasing the cohesive strength.

  12. Improving production of Zebra Fish Embryos in the lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Adu, Robert Ohene

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of fish embryos in toxicity testing of hazardous chemicals has recently been adopted in order to satisfy stricter rules and regulations related to using adult animals in toxicity testing. This paper presents optimising steps towards improving zebra fish embryo production in the...... within an hour of onset of light, an improvement over the 50-60 eggs produced in the previous work. This result demonstrates that with the right culture conditions and proper optimisation of procedure the required number of embryos needed for toxicity testing can be obtained....... laboratory. Culture conditions were maintained in the aquaria as stipulated in the OECD draft proposal for a new guideline on fish embryo tests. Furthermore, a sequence of steps were adopted and followed to improve upon previous work done in the lab in 2006. About 200 eggs were produced in one spawn trap...

  13. 77 FR 49032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67244 (June 22, 2012), 77 FR 38701 (SR-NYSEArca-2012-67) (the ``Notice''). II. Background NYSE Arca Rule 3.2 sets forth a process for the nomination and selection of fair... Rule 3.2 sets forth a similar process for the nomination and selection of fair representation...

  14. 77 FR 38116 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 66966 (May 11, 2012), 77 FR 29419. \\4\\ See Letter from Gus Sauter, Managing... Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change Proposing a Pilot Program To Create a Lead Market Maker Issuer Incentive Program for Issuers of Certain Exchange-Traded Products Listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. June 20,...

  15. 77 FR 65752 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... permit the firm to have at least one trader on the Floor of the Exchange as a Floor-based open outcry... for firms to acquire additional Market Maker OTPs. The Exchange believes that the proposed OTP pricing... Proposed Rule Change Amending the NYSE Arca Options Fee Schedule To Change the Monthly Cost for...

  16. 77 FR 47482 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... shares (``Shares'') of the QAM Equity Hedge ETF (``Fund'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600. The... material, non-public information regarding such portfolio. Principal Investment Strategies The Fund seeks... hedge fund universe as defined by the HFRI Equity Hedge (Total) Index (``HFRI Index'')...

  17. 77 FR 63362 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... platforms may choose from a range of possible, and equally reasonable, pricing strategies as the means of... FR 52769 (Aug. 30, 2012) (SR-NYSEArca-2012-89). Access and Redistribution Fees The Exchange proposes.... 62188 (May 27, 2010), 75 FR 31484 (June 3, 2010) (SR-NYSEArca-2010-23). Because the Arca...

  18. 78 FR 21650 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... (February 20, 2013), 78 FR 13103 (``Notice''). \\4\\ In approving the proposed rule changes, the Commission... Commission, along with other corporate governance documents.\\8\\ \\7\\ See Section 3(a)(27) of the Act, 15 U.S.C... NYSE Arca Holdings Bylaws, along with other corporate documents, are rules of the Exchange \\7\\ and...

  19. 78 FR 21452 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... and have market maker obligations which require them to pay for equipment and connectivity. Customers... Effectiveness of the Proposed Rule Change and Timing for Commission Action The foregoing rule change...

  20. 78 FR 4508 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 2, and Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... composed entirely of ``Independent Directors'' \\19\\ and have a written charter.\\20\\ \\19\\ ``Independent... listed company be required to have a compensation committee composed entirely of Independent Directors... continues to have a majority of independent directors, as NYSE Arca believes this would ensure that...

  1. 78 FR 11261 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... related to the value to the Exchange's market quality associated with higher volumes in Customer order... Proposed Rule Change To Amend the NYSE Arca Options Fee Schedule To Introduce a New Electronic Customer... Options Fee Schedule (the ``Fee Schedule'') to introduce a new electronic Customer rate for...

  2. 77 FR 19401 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Securities/the Exchange associated with the liquidation of the error positions. \\15\\ If Arca Securities... the liquidation of error positions, as well as records associated with the liquidation of error... perfect the mechanism of a free and open market and a national market system and, in general, to...

  3. 75 FR 65041 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Instruct NYSE Arca To Bypass Non-Regulation NMS Protected Market Centers When Routing Away October 15, 2010...-Regulation NMS protected market centers when routing away. The text of the proposed rule change is available... are not posting Protected Quotations within the meaning of Regulation NMS. In March 2008, NYSE...

  4. 77 FR 27106 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of... Holder of the equipment, installation, and maintenance provided by the Exchange, and (2) the cost to the.... III. Date of Effectiveness of the Proposed Rule Change and Timing for Commission Action The...

  5. 76 FR 53004 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 5.2(j)(3), seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally... Index more accurately represents the investment strategy of the Fund, and the change to the Fund's benchmark will not impact the investment objective or the principal investment strategies for the Fund....

  6. 77 FR 36314 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... traded on the Exchange under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 5.2(j)(3), seeks to provide investment results that... qualitative investment process, to determine the optimal Underlying ETPs and options for the strategy. The... initiate tactical shifts in the underlying investments when the strategy indicates it is both optimal...

  7. 76 FR 76205 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 5.2(j)(3), seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally..., the Adviser will employ an active investment strategy, meaning that it buys and holds Underlying ETPs... not invest in Underlying ETPs that use derivatives as a principal investment strategy unless...

  8. 76 FR 24936 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List... (``Managed Fund Shares''): The Meidell Tactical Advantage ETF. The text of the proposed rule change is...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change...

  9. 77 FR 20087 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Listing and Trading of the PIMCO Global Advantage Inflation-Linked Bond Strategy Fund Under... (February 10, 2012), 77 FR 9281 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The...

  10. 78 FR 18649 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    .... (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold Trust (``GLD''), Google Inc. (``GOOG'') and Amazon.com Inc. (``AMZN'').\\4\\ Whereas... Exchange's Web site at www.nyse.com , at the principal office of the Exchange, and at the Commission's... Exchange Act Release Nos. 67948 (September 28, 2012), 77 FR 60735 (October 4, 2012) (SR-NYSE-Arca-...

  11. 77 FR 76121 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... may enter into these contracts to hedge against foreign exchange risk, to increase exposure to a... and Trade PIMCO Foreign Currency Strategy Exchange-Traded Fund Under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600... trade shares (``Shares'') of the PIMCO Foreign Currency Strategy Exchange-Traded Fund (``Fund'')...

  12. 78 FR 23601 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... distribution of material, non-public information by its employees. Suitability Currently, NYSE Arca Equities... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE.... 68043 (October 12, 2012), 77 FR 64153 (``Notice''). \\5\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(2). \\6\\ Securities Exchange...

  13. 77 FR 25218 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... between each Market Segment or Sector and the current business cycle; (2) valuation levels; (3) earnings... Arca Equities Rule 8.600. See, e.g., Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 57801 (May 8, 2008), 73 FR... actively managed funds of the WisdomTree Trust); 65468 (October 3, 2011), 76 FR 62873 (October 11,...

  14. Recent results of zebra patterns in solar radio bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady P.Chernov

    2010-01-01

    This review covers the most recent experimental results and theoretical research on zebra patterns(ZPs)in solar radio bursts.The basic attention is given to events with new peculiar elements of zebra patterns received over the last few years.All new properties are considered in light of both what was known earlier and new theoretical models.Large-scale ZPs consisting of small-scale fiber bursts could be explained by simultaneous inclusion of two mechanisms when whistler waves"highlight"the levels of double plasma resonance(DPR).A unique fine structure was observed in the event on 2006 December 13: spikes in absorption formed dark ZP stripes against the absorptive type Ⅲ-like bursts.The spikes in absorption can appear in accordance with well known mechanisms of absorptive bursts.The additional injection of fast particles filled the loss-cone(breaking the loss-cone distribution),and the generation of the continuum was quenched at these moments.The maximum absorptive effect occurs at the DPR levels.The parameters of millisecond spikes are determined by small dimensions of the particle beams and local scale heights in the radio source.Thus,the DPR model helps to understand several aspects of unusual elements of ZPs.However,the simultaneous existence of several tens of the DPR levels in the corona is impossible for any realistic profile of the plasma density and magnetic field.Three new theories of ZPs are examined.The formation of eigenmodes of transparency and opacity during the propagation of radio waves through regular coronal inhomogeneities is the most natural and promising mechanism.Two other models(nonlinear periodic space-charge waves and scattering of fast protons on ion-sound harmonics)could happen in large radio bursts.

  15. RASPODJELA I SASTAV POPULACIJE KUNJKE Arca noae U PAŠMANSKOM KANALU

    OpenAIRE

    Peharda, Melita; Stagličić, Nika; Ezgeta, Daria; VRGOČ, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Krstulović–Šifner, Svjetlana

    2009-01-01

    Kunjka (Arca noae) jestivi je školjkaš koji se komercijalno sakuplja u istočnom dijelu Jadrana, primarno metodom autonomnog ronjenja. Nema pouzdanih statističkih podataka o sakupljanju ove vrste kao ni podataka o raspodjeli i sastavu populacija iskorištavanih »stokova«, što je nužno za uspostavu održive razine eksploatacije. Cilj je ovog istraživanja bio određivanje raspodjele i sastava populacije vrste A. noae u jednom od područja sakupljanja — Pašmanskom kanalu. Istraživanje je provedeno u ...

  16. High variation and very low differentiation in wide ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga): insights from mtDNA and microsatellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline D; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of genetic differentiation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga) were analysed using mitochondrial DNA control region variation and seven microsatellites. The six morphologically defined subspecies of plains zebra lacked the population genetic structure indicative of distinct evolutionary u...

  17. Avaliação da padronização de agulhas anestésicas odontológicas comercializadas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIROTTO Marcos Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas neste trabalho agulhas anestésicas odontológicas descartáveis, comercializadas no Brasil no segundo semestre de 1997, quanto às medidas: comprimento da cânula, da porção que perfura o tubete e da porção que permanece no interior do adaptador plástico e diâmetros externo e interno. A resistência à corrosão da cânula e as informações da embalagem (caixa e protetor também foram avaliadas. Os resultados foram comparados com as normas Internacional (ISO8, Americana (ANSI/ADA¹ e Francesa (NF. Foram observadas variações, não havendo uma só marca que estivesse de acordo com qualquer das normas, para todas as medidas. Todas as agulhas atingiram as especificações do teste de corrosão. Algumas embalagens mostraram conteúdo de informação incompleto e uma marca estava sendo vendida sem prazo de validade. Alguns protetores não permitiam identificar a violação do lacre, quando isto ocorria. Estes resultados demonstram a necessidade de se estabelecerem normas brasileiras, para regulamentar a produção e venda de agulhas odontológicas no país.

  18. Avaliação da contaminação parasitológica de rúculas (Eruca sativa comercializadas em Erechim, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Carla MATIASSO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a contaminação por enteroparasitas em amostras de rúcula (Eruca sativa comercializadas na cidade de Erechim–RS. No período de março a maio de 2013, foram analisadas, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, 40 amostras, obtidas em mercados e feiras do produtor. Dentre as rúculas analisadas, 22,5% apresentaram contaminação por trofozoítos e/ou cistos de ameba. Não foram encontrados ovos ou larvas de helmintos patogênicos ao homem. Vegetais consumidos sem cozimento prévio podem apresentar padrão de qualidade higiênicosanitária inadequado, o que destaca a necessidade de maior orientação aos produtores e manipuladores, no que se refere à sua correta manipulação e higienização.

  19. Estudo da contaminação por enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas nos supermercados da cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Pereira da Silva

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Através de métodos parasitológicos usuais avaliou-se a contaminação por cistos e ovos de enteroparasitas de 220 amostras de hortaliças que são consumidas cruas e comercializadas nas zonas norte (de menor poder aquisitivo e sul (de maior poder aquisitivo da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Apesar de não ter havido aparente diferença na procedência das hortaliças avaliadas, constatou-se maior grau de contaminação nas amostras procedentes da zotza norte e nas amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa. Discutiu-se a possibilidade de a diferença observada estar relacionada ao acondicionamento das hortaliças ou ser devido à manipulação das mesmas por vendedores e consumidores.Parasitological examinations were performed in material derived from 220 vegetables to detect cysts and eggs of intestinal parasites. This material was collected from supermarkets in northern and southern areas and from CEASA (Central Supply Market - 40 vegetables in Rio de Janeiro city. Vegetables proceeding from the northern areas presented a greater degree of contamination mostly of helminth eggs; lettuce was the most contaminated vegetable. The authors suggest that differences found between the northern and southern areas of the city may be due to either packing or manipulation by shop assistants and consumers.

  20. Qualidade microbiológica de salada de frutas comercializadas por ambulantes na cidade de Juazeiro do Norte – Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jôcy Emanuela Ferreira dos Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a qualidade microbiológica de salada de frutas comercializadas por ambulantes na cidade de Juazeiro do Norte - Ceará. Foram coletadas seis amostras de salada de frutas, sendo duas em cada ponto de coleta. As amostras foram coletadas pela manhã no centro da cidade, as amostras foram mantidas em recipientes isotérmicos e levadas para o Laboratório de Microbiologia de Alimentos da FATEC – Cariri. Realizaram-se análises de coliformes a 45°C e Salmonella spp, segundo as Normas da APHA 2001. Os resultados foram interpretados de acordo com a RDC N°12, de janeiro de 2001 da ANVISA. Para coliformes a 45°C foram encontrados resultados iguais a 2,4x102 NMP/g; 1,5x102 NMP/g; 4,6x102 NMP/g; ≥2,4x102 NMP/g; 4,6x102 NMP/g e ≥2,4x102, para as amostras A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 e C2 respectivamente. Estes resultados revelam que 33,33% das amostras, encontra-se em desacordo com o padrão federal vigente que permite 5x102 NMP/g. Para Salmonella spp., os resultados encontrados foram de ausência em todas as amostras.

  1. The use of chlorine dioxide for zebra mussel control - A perspective of treatment histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolik, N.; Rusznak, L.; Anderson, J.; Hale, L. [Ashland Chemical Coman, Drew Division, Booton, NJ (United States)

    1995-06-01

    It is of utmost importance to provide updated performance results of various chemical treatments presently being utilized for zebra mussel control. Zebra mussels have a distinctive ability to endure environmental changes by reproducing effectively and attaching to various hard surfaces. These traits are cause for concern and have resulted in some operating difficulties for industries bordering infested waterways. Various methods are being employed by industries to deal with the problems associated with these species. One of the options is control via chemical treatment. Prior field test studies showed that chlorine dioxide was determined to be an effective molluscicidal agent for adult zebra mussel eradication. Continuous feed of chlorine dioxide at treatment levels ranging from 0.25 - 5.0 ppm above the oxidant demand provided 100% adult zebra mussel mortality which required between 2.9 - 8.8 days of treatment. Previous studies also showed that water temperature was an essential parameter in determining the time required to achieve 100% mortality of adult zebra mussels. Further field applications were undertaken at three electric utility sites located in the midwest. These facilities were concerned with the potential for zebra mussels to reduce efficiency and availability by blocking water flow or plugging equipment. Treatment applications at these facilities consisted of a continuous feed of chlorine dioxide ranging from 0.15 - 0.5 ppm above the oxidant demand. Significant mortality was achieved in monitored mussels tested at each utility in a period ranging from two to four days. This time period was directly related to a number of parameters, with the predominant one being water temperature. Data from these field applications is presented in this paper and confirms that chlorine dioxide is an effective molluscicide for adult zebra mussel control.

  2. Zebra Delivers EPC Gen 2 RFID Printing/Encoding With Industry’s First Free,Downloadable Firmware Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Companies can add Gen2 support on existing Zebra RFID printer/encoders while continuing to use Gen 1 and other protocols: no new hardware required. Vernon Hills,Ⅲ., December 14,2005-Zebra Technologies (Nasdaq:ZBRA),a leading manufacturer of radio frequency identification (RFID) printer/encoders worldwide, today

  3. Zebra finch females prefer males with redder bills independent of song rate-a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J.P.; Verhulst, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Male zebra finches display multiple secondary sexual traits such as song and red bill coloration. This color is dependent on carotenoids, which enhance immune function and are antioxidants. A red bill may thus function as an indicator signal. The zebra finch is extensively used in the study of carot

  4. LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present

  5. Freqüência de enteroparasitas em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa) comercializadas em Lavras, Minas Gerais Frequency of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) commercialized in Lavras, Minas Gerais State

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães; Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves; Henrique César Pereira Figueiredo; Geraldo Márcio da Costa; Luciano dos Santos Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação parasitológica em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa) comercializadas em Lavras, MG. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, indicados pela presença de formas parasitológicas de origem animal ou humana e alta concentração de coliformes fecais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) commercialized in Lavras city, Minas Gerais. The samples of lettuce...

  6. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H

    2014-03-20

    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt. PMID:24646996

  7. Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the external structures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

  8. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Olson

    Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  9. Association of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with "zebra chip," a new potato disease in southwestern United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaneza, J E; Crosslin, J M; Upton, J E

    2007-06-01

    A new defect of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., "zebra chip," so named for the characteristic symptoms that develop in fried chips from infected potato tubers, has recently been documented in several southwestern states of the United States, in Mexico, and in Central America. This defect is causing millions of dollars in losses to both potato producers and processors. Zebra chip plant symptoms resemble those caused by potato purple top and psyllid yellows diseases. Experiments were conducted to elucidate the association between the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) and zebra chip by exposing clean potato plants to this insect under greenhouse and field conditions. Potato plants and tubers exhibiting zebra chip symptoms were tested for phytoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction. Potato psyllids collected from infected potato fields also were tested. Results indicated that there was an association between the potato psyllid and zebra chip. Plants exposed to psyllids in the greenhouse and field developed zebra chip. In the greenhouse, 25.8 and 59.2% of tubers exhibited zebra chip symptoms in the raw tubers and fried chips, respectively. In the field, 15 and 57% of tubers showed symptoms in raw tubers and chips, respectively. No zebra chip was observed in tubers from plants that had not been exposed to psyllids, either in the greenhouse or field. No phytoplasmas were detected from potato plants or tubers with zebra chip symptoms, suggesting that these pathogens are not involved in zebra chip. Of the 47 samples of potato psyllids tested, only two tested positive for the Columbia Basin potato purple top phytoplasma. PMID:17598522

  10. Lessons learned in over 100 zebra mussel control applications at industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGough, C.M.; Gilland, P.H.; Muia, R.A. [Calgon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Since their introduction into US waterways, Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorphae) have spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes and Mississippi regions. These mussels have continued to colonize the intake pipes of industrial water supplies and water distribution systems throughout the affected areas. Their colonization has compromised plant safety and production efficiency, and steadily increased costs to water users. The design of each industrial plant water distribution system is unique. A comprehensive zebra mussel control strategy using the best available options must be considered in each specific situation. This paper discusses the successful use of one strategy (a quaternary ammonia-based molluscicide) in the battle against zebra mussels. The commercial life cycle of an industrial molluscicide began with initial toxicity screening in the laboratory. The evaluation continued at plant sites through field trials and applications. Lessons learned from these experiences helped direct the efforts toward the development of a second generation program.

  11. The perception of regularity in an isochronous stimulus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan; ten Cate, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Perceiving temporal regularity in an auditory stimulus is considered one of the basic features of musicality. Here we examine whether zebra finches can detect regularity in an isochronous stimulus. Using a go/no go paradigm we show that zebra finches are able to distinguish between an isochronous and an irregular stimulus. However, when the tempo of the isochronous stimulus is changed, it is no longer treated as similar to the training stimulus. Training with three isochronous and three irregular stimuli did not result in improvement of the generalization. In contrast, humans, exposed to the same stimuli, readily generalized across tempo changes. Our results suggest that zebra finches distinguish the different stimuli by learning specific local temporal features of each individual stimulus rather than attending to the global structure of the stimuli, i.e., to the temporal regularity. PMID:25725348

  12. Home range sizes for burchell's zebra equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Annual home range sizes were determined for 49 marked zebra family groups in the Kruger National Park. Sizes varied from 49 to 566 sq. km, the mean for the Park being 164 square kilometre. Mean home range sizes for different zebra sub-populations and biotic areas were found to differ considerably. Present herbivore densities have not influenced intra- and inter-specific tolerance levels to the extent that home range sizes have increased. Local habitat conditions, and particularly seasonal vegetational changes, were found to have the most profound influence on the shape and mean size of home ranges. The large home range sizes obtained in the Kruger Park, when compared to an area such as the Ngorongoro Crater, can be ascribed to a lower carrying capacity with respect to zebra, large portions of the habitat being sub-optimal, either seasonally or annually.

  13. The Zebra Fish IBD Model Assessed By Novel Probe Based TagMan Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt; Haarder, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is subdivided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which are chronic disorders. Millions of persons throughout the Western world are affected by IBD, and the condition is associated with severe morbidity and reduced quality of life for afflicted persons....... The etiology is complex and not fully understood. The zebra fish (Danio rerio) may serve as a model for elucidation of these inadequately understood mechanisms. Two hapten-mediated IBD-like models in zebra fish have been generated by using the chemicals oxazolone and TNBS dissolved in ethanol. From mammalian...... models it is known that oxazolone and TNBS can induce conditions mimicking ulcerative colitis (Th2 like response) and Crohn's disease (Th1/Th17 like response), respectively. Zebra fish (body weight 0.5 g) were divided into 4 groups (each with 2 replicates) and instilled rectally with H2O, ethanol, TNBS...

  14. Scope of problem assessed at IVO. The zebra mussel`s campaign of world conquest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvonen, J.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The migrating shell - or `zebra mussel` as it is called on account of its black and white stripes - was originally a fresh-water mussel, but has since also adapted to brackish waters. As a result of human activity the species has spread quickly and widely from its native habitat. Operators of power plants and water treatment plants in particular have not been very happy about this. During its larval stage the zebra mussel can enter the cooling water systems; fasten itself to the pipes and - in the worst case - clog the system. The Environmental Protection Division of IVO has been assessing the spread of the zebra mussel and the resulting problems with the aid of reference literature and the assistance of Finnish researchers

  15. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina e camomila (Matricaria recutita L. comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. SOARES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus e camomila (Matricaria recutita são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE, além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de camomila, procedentes de farmácias, de lojas de produtos naturais e de bancas de raizeiros, foram analisadas quanto à autenticidade, à pureza e às informações contidas na rotulagem desses produtos conforme legislação vigente. Na verificação de impurezas, 35,7% das amostras de boldo e 57,7% das amostras de camomila excederam o teor máximo de matéria estranha; no teor de cinzas totais, 33,3% das amostras de boldo foram reprovadas; rotulagens das amostras de boldo (100% e de camomila (96,6% apresentaram erros ou ausência de informações. Os resultados das análises confirmam, portanto, a necessidade urgente de melhor fiscalização e intervenção na produção e venda dessas e de outras drogas vegetais para adequação às normas vigentes.

  16. QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DE ÁGUAS MINERAIS NÃO CARBONATADAS EM EMBALAGENS DE 1,5 LITROS, COMERCIALIZADAS EM ARARAQUARA-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto FARACHE FILHO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos da qualidade microbiológica em amostras de água mineral natural em garrafas de 1,5 L. Foram analisadas 110 amostras de águas minerais, cinco de cada uma das 22 marcas comercializadas em supermercados da cidade de Araraquara-SP. Para análise de coliformes totais e coliformes fecais/Escherichia coli (E. coli utilizou-se a técnica de substratos cromogênicos; para Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizou-se a técnica de tubos múltiplos e para contagem de bactérias heterotróficas empregou-se a técnica de cultivo em profundidade. Verificou-se que todas as amostras foram negativas para coliformes totais e coliformes fecais/E. coli, cinco amostras (4,5% provenientes de quatro marcas (18,18% foram positivas para Pseudomonas aeruginosa, para bactérias heterotróficas 40 amostras (36,4% de 9 marcas (40,9% não atenderam ao padrão adotado apresentando contagens superiores a 500 unidades formadoras de colônias/mL. A maioria das amostras atendeu aos padrões para coliformes totais, coliformes fecais/E. coli e Pseudomonas aeruginosa em acordo com a legislação vigente para água mineral, entretanto grande parte das amostras (36,4% proveniente de nove marcas (40,9% tiveram contagem para bactérias heterotróficos maior que 500 UFC/mL (Unidade Formadora de Colônia, gerando dúvidas quanto à segurança e qualidade dessas águas para consumo humano.

  17. Formation of zebra pattern in low-frequency Jovian radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, A A

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the formation of zebra-like fine spectral structures (consisting of several parallel bands in the dynamic spectrum) in the Jovian broadband kilometric radiation; such radio bursts were observed by Cassini in 2000/2001. We assume that the emission is generated due to a plasma mechanism in the Io plasma torus. We have shown that the double plasma resonance effect (that was proposed earlier as a formation mechanism of the solar zebra patterns) is able to produce the observed spectral structures. The observed frequency drifts are caused, most likely, by the dynamics of the electron acceleration site. The required conditions in the emission source are discussed.

  18. The ZEBRA electric vehicle battery: power and energy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Roy C.; Haslam, Steven

    Vehicle trials with the first sodium/nickel chloride ZEBRA batteries indicated that the pulse power capability of the battery needed to be improved towards the end of the discharge. A research programme led to several design changes to improve the cell which, in combination, have improved the power of the battery to greater than 150 W kg -1 at 80% depth of discharge. Bench and vehicle tests have established the stability of the high power battery over several years of cycling. The gravimetric energy density of the first generation of cells was less than 100 Wh kg -1. Optimisation of the design has led to a cell with a specific energy of 120 Wh kg -1 or 86 Wh kg -1 for a 30 kWh battery. Recently, the cell chemistry has been altered to improve the useful capacity. The cell is assembled in the over-discharged state and during the first charge the following reactions occur: at 1.6 V: Al+4NaCl=NaAlCl 4+3Na; at 2.35 V: Fe+2NaCl=FeCl 2+2Na; at 2.58 V: Ni+2NaCl=NiCl 2+2 Na. The first reaction serves to prime the negative sodium electrode but occurs at too low a voltage to be of use in providing useful capacity. By minimising the aluminium content more NaCl is released for the main reactions to improve the capacity of the cell. This, and further composition optimisation, have resulted in cells with specific energies in excess of 140 Wh kg -1, which equates to battery energies>100 Wh kg -1. The present production battery, as installed in a Mercedes Benz A class electric vehicle, gives a driving range of 205 km (128 miles) in city and hill climbing. The cells with improved capacity will extend the practical driving range to beyond 240 km (150 miles).

  19. Predicted sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ARCA detector to a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coniglione R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a research infrastructure hosting a network of underwater neutrino detectors in the Mediterranean Sea. Two instruments based on the same technology are being built: KM3NeT/ORCA to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations and KM3NeT/ARCA to detect high-energy cosmic neutrinos both in diffuse and point source mode. The excellent angular resolution of the ARCA detector, with an instrumented volume of about one Gton, will allow for an unprecedented exploration of the neutrino sky searching for neutrinos coming from defined sources of sky regions, like the Galactic Plane and the Fermi Bubbles. It will also look for diffuse high energy neutrino fluxes following the indication provided by the IceCube signal. This contribution will report on the sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ARCA telescope with particular attention to the region of the Galactic Plane. Comparisons with theoretical expectations are also discussed.

  20. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. - Highlights: • Invading quagga mussels often displace existing zebra mussels. • Interspecies difference in metal concentration may alter exposure of predators. • Zebra and quagga mussel soft tissue were analysed for metal concentrations. • Generally, quagga mussels contained lower concentrations of metals. • A dominance shift to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predators. - A shift in dominance from zebra mussels to invading quagga mussels may reduce the transfer of metals to predator species

  1. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees) comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees) sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi; Eliane Moretto

    1995-01-01

    Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores

  2. Análisis espectral del arrecife coralino de Cayos Arcas, Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Aguirre Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de sensores remotos aerotransportados con alta resolución espectral o hiperespectrales, ha venido incrementándose, paulatinamente, en estudios de elementos sobre la superficie terrestre. En particular, el estudio de cuerpos de agua mediante estos instrumentos ha recibido un gran impulso en los últimos años, en diversos campos de investigación. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar una caracterización espacial del arrecife coralino de Cayos Arcas utilizando el sensor hiperespectral aerotransportado CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager. Los resultados obtenidos mediante el procesamiento de imágenes muestran que es posible la detección de sedimento (distribución y patrones de transporte, la batimetría y las características fisiográficas de la región entre los aspectos más importantes.

  3. Regulatory Differences in Natal Down Development between Altricial Zebra Finch and Precocial Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Kuan; Ng, Chen Siang; Wu, Siao-Man; Chen, Jiun-Jie; Cheng, Po-Liang; Wu, Ping; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Chen, Di-Rong; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Ting, Chau-Ti; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2016-08-01

    Birds can be classified into altricial and precocial. The hatchlings of altricial birds are almost naked, whereas those of precocial birds are covered with natal down. This regulatory divergence is thought to reflect environmental adaptation, but the molecular basis of the divergence is unclear. To address this issue, we chose the altricial zebra finch and the precocial chicken as the model animals. We noted that zebra finch hatchlings show natal down growth suppressed anterior dorsal (AD) skin but partially down-covered posterior dorsal (PD) skin. Comparing the transcriptomes of AD and PD skins, we found that the feather growth promoter SHH (sonic hedgehog) was expressed higher in PD skin than in AD skin. Moreover, the data suggested that the FGF (fibroblast growth factor)/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in natal down growth suppression and that FGF16 is a candidate upstream signaling suppressor. Ectopic expression of FGF16 on chicken leg skin showed downregulation of SHH, upregulation of the feather growth suppressor FGF10, and suppression of feather bud elongation, similar to the phenotype found in zebra finch embryonic AD skin. Therefore, we propose that FGF16-related signals suppress natal down elongation and cause the naked AD skin in zebra finch. Our study provides insights into the regulatory divergence in natal down formation between precocial and altricial birds.

  4. Wild at heart? : differential maternal investment in wild and domesticated zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    OpenAIRE

    Pariser, Emma C

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years there has been an exponential increase in the investigation of maternal effects. Understanding the adaptive function of maternal allocation strategies is integral to interpreting the evolutionary outcomes of sexual selection. Thus, model animal systems that facilitate experimental manipulation and controlled investigation of the physiological and behavioural mechanisms underlying maternal effects are important to evolutionary biologists. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia...

  5. Zebra - sõbralik ja lillelõhnaline / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas Narva mnt. 7 asuva kohviku Zebra sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Tiiu Truus. Ehitus: AS KMG Ehitus. Materjalidest on kasutatud triibulise mustriga puitu Zebrano ja looduskivi. Laes on dekoratiivsed lipud, mille graafiline kujundus on Tiiu Priskolt ja Mati Veermetsalt. Tualettruumi looduskivist valamu ja põrandavaasi autor on Kaido Kivi. Ill.: põhiplaan, 11 värv. vaadet

  6. Study of bioengineered zebra fish olfactory receptor 131-2: receptor purification and secondary structure analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong-Joo Leck

    Full Text Available How fishes are able to detect trace molecules in large bodies of water is not understood. It is plausible that they use olfactory receptors to detect water-soluble compounds. How the zebra fish Danio Rerio, an organism with only 98 functional olfactory receptors, is able to selectively detect and recognize numerous compounds in water remains a puzzling phenomenon. We are interested in studying the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of olfaction in fish. Here, we report on the study of a bioengineered zebra fish olfactory receptor OR131-2, affinity-purified from a HEK293S tetracycline-inducible system. This receptor was expressed and translocated to the cell plasma membrane as revealed by confocal microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the purified zebra fish receptor folded into an α-helical structure, as observed for other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. Our study shows that it is possible to produce viable quantities of the zebra fish olfactory receptor. This will not only enable detailed structural and functional analyses, but also aid in the design of biosensor devices in order to detect water-soluble metabolites or its intermediates, which are associated with human health.

  7. Song decrystallization in adult zebra finches does not require the song nucleus NIf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arani; Mooney, Richard

    2009-08-01

    In adult male zebra finches, transecting the vocal nerve causes previously stable (i.e., crystallized) song to slowly degrade, presumably because of the resulting distortion in auditory feedback. How and where distorted feedback interacts with song motor networks to induce this process of song decrystallization remains unknown. The song premotor nucleus HVC is a potential site where auditory feedback signals could interact with song motor commands. Although the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf) appears to be the primary auditory input to HVC, NIf lesions made in adult zebra finches do not trigger song decrystallization. One possibility is that NIf lesions do not interfere with song maintenance, but do compromise the adult zebra finch's ability to express renewed vocal plasticity in response to feedback perturbations. To test this idea, we bilaterally lesioned NIf and then transected the vocal nerve in adult male zebra finches. We found that bilateral NIf lesions did not prevent nerve section-induced song decrystallization. To test the extent to which the NIf lesions disrupted auditory processing in the song system, we made in vivo extracellular recordings in HVC and a downstream anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in NIf-lesioned birds. We found strong and selective auditory responses to the playback of the birds' own song persisted in HVC and the AFP following NIf lesions. These findings suggest that auditory inputs to the song system other than NIf, such as the caudal mesopallium, could act as a source of auditory feedback signals to the song motor network.

  8. Automatic detection of zebra crossings from mobile LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveiro, B.; González-Jorge, H.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Arias, P.

    2015-07-01

    An algorithm for the automatic detection of zebra crossings from mobile LiDAR data is developed and tested to be applied for road management purposes. The algorithm consists of several subsequent processes starting with road segmentation by performing a curvature analysis for each laser cycle. Then, intensity images are created from the point cloud using rasterization techniques, in order to detect zebra crossing using the Standard Hough Transform and logical constrains. To optimize the results, image processing algorithms are applied to the intensity images from the point cloud. These algorithms include binarization to separate the painting area from the rest of the pavement, median filtering to avoid noisy points, and mathematical morphology to fill the gaps between the pixels in the border of white marks. Once the road marking is detected, its position is calculated. This information is valuable for inventorying purposes of road managers that use Geographic Information Systems. The performance of the algorithm has been evaluated over several mobile LiDAR strips accounting for a total of 30 zebra crossings. That test showed a completeness of 83%. Non-detected marks mainly come from painting deterioration of the zebra crossing or by occlusions in the point cloud produced by other vehicles on the road.

  9. Variations in Zebra Chip disease expression and tuber biochemistry in response to vector density

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined effects of the number of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso)-positive psyllids feeding on potatoes to Lso titers, zebra chip disease (ZC) symptom severity, and levels of amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics in tubers harvested weeks later. Red La Soda and Russet Nor...

  10. Examining the role of tuber biochemistry in the development of zebra chip in stored potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), associated with infection by the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is an emerging problem for potato growers in the United States, Mexico, and New Zealand. Although potato tubers exhibiting ZC symptoms will be rejected by processors, it remains possible...

  11. Assimilation and depuration of microcystin–LR by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Karlsson, K.M.; Meriluoto, J.A.O.; Kardinaal, E.A.; Visser, P.M.; Siewertsen, K.; Van Donk, E.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are an important component of the foodweb of shallow lakes in the Netherlands, amongst others in Lake IJsselmeer, an international important wetland. Large numbers of ducks feed on these mussels in autumn and winter. The mussels are filter feeders and are exposed

  12. Effects of suspended sediments on food uptake for zebra mussels in Lake Markermeer, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, W.E.; Pozzato, L.; Vijverberg, T.; Noordhuis, R.; bij de Vaate, A.; Van Donk, E.; Dionisio Pires, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Until 1992, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were an important food source for diving ducks in Lake Markermeer (The Netherlands). After 1993, the mussel biomass sharply declined, and the current population is in poor condition (maximum shell length <15 mm) compared to populations from adjacent L

  13. Potato tuber chemistry of promising germplasm exhibiting tolerance to zebra chip disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term sustainable management of zebra chip (ZC) disease of potato requires development of tolerant or resistant germplasm. To this end, 283 potato varieties and breeding clones were infected with the ZC putative causal agent ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) by potato psyllid vector i...

  14. Oxygen profile in zebra fish (Danio rerio) elucidated by theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Boogaart, van den J.G.M.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2003-01-01

    We present a numerical-experi mental diffusion study in which we elucidate the spatial oxygen profile around and inside a zebra fish embryo in the pre-circulation stage (24-28 hpf). Lowest oxygen partial pressures are found in the head with a gradient of posteriorly increasing pressure along the mid

  15. Assessing the potential for fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): Insight from bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M.A.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of annual food consumption and biomass were modeled for several fish species across representative rivers and lakes in eastern North America. Results were combined to assess the relative potential of fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Predicted annual food consumption by fishes in southern waters was over 100% greater than that in northern systems because of warmer annual water temperatures and presumed increases in metabolic demand. Although generally increasing with latitude, biomasses of several key zebra mussel fish predators did not change significantly across latitudes. Biomasses of some less abundant fish predators did increase significantly with latitude, but increases were not of the magnitude to offset predicted decreases in food consumption. Our results generally support the premise that fishes in rivers and lakes of the southern United States (U.S.) have inherently greater potential to impact zebra mussels by predation. Our simulations may provide a partial explanation of why zebra mussel invasions have not been as rapid and widespread in southern U.S. waters compared to the Great Lakes region. ?? Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  16. Regulatory Differences in Natal Down Development between Altricial Zebra Finch and Precocial Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Kuan; Ng, Chen Siang; Wu, Siao-Man; Chen, Jiun-Jie; Cheng, Po-Liang; Wu, Ping; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Chen, Di-Rong; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Ting, Chau-Ti; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2016-08-01

    Birds can be classified into altricial and precocial. The hatchlings of altricial birds are almost naked, whereas those of precocial birds are covered with natal down. This regulatory divergence is thought to reflect environmental adaptation, but the molecular basis of the divergence is unclear. To address this issue, we chose the altricial zebra finch and the precocial chicken as the model animals. We noted that zebra finch hatchlings show natal down growth suppressed anterior dorsal (AD) skin but partially down-covered posterior dorsal (PD) skin. Comparing the transcriptomes of AD and PD skins, we found that the feather growth promoter SHH (sonic hedgehog) was expressed higher in PD skin than in AD skin. Moreover, the data suggested that the FGF (fibroblast growth factor)/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in natal down growth suppression and that FGF16 is a candidate upstream signaling suppressor. Ectopic expression of FGF16 on chicken leg skin showed downregulation of SHH, upregulation of the feather growth suppressor FGF10, and suppression of feather bud elongation, similar to the phenotype found in zebra finch embryonic AD skin. Therefore, we propose that FGF16-related signals suppress natal down elongation and cause the naked AD skin in zebra finch. Our study provides insights into the regulatory divergence in natal down formation between precocial and altricial birds. PMID:27189543

  17. Bindweed Psyllid: Biology, Natural History, and Interactions with the Zebra Chip Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactericera maculipennis is a native psyllid that commonly occurs on field bindweed in the western United States. We have found that Pacific Northwest populations of B. maculipennis carry Liberibacter solanacearum, the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease of potato. In North America, this p...

  18. Non-destructive NIR detection of Zebra Chip disease in whole potatoes (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potatoes are the 4th biggest food crop worldwide and the leading vegetable crop in the U.S., accounting for 15 percent of vegetable sales. Over 50% of potatoes are consumed as processed products such as French fries and chips. Zebra Chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes that causes brown discoloration ...

  19. Early experience and plasticity of song in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, AE; TenCate, C; Slater, PJB

    1996-01-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn song primarily at 35-65 days of age, but birds deprived of experience at that stage may modify their songs later. Experiments on 5 groups examined the effect of varying early social experience on the plasticity of adult song. Major changes of song in adultho

  20. Zebra Crossing: Walking in Two Continents Sharing and Celebrating Difference through Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    I use the metaphor "zebra crossing" in my reflective narrative to describe my plight and struggle as a non-white person growing up and working in Johannesburg, South Africa, during the apartheid era. This article considers and compares the notions of culture, diversity and identity as I now work in a tertiary institution in Melbourne, Australia. I…

  1. The Quantitative Ethology of the Zebra Finch: A Study in Comparative Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative ethogram was developed for the zebra finch, using one-zero focal animal sampling on an ethologically comprehensive checklist of 52 behavioral items, and it was assessed for interobserver reliability and construct validity. Applying the quantitative methods of psychometrics allows verification of ethological theory and testing of…

  2. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG

    2006-01-01

    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species, f

  3. Factors Affecting Driver Yielding Behavior at a Mid-Block Zebra Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zebra crossing is one of an important pedestrian facility but a number of mid-block zebra crossings for pedestrians in Thailand are not yet utilized. Although the law requires drivers to yield the right-of-way to pedestrians at crossing, within a marked crosswalk in Thailand, a number of drivers still will not yield for a pedestrian. This situation affects the safety of pedestrians and needs urgent attention of the relevant authorities/agencies to improve the situation, before the zebra crossings becomes a safety hazard. The objective of this paper is to investigate the driver behavior at zebra crossings and the factors that are affecting driver yield behavior are also explored. The questionnaire was produced by a Google Form and the drivers were recruited using a snowball sampling technique via a Facebook and Application LINE. Friends and family of the researcher were invited to complete the survey via Facebook and Application LINE and were also asked to pass on the questionnaire to their friends and family. A total of 445 people completed the survey. The descriptive statistics and the logistic regression were employed for analysis. The binary logit model was used with six attributes: age, sex, education, experience, type of vehicle, and knowledge of pedestrian’s right-of-way law was developed. The results indicated that more than 50% of drivers do not have an understanding of the pedestrian’s right-of-way law. The developed model revealed that the yielding behavior of the driver depends on age, education, and knowledge of the pedestrian right-of-way law. The odd number of knowledge of the pedestrian rightof- way law is 1.588. For this reason, educating the drivers to the pedestrian right-of-way law is a beginning point to improve the safety for pedestrians at a zebra crossing in Thailand.

  4. Zebra Finch Song Phonology and Syntactical Structure across Populations and Continents-A Computational Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachlan, Robert F; van Heijningen, Caroline A A; Ter Haar, Sita M; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Learned bird songs are often characterized by a high degree of variation between individuals and sometimes between populations, while at the same time maintaining species specificity. The evolution of such songs depends on the balance between plasticity and constraints. Captive populations provide an opportunity to examine signal variation and differentiation in detail, so we analyzed adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) songs recorded from 13 populations across the world, including one sample of songs from wild-caught males in their native Australia. Cluster analysis suggested some, albeit limited, evidence that zebra finch song units belonged to universal, species-wide categories, linked to restrictions in vocal production and non-song parts of the vocal repertoire. Across populations, songs also showed some syntactical structure, although any song unit could be placed anywhere within the song. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant differentiation between populations, but the effect size was very small, and its communicative significance dubious. Our results suggest that variation in zebra finch songs within a population is largely determined by species-wide constraints rather than population-specific features. Although captive zebra finch populations have been sufficiently isolated to allow them to genetically diverge, there does not appear to have been any divergence in the genetically determined constraints that underlie song learning. Perhaps more surprising is the lack of locally diverged cultural traditions. Zebra finches serve as an example of a system where frequent learning errors may rapidly create within-population diversity, within broad phonological and syntactical constraints, and prevent the formation of long-term cultural traditions that allow populations to diverge. PMID:27458396

  5. Zebra Finch Song Phonology and Syntactical Structure across Populations and Continents—A Computational Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachlan, Robert F.; van Heijningen, Caroline A. A.; ter Haar, Sita M.; ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Learned bird songs are often characterized by a high degree of variation between individuals and sometimes between populations, while at the same time maintaining species specificity. The evolution of such songs depends on the balance between plasticity and constraints. Captive populations provide an opportunity to examine signal variation and differentiation in detail, so we analyzed adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) songs recorded from 13 populations across the world, including one sample of songs from wild-caught males in their native Australia. Cluster analysis suggested some, albeit limited, evidence that zebra finch song units belonged to universal, species-wide categories, linked to restrictions in vocal production and non-song parts of the vocal repertoire. Across populations, songs also showed some syntactical structure, although any song unit could be placed anywhere within the song. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant differentiation between populations, but the effect size was very small, and its communicative significance dubious. Our results suggest that variation in zebra finch songs within a population is largely determined by species-wide constraints rather than population-specific features. Although captive zebra finch populations have been sufficiently isolated to allow them to genetically diverge, there does not appear to have been any divergence in the genetically determined constraints that underlie song learning. Perhaps more surprising is the lack of locally diverged cultural traditions. Zebra finches serve as an example of a system where frequent learning errors may rapidly create within-population diversity, within broad phonological and syntactical constraints, and prevent the formation of long-term cultural traditions that allow populations to diverge. PMID:27458396

  6. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DE POLPAS DE FRUTA CONGELADAS COMERCIALIZADAS NA CIDADE DE CUIABÁ-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE SILVA BRASIL

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade físico-química das polpas de frutas congeladas comercializadas na cidade de Cuiabá-MT, comparando com os padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente. O experimento foi desenvolvido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo cinco tratamentos (marcas denominadas A, B, C, D e E e três repetições, para as polpas de abacaxi, acerola, caju, goiaba e maracujá. Foram analisados os parâmetros pH, acidez titulável expressa em ácido cítrico, sólidos solúveis, ratio, vitamina C, açúcar redutor e quantificação da perda de vitamina C após 90 dias de armazenamento sob congelamento, em polpas de acerola e caju. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. A marca D apresentou não conformidade com a legislação para todas as polpas em, pelo menos, um dos parâmetros avaliados. Foi observado maior número de amostras em inadequação para o teor de vitamina C e, de forma geral, as polpas avaliadas apresentaram valores abaixo das especificações exigidas pelos Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ para as mesmas. Todas as amostras avaliadas tiveram redução do teor de vitamina C durante armazenamento sob congelamento, sendo que nenhuma marca de polpa de acerola e apenas uma de caju apresentou, ao final de 90 dias, teor de vitamina C de acordo com o estabelecido pelo PIQ. Conclui-se que é necessária uma intensificação na fiscalização no processamento de polpas de frutas congeladas para garantia da saúde do consumidor.

  7. Plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercado Municipal de Campo Grande-MS Commercialized medicinal plants in the Mercado Municipal of Campo Grande-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Ustulin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um levantamento etnofarmacológico das principais espécies vegetais comercializadas no Mercado Municipal de Campo Grande (MS. O estudo foi realizado entre agosto de 2002 e agosto de 2003, através de entrevistas com os raizeiros. Cerca de 117 espécies foram citadas. Foram selecionadas as plantas dos biomas Cerrado e Pantanal e dessas 34 espécies foram adquiridas. Das plantas adquiridas 22 foram identificadas botanicamente, pois o material das outras foi deficiente para determinação até espécie. Das plantas identifificadas, somente dez são típicas do cerrado, podendo-se citar a Curatella americana, Guazuma ulmifolia, Maclura tinctoria e Stryphnodendron obovatum. A família com o maior número de citação foi Asteraceae, seguida de Moraceae, Sterculiaceae e Leguminosae. A parte das plantas mais utilizada é a folha, preparada principalmente como infusão. A indicação terapêutica mais citada foi como cicatrizante, no tratamento de feridas e dores reumáticas. Grande parte das espécies têm indicação de utilização popular para várias patologias e a maioria das espécies (65,2% não teve qualquer estudo farmacológico que confirmasse a indicação popular. Somente oito espécies (34,8% tiveram alguma atividade confirmada na literatura.The aim of this paper was the survey of the medicinal plants most used from Campo Grande population and commercialized in the Mercado Municipal of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The survey was performed in 2002 and 2003 by interviewing and revealed 117 species. Thirty four species were acquired, and of those 22 were identified. Of those ten are only typical of the Cerrado, like as: Curatella americana, Guazuma ulmifolia, Maclura tinctoria, Stryphnodendron obovatum etc. The most mentioned families were Asteraceae, Moraceae, Sterculiaceae and Leguminosae. The most used part of the plant is the leaf, mainly prepared as infusion. These folk

  8. Enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas na cidade de Guarapuava (PR / Enteroparasites on commercial lettuce (Lactuca sativa in Guarapuava City, Paraná State

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    Silvia Cristina Osaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de hortaliças cruas constitui importante meio de transmissão de enteroparasitoses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação parasitária em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas na cidade de Guarapuava (PR. No período de julho/2005 a junho/2006, 52 supermercados foram visitados, com colheita de um pé de alface. A análise parasitológica foi realizada após duas lavagens, filtragem em gaze e sedimentação. O sedimento, corado pelo lugol, foi analisado microscopicamente por exame direto e após centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco. Das 52 amostras de alface avaliadas, 18 (34,6% apresentaram uma ou mais estruturas parasitárias como cistos de Giardia spp. (7,7%, de Entamoeba spp. (11,5% e de Balantidium coli (3,8%, oocistos de coccídios (7,7% e ovos de Capillaria spp. (3,8%. Esse alto número de amostras contaminadas aponta deficiências na cadeia produtiva dessas hortaliças, indicando a necessidade de adequada higienização antes de seu consumo. AbstractThe ingestion of raw vegetables is an important mode of enteroparasites transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Guarapuava City, Parana State. Fifty-two samples of lettuce were collected from supermarkets during the period of July 2005 and June 2006. Parasitological analysis was realized by the sedimentation technique. Lugol-stained sediments were microscopically analyzed by direct exam and after centrifugation-fluctuation in zinc sulfate. A total of 18 out of 52 lettuce samples analyzed (34.6% were positive for one or more parasitic structures. The parasites found in the analysis were Giardia spp. (7.7%, Entamoeba spp. (11.5%, Balantidium coli (3.8%, coccidian oocysts (7.7% and Capillaria spp. eggs (3.8%. Such high occurrence of contaminated samples revealed deficiencies in the chain of lettuce cultivation, which suggests a need for improvement in the current

  9. Análise sensorial da água de coco anão verde processada e comercializada no sertão paraibano e cearense

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    Suziane Alves Josino Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil, atualmente, possui uma grande tendência de crescimento do cultivo do coqueiro anão verde, onde o principal objetivo deste se da para a produção da água de coco, sua cultura esta distribuída em todo o território nacional, destacadamente na região Nordeste onde se concentram os maiores plantios do país. A água de coco é um produto natural que vem ganhando espaço no mercado como uma bebida de vasto potencial comercial, pois além de ser um produto natural é praticamente livre de contaminações, possui baixo teor calórico, considerável valor nutricional e apresenta aroma e sabor suaves e agradáveis. Neste contexto se faz necessário a avaliação da qualidade sensorial da água de coco industrializada e comercializada de forma a garantir a qualidade do produto para o consumidor. Com isso este trabalho objetivou avaliar sensorialmente á água de coco anão verde, produzidas comercialmente e envasadas, por indústrias do Sertão Paraibano e do Ceará. As amostras de água de coco proveniente das indústrias, foram analisadas sensorialmente no laboratório de microbiologia do CVT – UFCG - Pombal, utilizando o teste de comparação múltiplas utilizando uma escala hedônica de 9 pontos (9 = gostei extremamente, até 1 desgostei, também foi aplicado o teste de intenção de compra utilizando-se uma escala estruturada de 5 pontos (1 = certamente compraria, até 5 = Certamente compraria, conforme metodologia do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Os resultados dos testes somente se deram até o 15 dias de armazenamento, onde 70% dos copos de água de coco armazenados, apresentaram-se turvos e com produção de gás, demonstrando apartir deste ponto impróprios para o consumo. Com 30 dias de armazenamento todas as amostras apresentaram insatisfatórios para consumo, demonstrando resultados preocupantes quanto a estabilidade da qualidade do produto durante sua validade comercial. Sugere-se como forma de garantia e manutenção da qualidade

  10. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan; Yen Le, T T; Bij de Vaate, Abraham; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2015-08-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. PMID:25910461

  11. Zebra Fish Dnmt1 and Suv39h1 Regulate Organ-Specific Terminal Differentiation during Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Kunal; Nadauld, Lincoln D; Chidester, Stephanie; Manos, Elizabeth J.; James, Smitha R.; Karpf, Adam R.; Cairns, Bradley R.; Jones, David A.

    2006-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone methylation are two key epigenetic modifications that help govern heterochromatin dynamics. The roles for these chromatin-modifying activities in directing tissue-specific development remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined the roles of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) and the H3K9 histone methyltransferase Suv39h1 in zebra fish development. Knockdown of Dnmt1 in zebra fish embryos caused defects in terminal differentiation of the intestine, exocr...

  12. Espécies medicinais comercializadas como "quebra-pedras" em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Medicinal species sold as "quebra-pedras" in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morais Aita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa identificar as espécies comercializadas como quebra-pedras em Porto Alegre, verificar indícios de toxicidade e estabelecer padrões morfológicos para diferenciação das mesmas. São espécies utilizadas na medicina popular principalmente para afecções nos rins e bexiga bem como diuréticas. As 16 amostras foram adquiridas de 14 comerciantes atuantes em bancas fixas ou em feiras-livres. Realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica para levantamento de dados referentes à utilização de plantas medicinais com o nome de quebra-pedras em diferentes cidades do Rio Grande do Sul. Indícios de toxicidade, dados químicos e biológicos destas plantas foram revisados em diferentes bases de dados e em bibliografia específica. Identificaram-se sete espécies comercializadas como quebra-pedras em Porto Alegre: Euphorbia prostrata e E. serpens (Euphorbiaceae, Phyllanthus niruri e P. tenellus (Phyllanthaceae, Desmodium incanum (Fabaceae, Cunila microcephala (Lamiaceae e Heimia salicifolia (Lythraceae. Destas, as espécies de Phyllanthus e Euphorbia são as que apresentam maior semelhança morfológica quando comercializadas secas e fragmentadas.The aims of this work were to identify the species sold as "quebra-pedras" in Porto Alegre, verify signs of toxicity and establish morphological patterns that help to distinguish such species. Those species are believed to be diuretic and are used in popular medicine mainly to treat kidney and bladder affections. The samples (16 were purchased from 14 sellers who work in permanent market stalls or in public marketplaces. A bibliographic revision gathered data on the use of medicinal plants called "quebra-pedras" in several cities of Rio Grande do Sul. Signs of toxicity, chemical and biological data of these plants were reviewed from different databases and specific bibliography. Seven species were identified among those sold as "quebra-pedras" in Porto Alegre: Euphorbia prostrata and E. serpens

  13. Breeding experience, alternative reproductive strategies and reproductive success in a captive colony of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Birds exhibit a remarkable diversity of different reproductive strategies both between and within species. Species such as the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) may evolve the flexible use of alternative reproductive strategies, as well as benefit from prior breeding experience, which allows them to adaptively respond to unpredictable environments. In birds, the flexible use of alternative reproductive strategies, such as extra-pair mating, has been reported to be associated with fast reproduction, high mortality and environmental variability. However, little is known about the role of previous breeding experience in the adaptive use of alternative reproductive strategies. Here we performed an in-depth study of reproductive outcomes in a population of domesticated zebra finches, testing the impact of prior breeding experience on the use of alternative reproductive strategies and reproductive success. We provide evidence that older females with prior breeding experience are quicker to initiate a clutch with a new partner and have increased success in chick rearing, even in a captive colony of zebra finches with minimal foraging demands. We also find evidence that the breeding experience of other females in the same social group influences reproductive investment by female zebra finches. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the use of alternative reproductive strategies in female zebra finches is associated with previous failed breeding attempts with the same pair partner. The results provide evidence that age and breeding experience play important roles in the flexible use of both facultative and adaptive reproductive strategies in female zebra finches.

  14. Breeding experience, alternative reproductive strategies and reproductive success in a captive colony of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Baran

    Full Text Available Birds exhibit a remarkable diversity of different reproductive strategies both between and within species. Species such as the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata may evolve the flexible use of alternative reproductive strategies, as well as benefit from prior breeding experience, which allows them to adaptively respond to unpredictable environments. In birds, the flexible use of alternative reproductive strategies, such as extra-pair mating, has been reported to be associated with fast reproduction, high mortality and environmental variability. However, little is known about the role of previous breeding experience in the adaptive use of alternative reproductive strategies. Here we performed an in-depth study of reproductive outcomes in a population of domesticated zebra finches, testing the impact of prior breeding experience on the use of alternative reproductive strategies and reproductive success. We provide evidence that older females with prior breeding experience are quicker to initiate a clutch with a new partner and have increased success in chick rearing, even in a captive colony of zebra finches with minimal foraging demands. We also find evidence that the breeding experience of other females in the same social group influences reproductive investment by female zebra finches. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the use of alternative reproductive strategies in female zebra finches is associated with previous failed breeding attempts with the same pair partner. The results provide evidence that age and breeding experience play important roles in the flexible use of both facultative and adaptive reproductive strategies in female zebra finches.

  15. High-Throughput Selection of Retrovirus Producer Cell Lines Leads to Markedly Improved Efficiency of Germ Line-Transmissible Insertions in Zebra Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenbiao; Burgess, Shawn; Golling, Greg; Amsterdam, Adam; Hopkins, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G-pseudotyped mouse retroviral vectors have been used as mutagens for a large-scale insertional mutagenesis screen in the zebra fish. To reproducibly generate high-titer virus stocks, we devised a method for rapidly selecting cell lines that can yield high-titer viruses and isolated a producer cell line that yields virus at a high titer on zebra fish embryos. Virus produced from this line, designated GT virus, is nontoxic following injection of zebra fi...

  16. Genomic and neural analysis of the estradiol-synthetic pathway in the zebra finch

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    London Sarah E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroids are small molecule hormones derived from cholesterol. Steroids affect many tissues, including the brain. In the zebra finch, estrogenic steroids are particularly interesting because they masculinize the neural circuit that controls singing and their synthesis in the brain is modulated by experience. Here, we analyzed the zebra finch genome assembly to assess the content, conservation, and organization of genes that code for components of the estrogen-synthetic pathway and steroid nuclear receptors. Based on these analyses, we also investigated neural expression of a cholesterol transport protein gene in the context of song neurobiology. Results We present sequence-based analysis of twenty steroid-related genes using the genome assembly and other resources. Generally, zebra finch genes showed high homology to genes in other species. The diversity of steroidogenic enzymes and receptors may be lower in songbirds than in mammals; we were unable to identify all known mammalian isoforms of the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase families in the zebra finch genome assembly, and not all splice sites described in mammals were identified in the corresponding zebra finch genes. We did identify two factors, Nobox and NR1H2-RXR, that may be important for coordinated transcription of multiple steroid-related genes. We found very little qualitative overlap in predicted transcription factor binding sites in the genes for two cholesterol transport proteins, the 18 kDa cholesterol transport protein (TSPO and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR. We therefore performed in situ hybridization for TSPO and found that its mRNA was not always detected in brain regions where StAR and steroidogenic enzymes were previously shown to be expressed. Also, transcription of TSPO, but not StAR, may be regulated by the experience of hearing song. Conclusions The genes required for estradiol synthesis and

  17. Pre- and postnatal growth phenomena of Burchell's Zebra Equus Burchelli Antiquorum

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    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Between 1969 and 1972 growth data were collected from 175 zebra Equus burchelli antiquorum and 138 zebra embryos and foetuses from the Central District of the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Statistical analysis of data indicated no significant difference between body mass of adult stallions (range == 267,3 to 373,3 kg; mean = 318,5 kg; n = 57 and adult non-pregnant mares (range = 272,6 to 386,9 kg; mean = 321,6 kg; n = 51 (t = 0,587. The heaviest zebra had a body mass of 429,4 kilogram. This was a pregnant mare carrying a 35,2 kg foetus. Von Bertalanffy growth curves indicated that shoulder heights in young zebra may reach the adult range by one year of age, the adult body mass range is, however, only attained after three years of age. These curves also showed that age classification of free roaming zebra is only reliable up to the age of about two years, after which individual variation is too great. Stallions were significantly taller at the shoulder than mares (mean = 1,8 cm (t = 2,032 and neck thickness was the only body dimension showing visible sexual dimorphism in adults. Here the stallion had a neck girth on average 8,1 cm greater than the mare. Regression equations for estimating body mass from body dimensions were calculated by using a standard logarithmic transformation and fitting a linear regression by the method of least squares and also by undertaking standard straight line linear regression analyses. Exponential curves obtained by the first method indicated that growth was not isometric (not linear and that the ratios of any of the dimensions of length to body mass were con- stantly changing, i.e. growth is allometric. Marked allometric growth differences existed between the two sexes except in the case of the heart girth-body mass relationship. Comparison of growth data from E. b. antiquorum with that of E. b. boehmi from Tanzania (Sachs 1967, indicates that E. b. antiquorum is considerably larger. Body masses

  18. Freqüência de enteroparasitas em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, Minas Gerais Frequency of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação parasitológica em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, MG. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, indicados pela presença de formas parasitológicas de origem animal ou humana e alta concentração de coliformes fecais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras city, Minas Gerais. The samples of lettuce showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin and high concentration of fecal coliforms.

  19. The emergence of the Activity Reduces Conflict Associated Strain (ARCAS) model: a test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T.M. Dijkstra; B. Beersma; R.A.W.M. Cornelissen

    2012-01-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees de

  20. Statistics and Classification of the Microwave Zebra Patterns Associated with Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Zhang, Yin; Meszarosova, H; Karlicky, M

    2013-01-01

    The microwave zebra pattern (ZP) is the most interesting, intriguing, and complex spectral structure frequently observed in solar flares. A comprehensive statistical study will certainly help us to understand the formation mechanism, which is not exactly clear now. This work presents a comprehensive statistical analysis on a big sample with 202 ZP events collected from observations at the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou and the Ondrejov Radiospectrograph in Czech Republic at frequencies of 1.00 - 7.60 GHz during 2000 - 2013. After investigating the parameter properties of ZPs, such as the occurrence in flare phase, frequency range, polarization degree, duration, etc., we find that the variation of zebra stripe frequency separation with respect to frequency is the best indicator for a physical classification of ZPs. Microwave ZPs can be classified into 3 types: equidistant ZP, variable-distant ZP, and growing-distant ZP, possibly corresponding to mechanisms of Bernstein wave model, whistl...

  1. Quasi-periodic wiggles of microwave zebra structures in a solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sijie; Selzer, L A; Tan, Baolin; Yan, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-periodic wiggles of microwave zebra pattern structures with period range from about 0.5 s to 1.5 s are found in a X-class solar flare on 2006 December 13 at the 2.6-3.8 GHz with the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS/Huairou). Periodogram and correlation analysis show that the wiggles have two-three significant periodicities and almost in phase between stripes at different frequency. The Alfven speed estimated from the zebra pattern structures is about 700 Km/s. We obtain the spatial size of the waveguiding plasma structure to be about 1 Mm with the detected period of about 1 s. It suggests the ZP wiggles can be associated with the fast mag- netoacoustic oscillations in the flaring active region. The lack of a significant phase shift between wiggles of different stripes suggests that the ZP wiggles are caused by a standing sausage oscillation.

  2. PERBANDINGAN KECEPATAN PEMBIUSAN DAN RECOVERY IKAN HIAS ZEBRA JAKARTA MENGGUNAKAN SIANIDA DAN MINYAK CENGKEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Andy Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to compare the stunning time and recovery time of reef fish Zebra Jakarta. Sianida and clove oil was used as anaesthetic agent in this experiment. Both substances used concentration of 5 ppm. 5 fish was used in each concentration. Fish was exposed to each concentration one by one and once fish undergo in total loss of equilibrium, time was recorded. Fish then tranferred to recovery tank contained fresh aerated sea water. Once fish recovered, time was recorded. Result shows that fish exposed to clove oil 5 ppm have faster stunning time than fish exposed to cyanide 5 ppm. However, fish exposed to cyanide 5 ppm have faster recovery time compared to fish exposed to clove oil 5 ppm.Key words : Stunning time, Zebra Jakarta, Cyanide, Clove oil

  3. A model of so-called "Zebra" emissions in solar flare radio burst continua

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    R. A. Treumann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic "Zebra" pattern emissions is proposed. "Zebra" bursts are regularly spaced narrow-band radio emissions on the otherwise broadband radio continuum emitted by the active solar corona. The mechanism is based on the generation of an ion-ring distribution in a magnetic mirror geometry in the presence of a properly directed field-aligned electric potential field. Such ion-rings or ion-conics are well known from magnetospheric observations. Under coronal conditions they may become weakly relativistic. In this case the ion-cyclotron maser generates a number of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron harmonics which modulate the electron maser emission. The mechanism is capable of switching the emission on and off or amplifying it quasi-periodically which is a main feature of the observations.

  4. The effects of rearing conditions on sexual traits and preferences in zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    Although theory predicts that females should prefer the highest quality male, female mating preferences within populations often show pronounced variation. What causes and maintains this variation remains poorly understood. This thesis addresses the influence of rearing conditions both on female mating preferences and male advertising signals in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. It reconciles earlier apparently contradicting findings on the relative importance of visual versus acoustic sig...

  5. Preparation and evaluation of biocide-loaded particles to control the biofouling zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    OpenAIRE

    R. Costa; Aldridge, D. C.; Moggridge, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is a powerful biofouling bivalve, which has tremendous impact on industrial facilities whose operation depends on the intensive use of freshwater, such as waterworks and power stations. The control of the pest in industrial environments remains a major challenge due to low selectivity over non-target organisms and the expense of the large quantities of biocides required. A novel delivery technique involving the encapsulation of a toxin within h...

  6. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P., III

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  7. Myosin heavy-chain isoforms in the flight and leg muscles of hummingbirds and zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Velten, Brandy P.; Welch, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform complement is intimately related to a muscle's contractile properties, yet relatively little is known about avian MHC isoforms or how they may vary with fiber type and/or the contractile properties of a muscle. The rapid shortening of muscles necessary to power flight at the high wingbeat frequencies of ruby-throated hummingbirds and zebra finches (25–60 Hz), along with the varied morphology and use of the hummingbird hindlimb, provides a unique opportunity to...

  8. Juvenile zebra finches learn the underlying structural regularities of their fathers’ song

    OpenAIRE

    Otilia eMenyhart; Oren eKolodny; Goldstein, Michael H.; DeVoogd, Timothy J.; Shimon eEdelman

    2015-01-01

    Natural behaviors, such as foraging, tool use, social interaction, birdsong, and language, exhibit branching sequential structure. Such structure should be learnable if it can be inferred from the statistics of early experience. We report that juvenile zebra finches learn such sequential structure in song. Song learning in finches has been extensively studied, and it is generally believed that young males acquire song by imitating tutors (Zann, 1996). Variability in the order of elements in a...

  9. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    von Engelhardt, N.; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG

    2006-01-01

    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species, females increase yolk-testosterone levels and produce male-biased sex ratios when paired to more attractive males. We therefore predicted that especially sons benefit from elevated yolk androgens. E...

  10. The Zebra Battery: a South African contender for electric vehicle application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Coertzer

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available The Zebra battery is one of the most promising power sources for electric vehicles which might be on sale before the year 2000. It is a South African development which started at the CSIR and is at present jointly managed by the Anglo American Corpora­tion of S.A. and the German company A.E.G. The chemical reaction converts common salt and nickel to nickel chloride and sodium during the charging phase.

  11. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  12. Simple Approaches to Improve the Automatic Inventory of ZEBRA Crossing from Mls Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, P.; Riveiro, B.; Soilán, M.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.

    2015-08-01

    The city management is increasingly supported by information technologies, leading to paradigms such as smart cities, where decision-makers, companies and citizens are continuously interconnected. 3D modelling turns of great relevance when the city has to be managed making use of geospatial databases or Geographic Information Systems. On the other hand, laser scanning technology has experienced a significant growth in the last years, and particularly, terrestrial mobile laser scanning platforms are being more and more used with inventory purposes in both cities and road environments. Consequently, large datasets are available to produce the geometric basis for the city model; however, this data is not directly exploitable by management systems constraining the implementation of the technology for such applications. This paper presents a new algorithm for the automatic detection of zebra crossing. The algorithm is divided in three main steps: road segmentation (based on a PCA analysis of the points contained in each cycle of collected by a mobile laser system), rasterization (conversion of the point cloud to a raster image coloured as a function of intensity data), and zebra crossing detection (using the Hough Transform and logical constrains for line classification). After evaluating different datasets collected in three cities located in Northwest Spain (comprising 25 strips with 30 visible zebra crossings) a completeness of 83% was achieved.

  13. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Sadananda

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch was studied using enzyme histochemistry. AChE fibres and cells are intensely labelled in the forebrain nucleus area X, strongly labelled in high vocal centre (HVC) perikarya, and moderately to lightly labelled in the somata and neuropil of vocal control nuclei robust nucleus of arcopallium (RA), medial magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (MMAN) and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). The identified sites of cholinergic and/or cholinoceptive neurons are similar to the cholinergic presence in vocal control regions of other songbirds such as the song sparrow, starling and another genus of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), and to a certain extent in parallel vocal control regions in vocalizing birds such as the budgerigar. AChE presence in the vocal control system suggests innervation by either afferent projecting cholinergic systems and/or local circuit cholinergic neurons. Co-occurrence with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) indicates efferent cholinergic projections. The cholinergic presence in parts of the zebra finch vocal control system, such as the area X, that is also intricately wired with parts of the basal ganglia, the descending fibre tracts and brain stem nuclei could underlie this circuitry’s involvement in sensory processing and motor control of song.

  14. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  15. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  16. Investigation of Acute Toxicity Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticide due to the huge demand for agricultural purposes is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These pesticides could finally accumulate in aquatic ecosystems and have been proved to have toxic effects on aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and Pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of Diazinon (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm, Deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 ppm, butachlor (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm for 96 h within the 100 L glass aquaria and cumulative mortality of Zebra Cichlid fish was calculated in 24-h interval. Results: The very low LC50 obtained for diazinon (5.06±0.37 ppm, deltamethrin (0.15±0.39 ppm, butachlor (8.93±0.26 ppm and pretilachlor (20.72±0.58 ppm indicated that these are highly toxic chemicals. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that deltamethrin and pretilachlor had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the Zebra Cichlid respectively.

  17. Zebra Alphaherpesviruses (EHV-1 and EHV-9): Genetic Diversity, Latency and Co-Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Damiani, Armando; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Strauss, Günter; Szentiks, Claudia A.; East, Marion L.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    Alphaherpesviruses are highly prevalent in equine populations and co-infections with more than one of these viruses’ strains frequently diagnosed. Lytic replication and latency with subsequent reactivation, along with new episodes of disease, can be influenced by genetic diversity generated by spontaneous mutation and recombination. Latency enhances virus survival by providing an epidemiological strategy for long-term maintenance of divergent strains in animal populations. The alphaherpesviruses equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and 9 (EHV-9) have recently been shown to cross species barriers, including a recombinant EHV-1 observed in fatal infections of a polar bear and Asian rhinoceros. Little is known about the latency and genetic diversity of EHV-1 and EHV-9, especially among zoo and wild equids. Here, we report evidence of limited genetic diversity in EHV-9 in zebras, whereas there is substantial genetic variability in EHV-1. We demonstrate that zebras can be lytically and latently infected with both viruses concurrently. Such a co-occurrence of infection in zebras suggests that even relatively slow-evolving viruses such as equine herpesviruses have the potential to diversify rapidly by recombination. This has potential consequences for the diagnosis of these viruses and their management in wild and captive equid populations. PMID:27657113

  18. Antioxidant Activities of Hydrolysates of Arca Subcrenata Prepared with Three Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Song

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to get products with antioxidant activity from Arca subcrenata Lischke, the optimal hydrolase and hydrolysis conditionswere investigated in the paper. Three proteases (neutrase, alcalase and papain were applied to hydrolyze the homogenate of A. subcrenata. An orthogonaldesign was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions, and the pH-stat methods was used to determine the degree of hydrolysis. Viewed from the angle ofreducing power, such as scavenging activities against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide, the antioxidantactivities of the alcalase hydrolysate (AH were superior to neutrase hydrolysate (NH and papain hydrolysate (PH, and its EC50 values in DPPHradical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect were 6.23 mg/ml and 19.09 mg/ml, respectively. Moreover, compared with products hydrolyzed byneutrase and papain, the molecular mass of AH was lower and its content ofamino acid of peptides was higher. Therefore, alcalase was selected as theoptimal enzyme to produce active ingredients since its hydrolysate exhibitedthe best antioxidant activity among them and possessed large amount ofpotential active peptides.

  19. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  20. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Replication by Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing the Zebra Gene with EBV Specific Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu CHEN; Juan YIN; Yi CHEN; Jiang ZHONG

    2005-01-01

    The latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is found in the cells of many tumors. For example, EBV is detectable in almost all cases, and in almost all tumor cells, of non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Activating the latent virus, which will result in its lytic replication and the death of tumor cells, is a potential approach for the treatment of EBV-associated cancers. In this study, three recombinant adenoviruses were constructed to express the Zebra gene, an EBV gene responsible for switching from the latent state to lytic replication. EBV-specific promoters were used in order to limit Zebra expression in EBV-positive cells, and reduce the potential side effects. The EBV promoters used were Cp, Zp and a dual promoter combining both promoters, CpZp. The Zebra protein was detected in HEK293 cells as well as the EBV-positive D98-HR1 cells infected with recombinant viruses. An EBV lytic replication early antigen, EA-D, was also detected in infected D98-HR1, implying the initiation of lytic replication. In the cell viability assay, Zebra-expressing adenoviruses had little effect on EBV-negative HeLa cells, while significantly reducing the cell viability and proliferation of D98-HR1 cells. The results indicate that EBV virus promoters can be used in adenovirus vectors to express the Zebra gene and induce EBV lytic replication in D98-HR1 cells.

  1. De las arcas reales a las arcas de la nación. El presupuesto y la contabilidad pública como valladares frente a la arbitrariedad gubernamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López Castellano

    2012-01-01

    social. Cuando se presenta el Informe de la Comisión Especial de Hacienda de las Cortes sobre el Nuevo Plan de Contribuciones, a 6 de julio de 1813, el autor del artículo del Tribuno del Pueblo Español indica : “Las arcas hasta aquí llamadas Reales, son arcas de la Nación”. En este artículo, se examina el trabajo prolífico de un reformador, José Canga Argüelles, que estuvo en el centro de este movimiento orientado a la “racionalización” de la administración. Burócrata formado en la administración de la monarquía y político en el nuevo Estado, inicia la institucionalización del presupuesto y promueve una reforma profunda de la Contabilidad Pública.Von Kassen des Königs bis zu Kassen der Nation. Der Haushaltsplan und die Staatsbuchführung wie Schutzwehren vor der Willkür der Regierung (1808-1814 - Während der französischen Besatzung (1808-1814 ist die Steuerreform mit einer tiefen wirtschaftlichen, politischen und sozialen Umwandlung verbunden gewesen. Während der Vorlage des Berichtes der Außerordentlichen Kommission für die Finanzen von Cortes über den Neuen Plan der Steuereinnahmen, am 6. Juli 1813 weist der Autor des Artikels des Tribuns des spanischen Volkes hin : “die königlichen sogenannten Kassen bis hierher, sind die Kassen der Nation”. Dieser Artikel stellt die fruchtbare Arbeit eines Reformers vor, José Canga Argüelles, der im Herzen dieser Bewegung gewesen ist und der sich um die Rationalisierung der Verwaltung gemüht hat. Bürokrat in der Verwaltung der ehemaligen Monarchie, Politiker im neuen Staat, unternahm er die Institutionalisierung des Haushaltsplanes und vertrat eine tiefe Reform der Staatsbuchführung.

  2. Comparative analysis of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in age-related macular degeneration patients using automated rare cell analysis (ARCA and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Anthony T Say

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD begin with non-neovascular (NNV phenotypes usually associated with good vision. Approximately 20% of NNV-ARMD patients will convert to vision debilitating neovascular (NV ARMD, but precise timing of this event is unknown. Developing a clinical test predicting impending conversion to NV-ARMD is necessary to prevent vision loss. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, defined as CD34(+VEGR2(+ using traditional fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS, are rare cell populations known to be elevated in patients with NV-ARMD compared to NNV-ARMD. FACS has high inter-observer variability and subjectivity when measuring rare cell populations precluding development into a diagnostic test. We hypothesized that automated rare cell analysis (ARCA, a validated and FDA-approved technology for reproducible rare cell identification, can enumerate EPCs in ARMD patients more reliably. This pilot study serves as the first step in developing methods for reproducibly predicting ARMD phenotype conversion. METHODS: We obtained peripheral venous blood samples in 23 subjects with NNV-ARMD or treatment naïve NV-ARMD. Strict criteria were used to exclude subjects with known angiogenic diseases to minimize confounding results. Blood samples were analyzed in masked fashion in two separate laboratories. EPCs were independently enumerated using ARCA and FACS within 24 hours of blood sample collection, and p<0.2 was considered indicative of a trend for this proof of concept study, while statistical significance was established at 0.05. RESULTS: We measured levels of CD34(+VEGFR2(+ EPCs suggestive of a trend with higher values in patients with NV compared to NNV-ARMD (p = 0.17 using ARCA. Interestingly, CD34(+VEGR2(+ EPC analysis using FACS did not produce similar results (p = 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: CD34(+VEGR2(+ may have predictive value for EPC enumeration in future ARCA studies. EPC measurements in a small sample

  3. Simple sequence repeats in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata expressed sequence tags: a new resource for evolutionary genetic studies of passerines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkhead Timothy R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passerines (perching birds are widely studied across many biological disciplines including ecology, population biology, neurobiology, behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology. However, understanding the molecular basis of relevant traits is hampered by the paucity of passerine genomics tools. Efforts to address this problem are underway, and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata will be the first passerine to have its genome sequenced. Here we describe a bioinformatic analysis of zebra finch expressed sequence tag (EST Genbank entries. Results A total of 48,862 ESTs were downloaded from GenBank and assembled into contigs, representing an estimated 17,404 unique sequences. The unique sequence set contained 638 simple sequence repeats (SSRs or microsatellites of length ≥20 bp and purity ≥90% and 144 simple sequence repeats of length ≥30 bp. A chromosomal location for the majority of SSRs was predicted by BLASTing against assembly 2.1 of the chicken genome sequence. The relative exonic location (5' untranslated region, coding region or 3' untranslated region was predicted for 218 of the SSRs, by BLAST search against the ENSEMBL chicken peptide database. Ten loci were examined for polymorphism in two zebra finch populations and two populations of a distantly related passerine, the house sparrow Passer domesticus. Linkage was confirmed for four loci that were predicted to reside on the passerine homologue of chicken chromosome 7. Conclusion We show that SSRs are abundant within zebra finch ESTs, and that their genomic location can be predicted from sequence similarity with the assembled chicken genome sequence. We demonstrate that a useful proportion of zebra finch EST-SSRs are likely to be polymorphic, and that they can be used to build a linkage map. Finally, we show that many zebra finch EST-SSRs are likely to be useful in evolutionary genetic studies of other passerines.

  4. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on survivorship in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, R.F.; Matthews, M.A.; Shaffer, L.R.; Johnson, P.D. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In order to determine their tolerance to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide, Asian clams and zebra mussels were collected. Subsamples of both species were acclimated to 25{degrees}C>14 days and then exposed in water at 25{degrees}C to various concentrations of CO{sub 2} and survivorship recorded. Zebra mussels were allowed to byssally attach prior to testing. Media CO{sub 2} concentrations were maintained by continuous bubbling with appropriate gas mixtures. Gas treatment included: (1) anoxia; (2) hypercapnic anoxia; and (3) hypercapnic normoxia. Deaths were recorded in subsamples of both species every 12-24 h until 100% mortality was achieved. No significant mortality occurred among specimens of either species in air bubbled control media in any experiment. Mortality time of zebra mussels exposed to anoxia under 100% N{sub 2} was 103.7 h and of Asian clams, 349.7 h. Mortality was more rapid among samples of both species exposed to anoxia under 100% CO{sub 2}, mean time to death being 43.6 h for zebra mussels and 46.3 h for Asian clams. There was no difference in the survivorship of samples of either species under atmospheres of either 5% CO{sub 2} and 95% N{sub 2} or 100% N{sub 2}, however, Asian clams survived anoxia under either atmosphere 4 to 5 times longer than did zebra mussels. There was no significant mortality among Asian clam or zebra mussel samples after a 39 day exposure to hypercapnic normoxia. While exposure to hypercapnic normoxia under an atmosphere of 5% CO{sub 2}:19% O{sub 2}:76% N{sub 2} did not induce mortality in zebra mussel samples, it completely suppressed all byssal thread production after 7 days of exposure and induced all sampled individuals to release from their byssal attachments within 10 days of exposure. These results indicate that CO{sub 2} injection may be an easily applied, cost-effective, environmentally acceptable molluscicide for mitigation and control of raw water system macrofouling by Asian clams and zebra mussels.

  5. Examination of the potential of chlorine dioxide for use in zebra mussel veliger control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusznak, L.; Smolik, N.; Hale, L.; Freymark, S. [Ashland Chemical Company, Drew Division, Boonton, NJ (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) veligers were treated with various concentrations of chlorine dioxide and exposed at several time intervals to determine the effectiveness of this oxidant as a veliger control agent. The direction of this testing was based on previous studies which determined the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide as a molluscicide for adult zebra mussel control. Zebra mussel veligers were collected from the Niagara River shoreline at an untreated site and tested using filtered river water from the same source. All testing was conducted on site at an industrial plant in order to insure the integrity of veligers collected for this study. The plankton wheel method was used to examine the effects of chlorine dioxide. This methodology involves intense microscopic examination of the test organism prior to and after chemical exposure todeterminen molluscicidal efficacy. Veliger mortality was determined based on observations of veliger movement. Typical criteria for the determination of mortality was expanded to include four categories; veliger actively swimming, internal musculature movement, no internal musculature movement observed, however not necessarily indicating a mortality and obviously a mortality. The treatment levels ranged from 0.75 ppm - 2.0 ppm which are considered to simulate treatment levels in actual applications. Mortality levels ranged on average from 16%-42% based on 30 minute or 60 minute exposure times. The determination exposure time was based on water flow time intervals in actural applications. Sodium hypochlorite was also evaluated in order to compare the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide against this known veliger control agent. Testing resulted in chlorine dioxide providing significantly better veliger control than sodium hypochlorite under similar conditions.

  6. Combined effects of depleted uranium and ionising radiation on zebra fish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environment, living organisms are exposed to a mixture of stressors, and the combined effects are deemed as multiple stressor effects. In the present work, the authors studied the multiple stressor effect in embryos of the zebra fish (Danio rerio) from simultaneous exposure to alpha particles and depleted uranium (DU) through quantification of apoptotic signals at 24 h post-fertilisation (hpf) revealed by vital dye acridine orange staining. In each set of experiments, dechorionated zebra fish embryos were divided into 4 groups, each having 10 embryos: Group (C) in which the embryos did not receive any further treatment; Group (IU) in which the embryos received an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy at 5 hpf and were then exposed to 100 μg l-1 of DU from 5 to 6 hpf; Group (I) in which the embryos received an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy at 5 hpf and Group (U) in which the dechorionated embryos were exposed to 100 μg l-1 of DU from 5 to 6 hpf. The authors confirmed that an alpha-particle dose of 0.44 mGy and a DU exposure for 1 h separately led to hormetic and toxic effects assessed by counting apoptotic signals, respectively, in the zebra fish. Interestingly, the combined exposure led to an effect more toxic than that caused by the DU exposure alone, so effectively DU changed the beneficial effect (hormesis) brought about by alpha-particle irradiation into an apparently toxic effect. This could be explained in terms of the promotion of early death of cells predisposed to spontaneous transformation by the small alpha-particle dose (i.e. hormetic effect) and the postponement of cell death upon DU exposure. (authors)

  7. Estudo anatômico das espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará como "angelim" An anatomic study of Leguminosae species in the State of Pará commercialized as "angelim"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da madeira de sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foi analisada quanto aos aspectos anatômicos através de cortes histológicos da madeira, nos sentidos transversal, tangencial e radial. Através deste estudo procurou-se determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com a mesma denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação anatômica das mesmas. Uma chave dicotômica foi elaborada para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. Características de parênquima, raios e poros são muito úteis na separação das espécies estudadas em nível de gênero, porém em nível de espécie a separação é mais difícil. Para o agrupamento de espécies, é necessário que as características anatômicas das espécies sejam conhecidas para associadas a características morfológicas.The wood structure of seven commercialized species of Leguminosae as angelim, in the state of Pará, was analyzed by their anatomical aspects and through histological sections of the wood, in transversal, tangential and radial planes. This study was undertaken to determine basic differences among various species commercialized with the same vernacular denomination, in order to facilitate the process of their anatomical identification. A dichotomous key was elaborated to separate the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. Characteristics of parenchyma, rays and vessels are very useful in the separation of the species studied in the genus level, however in the species level the separation is more difficult. For the species grouping, it is necessary that the anatomical characteristics of the species are known for associates to the morphologic characteristics.

  8. Qualidade e vida útil pós-colheita de melancia Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró Quality and postharvest shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade e a vida útil pós-colheita de melancia cv. Crimson Sweet, comercializada em Mossoró, RN. A qualidade dos frutos foi avaliada por local de venda e tamanho de fruto. As melancias de tamanho grande e médio apresentaram melhor aparência externa e maior conteúdo de sólidos solúveis que aquelas de tamanho pequeno, enquanto as comercializadas na ocasião do desembarque apresentaram melhor aparência e maior firmeza. A avaliação da vida útil pós-colheita foi feita com frutos provenientes de um plantio comercial instalado em Mossoró, RN. A perda de peso foi de apenas 3,79%, o pH da polpa aumentou de 4,89 para 5,20, a acidez total titulável decresceu durante o armazenamento e os conteúdos de sólidos solúveis e açúcares solúveis totais não apresentaram correlação com o armazenamento, sendo que o primeiro variou de 7,63 a 9,55%. Os açúcares redutores apresentaram leve diminuição no final do armazenamento. A vida útil pós-colheita dos frutos foi avaliada em 12 dias.The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality and shelf life of Crimson Sweet watermelon marketed in Mossoró-RN. The quality of the fruits was evaluated by locality and fruit size. The large and middle sized watermelons presented better external appearance and higher soluble solids content than those of small size, while those marketed directly upon off loading, presented better appearance and higher firmness. The evaluation of the postharvest shelf life was done with fruits of a commercial plantation in Mossoró-RN. The weight loss was of 3.79%, the pH of the fruits increased from 4.89 to 5.20, the total titrable acidity decreased during storage. The soluble solids content and total soluble sugars did not present correlation with the storage, and the first varied from 7.63 to 9.55%. The reducing sugars a presented slight decrease at the end of the storage. The postharvest shelf life of the fruits was

  9. A New in Vitro Anti-Tumor Polypeptide Isolated from Arca inflata

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    Jian Xu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new in vitro anti-tumor polypeptide, coded as J2-C3, was isolated from Arca inflata Reeve and purified by diethyl-aminoethanol (DEAE-sepharose Fast Flow anion exchange and phenyl sepharose CL-4B hydrophobic chromatography. J2-C3 was identified to be a homogeneous compound by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE. The purity of J2-C3 was over 99% in reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular weight was determined as 20,538.0 Da by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS. J2-C3 was rich in Glx (Gln + Glu, Lys, and Asx (Asp + Asn according to amino acid analysis. Four partial amino acid sequences of this peptide were determined as L/ISMEDVEESR, KNGMHSI/LDVNHDGR, AMKI/LI/LNPKKGI/LVPR and AMGAHKPPKGNEL/IGHR via MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and de novo sequencing. Secondary structural analysis by CD spectroscopy revealed that J2-C3 had the α-helix (45.2%, β-sheet (2.9%, β-turn (26.0% and random coil (25.9%. The anti-tumor effect of J2-C3 against human tumor cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the IC50 values of J2-C3 were 65.57, 93.33 and 122.95 µg/mL against A549, HT-29 and HepG2 cell lines, respectively. Therefore, J2-C3 might be developed as a potential anti-tumor agent.

  10. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  11. Todralazine protects zebra fish from lethal doses of ionizing radiation: role of hematopoietic stem cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced cell killing and hematopoietic stem cell depletion leads to compromised immune functions and opportunistic infections which significantly affect the recovery and survival upon irradiation. Any agent which can expand residual hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated organism can render protection from the effects of lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Johns Hopkins Clinical compound library (JHCCL) was screened for protection against lethal doses of ionizing radiation using developing zebra fish as a model organism. Modulation of radiation induced reactive oxygen species by the small molecules were done by DCFDA staining and for visual identification and quantification of apoptosis acridine orange assay, flow cytometry were employed respectively. Hematopoietic stem cell expansion potential was assessed by quantifying runx1 expression, a marker for definitive stem cells, were done by RT-PCR and by the kinetics of recovery from chemically induced anaemia. Todralazine hydrochloride from JHCCL exhibited promising results with potential anti radiation effects. A dose of 5μM was found to be the most effective and has rendered significant organ and whole body protection (100% survival advantage over a period of 6 days) against 20 Gy. However todralazine did not modulated radiation induced free radicals (monitored within 2 h of irradiation) and apoptosis in zebra fish embryos analysed at 8 and 24h post irradiation. Flow cytometric quantification of pre G1 population suggested the same. Chemoinformatics approaches were further carried out to elucidate possible targets which are contributing to its radioprotection potential. Structural similarity search suggested several targets and possible hematopoietic stem cell expanding potential. Treatment of zebra fish embryos with todralazine has lead to significant proliferation of hematopoietic stem cell as indicated by increase in expression of runx1. HSC expanding potential of todralazine was further supported by

  12. Oscillating magnetic field disrupts magnetic orientation in Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltschko Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebra finches can be trained to use the geomagnetic field as a directional cue for short distance orientation. The physical mechanisms underlying the primary processes of magnetoreception are, however, largely unknown. Two hypotheses of how birds perceive magnetic information are mainly discussed, one dealing with modulation of radical pair processes in retinal structures, the other assuming that iron deposits in the upper beak of the birds are involved. Oscillating magnetic fields in the MHz range disturb radical pair mechanisms but do not affect magnetic particles. Thus, application of such oscillating fields in behavioral experiments can be used as a diagnostic tool to decide between the two alternatives. Methods In a setup that eliminates all directional cues except the geomagnetic field zebra finches were trained to search for food in the magnetic north/south axis. The birds were then tested for orientation performance in two magnetic conditions. In condition 1 the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field was shifted by 90 degrees using a helmholtz coil. In condition 2 a high frequently oscillating field (1.156 MHz was applied in addition to the shifted field. Another group of birds was trained to solve the orientation task, but with visual landmarks as directional cue. The birds were then tested for their orientation performance in the same magnetic conditions as applied for the first experiment. Results The zebra finches could be trained successfully to orient in the geomagnetic field for food search in the north/south axis. They were also well oriented in test condition 1, with the magnetic field shifted horizontally by 90 degrees. In contrast, when the oscillating field was added, the directional choices during food search were randomly distributed. Birds that were trained to visually guided orientation showed no difference of orientation performance in the two magnetic conditions. Conclusion The results

  13. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  14. The emergence of the Activity Reduces Conflict Associated Strain (ARCAS) model: a test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Maria T M; Beersma, Bianca; Cornelissen, Roosmarijn A W M

    2012-07-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees demonstrated that, consistent with the model, the conflict-employee strain relationship was weaker the higher employees' OBSE and the more they engaged in active problem-solving conflict management. Our data also revealed that higher levels of OBSE were related to more problem-solving conflict management. Moreover, consistent with the ARCAS model, we could confirm a conditional mediation model in which organization-based self-esteem through its relationship with problem-solving conflict management weakened the relationship between task conflict and employee strain. Potential applications of the results are discussed.

  15. Ballast water as a vector of coral pathogens in the Gulf of Mexico: the case of the Cayo Arcas coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Valdés-Lozano, David S; Herrera-Rodríguez, Miguel; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel A

    2008-09-01

    The discharge of nutrients, phytoplankton and pathogenic bacteria through ballast water may threaten the Cayo Arcas reef system. To assess this threat, the quality of ballast water and presence of coral reef pathogenic bacteria in 30 oil tankers loaded at the PEMEX Cayo Arcas crude oil terminal were determined. The water transported in the ships originated from coastal, oceanic or riverine regions. Statistical associations among quality parameters and bacteria were tested using redundancy analysis (RDA). In contrast with coastal or oceanic water, the riverine water had high concentrations of coliforms, including Vibrio cholerae 01 and, Serratia marcescens and Sphingomona spp., which are frequently associated with "white pox" and "white plague type II" coral diseases. There were also high nutrient concentrations and low water quality index values (WQI and TRIX). The presence of V. cholerae 01 highlights the need for testing ballast water coming from endemic regions into Mexican ports. PMID:18639903

  16. NOAH’S ARK SHELL (ARCA NOAE LINNAEUS, 1758) – WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW FOR STARTING UP ITS AQUACULTURE?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Župan; Tomislav Šarić; Melita Peharda; Daria Ezgeta-Balić

    2012-01-01

    Noah’s ark shell Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most important commercially exploited bivalve species in the eastern Adriatic Sea. High harvesting pressure, as a consequence of increasing market demands, could in the future result in its overexploitation in some areas. All mentioned above, together with a high market price, make A. noae a new species for introduction into aquaculture. Several studies have recently been conducted concerning biology and ecology of A. noae in the Adriati...

  17. Assessment of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Permethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination by toxic heavy metals and pesticides, yet very little is known about the influence of pesticides on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms. Mercury is a toxic metal with no known biological benefit to organisms. Bioavailability of mercury in aquatic environments depends on biological and non-biological parameters including other pollutants. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the effects of permethrin on bioaccumulation of mercury in zebra cichlid. Methods: Acute toxicity (LC50 of permethrin and mercury chloride was evaluated by estimating mortality in Probit Model in SPSS (version 19.0 IBM. In sub-lethal toxicity, zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum was exposed to various concentrations of permethrin (0.0, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1 combined with 20 µg.L-1 mercury chloride for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, mercury concentrations were measured using ICP-OES-Perkin elmer (optima 7300-DV. Results: 96 h LC50 values of permethrin and mercury for C. nigrofasciatum were calculated to be 17.55 µg.L-1 and 140.38 µg.L-1, respectively. Our results clearly showed that the bioaccumulation of mercury in the specimens increased with increasing concentrations of permethrin to 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of permethrin had synergistic effects on the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish.

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation impairs extracellular matrix remodeling during zebra fish fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Eric A; Mathew, Lijoy K; Löhr, Christiane V; Hasson, Rachelle; Tanguay, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    Adult zebra fish completely regenerate their caudal (tail) fin following partial amputation. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) inhibits this regenerative process. Proper regulation of transcription, innervation, vascularization, and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition is essential for complete fin regeneration. Previous microarray studies suggest that genes involved in ECM regulation are misexpressed following activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. To investigate whether TCDD blocks regeneration by impairing ECM remodeling, male zebra fish were i.p. injected with 50 ng/g TCDD or vehicle, and caudal fins were amputated. By 3 days postamputation (dpa), the vascular network in the regenerating fin of TCDD-exposed fish was disorganized compared to vehicle-exposed animals. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that axonal outgrowth was impacted by TCDD as early as 3 dpa. Histological analysis demonstrated that TCDD exposure leads to an accumulation of collagen at the end of the fin ray just distal to the amputation site by 3 dpa. Mature lepidotrichial-forming cells (fin ray-forming cells) were not observed in the fins of TCDD-treated fish. The capacity to metabolize ECM was also altered by TCDD exposure. Quantitative real-time PCR studies revealed that the aryl hydrocarbon pathway is active and that matrix-remodeling genes are expressed in the regenerate following TCDD exposure.

  19. Female but not male zebra finches adjust heat output in response to increased incubation demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Lindström, Jan; McCafferty, Dominic J; Nager, Ruedi G

    2014-04-15

    In many incubating birds, heat transfer from parent to egg is facilitated by the brood patch, an area of ventral abdominal skin that becomes highly vascularised, swells and loses its down feathers around the time of laying. Only the female develops a brood patch in most passerine species, but males of some species can incubate and maintain the eggs at similar temperatures to females even without a brood patch. Here we used a novel application of infrared thermography to examine sex differences in parental care from a physiological perspective. Using incubating male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which the male lacks a brood patch, we measured the surface temperature of the ventral plumage overlying the abdomen and a reference area that does not contact the eggs (thorax) twice per pair. In half of the pairs, clutch size was experimentally enlarged between the two sets of measurements to increase incubation demand. We found that the temperature differential between abdomen and thorax plumage was greater in females than in males, and that abdomen plumage was warmer after clutch enlargement than before in females but not in males. These findings are consistent with morphological sex differences in brood patch development and suggest that male and female zebra finches differ in the way they regulate abdomen versus general body surface temperature in response to variation in incubation demand.

  20. Zebra finches can use positional and transitional cues to distinguish vocal element strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiani; Ten Cate, Carel

    2015-08-01

    Learning sequences is of great importance to humans and non-human animals. Many motor and mental actions, such as singing in birds and speech processing in humans, rely on sequential learning. At least two mechanisms are considered to be involved in such learning. The chaining theory proposes that learning of sequences relies on memorizing the transitions between adjacent items, while the positional theory suggests that learners encode the items according to their ordinal position in the sequence. Positional learning is assumed to dominate sequential learning. However, human infants exposed to a string of speech sounds can learn transitional (chaining) cues. So far, it is not clear whether birds, an increasingly important model for examining vocal processing, can do this. In this study we use a Go-Nogo design to examine whether zebra finches can use transitional cues to distinguish artificially constructed strings of song elements. Zebra finches were trained with sequences differing in transitional and positional information and next tested with novel strings sharing positional and transitional similarities with the training strings. The results show that they can attend to both transitional and positional cues and that their sequential coding strategies can be biased toward transitional cues depending on the learning context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  1. Parasitism can be a confounding factor in assessing the response of zebra mussels to water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological responses measured in aquatic organisms to monitor environmental pollution could be also affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. Among these environmental factors, parasitism has often been neglected even if infection by parasites is very frequent. In the present field investigation, the parasite infra-communities and zebra mussel biological responses were studied up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant in northeast France. In both sites, mussels were infected by ciliates and/or intracellular bacteria, but prevalence rates and infection intensities were different according to the habitat. Concerning the biological responses differences were observed related to the site quality and the infection status. Parasitism affects both systems but seemed to depend mainly on environmental conditions. The influence of parasites is not constant, but remains important to consider it as a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies. This study also emphasizes the interesting use of integrative indexes to synthesize data set. Highlights: ► Study of potential bias associated with the use of infected zebra mussels in ecotoxicological studies. ► Presence of infected mussels on banks and channels, up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant. ► Parasitism influence on biological responses dependent of mussel population history. ► Integrative index, an interesting tool to synthesize the set of biological data. - Parasitism influence on the host physiology would be strongly dependent on environmental conditions but remains a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies.

  2. Budgerigars and zebra finches differ in how they generalize in an artificial grammar learning experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle J.; ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to abstract a regularity that underlies strings of sounds is a core mechanism of the language faculty but might not be specific to language learning or even to humans. It is unclear whether and to what extent nonhuman animals possess the ability to abstract regularities defining the relation among arbitrary auditory items in a string and to generalize this abstraction to strings of acoustically novel items. In this study we tested these abilities in a songbird (zebra finch) and a parrot species (budgerigar). Subjects were trained in a go/no-go design to discriminate between two sets of sound strings arranged in an XYX or an XXY structure. After this discrimination was acquired, each subject was tested with test strings that were structurally identical to the training strings but consisted of either new combinations of known elements or of novel elements belonging to other element categories. Both species learned to discriminate between the two stimulus sets. However, their responses to the test strings were strikingly different. Zebra finches categorized test stimuli with previously heard elements by the ordinal position that these elements occupied in the training strings, independent of string structure. In contrast, the budgerigars categorized both novel combinations of familiar elements as well as strings consisting of novel element types by their underlying structure. They thus abstracted the relation among items in the XYX and XXY structures, an ability similar to that shown by human infants and indicating a level of abstraction comparable to analogical reasoning. PMID:27325756

  3. Involvement of apoptosis in host-parasite interactions in the zebra mussel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Minguez

    Full Text Available The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism.

  4. Juvenile zebra finches learn the underlying structural regularities of their fathers’ song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia eMenyhart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural behaviors, such as foraging, tool use, social interaction, birdsong, and language, exhibit branching sequential structure. Such structure should be learnable if it can be inferred from the statistics of early experience. We report that juvenile zebra finches learn such sequential structure in song. Song learning in finches has been extensively studied, and it is generally believed that young males acquire song by imitating tutors (Zann, 1996. Variability in the order of elements in an individual’s mature song occurs, but the degree to which variation in a zebra finch’s song follows statistical regularities has not been quantified, as it has typically been dismissed as production error (Sturdy et al., 1999. Allowing for the possibility that such variation in song is non-random and learnable, we applied a novel analytical approach, based on graph-structured finite-state grammars, to each individual’s full corpus of renditions of songs. This method does not assume syllable-level correspondence between individuals. We find that song variation can be described by probabilistic finite-state graph grammars that are individually distinct, and that the graphs of juveniles are more similar to those of their fathers than to those of other adult males. This grammatical learning is a new parallel between birdsong and language. Our method can be applied across species and contexts to analyze complex variable learned behaviors, as distinct as foraging, tool use, and language.

  5. Basis for the photoidentification of zebras (Equus burchellii in the National Zoological Garden of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Testé Lozano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability in facial strip patterns in zebras aloud its individualization. This is the basis for photo identification techniques that substitute traditional marking methods that can be expensive and traumatic. Current paper present an identification key of Equus burchelli captive in the National Zoological Garden of Cuba using left side pictures of their faces. Region of interest was limited by axes traced from posterior mouth edge, the eye and the lower base of neck. Strips crossing each ax were counted building a numerical code for each individual. The 68 % of captive zebras (54 individuals were photo identified. A group of 12 individuals had a code completely different from others, identifying each one. Remaining individuals could be grouped by similar codes, resulting in 11 pairs, and four groups of three, four, five and six individuals each. Every individual was characterized by the occurrence of spots, truncated strips, bridges between vertical stripes, periorbital bands, and bifurcated stripes. With all this characters a visual identification key was developed.

  6. Brain activation pattern depends on the strategy chosen by zebra finches to solve an orientation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2012-02-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to find food in one of four feeders on the floor of an aviary. This feeder was always in the same place during training and was additionally marked by a distinct pattern. In the test trial the distinctly patterned feeder was interchanged with one of the other feeders, so that the birds had to decide to use either the pattern or the original location for finding food. Half of the birds used one strategy and half used the other. According to the strategy applied, different brain areas were activated, as demonstrated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The hippocampus was activated when spatial cues were used, while in birds orienting using the pattern of the feeder, part of the collothalamic (tectofugal) visual system showed stronger activation. The visual wulst of the lemnothalamic (thalamofugal) visual system was activated with both strategies, indicating an involvement in both spatial and pattern-directed orientation. Because the experimental situation was the same for all zebra finches, the activation pattern was only dependent on the strategy that was voluntarily chosen by each of the birds.

  7. Altered auditory BOLD response to conspecific birdsong in zebra finches with stuttered syllables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U Voss

    Full Text Available How well a songbird learns a song appears to depend on the formation of a robust auditory template of its tutor's song. Using functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging we examine auditory responses in two groups of zebra finches that differ in the type of song they sing after being tutored by birds producing stuttering-like syllable repetitions in their songs. We find that birds that learn to produce the stuttered syntax show attenuated blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD responses to tutor's song, and more pronounced responses to conspecific song primarily in the auditory area field L of the avian forebrain, when compared to birds that produce normal song. These findings are consistent with the presence of a sensory song template critical for song learning in auditory areas of the zebra finch forebrain. In addition, they suggest a relationship between an altered response related to familiarity and/or saliency of song stimuli and the production of variant songs with stuttered syllables.

  8. Parental influence on begging call structure in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): evidence of early vocal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Avelyne S; Boucaud, Ingrid C A; Bouchut, Colette; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-11-01

    Begging calls are signals of need used by young birds to elicit care from adults. Different theoretical frameworks have been proposed to understand this parent-offspring communication. But relationships between parental response and begging intensity, or between begging characteristics and proxies of a young's need remain puzzling. Few studies have considered the adjustment of nestling begging features to previous experience as a possible explanation of these discrepancies. In this study, we tested the effect of a heterospecific rearing environment on individual developmental trajectories of the acoustic structure of nestling begging calls. Fifty-two zebra finch chicks were fostered either to Bengalese finch or to zebra finch parents, and begging calls were recorded at several stages of nestling development. Acoustic analyses revealed that the development of the spectral features of the begging calls differed between experimental conditions: chicks reared by Bengalese finches produced higher pitched and less broadband begging calls than chicks reared by conspecific parents. Differences were stronger in males than females and were not explained by differences in growth rate. We conclude that nestling begging calls can be plastic in response to social interactions with parents. PMID:26716009

  9. Budgerigars and zebra finches differ in how they generalize in an artificial grammar learning experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle J; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-07-01

    The ability to abstract a regularity that underlies strings of sounds is a core mechanism of the language faculty but might not be specific to language learning or even to humans. It is unclear whether and to what extent nonhuman animals possess the ability to abstract regularities defining the relation among arbitrary auditory items in a string and to generalize this abstraction to strings of acoustically novel items. In this study we tested these abilities in a songbird (zebra finch) and a parrot species (budgerigar). Subjects were trained in a go/no-go design to discriminate between two sets of sound strings arranged in an XYX or an XXY structure. After this discrimination was acquired, each subject was tested with test strings that were structurally identical to the training strings but consisted of either new combinations of known elements or of novel elements belonging to other element categories. Both species learned to discriminate between the two stimulus sets. However, their responses to the test strings were strikingly different. Zebra finches categorized test stimuli with previously heard elements by the ordinal position that these elements occupied in the training strings, independent of string structure. In contrast, the budgerigars categorized both novel combinations of familiar elements as well as strings consisting of novel element types by their underlying structure. They thus abstracted the relation among items in the XYX and XXY structures, an ability similar to that shown by human infants and indicating a level of abstraction comparable to analogical reasoning. PMID:27325756

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal samples from buffalo, wildebeest and zebra grazing together with and without cattle in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakweba, A. A. S.; Møller, K. S.; Muumba, J.;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether the practice of co-grazing with cattle and wild life constitutes a risk of transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria to wild ungulates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Faecal samples were collected from buffalo (n = 35), wildebeest (n = 40), zebra (n =...

  11. Origin of Spanish invasion by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Pollux, B.J.A.; Peters, J.L.; Cremers, G.; Moon- van der Staay, S.Y.; Alen, van T.; Eygensteyn, J.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Palau, A.; Vaate, de A.B.; Velde, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha is an aquatic nuisance invasive species originally native to the Ponto-Caspian region where it is found in lakes and delta areas of large rivers draining into the Black and Caspian seas. The dispersal of D. polymorpha began at the end of the 18th century, at a

  12. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena Polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under semi-natural diving conditions with relevance to the IJsselmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee a

  13. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula and scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under seminatural diving conditions with relevance to the IJssalmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee ar

  14. An eye for beauty: lateralized visual stimulation of courtship behavior and mate preferences in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer J; McCracken, Brianna G; Sher, Melissa; Mountjoy, D James

    2014-02-01

    Research on intersexual selection focuses on traits that have evolved for attracting mates and the consequences of mate choice. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that allow choosers to discriminate among potential mates and express an attraction to specific traits. Preferential use of the right eye during lateral displays in zebra finches, and lateralized expression of intermediate early genes in the left hemisphere during courtship led us to hypothesize that: (1) visual information from each eye differentially mediates courtship responses to potential mates; and (2) the ability to discriminate among mates and prefer certain mates over others is lateralized in the right eye/left hemisphere system of zebra finch brains. First, we exposed male zebra finches to females when using left, right or both eyes. Males courted more when the right eye was available than when only the left eye was used. Secondly, male preference for females - using beak color to indicate female quality - was tested. Right-eyed and binocular males associated with and courted orange-beaked more than gray-beaked females; whereas left-eyed males showed no preference. Lateral displays and eye use in male zebra finches increase their attractiveness and ability to assess female quality, potentially enhancing reproductive success. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013.

  15. Zebra Chip disease and potato biochemistry: Tuber physiological changes in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), putatively caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is of increasing concern to potato production in Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. However, little is known about host tuber physiological changes that result in ZC symptom formation. This study exp...

  16. Size limitation on zebra mussels consumed by freshwater drum may preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P., III; Love, Joy G.

    1995-01-01

    The septa lengths of bivalve shells were used to estimate shell lengths of the largest zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) crushed and consumed by freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) to determine if size limitation could preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller of the zebra mussel. We examined gut samples of drum (273 to 542 mm long) collected from western Lake Erie in 1991, found the largest mussel (shell length = 21.4 mm) in the 11th largest drum (TL = 405 mm), and observed a reduction of mussel size in larger drum. The lack of a relationship between mussel size and drum size for larger specimens suggests that either drum prefer smaller mussels or the gape between the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth restricts drum feeding to zebra mussels of limited size. Although drum may reduce zebra mussel populations, because of the apparent size limitation of prey it is unlikely that drum would be fully effective as a biological controller; thus, this fish should not be introduced beyond its native range for that purpose.

  17. KUNJKA (Arca noae LINNAEUS, 1758) – ŠTO MORAMO ZNATI PRIJE UVOĐENJA OVE VRSTE U AKVAKULTURU?

    OpenAIRE

    Župan, Ivan; Peharda, Melita; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Šarić, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    Kunjka Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 jedna je od najvažnijih komercijalno iskorištavanih vrsta školjkaša na istočnoj obali Jadrana. Visoki intenzitet ribolova, kao posljedica rastuće potražnje na tržištu, u budućnosti bi mogao dovesti do pretjerane eksploatacije prirodnih populacija u pojedinim područjima. Kada se navedenim činjenicama pridoda i visoka cijena na tržištu, kunjka A. noae se nameće kao moguća nova vrsta u akvakulturu. Nedavno je provedeno nekoliko istraživanja o biologiji i ekologij...

  18. PREBAČAJ KUNJKE Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 IZ PRIRODNIH UVJETA U RAZLIČITE UVJETE EKSPERIMENTALNOG UZGOJA

    OpenAIRE

    Župan, Ivan; Rogošić, Jozo; Šarić, Tomislav; Kanski, Danijel

    2013-01-01

    Kunjka Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 je jedna od komercijalno važnih vrsta školjkaša u Hrvatskoj koja se izlovljava iz prirodnih staništa. Istražili smo odnos dužina prema spolu, udio spolova i preživljavanje nakon prebačaja iz prirodnog staništa u eksperimentalne uzgojne uvjete. Statistički značajno manje dužine uočene su kod mužjaka (x=52,6±8,7 mm) u odnosu na ženke (x=60,2±9,5 mm). Ukupni udio spolova bio je 1,8 : 1,0 u korist mužjaka. Preživljavanje nakon 17 mjeseci iznosilo je 20,5%. Istraživ...

  19. ANOMALOUS RELATIVE AR/CA CORONAL ABUNDANCES OBSERVED BY THE HINODE/EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER NEAR SUNSPOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Feldman, U. [Artep, Inc., 2922 Excelsior Springs Court, Ellicott City, MD 21042 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    In determining the element abundance of argon (a high first ionization potential; FIP element) relative to calcium (a low FIP element) in flares, unexpectedly high intensities of two Ar xiv lines (194.40, 187.96 Å) relative to a Ca xiv line (193.87 Å) intensity were found in small (a few arcseconds) regions near sunspots in flare spectra recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on the Hinode spacecraft. In the most extreme case the Ar xiv line intensity relative to the Ca xiv intensity was 7 times the value expected from the photospheric abundance ratio, which is about 30 times the abundance of argon relative to calcium in active regions, i.e., the measured Ar/Ca abundance ratio is about 10 instead of 0.37 as in active regions. The Ar xiv and Ca xiv lines are formed near 3.4 MK and have very similar contribution functions. This is the first observation of the inverse FIP effect in the Sun. Other regions show increases of 2–3 over photospheric abundances, or just photospheric abundances. This phenomenon appears to occur rarely and only over small areas of flares away from the regions containing multi-million degree plasma, but more work is needed to quantify the occurrences and their locations. In the bright hot regions of flares the Ar/Ca abundance ratio is coronal, i.e., the same as in active regions. In this Letter we show three examples of the inverse FIP effect.

  20. “Bird Song Metronomics”: Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a “signal-derived pulse,” or pulseS, of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulseS significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulseP), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulsesS that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulseS periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel to the

  1. Song exposure regulates known and novel microRNAs in the zebra finch auditory forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an important model for neuroscience, songbirds learn to discriminate songs they hear during tape-recorded playbacks, as demonstrated by song-specific habituation of both behavioral and neurogenomic responses in the auditory forebrain. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs may participate in the changing pattern of gene expression induced by song exposure. To test this, we used massively parallel Illumina sequencing to analyse small RNAs from auditory forebrain of adult zebra finches exposed to tape-recorded birdsong or silence. Results In the auditory forebrain, we identified 121 known miRNAs conserved in other vertebrates. We also identified 34 novel miRNAs that do not align to human or chicken genomes. Five conserved miRNAs showed significant and consistent changes in copy number after song exposure across three biological replications of the song-silence comparison, with two increasing (tgu-miR-25, tgu-miR-192 and three decreasing (tgu-miR-92, tgu-miR-124, tgu-miR-129-5p. We also detected a locus on the Z sex chromosome that produces three different novel miRNAs, with supporting evidence from Northern blot and TaqMan qPCR assays for differential expression in males and females and in response to song playbacks. One of these, tgu-miR-2954-3p, is predicted (by TargetScan to regulate eight song-responsive mRNAs that all have functions in cellular proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Conclusions The experience of hearing another bird singing alters the profile of miRNAs in the auditory forebrain of zebra finches. The response involves both known conserved miRNAs and novel miRNAs described so far only in the zebra finch, including a novel sex-linked, song-responsive miRNA. These results indicate that miRNAs are likely to contribute to the unique behavioural biology of learned song communication in songbirds.

  2. Investigation to determine staff exposure and describe animal bite surveillance after detection of a rabid zebra in a safari lodge in Kenya, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Obonyo, Mark; Arvelo, Wences; Kadivane, Samuel; Orundu, Moses; Lankau, Emily; Gakuya, Francis; Munyua, Peninah; Githinji, Jane; Marano, Nina; Njenga, Kariuki; Omolo, Jared; Montgomery, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rabies is a fatal viral infection, resulting in >55,000 deaths globally each year. In August 2011, a young orphaned zebra at a Kenyan safari lodge acquired rabies and potentially exposed >150 tourists and local staff. An investigation was initiated to determine exposures among the local staff, and to describe animal bite surveillance in the affected district. Methods We interviewed lodge staff on circumstances surrounding the zebra's illness and assessed their exposure status. We...

  3. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano = Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Andrade Batista; Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana; José Benício Paes Chaves; Flávia Aparecida Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de a-caroteno, b-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações doano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa) foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Devido ao conteúdo inexpr...

  4. Evolutionary constraints on equid domestication: Comparison of flight initiation distances of wild horses (Equus caballus ferus) and plains zebras (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Alexali S; Coss, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Habituation to humans was an essential component of horse (Equus caballus ferus) domestication, with the nondomestication of zebras (Equus quagga) possibly reflecting an adaptive constraint on habituation. We present the human hunting hypothesis, arguing that ancestral humans hunted African animals, including zebras, long enough to promote a persistent wariness of humans, whereas a briefer period of hunting horses in Central Asia influenced by glacial cycles was unlikely to produce an equally persistent wariness. An alternative habituation to humans hypothesis, prompted by field observations, posits that zebras can habituate well to nonthreatening humans given sufficient exposure. If so, other factors must account for zebra nondomestication. To examine these hypotheses, we compared the flight initiation distances (FIDs) of wild horses in the United States and plains zebras in Africa to a human approaching on foot (N = 87). We compared the flight behavior of both species at sites with low and high exposure to humans (mean humans/acre = .004 and .209, respectively). Analyses revealed a significant interaction (p = .0001) between equid species and level of human exposure. The mean FIDs of horses (146 m) and zebras (105 m) with low human exposure did not differ appreciably (p = .412), but these distances were substantially longer (p human exposure that did differ significantly (p humans than horses do might reflect an adaptive response to historical hunting and partly explain their resistance to domestication.

  5. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Consuelo; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

    2008-02-01

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency.

  6. Personality over ontogeny in zebra finches: long-term repeatable traits but unstable behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerz, Yvonne; Krüger, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    A crucial assumption of animal personality research is that behaviour is consistent over time, showing a high repeatability within individuals. This assumption is often made, sometimes tested using short time intervals between behavioural tests, but rarely thoroughly investigated across long time intervals crossing different stages of ontogeny. We performed such a longitudinal test across three life stages in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), representing about 15-20% of their life span in captivity, and found repeatabilities ranging from 0.03 to 0.67. Fearlessness and exploration were the most repeatable traits both within and across life stages. Activity and aggression were repeatable across, but not or only partly within life stages. Boldness was not repeatable. Furthermore, we found no evidence for a consistent behavioural syndrome structure across ontogeny. Our results indicate that the consistency of behavioural traits and their correlations might be overestimated and suggest that life-long stability of animal personality should not simply be assumed. PMID:26813709

  7. Quagga and zebra mussel risk via veliger transfer by overland hauled boats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry B. Dalton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive quagga and zebra mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis and Dreissena polymorpha, respectively pose a great threat to USwaters. Recreational boats constitute a significant risk for spreading the organisms. Recreational boats circulate large amounts of raw waterwhen in use, and if not drained and dried correctly can transport many mussel larvae, called veligers. Veligers experience very high mortality rates; however, the number of potentially transported veligers can be a serious risk to non-infested bodies of water, especially if multiple boats are involved. The risk of veliger transport was calculated for Lake Mead and Lake Michigan using boat capacities for water circulation and specific veliger density data. Results illustrate the importance of draining, drying, and/or decontaminating recreational boats after use.

  8. First Report of Coccidiosis and Gizzard Erosion in a Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moini, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis and gizzard erosion are rare conditions in cage bird. A male zebra finch was presented with a history of watery diarrhea, anorexia, ruffled feathers, weight loss, and lethargy and died finally. Gross necropsy revealed small areas of erosions and hemorrhages on the gizzard wall. The intestine was oedematous. The spleen appeared pale and small. The testes were asymmetric.Histologically, necrosis of mucosal layer with infiltration of inflammatory cells observed in cecum. Eimeria stages were detected in the enterocytes. In Gizzard, hemorrhage and ulceration of mucosal layer with infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in to the underlying mucosa were seen. In hepatic tissue, mild focal necrosis with mononuclear cells infiltration was seen. The disease was diagnosed as coccidiosis and gizzard erosion.

  9. Productivity of Mountain Reedbugk Redunca Fulvorufula (Afzelius, 1815 at the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D Skinner

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two adult mountain reedbuck Redunca fulvoru- fula were collected during four seasons, autumn, winter, spring and summer at the Mountain Zebra National Park mainly during 1975 and 1976. Body mass and carcass characteristics varied little with season, body mass varying from 24,0-35,5 kg for all buck shot and dressing percentage always exeeded 50. According to KFI animals were all in fair to good condition. Sixty four percent of all ewes were pregnant and 38,5 lactating. Females and males bred throughout the year but there was a peak in births during mid-summer. The species is highly productive, well adapted to the niche it occupies and lends itself to exploitation for meat production.

  10. Effect of a sausage oscillation on radio zebra-pattern structures in a solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sijie; Yan, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Sausage modes that are axisymmetric fast magnetoacoustic oscillations of solar coronal loops are characterized by variation of the plasma density and magnetic field, and hence cause time variations of the electron plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency. The latter parameters determine the condition for the double plasma resonance (DPR), which is responsible for the appearance of zebra-pattern (ZP) structures in time spectra of solar type IV radio bursts. We perform numerical simulations of standing and propagating sausage oscillations in a coronal loop modeled as a straight, field-aligned plasma slab, and determine the time variation of the DPR layer locations. Instant values of the plasma density and magnetic field at the DPR layers allowed us to construct skeletons of the time variation of ZP stripes in radio spectra. In the presence of a sausage oscillation, the ZP structures are shown to have characteristic wiggles with the time period prescribed by the sausage oscillation. Standing and propagating saus...

  11. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences), sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology). While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study. PMID:21901147

  12. Sex-Specific Audience Effect in the Context of Mate Choice in Zebra Finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kniel

    Full Text Available Animals observing conspecifics during mate choice can gain additional information about potential mates. However, the presence of an observer, if detected by the observed individuals, can influence the nature of the behavior of the observed individuals, called audience effect. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis, domesticated males show an audience effect during mate choice. However, whether male and female descendants of the wild form show an audience effect during mate choice is unknown. Therefore, we conducted an experiment where male and female focal birds could choose between two distinctive phenotypes of the opposite sex, an artificially adorned stimulus bird with a red feather on the forehead and an unadorned stimulus bird, two times consecutively, once without an audience and once with an audience bird (same sex as test bird. Males showed an audience effect when an audience male was present and spent more time with adorned and less time with unadorned females compared to when there was no audience present. The change in time spent with the respective stimulus females was positively correlated with the time that the audience male spent in front of its cage close to the focal male. Females showed no change in mate choice when an audience female was present, but their motivation to associate with both stimulus males decreased. In a control for mate-choice consistency there was no audience in either test. Here, both focal females and focal males chose consistently without a change in choosing motivation. Our results showed that there is an audience effect on mate choice in zebra finches and that the response to a same-sex audience was sex-specific.

  13. Sex-Specific Audience Effect in the Context of Mate Choice in Zebra Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniel, Nina; Bender, Stefanie; Witte, Klaudia

    2016-01-01

    Animals observing conspecifics during mate choice can gain additional information about potential mates. However, the presence of an observer, if detected by the observed individuals, can influence the nature of the behavior of the observed individuals, called audience effect. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis), domesticated males show an audience effect during mate choice. However, whether male and female descendants of the wild form show an audience effect during mate choice is unknown. Therefore, we conducted an experiment where male and female focal birds could choose between two distinctive phenotypes of the opposite sex, an artificially adorned stimulus bird with a red feather on the forehead and an unadorned stimulus bird, two times consecutively, once without an audience and once with an audience bird (same sex as test bird). Males showed an audience effect when an audience male was present and spent more time with adorned and less time with unadorned females compared to when there was no audience present. The change in time spent with the respective stimulus females was positively correlated with the time that the audience male spent in front of its cage close to the focal male. Females showed no change in mate choice when an audience female was present, but their motivation to associate with both stimulus males decreased. In a control for mate-choice consistency there was no audience in either test. Here, both focal females and focal males chose consistently without a change in choosing motivation. Our results showed that there is an audience effect on mate choice in zebra finches and that the response to a same-sex audience was sex-specific.

  14. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  15. Dynamic gene expression in the song system of zebra finches during the song learning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christopher R; Hodges, Lisa K; Mello, Claudio V

    2015-12-01

    The brain circuitry that controls song learning and production undergoes marked changes in morphology and connectivity during the song learning period in juvenile zebra finches, in parallel to the acquisition, practice and refinement of song. Yet, the genetic programs and timing of regulatory change that establish the neuronal connectivity and plasticity during this critical learning period remain largely undetermined. To address this question, we used in situ hybridization to compare the expression patterns of a set of 30 known robust molecular markers of HVC and/or area X, major telencephalic song nuclei, between adult and juvenile male zebra finches at different ages during development (20, 35, 50 days post-hatch, dph). We found that several of the genes examined undergo substantial changes in expression within HVC or its surrounds, and/or in other song nuclei. They fit into broad patterns of regulation, including those whose expression within HVC during this period increases (COL12A1, COL 21A1, MPZL1, PVALB, and CXCR7) or decreases (e.g., KCNT2, SAP30L), as well as some that show decreased expression in the surrounding tissue with little change within song nuclei (e.g. SV2B, TAC1). These results reveal a broad range of molecular changes that occur in the song system in concert with the song learning period. Some of the genes and pathways identified are potential modulators of the developmental changes associated with the emergence of the adult properties of the song control system, and/or the acquisition of learned vocalizations in songbirds.

  16. Determinação de mercúrio em águas sanitárias comercializadas em região do sudeste do Brasil Determination of mercury content in bleaches sold in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Zenebon

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Para determinação de mercúrio presente como contaminante nas águas sanitárias usadas para desinfecção de água e alimentos, foi proposto um tratamento de amostra com ácido clorídrico para eliminação do cloro. A técnica de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com gerador de vapor utilizada para quantificação do mercúrio apresentou uma recuperação de 103%. Foram analisadas 69 amostras de águas sanitárias de 35 diferentes marcas, comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo. Os valores obtidos para a mediana e nonagésimo percentil foram respectivamente: 15 e 67 ug/L. Pelas concentrações de mercúrio encontradas nas águas sanitárias, verificou-se que, usando as quantidades recomendadas para descontaminar água, frutas e hortaliças, o mercúrio residual não apresenta riscos à saúde, situando-se dentro dos valores estabelecidos pela legislação em vigor.In order to determine the mercury content present as a contaminant in samples of bleach used in water and food disinfection, a method for sample treatment using chloridric acid to eliminate the chlorine was proposed. The technique of cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry, used to quantify the mercury, showed a recovery of 103%. Sixty nine samples of bleach were analysed and the values found for the median and 90th percentil were respectively, 15 and 67 mg/L. According to the values of residual mercury found and using the quantities of bleach recommended by the Brazilian Sanitary Authorities, the use of these disinfectants offers no risk to human health.

  17. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) limit food for larval fish (Pimephales promelas) in turbulent systems: A bioenergetics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment, in outdoor mesocosms, on the effects of zebra mussels and water column mixing (i.e., turbulence) on the diet, growth, and survival of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Significant (P bioenergetics modeling and measured prey standing stocks indicated caloric resources of suitable prey in turbulence treatments during the early weeks of the experiment were insufficient to prevent starvation. Early mortality in the turbulence and mussels treatment likely released surviving fish from intense intraspecific competition and resulted in higher individual growth rates. A combination of high abundance of zebra mussels in an environment with a well-mixed water column can have significant effects on larval fish survival and growth.

  18. Genotoxic effects induced by the exposure to an environmental mixture of illicit drugs to the zebra mussel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Binelli, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Despite the growing interest on the presence of illicit drugs in freshwater ecosystems, just recently the attention has been focused on their potential toxicity towards non-target aquatic species. However, these studies largely neglected the effects induced by exposure to complex mixtures of illicit drugs, which could be different compared to those caused by single psychoactive molecules. This study was aimed at investigating the genetic damage induced by a 14-day exposure to a realistic mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in surface waters worldwide (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, morphine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The mixture caused a significant increase of DNA fragmentation and triggered the apoptotic process and micronuclei formation in zebra mussel hemocytes, pointing out its potential genotoxicity towards this bivalve species. PMID:27261879

  19. Temperature and Ca2+-dependence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase in haddock, salmon, rainbow trout and zebra cichlid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Temperature dependence of Ca2+-ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in rabbit muscle has been widely studied, and it is generally accepted that a break point in Arrhenius plot exist at approximately 20 degreesC. Whether the break point arises as a result of temperature dependent changes...... in the enzyme or its membrane lipid environment is still a matter of discussion. In this study we compared the temperature dependence and Ca2+-dependence of SR Ca2+-ATPase in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), salmon (Salmo, salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma...... nigrofasciatum). The Arrhenius plot of zebra cichlid showed a break point at 20 degreesC, and the haddock Arrhenius plot was non-linear with pronounced changes in slope in the. temperature area, 6-14 degreesC. In Arrhenius plot from both salmon and rainbow trout a plateau exists with an almost constant SR Ca2...

  20. Effect of iclR and arcA knockouts on biomass formation and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli K12 and its implications on understanding the metabolism of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waegeman, H.; Beauprez, J.; Moens, H.; Maertens, J.; De Mey, M.; Foulquié-Moreno, M.R.; Heijnen, J.J.; Charlier, D.; Soetaert, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gene expression is regulated through a complex interplay of different transcription factors (TFs) which can enhance or inhibit gene transcription. ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local regulator, controls the trans

  1. Comparing a microbial biocide and chlorine as zebra mussel control strategies in an Irish drinking water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Meehan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A need exists for an environmentally friendly mussel control method to replace chlorine and other traditional control methods currentlyutilised in drinking water plants and other infested facilities. Zequanox® is a newly commercialised microbial biocide for zebra and quaggamussels comprised of killed Pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A cells. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adevelopmental formulation of Zequanox (referred to as MBI 401 FDP and chlorine treatments on adult and juvenile zebra mussels byrunning a biobox trial in conjunction with chlorine treatments at an infested Irish drinking water treatment plant. Since 2009, the plantmanagement has used a residual chlorine concentration of 2 mg/L in autumn to control both adult zebra mussels and juvenile settlement intheir three concrete raw water chambers. Juvenile mussel settlement was monitored in three bioboxes as well as in three treatment chambersin the plant for three months prior to treatment. Adult mussels were seeded into the chambers and bioboxes four days before treatment. InOctober 2011, the bioboxes were treated with MBI 401 FDP at 200 mg active substance/L, while chlorine treatment took place in the waterchambers. The MBI 401 FDP treatment lasted only 8 hours while chlorine treatment lasted seven days. Juvenile numbers were reduced tozero in both the bioboxes and treated chambers within seven days. Adult mussel mortality reached 80% for both the chlorine and MBI 401FDP treatment; however, mortality was achieved faster in the chlorine treatment. These results provided important insights into zebra musselcontrol alternatives to chlorine and supported further development of the now commercial product, Zequanox.

  2. The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), a new pest in North America: reproductive mechanisms as possible targets of control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Peter; Croll, Roger P.; Nichols, Susan J.; Wall, Darcie

    1992-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has spread rapidly in temperate fresh waters of North America since its introduction into the Great Lakes in 1985 or 1986. It attaches to hard substrates, forming layers, occluding water intakes, encrusting and killing native mussels, filtering algae in competition with other planktivores, and possibly interfering with fish spawning. It reproduces prolifically, suggesting that an approach to its control may be by controlling its reproduction. Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is regulated by both environmental and internal chemical cues. A suggested sequence is that phytoplankton chemicals initially trigger spawning; chemicals associated with gametes provide a species-specific pheromonal positive feedback for spawning; and the response to environmental chemicals is mediated internally by serotonin (5-HT). The role of 5-HT in zebra mussels is under investigation. Both males and females can be induced to spawn by either injection or external application of 5-HT. The response can also be activated by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin, an agonist at 5-HT1A receptors. HPLC analysis has detected 5-HT as the major biogenic amine in both male and female gonads. 5-HT immunocytochemistry demonstrates nerves containing serotonergic fibers innervating gonads of both males and females, with prominent varicosities surrounding the follicles in both sexes. A role of 5-HT in mediating spawning responses in zebra mussels is thus strongly supported. These studies have shown that reproductive behavior of zebra mussels can be modified by outside chemicals, a property that may be exploited for purposes of control.

  3. Environmental transmission of a personality trait: foster parent exploration behaviour predicts offspring exploration behaviour in zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Schuett, Wiebke; Dall, Sasha R X; Wilson, Alastair J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent behavioural differences among individuals are common in many species and can have important effects on offspring fitness. To understand such ‘personality’ variation, it is important to determine the mode of inheritance, but this has been quantified for only a few species. Here, we report results from a breeding experiment in captive zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, in which we cross-fostered offspring to disentangle the importance of genetic and non-genetic transmission of behav...

  4. Screening of POP pollution by AChE and EROD activities in Zebra mussels from the Italian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, A; Ricciardi, Francesco; Riva, Consuelo; Provini, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    The increase of ethoxyresorufin dealkylation (EROD) and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as biomarkers have been commonly used in vertebrates for the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) biomonitoring of aquatic environments, but very few studies have been performed for invertebrates. Previous researches demonstrated the interference due to some chemicals on EROD and AChE activities of the freshwater bivalve Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in laboratory and field studies, showing its possible use for the screening of POP effects. We investigated the contamination of the Italian sub-alpine great lakes (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda) by the biomarker approach on Zebra mussel specimens collected at 17 sampling sites with different morphometric characteristics and anthropization levels. Results showed a homogeneous contamination of AChE inhibitors in Lake Garda, Maggiore, Como and Iseo with values ranging from 0.5 to 3 nmol/min/mg proteins and with an average inhibition of about 66% to controls. The planar compounds pollution, able to activate the EROD activity, seems higher in some sampling stations of Lake Garda, Como and Iseo (2-4 pmol/min/mg proteins) than that measured in Lake Lugano (1.5-3 pmol/min/mg proteins). On the contrary, the enzyme activity in Lake Maggiore showed an interesting opposite effect of AhR-binding compounds and trace metals. Finally, the possible use of Zebra mussel specimens maintained at laboratory conditions as controls against the selection of the less polluted sampling site is discussed.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio during Infection with Aeromonas sobria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannose receptor (MR is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio, which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection.

  6. Calbindin-D28K expression increases in the dorsolateral hippocampus following corticosterone treatment in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ashley L; Saldanha, Colin J; Bailey, David J

    2012-03-01

    The hippocampus (HP) in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) is important in the consolidation of spatial memories. Chronic, elevated levels of steroid hormones, like the glucocorticoids, can decrease this type of memory function in birds and mammals; neuronal atrophy, loss, and a decrease in synaptic contacts in the mammalian HP are observed as the underlying cause. Calbindin-D28k is constitutively expressed in cells of the nervous system but increases in concentration following a neurotoxic insult, protecting neurons against apoptotic cell death. We hypothesized that treatment of female zebra finches with a glucocorticoid (corticosterone) would increase calbindin expression in the HP and the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a region important for perceptual (song) memories, relative to "blank" controls. Additionally, because the HP in zebra finches appears similar to that in mammals, based on a variety of structural and functional factors, and as particular regions of the HP in mammals are more vulnerable to glucocorticoid-induced damage, we also hypothesized that expression of calbindin would vary among the HP subdivisions. Overall levels of calbindin were higher in the HP of corticosterone-treated birds, due almost entirely to elevated calbindin expression in the dorsolateral subdivision of the HP only. In contrast, the dorsomedial HP, ventral HP, and NCM appear less affected by glucocorticoid exposure. These results suggest a role for glucocorticoids in the modulation of HP- but not NCM-dependent memories as well as a further functional differentiation among the HP subdivisions.

  7. Efficacy of spray –Dried Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A (Zequanox®), for controlling Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within Lake Minnetonka, MN enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of whole water column and subsurface applications of the biopesticide Zequanox®, a commercially prepared spray-dried powder formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A), were evaluated for controlling zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within 27-m2 enclosures in Lake Minnetonka (Deephaven, Minnesota). Five treatments consisting of (1) two whole water column Zequanox applications, (2) two subsurface Zequanox applications, and (3) an untreated control were completed on each of three independent treatment days during September 2014. The two types of samplers used in the study were (1) type 1 samplers, which were custom built multi-plate samplers (wood, perforated aluminum, and tile substrates) that were placed into Robinson’s Bay in June of 2013 to allow for natural colonization by zebra mussels, and (2) type 2 samplers, which consisted of zebra mussels adhering to perforated aluminum trays that were placed into mesh containment bags. One day prior to treatment, three individual samplers of each type were distributed to test enclosures and exposed to a randomly assigned treatment. Sampling to determine the zebra mussel biomass adhering to type 1 samplers and the survival assessments for zebra mussels contained in type 2 samplers were completed ~40 days after exposure. The zebra mussel biomass adhering to type 1 samplers and the survival of zebra mussels contained in type 2 samplers were significantly less in groups treated with the highest Zequanox concentrations and in groups that received whole water column applications than comparable groups treated with lower Zequanox concentrations and subsurface applications. However, standardization of biomass and survival results to the amount of Zequanox applied showed that the lower concentrations and subsurface applications were more cost efficient, with respect to product used, at reducing zebra mussel biomass and for inducing zebra mussel mortality. Although the subsurface application methods

  8. Increased Benthic Algal Primary Production in Response to the Invasive Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in a Productive Ecosystem, Oneida Lake, New York

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rebecca K. Cecala; Christine M. Mayer; Kimberly L. Schulz; Edward L. Mills

    2008-01-01

    Increased water clarity associated with zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations may favor benthic algal primary production in freshwater systems previously dominated by pelagic phytoplankton production. While zebra mussel-mediated water clarity effects on benthic primary production have been implicated in published reports, few production estimates are available. This study estimates benthic primary production in Oneida Lake, NY before and after zebra mussel invasion (1992), using measured photosynthetic parameters (PBmax, aB and ? from sampled benthic algal communities. In the summers of 2003 and 2004, primary production was measured as O2 evolution from algal communities on hard (cobble) and soft (sediment) substrate from several depths. We also backcast estimates of benthic primary production from measurements of light penetration since 1975. Estimates of whole-lake epipelic and epilithic algal primary production showed a significant (4%) increase and exhibited significantly less interannual variability subsequent to the establishment of zebra mussels. We applied our model to two lakes of differing trophic status; the model significantly overestimated benthic primary production in a hypereutrophic lake, but there was no significant difference between the actual and predicted primary production values in the oligotrophic lake. The hypereutrophic lake had higher zebra mussel densities than Oneida (224 vs. 41 per sample respectively). Though total community respiration (measured in total darkness) was factored into our model predictions of production, our model may need modification when hetsrotrophic respiration is a large portion of total community metabolism.

  9. Trace Metals in Noah's Ark Shells (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758): Impact of Tourist Season and Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana; Župan, Ivan; Čulin, Jelena; Dragun, Zrinka; Bačić, Niko; Cindrić, Ana-Marija

    2016-10-01

    Commercially important bivalve Noah's Ark shell (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758) represents a high-quality seafood product, but the data on levels of metal contaminants that could pose a human health risk and also on some essential elements that are important for health protection are lacking. This study examined the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, and Zn in the soft tissue of A. noae from harvesting area in the central Adriatic Sea, to survey whether heavy metals are within the acceptable limits for public health and whether tourism could have an impact on them. The concentrations of analysed metals varied for Cd: 0.15-0.74, Pb: 0.06-0.26, Cr: 0.11-0.34, Ni: 0.09-0.22, Cu: 0.65-1.95, Co: 0.04-0.09, and Zn: 18.3-74.7 mg/kg wet weight. These levels were lower than the permissible limits for safe consummation of seafood, and only for Cd, some precautions should be taken into account if older shellfish were consumed. Increase of Cd, Cr, and Cu in shell tissue was observed during the tourist season at the site closest to the marine traffic routes, indicating that metal levels in shellfish tissue should be monitored especially carefully during the peak tourist season to prevent eventual toxic effects due to increased intake of metals, specifically of Cd. PMID:27423875

  10. Trace Metals in Noah's Ark Shells (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758): Impact of Tourist Season and Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana; Župan, Ivan; Čulin, Jelena; Dragun, Zrinka; Bačić, Niko; Cindrić, Ana-Marija

    2016-10-01

    Commercially important bivalve Noah's Ark shell (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758) represents a high-quality seafood product, but the data on levels of metal contaminants that could pose a human health risk and also on some essential elements that are important for health protection are lacking. This study examined the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, and Zn in the soft tissue of A. noae from harvesting area in the central Adriatic Sea, to survey whether heavy metals are within the acceptable limits for public health and whether tourism could have an impact on them. The concentrations of analysed metals varied for Cd: 0.15-0.74, Pb: 0.06-0.26, Cr: 0.11-0.34, Ni: 0.09-0.22, Cu: 0.65-1.95, Co: 0.04-0.09, and Zn: 18.3-74.7 mg/kg wet weight. These levels were lower than the permissible limits for safe consummation of seafood, and only for Cd, some precautions should be taken into account if older shellfish were consumed. Increase of Cd, Cr, and Cu in shell tissue was observed during the tourist season at the site closest to the marine traffic routes, indicating that metal levels in shellfish tissue should be monitored especially carefully during the peak tourist season to prevent eventual toxic effects due to increased intake of metals, specifically of Cd.

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF HOMOGENIZED MEAT SOLD BY A SUPERMARKET OF GOIÂNIA (GO QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE HOMOGENEIZADA COMERCIALIZADA EM UM HIPERMERCADO DE GOIÂNIA - GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Sales Prado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Seventy samples of homogenized meat produced and sold by a supermarket in Goiânia (GO, were analysed, from February 1996 to October 1997, in order to evaluate their microbiological quality. The microbiological analysis were mesophilic and psychrotrophic plate count, coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli most probable number (MPN, Salmonella research, Streptococcus of D group MPN, Staphylococcus (positive coagulase enumeration and sulfide-reductor clostridia enumeration. In general the results indicated the good microbiological quality of the products. However, three positive samples to Salmonella were found, standing out the necessity of a permanent control, to avoid the transmission and dissemination of foodborne diseases.

    KEY-WORDS: Homogenized meat; microbiological quality; foodborne diseases.

    Foram analisadas 70 amostras de carne homogeneizada produzidas e comercializadas por um hipermercado de Goiânia (GO, no período de fevereiro de 1996 a outubro de 1997, para verificação da qualidade microbiológica. Foram realizadas análises para contagem padrão de microrganismos aeróbios ou facultativos mesófilos viáveis e de psicrotróficos, NMP de coliformes totais, fecais e de Escherichia coli, pesquisa de Salmonella, NMP de Streptococcus do grupo D, contagem de Staphylococcus (coagulase positiva e contagem de clostrídios sulfito-redutores. Os resultados indicaram, de maneira geral, a boa qualidade microbiológica dos produtos analisados. Entretanto, foram encontradas três amostras positivas para a pesquisa de Salmonella, ressaltando a necessidade de uma vigilância permanente, evitando a transmissão e a disseminação de toxinfecções de origem alimentar à população.

  12. Fiscalização de verduras comercializadas no município de Ribeirão Preto, SP Monitoring of vegetables commercially sold in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo M. Takayanagui

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de verduras cruas constitui importante meio de transmissão de várias doenças infecciosas. Este estudo tem como objetivo a avaliação microbiológica e parasitológica de verduras comercializadas no município de Ribeirão Preto, SP, abrangendo todos os pontos de venda ao consumidor. Do total de 172 estabelecimentos fixos ou ambulantes analisados, 115 (67% apresentaram hortaliças com irregularidades: elevada concentração de coliformes fecais em 63%, presença de Salmonella em 9% e de enteroparasitas em 33%. Os pontos de venda com maior freqüência de hortaliças com resultados inadequados foram: mercearias (92%, CEAGESP (75%, quitandas (71%, vendedores ambulantes (71%, feiras-livres (69%, supermercados (52% e hortas (18%. O tipo de contaminação apresentou distribuição uniforme em relação aos locais de venda e à variedade da hortaliça. A maioria (61% das verduras contaminadas era procedente de hortas localizadas no município de Ribeirão Preto. Considerando a elevada freqüência de contaminação fecal e o potencial risco de doenças veiculadas pelas hortaliças, sugerimos uma vigilância sanitária mais atuante na fiscalização de alimentos oferecidos à população.The ingestion of raw vegetables represents an important means of transmission of several infectious diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a microbiological and parasitological evaluation of the vegetables commercially sold in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Of a total of 172 commercial concerns analyzed, 115 (67% presented irregularities in the vegetables they sold, such as elevated concentration of fecal coliforms in 63%, presence of Salmonella in 9%, and presence of enteroparasites in 33%. The commercial concerns with the highest frequencies of vegetables showing inadequate results were: grocery stores (92%, CEAGESP (75%, fruit and vegetables stores (71%, traveling vendors (71%, fairs (69%, supermarkets (52%, and

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE FÍSICO-QUÍMICA, MICROBIOLÓGICA E MICROSCÓPICA DE POLPAS DE FRUTAS CONGELADAS COMERCIALIZADAS NA CIDADE DE VIÇOSA-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. A. T. K. PEREIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade físico-química e o aspecto higiênico-sanitário de polpas de frutas congeladas comercializadas na cidade de Viçosa-MG. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e de microscopia em polpa de fruta congelada, de três marcas comerciais (A, B e C, das seguintes frutas: açaí, caju, goiaba, graviola e morango, totalizando 15 amostras. As análises realizadas foram: pH, sólidos solúveis em ºBrix, atividade de água, cor (L*, a*, b*, microbiológicas (coliformes totais, coliformes à 45 ºC e fungos filamentosos e leveduras e microscopia (análise de sujidade e fragmentos. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que, do ponto de vista físico-químico, as polpas açaí- marcas A, B e C, graviola - marca B e graviola, caju e goiaba - marca C apresentaram valores de ºBrix inferiores ao exigido pela legislação que regulamenta 40 ºBrix, 9,00 ºBrix, 10,0 ºBrix e 7,00 ºBrix , respectivamente. As demais amostras atenderam à legislação. As análises estatísticas de cor mostraram diferença significativa (p<0,05 entre as marcas. As contagens de fungos filamentosos variaram de < 10 a 2,6x104 UFC/g e as contagens de coliformes à 45 ºC nas amostras foram < 3 NMP/g. As análises microscópicas classificaram algumas amostras como inaceitáveis para o consumo, sendo encontrados fragmentos de insetos/larvas nas polpas de caju (marcas A e C, goiaba (marca B e graviola (marca A. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a necessidade de maior fiscalização e treinamento dos manipuladores de polpas para melhoria da qualidade do produto.

  14. COMPARAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL DA ATEMÓIA COM A PINHA E A GRAVIOLA PRODUZIDAS E COMERCIALIZADAS NO ESTADO DE SERGIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO SERGIO MARCELLINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A atemóia, híbrido resultante do cruzamento da Cherimóia (Annona cherimola mill com a Fruta-do-conde, a Pinha (Annona squamosa L. e a Graviola (Annona muricata L. pertencem a família das Anonáceas, originária dos Andes. Pelas características semelhantes essas frutas competem por uma mesma faixa de mercado, principalmente na região Nordeste, onde se concentra 50 % da produção de atemóia. O objetivo do trabalho foi a comparação físico-química e sensorial da atemóia com a pinha e a graviola, comercializadas em Sergipe. As frutas analisadas continham o mesmo tempo de vida de prateleira. Os testes físico-químicos realizados foram: teor de umidade, pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis totais. Foi realizado teste de aceitação com escala hedônica estruturada de 9 pontos dos parâmetros: aparência, aroma, sabor, textura e impressão global. A atemóia apresentou um alto potencial de aceitação entre os consumidores. Trata-se, de acordo com os resultados obtidos, de uma fruta saborosa, aromática e de aparência agradável, com avaliação sensorial sempre superior às suas concorrentes diretas. Portanto, devido também às outras vantagens de cultivo descritas na literatura, tornase viável um investimento maior nesse cultivo no sentido de minimizar sua única desvantagem atual, o alto preço. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Atemóia; análise sensorial; análise físico-química

  15. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: consuelo.riva@unimi.it; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes.

  16. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories.

  17. Long-term effects of manipulated natal brood size on metabolic rate in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Simon; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2006-09-22

    Long-term effects of developmental conditions on health, longevity and other fitness components in humans are drawing increasing attention. In evolutionary ecology, such effects are of similar importance because of their role in the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. The central role of energy consumption is well documented for some long-term health effects in humans (e.g. obesity), but little is known of the long-term effects of rearing conditions on energy requirements later in life. We manipulated the rearing conditions in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) using brood size manipulation and cross-fostering. It has previously been shown in this species that being reared in a large brood has negative fitness consequences, and that such effects are stronger in daughters than in sons. We show that, independent of mass, standard metabolic rate of 1-year-old birds was higher when they had been reared in a large brood, and this is to our knowledge the first demonstration of such an effect. Furthermore, the brood size effect was stronger in daughters than in sons. This suggests that metabolic efficiency may play a role in mediating the long-term fitness consequences of rearing conditions. PMID:17148435

  18. Metabolic and respiratory costs of increasing song amplitude in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Anne Zollinger

    Full Text Available Bird song is a widely used model in the study of animal communication and sexual selection, and several song features have been shown to reflect the quality of the singer. Recent studies have demonstrated that song amplitude may be an honest signal of current condition in males and that females prefer high amplitude songs. In addition, birds raise the amplitude of their songs to communicate in noisy environments. Although it is generally assumed that louder song should be more costly to produce, there has been little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We tested the assumption by measuring oxygen consumption and respiratory patterns in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata singing at different amplitudes in different background noise conditions. As background noise levels increased, birds significantly increased the sound pressure level of their songs. We found that louder songs required significantly greater subsyringeal air sac pressure than quieter songs. Though increased pressure is probably achieved by increasing respiratory muscle activity, these increases did not correlate with measurable increases in oxygen consumption. In addition, we found that oxygen consumption increased in higher background noise, independent of singing behaviour. This observation supports previous research in mammals showing that high levels of environmental noise can induce physiological stress responses. While our study did not find that increasing vocal amplitude increased metabolic costs, further research is needed to determine whether there are other non-metabolic costs of singing louder or costs associated with chronic noise exposure.

  19. Increased fat catabolism sustains water balance during fasting in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Joanna; Sadowska, Edyta T; Cichoń, Mariusz; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Patterns of physiological flexibility in response to fasting are well established, but much less is known about the contribution of water deprivation to the observed effects. We investigated body composition and energy and water budget in three groups of zebra finches: birds with access to food and water, food-deprived birds having access to drinking water and food-and-water-deprived birds. Animals were not stimulated by elevated energy expenditure and they were in thermoneutral conditions; thus, based on previous studies, water balance of fasting birds was expected to be maintained by increased catabolism of proteins. In contrast to this expectation, we found that access to water did not prevent reduction of proteinaceous tissue, but it saved fat reserves of the fasting birds. Thus, water balance of birds fasting without access to water seemed to be maintained by elevated fat catabolism, which generated 6 times more metabolic water compared with that in birds that had access to water. Therefore, we revise currently established views and propose fat to serve as the primary source for metabolic water production. Previously assumed increased protein breakdown for maintenance of water budget would occur if fat stores were depleted or if fat catabolism reached its upper limits due to high energy demands. PMID:27582561

  20. Analytical developments for the speciation of uranium in zebra fish (Danio rerio) gills after exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this thesis is to study the cellular compartmentalization and the chelation of uranium (U) by cytosolic proteins of gill cells of the zebra fish (Danio rerio, model specie in aquatic toxicology) under different direct exposure conditions (chronic vs. acute, 20 and 250 μg.L-1). This study required the development of hyphenated techniques (SEC, IEF off-gel, RP-UHPLC for the separation, ICP-SFMS, ESI-FTMS/MS for the detection) with the main challenges of maintaining the non-covalent U-biomolecule interactions and enhancing sensitivity for the analysis of environmentally relevant samples. After extraction, 24% to 32% of the total U detected in the gills were present in the cytosolic fraction, in which the U distribution on the biomolecules (as a function of their MW and pI) varied depending on the exposure level. Finally, U target biomolecules mapping allowed us (i) to highlight a particular affinity of U for acidic and/or P-containing proteins and (ii) to identify 24 protein candidates for U binding. (author)

  1. Evaluation of coatings to control zebra mussel colonization: Year two interim report, 1990-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, E.G.

    1992-05-25

    A study was carried out to identify coatings which are effective in protecting structures from zebra mussel fouling. Plates coated with antifouling paints were tested at Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke thermal generating station in 1990 and 1991 and were rated for their ability to resist mussel fouling or provide easily cleaned surfaces. Of the paints evaluated in 1990, only two silicones demonstrated good resistance to fouling, with the few mussels which did attach easily dislodged. Silicon-coated trash racks, after a year in use, were found to be in good condition and virtually free of mussels. All other coatings failed to prevent strong mussel attachment and were excluded from the 1991 trials. In addition to the two successful 1990 coatings, four silicones, a zinc silicate and a polyurethane were tested. The two silicones that were successful in 1990 continued to be in 1991. Three of the four 1991 silicones and the zinc silicate showed excellent resistance to mussel attachment, however mussels attached to the remaining silicone and the polyurethane with maximum percentage covers of 45% and 40%, respectively. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Multi-functional foot use during running in the zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1242/jeb.061937

    2013-01-01

    A diversity of animals that run on solid, level, flat, non-slip surfaces appear to bounce on their legs; elastic elements in the limbs can store and return energy during each step. The mechanics and energetics of running in natural terrain, particularly on surfaces that can yield and flow under stress, is less understood. The zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides), a small desert generalist with a large, elongate, tendinous hind foot, runs rapidly across a variety of natural substrates. We use high speed video to obtain detailed three-dimensional running kinematics on solid and granular surfaces to reveal how leg, foot, and substrate mechanics contribute to its high locomotor performance. Running at ~10 body length/s (~1 m/s), the center of mass oscillates like a spring-mass system on both substrates, with only 15% reduction in stride length on the granular surface. On the solid surface, a strut-spring model of the hind limb reveals that the hind foot saves about 40% of the mechanical work needed per s...

  3. ZebraBeat: a flexible platform for the analysis of the cardiac rate in zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Elisa; Zaccaria, Gian Maria; Hadhoud, Marwa; Rizzo, Giovanna; Ponzini, Raffaele; Morbiducci, Umberto; Santoro, Massimo Mattia

    2014-05-01

    Heartbeat measurement is important in assesssing cardiac function because variations in heart rhythm can be the cause as well as an effect of hidden pathological heart conditions. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as one of the most useful model organisms for cardiac research. Indeed, the zebrafish heart is easily accessible for optical analyses without conducting invasive procedures and shows anatomical similarity to the human heart. In this study, we present a non-invasive, simple, cost-effective process to quantify the heartbeat in embryonic zebrafish. To achieve reproducibility, high throughput and flexibility (i.e., adaptability to any existing confocal microscope system and with a user-friendly interface that can be easily used by researchers), we implemented this method within a software program. We show here that this platform, called ZebraBeat, can successfully detect heart rate variations in embryonic zebrafish at various developmental stages, and it can record cardiac rate fluctuations induced by factors such as temperature and genetic- and chemical-induced alterations. Applications of this methodology may include the screening of chemical libraries affecting heart rhythm and the identification of heart rhythm variations in mutants from large-scale forward genetic screens.

  4. EVALUATION OF BIOTIC AND TREATMENT FACTORS RELATING TO BACTERIAL CONTROL OF ZEBRA MUSSELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing over the last quarter has indicated the following regarding control of zebra mussels with bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A: (1) the concentration of bacteria suspended in water is directly correlated with mussel kill; (2) the ratio of bacterial mass per mussel, if too low, could limit mussel kill; a treatment must be done at a high enough ratio so that mussels do not deplete all the suspended bacteria before the end of the desired exposure period; (3) bacteria appear to lose almost all their toxicity after suspension for 24 hr in highly oxygenated water; (4) in a recirculating pipe system, the same percentage mussel kill will be achieved irrespective of whether all the bacteria are applied at once or divided up and applied intermittently in smaller quantities over a 10-hr period. Since this is the fourth quarterly report, a summation of all test results over the last twelve months is provided as a table in this report. The table includes the above-mentioned fourth-quarter results

  5. QUASI-PERIODIC WIGGLES OF MICROWAVE ZEBRA STRUCTURES IN A SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sijie; Tan, Baolin; Yan, Yihua [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Nakariakov, V. M.; Selzer, L. A., E-mail: sjyu@nao.cas.cn [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    Quasi-periodic wiggles of microwave zebra pattern (ZP) structures with periods ranging from about 0.5 s to 1.5 s are found in an X-class solar flare on 2006 December 13 at the 2.6-3.8 GHz with the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS/Huairou). Periodogram and correlation analysis show that the wiggles have two to three significant periodicities and are almost in phase between stripes at different frequencies. The Alfvén speed estimated from the ZP structures is about 700 km s{sup –1}. We find the spatial size of the wave-guiding plasma structure to be about 1 Mm with a detected period of about 1 s. This suggests that the ZP wiggles can be associated with the fast magnetoacoustic oscillations in the flaring active region. The lack of a significant phase shift between wiggles of different stripes suggests that the ZP wiggles are caused by a standing sausage oscillation.

  6. Effect of a Sausage Oscillation on Radio Zebra-pattern Structures in a Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sijie; Nakariakov, V. M.; Yan, Yihua

    2016-07-01

    Sausage modes that are axisymmetric fast magnetoacoustic oscillations of solar coronal loops are characterized by variation of the plasma density and magnetic field, and hence cause time variations of the electron plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency. The latter parameters determine the condition for the double plasma resonance (DPR), which is responsible for the appearance of zebra-pattern (ZP) structures in time spectra of solar type IV radio bursts. We perform numerical simulations of standing and propagating sausage oscillations in a coronal loop modeled as a straight, field-aligned plasma slab, and determine the time variation of the DPR layer locations. Instant values of the plasma density and magnetic field at the DPR layers allowed us to construct skeletons of the time variation of ZP stripes in radio spectra. In the presence of a sausage oscillation, the ZP structures are shown to have characteristic wiggles with the time period prescribed by the sausage oscillation. Standing and propagating sausage oscillations are found to have different signatures in ZP patterns. We conclude that ZP wiggles can be used for the detection of short-period sausage oscillations and the exploitation of their seismological potential.

  7. The Largest Multi-Planar Wire Arrays on Zebra with LCM and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I. K.; Lorance, M. Y.; Stafford, A.; Schultz, K. A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Two new approaches of i) simultaneous study of implosion and radiative characteristics of different materials in wire array Z-pinch plasma in one shot [Safronova et al, PoP 21, 031205 (2014)] and ii) investigation of larger sized wire arrays (to enhance energy coupling to plasmas and provide better diagnostic access) were further developed in experiments with 1.7 MA Zebra with a Load Current Multiplier. In particular, the largest multi-Planar Wire Arrays with two outer planes from alloyed Al wires placed as far from each other as at 19 mm (compare with 6 and 9 mm studied before) and with a modified central plane from Ni-60 (mostly Cu), were investigated. Though K-shell Al and L-shell Cu plasmas have similar temperatures and densities, the ablation dynamics and radiation of Al and Cu planes is somewhat different, which was investigated in detail using the full set of diagnostics and modeling. Advantages of using such wire arrays at higher currents to study plasma flow and radiation from different materials and jets are highlighted. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-NA0002075. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. PMID:26904300

  9. Colour vision and background adaptation in a passerine bird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Today, there is good knowledge of the physiological basis of bird colour vision and how mathematical models can be used to predict visual thresholds. However, we still know only little about how colour vision changes between different viewing conditions. This limits the understanding of how colour signalling is configured in habitats where the light of the illumination and the background may shift dramatically. I examined how colour discrimination in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is affected by adaptation to different backgrounds. I trained finches in a two-alternative choice task, to choose between red discs displayed on backgrounds with different colours. I found that discrimination thresholds correlate with stimulus contrast to the background. Thresholds are low, and in agreement with model predictions, for a background with a red colour similar to the discs. For the most contrasting green background, thresholds are about five times higher than this. Subsequently, I trained the finches for the detection of single discs on a grey background. Detection thresholds are about 2.5 to 3 times higher than discrimination thresholds. This study demonstrates close similarities in human and bird colour vision, and the quantitative data offer a new possibility to account for shifting viewing conditions in colour vision models.

  10. Frequency Dependence of Polarization of Zebra Pattern in Type-IV Solar Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Iwai, Kazumasa; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Obara, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZP. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50-70 percent right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50-70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double plasma resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in...

  11. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF POLARIZATION OF ZEBRA PATTERN IN TYPE-IV SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T. [Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Iwai, K., E-mail: k.kaneda@pparc.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZPs. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50%–70% right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50–70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double-plasma-resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in the O-mode and was partly converted into the X-mode near the source. Subsequently, the difference between the group velocities of the O-mode and X-mode caused the temporal delay.

  12. Urban speleology applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies: underground topographic surveying of the ancient Arca D’Água galleries catchworks (Porto, NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Porto settlement (Northwest Portugal, Iberian Peninsula was originally built in the twelfth century and has been developed on granitic hill slopes of the Douro riverside, being one of the oldest cities in Europe. In the urban area of Porto, the second most important city of the Portuguese mainland, there is a population of about 216,000 inhabitants. This study highlights the importance of urban speleological mapping applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies. All the water that flows from the so-called Paranhos or Arca D’Água springs is captured by catchwork galleries and their utilization date back around 1120 AD. Paranhos spring galleries catchworks (c. 3,3 km extension and a -21m below ground level was one of the main water supplies to Porto City for more than six centuries and, nowadays, these waters are still appropriate for irrigation uses. Topographic, geological, geophysical and hydrogeological data were collected and interpreted, allowing the definition of a hydrogeotechnical zoning. All these features were mapped and overlaid using GIS mapping techniques. This multidisciplinary approach offers a good potential for reliable urban speleological and geo-engineering studies of Arca D’Água site.

  13. Extracellular acidification activates ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 and GPR4 homologs of zebra fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochimaru, Yuta [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Azuma, Morio [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oshima, Natsuki; Ichijo, Yuta; Satou, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Matsuda, Kouhei [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Asaoka, Yoichi; Nishina, Hiroshi [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakakura, Takashi [Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, 2-11-1 Kaga Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Tomura, Hideaki, E-mail: tomurah@meiji.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mammalian ovarian G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) and GPR4 are identified as a proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined whether zebra fish OGR1 and GPR4 homologs (zOGR1 and zGPR4) could sense protons and activate the multiple intracellular signaling pathways and, if so, whether the similar positions of histidine residue, which is critical for sensing protons in mammalian OGR and GPR4, also play a role to sense protons and activate the multiple signaling pathways in the zebra fish receptors. We found that extracellular acidic pH stimulated CRE-, SRE-, and NFAT-promoter activities in zOGR1 overexpressed cells and stimulated CRE- and SRE- but not NFAT-promoter activities in zGPR4 overexpressed cells. The substitution of histidine residues at the 12th, 15th, 162th, and 264th positions from the N-terminal of zOGR1 with phenylalanine attenuated the proton-induced SRE-promoter activities. The mutation of the histidine residue at the 78th but not the 84th position from the N-terminal of zGPR4 to phenylalanine attenuated the proton-induced SRE-promoter activities. These results suggest that zOGR1 and zGPR4 are also proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors, and the receptor activation mechanisms may be similar to those of the mammalian receptors. - Highlights: • Zebra fish OGR1 and GPR4 homologs (zOGR1, zGPR4) are proton-sensing receptors. • The signaling pathways activated by zOGR1 and zGPR4 are different. • Histidine residues critical for sensing protons are conserved.

  14. Underwater cleaning techniqued used for removal of zebra mussels at the FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of a mechanical brush cleaning technology recently used to remove biofouling from the Circulating Water (CW) System at New York Power Authority's James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The FitzPatrick plant had previously used chemical molluscicide to treat zebra mussels in the CW system. Full system treatment was performed in 1992 with limited forebay/screenwell treatment in 1993. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) decided to conduct a mechanical cleaning of the intake system in 1994. Specific project objectives included: (1) Achieve a level of surface cleaniness greater than 98%; (2) Remove 100% of debris, both existing sediment and debris generated as a result of cleaning; (3) Inspect all surfaces and components, identifying any problem areas; (4) Complete the task in a time frame within the 1994-95 refueling outage schedule window, and; (5) Determine if underwater mechanical cleaning is a cost-effective zebra mussel control method suitable for future application at FitzPatrick. A pre-cleaning inspection, including underwater video photography, was conducted of each area. Cleaning was accomplished using diver-controlled, multi-brush equipment included the electro-hydraulic powered Submersible Cleaning and Maintenance Platform (SCAMP), and several designs of hand-held machines. The brushes swept all zebra mussels off surfaces, restoring concrete and metal substrates to their original condition. Sensitive areas including pump housings, standpipes, sensor piping and chlorine injection tubing, were cleaned without degradation. Submersible vortex vacuum pumps were used to remove debris from the cavity. More than 46,000 ft2 of surface area was cleaned and over 460 cubic yards of dewatered debris were removed. As each area was completed, a post-clean inspection with photos and video was performed

  15. Underwater cleaning techniqued used for removal of zebra mussels at the FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B. [Seaward Marine Services, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kahabka, J. [New York Power Authority, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of a mechanical brush cleaning technology recently used to remove biofouling from the Circulating Water (CW) System at New York Power Authority`s James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant. The FitzPatrick plant had previously used chemical molluscicide to treat zebra mussels in the CW system. Full system treatment was performed in 1992 with limited forebay/screenwell treatment in 1993. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) decided to conduct a mechanical cleaning of the intake system in 1994. Specific project objectives included: (1) Achieve a level of surface cleaniness greater than 98%; (2) Remove 100% of debris, both existing sediment and debris generated as a result of cleaning; (3) Inspect all surfaces and components, identifying any problem areas; (4) Complete the task in a time frame within the 1994-95 refueling outage schedule window, and; (5) Determine if underwater mechanical cleaning is a cost-effective zebra mussel control method suitable for future application at FitzPatrick. A pre-cleaning inspection, including underwater video photography, was conducted of each area. Cleaning was accomplished using diver-controlled, multi-brush equipment included the electro-hydraulic powered Submersible Cleaning and Maintenance Platform (SCAMP), and several designs of hand-held machines. The brushes swept all zebra mussels off surfaces, restoring concrete and metal substrates to their original condition. Sensitive areas including pump housings, standpipes, sensor piping and chlorine injection tubing, were cleaned without degradation. Submersible vortex vacuum pumps were used to remove debris from the cavity. More than 46,000 ft{sup 2} of surface area was cleaned and over 460 cubic yards of dewatered debris were removed. As each area was completed, a post-clean inspection with photos and video was performed.

  16. Regeneração da barbatana caudal em peixe-zebra (Danio rerio): uma perspectiva biofísica

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernando Ricardo da Silva, 1987-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 O peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) regenera vários órgãos, o que o torna um excelente modelo para estudos de regeneração. Partindo de uma hipótese biofísica onde fluxos iónicos e correntes associadas são considerados eventos epigenéticos à regeneração, determinou-se o perfil de fluxos extracelulares dos iões cloreto e sódio na barbatana caudal durante as diferentes fases da re...

  17. In search of greener pastures: Using satellite images to predict the effects of environmental change on zebra migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L. A.; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Bohrer, Gil; Harris, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    ungulate migrations occurred in most grassland and boreal woodland ecosystems, but many have been lost due to increasing habitat loss and fragmentation. With the rate of environmental change increasing, identifying and prioritizing migration routes for conservation has taken on a new urgency. Understanding the cues that drive long-distance animal movements is critical to predicting the fate of migrations under different environmental change scenarios and how large migratory herbivores will respond to increasing resource heterogeneity and anthropogenic influences. We used an individual-based modeling approach to investigate the influence of environmental conditions, monitored using satellite data, on departure date and movement speed of migrating zebras in Botswana. Daily zebra movements between dry and rainy season ranges were annotated with coincident observations of precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data set and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). An array of increasingly complex movement models representing alternative hypotheses regarding the environmental cues and controls for movement was parameterized and tested. The best and most justified model predicted daily zebra movement as two linear functions of precipitation rate and NDVI and included a modeled departure date as a function of cumulative precipitation. The model was highly successful at replicating both the timing and pace of seven actual migrations observed using GPS telemetry (R2 = 0.914). It shows how zebras rapidly adjust their movement to changing environmental conditions during migration and are able to reverse migration to avoid adverse conditions or exploit renewed resource availability, a nomadic behavior which should lend them a degree of resilience to climate and environmental change. Our results demonstrate how competing individual-based migration models, informed by freely available satellite data

  18. The influence of temperature, daylength and sucrose concentration on the growth and development of Alstroemeria 'Zebra' in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Gabryszewska

    2013-01-01

    The influence of temperature, daylength and sucrose concentration on the growth and development of Alstroemeria 'Zebra' in vitro was investigated. Only slightly more lateral rhizomes were formed at 25°C in comparison with 17°C on the medium with BA. Presence of BA in the medium strongly increased number of upright growing shoots and more shoots were formed in temperature 25°C than in temperature 17°C. Rhizome multiplication and formation of upright growing shoots were not significantly influe...

  19. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  20. Biochemical and fatty acid composition of Arca noae (Bivalvia: Arcidae from the Mali Ston Bay, Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. DUPCIC RADIC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and fatty acid composition of the bivalve Arca noae were investigated in the Mali Ston Bay in relation to environmental conditions. Sampling was carried out monthly, from December 2001 to November 2002. Wet shellfish meat consists on average of 77.61% water and 22.39% dry matter, while dry shellfish meat consists on average of 89.04% organic and 10.96% inorganic matter. PCA analysis identified temperature, nitrate, silicate, MICRO, Chl a and salinity as the most important environmental factors influencing biochemical composition of A. noae. An increase of dry weight content of A. noae was observed during the spring when both the sea temperature and food supply increased rapidly. Contents of protein (54.39-62.06% of dry weight, carbohydrate (4.13-8.07% of dry weight and lipid (3.46-8.58% of dry weight varied significantly during the year. Protein and lipid level reached the maximum value in June. The fatty acid profiles of total lipids extracted from A. noae showed high level of unsaturation (UNS/SAT 1.9-3.4. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA represented the majority of total fatty acids (40.3-59.9% of total fatty acids and the most abundant were eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acid. n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio value varied between 2.1 and 5.0 and was the highest during the spring (April to June. Due to their low lipid and high percentages of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids A. noae can be evaluated as a quality seafood product. The most suitable period of the year for its consumption is in the spring when it reaches its highest nutritional values.

  1. Optical imaging of retinotopic maps in a small songbird, the zebra finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Keary

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary visual cortex of mammals is characterised by a retinotopic representation of the visual field. It has therefore been speculated that the visual wulst, the avian homologue of the visual cortex, also contains such a retinotopic map. We examined this for the first time by optical imaging of intrinsic signals in zebra finches, a small songbird with laterally placed eyes. In addition to the visual wulst, we visualised the retinotopic map of the optic tectum which is homologue to the superior colliculus in mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the optic tectum, our results confirmed previous accounts of topography based on anatomical studies and conventional electrophysiology. Within the visual wulst, the retinotopy revealed by our experiments has not been illustrated convincingly before. The frontal part of the visual field (0 degrees +/-30 degrees azimuth was not represented in the retinotopic map. The visual field from 30 degrees -60 degrees azimuth showed stronger magnification compared with more lateral regions. Only stimuli within elevations between about 20 degrees and 40 degrees above the horizon elicited neuronal activation. Activation from other elevations was masked by activation of the preferred region. Most interestingly, we observed more than one retinotopic representation of visual space within the visual wulst, which indicates that the avian wulst, like the visual cortex in mammals, may show some compartmentation parallel to the surface in addition to its layered structure. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show the applicability of the optical imaging method also for small songbirds. We obtained a more detailed picture of retinotopic maps in birds, especially on the functional neuronal organisation of the visual wulst. Our findings support the notion of homology of visual wulst and visual cortex by showing that there is a functional correspondence between the two areas but also raise questions based

  2. On the Zebra Structure in the Frequency Range near 3 GHz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We present 19 cases of zebra pattern structure (ZPS) and fiber bursts(FB) in radio bursts in frequency range around 3 GHz, and one such case in the range 5.2-7.6 GHz, using the new microwave spectrometer of NAOC between 2.6-3.8 and 5.2-7.6 GHz (China, Huairou station) with high resolution (10 MHz and 8 ms). The FB and ZPS have about the same spectral parameters: the frequency bandwidth of emission stripes △f ~ 20 MHz, the frequency separation between the emission and the neighboring low frequency absorption -△fea ~ 30 MHz and the frequency separation between emission stripes (when a periodic structure persists)△fs ~ 60-70 MHz. Therefore we consider both these fine structures to be whistlermanifestations, i.e., interactions of plasma electrostatic waves with whistler waves(generated by the same fast particles with loss-cone anisotropy) l + w → t. The duration of the fiber bursts of about 2 s corresponds to whistler waves propagat-ing undamped at about 2s, which requires a whistler increment < 0.5 s-1. Inthe frequency range 3-7 GHz the relation between the ratios of plasma to cyclotronfrequencies and whistler to cyclotron frequencies is almost independent of the decre-ment of whistler electron damping. This finding is used to obtain the magnetic fieldstrength in the region of generation. For a reasonable value of electron temperature(2-20 MK), we find B = 125-190 G when the electron density is (8-18) x 1010 cm-3and B = 520 - 610 G when the electron density is (35-60) × 1010 cm-3. In two re-markable events, 1998-04-15 and 2000-10-29, the right-hand polarization is strong for all the fine structures and corresponds to ordinary wave.

  3. Effect of laying sequence on egg mercury in captive zebra finches: an interpretation considering individual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Langbo; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-08-01

    Bird eggs are used widely as noninvasive bioindicators for environmental mercury availability. Previous studies, however, have found varying relationships between laying sequence and egg mercury concentrations. Some studies have reported that the mercury concentration was higher in first-laid eggs or declined across the laying sequence, whereas in other studies mercury concentration was not related to egg order. Approximately 300 eggs (61 clutches) were collected from captive zebra finches dosed throughout their reproductive lives with methylmercury (0.3 μg/g, 0.6 μg/g, 1.2 μg/g, or 2.4 μg/g wet wt in diet); the total mercury concentration (mean ± standard deviation [SD] dry wt basis) of their eggs was 7.03 ± 1.38 μg/g, 14.15 ± 2.52 μg/g, 26.85 ± 5.85 μg/g, and 49.76 ± 10.37 μg/g, respectively (equivalent to fresh wt egg mercury concentrations of 1.24 μg/g, 2.50 μg/g, 4.74 μg/g, and 8.79 μg/g). The authors observed a significant decrease in the mercury concentration of successive eggs when compared with the first egg and notable variation between clutches within treatments. The mercury level of individual females within and among treatments did not alter this relationship. Based on the results, sampling of a single egg in each clutch from any position in the laying sequence is sufficient for purposes of population risk assessment, but it is not recommended as a proxy for individual female exposure or as an estimate of average mercury level within the clutch. PMID:25760460

  4. Parasite-mediated selection drives an immunogenetic tradeoff in plains zebra (Equus quagga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Turner, Wendy C.; Küsters, Martina; Getz, Wayne M.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen evasion of the host immune system is a key force driving extreme polymorphism in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although this gene family is well characterized in structure and function, there is still much debate surrounding the mechanisms by which MHC diversity is selectively maintained. Many studies have investigated relationships between MHC variation and specific pathogens, and have found mixed support for and against the hypotheses of heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent or fluctuating selection. Few, however, have focused on the selective effects of multiple parasite types on host immunogenetic patterns. Here, we examined relationships between variation in the equine MHC gene, ELA-DRA, and both gastrointestinal (GI) and ectoparasitism in plains zebras (Equus quagga). Specific alleles present at opposing population frequencies had antagonistic effects, with rare alleles associated with increased GI parasitism and common alleles with increased tick burdens. These results support a frequency-dependent mechanism, but are also consistent with fluctuating selection. Maladaptive GI parasite ‘susceptibility alleles’ were reduced in frequency, suggesting that these parasites may play a greater selective role at this locus. Heterozygote advantage, in terms of allele mutational divergence, also predicted decreased GI parasite burden in genotypes with a common allele. We conclude that an immunogenetic trade-off affects resistance/susceptibility to parasites in this system. Because GI and ectoparasites do not directly interact within hosts, our results uniquely show that antagonistic parasite interactions can be indirectly modulated through the host immune system. This study highlights the importance of investigating the role of multiple parasites in shaping patterns of host immunogenetic variation.

  5. Vegetation description of the Doornhoek section of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP, South Africa

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    Hugo Bezuidenhout

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP has been extended over the last couple of years. One of the newly procured areas is the Doornhoek section, which had been adjacent to the park. To develop scientifically sound management programmes for conservation areas, it is essential that an inventory of their natural resources be undertaken. The aim of this study was to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the Doornhoek section of the park. The floristic data were analysed in accordance with the Braun-Blanquet procedures using the BBPC suite. The data analysis resulted in the identification of eight communities, which can be grouped into seven major community types (Rhus lucida–Buddleja glomerata Shrubland, Rhigozum obovatum–Rhus longispina Shrubland, Helichrysum dregeanum–Aristida diffusa Grassland, Pentzia globosa–Enneapogon scoparius Grassland, Aristida adscensionus–Pentzia globosa Grassland, Cadaba aphylla–Acacia karroo Woodland and Lycium oxycarpum–Acacia karroo Woodland. Four of these communities occur on the higher-lying plateau, mid-slope and crest areas, while the other four communities are located on the lower-lying mid-plateau and foot slope, along drainage lines and in valley-bottom areas. The description of the plant communities, together with the vegetation map, can serve as a basis for formulating a management programme for the larger park. Although sections of Doornhoek have been overgrazed and degraded in the past, its recent addition to the MZNP contributes to the available habitat preferred by large herbivores, such as valley bottoms, foot-slopes and plateaux.

  6. The complete genome sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', the bacterium associated with potato zebra chip disease.

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    Hong Lin

    Full Text Available Zebra Chip (ZC is an emerging plant disease that causes aboveground decline of potato shoots and generally results in unusable tubers. This disease has led to multi-million dollar losses for growers in the central and western United States over the past decade and impacts the livelihood of potato farmers in Mexico and New Zealand. ZC is associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', a fastidious alpha-proteobacterium that is transmitted by a phloem-feeding psyllid vector, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. Research on this disease has been hampered by a lack of robust culture methods and paucity of genome sequence information for 'Ca. L. solanacearum'. Here we present the sequence of the 1.26 Mbp metagenome of 'Ca. L. solanacearum', based on DNA isolated from potato psyllids. The coding inventory of the 'Ca. L. solanacearum' genome was analyzed and compared to related Rhizobiaceae to better understand 'Ca. L. solanacearum' physiology and identify potential targets to develop improved treatment strategies. This analysis revealed a number of unique transporters and pathways, all potentially contributing to ZC pathogenesis. Some of these factors may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Taxonomically, 'Ca. L. solanacearum' is related to 'Ca. L. asiaticus', a suspected causative agent of citrus huanglongbing, yet many genome rearrangements and several gene gains/losses are evident when comparing these two Liberibacter. species. Relative to 'Ca. L. asiaticus', 'Ca. L. solanacearum' probably has reduced capacity for nucleic acid modification, increased amino acid and vitamin biosynthesis functionalities, and gained a high-affinity iron transport system characteristic of several pathogenic microbes.

  7. Significance and Epidemiological Aspects of Late-Season Infections in the Management of Potato Zebra Chip.

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    Rush, C M; Workneh, F; Rashed, A

    2015-07-01

    Zebra chip (ZC) of potato is putatively caused by the fastidious, phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli). The disease, which significantly impacts both crop yield and quality, was first identified in the United States from south Texas in 2000. It reached epidemic levels in north Texas and certain production areas in Colorado, Nebraska, and New Mexico from 2004 to 2007 and it caused severe losses in fields in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho in 2011. The potato plant is susceptible to infection at all developmental stages, but disease management programs have focused on vector control through early and repeated insecticide applications, in an effort to minimize early to midseason infections which are most damaging. Growers often terminate spray programs 2 to 3 weeks prior to crop harvest due to lack of visible treatment effects on crop yield or quality. However, recent studies on vector transmission and host-pathogen interactions have revealed that late-season infections pose a significant, previously unrecognized, threat to crop quality. The pathogen can move from an infected leaf to tubers within 2 days; however, tubers infected less than 1 week before harvest will remain asymptomatic and the pathogen will be undetectable. When these tubers are placed into storage they are assumed to be disease free. However, Lso can continue to multiply in respiring tubers during storage, resulting in reduced tuber quality. Likewise, if plants become infected a few days before vines are killed, ZC can continue to develop in infected tubers before they are harvested. Perspectives on the significance of late-season infections and some of the more important issues associated with those infections are discussed. PMID:25894320

  8. Contribuição ao conhecimento morfológico das espécies de leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará, como "angelim" Contribution to the morphologic knowledge of the species of leguminosae in the state of Pará, traded as "angelim"

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    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foram analisadas quanto aos aspectos morfológicos dos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos. Este estudo visou determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com esta denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação taxonômica das mesmas. Foi elaborada uma chave dicotômica para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. As principais características utilizadas no campo, para separação das espécies estudadas, foram folha, folíolo, casca e tronco, porém, espécies de Andira, Hymenolobium e Vatairea, por apresentarem-se desprovidas de folhas no período fértil, necessitam de dados dos órgãos reprodutivos.The morphology of vegetative and reproductive structures of seven species of Leguminosae traded as "angelim" in the State of Pará were analyzed. This study sought to determine the basic differences between the species traded under the same vernacular name, in order to facilitate their taxonomic identification. A dichotomous key was developed to distinguish the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. The main characteristics used for separation in the field were of leaf, leaflet, bark and trunk. However, flower or fruit characters are needed to identify those species of Andira, Hymenolobium and Vatairea that lose their leaves while flowering.

  9. Effect of iclR and arcA knockouts on biomass formation and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli K12 and its implications on understanding the metabolism of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3

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    Charlier Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is regulated through a complex interplay of different transcription factors (TFs which can enhance or inhibit gene transcription. ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local regulator, controls the transcription of the glyoxylate pathway genes of the aceBAK operon. This study investigates the physiological and metabolic consequences of arcA and iclR deletions on E. coli K12 MG1655 under glucose abundant and limiting conditions and compares the results with the metabolic characteristics of E. coli BL21 (DE3. Results The deletion of arcA and iclR results in an increase in the biomass yield both under glucose abundant and limiting conditions, approaching the maximum theoretical yield of 0.65 c-mole/c-mole glucose under glucose abundant conditions. This can be explained by the lower flux through several CO2 producing pathways in the E. coli K12 ΔarcAΔiclR double knockout strain. Due to iclR gene deletion, the glyoxylate pathway is activated resulting in a redirection of 30% of the isocitrate molecules directly to succinate and malate without CO2 production. Furthermore, a higher flux at the entrance of the TCA was noticed due to arcA gene deletion, resulting in a reduced production of acetate and less carbon loss. Under glucose limiting conditions the flux through the glyoxylate pathway is further increased in the ΔiclR knockout strain, but this effect was not observed in the double knockout strain. Also a striking correlation between the glyoxylate flux data and the isocitrate lyase activity was observed for almost all strains and under both growth conditions, illustrating the transcriptional control of this pathway. Finally, similar central metabolic fluxes were observed in E. coli K12 ΔarcA ΔiclR compared to the industrially relevant E. coli BL21 (DE3, especially with respect to the pentose pathway, the glyoxylate pathway, and the TCA

  10. Avaliação da concentração de flúor em águas minerais comercializadas no Brasil Evaluation of fluoride content of bottled drinking waters in Brazil

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    Rita S. Villena

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de flúor sistêmico deve ser controlada em termos de risco/benefício, pois enquanto a subdosagem não trouxer benefício anticárie, a sobredosagem estará associada com fluorose dental. Assim, uma das preocupações é o consumo de águas minerais, o qual tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Deste modo, foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de analisar a concentração de flúor em águas minerais comercializadas no Brasil. Foram analisadas 104 marcas comerciais, de diferentes regiões do País. Utilizou-se eletrodo específico Orion 96-09 e analisador de íons Orion EA 940, previamente calibrados com soluções padrões de flúor. Foram observadas concentrações de flúor variando de 0,0 a 4,4 ppm. Constataram-se: 1 Concentrações significativas de flúor não relatadas pelo produtor; 2 Concentrações de flúor sem significado preventivo anti-cárie, embora o produtor destaque na embalagem "Água Mineral Fluoretada"; 3 Concentrações de flúor capazes de provocar fluorose dental severa, embora o produtor não faça nenhuma referência que o mesmo existe. Conclui-se ser necessário um Sistema de Vigilância Sanitária para o controle de flúor nas águas minerais oferecidas à população brasileira, quer seja em termos de benefício como de risco.The utilization of a systemic fluoride method must be controlled in terms of risks and benefits. The reason for this is that while a small dose will not be effective in preventing dental caries, a larger dose may cause dental fluorosis. Therefore the knowledge of the fluoride concentration found in the bottled mineral waters sold throughout the Brazilian market the consumption of which has increased lately, is of great concern. The objective of the study was the analysis of the concentration of fluoride found in the bottled mineral waters. A hundred and four brands coming from different regions of Brazil were analysed using an Orion 96-09 ion specific electrode and an Orion EA 940

  11. Plantas medicinais e de uso religioso comercializadas em mercados e feiras livres no Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Medical and religious plants commercialized in conventional and open-air markets of Rio de Janeiro municipality Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Sheila Karla Santos de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo objetivou o levantamento das espécies comercializadas em feiras livres e mercados no Rio de Janeiro, a verificação da utilização (medicinais e/ou de uso religioso e as formas de obtenção das mesmas (cultivo e/ou extrativismo em Mata Atlântica e/ou áreas ruderais. Foram visitadas quatro feiras livres e quatro mercados e realizadas coletas de campo, na Serra do Mendanha, acompanhadas por um informante. As informações foram provenientes de observação participante e entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Foram inventariadas 127 espécies pertencentes a 58 famílias, sendo Asteraceae (17 espécies, Lamiaceae (9, Leguminosae (7, Euphorbiacaea, Lauraceae, Piperaceae e Solanaceae (5 as de maior riqueza. A maioria das espécies é utilizada para fins terapêuticos (70,1% e existe um relativo equilíbrio entre extrativismo (40,4% e cultivo (52,8% para estas, com poucas incluídas nos dois casos (6,7%. Em relação às plantas utilizadas para fins religiosos, constatou-se que o extrativismo (64,3% sobrepõe-se ao cultivo (32,1%, com apenas 3,6% em ambos os casos. A coleta se dá predominantemente na Mata Atlântica (83,3%, em áreas que fazem parte ou circundam Unidades de Conservação. Isto reflete a crença de que estas espécies devam ser retiradas preferencialmente de seus locais de origem. Sugere-se que a pressão de coleta exercida sobre as plantas de uso religioso na Mata Atlântica contribua para a vulnerabilidade das mesmas.This paper has as a main goal to study the species commercialized in both conventional and open-air markets in Rio de Janeiro. It is reported the concurrency of the type of use (medical and/or religious together with the collection procedure of these plants, arising from cultivation and/or extraction from the Atlantic Rain Forest and/or from wastelands. Four open-air markets and four conventional markets were visited for this study, while the field collection in the Serra do Mendanha was accompanied by an

  12. Quality assessment of fruit pulps industrialized and commercialized in the city of Boa Vista – RR = Avaliação da qualidade de polpas de frutos industrializadas e comercializadas no município de Boa Vista – RR

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    Cássia Rejane Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the quality of frozen pulp, manufactured and marketed in Boa Vista - RR, through physico-chemical analysis. It were selected six Agroindustries that produce and market pulp in establishments located in Fair Passarão, supermarkets and home of juices, identified by the letters A, B, C, D, E and F. The variables studied were: soluble solids, titratable acidity and vitamin C, of the flavors: acerola, caja, cupuaçu, guava, soursop and passion fruit. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design, being analyzed six brands of fruits pulps and six different fruits, with three replicates. The observed results demonstrate that none of the companies processing fruit pulp detail their identification inaccordance with the legislation. In the variables studied, only the cupuaçu pulp brands C and D and soursop brands B, C, D and E were in accordance with the technical regulation for fixing the identity and quality standard. Considering the variables in question, it was found that variations in the levels encountered and not adequacy of these standards could be minimized by the standardization of raw materials and processes used. =Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estudar a qualidade de polpas congeladas, fabricadas e comercializadas no município de Boa Vista – RR, por meio de análises físico-químicas. Foram selecionadas seis Agroindústrias que produzem polpa e comercializam em estabelecimentos próprios localizados na Feira do Passarão, supermercados e casa de sucos, sendo identificadas pelas letras A, B, C, D, E e F. As variáveis estudadas foram: sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e vitamina C, dos sabores: acerola, cajá, cupuaçu, goiaba, graviola e maracujá. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado, sendo analisadas seis marcas de polpas e seis frutos diferentes, com três repetições. Os resultados observadosdemonstram que nenhuma das empresas de processamento de polpa

  13. Contaminação por compostos organoclorados em salsichas hot-dog comercializadas na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, Brasil Contamination for organochlorine compounds in hot-dog sausages, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

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    Stanislau Bogusz Junior

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de monitorar os resíduos de compostos tóxicos em alimentos, verificou-se a freqüência e os níveis de praguicidas organoclorados (OC e bifenilas policloradas (PCBs em amostras de salsichas Hot-Dog, comercializadas na Cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS e, compararam-se os valores com aqueles estabelecidos pela Legislação. Para as análises, procedeu-se a extração da gordura das amostras. A partir da purificação desta, obteve-se um extrato do qual se determinaram os resíduos organoclorados por cromatografia gasosa com detector de captura eletrônica (CG - µECD63Ni. Verificou-se que o lindano e o HCB foram os pesticidas que apresentaram as maiores concentrações médias (0,001798ppm e 0,001652ppm, respectivamente. O somatório dos níveis médios dos pesticidas organoclorados detectados foi de 0,015783ppm, sendo que deste total 0,011165ppm pertencia aos metabólitos do DDT. Quanto as bifenilas policloradas, as maiores concentrações médias corresponderam às PCBs 10 (0,001817ppm e 28 (0,000317ppm. O somatório das PCBs foi de 0,002172ppm. As concentrações de praguicidas organoclorados e PCBs encontradas nas amostras analisadas estavam abaixo dos limites máximos permitidos pela legislação.With the objective of monitoring toxic compounds residues in food, the frequency and levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were verified in sausage samples, hot dog type, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Values were compared with the ones established by Brazilian legislation. For the analyses the extraction of fat from the samples was done. From the purification of the fat, there was acquisition of an extract in which was determined the organochlorine contaminants residues by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (CG - µECD63Ni. It was learned that the lindane and HCB were the pesticides that presented the biggest concentration averages (0

  14. Avaliação parasitológica em alfaces (Lactuca sativa L. comercializadas em Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brasil / Parasitological evaluation in lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. marketed in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Rebeca Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de parasitoses intestinais cresce de forma expansiva no Brasil e em muitos países. A ocorrência de enteroparasitoses advém de várias maneiras, inclusive por con-sumo de vegetais contaminados, representando um grande problema em nível mundial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação por parasitas intestinais em horta-liças comercializadas em Serra Talhada-PE. As amostras das hortaliças foram coletadas nas unidades de produção (hortas, na unidade de recepção do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA e em diversos estabelecimentos comerciais localizadas no município. As amostras foram colocadas em sacos plásticos e mantidas em caixa isotérmica; em seguida, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de Biologia da Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada-UFRPE. Para a identificação dos parasitas foi utilizado o método de sedimenta-ção espontânea. Observou-se que das 80 amostras de alface analisadas 97,5% estavam positivas para formas parasitárias e outros organismos microscópicos, incluindo ovos e larvas de nematoides, cistos de protozoários, ovos de cestódeos e alguns artrópodes (insetos e ácaros. É de suma importância o conhecimento dos produtores e manipu-ladores em geral a respeito da contaminação, bem como o conhecimento das técnicas sanitizantes desenvolvidas para hortaliças, com intuito de diminuir a contaminação em todas as etapas ocorrentes desde o cultivo até ao consumo. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prevalence of intestinal parasites growing in Brazil and in many countries so expansive. The intestinal parasites comes in several ways, including by consumption of contami-nated vegetables, which represents a significant worldwide problem. The objective of this study is to assess the contamination by intestinal parasites in vegetables commer-cialized in Serra Talhada, in Pernambuco state. Samples of vegetables were collected at the

  15. Use of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to assess trace metal contamination in the largest Italian subalpine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camusso, M; Balestrini, R; Binelli, A

    2001-07-01

    Trace metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) contamination was evaluated in zebra mussels from the lakes Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo and Garda, which are located in the most highly populated and industrialised area in Italy. Zebra mussels from Lake Maggiore contained the highest concentrations (3.44, 1.51, 4.97, 0.158, 5.87, 346 microg g(-1) for Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb, Zn, respectively) of all metals analysed except Cu and Ni. The lowest levels of most metals were in animals from Garda and Lugano (0.78 and 0.60 microg g(-1) for Cd, 2.87 and 2.03 microg g(-1) for Cr, 0.065 and 0.049 microg g(-1) for Hg, 12.1 and 11.9 microg g(-1) for Ni, 1.96 and 2.46 microg g(-1) for Pb, 158 and 163 microg g(-1) for Zn). The most contaminated sites and possible local sources of metals were identified for each lake, and the lakes classified into quality classes concerning metal pollution.

  16. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; de Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  17. Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae): Physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-04-01

    Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

  18. Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy

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    José Carlos Pansonato-Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

  19. Developmental effects of vasotocin and nonapeptide receptors on early social attachment and affiliative behavior in the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M; Sklar, Nathan C; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Zebra finches demonstrate selective affiliation between juvenile offspring and parents, which, like affiliation between pair partners, is characterized by proximity, vocal communication and contact behaviors. This experiment tested the hypothesis that the nonapeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homologue of vasopressin) and nonapeptide receptors play a role prior to fledging in the development of affiliative behavior. Zebra finch hatchlings of both sexes received daily intracranial injections (post-hatch days 2-8) of either AVT, Manning Compound (MC, a potent V1a receptor antagonist) or saline (vehicle control). The social development of both sexes was assessed by measuring responsiveness to isolation from the family and subsequent reunion with the male parent after fledging. In addition, we assessed the changes in affiliation with the parents, unfamiliar males, and unfamiliar females each week throughout juvenile development. Compared to controls, MC subjects showed decreased attachment to the parents and MC males did not show the normal increase in affiliative interest in opposite sex individuals as they reached reproductive maturity. In contrast, AVT subjects showed a sustained affiliative interest in parents throughout development, and males showed increased interest in opposite sex conspecifics as they matured. These results provide the first evidence suggesting that AVT and nonapeptide receptors play organizational roles in social development in a bird. PMID:26476409

  20. Acoustic communication and sound degradation: how do the individual signatures of male and female zebra finch calls transmit over distance?

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    Solveig C Mouterde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessing the active space of the various types of information encoded by songbirds' vocalizations is important to address questions related to species ecology (e.g. spacing of individuals, as well as social behavior (e.g. territorial and/or mating strategies. Up to now, most of the previous studies have investigated the degradation of species-specific related information (species identity, and there is a gap of knowledge of how finer-grained information (e.g. individual identity can transmit through the environment. Here we studied how the individual signature coded in the zebra finch long distance contact call degrades with propagation. METHODOLOGY: We performed sound transmission experiments of zebra finches' distance calls at various propagation distances. The propagated calls were analyzed using discriminant function analyses on a set of analytical parameters describing separately the spectral and temporal envelopes, as well as on a complete spectrographic representation of the signals. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: We found that individual signature is remarkably resistant to propagation as caller identity can be recovered even at distances greater than a hundred meters. Male calls show stronger discriminability at long distances than female calls, and this difference can be explained by the more pronounced frequency modulation found in their calls. In both sexes, individual information is carried redundantly using multiple acoustical features. Interestingly, features providing the highest discrimination at short distances are not the same ones that provide the highest discrimination at long distances.

  1. Spectral and spatial observations of microwave spikes and zebra structure in the short radio burst of May 29, 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, G P; Meshalkina, N S; Yan, Y; Tan, C

    2011-01-01

    The unusual radio burst of May 29, 2003 connected with the M1.5 flare in AR 10368 has been analyzed. It was observed by the Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS/Huairou station, Beijing) in the 5.2-7.6 GHz range. It proved to be only the third case of a neat zebra structure appearing among all observations at such high frequencies. Despite the short duration of the burst (25 s), it provided a wealth of data for studying the superfine structure with millisecond resolution (5 ms). We localize the site of emission sources in the flare region, estimate plasma parameters in the generation sites, and suggest applicable mechanisms for interpretating spikes and zebra-structure generation. Positions of radio bursts were obtained by the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) (5.7 GHz) and Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) (17 GHz). The sources in intensity gravitated to tops of short loops at 17 GHz, and to long loops at 5.7 GHz. Short pulses at 17 GHz (with a temporal resolution of 100 ms) are registered in the R-pol...

  2. HTR2 receptors in a songbird premotor cortical-like area modulate spectral characteristics of zebra finch song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William E; Roseberry, Thomas K; Perkel, David J

    2013-02-13

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is involved in modulating an array of complex behaviors including learning, depression, and circadian rhythms. Additionally, HTR2 receptors on layer V pyramidal neurons are thought to mediate the actions of psychedelic drugs; the native function of these receptors at this site, however, remains unknown. Previously, we found that activation of HTR2 receptors in the zebra finch forebrain song premotor structure the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) led to increased excitation, and that endogenous 5-HT could roughly double spontaneous firing rate. Here, using in vivo single-unit recordings, we found that direct application of 5-HT to these same RA projection neurons, which are analogous to layer V cortical pyramidal neurons, caused a significant increase in the number of action potentials per song-related burst, and a dramatic decrease in signal-to-noise ratio. Injection of the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the third ventricle greatly reduced telencephalic 5-HT and resulted in decreased fundamental frequency of harmonic syllables as well as increased goodness of pitch. Both of these results can be explained by the observed actions of 5-HT on RA projection neurons, and both effects recovered to baseline within 2 weeks following the toxin injection. These results show that 5-HT is involved in modulating spectral properties of song, likely via effects on RA projection neurons, but that adult zebra finches can partially compensate for this deficit within 7 d. PMID:23407949

  3. Evaluation of Octhylphenol Effect on Development and Survival on Zebra Fish (Danio Rerio During Different Ontogenic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Dumitrescu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a complex study of our research collective that studies the toxic effect of the ethinylestradiolum, and some of the polyethoxylated alkylphenols on the growth and reproduction of the Zebra fish (Danio rerio and of the common Carp (Cyprinus carpio. Our study aim was to evaluate the effect of octylphenol on growth and survival of zebra fish, from 21-115 days, and within 21-75 days of life. For this purpose, for each period under study, fishes were divided into three groups of 30 individuals, named: Lot 1 - Control, respectively lots 2 and 3, at which the administrated octylphenol concentrations were of 60 μg L-1, respectively 100 μg L-1. Fishes of the six groups were raised in 30-liters aquariums (30 fish / aquarium. The growth was measured by weighing and biometric measurements (total length, standard length, the length of the head, maximal height, minimal height and the mass of the body, while the surviving rate was established at the end of every period and at the end of the experiment, when we were able to calculate the total number of dead fish. Biometric study of the analysis performed in 75 days, 115 days respectively shows that octylphenol has negative influence on body development, and survival both, the highest percentage of mortality (46,66% was registered at 100 μgL-1 concentration, between 21 -75 days.

  4. Unraveling the effects of selection and demography on immune gene variation in free-ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L Kamath

    Full Text Available Demography, migration and natural selection are predominant processes affecting the distribution of genetic variation among natural populations. Many studies use neutral genetic markers to make inferences about population history. However, the investigation of functional coding loci, which directly reflect fitness, is critical to our understanding of species' ecology and evolution. Immune genes, such as those of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, play an important role in pathogen recognition and provide a potent model system for studying selection. We contrasted diversity patterns of neutral data with MHC loci, ELA-DRA and -DQA, in two southern African plains zebra (Equus quagga populations: Etosha National Park, Namibia, and Kruger National Park, South Africa. Results from neutrality tests, along with observations of elevated diversity and low differentiation across populations, supported previous genus-level evidence for balancing selection at these loci. Despite being low, MHC divergence across populations was significant and may be attributed to drift effects typical of geographically separated populations experiencing little to no gene flow, or alternatively to shifting allele frequency distributions driven by spatially variable and fluctuating pathogen communities. At the DRA, zebra exhibited geographic differentiation concordant with microsatellites and reduced levels of diversity in Etosha due to highly skewed allele frequencies that could not be explained by demography, suggestive of spatially heterogeneous selection and local adaptation. This study highlights the complexity in which selection affects immune gene diversity and warrants the need for further research on the ecological mechanisms shaping patterns of adaptive variation among natural populations.

  5. Short-term exposure to testosterone propionate leads to rapid bill color and dominance changes in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardia, Daniel R; Broughton, Deanna R; Gleicher, Michael J

    2010-08-01

    Testosterone (T) can influence both male-male competition and mate choice displays. In zebra finches, female mate choice is based in part on bill color, and bill color has been shown to be enhanced by long-term testosterone supplementation. However, it is not clear whether bill color plays a role in male-male interactions and how bill color responds to shorter-term changes in T. We tested whether a single injection of testosterone propionate (TP) would influence male-male dominance interactions and lead to rapid (over a three-day period) changes in bill color. In addition, we tested whether bill color predicted aggression and dominance. We allowed birds in triads to establish hierarchies and then injected either dominant or subordinate individuals with TP, in addition to establishing sham control triads. We found that red chroma, but not hue, predicted aggressiveness of males. Exposure to TP led both dominant and subordinate birds to increase dominance scores over three days, longer than the bill. Our results suggest that zebra finches can modulate T and bill color levels over short time periods and these changes may occur through positive feedback between T-levels and dominance. PMID:20406643

  6. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Michael T.; Swaddle, John P.; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers’ songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats.

  7. Invasive zebra mussels (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) survive gut passage of migratory fish species: implications for dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Michael R.; Shoup, Daniel E.; Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is of great concern to natural resource managers in the United States. To effectively control the spread of these species, managers must be aware of the multitude of dispersal methods used by the organisms. We investigated the potential for survival through the gut of a migrating fish (blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus) as a dispersal mechanism for two invasive bivalves: zebra mussel (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea). Blue catfish (N = 62) were sampled over several months from Sooner Lake, Oklahoma, transported to a laboratory and held in individual tanks for 48 h. All fecal material was collected and inspected for live mussels. Survival was significantly related to water temperature in the lake at the time of collection, with no mussels surviving above 21.1 C°, whereas 12 % of zebra mussels (N = 939) and 39 % of Asian clams (N = 408) consumed in cooler water survived gut passage. This research demonstrates the potential for blue catfish to serve as a dispersal vector for invasive bivalves at low water temperatures.

  8. Subdivisions of the auditory midbrain (n. mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in zebra finches using calcium-binding protein immunocytochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Logerot

    Full Text Available The midbrain nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd is thought to be the avian homologue of the central nucleus of the mammalian inferior colliculus. As such, it is a major relay in the ascending auditory pathway of all birds and in songbirds mediates the auditory feedback necessary for the learning and maintenance of song. To clarify the organization of MLd, we applied three calcium binding protein antibodies to tissue sections from the brains of adult male and female zebra finches. The staining patterns resulting from the application of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin antibodies differed from each other and in different parts of the nucleus. Parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the whole nucleus, as defined by the totality of the terminations of brainstem auditory afferents; in other words parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity defines the boundaries of MLd. Staining patterns of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin defined two regions of MLd: inner (MLd.I and outer (MLd.O. MLd.O largely surrounds MLd.I and is distinct from the surrounding intercollicular nucleus. Unlike the case in some non-songbirds, however, the two MLd regions do not correspond to the terminal zones of the projections of the brainstem auditory nuclei angularis and laminaris, which have been found to overlap substantially throughout the nucleus in zebra finches.

  9. Cholesterol regulatory effects and antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates from zebra blenny (Salaria basilisca) in cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktari, Naourez; Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Ben Hadj, Aïda; Turki, Mouna; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma; Boudaouara, Tahia; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Boualga, Ahmed; Ben Salah, Riadh; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the hypocholesterolemic effects and antioxidative activities of zebra blenny protein hydrolysates (ZBPHs) in rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. The rats were fed during eight weeks a standard laboratory diet (normal rats), a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) (1%) or a HCD and orally treated with ZBPHs or undigested zebra blenny proteins (UZBPs) (400 mg per kg per day). Results showed that a hypercholesterolemic diet induced the increase of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Treatment with ZBPHs increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and decreased significantly the levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C. In addition, ZBPH treatment showed significant normalization of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in renal and hepatic tissues. Furthermore, ZBPHs may also exert significant protective effects on liver and kidney functions, evidenced by a marked decrease in the level of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). Histological studies confirmed that ZBPHs effectively protected the livers and kidneys against hypercholesterolemia-mediated oxidative damage. Therefore, the study strengthens the hypothesis that ZBPHs can be used as novel antioxidants and hypocholesterolemic compounds against hyperlipidemia induced atherosclerosis. PMID:26065510

  10. Effects of lethal and sublethal concentrations of the herbicide, triclopyr butoxyethyl ester, in the diet of zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, S B; Thompson, D G; Wainio-Keizer, K L; Capell, S S; Staznik, B

    1994-07-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of dietary triclopyr butoxyethyl ester (TBEE) on zebra finches (Poephila guttata Gould) were determined in laboratory experiments conducted between 8 January and 1 May 1991. The 8-day median lethal dietary concentration, LC50 (95% confidence interval), of TBEE to zebra finches was 1,923 (1,627 to 2,277) mg/kg. In the sublethal effects experiment, when birds were exposed to 500 mg/kg TBEE in the diet for 29 days, food consumption and body weight were significantly depressed (P 0.05). Perch-hopping activity was depressed relative to controls in the 500 mg/kg group, and elevated in the 150 mg/kg group, but neither of these differences was significantly (P > 0.05). Disappearance of TBEE residues from treated seeds over the 29 day experimental period followed an exponential decay model, with half-lives in the order of 15 to 18 days. On the basis of our observation that TBEE had no significant adverse effects at a concentration greater than the maximum expected environmental concentration, we propose that forestry applications of triclopyr at registered dosage rates pose little risk to wild songbirds. PMID:7933272

  11. Zebra chip disease and potato biochemistry: tuber physiological changes in response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infection over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, A; Wallis, C M; Paetzold, L; Workneh, F; Rush, C M

    2013-05-01

    Zebra chip disease, putatively caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', is of increasing concern to potato production in Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. However, little is known about the etiology of this disease and changes that occur within host tubers that result in its symptoms. Previous studies found that increased levels of phenolics, amino acids, defense proteins, and carbohydrates in 'Ca. L. solanacearum'-infected tubers are associated with symptoms of zebra chip. This study was conducted to quantify variations in levels of these biochemical components in relation to the time of infestation, symptom severity, and 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titer. Levels of phenolics, peroxidases, polyphenol oxidases, and reducing sugars (glucose and, to some extent, fructose) changed during infection, with higher levels occurring in tubers infected at least 5 weeks before harvest than in those infected only a week before harvest and those of controls. Compared with the apical tuber ends, greater levels of phenolics, peroxidases, and sucrose occurred at the basal (stolon attachment) end of infected tubers. With the exception of phenolics, concentrations of the evaluated compounds were not associated with 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titer. However, there were significant associations between biochemical responses and symptom severity. The lack of a linear correlation between most plant biochemical responses and 'Ca. L. solanacearum' titer suggests that shifts in metabolic profiles are independent of variations in 'Ca. L. solanacearum' levels. PMID:23425237

  12. Mutations of amino acids in the DNA-recognition domain of Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein alter its sub-nuclear localization and affect formation of replication compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZEBRA, a transcription factor and DNA replication protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene, plays indispensable roles in the EBV lytic cycle. We recently described the phenotypes of 46 single amino acid substitutions introduced into the DNA-recognition region of ZEBRA [Heston, L., El-Guindy, A., Countryman, J., Dela Cruz, C., Delecluse, H.J., and Miller, G. 2006]. The 27 DNA-binding-proficient mutants exhibited distinct defects in their ability to activate expression of the kinetic classes of viral genes. Four phenotypic variants could be discerned: wild-type, defective at activating Rta, defective at activating early genes, and defective at activating late genes. Here we analyze the distribution of ZEBRA within the nucleus and the localization of EA-D (the viral DNA polymerase processivity factor), an indicator of the development of replication compartments, in representatives of each phenotypic group. Plasmids encoding wild-type (WT) and mutant ZEBRA were transfected into 293 cells containing EBV-bacmids. WT ZEBRA protein was diffusely and smoothly distributed throughout the nucleus, sparing nucleoli, and partially recruited to globular replication compartments. EA-D induced by WT ZEBRA was present diffusely in some cells and concentrated in globular replication compartments in other cells. The distribution of ZEBRA and EA-D proteins was identical to WT following transfection of K188R, a mutant with a conservative change. The distribution of S186A mutant ZEBRA protein, defective for activation of Rta and EA-D, was identical to WT, except that the mutant ZEBRA was never found in globular compartments. Co-expression of Rta with S186A mutant rescued diffuse EA-D but not globular replication compartments. The most striking observation was that several mutant ZEBRA proteins defective in activating EA-D (R179A, K181A and A185V) and defective in activating lytic viral DNA replication and late genes (Y180E and K188A) were localized to numerous punctate

  13. Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: implications for invasions in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher John

    2013-01-01

    Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current southern extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the southern and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p extreme droughts likely will affect spatio-temporal dynamics of established populations if zebra mussels spread farther into the southern and southwestern United States.

  14. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122 Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122

    OpenAIRE

    José Benício Paes Chaves; Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant'Ana; Marina Andrade Batista; Flávia Aparecida Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de α-caroteno, β-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações do ano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa) foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Devido ao con...

  15. A cost-benefit analysis of preventative management for zebra and quagga mussels in the Colorado-Big Thompson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Zebra and quagga mussels are fresh water invaders that have the potential to cause severe ecological and economic damage. It is estimated that mussels cause $1 billion dollars per year in damages to water infrastructure and industries in the United States (Pimentel et al., 2004). Following their introduction to the Great Lakes in the late 1980s, mussels spread rapidly throughout the Mississippi River Basin and the Eastern U.S. The mussel invasion in the West is young. Mussels were first identified in Nevada in 2007, and have since been identified in California, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Texas. Western water systems are very different from those found in the East. The rapid spread of mussels through the eastern system was facilitated by connected and navigable waterways. Western water systems are less connected and are characterized by man-made reservoirs and canals. The main vector of spread for mussels in the West is overland on recreational boats (Bossenbroek et al., 2001). In response to the invasion, many western water managers have implemented preventative management programs to slow the overland spread of mussels on recreational boats. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Wildlife (CDOW) has implemented a mandatory boat inspection program that requires all trailered boats to be inspected before launching in any Colorado water body. The objective of this study is to analyze the costs and benefits of the CDOW boat inspection program in Colorado, and to identify variables that affect the net benefits of preventative management. Predicting the potential economic benefits of slowing the spread of mussels requires integrating information about mussel dispersal potential with estimates of control costs (Keller et al., 2009). Uncertainty surrounding the probabilities of establishment, the timing of invasions, and the damage costs associated with an invasion make a simulation model an excellent tool for addressing "what if" scenarios and shedding light on the

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “Schoeller Arca Systems”, used to recycle polypropylene and high-density polyethylene crates for use as food contact material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process “Schoeller Arca Systems”, EC register number RECYC075. The process recycles damaged food contact re-usable polypropylene (PP and high-density polyethylene (HDPE crates which have been used in a closed and controlled product loop into new recycled crates. Through this process, damaged crates are firstly ground into flakes which are further blended with virgin PP or HDPE or used at 100 % to manufacture new recycled PP and HDPE crates. The CEF Panel concluded that the input of the process “Schoeller Arca Systems” originates from a product loop which is in a closed and controlled chain ensuring that only materials and articles which have been intended for food contact are used and that any contamination can be ruled out when run under the conditions described by the applicant. The Panel considered that the repeated grinding and injection moulding of PP and HDPE crates, which is part of the recycling process, under conditions described by the applicant, is not of safety concern. Therefore the recycling process “Schoeller Arca Systems” is able to produce recycled PP and HDPE suitable for manufacturing crates intended to be used in contact at room temperature or below with meat, whole fruits and vegetables as requested by the applicant.

  17. Epi-genetics modifications induced by a depleted uranium exposure in the zebra fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombeau, K.; Pereira, S.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO (France); Bourdineaud, J.P. [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC (France); Ravanat, J.L. [INAC/Scib UMR E3 CEA-UJF (France)

    2014-07-01

    The work presented here integrates in the general framework of assessment of effects of chronic exposure to low doses of radionuclides. This evaluation necessarily involves the study of the mechanisms of toxic action at the cellular or subcellular level, in order to better understand the processes of propagation of effects to the level of the populations or ecosystems. As such, the question of the mechanisms underlying the trans-generational effects and the adaptive capacity of organisms is central, both in humans and in animal species. Epigenetic refer to changes in gene function that do not involve changes in DNA sequence, and which are transmitted in a hereditary manner by mitosis or meiosis. The latter plays a key role in these trans-generational effects. Among these changes, DNA-methylation is one of the most studied epigenetic parameters. This work is part of a PhD, included in the European COMET project (Euratom 7. Framework Program), and focuses on epigenetic modifications induced in zebra fish after a chronic exposure to radionuclides. Male and female fishes were exposed to 2 and 20 μg.L{sup -1} of depleted uranium for 24 days. After 7 and 24 days of exposure, brain, gonads, and eyes were collected in order to study changes in DNA methylation. In addition, genotoxicity was measured by the γH2AX assay. The overall changes in DNA methylation were studied by AFLP-MS and HPLC-MS, in order to know if the exposure to depleted uranium changes the global status of DNA methylation. We have found a decrease in the global level of methylation in the eyes of males after 24 days of exposure, the diminution being much more important and significant at the higher concentration of exposure (11.79 ± 3.62 against 52.43 ± 3.01 for controls) This study will be refined by analyzing the methylation of specific regions of the genome, because it represent the sequences of genes involved in major physiological functions and that may be subject to variations in the methylation

  18. Impacts of microcystins on the feeding behaviour and energy balance of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha: a bioenergetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhel, G; Davenport, J; O'Halloran, J; Culloty, S C; O'Riordan, R M; James, K F; Furey, A; Allis, O

    2006-10-12

    Microcystins are produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria and pose significant health and ecological problems. To investigate the impacts of these biotoxins on the physiology of the zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, a series of short-term feeding experiments were conducted in the laboratory. We used five microalgal diets consisting of single-cell suspensions of the green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, the diatom, Asterionella formosa, the cryptophyte, Cryptomonas sp. and two strains of the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa (strains CCAP 1450/06 and CCAP 1450/10). A sixth diet was a mixture of the diatom and the CCAP 1450/10 cyanobacterial strain. The low-toxicity strain CCAP 1450/06 contained 7.4 microg l(-1) of the MC-LR variant while the very toxic strain CCAP 1450/10 contained 23.8 microg l(-1) of MC-LR and 82.9 microg l(-1) of MC-LF. A flow-through system was designed to measure the following feeding parameters: clearance, filtration, ingestion and absorption rates. Ultimately the scope for growth (SFG) was determined as a net energy balance. We observed that mussels cleared the cyanobacterial species containing MC-LF (mean+/-95% confidence interval) at a significant lower rate (498+/-82 ml h(-1) g(-1) for the single cell suspension and 663+/-100 ml h(-1) g(-1) for the mixture diet) than all of the non-toxic species and the cyanobacterium containing MC-LR (all above 1l h(-1) g(-1)). The same pattern was observed with all the feeding parameters, particularly absorption rates. Furthermore, MC-LF caused an acute irritant response manifested by the production of 'pseudodiarrhoea', unusually fluid pseudofaeces, rich in mucus and MC-LF-producing Microcystis cells, ejected through the pedal gape of the mussels. This overall response therefore demonstrates selective rejection of MC-LF-producing cyanobacteria by zebra mussels, enhancing the presence of the very toxic MC-LF-producing M. aeruginosa in mixed cyanobacterial blooms and in the benthos. Finally, we

  19. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area.

  20. Research progress on potato zebra chip disease%马铃薯斑马片病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强

    2012-01-01

    马铃薯斑马片病(potato zebra chip disease)是20世纪90年代中期在南美洲首次发现的新病害.近年该病害在美国、墨西哥及新西兰等地扩散为害,对当地马铃薯生产构成严重威胁.同时,也为害其他茄科作物.为此,对该病害的发生历史、分布、为害、病原、发生规律、检测技术及防控措施进行综述,并指出应加强检疫,防止该病害传入我国.

  1. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov E Burlakova

    Full Text Available Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011-2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990 s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  2. Group dynamics of zebra and wildebeest in a woodland savanna: effects of predation risk and habitat density.

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    Maria Thaker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group dynamics of gregarious ungulates in the grasslands of the African savanna have been well studied, but the trade-offs that affect grouping of these ungulates in woodland habitats or dense vegetation are less well understood. We examined the landscape-level distribution of groups of blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in a predominantly woodland area (Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa; KGR to test the hypothesis that group dynamics are a function of minimizing predation risk from their primary predator, lion, Panthera leo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using generalized linear models, we examined the relative importance of habitat type (differing in vegetation density, probability of encountering lion (based on utilization distribution of all individual lions in the reserve, and season in predicting group size and composition. We found that only in open scrub habitat, group size for both ungulate species increased with the probability of encountering lion. Group composition differed between the two species and was driven by habitat selection as well as predation risk. For both species, composition of groups was, however, dominated by males in open scrub habitats, irrespective of the probability of encountering lion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Distribution patterns of wildebeest and zebra groups at the landscape level directly support the theoretical and empirical evidence from a range of taxa predicting that grouping is favored in open habitats and when predation risk is high. Group composition reflected species-specific social, physiological and foraging constraints, as well as the importance of predation risk. Avoidance of high resource open scrub habitat by females can lead to loss of foraging opportunities, which can be particularly costly in areas such as KGR, where this resource is limited. Thus, landscape-level grouping dynamics are species specific and particular to the

  3. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M; Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  4. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches

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    Nicole M. Baran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult zebra finches (T. guttata form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homologue of vasopressin and the V1a receptor (V1aR early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird.

  5. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: Interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Tulumello, Brianne L.; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Griffith, Traci A.; Scott, Mariah W.; Crail, Todd D.; Zanatta, David T

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011–2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  6. Alteration of CaBP expression pattern in the nucleus magnocellularis following unilateral cochlear ablation in adult zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Songbirds have the rare ability of auditory-vocal learning and maintenance. Up to now, the organization and function of the nucleus magnocellularis (NM, the first relay of the avian ascending auditory pathway is largely based on studies in non-vocal learning species, such as chickens and owls. To investigate whether NM exhibits different histochemical properties associated with auditory processing in songbirds, we examined the expression patterns of three calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs, including calretinin (CR, parvalbumin (PV and calbindin-D28k (CB, and their relations to auditory inputs in NM in adult zebra finches. We found enriched and co-localized immunostaining of CR, PV and CB in the majority of NM neurons, without neuronal population preference. Furthermore, they were sensitive to adult deafferentation with differential plasticity patterns. After unilateral cochlear removal, CR staining in the ipsilateral NM decreased appreciably at 3 days after surgery, and continued to decline thereafter. PV staining showed down-regulation first at 3 days, but subsequently recovered slightly. CB staining did not significantly decrease until 7 days after surgery. Our findings suggest that the three CaBPs might play distinct roles in association with auditory processing in zebra finches. These results are in contrast to the findings in the NM of chickens where CR is the predominant CaBP and deafferentation had no apparent effect on its expression. Further extended studies in other avian species are required to establish whether the difference in CaBP patterns in NM is functionally related to the different auditory-vocal behaviors.

  7. Metabolic responses to dietary protein/carbohydrate ratios in zebra sea bream (Diplodus cervinus, Lowe, 1838) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Filipe; Peres, Helena; Castro, Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of diets with different protein to carbohydrate ratios (P:C) on the omnivorous zebra sea bream (Diplodus cervinus) juveniles growth performance, feed efficiency, N excretion and metabolic response of intermediary metabolism enzymes. Four isoenergetic and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain increasing protein levels (25, 35, 45 and 55%) at the expense of carbohydrates (43, 32, 21 and 9%): diets P25C43, P35C32, P45C21 and P55C9. Growth performance, feed efficiency (FE), N intake [(g kg(-1) average body weight (ABW) day(-1))], N retention (g kg(-1) ABW day(-1)) and energy retention (kJ kg(-1) ABW day(-1)) increased with the increase of P:C ratio. The best growth performance and FE were achieved with diet P45C21. Ammonia excretion (mg NH4–N kg(-1) ABW day(-1)) increased as dietary protein level increased. Alanine aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities increased with the increase of dietary P:C ratio. The opposite was observed for malic enzyme activity. Aspartate aminotransferase, hexokinase, glucokinase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and fatty acid synthetase activities were unaffected by dietary treatments. Response of key amino acid catabolic enzymes and N excretion levels to dietary P:C ratio supports the metabolic adaptability of this species to dietary protein inclusion levels. Overall, zebra sea bream seems capable of better utilize dietary protein rather than dietary carbohydrates as energy source which may be an obstacle for using more economically diets and thus for reducing environmental N loads in semi-intensive aquaculture of this species. PMID:26480835

  8. Developmental exposure to a brominated flame retardant: an assessment of effects on physiology, growth, and reproduction in a songbird, the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Margaret L; Williams, Tony D; Elliott, John E

    2013-07-01

    Mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as additive flame retardants, and BDE-99 is one of the most predominant congeners found in the environment. BDE-99 has been reported in avian samples worldwide, yet knowledge of its toxicity to birds is minimal. We assessed the short- and long-term effects of nestling exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 in a model passerine, the zebra finch. Early exposure to BDE-99 did not affect hematocrit, oxidative stress, or thyroid hormones in either the juvenile or adult stages, and there were no effects on chick growth or survival. BDE-99 exposure caused a dose-dependent delay in timing of reproduction, but there were no other effects on reproductive success. In zebra finches, endpoints related to reproductive behavior appear to be the most sensitive to BDE-99. However, passerines overall appear to be less sensitive than birds of prey or mammals to PBDE exposure. PMID:23603472

  9. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to native unionid mussels within field enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a commercially prepared spray dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) was evaluated for removing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) adhering to a population of unionid mussels in Lake Darling (Alexandria, Minnesota). Two groups of unionid mussels were used in the study. Unionid mussels were collected near the test area, weighed, photographed, individually tagged, and randomly allocated to one of nine test enclosures in equal proportions and then divided into two groups. The first group of unionid mussels (Group 1, n = 5 per test enclosure) were indiscriminately selected from each test enclosure and used to estimate the number of zebra mussels adhering to unionid mussels prior to exposure. The second group of unionid mussels (Group 2, n = 22 per test enclosure) were used to evaluate the efficacy of SDP for removal of adhering zebra mussels. Both Group 1 and Group 2 mussels were used to evaluate the effects of SDP exposure on unionid mussel survival.

  10. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa

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    J. H. Williams

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope

  11. Daily rhythms of lipid metabolic gene expression in zebra fish liver: Response to light/dark and feeding cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, J F; López-Olmeda, J F; Martínez, F J; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies about fish nutrition and lipid metabolism, very little is known about the daily rhythm expression of lipogenesis and lipolysis genes. This research aimed to investigate the existence of daily rhythm expressions of the genes involved in lipid metabolism and their synchronization to different light/dark (LD) and feeding cycles in zebra fish liver. For this purpose, three groups of zebra fish were submitted to a 12:12 h LD cycle. A single daily meal was provided to each group at various times: in the middle of the light phase (ML); in the middle of the dark phase (MD); at random times. After 20 days of acclimation to these experimental conditions, liver samples were collected every 4 h in one 24-h cycle. The results revealed that most genes displayed a significant daily rhythm with an acrophase of expression in the dark phase. The acrophase of lipolytic genes (lipoprotein lipase - lpl, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor - pparα and hydroxyacil CoA dehydrogenase - hadh) was displayed between ZT 02:17 h and ZT 18:31 h. That of lipogenic genes (leptin-a - lepa, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor - pparγ, liver X receptor - lxr, insulin-like growth factor - igf1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein - srebp and fatty acid synthase - fas) was displayed between ZT 15:25 h and 20:06 h (dark phase). Feeding time barely influenced daily expression rhythms, except for lxr in the MD group, whose acrophase shifted by about 14 h compared with the ML group (ZT 04:31 h versus ZT 18:29 h, respectively). These results evidence a strong synchronization to the LD cycle, but not to feeding time, and most genes showed a nocturnal acrophase. These findings highlight the importance of considering light and feeding time to optimize lipid metabolism and feeding protocols in fish farming. PMID:26595085

  12. Collective and individual processes of sub-threshold particles production. Pions neutral and η mesons production in the Ar+Ca 180 A MeV reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this work is the study of the collective processes and individual nucleon-nucleon collisions Involved in sub-threshold particles production. For this purpose, aad for the first time, neutral pions and etas have been simultaneously measured well below the free nucleon-nucleon threshold, in the reaction Ar+Ca at 180 A MeV. This experiment has been performed at GSI with the multidetector TAPS. The measured eta probability seems to be 20 times lower than expected from the systematics. Surprisingly, the mt scaling law appears to be still valid at so low energy. Experimental results point out that most of the observed pions are mediated by Δ resonances. Finally, the high mt pions multiplicity increases much faster than low mt pion multiplicity with the number of participants. This fact is a strong evidence of the role of collective and cooperative processes for the production of energetic particles beyond the picture of particles produced in first chance nucleon-nucleon collisions. Experimental results have been confronted to the predictions of two dynamical and one statistical models, but these models fail to provide a consistent picture of the processes involved in sub-threshold particle production. (author)

  13. Polypeptide Fraction from Arca subcrenata Induces Apoptosis and G2/M Phase Arrest in HeLa Cells via ROS-Mediated MAPKs Pathways

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    Xianjing Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arca subcrenata is documented in the literature of marine Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polypeptide fraction from A. subcrenata, coded as P2, was demonstrated to possess significant antitumor activity in our previous study. However, the underlying mechanism remains undefined. The present study was carried out to investigate the underlying antitumor mechanism of P2 in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by MTT, FCM, LSCM, and western blot assays. The results revealed that P2 significantly induced apoptosis of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. High level of ROS was provoked by P2, which was in turn responsible for induction of apoptosis through activation of intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and JNK1/2, p38 MAPK pathways, as well as inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway, as evidenced by the abrogation of P2’s effect on HeLa cells preincubated with the ROS scavenger NAC. P2 also was observed to display significant effect on G2/M phase arrest by downregulating the expression of cyclin B1/cdc2 complex and upregulating the expression of p21. These findings demonstrate that P2 induces apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells through ROS-mediated MAPKs pathways, suggesting that P2 would be worth investigating as a promising agent within the scope of marine drugs for treatment of cervical cancer.

  14. Assesment of trace elements and organic pollutants from a marine oil complex into the coral reef system of Cayo Arcas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Silke; Ponce De León, Claudia A; Fernández, Pilar; Sommer, Irene; Rivas, Hilda; Morales, Luis Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Possible contaminants produced by the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) marine oil complex in the vicinity of the Cayo Arcas (Mexico) coral reef ecosystem were evaluated by analyzing sediments and sea water for hydrocarbons and metal elements. We found that the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sea water were generally low, with the highest values detected near the oil station; the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was generally below the detection limit. The hydrocarbons found in the sediments seem to have a pyrogenic origin, and were probably produced by marine traffic in the study area. The total PAH concentration did not exceed the NOAA criteria, although levels of some individual PAHs did. The only metal detected in the sea water at high concentrations was nickel. The Ni/V ratio in the sediments indicates the contribution of crude oil to the system. The high content of Ni and Zn was attributed to the ballast waters from the oil tankers that load at the station's monobuoys. The presence of fine sediments that commonly originate from terrestrial ecosystems supported this assumption. PMID:16741791

  15. All Three Endogenous Quinone Species of Escherichia coli Are Involved in Controlling the Activity of the Aerobic/Anaerobic Response Regulator ArcA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beilen, Johan W A; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2016-01-01

    The enteron Escherichia coli is equipped with a branched electron transfer chain that mediates chemiosmotic electron transfer, that drives ATP synthesis. The components of this electron transfer chain couple the oxidation of available electron donors from cellular metabolism (e.g., NADH, succinate, lactate, formate, etc.) to the reduction of electron acceptors like oxygen, nitrate, fumarate, di-methyl-sulfoxide, etc. Three different quinones, i.e., ubiquinone, demethyl-menaquinone and menaquinone, couple the transfer of electrons between the dehydrogenases and reductases/oxidases that constitute this electron transfer chain, whereas, the two-component regulation system ArcB/A regulates gene expression, to allow the organism to adapt itself to the ambient conditions of available electron donors and acceptors. Here, we report that E. coli can grow and adjust well to transitions in the availability of oxygen, with any of the three quinones as its single quinone. In all three 'single-quinone' E. coli strains transitions in the activity of ArcB are observed, as evidenced by changes in the level of phosphorylation of the response regulator ArcA, upon depletion/readmission of oxygen. These results lead us to conclude that all quinol species of E. coli can reduce (i.e., activate) the sensor ArcB and all three quinones oxidize (i.e., de-activate) it. These results also confirm our earlier conclusion that demethyl-menaquinone can function in aerobic respiration. PMID:27656164

  16. Integrated use of biomarkers and bioaccumulation data in Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) for site-specific quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, A; Ricciardi, F; Riva, C; Provini, A

    2006-01-01

    One of the useful biological tools for environmental management is the measurement of biomarkers whose changes are related to the exposure to chemicals or environmental stress. Since these responses might vary with different contaminants or depending on the pollutant concentration reached in the organism, the support of bioaccumulation data is needed to prevent false conclusions. In this study, several persistent organic pollutants -- 23 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), six dichlorodiphenyltricholroethane (DDT) relatives, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlorpyrifos and its oxidized metabolite -- and some herbicides (lindane and the isomers alpha, beta, delta; terbutilazine; alachlor; metolachlor) were measured in the soft tissues of the freshwater mollusc Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) from 25 sampling sites in the Italian portions of the sub-alpine great lakes along with the measure of ethoxyresorufin dealkylation (EROD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The linkage between bioaccumulation and biomarker data allowed us to create site-specific environmental quality indexes towards man-made chemicals. This classification highlighted three different degrees of xenobiotic contamination of the Italian sub-alpine great lakes: a high water quality in Lake Lugano with negligible pollutant levels and no effects on enzyme activities, an homogeneous poor quality for Lakes Garda, Iseo and Como, and the presence of some xenobiotic point-sources in Lake Maggiore, whose ecological status could be jeopardized, also due to the heavy DDT contamination revealed since 1996.

  17. Characterization of synaptically connected nuclei in a potential sensorimotor feedback pathway in the zebra finch song system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayna M Williams

    Full Text Available Birdsong is a learned behavior that is controlled by a group of identified nuclei, known collectively as the song system. The cortical nucleus HVC (used as a proper name is a focal point of many investigations as it is necessary for song production, song learning, and receives selective auditory information. HVC receives input from several sources including the cortical area MMAN (medial magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium. The MMAN to HVC connection is particularly interesting as it provides potential sensorimotor feedback to HVC. To begin to understand the role of this connection, we investigated the physiological relation between MMAN and HVC activity with simultaneous multiunit extracellular recordings from these two nuclei in urethane anesthetized zebra finches. As previously reported, we found similar timing in spontaneous bursts of activity in MMAN and HVC. Like HVC, MMAN responds to auditory playback of the bird's own song (BOS, but had little response to reversed BOS or conspecific song. Stimulation of MMAN resulted in evoked activity in HVC, indicating functional excitation from MMAN to HVC. However, inactivation of MMAN resulted in no consistent change in auditory responses in HVC. Taken together, these results indicate that MMAN provides functional excitatory input to HVC but does not provide significant auditory input to HVC in anesthetized animals. We hypothesize that MMAN may play a role in motor reinforcement or coordination, or may provide modulatory input to the song system about the internal state of the animal as it receives input from the hypothalamus.

  18. Characterization of synaptically connected nuclei in a potential sensorimotor feedback pathway in the zebra finch song system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shayna M; Nast, Alexis; Coleman, Melissa J

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong is a learned behavior that is controlled by a group of identified nuclei, known collectively as the song system. The cortical nucleus HVC (used as a proper name) is a focal point of many investigations as it is necessary for song production, song learning, and receives selective auditory information. HVC receives input from several sources including the cortical area MMAN (medial magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium). The MMAN to HVC connection is particularly interesting as it provides potential sensorimotor feedback to HVC. To begin to understand the role of this connection, we investigated the physiological relation between MMAN and HVC activity with simultaneous multiunit extracellular recordings from these two nuclei in urethane anesthetized zebra finches. As previously reported, we found similar timing in spontaneous bursts of activity in MMAN and HVC. Like HVC, MMAN responds to auditory playback of the bird's own song (BOS), but had little response to reversed BOS or conspecific song. Stimulation of MMAN resulted in evoked activity in HVC, indicating functional excitation from MMAN to HVC. However, inactivation of MMAN resulted in no consistent change in auditory responses in HVC. Taken together, these results indicate that MMAN provides functional excitatory input to HVC but does not provide significant auditory input to HVC in anesthetized animals. We hypothesize that MMAN may play a role in motor reinforcement or coordination, or may provide modulatory input to the song system about the internal state of the animal as it receives input from the hypothalamus. PMID:22384172

  19. Histological Changes Induced in Gonads, Liver and Kidney of Zebra Fish (Danio Rerio Under the Effect Octylphenol (OP

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    Gabi Dumitrescu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available World-wide researches during the last years are focused upon the negative effects caused by the natural chemical compounds and anthropogenic compounds, already being demonstrated that a great part of them change the endocrine control over reproduction at different species. The issue studied by our team is concerned with the histological changes that appear within liver, kidney and gonadal development at the zebra fish (Danio rerio, exposed to octylphenol from 21-115 days, and within 21-75 days of life. In order to achieve the histological preparations, for each period under study, fishes were divided into three groups of 30 individuals, namely: Lot 1 - Control, respectively lots 2 and 3, at which the administrated octylphenol concentrations were of 60 μg L-1, respectively 100 μg L-1. Fishes of the six groups were raised in 30-liters aquariums (30 fish / aquarium. Fragments of liver, kidney and gonads were processed histologically, colored with the Mallory thrichromic staining method and examined with the optical microscope. Histopathological study revealed changes in the three organs, namely this fine granulation hepatocytes, peritubular edema and vascular ectasia in renal parenchyma and their differentiation in the gonads to sex predominantly female, issues that demonstrate the estrogenic effect of the octylphenol. Those microscopical aspects observed in the kidney and liver of the specimens exposed to action of octhylphenol, suggest that the octhlyphenol is bind to the estrogenic receptors on the membrane of hepatic cells, inducing vitellogenin synthesis.

  20. The influence of temperature, daylength and sucrose concentration on the growth and development of Alstroemeria 'Zebra' in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Gabryszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of temperature, daylength and sucrose concentration on the growth and development of Alstroemeria 'Zebra' in vitro was investigated. Only slightly more lateral rhizomes were formed at 25°C in comparison with 17°C on the medium with BA. Presence of BA in the medium strongly increased number of upright growing shoots and more shoots were formed in temperature 25°C than in temperature 17°C. Rhizome multiplication and formation of upright growing shoots were not significantly influenced by daylength. Sucrose was required for the formation of lateral rhizomes, upright growing shoots and roots. The highest number Of lateral rhizomes was observed on the medium containing 60 and 80 gl-1 sucrose and BA. Presence of BA in the medium with different sucrose concentrations markedly influenced the formation of upright growing shoots; the highest number of shoots was found on the explants cultured on the media with 20 and 30 gl-1 sucrose. Low and high concentrations of sucrose inhibited upright growing shoots formation and their elongation. Rhizogenesis was not observed on rhizomes growing on the medium without sucrose and with 10 gl-1 sucrose, either in the presence or absence of NAA„ The number of roots per plantlet on the medium with NAA increased with increasing sucrose levels. The highest sucrose concentrations slightly inhibited roots formation.

  1. Crystal structure and potential physiological role of zebra fish thioesterase superfamily member 2 (fTHEM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shanshan; Li, Han; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Ying, E-mail: zhouying@moon.ibp.ac.cn

    2015-08-07

    Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2) is an essential protein for mammalian cell proliferation. It belongs to the hotdog-fold thioesterase superfamily and catalyzes hydrolysis of thioester bonds of acyl-CoA in vitro, while its in vivo function remains unrevealed. In this study, Zebra fish was selected as a model organism to facilitate the investigations on THEM2. First, we solved the crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 at the resolution of 1.80 Å, which displayed a similar scaffolding as hTHEM2. Second, functional studies demonstrated that fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA in vitro. In addition, injection of morpholino against fTHEM2 at one-cell stage resulted in distorted early embryo development, including delayed cell division, retarded development and increased death rate. The above findings validated our hypothesis that fTHEM2 could serve as an ideal surrogate for studying the physiological functions of THEM2. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 is presented. • fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA. • The influence of fTHEM2 on early embryo development is demonstrated.

  2. Avaliação parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa) comercializadas em feiras livres e supermercados do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514 Occurence of parasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) commercializaed in the street markets and supermarkets of Campo Mourão, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Maria Simonelli; Luis Antonio Sangioni; Sandra Coutinho Nunes; Angela Kwiatkowski; Andréia Andrade de Freitas

    2004-01-01

    Este estudo investigou e comparou a contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa) comercializadas em supermercados e feiras livres do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná. Foram analisadas 150 amostras de alfaces, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann), sendo 75 amostras provenientes de supermercados e 75 amostras de feiras livres. O sedimento foi analisado em microscópio óptico. Das amostras analisadas, 56% (42/75) e 58,7% (44/75) apresentaram contaminação po...

  3. 铅对斑马鱼生殖系统毒性作用研究%Toxic Effect of Lead on Reproductive System in Zebra Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆长明; 王晓辉; 谢贤政; 周鸣鸣; 张洁

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate the toxic effect of lead on the reproductive system of mature zebra fish. [Method] Healthy adult zebra fish aged three months were randomly divided into one control group and three experimental groups. Twenty zebra fish in each group were treated with lead acetate solution at the dose of 0,0.4,0.8 and 1.6 mg/L for seven consecutive days. The zebra fish was sacrificed for the measurement of the sperm density,sperm volume and fecundity. [Result] The eggs counts produced by female zebra fish in 0.4 and 0.8 mg/L groups were both decreased significantly compared with the control group (P < 0. 05). 1.6 mg/L groups did not produce any eggs at all. With the increase of lead concentration, a decreasing trend in sperm counts was observed. There were no statistical significances in sperm density between the experiment and the control groups; the sperm volume of 0.4,0. 8 and 1.6 mg/L groups were all decreased significantly compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). With the lead administration dose increasing,a downtrend in the sperm volume was observed. The experiment of male and female replacement trials in seven days led to the same result. [ Conclusion ] Lead exposure can induce reproductive toxicity to mature zebra fish.%[目的]研究Pb对斑马鱼生殖系统的毒性作用.[方法]将成年斑马鱼(3月龄)随机分为4组,分别为对照(蒸馏水)组和低(0.4mg/L)、中(0.8 mg/L)、高(1.6 mg/L)剂量PbAc染毒组,每组20条,连续染毒7d.染毒结束后,测定雌性斑马鱼产卵数和雄性斑马鱼产精子体积以及精子密度.[结果]与对照组相比,0.4和0.8 mg/L Pb染毒组斑马鱼产卵数较低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);1.6mg/L Pb染毒组斑马鱼已不产卵.随着染毒剂量的增高,斑马鱼产卵数呈减少趋势.各Pb染毒组雄性斑马鱼精子密度与对照组比较,差异均无统计学意义.与对照组比较,0.4、0.8和1.6 mg/L Pb染毒组雄性斑马鱼精子体积均较

  4. The Influence of Infective Dose on the Virulence of a Generalist Pathogen in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Zebra Fish (Danio rerio.

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    Hanna Kinnula

    Full Text Available Pathogen density and genetic diversity fluctuate in the outside-host environment during and between epidemics, affecting disease emergence and the severity and probability of infections. Although the importance of these factors for pathogen virulence and infection probability has been acknowledged, their interactive effects are not well understood. We studied how an infective dose in an environmentally transmitted opportunistic fish pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare, affects its virulence both in rainbow trout, which are frequently infected at fish farms, and in zebra fish, a host that is not naturally infected by F. columnare. We used previously isolated strains of confirmed high and low virulence in a single infection and in a co-infection. Infection success (measured as host morbidity correlated positively with dose when the hosts were exposed to the high-virulence strain, but no response for the dose increase was found when the hosts were exposed to the low-virulence strain. Interestingly, the co-infection resulted in poorer infection success than the single infection with the high-virulence strain. The rainbow trout were more susceptible to the infection than the zebra fish but, in both species, the effects of the doses and the strains were qualitatively similar. We suggest that as an increase in dose can lead to increased host morbidity, both the interstrain interactions and differences in infectivity in different hosts may influence the severity and consequently the evolution of disease. Our results also confirm that the zebra fish is a good laboratory model to study F. columnare infection.

  5. Shedding of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 by zoo animals, and report of an unstable metronidazole-resistant isolate from a zebra foal (Equus quagga burchellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Peláez, Teresa; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; García, Marta E

    2014-03-14

    Clostridium difficile is an emerging and potentially zoonotic pathogen, but its prevalence in most animal species, including exhibition animals, is currently unknown. In this study we assessed the prevalence of faecal shedding of C. difficile by zoo animals, and determined the ribotype, toxin profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of recovered isolates. A total of 200 samples from 40 animal species (36.5% of which came from plains zebra, Equus quagga burchellii) were analysed. C. difficile was isolated from 7 samples (3.5% of total), which came from the following animal species: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), dwarf goat (Capra hircus), and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica), with one positive sample each; and plains zebra, with 4 positive samples from 3 different individuals. Most recovered isolates (4/7, 57.1%) belonged to the epidemic PCR ribotype 078, produced toxins A and B, and had the genes encoding binary toxin (i.e. A(+)B(+)CDT(+) isolates). The remaining three isolates belonged to PCR ribotypes 039 (A(-)B(-)CDT(-)), 042 (A(+)B(+)CDT(-)) and 110 (A(-)B(+)CDT(-)). Regardless of their ribotype, all isolates displayed high-level resistance to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and levofloxacin. Some isolates were also resistant to meropenem and/or ertapenem. A ribotype 078 isolate recovered from a male zebra foal initially showed in vitro resistance to metronidazole (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml), but lost that trait after subculturing on non-selective media. We conclude that zoo animals belonging to different species can carry ribotype 078 and other toxigenic strains of C. difficile showing resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used in veterinary and/or human medicine.

  6. Investigation to determine staff exposure and describe animal bite surveillance after detection of a rabid zebra in a safari lodge in Kenya, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obonyo, Mark; Arvelo, Wences; Kadivane, Samuel; Orundu, Moses; Lankau, Emily; Gakuya, Francis; Munyua, Peninah; Githinji, Jane; Marano, Nina; Njenga, Kariuki; Omolo, Jared; Montgomery, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rabies is a fatal viral infection, resulting in >55,000 deaths globally each year. In August 2011, a young orphaned zebra at a Kenyan safari lodge acquired rabies and potentially exposed >150 tourists and local staff. An investigation was initiated to determine exposures among the local staff, and to describe animal bite surveillance in the affected district. Methods We interviewed lodge staff on circumstances surrounding the zebra's illness and assessed their exposure status. We reviewed animal bite report forms from the outpatient department at the district hospital. Results The zebra was reported bitten by a dog on 31st July 2011, became ill on 23rdAugust, and died three days later. There were 22 employees working at the lodge during that time. Six (27%) had high exposure due to contact with saliva (bottle feeding, veterinary care) and received four doses of rabies vaccine and one of immune-globulin, and 16 (73%) had low exposure due to casual contact and received only four doses of rabies vaccine. From January 2010 to September 2011, 118 cases of animal bites were reported in the district; 67 (57%) occurred among males, 65 (57%) in children <15 years old, and 61 (52%) were inflicted in a lower extremity. Domestic and stray dogs accounted for 98% of reported bites. Conclusion Dog bites remains the main source of rabies exposure in the district, but exposure can result from wildlife. This highlights the importance of a one health approach with strong communication between wildlife, veterinary, and human health sectors to improve rabies prevention and control. PMID:25815092

  7. Prox1 Is a Novel Coregulator of Ff1b and Is Involved in the Embryonic Development of the Zebra Fish Interrenal Primordium

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi-Wen; Gao, Wei; Teh, Hui-Ling; Tan, Jee-Hian; Chan, Woon-Khiong

    2003-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) plays an essential role in adrenal development, although the exact molecular mechanisms are unclear. Our previous work established that Ff1b is the zebra fish homologue of SF-1 and that its disruption by antisense morpholinos leads to a complete ablation of the interrenal organ. In this study, results of biochemical analyses suggest that Ff1b and other Ff1 members interact with Prox1, a homeodomain protein. Fine mapping using site-directed mutants showed that thi...

  8. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum

  9. Avaliação farmacognóstica e microbiológica da droga vegetal camomila (Chamomilla recutita L. comercializada como alimento em Cascavel - Paraná Pharmacognostic and microbiological evaluation of the medicinal plant chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. commercialized as food in Cascavel Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.R Lucca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais, dentre elas a camomila, têm sido muito utilizadas na forma de droga vegetal pela população em geral, como importantes alternativas alimentícias e terapêuticas. Considerando que a fiscalização sanitária destes produtos é precária, este quadro torna-se preocupante, visto que, um produto em condições inadequadas para consumo pode acarretar vários riscos ao consumidor. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar avaliação farmacognóstica e microbiológica em quinze amostras de chá de camomila comercializadas na cidade de Cascavel, Paraná. A metodologia adotada para a realização dos testes foi a preconizada pela Farmacopéia Brasileira (1988, 1996, 1998. O estudo de autenticidade revelou que todas as amostras eram constituídas por Chamomilla recutita L., porém na maioria das amostras os capítulos florais apresentavam-se excessivamente destruídos. Seis amostras apresentaram teor de materiais estranhos acima de 5%. Quanto ao doseamento de óleo essencial, todas as amostras foram insatisfatórias, visto que, apresentaram apenas traços de óleos essenciais, ou seja, valores abaixo de 0,4%, sendo este valor o mínimo exigido pela Farmacopéia. Com relação às análises de bolores e leveduras foi verificado que quatro amostras apresentaram valores acima do limite de 10(4 UFC mL-1, conforme preconizado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. A partir dos dados obtidos concluiu-se que a camomila comercializada na cidade de Cascavel - Paraná apresenta problemas com relação à qualidade, sendo necessário definir medidas adequadas de controle higiênico sanitário ao longo da cadeia de produção, para garantir a qualidade e segurança destes produtos.Medicinal plants, including chamomile, have been largely used by the general population as important food and therapeutic alternatives. Considering that the sanitary control of such products is precarious, this situation becomes worrisome since a

  10. Concentração de flúor em águas engarrafadas comercializadas no município de São Paulo Fluoride concentration in bottled water on the market in the municipality of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Henrique da Costa Grec

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a concentração de flúor na água engarrafada comercializada, comparando-a aos valores impressos no rótulo da embalagem. Foram coletadas 229 amostras de água das 35 marcas disponíveis em diversos supermercados, mercearias e lanchonetes de grande circulação nas diferentes regiões do município de São Paulo, em 2006. A concentração de flúor foi determinada por análise em duplicata, utilizando o eletrodo íon-específico. A concentração de flúor variou entre 0,01 e 2,04 mg/l, com diferenças significantes entre os valores estipulados nos rótulos e os encontrados com a análise. Esses resultados reforçam a importância do controle dos níveis de flúor na água engarrafada por parte da vigilância sanitária.The objective of the study was to evaluate the fluoride concentration in bottled water available on the market, in comparison with the values printed on the bottle label. Two hundred and twenty-nine water samples were collected from 35 brands available in several supermarkets, grocery stores and snack bars with high turnover in different regions of the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Fluoride concentrations were determined by duplicate analysis using an ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2.04 mg/l, with significant differences between the values stipulated on labels and those found in the analyses. These results emphasize the importance of controls over fluoride levels in bottled water enforced by the sanitary surveillance agency.

  11. The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düring Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like human infants, songbirds learn their species-specific vocalizations through imitation learning. The birdsong system has emerged as a widely used experimental animal model for understanding the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for vocal production learning. However, how neural impulses are translated into the precise motor behavior of the complex vocal organ (syrinx to create song is poorly understood. First and foremost, we lack a detailed understanding of syringeal morphology. Results To fill this gap we combined non-invasive (high-field magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography and invasive techniques (histology and micro-dissection to construct the annotated high-resolution three-dimensional dataset, or morphome, of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata syrinx. We identified and annotated syringeal cartilage, bone and musculature in situ in unprecedented detail. We provide interactive three-dimensional models that greatly improve the communication of complex morphological data and our understanding of syringeal function in general. Conclusions Our results show that the syringeal skeleton is optimized for low weight driven by physiological constraints on song production. The present refinement of muscle organization and identity elucidates how apposed muscles actuate different syringeal elements. Our dataset allows for more precise predictions about muscle co-activation and synergies and has important implications for muscle activity and stimulation experiments. We also demonstrate how the syrinx can be stabilized during song to reduce mechanical noise and, as such, enhance repetitive execution of stereotypic motor patterns. In addition, we identify a cartilaginous structure suited to play a crucial role in the uncoupling of sound frequency and amplitude control, which permits a novel explanation of the evolutionary success of songbirds.

  12. Transient and permanent effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on growth, metabolic rate, immune function and adrenocortical responses in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Haruka; Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Allen, Natalie; Schmidt, Kimberly L; Soma, Kiran K; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    In birds, incubation temperature can vary by several degrees Celsius among nests of a given species. Parents may alter incubation temperature to cope with environmental conditions and/or to manipulate embryonic development, and such changes in incubation behavior could have long-lasting effects on offspring phenotype. To investigate short- and long-term effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on survival and physiological functions in zebra finches, eggs were incubated at 36.2, 37.4 or 38.4 °C for the entire incubation period. The post-hatch environment was identical among the treatment groups. We found that hatching success was lowest in the 38.4 °C group, while post-hatch survival was lowest in the 36.2 °C group. Incubation temperature had sex-specific effects on offspring phenotype: incubation temperatures affected body mass (Mb) but not physiological parameters of males and conversely, the physiological parameters but not Mb of females. Specifically, males from the 38.4 °C group weighed significantly less than males from the 36.2 °C group from the nestling period to adulthood, whereas females from different incubation temperature groups did not differ in Mb. In contrast, females incubated at 36.2 °C had transient but significantly elevated basal metabolic rate and adrenocortical responses during the nestling and fledgling periods, whereas no treatment effect was observed in males. Innate immunity was not affected by incubation temperature in either sex. These results suggest that a 1 °C deviation from what is considered an optimal incubation temperature can lower offspring performance and offspring survival.

  13. Early fasting is long lasting: differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches.

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    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR. During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate.

  14. Food for song: expression of c-Fos and ZENK in the zebra finch song nuclei during food aversion learning.

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    Kirill Tokarev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether the song system forebrain regions are exclusively evolved for song or whether they also process information not related to song that might reflect their 'evolutionary history'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question we monitored the induction of two immediate-early genes (IEGs c-Fos and ZENK in various regions of the song system in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata in response to an aversive food learning paradigm; this involves the association of a food item with a noxious stimulus that affects the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and tongue, causing subsequent avoidance of that food item. The motor response results in beak and head movements but not vocalizations. IEGs have been extensively used to map neuro-molecular correlates of song motor production and auditory processing. As previously reported, neurons in two pallial vocal motor regions, HVC and RA, expressed IEGs after singing. Surprisingly, c-Fos was induced equivalently also after food aversion learning in the absence of singing. The density of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly higher than that of birds in control conditions. This was not the case in two other pallial song nuclei important for vocal plasticity, LMAN and Area X, although singing did induce IEGs in these structures, as reported previously. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with the possibility that some of the song nuclei may participate in non-vocal learning and the populations of neurons involved in the two tasks show partial overlap. These findings underscore the previously advanced notion that the specialized forebrain pre-motor nuclei controlling song evolved from circuits involved in behaviors related to feeding.

  15. Male foraging efficiency, but not male problem-solving performance, influences female mating preferences in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Véronique; Gibelli, Julie; Dubois, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that females would prefer males with better cognitive abilities as mates. However, little is known about the traits reflecting enhanced cognitive skills on which females might base their mate-choice decisions. In particular, it has been suggested that male foraging performance could be used as an indicator of cognitive capacity, but convincing evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) modify their mating preferences after having observed the performance of males on a problem-solving task. Specifically, we measured the females' preferences between two males once before and once after an observation period, during which their initially preferred male was incapable of solving the task contrary to their initially less-preferred male. We also conducted a control treatment to test whether the shift in female preferences was attributable to differences between the two stimulus males in their foraging efficiency. Finally, we assessed each bird's performance in a color associative task to check whether females can discriminate among males based on their learning speed. We found that females significantly increased their preference toward the most efficient male in both treatments. Yet, there was no difference between the two treatments and we found no evidence that females assess male cognitive ability indirectly via morphological traits. Thus, our results suggest that females would not use the males' problem-solving performance as an indicator of general cognitive ability to gain indirect fitness benefits (i.e., good genes) but rather to assess their foraging efficiency and gain direct benefits.

  16. Inhibition of the thioredoxin system in the brain and liver of zebra-seabreams exposed to waterborne methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Vasco; Canário, João; Holmgren, Arne; Carvalho, Cristina

    2011-03-01

    Mercury compounds were recently found to interact in vitro with the thioredoxin system, inhibiting both Thioredoxin (Trx) and Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). In order to evaluate if Trx and TrxR are affected in vivo by methylmercury (MeHg), we exposed juvenile zebra-seabreams to different concentrations of this toxicant in water for 28days followed by a 14-day depuration period. Methylmercury accumulated to a larger extent in the kidney and liver of fishes, but decreased significantly during the depuration. During the exposure, MeHg percentage in the liver reached levels above 90% of total mercury (HgT) decreasing to 60% of HgT by the end of the depuration period. In the kidney, MeHg accounted for 50-70% of HgT. In the brain and muscle, mercury accumulated throughout the exposure with all mercury being MeHg. The total mercury kept increasing in these organs during the depuration period. However, in the brain, this increase in HgT was accompanied by a decrease in the MeHg percentage (~10%). In the liver, both Trx and TrxR activities were significantly reduced (TrxR--40%; Trx--70%) by the end of the exposure, but recovered to control levels (100%) during the depuration. In the brain, both enzymes where inhibited during the depuration period (TrxR--75%; Trx--70%) when some production of inorganic mercury was detected. Activity of glutathione reductase showed increased levels when TrxR activity was low, suggesting complementarity between both systems. These results indicate that in vivo the thioredoxin system is a toxicological target for MeHg with TrxR being particularly affected.

  17. Activation changes in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata brain areas evoked by alterations of the earth magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Keary

    Full Text Available Many animals are able to perceive the earth magnetic field and to use it for orientation and navigation within the environment. The mechanisms underlying the perception and processing of magnetic field information within the brain have been thoroughly studied, especially in birds, but are still obscure. Three hypotheses are currently discussed, dealing with ferromagnetic particles in the beak of birds, with the same sort of particles within the lagena organs, or describing magnetically influenced radical-pair processes within retinal photopigments. Each hypothesis is related to a well-known sensory organ and claims parallel processing of magnetic field information with somatosensory, vestibular and visual input, respectively. Changes in activation within nuclei of the respective sensory systems have been shown previously. Most of these previous experiments employed intensity enhanced magnetic stimuli or lesions. We here exposed unrestrained zebra finches to either a stationary or a rotating magnetic field of the local intensity and inclination. C-Fos was used as an activity marker to examine whether the two treatments led to differences in fourteen brain areas including nuclei of the somatosensory, vestibular and visual system. An ANOVA revealed an overall effect of treatment, indicating that the magnetic field change was perceived by the birds. While the differences were too small to be significant in most areas, a significant enhancement of activation by the rotating stimulus was found in a hippocampal subdivision. Part of the hyperpallium showed a strong, nearly significant, increase. Our results are compatible with previous studies demonstrating an involvement of at least three different sensory systems in earth magnetic field perception and suggest that these systems, probably less elaborated, may also be found in nonmigrating birds.

  18. Study of the biological effects of uranium exposure on zebra fish (D. rerio). Impact on life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of an ongoing project (ENVIRHOM) started at IRSN in 2000, which consists in studying the environmental effects of radioactive substances at chronic low level of exposure. In this general frame, our aim was two fold: (i) to identify sensitivity of different critical life stages of zebra fish (fish of fresh water frequently used for tests standards in ecotoxicology) to uranium exposure and (ii) to evaluate underlying mechanisms. Experiments were conducted with eggs, larvae and genitors exposed to uranium at environmentally relevant concentrations (from 20 to 500 μg/L) in order to study survival, hatching of eggs, growth of larvae and reproduction of genitors. Bio-markers of exposure (i.e. U bioaccumulation) and bio-markers of effects at molecular level (i.e. genotoxic effects, reproductive-toxicity) were also measured. Sensitivity of fish to uranium was dependent of the life stage of development with the early life stage being the most sensitive to U either directly or maternally exposed. It underlines the relevance of including pro-larval stages for toxicity assessments in fish. Moreover drastic effects of uranium on reproductive success and DNA damages in the germ cells foretell a strong impact on the population for low concentration of exposure (20 μg/L). As it is increasingly recognized that population-level effects of toxic substances are more relevant in terms of ecological risk assessment, this study points out the need to include different life stages of organisms in eco-toxicological studies, especially the sensitive early stages. Moreover, it appears, through the comparative study of the radiological effects or by another isotope of the uranium of stronger radioactivity (233U or by an irradiation with 137Cs), that the effects of the uranium are due to its chemo-toxicity. (author)

  19. Calculations to compare different ways of modelling the plate geometry cells of the Zebra fast critical assembly, MZA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, John, E-mail: rowlandsjl@aol.com

    2009-03-15

    The core region cells of the Zebra fast critical assembly MZA comprise 14 plates in a square steel tube, with 12 cells being stacked axially to form the core section of the assembly. The cells can be modelled in different levels of detail, ranging from a three-dimensional representation in which the core (The word core is used to describe both the region of a plate containing the main material, such as plutonium, UO{sub 2} or sodium, and the region of the assembly containing fissile material cells.) and canning regions of the plates and the void gaps between the edges of the plates and the steel tube, and between tubes, are represented. Simplified models include a three-dimensional representation in which the void regions are combined with the tube material. A further simplified three-dimensional model, called the MURAL model, represents the core regions of the plates but homogenises the canning, tube material and void regions. Two types of one-dimensional slab geometry model are found in the literature, one in which the materials are homogenised within each of the three axial slab regions of a canned plate (plate core and upper and lower canning regions) and a further simplified version in which the plate is modelled as a single region, the compositions being averaged over the whole thickness of the plate, comprising the plate core material, the canning and the tube material. MONK Monte Carlo calculations have been made for each of these models, and also for the fully homogenised cells, and the k-effective values, core sodium void reactivities and reaction rate ratios are compared.

  20. Characterization of uranium effects on the zebra fish Danio rerio. Stress mechanisms, neuro-toxicity and mitochondrial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research explored several biological effects of uranium (U) in zebra fish exposed to low waterborne uranium concentrations (20 and 100 microgram/L). In tissue specific study (brain, liver, skeletal muscles and gills) of transcriptional responses in 20 genes identified the nature of the potential U effects during 28 days of exposure followed by an 8-day depuration phase in connection with U bioaccumulation. Liver and gills accumulate high concentrations of U and the depuration is efficient contrary to the brain and muscles. U exposure induced a later response in liver (inflammatory process, apoptosis and detoxification) and gills (oxidative balance) and an early one in brain (neuronal response) and muscles (mitochondrial metabolism). Brain and muscles appear sensitive since defence mechanisms are inefficient above low concentrations. A further study on these two organs examined the function and protein content of the respiratory mitochondrial chain following U exposure. An inhibition of the respiratory control ratio for the lowest concentration, variation in the protein synthesis of the complex IV (induction of cytochrome c oxidase sub-unit I and IV) and histological damage (dilatation in brain and vacuolisation in muscles) were observed. Another study focused on the early effects on the brain and was accomplished through a large transcriptional analysis coupled with examinations of the olfactory bulb ultrastructure. A depression of genes encoding olfactory receptor or111-7 and or102-5 was observed as rapidly as 3 days post-exposure to the lowest concentration of U. These responses and histological injuries suggest that the olfactory system could be sensitive to U exposure. (author)

  1. Cholinesterase activity in the tissues of bivalves Noah's ark shell (Arca noae) and warty venus (Venus verrucosa): characterisation and in vitro sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Lorena; Ribarić, Luka; Nerlović, Vedrana

    2013-08-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity was investigated in gills and adductor muscle of two bivalve species: Arca noae and Venus verrucosa. The properties of ChEs were investigated using acetylcholine iodide (ASCh), butyrylcholine iodide (BSCh) and propionylcholine iodide (PrSCh) as substrates and eserine, BW254c51 and iso-OMPA as specific inhibitors. The highest level of ChE activity in crude tissue extracts was detected with PrSCh followed by ASCh, while values obtained with BSCh were apparently low, except in A. noae adductor muscle. The enzyme activity in A. noae gills and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle was significantly inhibited by BW254c51, but not with iso-OMPA. ChE activity in adductor muscle of A. noae was significantly reduced by both diagnostic inhibitors. The effect of organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon on ChE activity was investigated in vitro in both species as well as in the gills of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. The highest sensitivity of ChE to trichlorfon was observed in A. noae gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.6×10(-7)M and 1.1×10(-7)M, respectively), followed by M. galloprovincialis gills (IC50 1.0×10(-6)M) and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.7×10(-5)M and 0.9×10(-5)M, respectively). The results of this study suggest the potential of ChE activity measurement in the tissues of A. noae as effective biomarker of OP exposure in marine environment.

  2. Environmental concentrations of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced cellular stress and modulated antioxidant enzyme activity in the zebra mussel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Binelli, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Recent monitoring studies showed measurable levels of the 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in aquatic environments. However, no information is currently available on its potential hazard to aquatic non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential sub-lethal effects induced by 14-day exposures to low MDMA concentrations (0.05 and 0.5 μg/L) to zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) specimens through the application of a biomarker suite. The trypan blue exclusion method and the neutral red retention assay (NRRA) were used to assess MDMA cytotoxicity. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as the lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl content (PCC), were measured as oxidative stress indexes. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the DNA diffusion assay, and the micronucleus test (MN test) were applied to investigate DNA damage, while filtration rate was measured as physiological parameter. Despite significant decrease in lysosome membrane stability, hemocyte viability and imbalances in CAT and GST activities pointed out at the end of the exposure to 0.5 μg/L, no significant variations for the other end points were noticed at both the treatments, suggesting that environmentally relevant MDMA concentrations did not induce deleterious effects to the zebra mussel.

  3. Two-photon deep imaging through skin and skull of Zebra finches: preliminary studies for in-vivo brain metabolism monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Haidar, D.; Olivier, T.; Mottin, S.; Vignal, C.; Mathevon, N.

    2007-02-01

    Zebra Finches are songbirds which constitute a model for neuro-ethologists to study the neuro-mechanisms of vocal recognition. For this purpose, in vivo and non invasive monitoring of brain activity is required during acoustical stimulation. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) or NIRS (Near InfraRed Spectroscopy) are suitable methods for these measurements, even though MRI is difficult to link quantitatively with neural activity and NIRS suffers from a poor resolution. In the particular case of songbirds (whose skin is thin and quite transparent and whose skull structure is hollow), two-photon microscopy enables a quite deep penetration in tissues and could be an alternative. We present here preliminary studies on the feasability of two-photon microscopy in these conditions. To do so, we chose to image hollow fibers, filled with Rhodamine B, through the skin of Zebra finches in order to evaluate the spatial resolution we may expect in future in vivo experiments. Moreover, we used the reflectance-mode confocal configuration to evaluate the exponential decrease of backreflected light in skin and in skull samples. Following this procedure recently proposed by S.L. Jacques and co-workers, we planned to determine the scattering coefficient μ s and the anisotropy g of these tissues and make a comparison between fixed and fresh skin and skull samples for future Monte Carlo simulations of the scattering in our particular multi-layered structure.

  4. Metabolic programming of zebra fish Danio rerio uncovered. Physiological performance as explained by dynamic energy budget theory and life-cycle consequence of uranium induced perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this dissertation is to characterize the toxicity of uranium on the metabolism of zebra fish, nio rerio. The first three chapters of this manuscript are dedicated to characterizing the blank metabolism of zebra fish. I used the Dynamic Energy Budget (deb) theory for this characterisation; it is presently the only theory that covers the full life cycle of the organism and quantifies feeding, assimilation, growth, reproduction, maturation, maintenance and ageing. Any metabolic effect of uranium should appear as effects on one or more of these fundamental processes. Since the life span of zebra fish is some four and a half years, and larger individuals respond slower to chemical stress, the focus was on the early life stages. Considerable breakthroughs in the quantification of zebra fish development, growth and reproduction have been made. It turned out the zebra fish accelerates its metabolism after birth till metamorphosis, when acceleration ceases. This process is seen in some, but not all, species of fish. Another striking conclusion was that somatic maintenance was much higher than is typical for fish. We don't yet have an explanation for this funding. Further it turned out that the details of reproduction matter: allocation to reproduction (in adults) accumulates in a reproduction buffer and this buffer is used to prepare batches of eggs. We needed to detail this preparation process to understand how zebra fish can eliminate uranium via eggs. Deb theory specifies that a particular developmental stage (birth, metamorphosis, puberty) is reached at specified levels of maturity. For different temperatures and food levels, that can occur at different ages and body sizes. We extended this idea to include all the described morphologically defined developmental stages of the zebra fish in the literature; the observed variations in ages and body sizes can now be explained by deb theory. To test if deb theory can also explain perturbations of maturation, we

  5. Boat ramp locations within the Columbia River Basin with associated recreational use, water quality measurements, and risk assessment data for zebra and quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Holmberg, Glen S.; Elder, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are often transported between water bodies on boats or boat trailers, thus they are considered one of the primary vectors for new introductions of invasive species to a water body. This data set contains geographic positioning system locational data for boater access points, use data (i.e. recreational, fishing), water quality measurements (e.g. calcium concentrations, pH), risk assessment data, and other physical attributes (i.e. size, elevation) where available within the Columbia and Snake Rivers and throughout the Columbia River Basin. This work builds on an earlier body of work by Wells et al. 2011, Prioritizing Zebra and Quagga Mussel Monitoring in the Columbia River Basin (PDF link below), which provided much of the initial water quality, use information, and risk assessment data (categorical values for the risk of introduction and the risk of establishment). Updated information has been added by collecting additional data on use of water bodies, as well as combined categorical ranking methodology for identifying water bodies that may be high risk for both introduction and establishment of zebra and quagga mussels. This data is also related to a regional effort to contribute to the coordination of monitoring efforts for early detection of zebra and quagga mussels in the context of risk assessment data (CRBAIS weblink below). Data sets provided here include a service definition file, provided with a few reference layers within the region for viewing and an online map ( http://arcg.is/1LrNmBj) with some query options, a GIS shapefile (Child Item), and a tabular data set (csv file; Child Item). It is recommended that all users of this data thoroughly read the metadata files for data definitions, sources, and data limitations. It is recommended to use the online map link ( http://arcg.is/1LrNmBj) for a quick view of the data set and some basic query options.  Once on the ArcGIS online map, to view all the data layers click the show

  6. Avaliação física e química da polpa de maracujá congelada comercializada na região de Bauru Physical-chemical evaluation of the frozen passion fruit pulp traded in the Bauru region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Raimundo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de polpa de maracujá tem como objetivo a obtenção de produtos com características sensoriais e nutricionais próximas da fruta in natura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as informações nutricionais das embalagens e as características físico-químicas das polpas de maracujá congeladas. Foram analisadas 25 amostras, de 07 marcas diferentes, adquiridas em supermercados de Bauru-SP, e região. Apenas uma das marcas analisadas (14,3% encontra-se em acordo com a legislação vigente, sendo que as demais apresentam tabelas ultrapassadas ou incompletas. As características físico-químicas diferem entre as marcas comercializadas, principalmente quanto ao teor de ácido ascórbico, sendo que 64,0% das amostras se encontram em desarcordo com o Regulamento Técnico para Fixação dos Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ para polpa de maracujá do Ministério da Agricultura. As variações observadas entre a polpa in natura e a congelada são menores nos itens: densidade, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez em ácido cítrico e ratio, mas altas quanto ao teor de ácido ascórbico.The purpose of passion fruit pulp industry is to keep the taste and nutritional characteristics as close as possible to the natural fruit. The objective of this work was to evaluate the packing nutritional information and the physical-chemical characteristics of the frozen passion fruit pulp. It was analyzed 25 pulp samples of the 07 different brand names found in Bauru and nearby cities in the State of São Paulo. Just one of the analyzed brand names (14.3 % was according to the current Brazilian Food Legislation, the others had exceeded or incomplete tables. The variations of the physical-chemical characteristics for the traded brands were mainly due to the rate of ascorbic acid (vitamin C and 64% of the samples also don't follow the rules of the Technical Regulation for Identity and Quality Standards (PIQ for passion fruit pulp of the

  7. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano = Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Andrade Batista

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de a-caroteno, b-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações doano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Devido ao conteúdo inexpressivo de a-caroteno em todas as amostras, foi possível quantificar apenas o b-caroteno. Não se verificou diferença estatisticamente significativa (a = 0,05 no conteúdo de b-caroteno das hortaliças entre os diferentes estabelecimentos, nem entre as estações do ano. As hortaliçasmostraram-se excelentes fontes de provitamina A, e se consumidas regularmente, contribuem de forma importante na adequação diária de vitamina A para adultos e crianças. Além disso, esses alimentos são acessíveis à população por apresentarem baixo custo e serem facilmente encontrados.This study aimed to investigate the level of a-carotene, b-carotene and to calculate the value of vitamin A in vegetables sold at local markets and informal markets of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, as wellas to evaluate the seasonal and commercial effects on the content of these pigments. The vegetables (basella, green onion, cilantro, sweet basil and parsley were analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, being b-carotene the only pigment present in all the analyzed samples. No significant statistical differences (a = 0.05 were found in the contents of b-carotene of the vegetables either among the different stores, or among the different seasons. The vegetables analyzed are great provitamin A sources and, ifeaten on a regular basis, they can fit the daily requirements of vitamin A for adults and children. Besides, these foods are very accessible due to their

  8. Study of the microbiological conditions of marketing of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz flour in supply center of Alagoinhas, Bahia Estudo das condições microbiológicas de farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz comercializadas no centro de abastecimento de Alagoinhas, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelza Silva Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the city of Alagoinhas, Bahia, and in most Northeastern states, the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz flour is produced in a craft house, most often located in the place of production. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological conditions of cassava flours marketed Supply Centre in Alagoinhas, Bahia. We collected 30 samples of cassava flour, 100 grams, which were placed in sterile, insulated container. The samples were tested for heterotrophic bacteria using the method of standard plate count, followed by Gram staining, the search for total and fecal coliforms was performed by the Most Probable Number (MPN. The results indicate that the samples that the samples are in accordance with current legislation regarding the analysis of total coliforms and thermotolerant (No município de Alagoinhas, Bahia, e na maioria dos estados do Nordeste, a farinha de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é produzida de forma artesanal em casas-de-farinha, na maioria das vezes localizadas no próprio local de plantio da mandioca. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as condições microbiológicas de farinhas de mandioca comercializadas no Centro de Abastecimento em Alagoinhas-Bahia. Foram coletadas 100 gramas de 30 amostras de farinha de mandioca, as quais foram acondicionadas em frascos estéreis, em recipiente isotérmico. As amostras foram submetidas à pesquisa de bactérias heterotróficas empregando-se o método de contagem padrão em placas, seguido da coloração de Gram, e a pesquisa para coliformes totais e termotolerantes foi realizada pela técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP. Os resultados indicam que as amostras estão em conformidade com a legislação vigente em relação à análise de coliformes totais e termotolerantes (<3NMPg-1, na contagem de bactérias heterotróficas algumas amostras mostraram-se fora dos padrões aceitáveis. Na coloração de Gram foram observados bacilos, diplobacilos e estreptobacilos Gram positivos e Gram

  9. Studies on the antitumor activities of the water extract of Arca subcrenata Lischke%毛蚶水提物对人肿瘤细胞生长的抑制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯婷; 田佳鑫; 李子木; 林华英; 孙震晓

    2013-01-01

    目的 考察毛蚶水提物体外抗肿瘤活性,研究其抗肿瘤作用机制.方法 MTT法检测毛蚶水提物对9种人肿瘤细胞系生长的影响,并通过Giemsa染色光学显微镜下观察肿瘤细胞核的变化;流式细胞术及TUNEL染色检测毛蚶水提物对HT-29细胞周期的影响和凋亡情况;Western blotting检测凋亡相关蛋白Caspaes-3的表达情况.结果 毛蚶水提物对人结直肠癌HT-29、HCT-116细胞,肝癌HepG-2、BEL-7402细胞及肺癌A549细胞具有较强的抑制作用,抑制作用呈作用时间和剂量依赖性.流式细胞术结合细胞Giemsa染色结果显示,毛蚶水提物能引起人结直肠癌HT-29细胞G2-M期阻滞,多核细胞增加.TUNEL染色显示毛蚶水提物有一定诱导细胞凋亡的作用.400 μg·mL-1毛蚶水提物对HT-29细胞Caspase-3蛋白的表达具有下调作用.结论 毛蚶水提物体外具有广谱抗癌活性;毛蚶水提物抑制人结直肠癌HT-29细胞生长的主要机制为诱导细胞凋亡及引起肿瘤细胞G2-M期阻滞,进而形成多核细胞,最终导致肿瘤细胞死亡.%Objects To investigate the antitumor activities of the water extract of Arca subcrenata Lischke in vitro and disclose its antitumor mechanisms.Methods The effect of the water extract of Arca subcrenata Lischke on the growth of 9 different kinds of human tumor cell lines were detected by MTT assay,so the sensitive cell lines were picked up and their antitumor effects of dependence on dose and time were studied.Growth state and morphological changes of human colon rectal carcinoma HT-29 cells treated with the water extract of Arca subcrenata Lischke were observed under the inverted phase contrast microscope,the nucleus feature was analyzed by Giemsa staining.Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to detect the cell cycle and apoptosis of HT-29 cells treated with the water extract.Apoptosis related casepase-3 protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting.Results Cell viability was

  10. On the origin of zebra textures in Mississippi Valley-Type Pb-Zn Deposits with a special emphasis on the San Vicente Mine, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Alternating dark and white bands are common features of ore hosting dolostones which are generally termed zebra textures. Worldwide these structures occur in ore deposits of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT). This type of deposit frequently develops in hydrothermal systems located in the flanks of foreland basins. In most MVT ore deposits it is possible to distinguish between different stages which occur during the formation of the zebra textures and the precipitation of the ore-minerals (mostly Sphalerite and Galena). As the dark and white bands consist nearly completely of dolomite, despite the colour, the only clearly recognisable difference is the grain size. Today there are several theories which try to explain the formation of this kind of structure, for example by dissolution-precipitation (FONTBONTé et al., 1993) or by displacive vein growth (MERINO et al., 2006). Based on these theories and additional analytical findings, we want to develop a numerical model to study the banding and mineralisation. This model should include all processes from dolomitization, to the development of the zebra textures and finally the precipitation of Sphalerite and Galena. Using optical microscope and SEM, we found, that there are also differences in the shapes of the grain boundaries of the fine grained dark (lobate) and coarse grained white bands (polygonal). Furthermore, there is a large number of second-phase particles, namely apatite, iron oxides and organic matter, present in the dark bands. Often these particles are lined up at the grain boundaries. These insights lead to the hypothesis that the grain growth in the dark bands is influenced by obstacles that reduce the growth rate and therefore lead to a bifurcation of this rate in the system. For the modelling the microdynamic simulation software ELLE is used to perform a 2D-simulation at the scale of a thin section. This simulation uses a boundary-model coupled with a lattice-particle-code (BONS et al. 2001). The

  11. Effects of the bioaccumulative polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant congener BDE-47 on growth, development, and reproductive success in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Heidi A; Letcher, Robert J; Williams, Tony D; Elliott, John E

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the polybrominated diphenyl ether congener, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on the growth and development, and subsequent breeding success of exposed zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Using oral dosing procedures and treatments adjusted by weight, we treated newly hatched chicks daily for the first 20-days-post-hatch (dph) with varying treatments of BDE-47 (0, 5, 50, and 500 ng/g bw/day). Weight and tarsal measurements were monitored from hatch to 90 dph, but no differences were observed between treatment groups at any age. Treated females that reached sexual maturity were mated with untreated males; however, again no treatment effects were observed on breeding success. Analysis of tissue samples at 21 dph did indicate that debromination of BDE-47 had occurred resulting in BDE-28 and BDE-17 metabolites.

  12. The Black Cuckoo-Shrike Campephaga flava: A new record for the Mountain Zebra National Park and the Cradock district, Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.W Macdonald

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The avifauna of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP has been recorded over a period of some two decades (Skead 1965, Koedoe 8: 1-40; Penzhorn & Bronkhorst 1976, Koedoe 19: 171-174; Penzhorn 1977, Koedoe 20: 205-207; Grobler & Bronkhorst 1981, Koedoe 24: 199-203. Collett (1982 Southern Birds 9: 1-65 has summarised all the available information on the avifauna of the Cradock district assembled since the turn of the century. Although 203 species are recorded from the MZNP by these authors (and a further four in the roneoed checklist for the park (Anon, updated, National Parks Board of Trustees, roneod, 15 pp no mention is made of the Black Cuckoo-Shrike Campephaga flava. Collett (1982 does not list it for the Cradock district.

  13. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2 being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type.

  14. 剑麻抗斑马纹病鉴定技术研究%Identification technology for agave resistance to zebra disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳龙; 常金梅; 何衍彪; 李国平; 周文钊

    2012-01-01

    To promote a set of identification technology for agave resistance to zebra disease, the most appropriate inoculating conditions of agave zebra disease pathogen were explored, and in vivo inoculation in glasshouses and in vitro in artificial climate chambers were performed with 8 agave germplasms for checking disease resistance. The results were compared with those obtained from open fields. The results showed that needle penetration inoculation, 25 - 30 °C and moisture retention were the most appropriate inoculating conditions. Both inoculating methods could identify the disease resistance and in vivo inoculation was more accurate.%为了促进形成一套剑麻抗斑马纹病的鉴定技术,本研究对剑麻斑马纹病最适宜接种条件进行了探讨,并利用活体叶片接种和离体叶片接种两种方式,以抗性不同的8个剑麻种质为试验材料,在人工气候箱和恒温室中进行剑麻抗斑马纹病接种试验,并与大田抗病性进行比较.结果表明:针刺法接种,25~30℃保湿培养是该病最适宜的发病条件;两种接种方法都能比较准确地鉴定剑麻种质对斑马纹病的抗病性,而活体叶片接种较离体叶片接种鉴定抗病性更加准确.

  15. Organochlorine and trace element contamination in wintering and migrating diving ducks in the southern Great Lakes, USA, since the zebra mussel invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the potential for increased trophic transfer of contaminants by zebra mussels (Dreissena sp.) to higher trophic levels, we collected four species of waterfowl (n = 65 ducks) from four locations in Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Michigan, USA, between 1991 and 1993 for organochlorine contaminant and trace element analyses. Geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were 1.35 and 0.15 I?g/g wet weight in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) carcasses and were below known effect levels. Total PCBs in 80% of carcasses, however, were above the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's threshold of 3.0 I?g/g lipid weight for consumption of poultry. With the exception of selenium, trace elements were also at background or no-effect levels. Selenium concentrations in livers of 95% of lesser scaup, 90% of bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), and 72% of common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) were in the elevated (>10 I?g/g dry wt) or potentially harmful range (>33 I?g/g dry wt). The effects of these high selenium concentrations are unknown but should be investigated further based on reproductive effects observed in field and laboratory studies of dabbling ducks and because lesser scaup populations are declining. Concentrations of total PCBs in dreissenid mussels in western Lake Erie were 10 times higher than in the upper Mississippi River but were similar to concentrations in other industrialized rivers in Europe and the United States. Metal concentrations were similar to other industrialized sites where zebra mussels have been sampled.

  16. Conservação pós-colheita de banana cv. nanicão climatizada e comercializada em Cuiabá - MT e região Postharvest of banana 'nanicão' produced in the states of Mato Grosso and Santa Catarina, marketed in Cuiabá -MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pires Campos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A banana cv. Nanicão é a principal cultivar comercializada nos mercados brasileiro e mundial. A maior parte dessa cultivar comercializada no Estado de Mato Grosso vem de outros Estados, embora existam condições edafoclimáticas para ser auto-suficiente na produção dessa cultivar e inclusive atender a outros mercados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as condições da climatização da banana cv. Nanicão e sua influência na conservação pós-colheita de frutos produzidos no Estado de Mato Grosso (MT e procedentes do Estado de Santa Catarina (SC. Foram acompanhadas 12 caixas de banana cv. Nanicão, pesando em torno de 21 kg cada, colhidas em pomar comercial do município de Campo Verde-MT, e também 12 caixas oriundas de SC. Anteriormente à climatização e durante todo o período de vida útil dos frutos, foram monitoradas diariamente a temperatura e a umidade relativa do ambiente, a evolução da coloração dos frutos e a perda de peso destes, assim como o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e de acidez potenciométrica nos frutos verdes e maduros. Verificou-se o maior período de vida útil da banana de SC, 3 dias após a retirada da câmara de climatização, apresentando-se totalmente amarela e com valor máximo de 7,07% de perda de peso dos frutos. A banana cv. Nanicão produzida no MT atingiu valores de perda de peso 5,69% no 2º dia, quando após esse período, não estaria mais própria para a comercialização, atingindo coloração amarelo-pálida. Altos índices de perdas foram detectados no período pós-colheita da banana-'Nanicão', representados principalmente por danos mecânicos na procedente de SC e por danos fisiológicos (despencamento na banana de MT. O despencamento pode estar relacionado com a falta de circulação eficiente do etileno, da exaustão e umidade relativa baixa, 65% em média, durante a climatização. Nos teores de açúcares e de acidez dos frutos, a banana do MT apresentou valores levemente

  17. Composição nutricional e avaliação de rótulo de rações secas para cães comercializadas em Jaboticabal-SP Nutritional composition and label evaluation of dry dog foods sold in Jaboticabal-SP

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    A.C. Carciofi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 49 marcas de rações para cães adultos e filhotes comercializadas em Jaboticabal-SP. Os alimentos foram divididos em três segmentos: econômico, standard e super-premium. Nessa ordem, as rações para cães adultos apresentaram, em média, 16,9%, 20,9% e 27,8% de proteína, 9,7%, 10,5% e 15% de gordura, 6,4%, 2,9% e 1,1% de fibra e 1,9%, 1,9% e 1,4% de Ca. Para filhotes, os produtos standard e super-premium apresentaram, respectivamente, 26,1% e 31,0% de proteína, 10,8% e 15,2% de gordura, 2,6% e 2,4% de fibra, 2,1% e 1,7% de Ca e 1,6% e 1,3% de P. A porcentagem de rações cujos teores nutricionais declarados no rótulo não estavam de acordo com os encontrados nas análises de laboratório foi, para os produtos super-premium para filhotes, 80,0% para o Ca e 60,0% para a gordura; para os produtos standard para filhotes, 28,6% para proteína e 57,2% para o cálcio; para os produtos econômicos para cães adultos, 44,0% para a fibra e 33,0% para a proteína; para os produtos standard para cães adultos de 33,0% para a gordura e 50,0% para o Ca; e para os produtos super-premium para cães adultos, 50,0% para o cálcio e 33,0% para a gordura. Foram encontradas inadequações nutricionais em produtos, como teores insuficientes de proteína e altas concentrações de fibra, cálcio e fósforo.Fortynine food products for adult or juvenile dogs, commercially available in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for nutrient composition. The products were divided into three categories: low-cost, standard and super-premium. In that order, average compositions for adult foods were 16.9%, 20.9% and 27.8% protein, 9.7%, 10.5% and 15% fat, 6.4%, 2.9% and 1.1% fiber, and 1.9%, 1.9% and 1.4% calcium. For puppy foods, the average compositions of standard and super-premium foods were 26.1% and 31% protein, 10.8% and 15.2% fat, 2.6% and 2.4% fiber, 2.1% and 1.7% Ca, and 1.6% and 1.3% P, respectively. The percentages of products whose

  18. Pró-vitaminas A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa (MG, em três estações do ano Provitamins A in vegetables marked in formal and free market at Viçosa (MG, Brazil, during three seasons of the year

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    Flávia Milagres Campos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Para fornecer dados sobre a influência climática e a forma de comercialização sobre carotenóides de vegetais, este estudo pesquisou o conteúdo de alfa e beta-caroteno e o valor de vitamina A de sete hortaliças (batata-doce, cenoura, moranga, pimentão, quiabo, tomate e vagem, na cidade de Viçosa (MG, utilizando a Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Compararam-se hortaliças comercializadas nos mercados formal (mercados locais e informal (feira livre durante primavera, verão e outono. A cenoura apresentou os teores mais elevados de alfa e beta-caroteno (31,17 e 58,18 µg/g, respectivamente, seguida pela moranga (4,33 e 23,16 µg/g, respectivamente, enquanto a batata-doce apresentou o teor mais reduzido de beta-caroteno (0,51 µg/g. O valor de vitamina A variou conforme o perfil de alfa e beta-caroteno. Com exceção da cenoura e do quiabo, não houve influência significativa do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo de carotenóides. A variação do conteúdo de carotenos nas estações do ano foi inexpressiva, sendo que apenas o pimentão apresentou valores significativamente diferentes. Porções de 100 g das hortaliças analisadas fornecem entre 3 e 78% da recomendação de vitamina A.With the aim of providing data on the influence of climate and form of commercialization on carotenoid of vegetables, this study evaluate the content of alpha and beta carotene and vitamin A value of seven vegetables (sweet potato, carrot, squash, green pepper, okra, tomato and green bean market in Viçosa (MG, Brazil, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. It was compared vegetables commercialized in two local markets and in the free market during spring, summer and autumn. Carrot presented the highest values of alpha and beta-carotene (31.17 e 58.18 µg/g, respectively, followed by squash (4.33 and 23.16 µg/g, respectively, while sweet potato presented the lowest value of beta carotene (0.51 µg/g. The vitamin A values

  19. Estudo da ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas na região metropolitana de São Paulo, SP, Brasil: I - Pesquisa de helmintos Study on the occurrence of intestinal parasites on vegetables commercially traded in the metropolitan area of S.Paulo, SP, Brazil: I - Search for helminths

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    Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Hortaliças in natura, comercializadas na região metropolitana de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, foram analisadas através de metodologia própria, visando à pesquisa e à identificação de formas de transmissão de helmintos intestinais de interesse médico. As hortaliças examinadas, constituídas de 50 amostras de cada variedade, foram de: alface (Lactuca sativa, variedades lisa e crespa, escarola (Chichorium sp e agrião (Nasturtium officinale. Os resultados evidenciaram elevados percentuais de contaminação em todas as variedades analisadas, porém, as freqüências de helmintos foram maiores no agrião. A escarola apresentou valores médios, geralmente situados entre as alfaces e o agrião. Os números médios de ovos e larvas por 100 gramas de amostra, embora elevados, não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as quatro variedades de hortaliças estudadas. Uma grande variedade de helmintos, de ocorrência freqüente na população residente na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, foi observada nas amostras. Os mais freqüentes, no entanto, foram: ancilostomídeos e Ascaris sp. Recuperaram-se também ovos de Toxocara sp, Fasciola sp e de tricostrongilídeos, comprovando a ocorrência de contaminação das hortaliças por fezes de animais domésticos. Considerando-se os resultados obtidos, ressalta-se a importância das hortaliças na transmissão de helmintíases intestinais, bem como a necessidade de medidas que propiciem uma melhoria na qualidade higiênico-sanitária destes alimentos.Vegetables in natura, commercially traded in the metropolitan area of S. Paulo, were analysed by the appropriate methodology with a view to discovering an identifying the paths of transmission of enteroparasites of medical interest. The vegetables under study consisted of 50 samples of each variety listed below: lettuce (Lactuca sativa -oily leaves and crisphead varieties, endive (Chicorium sp and water-cress (Nasturtium Officinale

  20. Estudo da ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas na região metropolitana de São Paulo - SP, Brasil: II - Pesquisa de protozoários intestinais Study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites os vegetables comercially traded in the metropolitan area of S.Paulo, SP - Brazil: II - Research into protozoan cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas hortaliças "in natura", comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, SP-Brasil, visando à pesquisa e à identificação de cistos de protozoários de interesse médico. As hortaliças, constituídas de 50 amostras de cada variedade, consistiram em: alface (Lactuca sativa, variedades lisa e crespa, escarola (Chichorium sp e agrião (Nasturtium officinale. Os resultados evidenciaram elevados percentuais de contaminação em todas as variedades de hortaliças analisadas, porém as freqüências de protozoários foram maiores no agrião. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram os menores percentuais de contaminação, enquanto que a escarola apresentou valores geralmente situados entre o agrião e as alfaces. Observou-se uma grande variedade de protozoários, cujas freqüências de ocorrência na população residente na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo são igualmente elevadas. Os mais freqüentes foram Entamoeba sp (com 4 e 8 núcleos e Giardia sp. Foram também isolados cistos de Iodamoeba sp, Endolimax sp e Chilomastix sp. Os elevados níveis de contaminação fecal encontrados nas amostras analisadas apontam para a importância dos alimentos na transmissão de protozoários intestinais.Vegetables in natura , commercially traded in the metropolitan area of S.Paulo, Brazil, were analised by means of the appropriate methodology with a view to discovering and identifying protozoan cysts of medical interest. The vegetables under study consisted of 50 samples of each of the variaties listed bel ow: lettuce (Lactuca sativa - oily leaves and crisphead varieties, endive (Chicorium sp and water-cress (Nasturtium officinale. Results showed high rates of contamination in all the varieties of vegetable analysed. However, the water-cress was the one which presented the highest frequencies of enteroparasites. Both the oily leafes and crisphead varieties of lettuce presented the lowest rates of contamination, whereas endive

  1. Importancia de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga en la alimentación del lactante: cuantificación de éstos en algunas fórmulas lácteas para bebés de 0 a 6 meses, comercializadas en la ciudad de Medellín, 2012

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    Diana L. Cárdenas S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: comparar el contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (lcpufa reportados en las etiquetas nutricionales de las fórmulas lácteas infantiles, comercializadas en supermercados de la ciudad de Medellín frente a la cantidad determinada experimentalmente. Metodología: se estudiaron trece fórmulas infantiles de iniciación, recolectadas del stand donde se encontraban exhibidas. El procedimiento para la extracción, cuantificación y análisis de los ácidos grasos de las muestras se realizaron según métodos desarrollados por el laboratorio. Resultados: al comparar el contenido de los lcpufa de la etiqueta de cada fórmula láctea con los datos obtenidos experimentalmente, se encontró que los productos contenían menos del 30% de lo reportado, aspecto que no fue atribuible a la fecha de vencimiento pero sí posiblemente a la temperatura de almacenamiento. Discusión: los hallazgos del estudio son preocupantes, porque los profesionales de la salud, recomiendan dichos productos, por su similitud en la composición nutricional con la leche materna esperando que su contenido en lcpufa sea como mínimo, igual o equivalente al de ésta, proporcionando al bebé su adecuado desarrollo. Por lo anterior, es necesario que los expertos en alimentación infantil reglamenten de manera estricta la adición de estos ácidos grasos en alimentos para lactantes. Abstract Objective: to compare the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufas appearing in the nutrition facts labels of infant milk formulas sold in supermarkets of Medellin city against an experimentally determined quantity. Methodology: the researchers studied a total of 13 infant initiation formulas collected from the stands where they were displayed at the supermarkets. The procedure for extracting and quantifying the fatty acids in the samples was performed in compliance with the methods developed in the laboratory. Results: upon comparing the content of the pufas displayed in

  2. Informação nutricional de fórmulas infantis comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo: avaliação dos teores de lipídeos e ácidos graxos Nutrition facts of infant formulas sold in São Paulo state: assessment of fat and fatty acid contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyara Markievicz Mancio Kus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a informação nutricional fornecida pelos fabricantes de fórmulas infantis, comparando-as quanto aos teores obtidos na análise, ao conteúdo de lipídeos, ácidos graxos saturados, ácidos graxos trans, ácido linoleico, ácido alfa-linolênico, ácido araquidônico e ácido docosahexaenoico. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 14 amostras de seis marcas diferentes de fórmulas infantis comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo. A extração e a quantificação dos lipídeos foram realizadas pelo método oficial (Roese Gottlieb, e a quantificação dos ácidos graxos, pela cromatografia em fase gasosa pelo método de adição de padrão interno. As análises foram realizadas em triplicata. RESULTADOS: De acordo com os resultados, todas as amostras estavam em conformidade com a rotulagem para gordura total, uma estava em desacordo para ácidos graxos saturados, seis para ácidos graxos trans, quatro para ácido linoleico, dez para ácido alfa-linolênico, dois para ácido araquidônico e três para o ácido docosahexaenoico. As fórmulas infantis para lactentes de zero a seis meses foram as que revelaram as maiores diferenças em relação à informação nutricional fornecida pelo fabricante. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos apontam a necessidade de um contínuo monitoramento desses produtos por meio de programas de vigilância sanitária, uma vez que a inadequação dos nutrientes da fração lipídica e outros pode afetar de maneira significativa o desenvolvimento infantil.OBJECTIVE: This study determined the contents of fats, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in infant formulas and compared them with the nutrition facts reported on the respective packaging. METHODS: Fourteen samples of six different infant formula brands sold in the state of São Paulo were analyzed. The extraction and quantification of fats were

  3. 毛蚶多肽提取物的体外免疫活性%Immunomodulatory activity of polypeptides extract from Arca subcrenata Lischke(PEAS) in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄演君; 宋丽艳; 于荣敏

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To study the immunomodulatory activity of polypeptides extracts from Arca subcrenata Lischke(PEAS) in normal mice in vitro.Methods The splenic lymphocytes proliferation and the NK killing activity were assessed by MTT method; the phagocytic ability of peritoneal macrophage (PMΦ) was evaluated with neutral red phagocytosis assay; the changes in the cell cycle of lymphocytes were detected with flow cytometry(FCM) and the level of IFN-γ and IL-4 was measured by ELISA methods.Results The results showed that PEAS could significantly promote the proliferation of lymphocytes (P <0.05 or P <0.01 ), and PEAS could also enhance the phagocytic ability of PMΦ and the cytotoxicity of natural killer(NK) cells remarkably(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ).PEAS could facilitate the entry of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to the S phase; PEAS combined with Con A, could increase the level of IFN-γ , while decrease the level of IL-4 ( P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ).Conclusion The results indicated that PEAS could improve the activities of mouse spleen lymphocytes, PMΦ and NK cells.It showed enhancement effect on the immune function of mice in vitro, which may be related to the increase in S phase cells and level of IFN-γ.%目的:考察毛蚶多肽提取物(PEAS)的体外免疫活性.方法:MTT法测定PEAS对小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖的影响及对小鼠NK细胞杀伤活性的影响;中性红吞噬法测定PEAS对小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬功能的影响;流式细胞术测定PEAS所致小鼠脾淋巴细胞周期的变化;双抗体夹心ELISA法测定PEAS对主要细胞因子IFN-γ和IL-4分泌水平的影响.结果:PEAS能够显著促进小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖(P<0.05或0.01),能够增强小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬中性红活性和小鼠NK细胞杀伤活性(P<0.05或0.01);PEAS能够促进脾淋巴细胞G0/G1期向DNA合成期(S期)转化;PEAS协同Con A作用,能够增加IFN-γ的分泌(P<0.05或0.01),并且能够抑制IL-4的分泌(P<0.05或0.01).结论:PEAS体

  4. ARCA: Traffic Classification Method Based on Automatic Reverse and Cluster Analysis%融合自动化逆向和聚类分析的协议识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李城龙; 薛一波; 汪东升

    2012-01-01

    网络流分类与协议识别是网络管理的前提和必要条件,但是越来越多加密协议的出现,使得传统的流分类方法失效.针对加密协议的协议识别问题,提出了一种融合自动化逆向分析技术和网络消息聚类分析技术的新型分类方法(automatic reverse and message analysis,ARCA).该方法通过自动化逆向分析技术获得网络协议的结构特征;再利用网络消息聚类分析技术,获得网络协议的交互过程;最后将网络协议的结构特征与交互过程用于加密协议流量的识别和分类检测.该方法不依赖于网络包的内容检测,能够解决协议加密带来的识别问题.通过对多个加密协议(如迅雷、BT、QQ和GYalk等)真实流量的实验,其准确率和召回率分别高于96.9%和93.1%,而且只需要检测流量中0.9%的字节内容即可.因此,ARCA方法能够对各类加密协议流量进行有效和快速的识别.%Traffic classification and protocol identification are the premise and the essential condition to effective network management. However, more and more encrypted protocols make traditional traffic classification methods less effective. To address the issue, this paper proposes an automatic reverse and message analysis (ARCA) method to identify encryption protocols. Different from traditional classification approaches, the proposed method exploits the protocol structure by automatically and reversely analyzing the target protocol, obtains the protocol interactive process by clustering messages, then identifies the protocol using the protocol structure and interactive process together. This method does not need to check payload, so it can classify the encrypted protocols. The paper evaluates the efficacy and accuracy of ARCA with real world traffic, such as encryption protocols Thunder, BitTorrent, QQ and GTalk. The experimental results show that the accuracy rates and the recall rates are over 96.9% and 93.1% respectively and

  5. SK channels modulate the excitability and firing precision of projection neurons in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium in adult male zebra finches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qiang Hou; Xuan Pan; Cong-Shu Liao; Song-Hua Wang; Dong-Feng Li

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Motor control is encoded by neuronal activity.Small conductance Ca2+-activated Kˉ channels (SK channels) maintain the regularity and precision of firing by contributing to the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) of the action potential in mammals.However,it is not clear how SK channels regulate the output of the vocal motor system in songbirds.The premotor robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) in the zebra finch is responsible for the output of song information.The temporal pattern of spike bursts in RA projection neurons is associated with the timing of the acoustic features of birdsong.[Methods] The firing properties of RA projection neurons were analyzed using patch clamp wholecell and cell-attached recording techniques.[Results] SK channel blockade by apamin decreased the AHP amplitude and increased the evoked firing rate in RA projection neurons.It also caused reductions in the regularity and precision of firing.RA projection neurons displayed regular spontaneous action potentials,while apamin caused irregular spontaneous firing but had no effect on the firing rate.In the absence of synaptic inputs,RA projection neurons still had spontaneous firing,and apamin had an evident effect on the firing rate,but caused no significant change in the firing regularity,compared with apamin application in the presence of synaptic inputs.[Conclusion]SK channels contribute to the maintenance of firing regularity in RA projection neurons whichrequires synaptic activity,and consequently ensures the precision of song encoding.

  6. Uptake and bioaccumulation of platinum group metals (Pd, Pt, Rh) from automobile catalytic converter materials by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Sonja; Messerschmidt, Jürgen; von Bohlen, Alex; Sures, Bernd

    2005-06-01

    The uptake and bioaccumulation of the platinum group metals (PGM) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) were investigated in exposure studies using ground material from unused automobile catalytic converters as metal source. The mussels were exposed to the metals in tap water or humic water. In the soft tissue samples of exposed mussels mean Pt levels ranged in dependence on the type of tank water and the exposure period (6, 9, or 18 weeks) between 780 and 4300 ng/g, the Pd levels ranged between 720 and 6300 ng/g, and the Rh levels ranged between 270 and 1900 ng/g. In contrast, the control mussels had metal concentrations of <20 ng/g (Pt), <50 ng/g (Pd), and <40 ng/g (Rh). Considerably higher PGM levels were found in the exposed mussels of the humic water group than in those of the tap water group. Although there is a cumulative increase of the PGM concentrations in the environment since the introduction of the automobile catalyst more than 20 years ago, only little information about the PGM contamination in the biosphere, especially the fauna, is available. Due to the high capacity of D. polymorpha to accumulate PGM, this bivalve could be used as a potential sentinel for monitoring the noble metals in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:15820726

  7. Activity in a premotor cortical nucleus of zebra finches is locally organized and exhibits auditory selectivity in neurons but not in glia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Graber

    Full Text Available Motor functions are often guided by sensory experience, most convincingly illustrated by complex learned behaviors. Key to sensory guidance in motor areas may be the structural and functional organization of sensory inputs and their evoked responses. We study sensory responses in large populations of neurons and neuron-assistive cells in the songbird motor area HVC, an auditory-vocal brain area involved in sensory learning and in adult song production. HVC spike responses to auditory stimulation display remarkable preference for the bird's own song (BOS compared to other stimuli. Using two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized zebra finches we measure the spatio-temporal structure of baseline activity and of auditory evoked responses in identified populations of HVC cells. We find strong correlations between calcium signal fluctuations in nearby cells of a given type, both in identified neurons and in astroglia. In identified HVC neurons only, auditory stimulation decorrelates ongoing calcium signals, less for BOS than for other sound stimuli. Overall, calcium transients show strong preference for BOS in identified HVC neurons but not in astroglia, showing diversity in local functional organization among identified neuron and astroglia populations.

  8. New Regimes of Implosions of Larger Sized Wire Arrays With and Without Modified Central Plane at 1.5-1.7 MA Zebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Petkov, E. E.; Lorance, M.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2013-10-01

    The recent experiments at 1.5-1.7 MA on Zebra at UNR with larger sized planar wires arrays (compared to the wire loads at 1 MA current) have demonstrated higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions. Such multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-Z material to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and mid-Z plasma flow between them. Also, they included a modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction. The stationary shock waves which existed over tens of ns on shadow images and the early x-ray emissions before the PCD peak on time-gated spectra were observed. The most recent experiments with similar loads but without the central wires demonstrated a very different regime of implosion with asymmetrical jets and no precursor formation. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Development of Sustainable Solutions for Zebra Mussel Control Through Chemical Product Engineering%通过化工产品工程开发可持续的技术来控制斑纹蚌种群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Costa; P.Elliott; P M.Saraiva; D.Aldridge; G D.Moggridge

    2008-01-01

    The zebra mussel is an important aquatic pest that causes great damage to freshwater-dependent industries, due to biofouling. The main goal of the project discussed here is to develop improved solutions to control this species. Three approaches have been explored in an attempt to design innovative application strategies for existing biocides: (i) encapsulation of toxins; (ii) combination of toxins; (iii) investigation of the seasonal variation of the species' tolerance to toxins. In this paper, the principles behind these approaches and the major results on each topic are presented. The benefits of adopting a chemical product engineering approach in conducting this project are also discussed.

  10. Problemas associados ao uso de plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercadão de Madureira, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Problems associated with the use of medicinal plants commercialized in "Mercadão de Madureira", Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bochner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais pela população brasileira é prática tradicional, sendo muitas vezes o único recurso utilizado na atenção básica de saúde. O uso terapêutico dessas plantas envolve várias etapas da cadeia produtiva, sendo a procedência, coleta, secagem, armazenamento, comércio, modo de preparo pelo usuário e uso. O objetivo desse trabalho documental, de caráter exploratório, foi levantar a produção científica existente sobre os problemas associados a cada uma dessas etapas e discutir as questões relacionadas à carência de estudos para comprovar a eficácia farmacológica e a ausência de riscos toxicológicos, bem como a prática de autodiagnóstico. As vinte plantas mais comercializadas em grande mercado do município do Rio de Janeiro em agosto de 2007 serviram de base para o levantamento documental do presente estudo. Dessas, seis apresentaram propriedades tóxicas comprovadas dependendo do preparo e uso, a arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi., arruda (Ruta graveolens L., babosa (Aloe vera L., confrei (Symphytum officinale L. e poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. & DC.. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária aponta contra indicações para boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br., erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp., espinheira-santa (Maytenus spp., picão (Bidens pilosa L., poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. e tanchagem (Plantago major L.. O abajerú, arnica, boldo-do-Chile, confrei, erva-de-bicho e espinheira-santa tiveram relato de problemas de identificação na coleta e comercialização frente a outras morfologicamente semelhantes. Plantas cultivadas e silvestres apresentam variabilidade de princípios ativos influenciados por fatores ambientais e genéticos, como chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br. e erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp.. A contaminação e

  11. In vivo synaptic transmission in the zebra finch high vocal center and robust nucleus of the arcopallium after different stimulus patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suqun Liao; Wenxiao Liu; Peng Xiao; Dongfeng Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electrophysiological studies using brain slices have revealed that the developmental regulation of synaptic plasticity in vocal learning pathway is essential for song learning in zebra finches. Publications reporting in vivo electrophysiological investigation are scarce. Many aspects of neural mechanisms underlying song learning and production still remain uncertain.OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of paired pulses and the effect on synaptic transmission induced by low-frequency stimulations, high-frequency stimulations, and theta-burst stimulations.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A comparative observation. The experiment was conducted from October 2006 to October 2007 in the Neurophysiology Laboratory of South-China Normal University.MATERIALS: Twenty-four adult male zebra finches were supplied by the Department of Animal Experiment of College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University. A SEN-7203 stimulator (NIHON KOHDEN), as well as a DSJ-731WF microelectrode amplifier and DSJ-F amplifier (provided by South-China Normal University), were used to stimulate and record, respectively.METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into low-frequency, high-frequency, and theta-burst frequency stimulation groups. After recording evoked potentials, an input-output curve was evaluated. Subsequently, the efficacy of paired pulses with different stimulus intensity (1/3, 1/2, 2/3, or 3/4 of the value that induced the largest synaptic response), as well as interpulse intervals (50, 75, and 100ms), was measured in each group. The test stimulus intensity was set to a level that evoked 1/2 or 1/3 amplitude of the maximum response.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in amplitude, slope, and area of evoked potentials elicited by different stimulus patterns.RESULTS: (1) Efficacy of paired pulses: there was significant paired-pulse facilitation in the high vocal center and robust nucleus of the arcopallium (HVC-RA) synapse. Efficacy decreased when paired-pulse intervals or stimulus

  12. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the brain of zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata: Organization, interaction with neuropeptide Y, and response to changes in energy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Omprakash; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Uday; Kumar, Vinod; Lechan, Ronald M; Singru, Praful S

    2016-10-15

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has emerged as a potent anorectic agent. CART is widely distributed in the brain of mammals, amphibians, and teleosts, but the relevant information in avian brain is not available. In birds, CART inhibits food intake, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY), a well-known orexigenic peptide, stimulates it. How these neuropeptides interact in the brain to regulate energy balance is not known. We studied the distribution of CART-immunoreactivity in the brain of zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, its interaction with NPY, and their response to dynamic energy states. CART-immunoreactive fibers were found in the subpallium, hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem. Conspicuous CART-immunoreactive cells were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular, supraoptic, dorsomedial, infundibular (IN), lateral hypothalamic, Edinger-Westphal, and parabrachial nuclei. Hypothalamic sections of fed, fasted, and refed animals were immunostained with cFos, NPY, and CART antisera. Fasting dramatically increased cFos- and NPY-immunoreactivity in the IN, followed by rapid reduction by 2 hours and restoration to normal fed levels 6-10 hours after refeeding. CART-immunoreactive fibers in IN showed a significant reduction during fasting and upregulation with refeeding. Within the IN, double immunofluorescence revealed that 94 ± 2.1% of NPY-immunoreactive neurons were contacted by CART-immunoreactive fibers and 96 ± 2.8% NPY-immunoreactive neurons expressed cFos during fasting. Compared to controls, superfused hypothalamic slices of fasted birds treated with CART-peptide showed a significant reduction (P brain of T. guttata may perform several functions, and has a particularly important role in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3014-3041, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018984

  13. Molecular and physiological properties associated with zebra complex disease in potatoes and its relation with Candidatus Liberibacter contents in psyllid vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veria Y Alvarado

    Full Text Available Zebra complex (ZC disease on potatoes is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLs, an α-proteobacterium that resides in the plant phloem and is transmitted by the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc. The name ZC originates from the brown striping in fried chips of infected tubers, but the whole plants also exhibit a variety of morphological features and symptoms for which the physiological or molecular basis are not understood. We determined that compared to healthy plants, stems of ZC-plants accumulate starch and more than three-fold total protein, including gene expression regulatory factors (e.g. cyclophilin and tuber storage proteins (e.g., patatins, indicating that ZC-affected stems are reprogrammed to exhibit tuber-like physiological properties. Furthermore, the total phenolic content in ZC potato stems was elevated two-fold, and amounts of polyphenol oxidase enzyme were also high, both serving to explain the ZC-hallmark rapid brown discoloration of air-exposed damaged tissue. Newly developed quantitative and/or conventional PCR demonstrated that the percentage of psyllids in laboratory colonies containing detectable levels of CLs and its titer could fluctuate over time with effects on colony prolificacy, but presumed reproduction-associated primary endosymbiont levels remained stable. Potato plants exposed in the laboratory to psyllid populations with relatively low-CLs content survived while exposure of plants to high-CLs psyllids rapidly culminated in a lethal collapse. In conclusion, we identified plant physiological biomarkers associated with the presence of ZC and/or CLs in the vegetative potato plant tissue and determined that the titer of CLs in the psyllid population directly affects the rate of disease development in plants.

  14. Zebra chip disease incidence on potato is influenced by timing of potato psyllid infestation,but not by the host plants on which they were reared

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; John Jifon; Xiangbing Yang; Tong-Xian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The Zebra chip (ZC) syndrome is an emerging disease of potato and a major threat to the potato industry.The potato psyllid,Bactericerca cockerelli (Sulc) is believed to be a vector of the ZC pathogen,which is now thought to be Candidatus Liberibacter,a bacterium.To further understand the relationship between potato psyllid infestation and ZC disease expression,healthy potato plants at different growth stages (4,6 and 10 weeks after germination) were exposed separately to potato psyllids that were separately reared on four solanaceons hosts plants (potato,tomato,eggplant or bell pepper) for more than 1 year.ZC symptoms,leaf rates and total nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation in leaves and tubers of healthy and psyllid-infested plants were monitored and recorded.Typical ZC symptoms were observed in leaves and tubers of all plants exposed to potato psyllids regardless of the host plant on which they were reared.This was also accompanied by significant reductions in net photosynthetic rate.Caged potato plants without exposure to potato psyllids (uninfested controls) did not show any ZC symptom in both foliage and in harvested tubers.Foliage damage and ZC expression were most severe in the potato plants that were exposed to potato psyllids 4 weeks after germination compared to plants infested at later growth stages.Tubers from potato psyllid-infested plants had significantly higher levels of reducing sugars (glucose) and lower levels of starch than those in healthy plants,indicating that potato psyllid infestation interfered with carbohydrate metabolism in either leaves or tubers,resulting in ZC expression.

  15. Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Huan, E-mail: huanzhong1982@hotmail.com [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Nanjing University, School of Environment, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Kraemer, Lisa; Evans, Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Mussels exposed to algal/sediment-Cu have different size-related Cu accumulation. • Size-related Cu accumulation in mussels could be more dependant on algal-Cu uptake. • Importance of algal/sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation varies with mussel body size. • Cu sources (algae and sediments) should be considered in “mussel watch” programs. • Cu stable isotope offers many advantages in Cu bioaccumulation studies. -- Abstract: Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope ({sup 65}Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65–91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9–35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5 mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors.

  16. Circulating breeding and pre-breeding prolactin and LH are not associated with clutch size in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Calen P; Dawson, Alistair; Sharp, Peter J; Meddle, Simone L; Williams, Tony D

    2014-06-01

    Clutch size is a fundamental predictor of avian fitness, widely-studied from evolutionary and ecological perspectives, but surprisingly little is known about the physiological mechanisms regulating clutch size variation. The only formal mechanistic hypothesis for avian clutch-size determination predicts an anti-gonadal effect of circulating prolactin (PRL) via the inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH), and has become widely-accepted despite little experimental support. Here we investigated the relationship between pre-breeding and breeding plasma PRL and LH and clutch-size in captive-breeding female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Using a repeated-measures design, we followed individual females from pre-breeding, through multiple breeding attempts, and attempted to decrease PRL using the D2-receptor agonist, bromocriptine. Clutch size was independent of variation in pre-breeding PRL or LH, although pre-breeding LH was negatively correlated with the time between pairing and the onset of laying. Clutch size was independent of variation in plasma PRL on all days of egg-laying. Bromocriptine treatment had no effect on plasma PRL, but in this breeding attempt clutch size was also independent of plasma PRL. Finally, we found no evidence for an inverse relationship between plasma PRL and LH levels, as predicted if PRL had inhibitory effects via LH. Thus, our data fail to provide any support for the involvement of circulating PRL in clutch size determination. These findings suggest that alternative models for hormonal control of avian clutch size need to be considered, perhaps involving downstream regulation of plasma PRL at the level of the ovary, or other hormones that have not been considered to date.

  17. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122 Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benício Paes Chaves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de α-caroteno, β-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações do ano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Devido ao conteúdo inexpressivo de α-caroteno em todas as amostras, foi possível quantificar apenas o β-caroteno. Não se verificou diferença estatisticamente significativa (α = 0,05 no conteúdo de β-caroteno das hortaliças entre os diferentes estabelecimentos, nem entre as estações do ano. As hortaliças mostraram-se excelentes fontes de provitamina A, e se consumidas regularmente, contribuem de forma importante na adequação diária de vitamina A para adultos e crianças. Além disso, esses alimentos são acessíveis à população por apresentarem baixo custo e serem facilmente encontrados.This study aimed to investigate the level of α-carotene, β-carotene and to calculate the value of vitamin A in vegetables sold at local markets and informal markets of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, as well as to evaluate the seasonal and commercial effects on the content of these pigments. The vegetables (basella, green onion, cilantro, sweet basil and parsley were analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, being β-carotene the only pigment present in all the analyzed samples. No significant statistical differences (α = 0.05 were found in the contents of β-carotene of the vegetables either among the different stores, or among the different seasons. The vegetables analyzed are great provitamin A sources and, if eaten on a regular basis, they can fit the daily requirements of vitamin A for adults and children. Besides, these foods are very

  18. Comparison of acute toxicity of process chemicals used in the oil refinery industry, tested with the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis, the flagellate Isochrysis galbana, and the zebra fish, Brachydanio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roseth, S.; Edvardsson, T.; Botten, T.M.; Fuglestad, J.; Fonnum, F.; Stenersen, J. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    Chemicals under the trade names Nalco 537-DA, Nalco 625, Nalco 7607, Nalco 5165, Ivamin, and technical monoethanolamine are used extensively in the oil refinery industry. Aquatic toxicity tests were conducted using zebra fish fry (Brachydanio rerio) and the unicellular algae Isochrysis galbana (a flagellate) and Chaetoceros gracilis (a diatom). Inhibition of cell division, chlorophyll content, and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} uptake in the algae were sensitive end points. The effective concentrations (EC50s) of growth inhibition were 0.1 mg/L (Ivamin; I. galbana), 0.8 mg/L (Nalco 7607; I. galbana), 6 mg/L (Nalco 625; I. galbana), 10 mg/L (Nalco 5165; C. gracilis), and 15 mg/L (Nalco 537-DA; C. gracilis). The lethal concentrations (LC50s) (96 h) toward zebra fish fry was 1 mg/L for Nalco 7607, 6.5 mg/L for Nalco 537-DA, 7.1 mg/L for Nalco 625, and 20 mg/L for Ivamin 803. Monoethanolamine had an LC50 higher than 5,000 mg/L. Nalco 5165 was not tested on fish fry. The heartbeat frequency of fish embryos was reduced by 2.5 mg/L Nalco 537-DA, but this was an insensitive end point for the other chemicals.

  19. Comparison of acute toxicity of process chemicals used in the oil refinery industry, tested with the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis, the flagellate Isochrysis galbana, and the zebra fish, Brachydanio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemicals under the trade names Nalco 537-DA, Nalco 625, Nalco 7607, Nalco 5165, Ivamin, and technical monoethanolamine are used extensively in the oil refinery industry. Aquatic toxicity tests were conducted using zebra fish fry (Brachydanio rerio) and the unicellular algae Isochrysis galbana (a flagellate) and Chaetoceros gracilis (a diatom). Inhibition of cell division, chlorophyll content, and 14CO2 uptake in the algae were sensitive end points. The effective concentrations (EC50s) of growth inhibition were 0.1 mg/L (Ivamin; I. galbana), 0.8 mg/L (Nalco 7607; I. galbana), 6 mg/L (Nalco 625; I. galbana), 10 mg/L (Nalco 5165; C. gracilis), and 15 mg/L (Nalco 537-DA; C. gracilis). The lethal concentrations (LC50s) (96 h) toward zebra fish fry was 1 mg/L for Nalco 7607, 6.5 mg/L for Nalco 537-DA, 7.1 mg/L for Nalco 625, and 20 mg/L for Ivamin 803. Monoethanolamine had an LC50 higher than 5,000 mg/L. Nalco 5165 was not tested on fish fry. The heartbeat frequency of fish embryos was reduced by 2.5 mg/L Nalco 537-DA, but this was an insensitive end point for the other chemicals

  20. Applicational progress of zebra fish in the aquatic ecotoxicology researches%斑马鱼在水生生态毒理学研究中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秀明; 梁荣朝; 王珊珊; 宋冬雪

    2013-01-01

    As a new model animal,zebra fish,because of its excellent biological characteristics and highly similar genome to the human,it plays an important role in the researches of aquatic ecological toxicology recent years.This review summarized the application of the zebra fish in the general toxicology experiments,evaluation the toxicity of environmental pollutants including of nanoparticles and environmental hormones and effects of these pollutants on the aquatic organisms.Finally,the prospect in this research field was discussed.%  由于斑马鱼优异的生物学特点,其基因组与人类基因组的相似度高,斑马鱼越来越多的用于生态毒理学研究中。对斑马鱼在常规的毒理学实验,评价纳米粒子、环境激素等环境污染物对水生生物影响等方面的应用进行了综述,并展望了斑马鱼在未来生态毒理学领域发挥的作用。

  1. QSAR Study of Acute Toxicity of Substituted Benzene Compounds to Zebra Fish%取代苯类化合物对斑马鱼急性毒性的QSAR研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 范雪兰; 王志平; 李捍东

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)method,the internal effects between 26 substituted benzene compounds and zebra fish 48 h acute toxicity (-lgLC50) were quantitatively studied.By using AMI quantum chemistry calculation method,first the correlation between 8 typical quantum chemistry parameters with zebra fish 48 h-lgLC50 were calculated,then through the stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) method,a QSAR model was established depicting the relationship between substituted benzene compounds and 48 h-lgLC50 on zebra fish,which were tested by internal and external validations,with the obtained multiple correlation coefficient 0.942.Finally using QSAR model to study the influence of substituted benzene compounds quantum chemistry parameters on zebra fish 48 h-lgLC50,and results indicated that the strongest correlation parameter with-lgLC50 is n-octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP),and the electronegativity is negatively correlated with-lgLC50.The obtained QSAR model showed good robustness and high predictive ability,which can be used to predict acute toxicity of substituted benzene compounds on zebra fish.%该文基于定量-构效关系(QSAR)原理,研究了26种取代苯类化合物与斑马鱼的48h急性毒性(-lgLC50)之间的内在定量关系.利用AM1量子化学计算方法,首先计算了8种典型量子化学参数与斑马鱼48 h-lgLC50的相关性;然后通过逐步多元线性回归(MLR)方法建立了取代苯类化合物对斑马鱼48h-lgLC50的QSAR模型,并对所建模型分别进行了内部验证和外部验证,所得复相关系数R2=0.942;最后利用QSAR模型,分析了取代苯类化合物量子化学参数对斑马鱼48 h-lgLC50的影响.结果表明:正辛醇-水分配系数(LogP)与-lgLC50的相关性最大,负电性[-(L+H)/2]与-lgLC50负相关.所得QSAR模型具有较高的稳定性及预测能力,可以用来预测取代苯类化合物对斑马鱼的急性毒性.

  2. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the songbird hippocampus: regional and sex differences in adult zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Nicolette; Ferris, Jennifer K; Arckens, Lutgarde; Bentley, George E; Soma, Kiran K

    2013-08-01

    Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) are vital to reproduction in all vertebrates. These neuropeptides are also present outside of the hypothalamus, but the roles of extra-hypothalamic GnRH and GnIH remain enigmatic and widely underappreciated. We used immunohistochemistry and PCR to examine whether multiple forms of GnRH (chicken GnRH-I (GnRH1), chicken GnRH-II (GnRH2) and lamprey GnRH-III (GnRH4)) and GnIH are present in the hippocampus (Hp) of adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Using immunohistochemistry, we provide evidence that GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH4 are present in hippocampal cell bodies and/or fibers and that GnIH is present in hippocampal fibers only. There are regional differences in hippocampal GnRH immunoreactivity, and these vary across the different forms of GnRH. There are also sex differences in hippocampal GnRH immunoreactivity, with generally more GnRH1 and GnRH2 in the female Hp. In addition, we used PCR to examine the presence of GnRH1 mRNA and GnIH mRNA in micropunches of Hp. PCR and subsequent product sequencing demonstrated the presence of GnRH1 mRNA and the absence of GnIH mRNA in the Hp, consistent with the pattern of immunohistochemical results. To our knowledge, this is the first study in any species to systematically examine multiple forms of GnRH in the Hp or to quantify sex or regional differences in hippocampal GnRH. Moreover, this is the first demonstration of GnIH in the avian Hp. These data shed light on an important issue: the sites of action and possible functions of GnRH and GnIH outside of the HPG axis. PMID:23727031

  3. Entre o sentido da colonização e o arcaísmo como projeto: a superação de um dilema através do conceito de capital escravista-mercantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo A. de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discute-se a proposta de Pires e Costa (1995, 2000 segundo a qual a economia brasileira no período escravista teria estado sujeita a uma forma específica do capital: o capital escravista-mercantil. Ela permite a superação da dicotomia entre o modelo interpretativo do Sentido da Colonização, proposto originalmente por Caio Prado Júnior, e o modelo do Arcaísmo como Projeto, proposto por Fragoso e Florentino (2001. O primeiro, por retratar a sociedade colonial como uma projeção imediata da expansão comercial européia, tem enfrentado dificuldades em acomodar as recentes evidências empíricas de que a economia colonial podia apresentar uma relativa autonomia, realizando acumulação endógena. O segundo, ao tentar de forma explícita acomodar essas evidências, acaba recusando a existência de um sentido da colonização tal como originalmente formulado. Para explicitar como o modelo do capital escravista-mercantil supera esse dilema, apresentamos uma analogia com o desenvolvimento da teoria do valor de Marx em O Capital.This paper discusses Pires and Costa's (1995, 2000 claim that the Brazilian economy during the slavery period functioned under the direction of a specific form of capital, called mercantile slavery capital. Their proposal allows us to overcome a dichotomy between the traditional interpretive model of the Meaning of Colonization, originally proposed by Caio Prado Júnior in the 1940's, and the new model of Archaism as a Project, proposed by Fragoso and Florentino (2001. The former, by depicting the Brazilian colonial society as an immediate result of the European commercial expansion, has had difficulties in explaining recent empirical evidence that the colonial economy was relatively autonomous, being able to carry out endogenous capital accumulation. The latter, however, in trying to explicitly accommodate this evidence turns out to reject the original formulation of the Meaning of Colonization as a

  4. The zebras come to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    From 23 to 26 November CERN played host to an unusual group of visitors, who arrived in a red-and-white striped camper. On the tenth anniversary of "Les Zèbres”, a children’s broadcast on Swiss radio, the show’s makers invited 8th and 9th grade pupils from Swiss schools to conduct a live broadcast from CERN.   Students in the cryogenic hall: cryolab. Popular Franco-Swiss host Jean-Marc Richard brought Les Zèbres to the Laboratory with a live broadcast. The idea was to let the children themselves host the broadcast. Accompanied by their physics teachers, pupils from junior secondary schools in Golette, Colombières and Drize were given the opportunity to spend half a day at CERN. Each day, one class came to find out about a particular aspect of the Laboratory and then conduct a live broadcast with Jean-Marc Richard from 12:10 to 12:30. The young people, aged 13 to 15, had a chance to explore the Universe of Particles exhibitio...

  5. 螺虫乙酯对斑马鱼的急性毒性及细胞凋亡的影响%Effects of Spirotetramat on Acute Toxicity and Apoptosis of Zebra fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; 赖柯华; 冯青; 范咏梅; 章程辉

    2015-01-01

    螺虫乙酯作为一种结构新颖、作用机制独特和广谱高效的季酮酸类衍生物杀虫杀螨剂,在农业生产中普遍应用,随着用量的增加,对水生生物会造成一定的影响。采用经济合作与发展组织(OECD)方法在预试验基础上设螺虫乙酯2.5、2.97、3.54、4.20、5.00 mg/L 5个浓度梯度,研究其对斑马鱼的急性毒性,采用酚-氯仿萃取的方法提取DNA,并进行了优化,用DNA Ladder方法观察其细胞凋亡现象,用Giemsa染色观察其外周血细胞微核率,初步探索其致毒机制。结果表明,螺虫乙酯对斑马鱼72 h的LC50值为5.898 mg/L、96 h的LC50值为3.642 mg/L,属中等毒性;各浓度梯度螺虫乙酯药剂处理后的斑马鱼DNA出现梯状条带,螺虫乙酯染毒后对斑马鱼造成一定程度上的细胞凋亡现象;处理组微核率为(7.250±1.893)~(5.500±0.577),与对照组和溶剂组差异均达显著水平。%Spirotetramat is a insecticide matricide which has a novel structure and unique mechanism of action and also has broad spectrum keto derivatives. It is widely used in agricultural production which may cause some affected on aquatic organisms with the increasing amount of spirotetramat.We adopted the method of OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) and set 5 concentrationgradients of spirotetramat like 2.5,2.97,3.54,4.20,5.00 mg/L to study its acute toxicity on zebra fishes. To preliminarily explore its toxic mechanism, we used phenol-chloroform extraction method to extract DNA which had been optimized, observed the phenomenon of apoptosis by DNA Ladder method and used Giemsa staining micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood cells. Spirotetramated zebra fish 72 h LC50 value is 5.898 mg/L and 96 h LC50 value is 3.642 mg/L. The results show that Spirotetramat is moderately toxic and occured apoptosis phenomenon to some extent on the zebra fish. After each zebrafish DNA concentration gradient Spirotetramat pharmaceutical

  6. Avaliação parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em feiras livres e supermercados do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514 Occurence of parasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercializaed in the street markets and supermarkets of Campo Mourão, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Simonelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou e comparou a contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em supermercados e feiras livres do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná. Foram analisadas 150 amostras de alfaces, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann, sendo 75 amostras provenientes de supermercados e 75 amostras de feiras livres. O sedimento foi analisado em microscópio óptico. Das amostras analisadas, 56% (42/75 e 58,7% (44/75 apresentaram contaminação por parasitas, dos supermercados e feiras livres, respectivamente. Os principais parasitas encontrados em supermercados foram: Ascaris spp 54,7%, Toxocara spp 2,4%, Strongyloides spp 4,8%, Entamoeba spp 35,7% e Taenia spp 2,4%; e em feiras livres foram: Ascaris spp 13,6%, Strongyloides spp 11,4%, Entamoeba spp 47,7%, Ancylostoma spp 9,1%, /em>Taenia spp 2,3%, Fasciola hepatica 6,8% e Trichuris spp 9,1%. Esses resultados indicam que as amostras de alfaces estão em desacordo com a legislação vigente e salientam a necessidade de aplicação de um programa de educação sanitária direcionado a horticultores e manipuladores de hortaliçasThis work researched and compared the contamination by enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in the supermarkets and street markets of Campo Mourão, State of Paraná. 150 samples of lettuce were analyzed through sedimentation method (Hoffmam, being 75 samples from supermarkets and 75 from street markets. The sediment was analyzed in optic microscope. The supermarkets samples showed contamination by parasites of 56% (42/75; while contamination of street markets samples showed 58.7% (44/75. The principal parasites observed in supermarkets samples were: Ascaris spp 54.7%, Toxocara spp 2.4%, Strongyloides spp 4.8%, Entamoeba spp 35.7% and Taenia spp 2.4%. Important parasites observed in street markets were: Ascaris spp 13.6%, Strongyloides spp 11.4%, Entamoeba spp 47.7%, Ancylostoma spp 9.1%, Taenia

  7. La cola de caballo (Equisetum, Equisetaceae) comercializada y exportada del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca León

    2013-01-01

    Varios productos derivados de plantas se exportan del Perú como suplementos nutricionales, condimentos y otros usos, entre estos últimos tipos se encuentra el helecho “cola de caballo”. Tres nombres se emplean en el comercio: Equisetum arvense, E. bogotensey “E. hiemale”, los cuales no corresponden a las plantas exportadas, las que en cambio son E. giganteum, una especie reconocible por detalles morfológicos en sus ejes, ornamentación y distribución de sus estomas.

  8. La cola de caballo (Equisetum, Equisetaceae comercializada y exportada del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Varios productos derivados de plantas se exportan del Perú como suplementos nutricionales, condimentos y otros usos, entre estos últimos tipos se encuentra el helecho “cola de caballo”. Tres nombres se emplean en el comercio: Equisetum arvense, E. bogotensey “E. hiemale”, los cuales no corresponden a las plantas exportadas, las que en cambio son E. giganteum, una especie reconocible por detalles morfológicos en sus ejes, ornamentación y distribución de sus estomas.

  9. Metabolic ageing in individual zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moe, Borge; Ronning, Bernt; Verhulst, Simon; Bech, Claus; Moe, Børge; Rønning, Bernt

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is suggested as a contributor to the ageing process. Knowledge of the relationship between age and energy expenditure may contribute to our understanding of ageing patterns, due to the link between oxygen consumption and free radical production. However, studies on basal metabolic r

  10. 预置斑马导丝在输尿管镜处理输尿管上段病变中的作用(附1500例体会)%Presetting zebra guidewire for ureteral upper segments diseases in ureteroscopic operations(1 500 cases reported)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟桂; 郑奇传; 储旭; 蒋堃

    2013-01-01

    目的 总结输尿管硬镜处理输尿管上段病变的经验及输尿管常见损伤因素,并探讨预置斑马导丝的价值及意义.方法 统计1994-2012年期间经尿道输尿管硬镜手术共3 000余例,其中输尿管上段病变1 500例,均为术前已确诊的单侧输尿管上段结石或结石伴狭窄患者.其中男979例(65.27%),女521例(34.73%),平均年龄40.5(18~67)岁.结石平均长径约1.19(0.6~3.5)cm;单发结石1119例(74.60%),多发结石381例(25.40%).行气压弹道碎石652例(43.47%),钬激光碎石536例(35.73%),超声EMS清石312例(20.80%).所有病例随机分为两组,A组(912例,60.80%)在碎石前先预置斑马导丝越过狭窄和结石旁间隙达肾盂内,将斑马导丝妥善固定于会阴部,再继续完成狭窄扩张和碎石操作.B组(588例,39.20%)不预置斑马导丝直接碎石并完成所有操作.结果 A组一次性手术成功率和平均手术操作时间明显优于B组(P<0.05),分别为873例(95.72%)和31.33(15~65)min,521例(88.61%)和46.15(18~115)min.两组发生输尿管各类损伤共63例(4.20%),文章对预置斑马导丝的8个优点及有效预防输尿管损伤的9个高危因素分别作了阐述.结论 预置斑马导丝法可提高输尿管镜处理输尿管上段结石伴狭窄的手术成功率,减少输尿管损伤及二期后续治疗机率,是安全可行且有效的方法.%Objective To summarize some experiences of ureteroscopic treatments of the upper ureteral lesions and common factors of ureter injury,and to study the value of presetting zebra guidewire. Methods Since 1994 ,1 500 patients of upper ureteral calculi or stones with stenosis had undergone transurethral ureteroscopic surgeries,including 979 male patients(65. 27% ) ,521 female cases(34. 73% ) ,with an average of about 40.5 (18 ~ 67) years old. The average length of calculi was about 1. 19(0. 6 ~3.5)cm. 1119 cases(74. 60% ) had a single stone, while 381 cases (25. 40% ) had several stones. 652 cases (43. 47% ) had been

  11. 姜黄素类似物EF24对HepG2及斑马鱼胚胎发育的影响%The impact of curcumin analogs EF24 on HepG2 and the development of zebra fish embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昌志; 汪宇; 袁媛; 黄蓓

    2011-01-01

    To explore the impact of curcumin analogs EF24 on HHC (hepatoma carcinoma cell)and the toxicity on vertebrate, we use EF24 to deal with HepG2 and zebra fish embryo. We found that EF24 shows fine depression effect to zebra fish embryo in lower concentration, and its IC50 is 29.38umol/L. It is the best sensitive time when fertilized ovum has developed at 6 hours. EF24 is still safe to embryos in the concentration of less than 100mg/L, while it can lead to malformation and death in high concentration for more than 400 mg/L, such as yolk diffusion, embryo death in epiboly stage, animal pole diffusion, backbone bending and hypoplasia. We conclude that FE24 is a potential drug owning good inhibition effect on tumor cells and lower toxicity.%为探讨姜黄素类似物EF24对肝癌细胞的影响以及对脊椎动物的毒性,以EF24对HepG2和斑马鱼胚胎进行处理,发现低浓度的EF24对HepG2达到较好的杀伤效果,IC50为29.38 umol/L.对斑马鱼胚胎当受精卵发育6 h为敏感期,EF24的安全浓度达100 mg/L.而从400 mg/L高浓度开始出现畸形和死亡,如卵黄弥散、胚胎在外包期死亡、囊胚期胚胎动物极弥散、脊柱弯曲、发育不全等现象.EF24是一种对肝癌细胞有较强的杀伤效果且安全的潜在药物.

  12. 速激肽1型受体(NK1 R)在斑胸草雀脑干鸣唱控制相关核团及部分听觉核团内的分布%DISTRIBUTION OF NEURONKININ-1 RECEPTOR (NK1 R) IN VOCAL CONTROL RELATED NUCLEUS AND SOME AUDITORY NUCLEUS IN THE BRAINSTEM OF MALE ZEBRA FINCHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽; 徐程; 张信文; 孙颖郁

    2014-01-01

    采用免疫组织化学的方法研究了速激肽1型受体(NK1R)在斑胸草雀脑干发声控制核团和部分听觉中枢内的分布及阳性标记特征。结果显示,NK1R广泛分布于斑胸草雀发声控制核团和部分听觉中枢内;1)发声控制相关核团:中脑丘间复合体背内侧核(DM)有大量的 NK1R免疫阳性胞体标记,极少出现纤维;中脑腹侧被盖区(VTA)、黑质致密部(SNc)及周围脑区有大量的 NK1R阳性胞体和 NK1R免疫阳性纤维分布;2)听觉中枢:中脑背外侧核(MLd)和耳蜗核前庭外侧核(NM)有密集的胞体标记;而耳蜗核层状核(NL)及角核(NA)有少量 NK1R 阳性胞体分散分布,且角核可见大量密集深染纤维。本实验结果提示 NK1R可能在鸣禽的发声控制及听觉中枢内具有重要的生理功能。%Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R)distribution in vocal control-related nucleus and auditory nucleus in the brain stem of adult male zebra finch.It was found that NK1R was distributed widely in vocal control-related nucleus and in auditory pathway in the brain stem of adult male zebra finch.Abundant NK1R immunopositive soma but few fibers were identified in vocal control nuclei DM (dorsomedial nucleus of intercollicular complex).Numerous NK1R-positive soma and fibers were found in vocal control nuclei VTA (ventral tegmental area)and SNc (substantia nigra compacta)as well as encephalic regions around them in midbrain.Intensive NK1R-positive soma were found in auditory center nucleus MLd (mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis)and cochlear nucleus NM (nucleus magnocellularis).A few labeled soma were dispersed in cochlear nucleus NL (nucleus laminaris)and in NA (nucleus angularis),abundant strongly labeled fibers were found in NA.These data suggest that NK1R plays an important physiological role in vocal production and auditory perception.

  13. Study of the biological effects of uranium exposure on zebra fish (D. rerio). Impact on life stages; Etude des effets biologiques de l'exposition a l'uranium chez le poisson zebre (D. rerio). Impact sur les stades de vie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrachot, St.

    2009-05-15

    This work is part of an ongoing project (ENVIRHOM) started at IRSN in 2000, which consists in studying the environmental effects of radioactive substances at chronic low level of exposure. In this general frame, our aim was two fold: (i) to identify sensitivity of different critical life stages of zebra fish (fish of fresh water frequently used for tests standards in ecotoxicology) to uranium exposure and (ii) to evaluate underlying mechanisms. Experiments were conducted with eggs, larvae and genitors exposed to uranium at environmentally relevant concentrations (from 20 to 500 {mu}g/L) in order to study survival, hatching of eggs, growth of larvae and reproduction of genitors. Bio-markers of exposure (i.e. U bioaccumulation) and bio-markers of effects at molecular level (i.e. genotoxic effects, reproductive-toxicity) were also measured. Sensitivity of fish to uranium was dependent of the life stage of development with the early life stage being the most sensitive to U either directly or maternally exposed. It underlines the relevance of including pro-larval stages for toxicity assessments in fish. Moreover drastic effects of uranium on reproductive success and DNA damages in the germ cells foretell a strong impact on the population for low concentration of exposure (20 {mu}g/L). As it is increasingly recognized that population-level effects of toxic substances are more relevant in terms of ecological risk assessment, this study points out the need to include different life stages of organisms in eco-toxicological studies, especially the sensitive early stages. Moreover, it appears, through the comparative study of the radiological effects or by another isotope of the uranium of stronger radioactivity ({sup 233}U or by an irradiation with {sup 137}Cs), that the effects of the uranium are due to its chemo-toxicity. (author)

  14. Estudio del contenido de mercurio en zamburiña y almeja comercializadas en España

    OpenAIRE

    M. García; García, M.A.; J. Alonso; M.J. Melgar

    2005-01-01

    Los moluscos, debido a su capacidad filtrante, pueden acumular metales llegando a contaminar los alimentos y como consecuencia pueden tener una repercusión negativa sobre la salud de los consumidores. Entre estos metales se encuentra el mercurio, considerado como no esencial por su elevada toxicidad a concentraciones bajas y por su carácter acumulativo. En este estudio se ha determinado el contenido de mercurio en muestras en conserva de zamburiña (Chlamys varia) y almeja (M...

  15. Residuos de insecticidas organoclorados presentes en leche cruda comercializada en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Pongutá Basilio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En el estudio se determinaron residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche cruda proveniente de hatos lecheros del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Durante el procedimiento de extracción se utilizó una columna de tierra de diatomeas y como sistema eluyente una mezcla de n-hexano-acetona- acetato de etilo (4:2:1, seguida de metanol al 5% en hexano. Para la determinación se usó un cromató- grafo de gases Perkin Elmer, Autosystem XL con detector captura de electrones, en modo de inyección

    'splitless', una columna capilar Rtx-5 30 m, 0.25 mm di y 0.25 μm de espesor de película. El porcen- taje de recuperación para los plaguicidas determinados se encontró entre 88.5 y 96%, los lImites de detección se definieron entre 0.01 y 0.04 ng/g con desviaciones estãndar & 6%. En las 6+ muestras analizadas se determinaron p,p´-DDT, a-HCH, ö-HCH, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín, heptacloro, heptacloro epóxido y y-clordano, esta7leciendo concentraciones entre 2;.1 y 469.6 ng/g. Palabras clave: Leche de vaca, persistencia de los plaguicidas, plaguicidas organoclorados, residuos

  16. Residuos de insecticidas organoclorados presentes en leche cruda comercializada en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se determinaron residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche cruda proveniente de hatos lecheros del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Durante el procedimiento de extracción se utilizó una columna de tierra de diatomeas y como sistema eluyente una mezcla de n-hexano-acetonaacetato de etilo (4:2:1, seguida de metanol al 5% en hexano. Para la determinación se usó un cromatógrafo de gases Perkin Elmer, Autosystem XL con detector captura de electrones, en modo de inyección ‘splitless', una columna capilar Rtx-5 30 m, 0.25 mm di y 0.25 µm de espesor de película. El porcentaje de recuperación para los plaguicidas determinados se encontró entre 88.5 y 96%, los límites de detección se definieron entre 0.01 y 0.04 ng/g con desviaciones estándar < 6%. En las 63 muestras analizadas se determinaron p,p´-DDT, a-HCH, d-HCH, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín, heptacloro, heptacloro epóxido y g-clordano, estableciendo concentraciones entre 27.1 y 469.6 ng/g. Las frecuencias de aparición oscilaron entre 1.6 y 65.1% para heptacloro y p,p´-DDT, respectivamente. La población adulta mayor que habita en las subregiones Sinú Medio, San Jorge y Sabanas se encuentra expuesta a riesgo alto en la salud, asociado con la concentración de a-HCH, aldrín y dieldrín en leche cruda.

  17. PESQUISA DE CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. EM CARNES DE FRANGO COMERCIALIZADAS NA CIDADE DE CAMPO MOURÃO-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Oliveira GONÇALVES

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose causa um grande impacto na saúde pública em todo o mundo, sendo em muitos pa- íses a causa mais frequente de gastroenterite em humanos causada por alimentos. A principal fonte de Campylobacter são as aves, dessa forma, pode haver infecção pelo consumo de carne crua, mal cozida, contaminação cruzada no preparo dos alimentos ou por outros alimentos, como água e leite. O despreparo de muitos manipuladores de alimentos em relação a cuidados higiênicos é um dos fatores que favorece a contaminação dos alimentos, afetando principalmente ambientes como restaurantes, hospitais e indústrias de alimentos. Como o congelamento e a refrigeração têm o papel de conservar a carne em bom estado para o consumo, à detecção de bactérias viáveis nesta etapa é muito importante. Diante do exposto acima, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de Campylobacter spp. em frangos refrigerados comercializados na cidade de Campo Mourão-PR por meio do teste imunoenzimático pelo método ELFA (Enzime Linked Fluorescent Assay com o sistema automatizado VIDAS® campy. Dessa maneira, foi possível detectar uma contaminação de 79,16% em 24 frangos, confirmando a grande incidência de Campylobacter em carnes de aves destinadas ao consumo humano.

  18. LEVANTAMENTO DAS PLANTAS MEDICINAIS CULTIVADAS E COMERCIALIZADAS POR HORTICULTORES NO MUNICÍPIO DE ITUVERAVA-SP

    OpenAIRE

    GALDIANO, Lívia Cordaro; CHICONE, Adriano César Vieira; NUNES, Luiz Gustavo; FREITAS, Maristela de Paula Nunes; IAMAGUTI, Priscila Sawasaki

    2007-01-01

    On the survey of the use and the trade of medicinal plants is necessary in first place differentiatemany category of the yield. Some plants are traded such as, usually in dryness full kind or pulverized, others comelike extracts, others like distils oils or express and finally many of them are traded on the one chemical componentdefined kind. Then, the present work, has like achievement to rise all the varieties of medicinal plants cultivatedand traded by market gardeners of the municipal dis...

  19. FRUTAS COMERCIALIZADAS EM FEIRA LIVRE APRESENTAM MAIOR TEOR DE ȕ-CAROTENO E VALOR DE VITAMINA A

    OpenAIRE

    Nádia Maria Lopes AMORIM; Leandro de Morais CARDOSO; Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    2012-01-01

    Em países em desenvolvimento, como o Brasil, a maior parte da vitamina A da dieta é proveniente de carotenoides pró-vitamínicos A como Į-caroteno e, principalmente, ȕ-caroteno presentes em frutas e hortaliças. O conteúdo de carotenoides nas frutas pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, entre eles o local de comercialização. Assim, foram investigados a ocorrência e o conteúdo de Į- e ȕ-caroteno em cinco frutas (goiaba Paluma, kiwi, mamão Formosa, manga Haden e maracujá ...

  20. Autonomous Reconfigurable Control Allocation (ARCA) for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, A. S.; Callahan, Ronnie; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The role of control allocation (CA) in modern aerospace vehicles is to compute a command vector delta(sub c) is a member of IR(sup n(sub a)) that corresponding to commanded or desired body-frame torques (moments) tou(sub c) = [L M N](sup T) to the vehicle, compensating for and/or responding to inaccuracies in off-line nominal control allocation calculations, actuator failures and/or degradations (reduced effectiveness), or actuator limitations (rate/position saturation). The command vector delta(sub c) may govern the behavior of, e.g., acrosurfaces, reaction thrusters, engine gimbals and/or thrust vectoring. Typically, the individual moments generated in response to each of the n(sub a) commands does not lie strictly in the roll, pitch, or yaw axes, and so a common practice is to group or gang actuators so that a one-to-one mapping from torque commands tau(sub c) actuator commands delta(sub c) may be achieved in an off-line computed CA function.

  1. ARCA DWARAPALA PADA CANDI-CANDI BUDDHA DI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyu Sarjanawati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Temple as a product of the culture of Hindu-Buddhist period is the building that describes the concept of cosmogony and a replica of Mount Mahameru the place of the gods. Dwarapala statue is one of the guards in almost Javanese temple. The existence of this statue in the temple (depiction microcosm has a meaning. Problems which will be solved, namely: (1 where the statue Dwarapala placed in the temple Plaosan and the temple Sewu (2 how is the depiction of Dwarapala statues in the temple Palosan and the temple Sewu? Gana figure that became the object of the study were analyzed with hermeneutical analysis. Hermeneutical analysis of the statue Dwarapala can only be done if the information about these statues is known. From the results of research and discussion can be seen that the meaning of the statue at Buddhist temple Dwarapala not be separated from the concept of cosmogony. Portrayal system was adapted to the function of these statues at the temple. So it can be said that the statues have meaning that Dwarapala is a portrayal of religious situation in the Hindu-Buddhist and the symbol of the world above (heaven. The placement of temple statues Dwarapala complement cosmogony concept representations, thus building meaning of worship into a whole. Keywords:  Dwarapala, temple, hermeneutic   Candi sebagai produk dari budaya masa Hindu-Buddha adalah bangunan yang menggambarkan konsep kosmogoni dan replika Gunung Mahameru tempat para dewa. Patung Dwarapala adalah salah satu penjaga di kuil hampir Jawa. Keberadaan patung ini di candi (mikrokosmos penggambaran memiliki arti. Masalah yang akan dipecahkan, yaitu: (1 bagaimana patung Dwarapala ditempatkan di candi Plaosan dan candi Sewu (2 bagaimana penggambaran patung Dwarapala di candi Palosan dan candi Sewu? Gana sosok yang menjadi objek penelitian dianalisis dengan analisis hermeneutis. Analisis hermeneutis patung Dwarapala hanya dapat dilakukan jika informasi tentang patung-patung ini dikenal. Dari hasil penelitian dan pembahasan dapat dilihat bahwa arti dari patung pada candi Budha Dwarapala tidak lepas dari konsep kosmogoni. Penggambaran sistem adalah disesuaikan dengan fungsi dari patung-patung di candi. Jadi dapat dikatakan bahwa patung-patung memiliki makna bahwa Dwarapala adalah gambaran situasi agama di Hindu-Buddha dan simbol dunia atas (surga. Penempatan patung Dwarapala candi melengkapi representasi konsep kosmogoni, demikian membangun makna ibadah menjadi keseluruhan.   Kata kunci: Dwarapala, candi, hermeneutik  

  2. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  3. The Leopard Tortoise in the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H Grobler

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 69 leopard tortoises Geochelone pardalis babcocki (Loveridge 1935 were captured, marked, sexed, weighed and released. The results of this exercise together with other field data are presented and discussed.

  4. The Leopard Tortoise in the Mountain Zebra National Park

    OpenAIRE

    J.H Grobler

    1982-01-01

    A total of 69 leopard tortoises Geochelone pardalis babcocki (Loveridge 1935) were captured, marked, sexed, weighed and released. The results of this exercise together with other field data are presented and discussed.

  5. Long-distance retinoid signaling in the zebra finch brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina C Roeske

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, the main active metabolite of vitamin A, is a powerful signaling molecule that regulates large-scale morphogenetic processes during vertebrate embryonic development, but is also involved post-natally in regulating neural plasticity and cognition. In songbirds, it plays an important role in the maturation of learned song. The distribution of the ATRA-synthesizing enzyme, zRalDH, and of ATRA receptors (RARs have been described, but information on the distribution of other components of the retinoid signaling pathway is still lacking. To address this gap, we have determined the expression patterns of two obligatory RAR co-receptors, the retinoid X receptors (RXR α and γ, and of the three ATRA-degrading cytochromes CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1. We have also studied the distribution of zRalDH protein using immunohistochemistry, and generated a refined map of ATRA localization, using a modified reporter cell assay to examine entire brain sections. Our results show that (1 ATRA is more broadly distributed in the brain than previously predicted by the spatially restricted distribution of zRalDH transcripts. This could be due to long-range transport of zRalDH enzyme between different nuclei of the song system: Experimental lesions of putative zRalDH peptide source regions diminish ATRA-induced transcription in target regions. (2 Four telencephalic song nuclei express different and specific subsets of retinoid-related receptors and could be targets of retinoid regulation; in the case of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN, receptor expression is dynamically regulated in a circadian and age-dependent manner. (3 High-order auditory areas exhibit a complex distribution of transcripts representing ATRA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and could also be a target of retinoid signaling. Together, our survey across multiple connected song nuclei and auditory brain regions underscores the prominent role of retinoid signaling in modulating the circuitry that underlies the acquisition and production of learned vocalizations.

  6. "A Zebra in the Water": Inspiring Science in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Varela, Jorge; Cabezas-Sainz, Pablo; Yebra-Pimentel, Elena; Gutiérrez-Lovera, Carlha; Cedrón, Vanessa P; Otero Obarrio, Mónica A; Sciara, Andrés A; Rodríguez, Noemí; Araujo, Juan; Millán, Adrián; Sánchez, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The zebrafish model can play a role in education because of its suitability for manipulation and attractiveness to students compared to traditional lecture-based instruction. Furthermore, zebrafish offer advantages over other model species. Seeing as fewer and fewer students are entering science degree programs, this project has been developed to encourage scientific vocations among secondary school students. To do so, an aquarium was given to 114 schools so that they could look after adult zebrafish, mate them, and visualize embryo development. For training on more sophisticated techniques, a virtual tool was developed to simulate a real genetics laboratory on a personal computer. Results based on teachers' feedback indicate that the students were fully dedicated to the project and achieved better understanding of genetic concepts and techniques. These results demonstrate the potential of alternative teaching methods for engaging students in science learning. PMID:27140317

  7. Heritability of telomere length in the Zebra Finch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, Els; Mulder, Ellis; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Briga, Michael; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length predicts survival in birds, and many stressors that presumably reduce fitness have also been linked to telomere length. The response to selection of telomere length will be largely determined by the heritability of this trait; however, little is known about the genetic component of t

  8. Neuronal number in song nucleus LMAN remains high in female zebra finches throughout development and in adulthood%雌性斑胸草雀发育和成体期发声核团LMAN中神经元数量的高水平维持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara E. NIXDORF-BERGEILER; Viola VON Bohlen UND HALBACH

    2005-01-01

    Song learning and production in birds involve a discrete set of interconnected song nuclei in the avian brain. In species where only males sing, such as the zebra finch Taeniogygia guttata, large sex differences are present in song system nuclei and the number of neurons is much smaller in females compared to males. Whereas it is assumed that this also applies to the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), a detailed analysis is still lacking. To close this gap and to learn more about the development of neuronal numbers in both sexes, we have quantified neuronal density and number on semithin sections in small time intervals using the disector-technique. In females, neither neuronal density nor number increased or decreased significantly between 10 days and adulthood at any time interval sampled, so that neuronal density and number remained high in adult females. In males, we found a strong decrease in neuron number very early in development as known from literature using non-stereological techniques, and an additional decrease in neuron number (57%) that lasts up to adulthood. Therefore, the total number of neurons in LMAN in adult birds was about 4 times higher in females than in males (P<0.001). The larger neuronal number in females may reflect the ability of keeping up a neuronal network that can be used throughout development and in adulthood, probably for tasks that may be related particularly to species-specific recognition tasks as it has been shown for this brain region in other passerine female birds[Acta Zoologica Sinica 51(2):257-267,2005].%鸟类的发声和发声学习涉及处于脑中不同水平的相互联系的一些发声核团.在很多鸟类中,仅雄性鸣啭,例如在斑胸草雀(Taeniogygia guttata)中, 雌雄个体间存在显著的性差异,雌性发声系统和发声核团中的神经元数量显著少于雄性.推测这种性差异也可能存在于弓状皮质前部大细胞外侧核(LMAN),但有关这方面

  9. Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canário, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo doméstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infecção experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R.S. Martins

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. The disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. A more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-Serinus and zebra-Taeniopygia and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus. The large rod shaped organism, visible from 100 times magnification, with and without staining, could be detected in sick and also in reasonably normal individuals of some species, such as chickens, turkeys, quails and pigeons. In rheas (Rhea americana, ostriches (Struthio camelus, canaries, zebra-finches, guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris and budgerigars. The disease was severe, causing to up to 100% mortality. The infection could be detected in some species along with other infectious or disease problems, such as endoparasites (helminths, coccidia and ectoparasitism (order Mallophaga or/and order Acarina. The cultivation of M. ornithogaster was successfully achieved in solid and liquid media, originated from chickens (four isolates, guinea fowl (1 isolate, chuckar partridge (1 isolate and canary (1 isolate. A very interesting finding at microscopy was motility of M. ornithogaster, as detected both in cultures obtained on agar for pathogenic fungi and passaged into thioglycolate broth, as well as on samples observed in wet preparations from in vivo. Differences in colony aspects were noted among the isolates. Experimental infections were attempted in chicken and japanese quail, using a chicken isolate, allowing the detection of the organism in the proventriculus and liver in apparently normal birds. One chicken isolate was injected intraperitoneally in Balb/c mice and resulted in 100% mortality.Desde 2000, diversos casos de infecção e doença por Macrorhabdus

  10. Determinação da atividade antioxidante e do teor total de polifenol em amostras de chá de ervas comercializadas em sachets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieme Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Os chás de ervas são tradicionalmente utilizados na medicina popular em muitas regiões do Brasil. Os chás contêm compostos antioxidantes que combatem o stress oxidativo e seu consumo tem sido associado à diminuição dos níveis de colesterol, pressão arterial e até de doenças cardiovasculares. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a capacidade antioxidante total, o teor total de polifenóis, o consumo (scavenging de H2O2 e a presença de outros grupos de compostos antioxidantes em 43 amostras de chás em sachets. Métodos: O método CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity foi utilizado para determinar a capacidade antioxidante total. O teor total de polifenóis foi obtido com o uso do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu; o ensaio de scavenging baseou-se no consumo de solução de H2O2 após adição do chá; e a presença de flavonóides, carotenos e catequinas foi investigada por cromatografia em papel. Resultados: A capacidade antioxidante total nas amostras analisadas seguiu a ordem: camomila > hortelã > carqueja > cidreira > boldo > verde > mate > preto > branco > erva doce. O teor total de polifenóis obedeceu à sequência: branco > hortelã > preto > mate > boldo > verde > camomila > carqueja > cidreira > erva doce. As divergências encontradas entre as amostras de um mesmo grupo de chá podem ser atribuídas à época da colheita, ao tipo de solo, local de plantio, variações climáticas e partes da planta utilizadas na elaboração dos sachets. Conclusão: Concluise que todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram capacidade antioxidante e consumo de H2O2. Em apenas uma delas não foi possível detectar flavonóides, carotenos ou catequinas.

  11. Microbiological quality of minimally processed vegetables sold in Porto Alegre, Brazil Qualidade microbiológica de hortaliças minimamente processadas comercializadas em Porto Alegre, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia R. Pavan da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimally processed vegetables go through various steps during their preparation, with many modifications to their natural structure. However, they must maintain the same quality as the fresh produce. The aim of the present study was to quantify mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms and total and faecal coliforms, and to assess the presence of Escherichia coli, parasites, and dirt material in ready-to-eat minimally processed vegetables. Fifty-six samples of minimally processed vegetables were analysed for the presence of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms by the plate-count method. Monthly means ranged from 4.7x10(5 to 1.6x10(8 CFU/g and from 7.9x10(6 to 2.7x10(8 CFU/g, respectively for mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms. Coliforms were analysed by the multiple-tube method; total coliforms ranged from Hortaliças minimamente processadas passam por várias etapas durante seu processamento, no qual ocorrem várias modificações de sua estrutura natural, todavia elas devem manter a mesma qualidade do produto não processado. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar microrganismos mesófilos e psicrótróficos, coliformes totais e fecais e verificar a presença de E. coli, parasitas e sujidades em hortaliças minimamente processadas prontas para consumo. Foram analisadas 56 amostras para mesófilos e psicrotróficos pelo método de contagem em placas, com média mensal 4,7x10(5 a 1,6x10(8 UFC/g e de 7,9x10(6 a 2,7x10(8 UFC/g, respectivamente. Os coliformes foram analisados pela técnica dos tubos múltiplos, onde coliformes totais variaram de <3 a ³ 2,4x10(4 NMP/g e coliformes fecais, de <3 a 1,1x10(4 NMP/g, e E. coli foi observada em oito amostras. De 52 amostras, 8 (15,3% apresentaram oocistos de Eimeria spp. Sujidades, como fragmentos de insetos e ácaros jovens foram encontrados. Contaminação de origem fecal foi verificada no presente estudo, sugerindo falhas nas etapas do processamento das hortaliças, ou que o solo ou a água de irrigação também poderiam ser fontes de disseminação destes microrganismos.

  12. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche pasteurizada comercializada en Ciudad de México Organochlorine pesticide residues in commercial pasteurised milk in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, G.; Diaz, G; S. VEGA Y LEON; Gonzalez, M; Perez, N.; Urban, G.; Gutierrez, R.; Ramirez, A.; Pinto, M.

    1998-01-01

    Los residuos de algunos plaguicidas organo-clorados presentes en lasmuestras de leche pasteurizada analizadas representan un riesgo para lasalud de los consumidores. Se determinó el contenido de plaguicidas organoclorados en 96 muestras de leche pasteurizada, por cromatografía gas líquido. Las muestras fueron colectadas quincenalmente y durante un año en la Ciudad de México, de cuatro marcas comerciales.En las muestras analizadas se determinó el valor promedio X en µg/gbase grasa, la razón X/...

  13. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche pasteurizada comercializada en Ciudad de México Organochlorine pesticide residues in commercial pasteurised milk in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G PRADO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Los residuos de algunos plaguicidas organo-clorados presentes en lasmuestras de leche pasteurizada analizadas representan un riesgo para lasalud de los consumidores. Se determinó el contenido de plaguicidas organoclorados en 96 muestras de leche pasteurizada, por cromatografía gas líquido. Las muestras fueron colectadas quincenalmente y durante un año en la Ciudad de México, de cuatro marcas comerciales.En las muestras analizadas se determinó el valor promedio X en µg/gbase grasa, la razón X/LMR y el porcentaje de muestras que sobrepasó el valor LMR. Los valores encontrados fueron los siguientes, respectivamente:(a + b-HCH, 0.22 µg/g, 2.21 y 47.9%, Lindano, 0.07 µg/g, 0.38 y 8.3%, Aldrín + Dieldrín,0.25 µg/g, 1.67 y 39.5%, Heptacloro + heptacloroepóxido, 0.15µg/g, 1.00 y 23.9%, Endrín, 0.05 µg/g, 2.70 y 37.5% y DDT + metabolitos, 0.12 µg/g, 0.10 y 0.0%. Es altamente recomendable mantener un seguimiento en el control de algunos pesticidas organoclorados presentes en la leche pasteurizada de la Ciudad de México.Milk products are frequently contaminated with toxic organochlorine pesticides.The level of organochlorine pesticide residues of 96 pasteurised milk sampleswas determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The samples were collectedfrom four milk industries in Mexico City. The pesticides found in the pasteurisedmilk samples, their average values, the average value/MRL ratio, and samplepercentages exceeding the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL were respectively:(a+b-HCH, 0.22 µg/g, 2.21, (47.9%, Lindane,0.07 µg/g, 0.38, (8.3%, Aldrin + Dieldrin, 0.25 µg/g, 1.67,(39.5%, Heptachlor + Heptachlor epoxide, 0.15 µg/g, 1.00, (23.9%,Endrin, 0.05 µg/g 2.70, (37.5%, DDT and metabolites, 0.12 µg/g,0.10, (0.0%. A follow up study in the control of organochlorine pesticides presentin Mexican pasteurised milk is recommended

  14. Análise sensorial da água de coco anão verde processada e comercializada no sertão paraibano e cearense

    OpenAIRE

    Suziane Alves Josino Lima; Antonio Vitor Machado; Mônica Tejo Cavalcanti; Cícera Gomes Cavalcante de Lisbôa

    2015-01-01

    O Brasil, atualmente, possui uma grande tendência de crescimento do cultivo do coqueiro anão verde, onde o principal objetivo deste se da para a produção da água de coco, sua cultura esta distribuída em todo o território nacional, destacadamente na região Nordeste onde se concentram os maiores plantios do país. A água de coco é um produto natural que vem ganhando espaço no mercado como uma bebida de vasto potencial comercial, pois além de ser um produto natural é praticamente livre de contami...

  15. Determination of essential elements in formulas commercialized at the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em formulas infantis comercializadas em Sao Paulo-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Vinicius Dias; Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera Akiko, E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper intends to determine the concentration of elements, presents in the infant formulas, by using the Neutron Activation Analysis for verification if the quantity is not exceeding the toxicity limit, and if the concentration of each element is correct as presented on the label of each packaging

  16. Análisis comparativo de compuestos fenólicos totales y actividad antioxidante de cuatro marcas de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae comercializadas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Agüero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tisanas de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa son consumidas en Costa Rica por su conocido efecto cardioprotector asociado a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, principalmente antocianinas. Este trabajo estableció diferencias en el perfil de compuestos fenólicos y su actividad anti-radical entre diferentes comercializadores de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa en Costa Rica. Se identificaron cualitativamente taninos, flavonoides y antocianinas. Se cuantificó la cantidad total de compuestos fenólicos por el método de Folin-Ciocalteu y se cuantificó la actividad antioxidante con el método de DPPH. Todas las marcas comerciales demostraron presencia de compuestos fenólicos, incluyendo antocianinas; sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias significativas en el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y actividad anti-radical, entre los diferentes productores de tisanas. Por ello, se concluye que en el mercado costarricense, el perfil en compuestos fenólicos de las tisanas en estudio varía de acuerdo con el productor.

  17. Avaliação sensorial de uvas de mesa produzidas no Vale do São Francisco e comercializadas em João Pessoa - PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomando-se como base o nível crescente de exigência do consumidor por frutas de mesa, as características de qualidade das uvas 'Itália', 'Festival' ('Superior Seedless', 'Benitaka' e 'Isabel', expostas à venda em três redes de supermercados, na cidade de João Pessoa - Paraíba - Brasil, foram avaliadas em dezembro de 2007. Inicialmente, foram selecionados e treinados julgadores que estabeleceram e definiram os seguintes atributos sensoriais de importância: tonalidade e uniformidade de cor, aroma, firmeza, presença de sementes, suculência, doçura, acidez, sabor e qualidade global. Os diâmetros, comprimentos e pesos das bagas estavam condizentes com os parâmetros comerciais ou varietais. Os conteúdos de sólidos solúveis (SS, com exceção da uva 'Benitaka', apresentaram-se em conformidade com os padrões comerciais. Apenas a cultivar Festival, com a menor acidez titulável (AT, apresentou relação SS/AT aceitável. Foram realizadas três sessões de análises descritivas quantitativas (ADQ, nas quais a uva 'Itália' foi a de melhor sabor e, em conjunto com a apirênica 'Festival', apresentou maiores doçuras e qualidade global. A cultivar Isabel apresentou a cor mais forte , enquanto a Festival foi a melhor no atributo semente. Aplicou-se o Teste de Preferência por Ordenação, no qual as uvas 'Itália' e 'Festival' foram as preferidas.

  18. Potencial toxicológico frente Artemia Salina em plantas condimentares comercializadas no município de Campina Grande-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Moreira Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do potencial toxicológico das plantas é um fator primordial para estipular o limite consumível. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o potencial toxicológico de plantas condimentares frente Artemia salina, expostas às concentrações dos extratos das plantas erva-doce (Pimpinella anisum L., pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, endro (Anethum graveolens L. e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos - LEA pertencente ao Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-PB. A erva doce apresentou uma baixa toxicidade, atingindo uma DL50 de 428ppm do extrato. Já a pimenta malagueta exibiu um comportamento similar, atingindo o seu potencial toxicológico máximo na terceira diluição com DL50 716,1ppm. Para o endro, observou-se uma baixa taxa de mortalidade, consequentemente foi considerada não toxica, apresentando a DL50, com 2.624,5ppm. O alecrim apresentou baixos percentuais de mortalidade em náuplios de Artemia, sendo a DL50 com 3.720,6ppm, sendo considerado não toxico. No entanto necessita-se de estudos mais aprofundados para caracterizar a composição química das plantas estudadas e um teste in vivo para as que apresentaram baixa toxicidade.

  19. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DA RICOTA COMERCIALIZADA EM SUPERMERCADOS DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Deboni Cereser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricotta is distinguishable among different kinds of fresh cheese, or with high humidity. It is a highly consumed product for the reduced fat content and low cost, being indicated in diets with lipid restrictions, besides being economically accessible to most of the social classes. Ricotta cheese presents high water activity and nutritional diversity, factors that propitiate the proliferation of opportunist and patogenic microbiota, reducing the safety of these victuals. In that context, the present study aimed at evaluating the microbiotical quality of ricotta cheese produced under permanent hygienic-sanitarium control. Of a total of 60 samples from the two commercial brands analyzed, 68.3% were considered inappropriate for human consumption due to the presence of high populations of thermotolerant coliforms. With regard to Staphylococcus coagulase positive, 18.3% of the samples were in disagreement with the patterns established by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa. High scores were also observed for mesophils microorganisms, mould and yeasts. The presence of microorganisms as E. coli and S. aureus in the evaluated product can unchain the outbreak of diseases transmitted by food and it should be a reason of concern by public health authorities.

  20. QUALIDADE PÓS-COLHEITA DA MANGA 'TOMMY ATKINS' COMERCIALIZADA EM DIFERENTES ESTABELECIMENTOS COMERCIAIS NO MUNICÍPIO DE MOSSORÓ-RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABELLE FERREIRA XAVIER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the postharvest quality of the Tommy Atkins mango commercialized in the city of Mossoró-RN. The fruits had been collected, randomized, in three commercial establishments (Market of great port, free Fair and market of small port. In each establishment 6 collections had been carried through, distributed during the months of August, September and October. The experimental design was blocks randomized with three treatments and six repetitions, two fruits for experimental unit for physicist-chemistries analyses and five fruits for phytopathology analyses. The days of collection had been considered as blocks and the markets as treatments. The variables analyzed were: mass, longitudinal and ventral lengths, price, internal appearance, external appearance, firmness, solubles solids, titratable acidity, solubles solids and titratable acidity relation, pH, incidence and frequency of fungus isolation. The fruits commercialized in the three establishments had presented physical and chemical characteristics that fit in the standard considered reasonable for consumption in natura of 'Tommy Atkins' fruits. It was found high incidence of spots and/or podrition, mainly in market C. The fungus found in the isolation frequency had been of the Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Lasiodiplodia and Rhizopus.

  1. Polifenóis totais e flavonoides em amostras de chá verde (Camellia sinensis L. de diferentes marcas comercializadas na cidade de Salvador-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. FIRMINO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Camellia sinensis é amplamente conhecida por seus efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Dentre as diversas formas de processamento desta erva, o chá verde e chá preto são os mais populares. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os teores de fenólicos totais e flavonoides em amostras de 25 diferentes marcas disponíveis à venda em farmácias e supermercados de Salvador-Ba. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram diferenças significativas na concentração dos compostos fenólicos entre as marcas de chá verde estudadas. No estudo também ficou comprovado que, no preparo do chá verde, as amostras obtidas por infusão aquosa com agitação mecânica apresentaram maiores teores de polifenóis e flavonoides em relação àquelas que não foram submetidas à agitação.

  2. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in traceability of retail beef samples Marcadores de DNA nuclear e mitocondrial para rastreabilidade da carne bovina comercializada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S.M. Cesar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several characteristics are important in a traceability system of animal products, such as age at slaughter, breed composition, besides information of the productive chain. In general, the certification agent records information about the animals and the system which it came from, although cannot guarantee that the slaughtering, meat processing and distribution are error proof. Besides, there is a differential price, at least at the international market, based on sex and breed composition of the animals. Genetic markers allow identification of characteristics controlled in the beef cattle traceability program, as sex and breed composition, in order to correctly identify and appraise the final product for the consumer. The hypothesis of this study was that the majority beef samples retailed in the local market originate from female with a great participation of zebu breeds. Therefore, the objective of this work was to characterize retail beef samples with DNA markers that identify cattle sex and breed composition. Within 10 beef shops localized in Pirassununga, SP, Brazil, 61 samples were collected, all were genotyped as harboring Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA and 18 were positive for the Y chromosome amplification (male. For the marker sat1711b-Msp I the frequency of the allele A was 0.278 and for the marker Lhr-Hha I the frequency of the allele T was 0.417. The results of sat1711b-Msp I and Lhr-Hha I allelic frequencies are suggestive that the proportion of indicus genome compared with the taurine genome in the market meat is smaller than the observed in the Nellore breed. The procedure described in this study identified sex and subspecies characteristics of beef meat samples, with potential application in meat products certification in special as an auxiliary tool in beef cattle traceability programs.Várias características são importantes no sistema de rastreabilidade, como o sexo, a idade, a raça e/ou a composição racial dos animais, além de dados da cadeia produtiva. Em geral, a empresa certificadora dispõe das informações do animal que está sendo abatido, porém não tem condições de garantir se houve erro entre abate, desossa, processamento e a distribuição dos produtos. Existe diferenciação no custo e na qualidade dos produtos cárneos, especialmente no mercado internacional, em virtude do sexo e composição racial dos animais. Os marcadores genéticos permitem identificar as características que são controladas num programa de rastreabilidade bovina tais como sexo e composição racial, permitindo identificar e avaliar corretamente para o consumidor, o produto final. A hipótese deste estudo foi que a maioria das amostras de carne bovina vendida no mercado local seria proveniente de fêmeas e com grande participação de raças Zebu. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar amostras de carne bovina com marcadores de DNA para identificar o sexo e a composição racial. Em dez pontos comerciais da cidade de Pirasssununga, SP, Brasil, foram coletadas 61 amostras e todas foram genotipadas como possuindo DNA mitocondrial Bos taurus e 18 foram positivos para amplificação do cromossomo Y (macho. Para o marcador sat1711b-Msp I a frequência alélica do A foi 0.278 e para o marcador Lhr-Hha I a frequência alélica do T foi 0.417. Os resultados das frequências alélicas do sat1711b-Msp I e Lhr-Hha I apresentaram menor proporção do genoma Bos indicus em relação ao Bos taurus quando comparado ao rebanho Nelore. Com a metodologia descrita neste trabalho foi possível avaliar o sexo e as características de subespécie das amostras de carne bovina, tendo uma importante aplicação para a certificação de produtos cárneos especialmente, em programas de rastreabilidade animal.

  3. Análisis comparativo de compuestos fenólicos totales y actividad antioxidante de cuatro marcas de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) comercializadas en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Agüero; Cindy Segura; Jonathan Parra

    2014-01-01

    Las tisanas de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) son consumidas en Costa Rica por su conocido efecto cardioprotector asociado a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, principalmente antocianinas. Este trabajo estableció diferencias en el perfil de compuestos fenólicos y su actividad anti-radical entre diferentes comercializadores de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa en Costa Rica. Se identificaron cualitativamente taninos, flavonoides y antocianinas. Se cuantificó la cantidad total de compues...

  4. 77 FR 43620 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Instituting Proceedings to Determine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... world currencies and commonly held for investment purposes, and as a result there are substantial.... 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66816 (April 16, 2012), 77 FR... Act Release No. 67075, 77 FR 33258 (June 5, 2012). \\6\\ See letter from Janet McGinness,...

  5. 77 FR 48181 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Instituting Proceedings To Determine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... only precious metals that are currently treated as world currencies and commonly held for investment... (June 22, 2012), 77 FR 38351 (``Notice''). \\4\\ See letter from Robert B. Bernstein, Vandenberg & Feliu... in such warehouse. \\5\\ See Notice, supra note 3, 77 FR at 38356. \\6\\ See id. \\7\\ See id. \\8\\...

  6. Noahs Ark of the seeds; El Arca de Noe de las semillas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tristan, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    The so-called 'vault of the end of the world', located in the archipelago Arctic Svalbard, brings together more than 860,000 samples seeds from around the world. The purpose of your existence -like the of thousands of other banks of its kind in all the planet - is to preserve the genetic diversity of crops, most of them are now disappearing. An international treaty approved by the United Nations, and in force since 2004, allowed the construction of this 'Sanctuary' where more than one hundred countries maintain their own banks of seeds, freezing them to 18 degrees below zero to lower its biological activity. (Author)

  7. 75 FR 42471 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Receipts can trade on all U.S. stock exchanges as well as on many European stock exchanges. The Exchange... Exchange Act Release No. 62344 (June 21, 2010), 75 FR 37498 (``Notice''). I. Description of the Proposal... Exchange Act Release Nos. 61365 (January 15, 2010), 75 FR 4124 (January 26, 2010) (SR-NYSEArca-2009-...

  8. 75 FR 13616 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... (February 16, 2010), 75 FR 8164 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange... calculated daily and that the NAV and the Disclosed Portfolio will be made available to all market...- linked fixed income securities, such as investment-grade, floating-rate fixed income securities linked...

  9. 75 FR 4124 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Accelerated Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ...\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61227 (September 3, 2009), 74 FR 69175... Act Release No. 60981 (November 10, 2009), 74 FR 59594 (November 18, 2009) (SR-NYSEArca- 2009-79... Rule Change Relating to Listing of Grail McDonnell Fixed Income ETFs January 15, 2010. On December...

  10. 'Noye’s Fludde': l’arca come officina di musica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Macchia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Con Noye’s Fludde op. 59 (1957-’58 Benjamin Britten traccia una svolta definitiva nella storia della letteratura musicale per voci bianche. Il soggetto corrisponde all’evento biblico del diluvio universale, ma la fonte principale del compositore inglese, piuttosto che il libro della Genesi, è l’English Miracle Plays, Moralities and Interludes (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1898, ovvero i Chester Miracle Plays: una raccolta di venticinque Misteri degli inizi del XV secolo. Si tratta di sacre rappresentazioni che sviluppano soggetti del Vecchio e del Nuovo Testamento, in passato realizzate dalle corporazioni dei mestieri e portate in giro per le strade su carri trainati da buoi, i cosiddetti “pageant”. Il diluvio di Noè era tradizionalmente appannaggio degli acquaioli. Il percorso didattico, rivolto a una delle tre classi della scuola secondaria di primo grado, verte sull’analisi del testo e del corrispondente adattamento musicale di alcuni numeri di Noye’s Fludde per mettere in grado lo studente di decifrarvi il messaggio religioso intrinseco. 

  11. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ARCA1 autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 ( ARCA1 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  12. 78 FR 48513 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61177 (December 16, 2009), 74 FR 68643 (December 28, 2009) (SR-NYSE-2009-105). \\7\\ NYSE Arca trades equity securities on the systems and facilities of its wholly owned... NYSE Arca LLC (``NYSE Arca''), NYSE's and the Exchange's affiliate, to serve as a backup facility...

  13. Hard work impinges on fitness : an experimental study with zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, C; Overkamp, GJF

    1999-01-01

    In experiments in which brood size is manipulated, it is impossible to disentangle the effects of changes in intensity and duration of parental care on parental fitness from those of changes in the parental energy budget. To determine whether a change in parental energy budget affects the costs of r

  14. The effects of rearing conditions on sexual traits and preferences in zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    Although theory predicts that females should prefer the highest quality male, female mating preferences within populations often show pronounced variation. What causes and maintains this variation remains poorly understood. This thesis addresses the influence of rearing conditions both on female mat

  15. Long-term effects of manipulated natal brood size on metabolic rate in zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, Simon; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2006-01-01

    Long-term effects of developmental conditions on health, longevity and other fitness components in humans are drawing increasing attention. In evolutionary ecology, such effects are of similar importance because of their role in the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. The central role of energy consumption is well documented for some long-term health effects in humans (e.g. obesity), but little is known of the long-term effects of rearing conditions on energy requirements lat...

  16. Long-term effects of manipulated natal brood size on metabolic rate in zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Simon; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2006-01-01

    Long-term effects of developmental conditions on health, longevity and other fitness components in humans are drawing increasing attention. In evolutionary ecology, such effects are of similar importance because of their role in the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. The central ro

  17. Prevalence of zebras in general practice: data from the Continuous Morbidity Registration Nijmegen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, F.A. van de; Bor, H.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence of rare diseases in the Continuous Morbidity Registration (CMR) Nijmegen, and to discuss methodological difficulties in the study of rare diseases in general practice. METHODS: We selected all diseases with a prevalence <0.5/1000 patients/year between 1986 and 20

  18. Species Shout-Outs From Abdul to Zebra: Encouraging Nonmajors to Communicate in the Biology Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina P. Colon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this learning activity, a simple verbal prompt was employed as a nonthreatening and engaging discussion starter for non-Biology majors in a biology class at a community college. By calling out the name of their favorite species, then relating new content to this organism, these “Species Shout-Outs” fostered enthusiasm among students by promoting engagement and creating relevance, all of which are important to improving higher education. This activity combined the elements of academic and social interaction, as well as active learning, which have been shown to be necessary to foster student retention through college.

  19. Growth of a male Caracal kitten felis Caracal in the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H Grobler

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available Three caracal (lynx Fells caracal kittens, two females and a male were received from the Fish River area some 50 km north of Cradock, Republic of South Africa, on the 20th March 1980. These were found at the base of a dense Rhus erosa bush on the side of a hill and estimated at 14 days old based on the findings of Cade (1968 Int. Zoo Yb. 45 and Kralik (1967 Int. Zoo Yb. 132.

  20. ["Why am I Deaf and my Vision is Blurred?" Thinking of a Horse or a Zebra?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliana, Patrik; Nüesch, Reto

    2016-03-01

    We present the case of a 66 year old patient with a heterogeneous clinical course over ten months, particularly worsening of vision, hearing and hip pain. She finally died of multi-organ failure. The increased wear of a metal-on-metal hip implant lead to cobalt intoxication. The crucial therapy consists in removing the cobalt source. In the future, physicians need to be aware of this insidious and life-threatening disease possibly affecting thousands of patients after total hip replacement. PMID:26934012

  1. Compatibility benefits of social and extra-pair mate choice in the zebra finch

    OpenAIRE

    Ihle, Malika

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural ecologists aim at providing insights into the evolutionary and ecological processes that shape animal behaviour. Mate choice is a decision faced by most animals that can strongly affect an individual’s reproductive success, an important fitness component. This behaviour has therefore the potential to show many adaptations which have been the subject of a vivid research interest over the last decades. Studies on mate choice have typically focused on female preferences for trait...

  2. A neural circuit mechanism for regulating vocal variability during song learning in zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Garst-Orozco, Jonathan; Babadi, Baktash; Ölveczky, Bence P

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest ‘Practice makes perfect’ captures the essence of how we learn new skills. When learning to play a musical instrument, for example, it often takes hours of practice before we can play a single piece of music properly for the first time. And as we get better, the variability in our performance—which is an advantage during the early stages of learning—becomes less. Likewise, songbirds need lots of practice in order to master the intricate songs they need to sing to attract mates. St...

  3. Assessment of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum) Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Permethrin

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Banaee; Amal Beitsayah; Isar Jorabdoz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aquatic ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination by toxic heavy metals and pesticides, yet very little is known about the influence of pesticides on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms. Mercury is a toxic metal with no known biological benefit to organisms. Bioavailability of mercury in aquatic environments depends on biological and non-biological parameters including other pollutants. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the ef...

  4. Tallinnas Narva mnt. 7 asuva kohviku Zebra sisekujundus / Tiiu Truus, Tiiu Prisko, Mati Veermets...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    põhiplaan, 11 värv. vaadet; fotod: Kalle Veesaar; laes olevate dekoratiivsete lippude graafiline kujundus on Tiiu Priskolt ja Mati Veermetsalt, tualettruumi looduskivist valamu ja põrandavaasi autor on Kaido Kivi

  5. Sexual dimorphism of the zebra finch syrinx indicates adaptation for high fundamental frequencies in males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Riede

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many songbirds the larger vocal repertoire of males is associated with sexual dimorphism of the vocal control centers and muscles of the vocal organ, the syrinx. However, it is largely unknown how these differences are translated into different acoustic behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that the sound generating structures of the syrinx, the labia and the associated cartilaginous framework, also display sexual dimorphism. One of the bronchial half rings that position and tense the labia is larger in males, and the size and shape of the labia differ between males and females. The functional consequences of these differences were explored by denervating syringeal muscles. After denervation, both sexes produced equally low fundamental frequencies, but the driving pressure generally increased and was higher in males. Denervation strongly affected the relationship between driving pressure and fundamental frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The syringeal modifications in the male syrinx, in concert with dimorphisms in neural control and muscle mass, are most likely the foundation for the potential to generate an enhanced frequency range. Sexually dimorphic vocal behavior therefore arises from finely tuned modifications at every level of the motor cascade. This sexual dimorphism in frequency control illustrates a significant evolutionary step towards increased vocal complexity in birds.

  6. A CALCIUM-BASED INVASION RISK ASSESSMENT FOR ZEBRA AND QUAGGA MUSSELS (DREISSENA SPP.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used calcium concentration data from over 3000 stream and river sites across the contiguous United States to classify ecoregions relative to their risk for Dreissena species invasion. We defined risk based on calcium concentrations as: very low (< 12 mg L−1), low (12–20 mg L−1...

  7. Genotoxicity and activation of cellular defenses in transplanted zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha along the Seine river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Châtel, Amélie; Faucet-Marquis, Virginie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to confirm the relevance of studying DNA adduct formation in a field study. In that context, freshwater mussels Dreissena polymorpha, collected in a reference station, were transplanted in different sites with a pollution gradient. After one and two months, mussels were collected and DNA adduct formation was analyzed using the (32)P post labelling technique on both gills and digestive glands. In addition, the expression of genes involved in the detoxification system (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), HSP70, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), P glycoprotein (PgP), metallothionein (MT)) was assessed by RT-PCR. DNA adducts were observed at amount comparable to data from literature. Increase of DNA adducts after two months of transplantation could be correlated with strong modulation of gene expression implicated in detoxification processes. Indeed, PgP and HSP70 gene expressions were similarly induced in gills and digestive glands while SOD and CAT expressions were down regulated in both tissues. AHR, GST and MT genes were differently regulated depending upon the tissue studied and the level of contamination in the different sites. We demonstrated that mussels transplanted in the different stations with pollution gradient were able to biotransform PAHs, assessed by DNA adduct formation and the high decrease of detoxification genes. Specific DNA adducts pattern obtained after one and two month mussel transplantations demonstrated the relevance of DNA adduct as biomarker of environmental pollution.

  8. A re-assessment of the avifauna of the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.F.K. Craig

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on all published records, together with the original data for the southern African bird atlas, the current Birds in Reserves Project and our records on field trips, 257 bird species have been reliably recorded from MZNP. We have assessed the current status of all species, in relation to the recent expansion of the park and other changes which may be a consequence of management practices. No birds of national conservation concern are breeding residents in the park, and some species are periodic or irregular visitors. Nevertheless, the park is important for the conservation of representatives of the Karoo avifauna, and the diversity of birdlife present should be highlighted to attract visitors with a special interest in birding.

  9. Lifelong consequences of early nutritional conditions on learning performance in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, V.; Krüger, O.; Naguib, M.; Krause, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term effects of early developmental conditions on physiological and behavioural traits are commonin animals. Yet, such lifelong effects of early life conditions on learning skills received relatively lessattention, even though they are expected to have strong fitness effects. To test the lifelo

  10. Fos Responses of Dopamine Neurons to Sociosexual Stimuli in Male Zebra Finches

    OpenAIRE

    Bharati, Ila S.; Goodson, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is produced in numerous brain areas and influences a wide variety of social behaviors, but very few data are available to establish the socially-relevant response properties of most DA populations, which comprise eight cell groups numbered A8-A15. Anatomically, these DA populations are evolutionarily conserved, and all have been identified in both birds and mammals. We now report the Fos responses of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir; putatively dopaminergic) neurons in...

  11. Does song complexity correlate with problem-solving performance in flocks of zebra finches?

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Christopher Neal; Laland, Kevin Neville; Boogert, Neeltje Janna

    2014-01-01

    The ‘cognitive capacity hypothesis’ states that song complexity could potentially be used by prospective mates to assess an individual's overall cognitive ability. Several recent studies have provided support for the cognitive capacity hypothesis, demonstrating that individuals with more complex songs or larger song repertoires performed better on various learning tasks. These studies all measured individuals' learning performance in social isolation. However, for gregarious species such as t...

  12. Rules of conduct for pedestrians and motorists on or near zebra crossings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1973-01-01

    Traffic regulations which an influence the behaviour of the pedestrian as well as the driver on and near pedestrian crossings for all West-European countries and the U.S.A. are presented. (See also B 4795)

  13. Parental influence on begging call structure in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): evidence of early vocal plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Villain, Avelyne S.; Boucaud, Ingrid C. A.; Bouchut, Colette; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-01-01

    Begging calls are signals of need used by young birds to elicit care from adults. Different theoretical frameworks have been proposed to understand this parent–offspring communication. But relationships between parental response and begging intensity, or between begging characteristics and proxies of a young’s need remain puzzling. Few studies have considered the adjustment of nestling begging features to previous experience as a possible explanation of these discrepancies. In this study, we ...

  14. Anatomically discrete sex differences in neuroplasticity in zebra finches as reflected by perineuronal nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornez, Gilles; ter Haar, Sita M; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Large morphological sex differences in the vertebrate brain were initially identified in song control nuclei of oscines. Besides gross differences between volumes of nuclei in males and females, sex differences also concern the size and dendritic arborization of neurons and various neurochemical mar

  15. Toxico-kinetic, chemical and radiological toxicity of uranium on zebra fish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis explores the toxico-kinetic and toxicological aspects of uranium in fish. Uranium, appears to be highly bio accumulated and bio concentrated in fish. It spreads all through the whole organism. Nevertheless, its distribution is heterogeneous (gills and liver being the main sites of accumulation).From a toxicological point of view, we notice perturbations of the antioxidant system (inhibitions of hepatic Sod, Cat and G Px activities; depletion of total GSH) and of the cholinergic system (inhibition/over-activation of brain AChE). Genotoxic effects also appear in red blood cells, hepatocytes and gonad cells. The kinetics of these biochemical perturbations depend on the radiological activity of uranium, responses appearing earlier with increasing delivered activity. Histological effects (differing in types depending on delivered radiological activity) are also observed (in gills and muscles). (author)

  16. Correlates of average daily metabolism of field-active zebra-tailed lizards (Callisaurus draconoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, W H; Anderson, R A

    1998-01-01

    The extent of variation in reptile field metabolism, and its causal bases, are poorly understood. We studied the energetics of the insectivorous lizard Callisaurus draconoides at a site in the California Desert (Desert Center) and at a site at the southern tip of the Baja Peninsula (Cabo San Lucas; hereafter, Cabo). Reproducing Callisaurus were smaller at Cabo than at Desert Center. The allometry of metabolism with body mass can account for most differences in whole-animal metabolism. There was no significant effect of sex or source population on mass-adjusted metabolic rate in the laboratory (resting metabolism, measured by closed-system respirometry) or in the field (field metabolism, measured with doubly labeled water). The mass-adjusted resting metabolism and field metabolism of gravid females and the field metabolism of juvenile lizards were not significantly different from those of nonreproductive adults. Temperature had a significant effect on resting metabolism (Q10 = 2.7); fed lizards had resting metabolism that was 22% higher than that of fasted lizards; field metabolism was positively correlated with growth rate in juveniles; and field metabolism of adults increased from spring to late summer at Desert Center by 25%, probably because of longer activity period length and slightly higher activity period body temperature. We calculated from water influx and field metabolism that juveniles allocated 18% of their metabolizable energy intake to growth and that most energy deposited into eggs was transferred from energy stores rather than ingested in the weeks prior to laying. PMID:9472817

  17. Linguistic birds : exploring cognitive abilities in zebra finches by using artificial grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jiani

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to shed light on whether some capacities that are considered linked to, or characteristic for, language are shared between humans and nonhuman animals, which can help to understand the basic cognitive abilities from which the evolution of human language may have arisen. The

  18. Context-dependent effects of carotenoid supplementation on reproduction in zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Briga, Michael; Leenknegt, Bas; Verhulst, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid-dependent sexual coloration is one of the best-studied sexual signals, but how the honesty of such signals is maintained remains uncertain. The main hypotheses focus on acquisition limits and physiological use of carotenoids in immune function and regulating oxidative stress. A hypothesis

  19. ZebRA: An overview of retinoic acid signaling during zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarut, Eric; Fraher, Daniel; Laudet, Vincent; Gibert, Yann

    2015-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the main active vitamin A derivative, is crucial for embryo development, regulating cellular processes, embryo patterning and organogenesis. Many studies performed in mammalian or avian models have successfully undertaken the investigation of the role played by RA during embryogenesis. Since the early 1980s, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful developmental model to study the in vivo role of RA during embryogenesis. Unlike mammalian models, zebrafish embryogenesis is external, not only allowing the observation of the translucent embryo from the earliest steps but also providing an easily accessible system for pharmacological treatment or genetic approaches. Therefore, zebrafish research largely participates in deciphering the role of RA during development. This review aims at illustrating different concepts of RA signaling based on the research performed on zebrafish. Indeed, RA action relies on a multitude of cross-talk with other signaling pathways and requires a coordinated, dynamic and fine-regulation of its level and activity in both temporal and spatial dimensions. This review also highlights major advances that have been discovered using zebrafish such as the observation of the RA gradient in vivo for the first time, the effects of RA signaling in brain patterning, its role in establishing left-right asymmetry and its effects on the development of a variety of organs and tissues including the heart, blood, bone and fat. This review demonstrates that the zebrafish is a convenient and powerful model to study retinoic acid signaling during vertebrate embryogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development. PMID:24928143

  20. Quantificação da hidroxiprolina como índice de qualidade de salsicha comercializada em Belo Horizonte-MG Quantification of hydroxyproline as an index of quality for frankfurter sold in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.A. Reis

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar o teor de colágeno em salsichas mediante a quantificação da hidroxiprolina. Amostras de salsichas produzidas por indústrias de pequeno, médio e grande porte, classificadas em função do mercado atendido, foram analisadas quanto ao seu conteúdo em hidroxiprolina, por técnica colorimétrica. O teor de colágeno foi significativamente diferente, baseado na quantidade de hidroxiprolina presente nas amostras de salsicha. As amostras que apresentaram o menor teor de colágeno foram as da indústria de médio porte (0,45%, seguida daquelas da indústria de grande porte (0,64%. As salsichas da indústria de pequeno porte apresentaram o maior teor de colágeno (0,89%. Esses resultados mostram que esse teste pode ser utilizado para classificação qualitativa de salsichas, em função dos teores de colágeno.The purpose of this work was to estimate the collagen content of frankfurters by hydroxyproline quantification. Frankfurters were produced at small, medium and large plants, according to the target market (local, regional and national. Determination of hydroxyproline was made by colorimetric method. The results showed that the frankfurters had different standards in the manufacturing, since the collagen content was statistically different. Samples from the medium size industry presented the lowest collagen content (0.45%, followed by samples from the large size plant (0.64%. Frankfurters from the small size industry had the highest collagen content (0.89%. These data showed that this analytical procedure can be used for quality classification of frankfurter based on collagen content.