WorldWideScience

Sample records for arc furnaces

  1. New developments in electric arc furnace technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, P. [Danieli Centrome, France (France)

    1997-04-01

    Technologies are described for the flexible operation of electric arc furnaces combining various energy sources and for the improvement of the electrical behaviour of the furnace. The main part of the article deals with the post-combustion process, as a means of reducing the energy consumption and increasing the furnace productivity. The energy yield from post-combustion is evaluated and compared to operational results. Oxidizing reactions as energy source are discussed. The energy yield for post-combustion is evaluated with data from four furnaces in operation. The energy yield from post-combustion ranges from 4 to 2 kWh per Nm{sup 3} of oxygen representing a range of 4 to 18 Nm{sup 3} oxygen injected for post-combustion. (author) 2 refs.

  2. Electric arc furnace models for flicker study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González Castaño

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate voltage fluctuations or flicker of two electric arc furnace models through comparison with real data.Method: The first proposed model is founded on the energy conservation principle, which generates a non-linear differential equation modelling the electric arc voltage – current characteristics. Voltage fluctuations are generated using a chaotic circuit that modulates the amplitude of arc voltage. The second model is based on the empirical relationship between the arc diameter or length as well as voltage and electrical current on the arc. Voltage fluctuations are considered adding a random signal in the arc length. Both models are implemented in PSCADTM.Results: The results of both models are compared with real data taken at the most critical stage of the operation of the furnace, and they show that the model based on energy conservation has a lower average mean square error in the voltages and currents 5.6 V and 1.7 kA against 27,2 V y 3.38 kA obtained with the second model.Conclusions: Both models consider the nonlinearity and random behavior present in this type of load, validating their inclusion in computer models of electric power systems.

  3. First d. c. arc furnace for steelmaking in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-06

    On June 25, 1982, a prototype d.c. arc furnace with a capacity of 12 t started trial operation at the Kreuztal-Buschhuetten steel foundry of Messrs. SMS Schloemann-Siemag AG, after its operating capability had been tested with same test charges. It is the world's first d.c. arc furnace to be operated in a production plant. The furnaces constructed so far were experimental furnaces, operated periodically for research purposes.

  4. Danarc technology for electric arc furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, P.; Gensini, G.; Mavridis [Danieli Centro Met, Buttrio (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Danarc electric arc furnace technology combines high-impedance technology with bottom tuyeres for oxygen and carbon injection. Together with lance injection and wall burners for both conventional operation and post-combustion, the concept provides full flexibility in the choice of energy sources. The basic philosophy of the concept is to have efficient systems for the supply of both electrical and alternative energy. Operational results from a Danarc furnace at Ferriere Nord show that it is possible to inject high specific amounts of oxygen and carbon as a substitute for electrical energy. The electrical power supply with a fixed or saturable reactor is beneficial because of the high voltage and low current operation. High-impedance operation results in low electrode consumption, reduced electrical losses and a reduction of the supply network disturbance, ie, flicker.

  5. Artificial neural networks in predicting current in electric arc furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a study of the possibility of using artificial neural networks for the prediction of the current and the voltage of Electric Arc Furnaces. Multi-layer perceptron and radial based functions Artificial Neural Networks implemented in Matlab were used. The study is based on measured data items from an Electric Arc Furnace in an industrial plant in Romania

  6. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the metal iron in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), from a steel mill producing long steel by liquid iron in addition to the changing temperature of 1400 degrees Celsius of EAFD 'as received', the percentage of EAFD to be added (5, 10 and 20% of initial weight of sample pig iron) and the time of withdrawal of the sample of pig iron and slag (30 minutes after the addition of EAFD). Previously, the EAFD will be characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, specific surface area, Xray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. . After characterization, the EAFD will be added to the bath of liquid pig iron. It is expected that the results obtained at the end of the research allow the evaluation of the iron metal incorporation of EAFD in pig iron bath. (author)

  7. High Alumina Refractory Bricks for Electric Arc Furnace Roofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the sort, technical requirement, test method, inspection rules, marking, packing, transportation, storage and quality certification of high alumina refractory bricks for electric arc furnace roofs.

  8. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    OpenAIRE

    D. Baricová; P. Futáš; A. Pribulová; G. Fedorko; P. Demeter

    2012-01-01

    Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace) and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with ...

  9. Innovation in electric arc furnaces scientific basis for selection

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouevski, Yuri N

    2013-01-01

    This book equips a reader with knowledge necessary for critical analysis of  innovations in electric arc furnaces and helps to select the most effective ones and for their successful implementation. The book also covers general issues related to history of development, current state and prospects of steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces. Therefore, it can be useful for everybody who studies metallurgy, including students of colleges and universities. The modern concepts of mechanisms of Arc Furnace processes are are discussed in the book at the level sufficient to solve practical problems: To help readers lacking knowledge required in the field of heat transfer as well as hydro-gas dynamics, it contains several chapters which provide the required minimum of information in these fields of science. In order to better assess different innovations, the book describes experience of the application of similar innovations in open-hearth furnaces and oxygen converters. Some promising ideas on key issues regarding int...

  10. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng; MENG Yuedong; YU Xinyao; CHEN Longwei; JIANG Yiman; NI Guohua; CHEN Mingzhou

    2009-01-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example,the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  11. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

    2009-04-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  12. Improvement of electrical arc furnace operation with an appropriate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical arc furnaces are commonly employed in industry to produce molten steel by melting iron and scrap steel. Furnace control is a necessary operation for production optimization. The principal parameters to be controlled are: maximum productivity requirements, minimum power off time, good power quality and safety. The aim of this study is to achieve all these objectives. Hence, because of the stochastic and dynamic behaviour of the arc during the melting process, a proposed model is checked with measurements at an industrial electrical arc furnace. How electrodes position and transformer taps can affect X and R arc function are discussed in detail. This new operating strategy has been determined taking into account Flicker, melting stages and electrode positions. It is shown that optimum efficiency can be reached by the integration of the proposed model in regulation loop.

  13. Direct Current Electric Arc-Electroslag Ladle Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to solve the high consumption problem of small capacity ladle furnace (LF), the operation principle and control method of the DC arc and electroslag heating ladle furnace are introduced. With only one arcing electrode, the distance between the arc and the wall of ladle is enlarged, and consequently the consumption of the ladle refractory is decreased. In the invention, a signal electrode is embedded in the refractory lining of the ladle, which contacts directly with the liquid steel and the ladle shell. Two graphite anode ends are submerged in the slag layer. The signal electrode is used as voltage reference during refining process. The electroslag voltage between anode end and liquid steel is applied to control the depth of anode end in the slag layer during the refining process with this ladle furnace.

  14. Dual Torch Plasma Arc Furnace for Medical Waste Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; M.KIKUCHI; LI Heping; T.IWAO; T.INABA

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,characteristics of a dual torch plasma arc used for hazardous waste treatment and operated at atmospheric pressure are studied,and also compared with those of the multi-torch plasma arc and the single torch plasma arc.The dual torch plasma arc is generated between the cathode and anode with argon as the working gas.The temperature distributions of the plasma arc are measured using a spectroscope and line pair method with the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the DC arc current I = 100 A and argon flow rate Q = 15 slpm.The measurements show that the temperatures of the dual torch arc plasma in the regions near the cathode,the anode and the center point are 10,000 K,11,000 K and 9,000 K,respectively.And the high temperature region of the multi torch plasma arc is of double or much wider size than that of a conventional dual torch plasma arc and single plasma torch.Based on the preceding studies,a dual torch plasma arc furnace is developed in this study.The measured gas temperature at the center region of the argon arc is about 11,000 K for the case of I = 200 A and Q = 30 slpm operated in atmosphere.

  15. Heat Transfer Analysis for Industrial AC Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (U)nal (C)amdali; Murat Tun(c)

    2005-01-01

    The heat transfer analysis was performed for an AC electric arc furnace (EAF). Heat losses by conduction, convection and radiation from outer surface, roof, bottom and electrodes of EAF were determined in detail. Some suggestions about decreasing heat losses were presented.

  16. Electric arc furnace melting of simulated transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an interagency agreement between the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, and the US Department of Energy through its contractor, EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Bureau conducted six melting tests at its Albany Research Center to assess the feasibility of melting transuranic-containing wastes. The tests were conducted with simulated wastes in a conventional refractory-lined electric arc furnace. Charge materials included concrete, soil, metal, wood, CaO- and Na2O-containing chemical waste sludges, cement, and polyethylene mixed in various proportions in both unburned and partially incinerated forms. The investigation showed that it is possible to melt these materials in a 1-metric-ton conventional electric arc furnace and separate the slag and metal provided that suitable fluxes are added to condition the silicious slages. However, the electric arc furnace cannot be considered an efficient incinerator. The molten slags were poured into 210-liter steel drums having a 0.64-cm-thick steel chill plate on the bottom. All slags were tapped from the furnace satisfactorily. The concrete and sludge materials required the most energy for melting (2.2 to 2.6 kWhr/kg). The highest electrode consumption occurred when the sludges were melted (0.04 kg/kg product). A high alumina-chrome refractory is satisfactory for use as a furnace lining in melting these wastes. Offgases and particulates from all of the tests were sampled and analyzed. The greatest amounts of particulate matter in the offgas streams were obtained from melting sludges and incinerated wastes. It is recommended that if a conventional electric arc furnace is used to melt transuranic waste that it (1) be fed slowly to prevent excessive fumes and flames and (2) be operated continuously to minimize startup problems and improve efficiency

  17. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of

  18. DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mingzhou; MENG Yuedong; SHI Jiabiao; KUANG Jingan; NI Guohua; LIU Wei; JIANG Yiman

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China.At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h,the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300℃.Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent,I-TEQ),well below 0.5 ng TEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent,TEQ),while those in the melted product(slag)were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ.Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals.These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash.

  19. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  20. Recycling MgO-C refractory in electric arc furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conejo, A.N. [Metallurgy Department, Morelia Technological Institute, Morelia (Mexico); Lule, R.G.; Lopez, F. [Process Engineering Department-Steelmaking Shop, Lazaro Cardenas City (Mexico); Rodriguez, R. [Refractories Department, Lazaro Cardenas City (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    MgO-C refractory recycling from electric arc furnaces and ladle furnaces has been carried out during the melting of direct reduced iron (DRI). Metallurgical trials to define the effects of refractory recycling on energy consumption, melting time, flux consumption and refractory consumption are reported in this work. The method of preparation as well as the method of injection is also included in this study. Based on current results, the practice of recycling spent refractory is highly recommended. Visual inspection indicates the potential benefits in slag foaming which starts to form at the beginning of the heat thus allowing the use of full power transformer and in turn results in faster melting rates. (author)

  1. Improving the Quality of Electric Energy to Electric Arc Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Ioan Toma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of power quality problems created by an electric arc furnace (EAF with eccentric bottom tap (EBT at power system. The analysis have been done to EAF of 100 t capacity used for steel melting. Experimental results show this EAF is substantial source of electric disturbances, such as voltage fluctuations, flicker, harmonics, and unbalance between phases. Improvement of the quality of electric energy at EAF imposes a careful technical and economical analysis. Of all possible solutions for improvement of the power quality for an EAF (passive filter, STATCOM or SVC, SVC is the ideal solution.

  2. Mass Balance Modeling for Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace System in Steelmaking Facility in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (I)smail Ekmek(c)i; Ya(s)ar Yetisken; (U)nal (C)amdali

    2007-01-01

    In the electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production processes, scrap steel is principally used as a raw material instead of iron ore. In the steelmaking process with EAF, scrap is first melted in the furnace and then the desired chemical composition of the steel can be obtained in a special furnace such as ladle furnace (LF). This kind of furnace process is used for the secondary refining of alloy steel. LF furnace offers strong heating fluxes and enables precise temperature control, thereby allowing for the addition of desired amounts of various alloying elements. It also provides outstanding desulfurization at high-temperature treatment by reducing molten steel fluxes and removing deoxidation products. Elemental analysis with mass balance modeling is important to know the precise amount of required alloys for the LF input with respect to scrap composition. In present study, chemical reactions with mass conservation law in EAF and LF were modeled altogether as a whole system and chemical compositions of the final steel alloy output can be obtained precisely according to different scrap compositions, alloying elements ratios, and other input amounts. Besides, it was found that the mass efficiency for iron element in the system is 95.93%. These efficiencies are calculated for all input elements as 8.45% for C, 30.31% for Si, 46.36% for Mn, 30.64% for P, 41.96% for S, and 69.79% for Cr, etc. These efficiencies provide valuable ideas about the amount of the input materials that are vanished or combusted for 100 kg of each of the input materials in the EAF and LF system.

  3. Fluid Flow Modeling of Arc Plasma and Bath Circulation in DC Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-hua; JIN Zhi-jian; ZHU Zi-shu

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the flow field, heat transfer and the electromagnetic phenomenon in a DC electric arc furnace has been developed. First the governing equations in the arc plasma region are solved and the calculated results of heat transfer, current density and shear stresses on the anode surface are used as boundary conditions in a model of molten bath. Then a two-dimensional time-dependent model is used to describe the flow field and electromagnetic phenomenon in the molten bath. Moreover, the effect of bottom electrode diameter on the circulation of molten bath is studied.

  4. The flash reduction of electric arc furnace dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Themelis, Nickolas J.

    1992-01-01

    The flash processing of electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts is a promising method for recovering zinc and producing nontoxic slags for direct disposal. In order to reduce the zinc content of the dust particles and maintain the iron content in oxide form, a certain range of temperature and oxygen potential must be provided, as dictated by thermodynamic requirements. Experiments were conducted with EAF dusts at three levels of zinc concentration in an electrically heated flash reactor. The results showed that the CO:CO2 ratio in the process gas was the most important parameter. The effects of zinc content in dust and O2 in inlet gas on zinc recovery were secondary. Toxicity leach tests showed that the resulting slag, even at low zinc recovery, can be disposed safely as landfill.

  5. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 μm). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe2O4, Fe3O4, ZnO e SiO2. This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  6. Iron loss in high-power arc steelmaking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Karasyov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is considered the power operating mode of a high-power arc steelmaking furnaces (ASMF in the period of the flat bath. It is revealed that electric energy is mainly spent for heating and overheating the foamed slag. Heat transferring from slag to metal is carried out by the convective agitation of the bath. For agitation there is used intensive purging of the bath with oxygen that causes increased iron losses with the running foamed slag. There are noted the negative points of working with the foamed slag. It is recommended to expand R&D in the field of optimizing the power operating mode of high-power ASMF.

  7. Applicability of Carbonated Electric Arc Furnace Slag to Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S.; Arisawa, R.; Hisyamudin, M. N. N.; Murakami, K.; Maegawa, A.; Izaki, M.

    2012-03-01

    Authors have been studying the absorption of CO2 in the steelmaking slag. In this study, an application of the electric arc furnace slag after the carbonation to admixture of mortar was investigated with the JIS (A6206-1997) method for ground granulated blast-furnace slag for concrete. The percent flows for the test mortar were smaller than that for the standard mortar. The percent flow of the carbonated slag whose average particle size of more than approximately 4 μm increased with an increase in the average size of the particles. Because the compressive strengths of the test mortar cured for 91 days were almost the same as those cured 28 days, the slag after the carbonation was thought not to have self-hardening property for a medium and long term. The compressive strength for the test mortar was almost unchanged within a range of approximately 2 to 7 μm of the average particle size, and it in this range was highest. The activity indexes for the test mortar prepared with the slag after the carbonation ranged from approximately 40 to 60 %.

  8. Applicability of Carbonated Electric Arc Furnace Slag to Mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have been studying the absorption of CO2 in the steelmaking slag. In this study, an application of the electric arc furnace slag after the carbonation to admixture of mortar was investigated with the JIS (A6206-1997) method for ground granulated blast-furnace slag for concrete. The percent flows for the test mortar were smaller than that for the standard mortar. The percent flow of the carbonated slag whose average particle size of more than approximately 4 μm increased with an increase in the average size of the particles. Because the compressive strengths of the test mortar cured for 91 days were almost the same as those cured 28 days, the slag after the carbonation was thought not to have self-hardening property for a medium and long term. The compressive strength for the test mortar was almost unchanged within a range of approximately 2 to 7 μm of the average particle size, and it in this range was highest. The activity indexes for the test mortar prepared with the slag after the carbonation ranged from approximately 40 to 60%.

  9. A bench arc-furnace facility for fullerene and single-wall nanotubes synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber John G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A metallic-sample arc-furnace was modified to synthesize fullerenes and nanotubes. The (reversible changes and the process for producing single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs are described.

  10. Life cycle cost analysis for the Plasma Arc Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes-Smith, P.

    1994-03-01

    This document is a draft version. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program requested that the Systems Analysis Group investigate the cost effectiveness of using the Plasma Arc Furnace (PAF) module in place of specified thermal and final forms treatment equipment in the baseline Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) study as performed by Bechtel Corporation, September 1992. The attached estimates are based on the process equipment and facilities cost data contained in the Bechtel study. The PAF process equipment and facilities cost data were developed using independent cost estimates for the equipment list provided by SAIC, Waste Management and Technology Division, in cooperation with the Pollution Prevention and Systems Analysis Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Division. In order to develop the total life cycle cost estimate comparison for this study, it was necessary to use a common base for comparison. Although it was felt that the Bechtel MWTP study did not fully reflect the optimum size for the thermal and final forms treatment equipment, it was the best available data at the time.

  11. Stabilization of electric-arc furnace dust in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Caldas de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric-arc furnace dust (EAFD is a by-product of steel production and recycling. This fine-grained material contains high amounts of zinc and iron as well as significant amounts of potentially toxic elements such as lead, cadmium and chromium. Therefore, the treatment and stabilization of this industrial residue is necessary. Concrete is a well-known suitable environment for stabilization/solidification of materials which have leachable elements in need of fixation. The effect of the EAFD content on the mechanical and chemical performance of Portland cement concrete is investigated in this paper. The effect of the EAFD content on the setting time of cement slurry was also analyzed. The axial compressive strength of the concrete samples increases with the EAFD addition in the range of 10 to 20 wt. (% EAFD; also the tensile strength increases with the EAFD addition. An increase in EAFD content significantly increases the setting time of the concrete. The acetic acid leaching and water solubilization tests indicate low mobility of the potentially toxic elements from the EAFD concrete composite. The results of the immersion tests show that the addition of EAFD to the concrete seems to reduce chloride penetration, which may help prevent pitting corrosion in reinforced concrete.

  12. Combinatorial synthesis of phosphors using arc-imaging furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Ishigaki, Kenji Toda, Masahiro Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi Uematsu and Mineo Sato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have applied a novel 'melt synthesis technique' rather than a conventional solid-state reaction to rapidly synthesize phosphor materials. During a synthesis, the mixture of oxides or their precursors is melted by light pulses (10–60 s in an arc-imaging furnace on a water-cooled copper hearth to form a globule of 1–5 mm diameter, which is then rapidly cooled by turning off the light. Using this method, we synthesized several phosphor compounds including Y3Al5O12:Ce(YAG and SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy. Complex phosphor oxides are difficult to produce by conventional solid-state reaction techniques because of the slow reaction rates among solid oxides; as a result, the oxides form homogeneous compounds or solid solutions. On the other hand, melt reactions are very fast (10–60 s and result in homogeneous compounds owing to rapid diffusion and mixing in the liquid phase. Therefore, melt synthesis techniques are suitable for preparing multi component homogeneous compounds and solid solutions.

  13. Plasma arc and cold crucible furnace vitrification for medium level waste: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, S.; Fiquet, O.; Bourdeloie, C.; Gramondi, P.; Rebollo, F. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets, DED, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Girold, C.; Charvillat, J.P.; Boen, R.; Jouan, A.; Ladirat, C.; Nabot, J.P.; Ochem, D. [CEA Marcoule, Dept. d' Ingenierie et d' Etudes des Confinements DIEC, 30 (France); Baronnet, J.M. [Limoges Univ., Lab. de Chimie des Plasma, 87 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Initially developed for high-level waste reprocessing, several vitrification processes have been under study since the 80's at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for other waste categories. According to the French law concerning waste management research passed on December 30, 1991, vitrification may be applied to mixed medium-level waste. A review of processes developed at CEA is presented: cold crucible furnace heated by induced current, refractory furnace heated by nitrogen transferred arc plasma torch, and coupling of cold crucible furnace with oxygen transferred plasma arc twin torch. Furthermore, gas post-combustion has been studied with an oxygen non-transferred plasma torch. (authors)

  14. Plasma arc and cold crucible furnace vitrification for medium level waste: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially developed for high-level waste reprocessing, several vitrification processes have been under study since the 80's at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for other waste categories. According to the French law concerning waste management research passed on December 30, 1991, vitrification may be applied to mixed medium-level waste. A review of processes developed at CEA is presented: cold crucible furnace heated by induced current, refractory furnace heated by nitrogen transferred arc plasma torch, and coupling of cold crucible furnace with oxygen transferred plasma arc twin torch. Furthermore, gas post-combustion has been studied with an oxygen non-transferred plasma torch. (authors)

  15. Characterization of steel mill electric-arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to make a complete characterization of electric-arc furnace (EAF) dust, as hazardous industrial waste, and to solve its permanent disposal and/or recovery, bearing in mind both the volumes formed in the Croatian steel industry and experiences of developed industrial countries, a study of its properties was undertaken. For this purpose, samples of EAF dust, taken from the regular production process in the Zeljezara Sisak Steel Mill between December 2000 and December 2001, were subjected to a series of tests. The chemical composition of EAF dust samples was investigated by means of a several different analytical methods. The results from the chemical analysis show that the approximate order of abundance of major elements in EAF dusts is as follows: Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Si, Pb, S, Cr, Cu, Al, C, Ni, Cd, As and Hg. Granular-metric composition of single samples was determined by applying sieve separation. Scanning electron micro-structural examination of EAF dust microstructure was performed and results indicated that all twelve EAF dusts were composed of solid spherical agglomerates with Fe, Zn, Pb, O, Si and Ca as the principal element. The investigation of grain morphology and the mineralogical composition of EAF dust were taken by combination of high resolution Auger electron spectroscopy (HR AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The analysis of XPS-spectra determined the presence of zinc in the form of ZnO phase and the presence of lead in the form of PbO phase, i.e. PbSO3/PbSO4 forms. The results of the X-ray diffraction phase analysis show that the basis of the examined EAF dust samples is made of a mixture of metal oxides, silicates and sulphates. The metal concentration, anions, pH value and conductivity in water eluates was determined in order to define the influence of EAF dust on the environment

  16. Melting Characteristics for Radioactive Aluminum Wastes in Electric Arc Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Pyung Seob; Ahn, Jun Hyung; Cho, Wang Kyu; Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung Youn; Kang, Yong [School of Chemical Emgineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The characteristics of the aluminum waste melting and the distribution of the radioactive nuclides have been investigated for the estimation on the volume reduction and the decontamination of the aluminum wastes from the decommissioning of the TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The aluminum wastes were melted with the use of the fluxes such as flux A : NaCl-KCl-Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}, flux B : NaCl-NaF-KF, flux C : CaF{sub 2}, and flux D : LiF-KCl-BaCl{sub 2} in the DC graphite arc furnace. For the assessment of the distribution of the radioactive nuclides during the melting of the aluminum, the aluminum materials were contaminated by the surrogate nuclides such as cobalt(Co), cesium(Cs) and strontium(Sr). The fluidity of aluminum melt was increased with the addition of the fluxes, which has slight difference according to the type of fluxes. The formation of the slag during the aluminum melting added the flux type C and D was larger than that with the flux A and B. The rate of the slag formation linearly increased with increasing the flux concentration. The results of the XRD analysis showed that the surrogate nuclide was transferred to the slag, which can be easily separated from the melt and then they combined with aluminum oxide to form a more stable compound. The distribution ratio of cobalt in ingot to that in slag was more than 40% at all types of fluxes. Since vapor pressures of cesium and strontium were higher than those that of the host metals at the melting temperature, their removal efficiency from the ingot phase to the slag and the dust phase was by up to 98%.

  17. Melting Characteristics for Radioactive Aluminum Wastes in Electric Arc Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the aluminum waste melting and the distribution of the radioactive nuclides have been investigated for the estimation on the volume reduction and the decontamination of the aluminum wastes from the decommissioning of the TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The aluminum wastes were melted with the use of the fluxes such as flux A : NaCl-KCl-Na3AlF6, flux B : NaCl-NaF-KF, flux C : CaF2, and flux D : LiF-KCl-BaCl2 in the DC graphite arc furnace. For the assessment of the distribution of the radioactive nuclides during the melting of the aluminum, the aluminum materials were contaminated by the surrogate nuclides such as cobalt(Co), cesium(Cs) and strontium(Sr). The fluidity of aluminum melt was increased with the addition of the fluxes, which has slight difference according to the type of fluxes. The formation of the slag during the aluminum melting added the flux type C and D was larger than that with the flux A and B. The rate of the slag formation linearly increased with increasing the flux concentration. The results of the XRD analysis showed that the surrogate nuclide was transferred to the slag, which can be easily separated from the melt and then they combined with aluminum oxide to form a more stable compound. The distribution ratio of cobalt in ingot to that in slag was more than 40% at all types of fluxes. Since vapor pressures of cesium and strontium were higher than those that of the host metals at the melting temperature, their removal efficiency from the ingot phase to the slag and the dust phase was by up to 98%.

  18. Treatment of simulated INEL buried wastes using a graphite electrode DC arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program has been established under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop the graphite electrode DC arc technology for the application of treating buried heterogenous solid wastes. A three way open-quotes National Laboratory-University-Industryclose quotes partnership was formed to develop this technology in the most timely and cost effective manner. This program is presently testing a newly fabricated pilot-scale DC arc furnace with associated diagnostics at the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Initial testing in a smaller engineering scale furnace has established the viability of this technology for the treatment of solid heterogeneous wastes. Two diagnostic tools were developed under this program which support the evaluation of the DC arc technology. The diagnostics provide for both spatially resolved temperature measurements within the furnace and real time monitoring of the furnace metal emissions

  19. Innovation approaches to controlling the electric regimes of electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikeev, R. A.; Serikov, V. A.; Ognev, A. M.; Rechkalov, A. V.; Cherednichenko, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    The processes of current passage in an ac electric arc furnace (EAF) are subjected to industrial experiments and mathematical simulation. It is shown that, when a charge is melted, arcs between charge fragments exist in series with main arc discharges, and these arcs influence the stability of the main arc discharges. The measurement of instantaneous currents and voltages allowed us to perform a real-time calculation of the electrical characteristics of a three-phase circuit and to determine the θ parameter, which characterizes the nonlinearity of the circuit segment between electrodes. Based on these studies, we created an advanced system for controlling the electric regime of EAF.

  20. IRON ORE SINTER PRODUCTION USING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bridi Telles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel production through Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF generates approximately 15% to 20% of Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD. This waste is considered dangerous due to the presence of metals as lead and cadmium that leach in contact with water. Because of this, the EAFD recycling becomes an alternative to diminish the costs with landfills and environmental harms caused by the waste. The iron ore sintering is a process that reuses most part of powders generated by the steelmaking. However the EAFD is not reused in this process because it contains zinc. The zinc is highly detrimental inside blast furnaces causing heavy crusts and affecting the thermodynamic equilibrium of the process. Therefore, this work studies the EAFD reuse in the iron ore sintering process to produce iron ore sinter with zinc contents between the limits established for blast furnaces.

  1. Voltage Flicker Mitigation in Electric Arc Furnace using D-STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthisree Madathil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The major power quality issue of voltage flicker has resulted as a serious concern for the customers and heavy power companies. Voltage flicker is an impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by a light source whose luminance fluctuates with time. This phenomenon is experienced when an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF as load is connected to the power system. Flexible AC transmission devices (FACTS devices were gradually utilized for voltage flicker reduction. In this paper the FACTS device of Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM is used to serve the purpose of mitigating voltage flickering caused by electric arc furnace load, which is efficiently controlled by Icosɸ control algorithm. The model of electric arc furnace is considered as a current source controlled by a non linear resistance, which had been simulated and performance was analyzed using MATLAB/SIMULINK Software.

  2. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development of vitreous ceramic tiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritwik Sarkar; Nar Singh; Swapan Kumar Das

    2010-06-01

    Steel melting through electric arc furnace route is gaining popularity due to its many advantages, but generates a new waste, electric arc furnace slag, which is getting accumulated and land/mine filling and road construction are the only utilization. This slag has been tried to be value added and utilized to develop vitreous ceramic tiles. Slag, to the extent of 30–40 wt% with other conventional raw materials, were used for the development in the temperature range 1100–1150°C. The fired products showed relatively higher density with shorter firing range and good strength properties. Microstructural and EDAX studies were also done to evaluate the developed products.

  3. Predictive control of ac electric Arc furnace and its stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An active power filter with dynamic control method is used for harmonic elimination and power factor correction of an Electric Arc Furnace. This new control technique is very suitable for suppressing harmonics of nonlinear loads. In addition, other parameters such as the power factor can also be controlled. A nonlinear model of Electric Arc Furnace and its Box-Jenkins model are used and compared. These models are parameterized by actual field data. The stability of the entire system is analyzed by using Stable Equilibrium Area Existencelemma

  4. Gunning Mix or Converter and Electric Arc Furnace in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJie-hua; ZHANGYong-fang

    1996-01-01

    The increase of steel output by converter and electric are furnace has imposed a critical demand in quality and quantity on gunning mix in functioning a longer life of those de-vices linings.The paoer describes the consump-tion of gunning mix for converter and EAF and its recent development in variety and quality in China.

  5. Application of Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Mitigation of Flicker Generated by Electrical Arc Furnace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubín, P.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    Madeira : APDEE, 2007, s. 1-5. ISBN 978-972-8822-08-8. [ Portuguese -Spanish Conference in Electrical Engineering - XCLEEE /10./. Madeira (PT), 05.07.2007-08.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : electrical arc furnace * flicker * subharmonics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Computer Aided Mass Balance Analysis for AC Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (ü)nal Camdali; Murat Tunc

    2005-01-01

    A mass balance analysis was undertaken for liquid steel production using a computer program specially developed for the AC electric arc furnace at an important alloy steel producer in Turkey. The data obtained by using the computer program were found to be very close to the actual production ones.

  7. Skid resistance performance of asphalt wearing courses with electric arc furnace slag aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, Fotini

    2009-05-01

    Metallurgical slags are by-products of the iron and steel industry and are subdivided into blast furnace slag and steel slag according to the different steel-producing processes. In Greece, slags are mostly produced from steelmaking using the electric arc furnace process, and subsequently are either disposed in a random way or utilized by the cement industry. Steel slag has been recently used, worldwide, as hard aggregates in wearing courses in order to improve the skidding resistance of asphalt pavements. At the Highway Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki research has been carried out in the field of steel slags, and especially in electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, to evaluate their possible use in highway engineering. In this paper, the recent results of anti-skidding performance of steel slag aggregates in highway pavements are presented. PMID:19423603

  8. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600 degrees C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation

  9. Thermodynamic calculation on the smelting slag of direct recycling of electric arc furnace stainless steelmaking dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculation on the smelting slag of direct recycling of electric arc furnace stainless steelmaking dust was presented. An induction furnace was used to simulate electric arc furnace smelting to recover the metals from the dust. The elements of iron, chromium and nickel in the ingot and the components of metal oxides in the slag were analyzed. The thermodynamic model for FeO-Cr2 O3-MgO-SiO2 slag was set up and the active concentrations of substances in the slag at 1 550 ℃C were determined by thermodynamic calculation according to the experimental data. The results show that the apparent equilibrium constant and quantitative distribution of chromium between slag and steel are unstable and affected by the mass ratios of pellets to start iron and metal reducing agent to the pellets. In order to get satisfactory chromium recovery from the direct recycling of electric arc furnace stainless steelmaking dust, it is important to ensure the mass ratio of pellets to the steel below 0.20 and the mass ratio of metal reducing agent to pellets over 0.18 in practical smelting runs.

  10. Maximizing the transferred power to electric arc furnace for having maximum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase production of an EAF (electric arc furnace) by reduction of melting time, one can increase transferred power to the EAF. In other words a certain value of energy can be transferred to the EAF in less time. The transferred power to the EAF reduces when series reactors are utilized in order to have stable arc with desired characteristics. To compensate the reduced transferred power, the secondary voltage of the EAF transformer should be increased by tap changing of the transformer. On the other hand, after any tap changing of the EAF transformer, improved arc stability is degraded. Therefore, the series reactor and EAF transformer tap changing should be simultaneously determined to achieve arc with desired characteristics. In this research, three approaches are proposed to calculate the EAF system parameters, by which the optimal set-points of the different series reactor and EAF transformer taps are determined. The electric characteristics relevant to the EAF for the all transformer and series reactor taps with and without SVC (static VAr compensator) are plotted and based on these graphs the optimal set-points are tabulated. Finally, an economic evaluation is also presented for the methods. - Highlights: • The main goal is to transfer the maximum power to electric arc furnace. • Optimal transformer and series reactor taps are determined. • Arc stability and transferred power to EAF determine the optimal performance. • An economic assessment is done and the number of increased meltings is calculated

  11. New technology developed for optimization of electric arc furnace fume systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    A new control technology for the optimization of electric arc furnace fume systems has been developed by Goodfellow Technologies Inc. The process, entitled the Expert Furnace System Optimization Process (EFSOP{sup TM)}, uses continuous fume analysis, flow measurement and temperature measurement, as well as real-time process data, to adjust fume system setpoints and operation on a minute-by-minute basis. The system can also be used to control post-combustion systems. EFSOP{sup TM} optimizes furnace combustion and reduces energy costs. The furnace off-gas is analyzed just before the combustion gap in order to quantify the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) in the off-gas as a result of incomplete combustion of oxygen and fuel in the furnace shell. Some furnace practices also result in high levels of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the off-gas stream. With EFSOP{sup TM}, CO and H{sub 2} concentrations are decreased at every point in the ventilation system thereby minimizing explosion risks in the system.

  12. Waste form development for a DC arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory crucible study was conducted to develop waste forms to treat nonradioactive simulated 238Pu heterogeneous debris waste from Savannah River, metal waste from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and nominal waste also from INEL using DC arc melting. The preliminary results showed that the different waste form compositions had vastly different responses for each processing effect. The reducing condition of DC arc melting had no significant effects on the durability of some waste forms while it decreased the waste form durability from 300 to 700% for other waste forms, which resulted in the failure of some TCLP tests. The right formulations of waste can benefit from devitrification and showed an increase in durability by 40%. Some formulations showed no devitrification effects while others decreased durability by 200%. Increased waste loading also affected waste form behavior, decreasing durability for one waste, increasing durability by 240% for another, and showing no effect for the third waste. All of these responses to the processing and composition variations were dictated by the fundamental glass chemistry and can be adjusted to achieve maximal waste loading, acceptable durability, and desired processing characteristics if each waste formulation is designed for the result according to the glass chemistry

  13. A comparison of the economics of materials processing with solar furnaces and high-intensity arc lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the cost and performance of treating materials with a solar furnace that were compared to similar treatment with high-intensity electric-arc lamps. Qualitative results indicate that because of the long focal length of the solar furnace, it is capable of performing much dirtier materials processing tasks than the arc lamp. Quantitative results indicate that if the furnace is located in a good solar region, the solar furnace can beat the economics of the lamp by as much as a factor of three under certain operating scenarios. In other scenarios, the lamp is more cost-effective. The scenario that appears most promising for the furnace is batch processing that employs flux levels near 500 W/cm2 or greater. At lower flux levels, or in assembly-line-type processing tasks, the arc lamp is preferred

  14. On the long-term correlations and multifractal properties of electric arc furnace time series

    CERN Document Server

    Livi, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Antonello; Sadeghian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study long-term correlations and multifractal properties elaborated from time series of three-phase current signals coming from an industrial electric arc furnace plant. Implicit sinusoidal trends are suitably detected in the scaling of the fluctuation function of such time series. Time series are then initially filtered via a Fourier based analysis, removing hence such strong periodicities. In the filtered time series we detected long-term, positive correlations. The presence of persistent correlations is in agreement with the typical V--I characteristic (hysteresis) of the electric arc furnace, justifying thus the memory effects found in the current time series. The multifractal signature is strong enough in the filtered time series to be effectively classified as multifractal.

  15. Electric arc furnace dust utilization in iron ore sintering: influence of particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the utilization of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) generated in steelmaking by electric arc furnace (EAF) as raw material in iron ore sintering. The waste was characterized by size, chemical composition and X-ray diffraction. The physical characterization showed that 90% of the particles have a size less then 1,78 μm and the material have the tendency to agglomerate. The waste were submitted to a pre-agglomeration prior to its incorporation in the sinter. The influence on the addition of the waste with different granulometry in the iron or sinter production were analyzed by sinter characterization and sintering parameters. (author)

  16. Quality of steel melted in plasma-arc furnace with ceramic crucible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particular features are discussed involved in the melting of steels Kh18N10T, 000Kh18N11, Kh12M and some others in a plasmarc furnace with a ceramic crucible. Conditions are considered providing for the best metal deoxidation, nitrogen dissolving in a hot metal, removal of impurities. Examination of stainless, tool and other high-alloy steels produced in plasmarc furnaces has revealed that these steels, as far as oxygen and nonmetallics content is concerned, are purer than the metal obtained in open arc furnaces. Indications are presented for the higher technological plasticity of tool rapid and stainless steels, the better corrosion resistance of stainless steels and the enhanced durability of steels for electric heaters, the more favourable strength properties of the materials under consideration. The plasmarc melting in combination with the various forms of refining remelting is advisable for the steels which are to comply with particularly severe requirements

  17. Utilization of zinc in powders from electric arc furnaces in steel production

    OpenAIRE

    Boyanov B.S.; Baev T.B.

    2009-01-01

    The processing of waste powders from steel production in electric arc furnaces is a world problem. The presence of Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, etc. in the powders makes them a valuable source for these metals. Zinc is the metal that is most often utilized, which leads to reduction of environmental pollution. The greatest problem in this connection is the presence of chlorine and fluorine in the powders, which influences the electroextraction of zinc in a significantly negative way. The presented paper sh...

  18. Recycling of an electric arc furnace flue dust to obtain high grade ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Ruíz, Oscar; Clemente, Carmen; Alonso Gámez, Manuel; Alguacil, Francisco José

    2007-01-01

    The production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. These steelmaking flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the heavy metals contained in them, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. However, and at the same time they contain zinc species which can be used as a source to obtain valuable by-products. The present investigation shows results on the processing of an EAF flue du...

  19. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated

  20. Stabilizing Gap of Pole Electric Arc Furnace Using Smart Hydraulic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Yahya Sallom

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnace applications in industry are related to position system of its pole, up and down of pole. The pole should be set the certain gap. These setting are needed to calibrate. It is done manually. In this research will proposed smart hydraulic to make this pole works as intelligent using proportional directional control valve. The output of this research will develop and improve the working of the electric arc furnace. This research requires study and design of the system to achieve the purpose and representation using Automation Studio software (AS, in addition to mathematically analyzed and where they were building a laboratory device similar to the design and conduct experiments to study the system in practice and compared with simulation.Experimental tests show that the performance of electro hydraulic closed loop system (EHCLS for position control is good and the output results are good and acceptable. The practical results and simulation using (AS software are clearly convergence. It was concluded that the possibility of the implementation of this project in industrial processes such as electric arc furnaces to control the distance between the pole and smelting molten material in addition to other applications.

  1. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the development of an integrated process for the recovery of zinc from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Part I presents the EAFD characterization and its leaching process by diluted sulphuric acid, whereas Part II deals with the purification of the leach liquor and the recovery of zinc by solvent extraction/electrowinning. The characterization of the examined electric arc furnace dust was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The leaching process was based on the Zn extraction with diluted sulphuric acid from EAFD under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The zinc recovery efficiency on the basis of EAFD weight reached 80%. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the leached residues.

  2. High-Purity Composite Briquette for Direct UMG-Si Production in Arc Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchoud, Raymond; Fischer, Jean-Claude

    2013-12-01

    In metallurgical grade Si (MG-Si), the coal (B) and charcoal (P) contents are on average above 30 ppm as the carbon reduction materials used in the arc furnace are either rich in B or in P. A decrease of both impurities by a factor of 3 using purer raw materials would allow for the direct production of the upgraded metallurgical grade (UMG).This would significantly improve the efficiency of the resulting photovoltaic (PV) cells made with the refined solar grade silicon (SoG-Si) or massively decrease the costs of Si purification by shortening the number of steps needed for reaching B and P contents below 1 ppm requested for the SoG-Si used for the PV cells. A composite C/SiO2 briquette fulfilling the purity targets for the direct production of UMG-Si in the arc furnace was developed. The composite contains several carbon materials with different levels of reactivities and quartz sand. The raw materials aspects, the paste and briquette preparation, as well as the final carbonization step are discussed. The finished briquettes are free of volatiles and are mechanically and thermally very stable, thus, ensuring stable arc furnace charges with minimum losses of dust and SiO gas. Semi-industrial trials including the downstream purification steps for the production of SoG-Si by a metallurgical low-cost route are contemplated.

  3. Improved cooler design of electric arc furnace refractory in mining industry using thermal analysis modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of steel and nickel using the electric arc furnace should be focused on the intensification of energy. Improvement of energy efficiency of the most consuming facilities was achieved by improving the use of alternative energy minimization such as reducing the heat lost of hot gases, minimizing the heat radiated through refractory linings of metallurgical furnaces, and cooling the highly thermally stressed components. The refractory of electric arc furnace should be modified to achieve the best cooling system of the furnace. In this physical modeling and simulation works, four modification scenarios of wall refractory designs were simulated, i.e. refractory with basic design, refractory with deep plate coolers, refractory with extra plate coolers, and refractory with wall falling film coolers. Finally, the use of deep plate cooler and the existing waffle cooler system was considered to be the best design of efficient electric arc furnace operationally. - Highlights: • Electric arc furnace design should be focused on the intensification of energy. • Refractory of electric arc furnace were modified to achieve the best cooling system. • Four modification scenarios of the wall refractory designs were simulated. • Use of deep plate cooler and existing waffle cooler system is the best cooling

  4. Optimal Design of TCR/FC in Electric Arc Furnaces for Power Quality Improvement in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi TORABIAN ESFAHANI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric Arc Furnaces (EAFs are unbalanced, nonlinear and time varying loads, which can cause many problems in the power system quality. As the use of arc furnace loads increases in industry, the importance of the power quality problems also increase. So in order to optimize the usages of electric power in EAFs, it is necessary to minimize the effects of arc furnace loads on power quality in power systems as much as possible. Therefore, in this paper, design and simulation of an electric plant supplying an arc furnace is considered. For this purpose, a three phase arc furnace model, which can simulate all the mentioned power quality indices, is developed based on Hyperbolic -Exponential model (V-I model. Then by considering the high changes of reactive power and voltage flicker of nonlinear furnace load, a thyristor controlled reactor compensation with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC are designed and simulated. In this procedure, the reactive power is measured so that maximum speed and accuracy are achieved. Finally, simulation results verify the accuracy of the load modelling and show the effectiveness of the proposed TCR/FC model for reactive compensating of the EAF.

  5. About the Possibility of Power Controlling in the Three-Phase Electric Arc Furnaces Using PSCAD EMTDC Simulation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANOIU, M.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The electric arc is a nonlinear element. For this reason it must be used special techniques of modeling the electric arc that should reflect as closely as possible the behavior of the real electric arc. In this paper, the modeling of the functioning of the electrical installation of the electric arc furnace was done using the PSCAD-EMTDC simulation program. The electric arc furnaces do not absorb sinusoidal currents and generally consume reactive power. These two phenomena produce some disturbances like the dysfunction of the equipment in the worst cases. It is perform a study of the possibilities of controlling the electric arc power, in order to obtained maximum of the active power and reducing the reactive and distorted power.

  6. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  7. Thermodynamic modelling of the formation of zinc-manganese ferrite spinel in electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric arc furnace dust is generated when automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, is remelted in an electric arc furnace. This dust is considered as a hazardous waste in most countries. Zinc is a major component of the dust and can be of significant commercial value. Typically, the majority of the zinc exists as zinc oxide (ZnO) and as a zinc-manganese ferrite spinel ((ZnxMnyFe1-x-y)Fe2O4). The recovery of the zinc from the dust in metal recycling and recovery processes, particularly in the hydrometallurgical extraction processes, is often hindered by the presence of the mixed ferrite spinel. However, there is a paucity of information available in the literature on the formation of this spinel. Therefore, in the present research, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry 6.1 was utilized to investigate the thermodynamics of the formation of the spinel and the effect of variables on the amount and the composition of the mixed ferrite spinel. It is proposed that the mixed ferrite spinel forms due to the reaction of iron-manganese particulates with both gaseous oxygen and zinc, at the high temperatures in the freeboard of the furnace above the steel melt. Based on the thermodynamic predictions, methods are proposed for minimizing the formation of the mixed ferrite spinel.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DUST GENERATED IN THE RECYCLING PROCESS OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gonçalves Rizz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD is a solid waste generated by the production of steel through the Electric Arc Furnace. This waste is labeled dangerous, which motivates studies aiming its recycling. Experiments were made to study a pyrometallurgical process for the recycling of the dust, using the insertion of dust briquettes in molten pig iron in three temperatures. In the briquettes, there were made additions of calcium fluoride in four different concentrations. This paper has the objective to characterize the dust that results from this process, verifying the influence of the temperature and the concentration of calcium fluoride in the briquette in the morphology and chemical composition of the new dust, determining the optimal conditions for the recovery of the zinc content of the dust. This newly generated dust was analyzed in an Scanning Electronic Microscope, used to capture micrographs and chemical composition by EDS. The micrographs show that the temperature and the calcium fluoride concentration interfere in the way the dust particles agglomerate. Chemical analysis points that the higher zinc recuperation occurrs in the experiments at 1500°C with 7% addition of calcium fluoride.

  9. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi, E-mail: kazi.mohiuddin@students.mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F. [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Stelcer, Eduard [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Evans, Tim [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  10. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  11. Energy quality in the feeding systems of arc furnaces; Qualidade da energia no sistema de alimentacao de fornos a arco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pralas, Jozo [Montenegro Univ. (Yugoslavia); Cetkovic, Budimir; Radulovic, Rajko [Niksic Metallurgic Co. (Yugoslavia)

    1997-09-01

    Several common disturbances in electric power systems which feed arc furnaces are voltage harmonics, flicker, asymmetric load, over tensions, among others. In order to solve such problems, it is necessary to study each case individually. This work presents a case study of an Yugoslavian metallurgic company 3 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Electro arc furnace productivity increasing steel smelt company Makstil-Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Productivity of electro arc furnace could be increased in more ways. In Steelworks in A.D. Makstil with reconstruction in year 1990, modification of short network in year 1998 and realization of the project for utilization of chemical energy, has been achieved good results. In this material are given ideas which will help to keep on with tendency of improving the performances of aggregate and achieving the optimal regime which will facilitate reaching minimal charges per ton produced steel and increased productivity. Our goal is to achieve maximal utilization of power of existing transformer and with analyze from economical and technical aspect to bring optimal solutions in case of investments for increasing of productivity. (Authors)

  13. Utilization of zinc in powders from electric arc furnaces in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyanov B.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of waste powders from steel production in electric arc furnaces is a world problem. The presence of Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, etc. in the powders makes them a valuable source for these metals. Zinc is the metal that is most often utilized, which leads to reduction of environmental pollution. The greatest problem in this connection is the presence of chlorine and fluorine in the powders, which influences the electroextraction of zinc in a significantly negative way. The presented paper shows the results from the study of the possibilities for zinc leaching from powders obtained in the steel production in Bulgaria. A detailed characterization of the powders was made using chemical analysis, XRD, DTA and TGA and Mösbauer spectroscopy. The results from the powder leaching with different solvents give the reason to recommend a technological scheme for the complete and total processing of the waste powders from steel production.

  14. Compensation for Power Quality Improvement in Electric Arc Furnace with Considering Economic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazanfar Shahgholian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, on the one hand with increasing application of nonlinear loads in power systems and no sinusoidal currents that extracted from system, and on the other hand increasing loads sensitive to power quality and destructive effects of nonlinear loads on power quality of power systems, compensation these loads has been converted to one of the main issues in power systems. The use of flexible AC transmission system (FACTS devices is one of the most progressive methods which are used for improving power quality. In this paper, series and parallel compensators of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM and dynamic voltage restorer (DVR are introduced and the comparison of these two in compensating of power quality phenomena from electric arc furnace is provided. STATCOM is a shunt active filter and DVR is a series active filter. Method which has been selected for control of every one of these devices is an optimal control way that it minimizes power losses.

  15. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust; Reciclagem de poeira de aciaria eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Sobrinho, Vicente de Paulo Ferreira; Oliveira, Jose Roberto de, E-mail: vicente@ifes.edu.b [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2010-07-01

    This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the metal iron in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), from a steel mill producing long steel by liquid iron in addition to the changing temperature of 1400 degrees Celsius of EAFD 'as received', the percentage of EAFD to be added (5, 10 and 20% of initial weight of sample pig iron) and the time of withdrawal of the sample of pig iron and slag (30 minutes after the addition of EAFD). Previously, the EAFD will be characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, specific surface area, Xray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. . After characterization, the EAFD will be added to the bath of liquid pig iron. It is expected that the results obtained at the end of the research allow the evaluation of the iron metal incorporation of EAFD in pig iron bath. (author)

  16. Radiation shielding properties of concrete with electric arc furnace slag aggregates and steel shots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Industrial waste products were used to produce radiation shielding concrete. ► The mechanical and radiation shielding properties were evaluated. ► The developed concrete is cheaper and conserves the natural resources. - Abstract: Heavyweight concrete, prepared with a mixture of concrete and heavyweight aggregates or metallic components, is generally used for radiation shielding purposes. In the present study the radiation shielding properties of concrete prepared with electric arc furnace slag aggregates (EAFSAs) and steel shots, was investigated. The results indicated that concrete mixed with 50% EAFSA and 50% steel shots meets the weight and radiation requirements. The use of 50% EAFSA results in a decrease in the cost of concrete and also conserves a useful material, such as iron ore

  17. Modeling of zinc solubility in stabilized/solidified electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium models which attempt for the influence of pH on the solubility of metals can improve the dynamic leaching models developed to describe the long-term behavior of waste-derived forms. In addition, such models can be used to predict the concentration of metals in equilibrium leaching tests at a given pH. The aim of this work is to model the equilibrium concentration of Zn from untreated and stabilized/solidified (S/S) electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) using experimental data obtained from a pH-dependence leaching test (acid neutralization capacity, ANC). EAFD is a hazardous waste generated in electric arc furnace steel factories; it contains significant amounts of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cr or Cd. EAFD from a local factory was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), acid digestion and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Zn and Fe were the main components while the XRD analysis revealed that zincite, zinc ferrite and hematite were the main crystalline phases. Different cement/EAFD formulations ranging from 7 to 20% dry weight of cement were prepared and subjected to the ANC leaching test. An amphoteric behavior of Zn was found from the pH dependence test. To model this behavior, the geochemical model Visual MINTEQ (VMINTEQ) was used. In addition to the geochemical model, an empirical model based on the dissolution of Zn in the acidic zone and the re-dissolution of zinc compounds in the alkaline zone was considered showing a similar prediction than that obtained with VMINTEQ. This empirical model seems to be more appropriate when the metal speciation is unknown, or when if known, the theoretical solid phases included in the database of VMINTEQ do not allow to describe the experimental data

  18. Recycling of an electric arc furnace flue dust to obtain high grade ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. These steelmaking flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the heavy metals contained in them, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. However, and at the same time they contain zinc species which can be used as a source to obtain valuable by-products. The present investigation shows results on the processing of an EAF flue dust using ammonium carbonate solutions. Once zinc is dissolved:ZnO+4NH3+H2O->Zn(NH3)42++2OH-with other impurities (i.e. cadmium and copper), these are eliminated from the zinc solution via cementation with metallic zinc. The purified zinc solution was evaporated (distilled) until precipitation of a zinc carbonate species, which then was calcined to yield a zinc oxide of a high grade. For the unattacked dust residue from the leaching operation, mainly composed of zinc ferrite, several options can be considered: back-recycling to the furnace, further treatment by sodium hydroxide processing or a more safely dumping due to its relatively inertness

  19. Holistic control of energy and material flows of the electric arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorndorf, M.; Kempken, J.; Kruger, K.; Monheim, P.; Uebber, N.; Shubert, M. [University for Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Conventional control of arc furnaces is essentially pattern driven, with patterns based on the input of electric energy. Closed-loop control, which uses the actual furnace conditions, is at best left to some insular solutions. The system presented in this paper is the first control system which offers closed loop holistic control for power and media input. ARCCESS X-MELT FEOS is a joint development by the Helmut-Schmidt-University and SMS DEMAG AG. The system includes the control of transformer tap, impedance operating point, reactor tap, burners and coal injection as well as replay and simulation of process scenarios for off-line studies and system optimization. In its design great stress was placed on transparency and maintainability using the latest design techniques available. This paper will touch upon the basic control strategies used and will illustrate this with examples from the trials at Lech-Stahlwerke which were successfully conducted to demonstrate the performance and the reliability of the system.

  20. An effect of heat insulation parameters on thermal losses of water-cooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mihailov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is research in the insulation parameters effect on the thermal losses of watercooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces. An analytical method has been used for the investigation in heat transfer conditions in the working area. The results of the research can be used to choose optimal cooling parameters and select a suitable kind of insulation for water-cooled surfaces.

  1. Fast and efficient modification in an electric arc furnace; Reforma rapida e eficiente de um forno eletrico a arco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanela, Andrea [Danieli Centro Met, Udine (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Five months after signature of a contract with the Danieli, the first tapping at the Esteban Orbegozo-Spain modern steel plant occurred. The electric arc furnace has been considerably modified to attain the present state-of-art: new electrode regulation system, new lifting, electrode and roof rotation systems, new roof and hydraulic systems. The average power has been increased near 8%, resulting in a significant productivity increase of 7% 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Presentation of the Vulcano installation which uses a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace for corium melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of loss coolant accident, the reactor core could melt and turn into a mixture of uranium oxides, zirconium, iron and steel called corium. A large experimental program has been launched to study corium behaviour, to qualify solutions to stabilize it and to confine it in the reactor containment. The Vulcano installation has been designed to that purpose. It is made up of: i) a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace, ii) a testing surface covered with refractory materials, iii) an induction heating system in order to simulate the residual power of corium, iv) instrumentation devices such as video cameras, thermocouples, infra-red pyrometers and flowmeters, and v) a laboratory to perform chemical analysis of corium samples. The first experimental results show that a mixture of corium and concrete spreads better than expected. It seems that a low initial height of matter can produce a great distance flowing while having a chaotic behaviour. This characteristic suggests that the mixture acts as a Bingham type threshold fluid. (A.C.)

  3. Recovery of Zn from acid mine water and electric arc furnace dust in an integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Francisco; Romero, Rafael; Mazuelos, Alfonso; Iglesias, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the purification of acid mine water and the treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) are integrated into one process with the aim of recovering the Zn content of both effluent and waste. Zinc recovery can reduce the cost of their environmental management: purified acid mine water is discharged after removing all metals; EAFD ceases to be hazardous waste; and Zn is valorised. The process consists of the recovery of Zn as zinc oxide and its purification into commercial products. First, EAFD is leached with acid water and the dissolved metals are selectively precipitated as hydroxides. After EADF leaching, ferrous iron is bio-oxidized and Fe and Al are then precipitated; in the following stage, Cu, Ni, Co and Cd are cemented and finally Zn is precipitated as ZnO. In order to purify water that finally is discharged to a river, lime is used as the neutralizing agent, which results in a precipitate of mainly gypsum, MnO, and ZnO. From the impure zinc oxide produced, various alternatives for the attainment of commercial products, such as basic zinc carbonate and electrolytic zinc, are studied in this work. PMID:26433358

  4. Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust with PVC: dielectric characterization and pyrolysis-leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Kingman, Sam; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E

    2014-06-15

    Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied in this work. A comprehensive characterization of the dust as well as assessing the suitability of using the thermal de-chlorination of the common plastic (PVC) under inert atmosphere was carried out to assess the possibility of Zn and other heavy metals extraction (Pb and Cd) from EAFD. The dielectric and thermal properties of EAFD, PVC and their mixtures were measured. Once combined and heated the metal oxides present in the dust reacted with HCl released from PVC during thermal de-chlorination, forming metal chlorides which were subsequently recovered by leaching with water. It was found that zinc chloride could be almost completely recovered in the leaching stage, with the overall recovery of Zn reaching 97% when the EAFD:PVC ratio was 1:2. The investigation highlighted that franklinite, the most refractory mineral to leaching, was completely destroyed. The leaching residue was found to compose mainly of magnetite and hematite. PMID:24769846

  5. Assessment of hexavalent chromium release in Malaysian electric arc furnace steel slag for fertilizer usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, L. K.; Rezan, S. A.; Sharif, N. M.

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the leaching of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from electric arc furnace steel slag as Cr (VI) is classified as human carcinogen. Batch leaching tests were performed for 16 days. The lixiviants used were alkaline, de-ionized and rain water. After 16 days, Cr (VI) was found to be highest in alkaline water (0.03 mg/L) and lowest in de-ionized water (0.01 mg/L). Besides the lixiviants used, slag stirring speed and liquid to solid ratio also affect Cr (VI) released. The experimental work was complimented with slag characterization using XRF, XRD and SEM/EDX analysis. The leaching process was also simulated via Factsage software to calculate isothermal pourbaix diagrams. The Cr (VI) released was low and below the threshold of 0.1 mg/L set for public water systems. Recycle the slag as fertilizer should be considered safe as it does not exceed the safety limit set for Cr (VI) dissolution.

  6. Elution of zinc in dust discharged from electric arc furnace in carbonic acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dust discharged from an electric arc furnace (EAF) is a valuable resource of zinc. As a fundamental study of extraction of zinc, iron and chlorine in the EAF dust, the elution behavior of them in carbonic acid solution was studied. The influence of the weight of the EAF dust on the elution behavior was examined in this study. Experiment was carried out putting the EAF dust from 1 g to 200 g in weight into 1 L of water that was introduced by CO2. Generally, the pH in the aqueous solution increased with an increase in weight of the additive EAF dust. Maximums of the eluted concentrations of zinc and chloride ion increased with an increase in the weight of the additive EAF dust whereas the extraction ratios of both of them decreased with an increase in the weight of the additive EAF dust. Iron in the EAF dust remained in the dust without elution. The limit of extraction of zinc from the EAF dust to water was given by the solubilities of ZnFe2O4 and ZnO expressed by eq. (6) and eq. (9) respectively.

  7. Rheological Characterization of Warm-Modified Asphalt Mastics Containing Electric Arc Furnace Steel Slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasetto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sustainability of road materials and technologies plays a key role in pavement engineering. In this sense, the use of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA, that is, a modified asphalt concrete that can be produced and applied at lower temperature, is considered an effective solution leading to environmental and operational benefits. The environmental sustainability of WMA can be further enhanced with the inclusion of steel slag in partial substitution of natural aggregates. Nevertheless, such innovative material applied at lower temperatures containing warm additives and steel slag should be able to guarantee at least the same performance of traditional hot mix asphalts, thus assuring acceptable mechanical properties and durability. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the rheological behaviour of bituminous mastics obtained combining a warm-modified binder and a filler (material passing to 0.063 mm coming from electric arc furnace steel slag. To evaluate the influence of both warm additive and steel slag, a plain binder and limestone filler were also used for comparison purposes. Complex modulus and permanent deformation resistance of bitumens and mastics were assessed using a dynamic shear rheometer. Experimental results showed that steel slag warm mastics assure enhanced performance demonstrating promising applicability.

  8. Optical Sensors for Post Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (TRP 9851)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarah W. Allendorf; David K. Ottesen; Robert W. Green; Donald R. Hardesty; Robert Kolarik; Howard Goodfellow; Euan Evenson; Marshall Khan; Ovidiu Negru; Michel Bonin; Soren Jensen

    2003-12-31

    Working in collaboration with Stantec Global Technologies, Process Metrix Corporation, and The Timken Company, Sandia National Laboratories constructed and evaluated a novel, laser-based off-gas sensor at the electric arc furnace facility of Timken's Faircrest Steel Plant (Canton, Ohio). The sensor is based on a mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL), and measures the concentration and temperature of specific gas species present in the off-gas emanating from the EAF. The laser beam is transmitted through the gas stream at the fourth hole of the EAF, and provides a real-time, in situ measurement that can be used for process optimization. Two sets of field tests were performed in parallel with Stantec's extractive probe off-gas system, and the tests confirm the TDL sensor's operation and applicability for electric steel making. The sensor measures real-time, in situ line-of-sight carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations between 5% and 35% CO, and measures off-gas temperature in the range of 1400 to 1900 K. In order to achieve commercial-ready status, future work is required to extend the sensor for simultaneous CO and CO{sub 2} concentration measurements. In addition, long-term endurance tests including process optimization must be completed.

  9. Development of processes for zircaloy chips recycling by electric arc furnace remelting and powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PWR reactors employ, as nuclear fuel, UO2 pellets with Zircaloy clad. In the fabrication of fuel element parts, machining chips from the alloys are generated. As the Zircaloy chips cannot be discarded as ordinary metallic waste, the recycling of this material is important for the Brazilian Nuclear Policy, which targets the reprocess of Zircaloy residues for economic and environmental aspects. This work presents two methods developed in order to recycle Zircaloy chips. In one of the methods, Zircaloy machining chips were refused using an electric-arc furnace to obtain small laboratory ingots. The second one uses powder metallurgy techniques, where the chips were submitted to hydriding process and the resulting material was milled, isostatically pressed and vacuum sintered. The ingots were heat-treated by vacuum annealing. The microstructures resulting from both processing methods were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition, crystal phases and hardness were also determined. The results showed that the composition of recycled Zircaloy comply with the chemical specifications and presented adequate microstructure for nuclear use. The good results of the powder metallurgy method suggest the possibility of producing small parts, like cladding end-caps, using near net shape sintering. (author)

  10. Study of the processes for of remelting zirconium alloys in an electric arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium alloy tubes are used as cladding for fuel elements of PWR nuclear reactors, which contains the UO2 pellets. In the manufacture of these fuel element parts, machining chips from the nuclear grade zirconium alloys are generated. Hence, these machining chips cannot be discarded, as ordinary metallic waste. Thus, the recycling of this material is a strategic aspect for the nuclear technology, both for economic and environmental issues. The main reason is that nuclear grade alloys have very high cost, are not commercially produced in Brazil and has to be imported for the manufacture of the nuclear fuels. This work discusses a method to melt and recycle Zircaloy chips, using an electric-arc furnace to obtain small laboratory ingots. The chemical composition of the ingots was determined using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and was compared to the specifications of nuclear grade Zircaloy and to the chemical composition of the received machining chips. The ingots were annealed in high vacuum, as well as were hot rolled in a mill. The microstructures were characterized by optical microscopy. The hardness was evaluated using the Rockwell B scale hardness. The results showed that the compositions of the recycled Zircaloy comply with the chemical specifications and a suitable microstructure has been obtained for nuclear use. (author)

  11. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gordon A. Irons

    2004-03-31

    Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

  12. Assessment of hexavalent chromium release in Malaysian electric arc furnace steel slag for fertilizer usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the leaching of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from electric arc furnace steel slag as Cr (VI) is classified as human carcinogen. Batch leaching tests were performed for 16 days. The lixiviants used were alkaline, de-ionized and rain water. After 16 days, Cr (VI) was found to be highest in alkaline water (0.03 mg/L) and lowest in de-ionized water (0.01 mg/L). Besides the lixiviants used, slag stirring speed and liquid to solid ratio also affect Cr (VI) released. The experimental work was complimented with slag characterization using XRF, XRD and SEM/EDX analysis. The leaching process was also simulated via Factsage software to calculate isothermal pourbaix diagrams. The Cr (VI) released was low and below the threshold of 0.1 mg/L set for public water systems. Recycle the slag as fertilizer should be considered safe as it does not exceed the safety limit set for Cr (VI) dissolution

  13. Adsorption Study of Electric Arc Furnace Slag for the Removal of Manganese from Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Beh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Steel making slag from Electric Arc Furnace (EAF is an abundant by-product in Malaysia steel making industry. It has potential to be used for heavy metal removal from contaminated water or waste water. Approach: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristic and behavior of manganese removal by using EAF slag for efficient metal removal. The removal characteristics of manganese were investigated in term of sorption kinetics and isotherm. The batch adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out at 28°C and ten grams of EAF slag was added into 1 L manganese solution of various concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 120 mg L-1. All these different mixtures were stirred and sampled at various desired times and centrifuged. The supernatant solutions were then collected for chemical analysis. Results: It was found that the EAF slag adsorption kinetics can be described well by the pseudo-2nd order kinetic model with fairly high correlation coefficients. The adsorption process obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum uptake of the manganese from the solution is 2.31 mg L-1 g-1 of EAF slag used. Conclusion: From the study, it was concluded that the EAF slag can be an efficient adsorbent to remove manganese from both the solution and waste water.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of the selective chlorination of electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remelting of automobile scrap in an electric arc furnace (EAF) results in the production of a dust, which contains high concentrations of the oxides of zinc, iron, calcium and other metals. Typically, the lead and zinc are of commercial value, while the other metals are not worth recovering. At the present time, EAF dusts are treated in high temperature Waelz rotary kiln-type processes, where the lead and zinc oxides are selectively reduced and simultaneously reoxidized and a crude zinc oxide is produced. Another alternative processing route is selective chlorination, in which the non-ferrous metals are preferentially chlorinated to their gaseous chlorides and in this manner separated from the iron. In the present research, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of this chlorination process has been performed and the following factors were investigated; temperature, amount of chlorine, lime content, silica content, presence of an inert gas and the oxygen potential. High lead and zinc recoveries as gaseous chlorides could be achieved but some of the iron oxide was also chlorinated. Additionally, the calcium oxide in the dust consumes chlorine, but this can be minimized by adding silica, which results in the formation of stable calcium silicates. The optimum conditions were determined for a typical dust composition. The selectivities achieved with chlorination were lower than those for reduction, as reported in the literature, but there are other advantages such as the potential recovery of copper.

  15. Emissions of polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polyciclic carbonyl biphenils from electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gomes, J. F.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work done in order to determine the emissions of highly toxic organic micropollutants from electric arc furnaces used in the production of carbon steel from scrap. The study will be allowing to derive relationships between the levels of airborne micropollutants and the operational parameters of the production process so that an abatement of pollution could be achieved. By using the European standard method CEN 1948 for dioxin like compounds sampling and measurement, it was possible to determine the characteristic fingerprint of micropollutants such as polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polycyclic carbonyl biphenils (PCBs emitted by this particular stationary source.

    Este artículo contiene resultados del trabajo ejecutado para estudiar la determinación de las emisiones de los micropolutantes orgánicos muy tóxicos que se emiten por los hornos eléctricos de arco utilizados en la producción de acero. Este estudio inicial va a permitir relacionar las concentraciones de polutantes emitidos a la atmósfera con las condiciones de operación del horno eléctrico de arco. Utilizando el método normalizado CEN 1948 para captación y análisis de muestras de compuestos análogos a las dioxinas ha sido posible determinar el perfil característico de los micropolutantes tales como PAHs y PCBs emitidos por esta fuente.

  16. Electrical conductivity of the screening residuals of coke production in context of ferrochromium production in a submerged arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousu, Arto; Mattila, Olli [Lab. of Process Metallurgy, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Coke is used as a reducing agent in the production of ferrochromium in a submerged arc furnace (SAF). Its good electrical conductivity compared to other input materials makes it a dominant current conductivity substance in the burden. The resistance of the coke has to be high enough to ensure the proper functionality of the furnace. Used cokes for submerged arc furnace production are relatively small in size compared to e.g. blast furnace (BF) cokes. A common practice is to use screening residual coke, which is too small for the BF, in SAF. The goal of this study was to show differences in the electrical properties of screening residual cokes compared to coke formed in different parts of the coke battery, in dependence of particle size. The resistances of different cokes were measured and XRD measurements were performed to define the crystallographic structure of the selected cokes. The results indicate that small coke particles have higher overall resistance, which is due to their internal properties. This small weakly carbonized coke is formed in the middle of the coking battery and is subject to changes in varying coking practices. Continuous quality control of screening residual coke is needed to use it in the SAF. (orig.)

  17. Fingerprint of a submerged-arc Furnace. Optimising energy consumption through data mining, dynamic modelling and computational fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, E.

    2008-06-26

    This study imparts a scientific perception of a phosphorous-producing submerged arc furnace never seen before; a proverbial fingerprint that can improve problem identification, disturbance diagnostics, process prediction, dynamic modelling and model predictive control of this type of furnace. It successfully incorporates accurate, multi-field thermodynamic-, kinetic- and industrial data with computational flow dynamic calculations; thus further unifying the sciences of kinetics and equilibrium thermodynamics. The true power of this study is the extensive and methodical validation that ensures industrially endorsed results. To facilitate all this the author spent six uninterrupted months at an industrial plant (Thermphos International), twice walked inside a cold submerged-arc furnace, gathered and analysed more than thirty-four mineralogical samples, managed an extensive and insightful sampling campaign on the slag streams, performed feed material porosity tests and had thirteen additional temperature probes installed inside the furnace lining. The author also scrutinised over years of industrial data, inspected many industrial drawing and partook in countless valuable conversations with industrial and technical experts to guarantee, not only a valuable scientific contribution, but one that is deep-rooted in authentic engineering principles.

  18. Characteristics of uranium distribution during the metal melting in an electric arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of cerium (Ce) and uranium (U) in the ingot, slag and dust phases has been investigated for the effects of the slag type, slag concentration and basicity in a plasma arc melting process. A direct current plasma arc furnace was used to melt contaminated stainless steel and real wastes from the uranium conversion plant in KAERI. The slag former used to remove the contaminants mainly consists of silica (SiO2), calcium oxide (CaO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Calcium fluoride (CaF2), nickel oxide (NiO), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3) were added to provide an increase in the slag fluidity and oxidative potential respectively. The cerium was used as the surrogate of the uranium because the thermochemical and physical properties of the cerium were greatly similar to those of the uranium. The cerium was removed from ingot phase to slag phase by up to 99%. The removal ratio of the cerium was increased with an increase of the amount of the slag former. And maximum removal of the cerium occurred when the slag basicity was 0.82. The natural uranium (UO2) was partitioned from the ingot phase to the slag phase by up to 95%. The distribution of the natural uranium was considerably dependent on the basicity of the slag former and the composition of slag former. The optimum condition for the removal of the uranium was about 1.5 in basicity and 15wt% of slag former. According to the increase of the amount of the slag former, the distribution of uranium oxide linearly increased due to the increase of the capacity to capture uranium oxide within the slag. Through experiments with the various slag former, we verified that the slag formers containing calcium fluoride (CaF2) and high silica were more effective for the melting decontamination of stainless steel wastes contaminated with uranium. In the melting tests with stainless steel wastes from the uranium conversion plant in KAERI, we found that the results of the uranium decontamination were mostly similar to those of the

  19. Preliminary Results from Electric Arc Furnace Off-Gas Enthalpy Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This article describes electric arc furnace (EAF) off-gas enthalpy models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate overall heat availability (sensible and chemical enthalpy) and recoverable heat values (steam or power generation potential) for existing EAF operations and to test ORNL s new EAF waste heat recovery (WHR) concepts. ORNL s new EAF WHR concepts are: Regenerative Drop-out Box System and Fluidized Bed System. The two EAF off-gas enthalpy models described in this paper are: 1.Overall Waste Heat Recovery Model that calculates total heat availability in off-gases of existing EAF operations 2.Regenerative Drop-out Box System Model in which hot EAF off-gases alternately pass through one of two refractory heat sinks that store heat and then transfer it to another gaseous medium These models calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of EAF off-gases based on the off-gas chemical composition, temperature, and mass flow rate during tap to tap time, and variations in those parameters in terms of actual values over time. The models provide heat transfer analysis for the aforementioned concepts to confirm the overall system and major component sizing (preliminary) to assess the practicality of the systems. Real-time EAF off-gas composition (e.g., CO, CO2, H2, and H2O), volume flow, and temperature data from one EAF operation was used to test the validity and accuracy of the modeling work. The EAF off-gas data was used to calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases to generate steam and power. The article provides detailed results from the modeling work that are important to the success of ORNL s EAF WHR project. The EAF WHR project aims to develop and test new concepts and materials that allow cost-effective recovery of sensible and chemical heat from high-temperature gases discharged from EAFs.

  20. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • EAF dust was characterized with particle size analysis, XRF, and EPMA. • Slag particles showed no sign of reaction with Zn vapor. • Fe2O3 particles showed different degrees of reaction based on their size. • The thermodynamic stability of Zn vapor in EAF off-gas ducts was reevaluated. • In presence of Fe2O3, Zn vapor reacts to form ZnFe2O4 and ZnO. - Abstract: To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe2O4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe2O4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe2O4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation – a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology – was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe2O4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber

  1. Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simon C; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2009-11-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag has been identified as an effective filter material for the removal of phosphorus (P) from both point and non-point sources. To determine the feasibility of land-applying P saturated EAF steel slag this study was undertaken to investigate (i) saturated EAF steel slag material's potential as a P fertilizer or soil amendment and (ii) P desorption and metals leachate from saturated EAF steel slag material to surface runoff. Medicago sativa (alfalfa) was planted in a nutrient depleted washed sand media. Phosphorus was added either as saturated EAF steel slag or as a standard commercial phosphate fertilizer in order to assess the plant availability of the P from saturated EAF steel slag. Four different P application levels were tested: a low (20 lbs acre furrow slice(-1) (5.5 g P m(-3))) two medium (40 and 60 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (11 and 16.5 g P m(-3))) and a high (120 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (33 g P m(-3))). The above-ground biomass of half of the plants was harvested after 5 weeks and the second half at 10 weeks. All treatments regardless of the P source used showed high rates of germination. At the first harvest period (5 weeks) significantly higher above-ground biomass (p fertilizer (TSP) than with EAF steel slag. However, by the second harvest (10 weeks) only the highest amendment rate of TSP showed a significantly higher amount of biomass (p slow release P source. In a second experiment, a rain simulator was used to assess desorption of DRP, TP and metals from a saturated and semi-saturated EAF steel slag. The results revealed that the total amounts of DRP and TP released to surface runoff from EAF steel slag were negligible when compared to the total quantities of P retained by this material. Overall the results from this study demonstrated that once the EAF steel slag filter reaches its saturation point, the material could be re-used as soil amendment for the slow release of bioavailable P with minimal risk for loss of P to

  2. Study of the instability of black slags from electric arc furnace steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the steel manufacture produces important quantities of by-products, representing between 15 and 20 % of total steel production. Most by-products are deposited on open air spaces causing serious economical and environmental problems, internationally, different recycling wais are studied, being the main alternative for these by-products as recycled aggregate. The possibility of recycling these by-products in construction sector depends on its possible volume instability because of the presence of some undesirable compounds. In current paper, two different black slags from electric arc furnace steel industry were chemically characterized, paying attention to some well-known compounds by theirs expansion effects, such as: free CaO, free MgO, chlorides and sulphates. The analytical results carried out in the current research detected the presence of insignificant or null amounts of harmful compounds. Therefore, they should not have any negative incidence on phenomena of volume instability.

    En España la fabricación de acero produce grandes cantidades de residuos industriales, las cuales representan entre el 15-20 % de la producción total de acero, en su mayor parte se depositan en vertederos, causando serios problemas económicos y medioambientales a todos los sectores implicados. A nivel internacional, se están estudiando diferentes vías de reutilización, siendo su uso principal como árido de reciclado. La posibilidad de reutilizar estos subproductos industriales en el sector de la construcción se basa en su posible inestabilidad volumétrica, debido a la presencia de ciertos compuestos no deseados. En este trabajo se caracterizan químicamente 2 escorias negras de horno de arco eléctrico con diferente procedencia y se cuantifican algunos de los principales compuestos conocidos por sus efectos expansivos, como: cal libre, magnesia libre, cloruros y sulfatos. Los resultados analíticos de estas dos escorias negras muestran

  3. Physics-Based Modeling of Electric Operation, Heat Transfer, and Scrap Melting in an AC Electric Arc Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Electric arc furnaces (EAF) are complex industrial plants whose actual behavior depends upon numerous factors. Due to its energy intensive operation, the EAF process has always been subject to optimization efforts. For these reasons, several models have been proposed in literature to analyze and predict different modes of operation. Most of these models focused on the processes inside the vessel itself. The present paper introduces a dynamic, physics-based model of a complete EAF plant which consists of the four subsystems vessel, electric system, electrode regulation, and off-gas system. Furthermore the solid phase is not treated to be homogenous but a simple spatial discretization is employed. Hence it is possible to simulate the energy input by electric arcs and fossil fuel burners depending on the state of the melting progress. The model is implemented in object-oriented, equation-based language Modelica. The simulation results are compared to literature data.

  4. Model Predictive Control Synthesis Approach of Electrode Regulator System for Electric Arc Furnace%Model Predictive Control Synthesis Approach of Electrode Regulator System for Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; MAO Zhi-zhong; WANG Yan; YUAN Ping; JIA Ming-xing

    2011-01-01

    In electric are furnace smelting, electrode regulator system is a key link. A good electrode control algorithm will reduce energy consumption effectively and shorten smelting time greatly. The offline design online synthesis model predictive control algorithm is proposed for electrode regulator system with input and output constraints. On the offline computation, the continuum of terminal constraint sets will be constructed. On the online synthesis, the time-varying terminal constraint sets will be adopted and at least one free control variable will be introduced to solve the min-max optimization control problem. Then Lyapunov method will be adopted to analyze closed-loop system stability. Simulation and field trial results show that the proposed offline design online synthesis model predictive control method is effective.

  5. Investigation of possibility for stabilization and valorization of electric ARC furnace dust and glass from electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranitović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigation of possibility for electric arc furnace dust (EAFD and electronic waste (e-waste valorization trough stabilization process, in order to achieve concurrent management of these two serious ecological problems. EAFD is an ineviTab. waste material coming from the electric arc furnace steel production process, classified as a hazardous waste. Furthermore, it is well known that residual materials generated in the ewaste recycling process, like LCD (Liquid crystal displays waste glass, are not suiTab. for landfill or incineration. In this study, these two materials were used for investigation of possibility for their valorization in ceramic industry. Thus, an innovative synergy of waste streams from metallurgical and e-waste recycling industry is presented. Investigation included a complex characterization of raw materials and their mixtures, using chemical methods, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, as well as methods for determining the physical and mechanical properties. Based on these results, it was found that material suiTab. for use in ceramics industry as a partial substituent of quartzite and fluxing components can be produced. Besides solving the environmental problem related to EAFD and LCD disposal, by replacement of raw materials certain economic effects can be achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34033

  6. Improvement of refractories for bottom of DC-Arc furnace; Chokuryudenkiro no roshoyo taikabutsu no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Koichi; Okamoto, Yutaka; Tokuchi, Kazumasa [Asahi Glass Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    A conductive refractory furnace bottom type DC electric furnace has disadvantages of large material cost, large working cost and long working period in refractory replacement due to a large amount of refractory installation. The furnace bottom has three layers of permanent bricks, wear bricks and a hot repair material, and durability improvement of wear bricks is an important issue. From the study results for 4 years in a real furnace the following conclusions were obtained: (1) The use of MgO-C based unburned bricks of 15% carbon content as wear bricks reduced the erosion speed by about 20% compared with a conventional MgO-C based burned bricks of 20% carbon content, (2) The resistivity value of the MgO-C based unburned brick decreased to a value equivalent to that of MgO-C based burned brick, which gave no problem in electro conductivity, (3) The addition of the hot repair material over 260 degree C of furnace bottom temperature and stable forming of a protective coating layer of 200-400 mm thickness enabled high durability over 6,400 heats of wear bricks, and (4) The use of the permanent bricks for 15,477 heats promised possible further use. (NEDO)

  7. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse; Caracterizacao da poeira de aciaria eletrica visando o seu reaproveitamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, F.F.; Oliveira, E.B.G.; Oliveira, J.R. de, E-mail: fgrillo@ifes.edu.b [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Telles, V.B.; Tenorio, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 {mu}m). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO e SiO{sub 2}. This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  8. The influence of the structure of the metal load removal from liquid steel in electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pǎcurar, Cristina; Hepuť, Teodor; Crisan, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    One of the main technical and economic indicators in the steel industry and steel respectively the development it is the removal of liquid steel. This indicator depends on several factors, namely technology: the structure and the quality metal load, the degree of preparedness of it, and the content of non-metallic material accompanying the unit of drawing up, the technology for the elaboration, etc. research has been taken into account in drawing up steel electric arc furnace type spring EBT (Electric Bottom taping), seeking to load and removing components of liquid steel. Metal load has been composed of eight metal grades, in some cases with great differences in terms of quality. Data obtained were processed in the EXCEL spreadsheet programs and MATLAB, the results obtained being presented both graphically and analytically. On the basis of the results obtained may opt for a load optimal structure metal.

  9. Experimental evaluation of high performance base course and road base asphalt concrete with electric arc furnace steel slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Marco; Baldo, Nicola

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the results of a laboratory study aimed at verifying the use of two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slags as substitutes for natural aggregates, in the composition of base course and road base asphalt concrete (BBAC) for flexible pavements. The trial was composed of a preliminary study of the chemical, physical, mechanical and leaching properties of the EAF steel slags, followed by the mix design and performance characterization of the bituminous mixes, through gyratory compaction tests, permanent deformation tests, stiffness modulus tests at various temperatures, fatigue tests and indirect tensile strength tests. All the mixtures with EAF slags presented better mechanical characteristics than those of the corresponding asphalts with natural aggregate and satisfied the requisites for acceptance in the Italian road sector technical standards, thus resulting as suitable for use in road construction. PMID:20566237

  10. The oxidation and reduction of chromium of stainless steels in an eletric arc furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Arh, B.; F. Tehovnik

    2011-01-01

    The oxidation of chromium during the elaboration of stainless steels occurs with oxygen in solution blown inthe melt and with oxides in the slag. A higher content of silicon in the furnace charge decreases the extent of oxidation of chromium, however, the efficient reduction of chromium from the slag is of essential importance for a minimal loss of chromium. In this survey, the theory of the oxidation of chromium, its reduction from the slag and the conditions for the formation of foaming sla...

  11. Cr(VI) Generation During Flaring of CO-Rich Off-Gas from Closed Ferrochromium Submerged Arc Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, S. P.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.

    2015-04-01

    Ferrochromium (FeCr) is the only source of new Cr units used in stainless steel production, which is a vital modern day alloy, making FeCr equally important. Small amounts of Cr(VI) are unintentionally formed during several FeCr production steps. One such production step is the flaring of CO-rich off-gas from closed submerged arc furnaces (SAF), for which Cr(VI) formation is currently not quantified. In this study, the influence of flaring temperature, size of the particles passing through the flare, and retention time within the flame were investigated by simulating the process on laboratory scale with a vertical tube furnace. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis was conducted on the overall dataset obtained, which indicated that retention time had the greatest impact on pct Cr(VI) conversion, followed by particle size and temperature. The MLR analysis also yielded an optimum mathematical solution, which could be used to determine the overall impact of these parameters on pct Cr(VI) conversion. This equation was used to determine realistic and unrealistic worst-case scenario pct Cr(VI) conversions for actual FeCr SAFs, which yielded 2.7 × 10-2 and 3.5 × 10-1 pct, respectively. These values are significantly lower than the current unsubstantiated pct Cr(VI) conversion used in environmental impact assessments for FeCr smelters, i.e., 0.8 to 1 pct.

  12. The oxidation and reduction of chromium of stainless steels in an eletric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Arh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of chromium during the elaboration of stainless steels occurs with oxygen in solution blown inthe melt and with oxides in the slag. A higher content of silicon in the furnace charge decreases the extent of oxidation of chromium, however, the efficient reduction of chromium from the slag is of essential importance for a minimal loss of chromium. In this survey, the theory of the oxidation of chromium, its reduction from the slag and the conditions for the formation of foaming slag are discussed.

  13. Nanostructuration of i-Al64Cu23Fe13 quasicrystals produced by arc-furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Al46Cu23Fe13 quasicrystal phase, prepared by arc-melting and nanostructured using high energy ball milling technique, was studied employing X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ferromagnetic resonance and electric transport measurements. Fe local environments were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The resistivity ratio R(4.2 K)/R(300 K) is within the expected values commonly observed in an icosahedral phase. In general, the experimental results show that an appropriate heat treatment of the as-cast alloy prepared by arc-melting makes possible to obtain good quasicrystal samples. On the other hand, for milling time longer than five hours, the average grain-size of quasicrystal phase reduces, but it preserves Fe local atomic orders. It is also observed that the quasicrystalline sample decomposes in an iron rich nano-quasicrystalline phase and a ε-Al2Cu3 phase. Electric transport measurements show that at low temperatures the nano-quasicrystalline samples behave strongly different to their solid counterparts, an effect attributed to a long-range order reduction and an increasing of grain boundary regions. The presence of local magnetic moments in the nanostructured sample is also discussed.

  14. Electric arc furnace dust utilization in iron ore sintering: influence of particle size; Utilizacao da poeira de aciaria eletrica na sinterizacao de minerio de ferro: influencia da granulometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telles, V.B.; Junca, E.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Espinosa, D.C.R.; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: victor_bridit@hotmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the utilization of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) generated in steelmaking by electric arc furnace (EAF) as raw material in iron ore sintering. The waste was characterized by size, chemical composition and X-ray diffraction. The physical characterization showed that 90% of the particles have a size less then 1,78 {mu}m and the material have the tendency to agglomerate. The waste were submitted to a pre-agglomeration prior to its incorporation in the sinter. The influence on the addition of the waste with different granulometry in the iron or sinter production were analyzed by sinter characterization and sintering parameters. (author)

  15. HYDRAULIC AND LEACHING BEHAVIOUR OF BELITE CEMENTS PRODUCED WITH ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE STEEL SLAG AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacobescu R. I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three belite-rich cements consisting of a clinker made with 0 (BC, 5 (BC5 and 10 wt. % (BC10 electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS as raw material, were studied for their hydraulic and leaching behaviour. Hydration behaviour was studied by FTIR, TG/DTG and SEM analyses. The cements with EAFS resulted in a higher C2S/C3S and C4AF/C3A ratio compared to the reference body. As a result, the rate of hydration was low at early days whereas the structure was porous with scattered AFm and C–S–H crystals. At 28 days, a comparable dense microstructure consisting largely of C–S–H is observed in all mortars. Leaching was studied for V and Cr by means of tank test according to standard NEN 7345. The results showed V release below 2 μg/l. Chromium release calculated per 24 h was 1.4 μg/l in BC5 and 2.4 μg/l in BC10, which is much lower than the parametric value of 50 μg/l specified by the European Directive for drinking water (98/83/EC.

  16. A novel hydrothermal method for zinc extraction and separation from zinc ferrite and electric arc furnace dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-gang; Li, Yang; Gao, Jian-ming; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2016-02-01

    A novel hydrothermal process was developed to extract zinc from pure zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanopowder and zinc-containing electric arc furnace (EAF) dust using hexahydrated ferric chloride (FeCl3·6H2O) as a decomposing agent. The effects of solid FeCl3·6H2O to ZnFe2O4 ratio by mass ( R F/Z), hydrothermal reaction temperature, and time on zinc extraction were systematically investigated. In the results, when the hydrothermal reaction is conducted at 150°C for 2 h with R F/Z of 15:20, the efficiency of zinc extraction from ZnFe2O4 reaches 97.2%, and the concentration of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the leaching solution is nearly zero, indicating a high selectivity for zinc. In addition, the zinc extraction efficiency from the EAF dust reaches 94.5% in the case of the hydrothermal reaction performed at 200°C for 10 h with the solid FeCl3·6H2O to EAF dust ratio by mass ( R F/EAF dust) of 15:10. Zinc and iron separation is achieved by adjusting the pH value of the leaching solution according to the different precipitation pH values of metal hydroxides.

  17. Removal of hexavalent chromium in carbonic acid solution by oxidizing slag discharged from steelmaking process in electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Seiji; Okazaki, Kohei; Sasano, Junji; Izaki, Masanobu

    2014-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is well-known to be a strong oxidizer, and is recognized as a carcinogen. Therefore, it is regulated for drinking water, soil, groundwater and sea by the environmental quality standards all over the world. In this study, it was attempted to remove Cr(VI) ion in a carbonic acid solution by the oxidizing slag that was discharged from the normal steelmaking process in an electric arc furnace. After the addition of the slag into the aqueous solution contained Cr(VI) ion, concentrations of Cr(VI) ion and total chromium (Cr(VI) + trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ions decreased to lower detection limit of them. Therefore, the used slag could reduce Cr(VI) and fix Cr(III) ion on the slag. While Cr(VI) ion existed in the solution, iron did not dissolve from the slag. From the relation between predicted dissolution amount of iron(II) ion and amount of decrease in Cr(VI) ion, the Cr(VI) ion did not react with iron(II) ion dissolved from the slag. Therefore, Cr(VI) ion was removed by the reductive reaction between Cr(VI) ion and the iron(II) oxide (FeO) in the slag. This reaction progressed on the newly appeared surface of iron(II) oxide due to the dissolution of phase composed of calcium etc., which existed around iron(II) oxide grain in the slag.

  18. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs and Side Vents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Boyd Jr.; Dr. Vinod K. Sikka

    2006-12-29

    Energy Industries of Ohio was the lead organization for a consortium that examined the current situation involving the service life of electric arc and basic oxygen furnace hoods, roofs and side vents. Republic Engineered Products (REP), one of the project partners, installed a full-scale Al-Bronze “skirt” in their BOF at their Lorain OH facility, believed to be the first such installation of this alloy in this service. In 24 months of operation, the Al-Bronze skirt has processed a total of 4,563 heats, requiring only 2 shutdowns for maintenance, both related to physical damage to the skirt from operational mishaps. Yearly energy savings related to the REP facility are projected to be ~ 10 billion Btu's with significant additional environmental and productivity benefits. In recognition of the excellent results, this project was selected as the winner of the Ohio’s 2006 Governor’s Award for Excellence in Energy, the state’s award for outstanding achievements in energy efficiency.

  19. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant. PMID:24395402

  20. Effects of the slag former on the metal melting and radionuclides distribution in an electric arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Song Pyung; Min, Byung Youn; Choi, Wang Kyu; Chung, Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The characteristics of the metal melting and radionuclide distribution of the radioactive has been investigated in a lab-scale arc furnace. The slag former based on the constituents of silica, calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, borate and calcium fluoride additions was used for melting of the stainless and carbon steel. In the melting of the stainless steel, the amount of slag formation increased with an increase of the concentration of the slag former. But the effects of the slag basicity on the amount of slag formation showed a local maximum value of the slag formation with an increase of the basicity index in the melting of the stainless steel as well as in the melting of the carbon steel. With an increase of the amount of slag former addition, the trends of the cobalt distribution into the ingot and the slag depended on the kind of slag former used in the melting of the stainless steel while the effect of the slag basicity on the distribution of the cobalt was not clarified in the melting of carbon steel. In the melting of the carbon steel, the strontium was captured at up to 50% into the slag phase. Cesium was completely eliminated from the melt of the stainless steel as well as the carbon steel and distributed to the dust phase.

  1. Utilization of Electric Arc Furnace Dust as raw material for the production of ceramic and concrete building products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikalidis, Constantine; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2006-01-01

    The up to 20 wt% addition of the Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) hazardous waste on the properties of extruded clay-based ceramic building products fired at various temperatures (850 to 1050 degrees C), as well as of dolomite-concrete products was investigated. Chemical, mineralogical and particle size distribution analyses were performed in order to characterize the used EAFD. The results showed that the ceramic specimens prepared had water absorption, firing shrinkage, apparent density, mechanical strength, colour and leaching behaviour within accepted limits. Addition of 7.5 to 15 wt% EAFD presented improved properties, while 20 wt% seems to be the upper limit. Dolomite-concrete specimens were prepared by vibration and press-forming of mixtures containing cement, sand, dolomite, EAFD and water. Modulus of rupture values were significantly increased by the addition of EAFD. The leaching tests showed stabilization of all toxic metals within the sintered ceramic structure, while the leaching behaviour of lead in dolomite-concrete products needs further detailed study. PMID:16849138

  2. Effects of the slag former on the metal melting and radionuclides distribution in an electric arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the metal melting and radionuclide distribution of the radioactive has been investigated in a lab-scale arc furnace. The slag former based on the constituents of silica, calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, borate and calcium fluoride additions was used for melting of the stainless and carbon steel. In the melting of the stainless steel, the amount of slag formation increased with an increase of the concentration of the slag former. But the effects of the slag basicity on the amount of slag formation showed a local maximum value of the slag formation with an increase of the basicity index in the melting of the stainless steel as well as in the melting of the carbon steel. With an increase of the amount of slag former addition, the trends of the cobalt distribution into the ingot and the slag depended on the kind of slag former used in the melting of the stainless steel while the effect of the slag basicity on the distribution of the cobalt was not clarified in the melting of carbon steel. In the melting of the carbon steel, the strontium was captured at up to 50% into the slag phase. Cesium was completely eliminated from the melt of the stainless steel as well as the carbon steel and distributed to the dust phase

  3. Stabilization and solidification of electric arc furnace dust originating from steel industry by using low grade MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayraktar Ahmet Can

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD which is generated during the production of steel from scrap metals and classified as hazardous waste were investigated by using different ratios of cement and low grade MgO (LG MgO as binding agents. Type I PC 42.5 R portland cement and LG MgO which contains 70–80% MgO were used. S/S blocks that contain different ratios of binding agents which have 1/0.5 – 1/1 – 1/2 – 1/3 – 1/4 – 1/5 cement/LG MgO ratio and S/S blocks which contain only cement and no LG MgO agents were prepared. These blocks, which contain 3 different waste ratios according to weight, 20%, 30% and 40% respectively, were produced and exposed to 28-day water purification. At the end of the purification process, S/S blocks were extracted using TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests in order to determine the leaching behavior of Zn, Pb, and Cd in S/S blocks. By the end of this study, it was concluded that the recovery of EAFD is possible and applicable by immobilization. The findings of the study concluded that environmental performances or structural properties of blocks contain 30% waste by weight are suitable. This method is a proper one for recovering and treatment of EAFD with mixture of cement and LG MgO.

  4. A study on the melting of metal wastes and the partitioning of the radionuclides in an arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Wang-Kyu; Song, Pyung-Seob; Jung, Chong-Hun; Oh, Won-Zin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung-Youn [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The distribution of the radioactive nuclides such as cobalt, cesium, and strontium has been investigated in a lab-scale d. c. arc furnace. The slag former for the melting of the stainless and carbon steel was based on the constituents of silica(SiO{sub 2}), calcium oxide(CaO), and aluminum oxide(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Borate(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) additions were included to provide an increased slag fluidity and oxidative potential. In the melting of the stainless steel, the amount of slag formation increased with an increase of the concentration of the slag former. But the effects of the slag basicity on the amount of slag formation showed a local maximum value of the slag formation by increasing the basicity index in the melting of the stainless steel as well as in the melting of the carbon steel. With an increase of the amount of slag former addition, the trends of the cobalt distribution into the ingot and slag depended on the king of slag former used in the melting of the stainless steel while the effect of the slag basicity on the distribution of the cobalt was not clarified in the melting of carbon steel. In the melting of stainless steel, only 20% of the strontium remained in the slag phase and it was barely present in the ingot. But, in the melting of the carbon steel, strontium was captured at up to 50% into the slag phase. Cesium was completely eliminated from the melt of the stainless steel as well as the carbon steel and distributed to the dust phase.

  5. A Laboratory Study of the Treatability of Synthetic Stormwater Under Varying Conditions Using Electric Arc Furnace Steel Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnaemeka C. Okochi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of electric arc furnace (EAF steel slag as a viable add-on technology to existing stormwater systems for the removal of dissolved phosphorus (P was extended to explore the effects of varying environmental and treatment system conditions. Parameters such as stormwater composition, P concentration, metal concentration, pH, temperature, slag mass and slag particle size were varied. Observations relating to the method of P removal via EAF slag were also carefully considered to explain removal mechanisms involved. Results demonstrated that, although physisorption contributed to P reduction, it was not the key P removal mechanism. Instead, precipitation was observed to be a key removal pathway as evidenced by the correlation between the loss of iron (Fe from slag and the amount of P removed from solution. The reduced removal of P by slag in a copper-dominant stormwater solution was attributed to the formation of a stable complex formed by the interaction of copper with the slag via the ion-exchange surface model. The stability of this complex inhibits the loss of Fe from the EAF slag and, consequently, P removal by means of precipitation. In terms of the effect of changing environmental and treatment system conditions on the P removal process, stormwater composition, P concentration, metal concentration, pH, temperature, slag mass and slag particle size were found to significantly influence the effectiveness of EAF slag in removing P from a given stormwater system. It was also established that a number of combinations of these factors influence P uptake differently.

  6. Study of The Maximum Uptake Capacity on Various Sizes of Electric Arc Furnace Slag in Phosphorus Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnizan, W. M. W.; Hamdan, R.; Othman, N.

    2016-07-01

    The high content of uncontrolled phosphorus concentration in wastewater has emerged as a major problem recently. The excessive amount of phosphorus that is originated from domestic waste, unproper treated waste from septic tanks, as well as agricultural activities have led to the eutrophication problem. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was initiated to evaluate the potential of the Electric Arc Furnace Slag (EAFS), a by-product waste from steel making industry in removing phosphorus concentrations in aqueous solutions. In this work several particle sizes ranging from (9.5-12.4 mm, 12.5-15.9 mm, 16.0-19.9 mm, 20.0-24.9 mm, 25-37.4 mm) with a known weight (20±0.28 g, 40±0.27 g, 60±0.30 g, 80±0.29 g and 100±0.38 g) were used to study the effect of different particle sizes towards phosphorus removal. Each particle size of EAFS was shaken in synthetic phosphorus solutions (10 mg/l, 20 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 40 mg/l and 50 mg/l) at a contact time of 2 hours. Final concentrations of phosphorus were sampled and the measurement was made using WESTCO Discrete Analyzer equipment. Results showed that the highest of the maximum uptake capacity of each EAFS particle size distribution achieved at 0.287, 0.313, 0.266, 0.241 and 0.25 mg/g as particle size range was varied from 9.5-12.4 mm to 25-37.4 mm. In conclusion, the maximum uptake capacity of each EAFS mostly was determined to occur at adsorbent weight of 20 to 40 g in most conditions.

  7. A study on the melting of metal wastes and the partitioning of the radionuclides in an arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of the radioactive nuclides such as cobalt, cesium, and strontium has been investigated in a lab-scale d. c. arc furnace. The slag former for the melting of the stainless and carbon steel was based on the constituents of silica(SiO2), calcium oxide(CaO), and aluminum oxide(Al2O3) and Borate(B2O3) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) additions were included to provide an increased slag fluidity and oxidative potential. In the melting of the stainless steel, the amount of slag formation increased with an increase of the concentration of the slag former. But the effects of the slag basicity on the amount of slag formation showed a local maximum value of the slag formation by increasing the basicity index in the melting of the stainless steel as well as in the melting of the carbon steel. With an increase of the amount of slag former addition, the trends of the cobalt distribution into the ingot and slag depended on the king of slag former used in the melting of the stainless steel while the effect of the slag basicity on the distribution of the cobalt was not clarified in the melting of carbon steel. In the melting of stainless steel, only 20% of the strontium remained in the slag phase and it was barely present in the ingot. But, in the melting of the carbon steel, strontium was captured at up to 50% into the slag phase. Cesium was completely eliminated from the melt of the stainless steel as well as the carbon steel and distributed to the dust phase

  8. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  9. Formation of the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suetens, T., E-mail: thomas.suetens@mtm.kuleuven.be; Guo, M., E-mail: muxing.guo@mtm.kuleuven.be; Van Acker, K., E-mail: karel.vanacker@lrd.kuleuven.be; Blanpain, B., E-mail: bart.blanpain@mtm.kuleuven.be

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • EAF dust was characterized with particle size analysis, XRF, and EPMA. • Slag particles showed no sign of reaction with Zn vapor. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles showed different degrees of reaction based on their size. • The thermodynamic stability of Zn vapor in EAF off-gas ducts was reevaluated. • In presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Zn vapor reacts to form ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnO. - Abstract: To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation – a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology – was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber.

  10. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace

  11. Analysis on unbalance of three-phase arc power in rotary ladle furnace%旋转式LF炉三相弧功率不平衡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋辉; 董波; 佟冰; 张东

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the main reasons for unbalance of the ladle furnace ( LF) three-phase arc power, the main measures to optimize the circuit layout, modify the electrode control system and reduce the arc power unbalance are proposed for rotary LF. It improved the electrode regulating effect and reduced energy consumption%分析了造成LF三相弧功率不平衡的主要原因,提出优化短网布置,改进电极调节系统,减少弧功率不平衡的方法,并用于某旋转式LF,使其电极调节器运行稳定,降低了能耗.

  12. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, W.C. [ed.

    1995-05-31

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  13. 真空电弧炉升降机构的ANSYS优化设计%ANSYS optimization design of lifting mechanism of the vacuum arc furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张以忱; 王德志; 王永杰; 魏永秋

    2011-01-01

    A mechanical model was developed for the lifting mechanism of a prototype of the VCF -3t cantilevered vacuum arc furnace, the position and value of maximum stress of the column was obtained through force analysis of the main bearing parts ( such as column). Then the actual equipment model was simplified to establish finite element model and the stress cloud chart was compared with actual calculated value in order to test the correctness of the finite element model. On this base, combined with the relationships among actual structure sizes of the furnace, the parametric finite element model was established. If the model meet conditions of intensity and stiffness etc. , the radius and thickness of the column and furnace body was optimized with the optimizer of ANSYS to make the mass of mechanical structure to be the lightest and make full use of the material's property. At the same time, VB language was used in the call analysis interface in ANSYS to provide an intuitive man - machine system in order to decrease duplication of workload in series design of product. The parameter optimization method used in this paper is an important development of structural optimization design method and has important practical value in the structural design.

  14. US Bureau of Mines pilot-scale demonstration of electric arc furnace melting of multiple-source simulated low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with Department of Energy (DOE) contractors Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Lockheed Idaho Technology Company (LITCO), conducted two extended melting campaigns in the electric arc furnace on radically different feeds. The WHC feed contained a high sodium, low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) simulant, and industrial glass-forming minerals designed to produce a final glass with 5 pct B2O3 and 20 pct Na2O. Preparation of dry furnace feed required absorbing the LLW simulant into the glass forniers and performing a low-temperature denitrification reaction. Nearly 22,000 lb of dry, denitrified feed, at feed rates from 250 to 750 lb/h, and average power of 400 kW, was melted producing over 18,000 lb of glass. The LITCO feeds were designed to simulate as-retrieved buried mixed wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These feeds consisted of non-contaminated soil excavated from the RWMC, industrial mineral absorbents, scrap metals, oils, grease, and other combustible constituents, and lime added to the mix to produce a slag with molar basicity of 1.0. Over 18,000 lb of feed, with up to 25 pct combustible content, at feed rates up to 1,200 lb/h and average power of 230 kW, was melted producing over 10,000 lb of slag and 1,800 lb of metal. Material balances and facility operating conditions for each run are described. These tests demonstrated the flexibility and versatility of the electric arc furnace for the vitrification of the waste streams

  15. Behaviour of radionuclides during accidental melting of orphan sources in electric arc furnaces by means of C.F.D. gas flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of orphan sources in steelmaking facilities has become a fact nowadays. Radiation sources, hidden within the scrap, may come into the scrap yard and become part of the melting. As a result, dispersion of the radioactive material that makes up the source takes place throughout the facility. The University of the Basque Country (U.P.V.-E.H.U.), in collaboration with the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (E.N.R.E.S.A.) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (C.S.N.), has carried out a Research Project to analyze this accidental melting of radioactive sources in electric arc furnaces (E.A.F.). The whole steelmaking process can be analyzed in several discrete phases. Radioactive sources that may be incorporated to this process will be exposed to the different critical conditions prevailing during each phase. In this sense, Computational Fluid Dynamics (C.F.D.) has been used in order to recreate such conditions and so, determine the characteristics of the dispersion of radioactivity. Two different situations have been studied in detail using C.F.D. techniques: thermal conditions around a scrap-basket that contains the source just before entering the furnace and the deposition of steelmaking dust containing 137Cs on the inner surface of flue pipes. Before entering the furnace, scrap is usually placed inside a basket that remains above the furnace during some time. Once the furnace is open the scrap is dropped into the furnace to complete the loading process. C.F.D. techniques have been used to analyze the thermal conditions around the basket in order to assess the possibility of a break of the radioactive source hidden within the scrap, concluding that commercial sources will maintain their integrity during the whole loading process. On the other hand, after entering the furnace dispersion of the radioactive material will take place. Physical and chemical properties of the active elements (chemical form, composition, melting point, etc.) together

  16. Behaviour of radionuclides during accidental melting of orphan sources in electric arc furnaces by means of C.F.D. gas flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, I.; Damborenea, J.; Legarda, F. [University of the Basque Country, Nuclear Engineering and Fluids Mechanics (Spain); Zuloaga, P.; Ordonez, M. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Serrano, I. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The appearance of orphan sources in steelmaking facilities has become a fact nowadays. Radiation sources, hidden within the scrap, may come into the scrap yard and become part of the melting. As a result, dispersion of the radioactive material that makes up the source takes place throughout the facility. The University of the Basque Country (U.P.V.-E.H.U.), in collaboration with the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (E.N.R.E.S.A.) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (C.S.N.), has carried out a Research Project to analyze this accidental melting of radioactive sources in electric arc furnaces (E.A.F.). The whole steelmaking process can be analyzed in several discrete phases. Radioactive sources that may be incorporated to this process will be exposed to the different critical conditions prevailing during each phase. In this sense, Computational Fluid Dynamics (C.F.D.) has been used in order to recreate such conditions and so, determine the characteristics of the dispersion of radioactivity. Two different situations have been studied in detail using C.F.D. techniques: thermal conditions around a scrap-basket that contains the source just before entering the furnace and the deposition of steelmaking dust containing {sup 137}Cs on the inner surface of flue pipes. Before entering the furnace, scrap is usually placed inside a basket that remains above the furnace during some time. Once the furnace is open the scrap is dropped into the furnace to complete the loading process. C.F.D. techniques have been used to analyze the thermal conditions around the basket in order to assess the possibility of a break of the radioactive source hidden within the scrap, concluding that commercial sources will maintain their integrity during the whole loading process. On the other hand, after entering the furnace dispersion of the radioactive material will take place. Physical and chemical properties of the active elements (chemical form, composition, melting point, etc

  17. Development of a new post-combustion technology at the SAM Neuves-Maisons electric arc furnace; Developpement d`un nouveau procede de postcombustion au four a arc de SAM Neuves-Maisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadet, R.; Le Coq, X. [IRSID (Country unknown/Code not available); Colsenet, S.; Porzucek, F. [Acieries, 54 - Neuves-Maisons (France)

    1998-04-01

    In order ro increase its productivity, SAM Neuves-Maisons has started, in collaboration with Irsid, a post-combustion installation. 800 00 tons/year of wire rod, mainly for reinforced concrete, are produced from scrap. Melting is ensured by a 160-ton, 80 MVA furnace, equipped with cooled panels and roof, an oxygen and carbon injection device, an excentric bottom tapping. The oxygen is injected by three water cooled lances located in the electric arc furnace roof. The efficiency of post-combustion is increased by limiting as much as possible the air intake through the gate and the vessel/roof joint, and by the use of a dynamic regulation of the fumes in the EAF, so as to keep the pressure of the vessel close to about 0 Pa. The injection process was defined in order to adjust the non-burned emissions (CO and H{sub 2}), which were measured by fume analysis during preliminary trials. For an increase of oxygen consumption of 4.8 m{sup 3}/ton billet, the post-combustion allows to obtain a decrease of: electric consumption: 19 kWh/ton billet (4.5%); power-on time: 2.2 min (4,4%); tap-to-tap time: 2.7 min (3.5 %). We obtained an oxygen replacement ratio of 4.0 kWh/m{sup 3} O{sub 2}, i.e. an average thermal yield of 60 %. (authors) 3 refs.

  18. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapis, Ioannis, E-mail: iliapis@sidenor.vionet.gr [AEIFOROS SA, 12th km Thessaloniki-Veroia Rd, PO Box 59, 57008 Ionia, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papayianni, Ioanna [Laboratory of Building Materials, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Addition of 10% perlite decreases specific weight of the slag by approx. 7.5%. • Slag-crucible interaction and thin coating layer result in variations in XRF. • XRD shows high glass content and smaller crystalline sizes due to rapid cooling. • SEM shows higher homogeneity and lower crystallisation for SiO{sub 2}/CaO-rich samples. • Physical properties (LA, PSV, AAV) of modified slag show limited deterioration. - Abstract: Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector.

  19. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Addition of 10% perlite decreases specific weight of the slag by approx. 7.5%. • Slag-crucible interaction and thin coating layer result in variations in XRF. • XRD shows high glass content and smaller crystalline sizes due to rapid cooling. • SEM shows higher homogeneity and lower crystallisation for SiO2/CaO-rich samples. • Physical properties (LA, PSV, AAV) of modified slag show limited deterioration. - Abstract: Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector

  20. Influence of direct reduced iron on the energy balance of the electric arc furnace in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of the EAF energy efficiency was developed based on a closed mass and energy balance of the EAF melting process. This model was applied to industrial EAFs in steel industry charged with scrap or with mixes of scrap and DRI. Complex mass and energy conversion in the EAF was simplified with the introduction of mass and energy conversion efficiencies for the conversion of oxygen and the energy conversion of electrical energy in the electric arcs, chemical energy from the oxidation reactions in the melt and energy from the combustion of burner gas. It turned out that close agreement with observed process parameters from 16 EAFs is obtained by slight variations of the efficiency values. Especially the sensitivity of the steel temperature from the energy conversion efficiency of the electric arc energy indicates the importance of efficient foaming slag operation in EAF steel making. Characteristics and process parameters of DRI charged EAFs are discussed. Model results for a series of case studies illustrate the correlations between DRI chemical composition, DRI portion, oxygen consumption, etc. with electrical energy demand in order to indentify cost-effective EAF process conditions. -- Highlights: → Energy demand and carbon dioxide emission figures of EAF steelmaking processes based on steel scrap and DRI. → Complete energy balance of the EAF process using various input materials. → Application of the model to industrial EAF in steel industry in 4 case studies and discussion of model results. → Comparison with other models, critical discussion.

  1. Extraction of Zinc from Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Alkaline Leaching Followed by Fusion of the Leaching Residue with Caustic Soda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵由才; R.Stanforth

    2004-01-01

    Extractability of zinc from two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts containing 24.8% and 16.8% of zinc respectively (denoted as Sample A and Sample B) were tested using direct alkaline leaching followed by fusion of the resulting leaching residues with caustic soda. The experimental results show that the extraction of zinc is heavily dependent on the contents of iron in the dusts. The higher iron content, the lower extraction of zinc is obtained. 53% and 38% of zinc can be extracted when both dusts were directly contacted with 5mol·L-1 NaOH solution for 42h. The remaining zinc left in the leaching residues, which supposed to be present as zinc ferrites, can be further leached when the residues were fused with caustic soda. Quantitative extraction of zinc can be obtained from the leaching residue of Sample A while only 85% from Sample B. The extractability of zinc from dusts wit hvarious contents of iron is compared. The production flowsheet for zinc from the dusts using the process proposed is discussed.

  2. Evaluation of the three-phase, electric arc melting furnace for treatment of simulated, thermally oxidized radioactive and mixed wastes. Part 1: Design criteria and description of integrated waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Bureau of Mines and the Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor EG and G Idaho Inc., are collaborating on a multiyear research project to evaluate the applicability of three-phase, electric-arc furnace melting technology to vitrify materials simulating low-level radioactive and mixed wastes buried or stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and other DOE sites. The melter is sealed, 1-t (1.1-st), three-phase, 800-kV · A electric arc melting furnace with 10.2-cm- (4-in-) diameter graphite electrodes, water-cooled roof and sidewalls, and four water-cooled feed tubes. A water-cooled copper fixture provides for continuous tapping of slag. An instrumented air pollution control system (APCS) with access ports for analysis and a feeder based on screw conveyors and a bucket elevator are dedicated to the facility. Test data are provided by an arc furnace analyzer and by sensors indicating feed rate; slag temperature; and temperature, pressure, and velocity in the APCS. These data are received by a data logger, digitized, and transmitted to a personal computer for storage and display. This unique waste treatment facility is available for public and private use on a cost-sharing basis

  3. New possibilities of Consteel furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

    2012-06-01

    The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

  4. Metals purification by improved vacuum arc remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanner, Frank J.; Williamson, Rodney L.; Smith, Mark F.

    1994-12-13

    The invention relates to improved apparatuses and methods for remelting metal alloys in furnaces, particularly consumable electrode vacuum arc furnaces. Excited reactive gas is injected into a stationary furnace arc zone, thus accelerating the reduction reactions which purify the metal being melted. Additionally, a cooled condensation surface is disposed within the furnace to reduce the partial pressure of water in the furnace, which also fosters the reduction reactions which result in a purer produced ingot. Methods and means are provided for maintaining the stationary arc zone, thereby reducing the opportunity for contaminants evaporated from the arc zone to be reintroduced into the produced ingot.

  5. Influence of Na2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios on the immobilization of Pb from electric arc furnace into the fly ash based geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejak R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD is by-product of iron and steel scrap remelting in electric arc furnace. This waste is classified as a hazardous material due to the leaching of heavy metals into the environment. Geopolymeryzation of fly ash into construction materials called - geopolymer is a considering as a possible way of immobilization of heavy metals from EAFD. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of geopolymers are mostly determined by the ratio between main oxides, Na2O, Al2O3 and SiO2. In this paper we have investigated possibility of Pb immobilization from EAFD into the fly ash based geopolymer. Geopolymers are synthesized at different Na2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios. Compressive strength and chemical stability of geopolymers with respect to the leaching of Pb in water according to the EN 12457 regulation were tested. The results have shown that Na2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios have influence on the compressive strength of geopolymers and Pb release in the water environment.

  6. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical, numerical and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing furnaces. The research concentrates on a commercially available high temperature furnace using zirconia as the heating element and an arc furnace based on a ST International tube welder. The zirconia furnace was delivered and work is progressing on schedule. The work on the arc furnace was initially stalled due to the unavailability of the NASA prototype, which is actively being tested aboard the KC-135 experimental aircraft. A proposal was written and funded to purchase an additional arc welder to alleviate this problem. The ST International weld head and power supply were received and testing will begin in early November. The first 6 months of the grant are covered.

  7. Producción de aceros al carbono en hornos de arco eléctrico en condiciones de mineral de manganeso. // Steel production in electric arc furnaces in the condition of use of manganese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Navas Medina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye una segunda etapa de investigación relacionada con la producción de acero en hornos de arcoeléctrico con revestimiento básico en condiciones de utilización de mineral de manganeso como sustituto del ferromanganeso.En la investigación se caracteriza el acero producido utilizando el mineral de manganeso en dos variantes tecnológicasdiferentes y se determinan parámetros importantes, tales como la estructura del acero obtenido, la influencia de lacomposición química y la temperatura en la reducción del Mn. Adicionalmente, se determina la composición química de laescoria, su basicidad e influencia en el aprovechamiento del Mn del mineral, así como, lo que significa la sustitución delFeMn en la problemática medioambiental.Palabras claves: Producción de aceros al carbono, hornos de arco eléctricos, mineral de manganeso.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract:This present work constitutes the second stage of investigation in relation with the steel production bymeans of electric arc furnaces in the condition of use of manganese ores as a substitute of theferromanganese. In the investigation, the steel manufactured is analyzed the manganese ore in twodifferent technological variants and some important parameters are determined such as: the chemicalcomposition's structure of the steel, the influence of temperature in the reduction of Mn. Moreover, ananalysis of the chemical composition of the slag and the influence in the environmental is realized.Key words: Carbon steel production, electric arc furnaces, manganese mineral.

  8. Development of a new post-combustion technology at SAM Neuves-Maisons electric arc furnace; Developpement d`un nouveau procede de post-combustion au four a arc de SAM Neuves-Maisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coq, X.; Cadet, R. [IRSID, Institut de Recherches Siderurgie, 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France); Colsenet, S.; Porzucek, F. [SAM, Societe des Aciers d`Armature pour le Beton, 54 - Neuves-Maisons, (France)

    1997-11-01

    In order to increase the productivity of the EAF, SAM Neuves-Maisons and Irsid have developed a technology for post-combustion, based on oxygen injection during the scrap melting phase. Oxygen is injected through three lances placed in the furnace roof. With post-combustion, used industrially since July 1995, the objective of productivity has been attained through a decrease of electricity consumption of 25 kWh/t billets for an increase of 5 Nm{sup 3} O{sub 2} per ton. (authors)

  9. Utilización de las escorias de los hornos de arco eléctrico y de cuchara como materiales de construcción. // Use of slags from ladle and electric arc furnaces as construction materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zaragoza Valdés

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad que tiene la humanidad de que las producciones sean cada día mas limpias, así como la que tiene el país del aumento dela rentabilidad de las empresas, hace necesario el estudio del uso de las escorias que se obtienen en la producción de acero, principalresidual de este tipo de producción. En el trabajo se estudia la utilización de la escoria del Horno de Arco Eléctrico (HAE comomaterial de relleno en la confección de bloques de hormigón para la construcción de edificaciones, sustituyendo la grava de granito.Se estudia, además, el uso de la escoria de los hornos cuchara (HC como sustituto del clinquer en la fabricación de cementosportland. Se obtienen resultados positivos para la protección del medio ambiente y la economía de la empresa metalúrgica.Palabras claves: producción de acero, escorias, medio ambiente, cementos, materiales para la construcción.________________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The existing necessity of clean productions as welll as the profitability of enterprises that the Cuban economy is demanding makes itnecessary to carry out a study of slags that constitute t he main residue of the steel production. This paper presents the use of slags comingfrom electric arc furnaces (EAF as a substitute for gravel in the production of concrete bricks. The use of slags coming from ladle furnaces(LF to replace clinker in the production of Portland Cement is also shown. Positive results are obtained such as the protection of theenvironment and the economic growth of the enterperise.Key words:Steel making, slags, environment protection, cement, construction materials.

  10. MANUFACTURE OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE SLAG AGGREGATE AND CONCRETE THROUGH CARBONATION CURING%用碳化养护电弧熔炉钢渣制备集料和混凝土

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常钧; WANG Sanwu; SHAO Yixin

    2007-01-01

    将电弧熔炉(electric arc furnace,EAF)钢渣和石灰混和制成球状集料,置于密闭容器当中,并通入100%的CO2气体进行碳化,在0.506 6MPa保持2h.通过质量法测定添加质量分数为11.94%石灰的EAF钢渣(下同)集料CO2的吸收率为5%,通过红外光谱(infrared,IR)分析测定CO2的吸收率为13.88%.用碳化的钢渣集料制备混凝土再进行碳化养护,同时利用碎石和河砂为集料制备碳化混凝土作为参比样.用质量法测定2种混凝土的碳化率分别为21.14%和10.57%;用IR法的为13.81%和16.97%.碳化后电弧熔炉钢渣集料内生长着大量簇生的犬牙状碳酸钙晶体.

  11. APPLICATION OF REVERSE OSMOSIS TECHNOLOGY TO THE DESALINATION PROCESS IN SUPPLEMENT WATER FOR SUBMERGED ARC FURNACE%反渗透技术在矿热炉补充水除盐工艺的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋勤; 曾世林; 王正

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the application of reverse osmosis technology to the desalination process in supplement water for submerged arc furnace. It tested the effects of original water suspended matter concentration,hardness and static pressure difference both sides of RO membrane on system operation, water yield and desalination rate. The result shows that original water suspended matter has great effects on system water production and original water hardness has less ef-fect on RO water production. It is beneficial to enhance desalination to decrease the static pressure difference both sides of RO membrane. It plays a key role in normal operation of system to increase combined deep pretreatment, decrease the original water concentration and strengthen germicide and algicide in pretreatment stage.%介绍了反渗透技术在矿热炉补充水除盐工艺中的应用,并进行了原水悬浮物浓度、硬度和RO膜两侧静压差对系统运行状况、产水量和除盐率影响的测试.结果表明,原水悬浮物对系统产水量有严重影响;原水硬度对RO产水量影响相对较小;RO膜两侧静差降低,有利于提高除盐率.增加组合深度预处理工序,降低原水的悬浮物浓度,强化预处理阶段杀菌灭藻,对除盐系统设备正常运行起关键作用.

  12. 利用垃圾焚烧飞灰电弧炉熔渣制备微晶玻璃%PRODUCTION OF GLASS-CERAMICS FROM INCINERATION FLY ASH BY USING ELECTRONIC ARC FURNACE TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国侠; 刘汉桥

    2011-01-01

    垃圾焚烧飞灰电弧炉熔渣经核化、晶化两步处理制备微晶玻璃,采用差热分析法研究了基础玻璃的晶化行为,考察了晶化时间对微晶玻璃微观结构及理化特性的影响。结果表明:基础玻璃的晶化指数为1.48,以表面析晶为主,其最佳热处理制度为:核化温度679℃、核化时间1.5h、晶化温度985℃、晶化时间1.5h。微晶玻璃的主晶相为透辉石Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al)_2O_6和少量普通辉石Ca(Mg,Fe,Al)-(Si,Al)_2O_6,在最佳热处理条件下制得的微晶玻璃具有较高的抗弯强度、硬度、韧性及耐酸碱性等性能,有替代天然建材的潜力。%Glass-ceramics by nucleating and crystallization of the molten slag obtained from incinerator fly ash using electric arc furnace treatment was produced.The crystallization behaviour of parent glass was examined on the basis of differential thermal analysis(DTA) results.The effects of crystallization time on the microstructure and the properties of glass-ceramics were studied.The experimental results showed that Avrami exponent for parent glass is 1.48 which indicated that the surface crystallization is dominant during crystallization.The optimum heat-treatment schedule for parent glass is nucleating at 679℃for 1.5 h and crystallizing at 985℃for 1.5h.The main crystalline phase of the glass-ceramics is diopside(Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al)_2O_6) and small amount of augite Ca(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)_2O_6.Glass-ceramics produced at an optimum heat treatment condition showed sufficiently high bending strength,hardness,fracture toughness and chemical resistance to be used in building materials requiring good mechanical and chemical properties.

  13. High current electric arcs; Les arcs electriques a fort courant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalondre, C.; Simonin, O. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique; Mineau, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Dept. Systemes Energetiques; Verite, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Dept. Cables, Condensateurs, Materiel d' Automatisme et Materiaux

    1999-07-01

    The mechanisms called into play through the interaction between a high current electric arc and the surrounding environment have an essential role to play in the performance of arc furnaces and high voltage circuit breakers. Our knowledge of them remains poor, and because of the very high temperatures and speeds involved, experimental investigation is particularly difficult. What can numerical modelling teach us about these phenomena? (authors)

  14. 响应面法优化电炉炼钢粉尘中Zn的选择性浸出%Optimization of selective leaching of Zn from electric arc furnace steelmaking dust using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet KUL; Kürşad Oğuz OSKAY; MehmetŞİMŞİR; Halit SÜBÜTAY; Habip KIRGEZEN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and optimize the effects of the leaching parameters on the selective leaching of zinc from electric arc furnace steelmaking dust (EAFD). The response surface method was applied on the basis of a three-level Box–Behnken experimental design method for optimization of selective leaching parameters of zinc from EAFD. The leaching recoveries of zinc (YZn) and iron (YFe) were taken as the response variables, where the concentration of sulphuric acid (X1, mol/L), leaching temperature (X2, °C), leaching time (X3, min), and liquid/solid ratio (X4, mL/g) were considered as the independent variables (factors). The mathematical model was proposed. Statistical ANOVA analysis and confirmation tests were applied. A maximum of 79.09% of zinc was recovered while the minimum iron recovery was 4.08% under the optimum conditions of leaching time 56.42 min, H2SO4 concentration 2.35 mol/L, leaching temperature 25 °C and liquid/solid ratios. By using ANOVA, the most influential factors on leaching of zinc and iron were determined as H2SO4 concentration and leaching temperature, respectively. The proposed model equations using response surface methodology show good agreement with the experimental data, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.98 for zinc recovery and 0.97 for iron recovery.%研究浸出参数对电炉炼钢粉尘灰中选择浸出性Zn的影响,以Zn和Fe的浸出率为响应变量,以硫酸浓度、浸出温度、浸出时间和液固比为独立变量,采用基于三水平Box−Behnken的响应面法对浸出参数进行优化。对试验结果进行ANOVA分析和验证。在硫酸浓度为2.35 mol/L,浸出温度为25℃,浸出时间为56.42 min,液固比为5的条件下,可得到Zn的最大浸出率为79.09%, Fe的最小浸出率为4.08%。通过ANOVA分析表明,对Zn和Fe浸出率影响最大的因素为硫酸浓度和浸出温度。基于响应面法的模型与试验数据具有很好的一致性,Zn和Fe

  15. Feasibility study of utilizing solar furnace technology in steel making industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspoursani, K. [The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Takestan Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: a.abbaspour@tiau.ac.ir; Tofigh, A.A.; Nahang Toudeshki, S.; Hadadian, A. [Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: Ali.A.Tofigh@gmail.com, email: toudeshki@hotmail.com, email: Arash.Hadadian@gmail.com; Farahmandpour, B. [Iranian Fuel Conservation company (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: farahmandpour@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Iran, the casting industry consumes 33.6% of electricity production, and most of this electricity is used in the melting process. Currently, scrap preheating is done using electric arc furnaces and the aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of replacing electric arc furnaces with solar furnaces. The performance of solar furnaces in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions was studied. It was found that the solar irradiation time and solar insulation are sufficient to operate a solar furnace with the capacity to preheat 250 thousand tons per year of scrap to 500 degrees celsius. Results showed that such a furnace would decrease energy consumption by 40 GWh per year and that it would take 5 years to return the investment. This study demonstrated that operating a solar furnace in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions is feasible and would result in economic and environmental benefits.

  16. Electric Arc Furnace as a Source of Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans in Perspective of the Council Directive 96/61 EC Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofilić, T.

    2008-01-01

    daily care for environmental protection and preservation. This Directive integrates control of emissions and overall impact of industrial installations on the environment, meaning recognition of the entire impact from particular industrial processes on the environment (air, water, soil, waste, noise, use of raw materials, energy efficiency, prevention of accidents, etc.. The IPPC Directive has introduced a system of authorization (environmental permit that needs to be obtained in order to perform business activities and run processes using the best available techniques (BAT.Taking into account the harmful impact of PCDDs/Fs on the environment, and their unavoidability in metallurgical processes, a series of methods has been developed for their partial prevention or at least reduction of their concentration in smoke gas discharge, and thus prevent environmental pollution through these very harmful compounds. In order to prevent the occurrence of PCDDs/Fs metallurgical processes often use methods based on the principle of selective catalyst reduction. For removal of the already generated PCDDs/Fs from waste gases methods of thermal decomposition at high temperatures or various sorption, i. e. "dry" and "wet" cleaning techniques are used.As the implementation of the IPPC Directive is a complex procedure requiring highly educated experts, significant investments into production processes and their modernization, or sometimeseven replacement, steel shops need to timely prepare themselves for the obligations in order to harmonize the existing regulation with the requirements of the IPPC Directive.The requirements of the Directive have to be studied thoroughly. The required steps have to be carefully thought through, previously identifying the cost and time frame necessary to bring the existing electric arc furnace (EAF steel production processes into conformance with the requirements of the IPPC Directive.The paper discusses the requirements of the IPPC Directive that are

  17. Evaluation and reduction of dioxin and furan emissions from thermal processes; Investigation of the effect of electric arc furnace charge materials and emission control technologies on the formation of dioxin and furan emissions; Ermittlung und Verminderung der Emissionen von Dioxinen und Furanen aus thermischen Prozessen; Untersuchung der Zusammenhaenge der Dioxin-/Furanemissionen in Abhaengigkeit von Einsatzstoffen und Minderungstechniken bei Elektro-Lichtbogenoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Badische Stahlwerke GmbH, Kehl (Germany). Abt. Werkerhaltung - Neubau - Umweltschutz; Karcher, A. [Badische Stahlwerke GmbH, Kehl (Germany). Abt. Werkerhaltung - Neubau - Umweltschutz

    1996-02-01

    Until now, it was generally accepted that clean electric arc furnace charge materials generate lower steelmaking emissions. In Sept. 1994 and July 1995 BSW conducted nine test programs involving different charge materials and different off-gas treatment process in order to show that charge materials have no influence on emissions. The result of the scientific investigation shows that dioxin and furan emissions are lowered by cooling process applied to the gases evacuated from the furnace. The continuation of this fundamental research should be preferred over secondary measures which simply transfer dioxins and furans to the collected dust. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Elektrostahlherstellung ging man bisher davon aus, dass nur sauberes Einsatzmaterial geringe Emissionen erzeugt. Da die BSW aufgrund experimenteller Erfahrungen die Ansicht vertreten hat, dass nicht allein das Einsatzmaterial einen Einfluss auf die Emissionen hat, wurden im September 1994 und im Juli 1995 neun Messkampagnen mit unterschiedlichen Einsatzstoffen und unterschiedlichen Abgasbehandlungsverfahren durchgefuehrt. Das Ergebnis der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung bestaetigt, dass die Dioxin- und Furanemissionen vor allem durch das Abkuehlverfahren der direkt abgesaugten Abgase reduziert werden. Die Weiterentwicklung dieser Grundlagenforschung sollte den Sekundaermassnahmen, die lediglich eine Verlagerung der Dioxine und Furane in den abgeschiedenen Staub darstellen, vorgezogen werden. Die Untersuchungen zeigen, dass ein Emissionswert bei Dioxinen und Furanen <0,1 ng TE/Nm{sup 3} bei diesen Anlagen erreicht werden kann. (orig.)

  18. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high

  19. 降低50 t电炉电极消耗的措施与效果%Measures and Effect of Decreasing the Consumption of 50t Electric Arc Furnace Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明洋; 刘永昌; 谷昊; 余辉; 刘兵

    2013-01-01

    The technology measures and effect of decreasing the consumption of the electrode for 50 tons Laigang EAF were Introduced, the electrode consumption in 50 ton electric furnace was greatly reduced by using electrode spray device, optimizing hot metal charging and foam slag process, improving oxygen supply, power supply system.%介绍了莱钢50吨电炉降低电极消耗采取的工艺技术措施及效果,50吨电炉通过采用电极喷淋装置、优化热装铁水和泡沫渣工艺、改进用氧、供电制度等措施,使电极单耗大幅降低。

  20. Continuous ring furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Stefani, G.; Genevois, J.L.; Paolo, P.

    1981-01-06

    A smoke conducting apparatus for use particularly with continuous ring furnaces (e.g., Hoffman furnaces) wherein each furnace chamber is connected to the smoke channel, the latter being a metal pipe inclined slightly from horizontal and provided with one or more traps along the length of its bottom surface, each trap containing a removable receptacle, and heating means being disposed along the bottom of the channel to fluidize tarry deposits of combustion products so that such deposits will flow by gravity into the removable receptacle.

  1. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  2. Induction Furnace - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek R. Gandhewar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of industrial induction melting furnaces has been developed during the last 25 years. Present practices followed in Induction Furnaces are discussed in this paper. Through a literature review account of various practices presently being followed in steel industries using Induction Furnaces has been carried out with a view to gather principal of working. Apart from this a pilot studyhas also been carried out in few industries in India. We provide some recommendations for the productivity improvement .Due to non availability of the proper instrumentations the effect of the ill practices can not be precisely judged. If this is properly measured, the percentage of productivity improvement in steel melting Induction Furnace can be calculated.The review is carried out from the literature in the various journals and manuals.

  3. Space station furnace facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  4. Furnace bottom rise mechanism in preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experiments of preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process were carried out respectively in 20 kW, 100 kW and 1 800 kW DC arc furnaces. The mechanism of furnace bottom rise was studied.It was found that the bottom rise can be divided into three types, including the low bottom temperature, abnormal reducing reaction and carbide deposition. The furnace bottom rise is related to the carbon ratio of the briquet, the heating speed of the briquet and the parameters and operation of furnace.

  5. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes

  6. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max Karasik

    1999-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes.

  7. Extraction of Zinc from Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Alkaline Leaching Followed by Fusion of the Leaching Residue with Caustic Soda%氢氧化钠浸取-浸取渣熔融法从炼钢厂烟尘中提取锌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵由才; R. Stanforth

    2004-01-01

    Extractability of zinc from two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts containing 24.8% and 16.8%of zinc respectively (denoted as Sample A and Sample B) were tested using direct alkaline leaching followed by fusion of the resulting leaching residues with caustic soda. The experimental results show that the extraction of zinc is heavily dependent on the contents of iron in the dusts. The higher iron content, the lower extraction of zinc is obtained. 53% and 38% of zinc can be extracted when both dusts were directly contacted with 5 mol. L-1 NaOH solution for 42 h. The remaining zinc left in the leaching residues, which supposed to be present as zinc ferrites, can be further leached when the residues were fused with caustic soda. Quantitative extraction of zinc can be obtained from the leaching residue of Sample A while only 85% from Sample B. The extractability of zinc from dusts with various contents of iron is compared. The production flowsheet for zinc from the dusts using the process proposed is discussed.

  8. Trends in furnace control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.J.; Keefe, M.D. (Italimpianti of America, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Dept.)

    1993-07-01

    This paper relates Italimpianti's experiences over the past few years in the area of control of reheat furnaces for the steel industry. The focus is on the level 1 area; specifically on the use of PLC-based systems to perform both combustion control and mechanical/hydraulic control. Some topics to be discussed are: overview of reheat furnace control system requirements; PLC only control vs separate PLC and DCS systems; PLC hardware requirements; man machine interface (MMI) requirements; purge, light-on and safety logic; implementation of more sophisticated level 1 control algorithms; furnace temperature optimization: look up tables vs full thermal modeling; and recent trends including integrated PLC/DCS system.

  9. Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

  10. Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M

    2013-01-01

    The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

  11. Modeling Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  12. Modeling of thermal plasma arc technology FY 1994 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, G.L.; Nguyen, H.D.; Paik, S.; McKellar, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The thermal plasma arc process is under consideration to thermally treat hazardous and radioactive waste. A computer model for the thermal plasma arc technology was designed as a tool to aid in the development and use of the plasma arc-Joule beating process. The value of this computer model is to: (a) aid in understanding the plasma arc-Joule beating process as applied to buried waste or exhumed buried waste, (b) help design melter geometry and electrode configuration, (c) calculate the process capability of vitrifying waste (i.e., tons/hour), (d) develop efficient plasma and melter operating conditions to optimize the process and/or reduce safety hazards, (e) calculate chemical reactions during treatment of waste to track chemical composition of off-gas products, and composition of final vitrified waste form and (f) help compare the designs of different plasma-arc facilities. A steady-state model of a two-dimensional axisymmetric transferred plasma arc has been developed and validated. A parametric analysis was performed that studied the effects of arc length, plasma gas composition, and input power on the temperatures and velocity profiles of the slag and plasma gas. A two-dimensional transient thermo-fluid model of the US Bureau of Mines plasma arc melter has been developed. This model includes the growth of a slag pool. The thermo-fluid model is used to predict the temperature and pressure fields within a plasma arc furnace. An analysis was performed to determine the effects of a molten metal pool on the temperature, velocity, and voltage fields within the slag. A robust and accurate model for the chemical equilibrium calculations has been selected to determine chemical composition of final waste form and off-gas based on the temperatures and pressures within the plasma-arc furnace. A chemical database has been selected. The database is based on the materials to be processed in the plasma arc furnaces.

  13. Modeling of thermal plasma arc technology FY 1994 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal plasma arc process is under consideration to thermally treat hazardous and radioactive waste. A computer model for the thermal plasma arc technology was designed as a tool to aid in the development and use of the plasma arc-Joule beating process. The value of this computer model is to: (a) aid in understanding the plasma arc-Joule beating process as applied to buried waste or exhumed buried waste, (b) help design melter geometry and electrode configuration, (c) calculate the process capability of vitrifying waste (i.e., tons/hour), (d) develop efficient plasma and melter operating conditions to optimize the process and/or reduce safety hazards, (e) calculate chemical reactions during treatment of waste to track chemical composition of off-gas products, and composition of final vitrified waste form and (f) help compare the designs of different plasma-arc facilities. A steady-state model of a two-dimensional axisymmetric transferred plasma arc has been developed and validated. A parametric analysis was performed that studied the effects of arc length, plasma gas composition, and input power on the temperatures and velocity profiles of the slag and plasma gas. A two-dimensional transient thermo-fluid model of the US Bureau of Mines plasma arc melter has been developed. This model includes the growth of a slag pool. The thermo-fluid model is used to predict the temperature and pressure fields within a plasma arc furnace. An analysis was performed to determine the effects of a molten metal pool on the temperature, velocity, and voltage fields within the slag. A robust and accurate model for the chemical equilibrium calculations has been selected to determine chemical composition of final waste form and off-gas based on the temperatures and pressures within the plasma-arc furnace. A chemical database has been selected. The database is based on the materials to be processed in the plasma arc furnaces

  14. Sintering furnace with hydrogen carbon dioxide atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heated furnace for sintering structures of uranium oxide containing composition being introduced to the furnace is described. The furnace receives an atmosphere comprising a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide as initially introduced to the furnace, and this mixture reacts in the furnace to give the presence of water vapor and carbon monoxide

  15. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  16. Graphite electrode DC arc technology program for buried waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the program is to apply EPI's Arc Furnace to the processing of Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) waste from Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This is being facilitated through the Department of Energy's Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. A second objective is to apply the diagnostics capability of MIT's Plasma Fusion Center to the understanding of the high temperature processes taking place in the furnace. This diagnostics technology has promise for being applicable in other thermal treatment processes. The program has two parts, a test series in an engineering-scale DC arc furnace which was conducted in an EPI furnace installed at the Plasma Fusion Center and a pilot-scale unit which is under construction at MIT. This pilot-scale furnace will be capable of operating in a continuous feed and continuous tap mode. Included in this work is the development and implementation of diagnostics to evaluate high temperature processes such as DC arc technology. This technology can be used as an effective stabilization process for Superfund wastes

  17. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY. BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY (EPA/540/SR-92/017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration of the Babcock & Wilcox Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology was conducted in November 1991. This Demonstration occurred at the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Alliance Research Center (ARC) in Alliance, OH. The B&W cyc...

  18. Graphite electrode dc arc technology development for treatment of buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ''National Laboratory-University-Industrial'' three-way partnership has been established between the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI) to develop graphite electrode DC arc technology for the treatment of buried wastes. This paper outlines the PNL-MIT-EPI program describing a series of engineering-scale DC arc furnace tests conducted in an EPI furnace at the Plasma Fusion Center at MIT, and a description of the second phase of this program involving the design, fabrication, and testing of a pilot-scale DC arc furnace. Included in this work is the development and implementation of diagnostics to evaluate and optimize high temperature thermal processes such as the DC arc technology

  19. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  20. Arc saw development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arc saw is one of the key components of the Contaminated Equipment Volume Reduction (CEVR) Program. This report describes the progress of the arc saw from its inception to its current developmental status. History of the arc saw and early contributors are discussed. Particular features of the arc saw and their advantages for CEVR are detailed. Development of the arc saw including theory of operation, pertinent experimental results, plans for the large arc saw and advanced control systems are covered. Associated topics such as potential applications for the arc saw and other arc saw installations in the world is also touched upon

  1. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  2. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process

  3. Development of vacuum brazing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In joining of components where welding process is not possible brazing processes are employed. Value added components, high quality RF systems, UHV components of high energy accelerators, carbide tools etc. are produced using different types of brazing methods. Furnace brazing under vacuum atmosphere is the most popular and well accepted method for production of the above mentioned components and systems. For carrying out vacuum brazing successfully it is essential to have a vacuum brazing furnace with latest features of modern vacuum brazing technology. A vacuum brazing furnace has been developed and installed for carrying out brazing of components of copper, stainless steel and components made of dissimilar metals/materials. The above furnace has been designed to accommodate jobs of 700mm diameter x 2000mm long sizes with job weight of 500kgs up to a maximum temperature of 1250 degC at a vacuum of 5 x 10-5 Torr. Oil diffusion pumping system with a combination of rotary and mechanical booster pump have been employed for obtaining vacuum. Molybdenum heating elements, radiation shield of molybdenum and Stainless Steel Grade 304 have been used. The above furnace is computer controlled with manual over ride facility. PLC and Pentium PC are integrated together to maneuver steps of operation and safety interlocks of the system. Closed loop water supply provides cooling to the system. The installation of the above system is in final stage of completion and it will be ready for use in next few months time. This paper presents insights of design and fabrication of a modern vacuum brazing furnace and its sub-system. (author)

  4. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  5. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  6. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  7. Rotating arc spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  8. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  9. Development of gas-fired vacuum furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikirica, S.J. (Gas Research Inst. (United States)); Hemsath, K.H. (Indugas Inc. (United States)); Panahi, S.K. (Southern California Gas Co. (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Vacuum processing in metallurgical heat treating processes is finding widespread acceptance. Gas-fired vacuum furnaces have several features that make them perform differently from electrically heated vacuum furnaces. This paper describes the development and preliminary performance results of a gas-fired vacuum-capable furnace system. A gas-fired vacuum furnace, with a novel high convection heating system, is show to result in lower energy operating cost and improved temperature uniformity in processes such as ion nitriding. Industrial gas-fired furnace designs, capable of operation to 1850 F, are described for horizontal and vertical configurations. (orig.)

  10. Peek Arc Consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies peek arc consistency, a reasoning technique that extends the well-known arc consistency technique for constraint satisfaction. In contrast to other more costly extensions of arc consistency that have been studied in the literature, peek arc consistency requires only linear space and quadratic time and can be parallelized in a straightforward way such that it runs in linear time with a linear number of processors. We demonstrate that for various constraint languages, peek arc consistency gives a polynomial-time decision procedure for the constraint satisfaction problem. We also present an algebraic characterization of those constraint languages that can be solved by peek arc consistency, and study the robustness of the algorithm.

  11. Electric arc hydrogen heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data on the electric arc burning in hydrogen are presented. Empirical and semiempirical dependences for calculating the arc characteristics are derived. An engineering method of calculating plasma torches for hydrogen heating is proposed. A model of interaction of a hydrogen arc with a gas flow is outlined. The characteristics of plasma torches for heating hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing gases are described. (author)

  12. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  13. Designing furnaces for the primary aluminum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Christoph

    1996-02-01

    Although many typically regard the casthouse furnace as a simple piece of equipment, in reality the furnace design has a remarkable effect on final metal quality and efficiency of operation. Heat exchange, burner design, process control, and the refractory lining all contribute to the overall performance of the furnace. The most efficient design may vary from plant to plant, but poor design will definitely lead to higher production cost and difficulty attaining the highest quality products.

  14. Tracer tests on furnaces at Metalloys Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1980, thirteen double tests were carried out with five radioactive isotopes on three furnaces at Metalloys Limited, near Meyerton. Each double test involved the introduction of a sample of coke impregnated with lanthanum and a sample of irradiated manganese ore (54Mn or 59Fe), irradiated quartzite (46Sc), or irradiated coal (46Sc, 59Fe, and 60Co). The tests were conducted on the three large furnaces for the production of high-carbon ferromanganese, viz M10, M11, and M12. The radioactivity of samples of the metal and the slag leaving the furnace was measured by the Isotopes and Activation Division of the Atomic Energy Board (AEB). Response curves and computer analyses are presented on the elution of the tracers from the furnaces. The response curves for the tracers, which were inserted close to the electrodes, are discussed so that the salient differences between their passage through the three furnaces can be established. The results obtained give support to the findings of a dig-out carried out on furnace M10 during 1977. The metal and slag products of furnace M12 were subjected to mineralogical investigation so that the major phases in the furnace products could be determined. Details of the calculation of the mean residence time for material in furnace M12 are given in an appendix

  15. Comparison of short time annealing of implanted silicon layers with tungsten-halogen lamp and mercury arc lamp sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short time anneal (STA) experiments were performed in a specially designed system which uses either a bank of Tungsten-Halogen lamps or a moving Mercury arc lamp as the light source. Both STA results were compared with conventional furnace anneal. The Mercury arc lamp anneal is found to be a critical process but optimization for wafer damage free conditions can be achieved. The anneals result in general in a better profile control which is most outspoken for shallow Boron implants while the electrical activation is comparable for all elements to that obtained with Tungsten-Halogen or furnace anneal

  16. Preparation and Arc Breakdown Behavior of Nanocrystalline W-Cu Electrical Contact Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenge CHEN; Zhanying KANG; Bingjun DING

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured (NS) W-Cu composite powder was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA), and nanostructured bulk of W-Cu contact material was fabricated by hot pressed sintering in an electrical vacuum furnace. The microstructure,electric conductivity, hardness, breakdown voltage and arcing time of NS W-Cu alloys were measured and compared to conventional W-Cu alloys prepared by powder metallurgy. The results show that microstructural refinement and uniformity can improve the breakdown behavior, the electric arc stability and the arc extinction ability of nanostructured W-Cu contacts materials. Also, the nanostructured W-Cu contact material shows the characteristic of spreading electric arcs, which is of benefit to electric arc erosion.

  17. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

  18. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  19. Furnace for vitrification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A melting furnace is claimed for patent with a totally new design of the placement of the inner tube and melt discharge. The advantage of the new design is that the discharged glass has higher temperature and thereby lower viscosity than glass melt and that the height of the siphon may be altered in furnace operation. (E.S.). 1 fig

  20. Blast furnace operation analysis by thermic exergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the blast furnace thermic state, the thermic exergy can be used, which considers the temperatures level of the process. The magnitude analysis of thermic exergy for blast furnace operation using pulverized coal, natural gas and oxygen injection by tuyeres, shows that natural gas injection is less effective than pulverized coal and enriched blast with oxygen simultaneous injection. (Author) 6 refs

  1. Tokamak ARC damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage

  2. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  3. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  4. Single-Arc IMRT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator in a continuous dynamic mode during a single rotation of the gantry has recently gained momentum both in research and industry. In this note we investigate the potential of this Single-Arc IMRT technique at a conceptual level. We consider the original theoretical example case from Brahme et al that got the field of IMRT started. Using analytical methods, we derive deliverable intensity 'landscapes' for Single-Arc as well as standard IMRT and Tomotherapy. We find that Tomotherapy provides the greatest flexibility in shaping intensity landscapes and that it allows one to deliver IMRT in a way that comes close to the ideal case in the transverse plane. Single-Arc and standard IMRT make compromises in different areas. Only in relatively simple cases that do not require substantial intensity modulation will Single-Arc be dosimetrically comparable to Tomotherapy. Compared with standard IMRT, Single-Arc could be dosimetrically superior in certain cases if one is willing to accept the spreading of low dose values over large volumes of normal tissue. In terms of treatment planning, Single-Arc poses a more challenging optimization problem than Tomotherapy or standard IMRT. We conclude that Single-Arc holds potential as an efficient IMRT technique especially for relatively simple cases. In very complex cases, Single-Arc may unduly compromise the quality of the dose distribution, if one tries to keep the treatment time below 2 min or so. As with all IMRT techniques, it is important to explore the tradeoff between plan quality and the efficiency of its delivery carefully for each individual case. (note)

  5. ALICE - ARC integration

    OpenAIRE

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva; Peters, Andreas; Siaz, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructur...

  6. Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs

  7. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Venkatasubramanian

    2001-06-01

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material being heated can be prevented from depositing on the windows of the absorption cell by maintaining a higher temperature at both the ends of the absorption cell.

  8. Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

    1997-11-01

    In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

  9. Estimating the Condition of the Heat Resistant Lining in an Electrical Reduction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan G. Waalmann

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for estimating the condition of the heat resistant lining in an electrical reduction furnace for ferrosilicon. The system uses temperature measured with thermocouples placed on the outside of the furnace-pot. These measurements are used together with a mathematical model of the temperature distribution in the lining in a recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the position of 'the transformation front'. The system is part of a monitoring system which is being developed in the AIP-project: 'Condition monitoring of strongly exposed process equipment in thc ferroalloy industry'. The estimator runs on-line, and results arc presented in colour-graphics on a display unit. The goal is to locate the transformation front with an accuracy of +- 5cm.

  10. Thermal Characteristics of Heating-furnace with Regenerative Burner

    OpenAIRE

    HUA, Jianshe; Li, Xiaoming; Kawabata, Nobuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Thermal characteristics between the heating-furnace with regenerative burner and the classical triple-fired continuous furnace by heat balance testing for two billet steel heating-furnace at the same billet steel heating have been analyzed. In addition, the operating principle, the thermal characteristics and the effect of energy saving for heating-furnace with regenerative burner are introduced.

  11. Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) attached flew during the USMP-2 mission. This assembly consists of a furnace module, a muffle tube assembly and a translation mechanism which are enclosed in the EAC. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zone . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

  12. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfree, J. [Product Design consultant, Pugwash (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  13. LPCVD Furnace: Tystar Mini Tytan 4600

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: CORAL Names: SiN LPCVD, Poly LPCVD, LTO LPCVD This three stack furnace system is utilized to deposit silicon nitride, polysilicon, and low temperature...

  14. Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

  15. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  16. Anhydrous Taphole Mix for Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,brand,label,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of anhydrous taphole mix for blast furnace.

  17. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop a lightweight approach to achieving the high concentrations of solar energy needed for a solar furnace achieving temperatures of...

  18. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998

  19. Plasma arc remelting of steels and nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IRC Plasma Arc Cold Hearth Remelting (PACHR) furnace has been used to produce 100mm and 150mm diameter ingots of alloy 718, M50 bearing steel and G110 maraging steel from VIM/VAR feedstocks. These trials highlighted the importance of accurately controlling the level of the melt pool surface in the crucible in order to produce an acceptable ingot finish. Chemical analysis of the ingots produced indicated no significant changes in the level of any element. Cleanness of the ingots has been assessed using the Electron Beam Button Melt (EBBM) technique. The results obtained are encouraging but highlight the necessity for careful control of the plasma remelting process. (orig.)

  20. Regenerative burner use on reheat furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggley, G.W. [Bloom Engineering Co. Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The environmental advantages of using regenerative burner technology on steel reheat furnaces are explored in this article, in particular improved fuel energy efficiencies and reduced pollution emissions, of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Experience of the use of regenerative burners in the United States and Japan, where they have achieved significant market penetration is also described, including a case history of a top-fired billet reheat furnace installed in the United States. (UK)

  1. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following sha...

  2. The use of blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Václavík, Vojtěch; Dirner, Vojtech; Dvorský, Tomáš; Daxner, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of fi nely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on fi nely ground blast furnace slag were observed. Rad predstavlja rezultate eksperimentalnog istraživanja koja se bave mogućnostima primjene fi nozrnate troske iz visoke peći za Portland cement u jednostavnoj proiz...

  3. Coals characterization for blast furnace tuyeres injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection (PCI) by tuyeres is determined by the composition and properties of the used coals and by the quality of the ferrous burden and coke. A study in thermo balance of coals to be injected by tuyeres is carried out, and the softening and melting temperatures of coals ash are determined. The coal performance and its influence in the blast furnace operation is estimated. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Voltage stabilizers for high temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stabilization of furnace temperatures in the range 1500-2500 C has been achieved by controlling the effective (rms) value of the supply voltage of the heating element. Temperature variations are less than, or equal to, one degree C in the whole working range of the furnace. Two types of set-ups have been developed: one is static, the other takes use of a servo-motor. (author)

  5. Magnesia-Chrome Refractories for Flash Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CHEN Kaixian; LU Xinghua; LIU Jianlong; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2002-01-01

    The rapid development of our country's heavy nonferrous metallurgical technology and the revolution in new type of heavynon-ferrous metallurgical furnace have imposed more critical demand on the refractory materials ,i. e. high quality and long service life. This paper presents the domestic status of the refractories for flash furnace , briefly describes the wear of the refractory used , and it is considered that the domestic in refractories for flashfurnace can be surely realized.

  6. Modeling of Arc Force in Plasma Arc Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhonglin; HU Shengsun; YIN Fengliang; WANG Rui

    2008-01-01

    A three. dimensional mathematical model for the transferred-type argon arc was developed to describe arc force on the anode surface. The software ANSYS was employed to solve the model. The model includes a part of torch and tungsten electrode to achieve m ore reasonable results. The arc temperature and flow fields were derived. And the influences of welding parameters on arc force were also studied. The simulated results show that arc pressure at the anode are dependent on the welding current, plasma gas flow rate and electrode neck-in, while not sensitive to arc length.

  7. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  8. ALICE-ARC integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a module implementing the functionalities necessary to achieve AliEn job submission and management to ARC enabled sites

  9. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  10. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  11. Process furnace safety - How Neste could improve the safety of the furnaces in their Porvoo and Naantali refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Sandås, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Process furnaces are some of the main pieces of equipment in the refining industry. However, furnaces have some safety issues: no exact understanding, extreme temperatures and, if they fail, severe consequences. The extreme conditions in furnaces can result in elevated corrosion rate, which is why corrosion is a common reason for furnace failure. This thesis focuses on Neste's furnaces in their Porvoo and Naantali refineries, and how their safety could be improved. One of the biggest prob...

  12. Synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles by arc evaporation of an aluminium cathode surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Gazanfari; M Karimzadeh; S Ghorbani; M R Sadeghi; G Azizi; H Karimi; N Fattahi; Z Karimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium nanoparticles (Al Nps) are synthesized using arc discharge method by applying direct current between aluminium electrodes in liquid environment without any use of vacuum equipment, heat exchangers, high temperatures furnaces and inert gases. After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on the nanoparticles was performed immediately. The effects of media on the yield and morphology of aluminium nanoparticles were investigated. Analysis result of the samples indicated that particle size was less than 30 nm, when 120 A/cm2 arc current was used. In addition, coating agent can affect arc velocity, arc stability, morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. Resultant nanoparticles were identified using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), also their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finally the accuracy of coating was assessed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

  13. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings

  14. Conceptual design and simulation analysis of thermal behaviors of TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Extensive use of carbon based fuel is the main inducement for global warming and more extreme weather.Reducing carbon dioxide emission and enhancing energy use is a common subject in steel industry.In the integrated steel plant,decreasing carbon dioxide emission must consider energy balance in the whole iron and steel works,and secondary energy must be actively utilized.As promising blast-furnaces,top gas recovery blast furnace(TGR-BF) and oxygen blast furnace have been investigated.In this paper,conceptual TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace are proposed.Base on the idea of blast furnace gas de-CO2 circulating as reducing agent and the idea of pure oxygen blast decreasing the thermal reserve zone temperature,process modeling is conducted with ASPEN Plus.It is shown that the developed model reasonably describes the energy balance and mass balance feature of the furnace,and provides basic thermodynamic condition for furnaces.The effects of changes in different operation conditions are studied by sensitivity analysis and reference data from simulation.

  15. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  16. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  17. ALICE: ARC integration

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlik, C; Kleist, J; Peters, A; Saiz, P

    2008-01-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a modu...

  18. Volt-ampere characteristics of a nitrogen DC plasma arc with anode melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Peng; Ni Guo-Hua; Meng Yue-Dong; Nagatsu Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of a nitrogen arc using a graphite cathode and a melting anode in a pilot-scale plasma furnace are investigated.The voltage is examined as a function of current and apparent plasma length.The voltage increases non-linearly with the increase of apparent plasma length,with the current fixed.The experimental data so obtained are compared with the predictions of the Bowman model for the electric arc,and with numerical simulations as well.The level of agreement between the experimental data at the melting anode and the numerical predictions confirms the suitability of the proposed the Bowman model.These characteristics are relevant to the engineering design and evaluation of a DC plasma furnace and reactor for the treatment of hazardous fly ash waste.

  19. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  20. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  1. Three-dimensional modelling of in-furnace coal/coke combustion in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Shen; B.Y. Guo; A.B. Yu; P.R. Austin; P. Zulli [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Lab for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems

    2011-02-15

    A three-dimensional mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate in-furnace phenomena of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates not only pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed but also coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements under different conditions. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are investigated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. The underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are also analysed. The simulation results indicate that it is important to include recirculation region in the raceway and the coke bed reactions for better understanding in-furnace phenomena. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI operation in full-scale blast furnaces. 32 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. A heating partition for a coking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelov, K.K.; Ivanova, A.V.; Kaufman, A.A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Likhogub, Ye.P.; Turman, D.S.; Varshavskiy, T.P.; Volfovskiy, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    A coking furnace heating partition (OPKT) is proposed in order to increase reliability by increasing its strength. The proposal includes equipping with a vertical wall (St) made of Dinas brick and positioning it along the longitudinal axis of the coking furnace heating panel. The dividing walls are made of Dinas brick and their faces are disposed between the bricks of the wall of the coking chamber (KK). The surface of the coking chamber wall is made from magnesite or corundum brick which makes up 70 to 80 percent of the operational surface (Pv) of the wall. The presence of the vertical wall in combination with the

  3. Optimization of Temperature Controller for Electric Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are based on the principle of natural selection and the optimization of natural generation. We can select the number of the bit strings and mutation rate reasonably, the global optimal solution can be obtained. GAs adopt the binary code as optimizing parameter and this binary code can be used in computer controller easily. This paper studies the application of the GAs to the electric furnace temperature control. When the electric furnace mathematics model varies with the working condition, the parameter of controller can be optimized on line. So the system performance can be improved effectively.

  4. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  5. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  6. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  7. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  8. Semicircular Rashba arc spin polarizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we study the generation of spin polarized currents using curved arcs of finite widths, in which the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) is present. Compared to the 1-dimensional RSOI arcs with zero widths studied previously, the finite width presents charge carriers with another degree of freedom along the transverse width of the arc, in addition to the longitudinal degree of freedom along the circumference of the arc. The asymmetry in the transverse direction due to the difference in the inner and outer radii of the arc breaks the antisymmetry of the longitudinal spin z current in a straight RSOI segment. This property can be exploited to generate spin z polarized current output from the RSOI arc by a spin unpolarized current input. The sign of the spin current can be manipulated by varying the arc dimensions

  9. Semicircular Rashba arc spin polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Siu, Zhuo, E-mail: a0018876@nus.edu.sg [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Advanced Concepts and Nanotechnology, Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1 (Off Kent Ridge Crescent, NUS), Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Jalil, Mansoor B. A. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Ghee Tan, Seng [Advanced Concepts and Nanotechnology, Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1 (Off Kent Ridge Crescent, NUS), Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we study the generation of spin polarized currents using curved arcs of finite widths, in which the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) is present. Compared to the 1-dimensional RSOI arcs with zero widths studied previously, the finite width presents charge carriers with another degree of freedom along the transverse width of the arc, in addition to the longitudinal degree of freedom along the circumference of the arc. The asymmetry in the transverse direction due to the difference in the inner and outer radii of the arc breaks the antisymmetry of the longitudinal spin z current in a straight RSOI segment. This property can be exploited to generate spin z polarized current output from the RSOI arc by a spin unpolarized current input. The sign of the spin current can be manipulated by varying the arc dimensions.

  10. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  11. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, I.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the sourc...

  12. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo

    2011-07-01

    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  13. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming has been studied with the specific goal of understanding the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. These findings do not contradict the generally accepte...

  14. Atom diffusion in furnaces - models and measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sadagoff, Y. M.; Dědina, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2002), s. 535-549. ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : diffusion coefficients * graphite furnace * atomic absorption spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2002

  15. INVESTIGATIONS ON OPERATION OF ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace (RTF is a new type of fuel furnaces, that provide the most efficient heating and recycling of polydisperse materials. The paper describes results of the investigations on thermal processes in the RTF, movement of materials and non-isothermal gas flow during kiln rotary process. The investigations have been carried out while using physical and computer simulations and under actual operating conditions applying the pilot plant. Results of the research have served as a basis for development of recommendations on the RTF calculations and designing and they have been also used for constructional design of a rotary tilting furnace for heating and melting of cast iron chips, reduction smelting of steel mill scale, melting of aluminum scrap, melting of lead from battery scrap. These furnaces have a high thermal efficiency (~50 %, technological flexibility, high productivity and profitability. Proven technical solutions for recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals develop the use of RTF in the foundry and metallurgical industry as the main technological unit for creation of cost-effective small-tonnage recycling of metal waste generated at the plants. The research results open prospects for organization of its own production for high-quality charging material in Belarus in lieu of imported primary metal. The proposed technology makes it possible to solve environmental challenge pertaining to liquidation of multi-tonnage heaps of metal-containing wastes.

  16. Effect of electropolishing on vacuum furnace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanwi Lahiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal shields of materials having low emissivity in vacuum furnaces is well-known. However, the surface condition of the heat shields is one of the most important factors governing their efficiency as radiation resistances. The emissivity of the thermal shields dictates the power rating of the heaters in furnace design. The unpolished materials used in the heater tests showed poor performance leading to loss of a signi­ficant percentage of the input power. The present work deals with the refur­bishment of the radiation heat shields used in a furnace for heating graphite structure. The effect of refurbishment of the heat shields by the buffing and subsequently electro­polishing was found to improve the performance of the shields as heat reflectors. The com­position of the electrolyte was chosen in such a way that the large shields of Mo, Inconel and SS can be polished using the same reagents in different ratios. The present work deals with the development of a standard electropolishing procedure for large metallic sheets and subsequently qualifying them by roughness and emissivity measure­ments. The improvement noted in the shielding efficiency of the furnace in the subsequent runs is also discussed here.

  17. Design of advanced industrial furnaces using numerical modeling method

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wei

    2000-01-01

    This doctoral thesis describes the fundamentals ofmathematical modeling for the industrial furnaces and boilersand presents the results from the numerical simulations of sometypical applications in advanced industrial furnaces andboilers. The main objective of this thesis work is to employcomputational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology as an effectivecomputer simulation tool to study and develop the newcombustion concepts, phenomena and processes in advancedindustrial furnaces and boilers. The ...

  18. Arc-preserving subsequences of arc-annotated sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Vladimir Yu

    2011-01-01

    Arc-annotated sequences are useful in representing the structural information of RNA and protein sequences. The longest arc-preserving common subsequence problem has been introduced as a framework for studying the similarity of arc-annotated sequences. In this paper, we consider arc-annotated sequences with various arc structures. We consider the longest arc preserving common subsequence problem. In particular, we show that the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(crossing,chain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(crossing,chain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete for some fixed alphabet $\\Sigma$ such that $|\\Sigma| = 2$. Also we show that if $|\\Sigma| = 1$, then the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete.

  19. Crude oil direct fired furnace model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an accurate mathematical model was developed in order to describe the thermal behaviours of a crude oil preheat furnace and to predict the outlet temperature of the crude process at different operating conditions. Based on basic heat and mass transfer rules, and thermodynamic relations, all sub-sections of furnaces including the combustion system, the convection and radiation sections were modelled. The crude process flow was considered as the mixture of 21 different components. The empirical correlations for crude process were adopted for estimating the physical properties of components and the heat transfer coefficients of process fluid for single-phase and two-phase flow regimes at the convection and radiation sections, respectively. The effects of flame height and combustion process conditions were also considered on the furnace dynamics. Available information from operational, geometrical variables and design values were used to define the parameters of the models. In order to show the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed modelling approach, the performances of the developed model were evaluated by comparing its responses with the designed values (on design simulation). Finally, sensitivity analyses were performed by perturbing the model's inputs from nominal conditions to guarantee the capability of the developed model for long-term simulations. Obtained results indicate that the developed model for a direct fired furnace can be used for transient performance analysis at different operating conditions and real-time simulation experiments in MATALB® Simulink environment. - Highlights: • A semi-empirical dynamic mathematical model was developed for a crude oil preheat furnace. • Heat transfer in single and two phase flow regimes, combustion process were considered. • The model could be used for real-time simulation in MATALB® Simulink environment. • The developed model is an appropriate tool for monitoring, fault diagnosis, and

  20. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  1. Material challenges in ethylene pyrolysis furnace heater service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, S.

    1980-02-01

    Operating temperatures of pyrolysis furnaces are sometimes in excess of 2000/sup 0/F (1100/sup 0/C). These temperatures are very detrimental to the life of the typical HK-40 furnace tubes which normally have a three to five year life in the hot section of these furnaces. Short life is attributed to rapid carburization of ID surfaces which subjects tubes to higher than normal stresses and results in creep cracking of furnace tubes. As an aid to understanding the materials problems the ethylene process will be presented, along with data on the carburization of furnace tubes.

  2. Advanced control of walking-beam reheating furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Chen; Chao Xu; Bin Zhang; Huihe Shao; Jianmin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Reheating furnace is an important device with complex dynamic characteristics in steel plants. The temperature tracing control of reheating furnace has great importance both to the quality of slabs and energy saving. A model-based control strategy,multivariable constrained control (MCC) for the reheating furnace control is used. With this control method, the furnace is treated as a six-input-six-output general model with loops coupled in nature. Compared with the traditional control, the proposed control strategy gets better temperature tracing accuracy and exhibits some energy saving feature. The simulation results show that the performance of the furnace is greatly improved.

  3. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  4. Gas tungsten arc welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable grinder, co-axial with the electrode, is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds. The specification also discloses means for loading of the cladding with fuel pellets and for placement of reflectors, gas capsules and end caps. Gravity feed conveyor and inerting means are also described. (author)

  5. Kinetics and Statistical Behaviour of Iron Recovery from Red Mud using Plasma Arc Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Swagat S.; Jayasankar, K.; Satapathy, Bijoy K.; Mishra, Barada K.; Mukherjee, Partha S.

    2011-06-01

    Study of the recovery of pig iron from dry red mud through plasma smelting has been done. The reductant used was graphite. Various fluxes were used for the formation of slag. The parameters varied were smelting time, basicity and concentration of reductant and fluxes. It was observed that the reduction kinetics improved progressively with the increase of all the variables up to certain level and on further increase the metal recovery decreased. The results were interpreted kinetically and rate determining step was evaluated. Multi Linear Regression Analysis studies were carried out. The variables were subjected to Principal Component Analysis. Four factors could explain 75.4% of the variables.

  6. Influence of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF Slag Aggregate Sizes on the Workability and Durability of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Awoyera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has been identified as one of the largest consumer of nonrenewable resources. Meanwhile, the unused materials are continually disposed in landfills and dumpsites. As a result, adoption of industrial solid wastes for use as a construction material remains pertinent in the creation of a green environment. The present study focused on the influence of EAF steel slag aggregate (SSA sizes on the workability and durability of concrete. Concrete mixes in 1:2:4 ratios of cement, sand and SSA; batched by weight, and a water cement ratio of 0.6 were considered. However, a control mix using normal aggregate (NA was made in order to evaluate the variation in properties of the concretes. The study utilised SSA and NA sizes of ½ inch (12.7 mm, 3/8 inch (9.54 mm and ¾ inch (19.05 mm respectively. All testing were conducted under room temperature, adopting procedures recommended in BS standards. For all the aggregate sizes considered, SSA produced an appreciable 28 day compressive strength than the NA concrete. However, the NA concrete possess good workability than the SSA concrete.

  7. Influence of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Slag Aggregate Sizes on the Workability and Durability of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    P. O. Awoyera; A. W. Adekeye; O E Babalola

    2015-01-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the largest consumer of nonrenewable resources. Meanwhile, the unused materials are continually disposed in landfills and dumpsites. As a result, adoption of industrial solid wastes for use as a construction material remains pertinent in the creation of a green environment. The present study focused on the influence of EAF steel slag aggregate (SSA) sizes on the workability and durability of concrete. Concrete mixes in 1:2:4 ratios of ce...

  8. Recycling of electric arc furnace (EAF dust for use in steel making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alencastro de Araújo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EAF dust is listed as hazardous waste from specific source, K061, according to ABNT 10004:2004 and constitutes one of the major problems of electrical steel plant. This work suggests recycling of the EAF dust by sintering of a composite, pre-cast agglomerate (PCA consisting of EAF dust agglomerate to coke particles, mill scale and ceramic fluorite into pellets. The work was divided into three stages, in the first stage the technical viability of using only solid waste industrial to produce a PCA was observed, in the second phase, the main effects between the components of the PCA to obtain the optimal formulation was tested. In the third phase the intensity of the variables, coke and fluorite ceramics, for removing zinc of PCA was checked. Every stage was chemically analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The first two stages of the production PCA were carried out in a pilot plant sintering downstream and the third phase in a pilot plant upstream. As a result of the process two by-products were obtained, the pre-cast agglomerated, PCA, with total iron content exceeding 70%, object of the process of sintering and zinc dust, containing more than 50% zinc resulting from volatilization of this metal during the sintering process and collected by bag filter. In addition, approximately 90% of lead and cadmium contained in the initial EAF dust was extracted.

  9. Artificial intelligence-based computer modeling tools for controlling slag foaming in electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric Lee

    Due to increased competition in a world economy, steel companies are currently interested in developing techniques that will allow for the improvement of the steelmaking process, either by increasing output efficiency or by improving the quality of their product, or both. Slag foaming is one practice that has been shown to contribute to both these goals. However, slag foaming is highly dynamic and difficult to model or control. This dissertation describes an effort to use artificial intelligence-based tools (genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and neural networks) to both model and control the slag foaming process. Specifically, a neural network is trained and tested on slag foaming data provided by a steel plant. This neural network model is then controlled by a fuzzy logic controller, which in turn is optimized by a genetic algorithm. This tuned controller is then installed at a steel plant and given control be a more efficient slag foaming controller than what was previously used by the steel plant.

  10. Development and Application of Castables for Ladle Nozzle of Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGDing′ao; MAOChao; 等

    2002-01-01

    The castables for ladle nozzle were developed using brown corundum as the main raw material and the right amounts of complex additives. The influence of several additives on the properties such as strength and permanent linear change of the samples was studied. The results showed that applying complex additives improved the strength and the volume stability of the castables greatly. The campaign of the castables for ladle nozzle has increased from about 40 heats to 70 heats.

  11. Compensation for Power Quality Improvement in Electric Arc Furnace with Considering Economic Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazanfar Shahgholian; Maryam Golibagh

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, on the one hand with increasing application of nonlinear loads in power systems and no sinusoidal currents that extracted from system, and on the other hand increasing loads sensitive to power quality and destructive effects of nonlinear loads on power quality of power systems, compensation these loads has been converted to one of the main issues in power systems. The use of flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices is one of the most progressive methods which are used ...

  12. Electric arc welding gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  13. Monitoring device for glass melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention can monitor, from a remote place, a liquid surface in a glass melting furnace for use in a solidification treatment, for example, of high level radioactive wastes. Namely, a vertical sleeve is disposed penetrating a ceiling wall of a melting vessel. A reflection mirror is disposed above the vertical sleeve and flex an optical axis. A monitoring means is disposed on the optical axis of the reflecting mirror at a spaced position. The monitoring means may have an optical telescopic means, a monitoring camera by way of a half mirror and an illumination means. The reflection mirror may be made of a metal. The monitoring device thus constituted suffer from no effects of high temperature and high radiation dose rate, thereby enabling to easily monitor the liquid surface in the melting furnace. (I.S.)

  14. FLOX burner technology for wood furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current research at IVD focuses on the development of FLOX burners for small furnaces, with the intention of making problematic biomass available for energetic utilisation. At the same time, soiling and emission problems are to be reduced or avoided by using innovative technologies. One of these is the technology of flameless oxidation, which is already applied successfully in the natural gas industry because of its low NOx emissions. The IVD is working on two different plant concepts. (orig.)

  15. Second generation rotary furnaces, an even more viable alternative to cupola and electric induction furnaces; La seconde generation de fours rotatifs, un appareil qui peut se substituer avantageusement au cubilot et au four electrique a induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, D. [Air Liquide 38 - Sassenage (France)

    2001-10-01

    Rotary furnaces are a well established alternative to cupola furnaces. Recent innovations in oxygas furnaces have made them the preferred choice even over medium-frequency electric furnaces in many European foundries. The article explains in what respects the rotary furnace is a new iron smelting concept, as different from the cupola furnace as the medium-frequency electric furnace. (author)

  16. Of Eggs and Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Thomas, P. C.; Helfenstein, P.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Hedman, M. M.; Agarwal, M.

    2012-10-01

    New scenarios for the origins of Saturn’s rings/interior moons have directed scientific attention to the region just exterior to Saturn’s main rings. Four satellites (Aegaeon = Ae; Anthe = An; Methone = Me; Pallene = Pa) discovered by the Cassini mission on either side of Mimas’s orbit perhaps comprise a distinct class of ring-moon. They are tiny (R = 0.3-2.5 km); three (AeAnMe) are trapped in co-rotation resonances with Mimas and reside within ring-arcs; and at least two (MePa) have remarkably regular shapes. Images with pixel scales as fine as 27 m taken in May 2012 reveal Methone to be ovoid within 10 m (from sub-pixel limb detection) and devoid of any craters (>130 m) across its 9 km2 of surface; Pallene and even tiny Aegaeon have similar appearances in lesser-quality images. Numerical simulations demonstrate that particles comprising the surrounding ring-arcs populate the same resonances as their embedded moons; escape speeds from the moons are bodies. In this environment, the moons’ shapes are smooth equipotentials; electrostatic effects may also determine how grains settle to surfaces. Considering these shapes to represent equipotential surfaces for rotating, tidally distorted, homogeneous bodies, we infer mean satellite densities of 250+/-60 (Pa), 310+/-30 (Me), and 540+/-120 (Ae) kg m-3. About half of Methone’s leading hemisphere is covered by a sharply bounded, lemon-shaped, relatively dark region, having a form reminiscent of Mimas’s thermal anomaly (Howett et al. 2011). Its (601 nm) albedo is 13% lower than the bounding brighter material. An irregularly shaped, even-darker (by 4%) blotch straddles the apex of the moon’s motion. Impacts with circum-planetary meteoroids and plasma are likely responsible for these features.

  17. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  18. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests

  19. Determination of leakage in blast furnaces cooling plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace walls are cooled by the circulation of water through copper plates inserted into the blast furnace refractory lining. Plates are fed by circular pipelines, called distribution rings, installed at different levels of the reactor. Because of normal corrosion, plates wear away and can eventually perforate, allowing the leakage of cooling water inside the blast furnace. A system has been designed and installed in order to confirm the eventual occurrence of leakages in the cooling plates of a blast furnace refractory lining. The system injects a solution of tritium into the feeding pipeline and determines, by means of liquid scintillation counting, the concentration of tritium in the exhausting gases at the top of the blast furnace. The system was tested under different blast furnace operating conditions, and allowed the detection and determination of leakages greater than 0.5 1/min. Following necessary maintenance, the system also confirmed the satisfactory results of the corrective actions. (author). 48 refs., 13 figs., 29 tabs

  20. Simulation study of UO2 kernel reduction furnace design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the N-S equations and the k-ε turbulence model, different kinds of UO2 kernel reduction furnace equipment in PBMR, South Africa and INET, China were numerically simulated using computational fluid dynamics method. The simulation results show that these two kinds of furnace designs can not be achieved on the uniform distribution of gas flow in the axial direction, but show large volume at the top and small volume at the bottom of the furnace, and this is one of the reasons of non-uniform particle reduction. Improved design was proposed based on the analysis of changes of axial pressure in the furnace. Simulation results demonstrate that the improved furnace design is suitable for obtaining a more uniform distribution of the gas in the axial direction. It can be concluded that the improved furnace design will improve particle reduction effects. (authors)

  1. Arc Interference Behavior during Twin Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjian Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process, the synchronous acquisition system has been established to acquire instantaneous information of arc profile including dynamic arc length variation as well as relative voltage and current signals. The results show that after trailing arc (T-arc is added to the middle arc (M-arc in a stable welding process, the current of M arc remains unchanged while the agitation increases; the voltage of M arc has an obvious increase; the shape of M arc changes, with increasing width, length, and area; the transfer frequency of M arc droplet increases and the droplet itself becomes smaller. The wire extension length of twin arc turns out to be shorter than that of single arc welding.

  2. Investigation of Pollution Emits By Cupola Furnace in Gujarat Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Hardikkumar Patil1 , Gajanan Patange2 , M.P.Khond

    2013-01-01

    The foundry industry is the major contributor in pollution among all other industries in India. At present only few foundries in India have pollution controllable system. Most of these casting industries use cupola furnace that emits gases namely carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, suspended particle matter, dust and ash. Though, emission from single furnace is not considerable but it has huge impact if much such type of furnaces located in particular area. A i...

  3. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste

  4. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  5. A review of temperature measurement in the steel reheat furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incentive for conducting research and development on reheat furnaces is substantial; the domestic steel industry spent approximately one billion dollars on fuel in reheat furnaces in 1981. Bethlehem Steel Corp. spent /145 million of that total, and neither figure includes fuel consumed in soaking pits or annealing furnaces. If the authors set a goal to save 10% of these annual fuel costs, that translates into /100 million for the domestic steel industry and /14.5 million for Bethlehem Steel. These large sums of money are significant incentives. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical heating practices and equipment at steel reheat furnaces along with current practices and instrumentation

  6. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  7. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Härkki

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs) in a blast furnace (BF) coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N 2 and O 2 . The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallu...

  8. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  9. Intelligent temperature control system of quench furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕瑜; 桂卫华; 唐朝晖; 唐玲

    2004-01-01

    A fuzzy-neural networks intelligent temperature control system of quench furnace was presented. Combined genetic algorithm with back-propagation algorithm, the weight values of neural networks, parameters of fuzzy membership functions and inference rules can be adjusted automatically, which realizes the optimal control of temperature. The results show that this control system can run effectively with satisfied temperature precision: in temperature uprising stage, overshot of temperature is under 4 ℃; in stable stage, the scope of temperature change is controlled within ±2 ℃, which meets the need of control veracity of temperature.

  10. PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF CUPOLA FURNACE

    OpenAIRE

    PROF.HEMANT R. BHAGAT-PATIL; MEGHA S. LONDHEKAR

    2013-01-01

    In today’s industrial scenario huge losses/wastage occur in the manufacturing shop floor and foundry industries. The efficiency of any foundry largely depends on the efficiency of the melting process amulti-step operation where the metal is heated, treated, alloyed, and transported into die or mold cavities to form a casting. In this paper we represents the performance testing and analysis of Cupola Furnace, and reduces the problems occurs to give the best results. Our main focus in this work...

  11. Transport phenomena in the flash smelting furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokainen, T.; Teppo, O.; Yang, Y.; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1994-12-31

    Fluid flow and some basic heat transfer phenomena taking place in an industrial scale Outokumpu type flash smelting furnace were simulated with Phoenics. For now, only the standard features of the software(k-{epsilon} model of turbulence, six flux radiation model) has been used. Both Lagrangian and Eulerian treatment were used in two phase flow calculation to describe the particle phase. All the two-phase simulations presented in this article are isothermal, where the particles exchange only momentum with the gas phase. As a first attempt, combustion of gaseous sulphur with oxygen was used to represent the heat release from the copper concentrate oxidation reactions. (author)

  12. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  13. Phase chemical composition of slag from a direct nickel flash furnace and associated slag cleaning furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the recovery of base metals from the Bushveld Igneous Complex ores, South Africa, a two-stage process is used to ensure complete recovery of nickel from the ore. A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 % and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to less than 0.5 % nickel oxide in the slag. The Fe2 + /Fe3 +  ratio and mineralogy in the two different furnaces differ and can be used as a tool to determine the efficiency of the nickel recovered in the two-stage process. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and Mössbauer spectroscopy the Fe2 + /Fe3 +  ratio and the amount of magnetite was determined in each furnace, which was then used as an indicator of the effectiveness of the whole process.

  14. Phase chemical composition of slag from a direct nickel flash furnace and associated slag cleaning furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waanders, F. B., E-mail: frans.waanders@nwu.ac.za [North-West University, School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering (South Africa); Nell, J., E-mail: Johannes.Nell@hatch.co.za [Hatch (South Africa)

    2013-04-15

    During the recovery of base metals from the Bushveld Igneous Complex ores, South Africa, a two-stage process is used to ensure complete recovery of nickel from the ore. A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 % and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to less than 0.5 % nickel oxide in the slag. The Fe{sup 2 + }/Fe{sup 3 + } ratio and mineralogy in the two different furnaces differ and can be used as a tool to determine the efficiency of the nickel recovered in the two-stage process. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and Moessbauer spectroscopy the Fe{sup 2 + }/Fe{sup 3 + } ratio and the amount of magnetite was determined in each furnace, which was then used as an indicator of the effectiveness of the whole process.

  15. Phase chemical composition of slag from a direct nickel flash furnace and associated slag cleaning furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waanders, F. B.; Nell, J.

    2013-04-01

    During the recovery of base metals from the Bushveld Igneous Complex ores, South Africa, a two-stage process is used to ensure complete recovery of nickel from the ore. A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 % and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to less than 0.5 % nickel oxide in the slag. The Fe2 + /Fe3 + ratio and mineralogy in the two different furnaces differ and can be used as a tool to determine the efficiency of the nickel recovered in the two-stage process. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and Mössbauer spectroscopy the Fe2 + /Fe3 + ratio and the amount of magnetite was determined in each furnace, which was then used as an indicator of the effectiveness of the whole process.

  16. STUDY ON THE PRESSURE IN PLASMA ARC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The axial pressure in plasma arc is measured under different conditions. The effects of the parameters, such as welding current, plasma gas flow rate, electrode setback and arc length, on the pressure in plasma arc are investigated and quantitative analyzed to explain the relationship between the quality of weld and the matching of parameters in plasma arc welding process.

  17. Emission spectroscopy for coal-fired cyclone furnace diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A; Boll, David E; Smith, Richard

    2003-08-01

    Using a spectrograph and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, ultraviolet and visible light emission spectra were obtained from a coal-burning electric utility's cyclone furnaces operating at either fuel-rich or fuel-lean conditions. The aim of this effort is to identify light emission signals that can be related to a cyclone furnace's operating condition in order to adjust its air/fuel ratio to minimize pollutant production. Emission spectra at the burner and outlet ends of cyclone furnaces were obtained. Spectra from all cyclone burners show emission lines for the trace elements Li, Na, K, and Rb, as well as the molecular species OH and CaOH. The Ca emission line is detected at the burner end of both the fuel-rich and fuel-lean cyclone furnaces but is not detected at the outlet ends of either furnace type. Along with the disappearance of Ca is a concomitant increase in the CaOH signal at the outlet end of both types of furnaces. The OH signal strength is in general stronger when viewing at the burner end rather than the exhaust end of both the fuel-rich and fuel-lean cyclone furnaces, probably due to high, non-equilibrium amounts of OH present inside the furnace. Only one molecular species was detected that could be used as a measure of air/fuel ratio: MgOH. It was detected at the burner end of fuel-rich cyclone furnaces but not detected in fuel-lean cyclone furnaces. More direct markers of air/fuel ratio, such as CO and O2 emission, were not detected, probably due to the generally weak nature of molecular emission relative to ambient blackbody emission present in the cyclone furnaces, even at ultraviolet wavelengths. PMID:14661846

  18. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  19. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); McConnell, John F. (JFM Consulting, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Henry, Vincent I. (Henry Technology Solutions, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI); MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Adams, Michael E. (Lilja Corp., Rochester, NY); Leadbetter, James M. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Tomasewski, Jack W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Operacz, Walter J. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Houf, William G.; Davis, James W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Marvin, Bart G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Gunner, Bruce E. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Farrell, Rick G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Bivins, David P. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Curtis, Warren (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Harris, James E. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA)

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the

  20. Blast furnace lining and cooling technology: experiences at Corus IJmuiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokman, R.; van Stein Cellenfels, E.; van Laar, R.

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the blast furnace lining and cooling concept as originally developed and applied by Hoogovens (Corus IJmuiden). The technology has also been applied by Danieli Corus in all its blast furnace projects executed in the last 25 years. The technology has helped Corus increase its PCI rate to over 200 kg/thm. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  2. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  3. Estimation of slagging in furnaces; Kuonaavuuden ennustaminen kivihiilen poelypoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, T.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K.; Oeini, J.; Koskiahde, A.; Jokiniemi, J.; Pyykkoenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Understanding and estimation of slagging in furnaces is essential in the design of new power plants with high steam values or in modifications like low-NO{sub x} retrofits in existing furnaces. Major slagging yields poor efficiency, difficult operation and high maintenance costs of the plant. The aim of the project is to develop a computational model for slagging in pulverized coal combustion. The model is based on Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) analysis of mineral composition of the coal and physical models for behaviour of minerals inside a furnace. The analyzed mineral particles are classified to five composition classes and distributed to calculational coal particles if internal minerals of coal. The calculational coal particles and the external minerals are traced in the furnace to find out the behaviour of minerals inside the furnace. If the particle tracing indicates that the particle hits the heat transfer surface of the furnace the viscosity of the particle is determined to see if particle is sticky. The model will be implemented to 3D computational fluid dynamics based furnace simulation environment Ardemus which predicts the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and combustion in a furnace. (orig.)

  4. Open fireplace furnace as an adequate heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terbrack, E.

    The fireplace furnace is a furnace for the open fireplace. It is connected to the existing fuel-oil or gas central heating and is used for house heating and warm water preparation when the fire in the fireplace is on. It combines the romanticism of the open fireplace with the necessity of saving fuel oil and gas, ensuring heat supply.

  5. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

  6. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  7. Heat Exchange and Thermal Modes of Modern Ring Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Timoshpolsky

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an accumulated experience concerning investigation of heat exchange and thermal modes of ring furnaces applied for heating simulation. Physical and mathematical model and methodology for theoretical investigation of round billet heating in the ring furnace are proposed in the paper.

  8. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 k...

  9. Plasma arc pyrolysis of radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on two ion exchange resins (IRN 77 and IRN 78) which were pyrolysed in a plasma-arc furnace. Both continuous and batch tests were performed. Volume reduction ratios of 10 to 1 and 10 to 3.5 were achieved for IRN 78 and IRN 77 respectively. The product of the resin pyrolysis was a char which contained the radioactive elements such as cobalt. The off-gases consisted of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There was a relatively small amount of dust in the off-gases. At the present time radioactive ion exchange resign is being kept in storage. The volume of this waste is increasing and it is important that the volume be reduce. The volume reduction ratio should be of the order of ten-to-one. Also, it is required that the radioactive elements can be collected or fixed in a form which could easily be disposed of. Plasma arc treatment offers considerable potential for the processing of the waste

  10. Melting decontamination of radioactive scrap metal by graphite arc melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The partitioning phenomena of radioisotope cobalt-60 (60Co) and cesium-137 (137Cs) from a molten ingot, slag, and dust have been investigated for the effect of the slag type, slag concentration and basicity in a plasma arc melting process. A direct current plasma arc furnace was used to melt contaminated stainless steel, and mild steel with an acid, neutral, and basic slag (SiO2, CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO) containing radioactive 60Co and 137Cs, to measure the partitioning phenomena. Calcium oxide and ferric oxide were added to provide an increase in the slag fluidity and oxidative potential, respectively. Most of the 60Co remained in the ingot phase and was barely present in the slag. 60Co decontamination factor was not highly dependent on the slag composition. The distribution ratio of 60Co the ingot and the slag phase showed that about 90% to 95% was recovered in the ingots. 137Cs was completely eliminated from the melt of the stainless steel as well as the carbon steel, and was distributed to the slag and dust phase. The partition remaining in the slag depended on whether the slag was basic or acidic and had a high oxidative flux (Fe2O3). A maximum of 52% of the 137Cs remained in the slag phase with an acid slag. (author)

  11. Current Trend in Furnace Technology in the Melting Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to presents some of the current trend in Furnace technology as it pertains to the melting industries. Furnaces are applied in various industries for material processing. Large amounts of energy are usually consumed in the melting industries. The current trend in furnace technology is towards energy conservation, enhanced efficiency and productivity. The reduction of pollutant emissions are also taken into consideration due to their environmental impact. The various materials and processes for furnaces are discussed. The various strategies being employed towards furnace energy conservation, efficiency and productivity, and reduction of pollutant emissions are also discussed. Such strategies include the use of better fuel types such as natural gas; improved insulation and refractory materials; advanced burner designs such as high velocity, regenerative and recuperative burners; new combustion technologies such as air and fuel staging, flue gas recirculation technique. Mathematical modeling is also being employed for analysis and design purpose.

  12. Dosimetric and delivery characterizations of full-arc and half-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy for maxillary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared the efficiency and accuracy of full-arc and half-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery for maxillary cancer. Plans for gantry rotation angles of 360deg and 180deg (full-arc and half-arc VMAT) were created for six maxillary cancer cases with the Monaco treatment planning system, and delivered using an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Full-arc and half-arc VMAT were compared with regard to homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), mean dose to normal brain, total monitor units (MU), delivery times, root mean square (r.m.s.) gantry accelerations (deg/s2), and r.m.s. gantry angle errors (deg). The half-arc VMAT plans achieved comparable HI and CI to the full-arc plans. Mean doses to the normal brain and brainstem with the half-arc VMAT plans were on average 16% and 17% lower than those with the full-arc VMAT plans. For other organs at risk (OARs), no significant dose volume histogram (DVH) differences were observed between plans. Half-arc VMAT resulted in 11% less total MU and 20% shorter delivery time than the full-arc VMAT, while r.m.s. gantry acceleration and r.m.s. gantry angle error during half-arc VMAT delivery were 30% and 23% less than those during full-arc VMAT delivery, respectively. Furthermore, the half-arc VMAT plans were comparable with the full-arc plans regarding dose homogeneity and conformity in maxillary cancer, and provided a statistical decrease in mean dose to OAR, total MU, delivery time and gantry angle error. Half-arc VMAT plans may be a suitable treatment option in radiotherapy for maxillary cancer. (author)

  13. Amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the by-products of iron production from a blast furnace is the slag, Generally 250-300 kg of slag is produced per ton of iron. Liquid blast furnace slag can either be cooled quickly by quenching in a granulator or more slowly in air. The air-cooled product is crushed and sized for use as an aggregate in concrete. The granulated slag is ground to form ground granulated slag, which is a cost-effective supplementary cementitious material. Blends of ground granulated slag and Portland cement produce a cementitious paste that is more resistant to chloride penetration than pastes made from the Portland cement alone. In this study neutron diffraction techniques were used to examine samples of air-cooled and granulated slags from Australian Steel Mill Services stock piles at Port Kembla. Sourced from the same blast furnace, the materials should be expected to posses similar elemental chemistry. The mineral compositions would be different due to the rate of cooling each slag was subjected to. Samples, 15 grams in mass, were mounted in a vanadium can and diffraction patterns were measured using the SLAD instrument on the Reactor R-2 at the Studvik Neutron Research Laboratory in Sweden. The diffraction patterns were transformed into radial distribution functions using the reverse Monte Carlo program, MCGR. The granulated slag showed no diffraction peaks while the air cooled slag showed a crystalline product that can be identified by x-ray diffraction. The radial distribution functions showed differences that were consistent with the granulated slag being amorphous and the air-cooled slag crystalline. Both slag samples showed peaks in the radial distribution function at 1.8 Angstroms and 2.8 Angstroms. The greatest anomaly was a feature about 2.5 Angstroms found only in the radial distribution function for the granulated slag. This demonstration showed that there are differences in the short range bonding between the two compounds. We are currently

  14. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of lead blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Peng-fu

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the distribution behavior of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,and the heat balance in a lead blast furnace.The modeling results are validated by the plant data of a lead smelter in Kazakhstan.The model can be used to predict any set of controllable process parameters such as feed composition,smelting temperature,degree of oxygen enrichment and volume of oxygen-enriched air.The effects of the blast air,industrial oxygen,and coke charge on the distribution of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,the heat balance,and the lead loss in slag,were presented and discussed.

  16. FAILURES AND THE LIFE OF FURNACE TUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Z.Shen; Y.Ding; D.M.Hou; Z.P.Ning; Y.Lü; T.B.Dong; A.R.Tuohuti

    2004-01-01

    It is showed after the furnace tubes serviced for 8-10 years that the density of damage in the HAZ (heat affected zone) of the weld has higher than in parent metals, though the depth of damage is not equal to. By the test of creep crack growth, it is also acquired that under same mechanic parameter C* (t), the rate of creep crack growth in the HAZ is more than twice as fast as in parent metals. Two mechanisms (overheating and thermal shock) of failure occurred in an accident are presented. The stress of thermal shock is analyzed, in which the change of the elasticity modulus with the radius ET = f(r) is considered. Based on it, the safety region of the thermal shock is obtained. Finally, two sets of curves for the safe life are suggested which can facilitate to estimate the remaining life of HK-40 or HP-Nb tubes by their creep rupture data.

  17. FURNACE calculations for JET neutron diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron transport calculations have been performed for the JET-torus, using the two-dimensional toroidal geometry transport code system FURNACE, to predict the response of the time integrated neutron yield monitors on the variation of the plasma conditions. Calculations have been performed for the full aperture D-shaped and circular plasmas, for DD-operation and for DT-operation. For the neutron source distribution a simple model was used based on plasma-plasma interaction. For the torus rotation symmetry around the main torus axis was assumed. Curves have been produced that give the radial plasma shift as function of the ratio of the foil activations measured. It is shown that these curves are sufficiently accurate for application in the DT-phase. For application in the DD-phase, however, the flux of neutrons backscattered from the massive torus needs to be calculated more accurately. (Auth.)

  18. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  19. PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF CUPOLA FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROF.HEMANT R. BHAGAT-PATIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s industrial scenario huge losses/wastage occur in the manufacturing shop floor and foundry industries. The efficiency of any foundry largely depends on the efficiency of the melting process amulti-step operation where the metal is heated, treated, alloyed, and transported into die or mold cavities to form a casting. In this paper we represents the performance testing and analysis of Cupola Furnace, and reduces the problems occurs to give the best results. Our main focus in this work is to improve continuous working hours,reducing preparation time, reducing losses in melting, reducing slag formation and to increase the combustion efficiency of coke and overall productivity and to improve the quality and Mechanical properties of steel using Cupola.

  20. Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included

  1. Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included.

  2. Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

    2014-09-01

    Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

  3. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  4. Minor arcs for Goldbach's problem

    OpenAIRE

    Helfgott, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number n>=7 is the sum of three primes. The estimation of sums of the form \\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p), \\alpha = a/q + O(1/q^2), has been a central part of the main approach to the conjecture since (Vinogradov, 1937). Previous work required q or x to be too large to make a proof of the conjecture for all n feasible. The present paper gives new bounds on minor arcs and the tails of major arcs. This is part of the author's proof of the ternar...

  5. Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs

  6. Total Marrow Irradiation With RapidArc Volumetric Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-total marrow irradiation (TMI) technique for patients with hematologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: VMAT planning was performed for 6 patients using RapidArc technology. The planning target volume consisted of all the bones in the body from the head to the mid-femur, excluding the extremities, except for the humerus, plus a 3.0-mm margin. The organs at risk included the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, bowels, brain, eyes, and oral cavity. The VMAT-TMI technique consisted of three plans: the head and neck, the chest, and the pelvis, each with three 330o arcs. The plans were prescribed to ensure, at a minimum, 95% planning target volume dose coverage with the prescription dose (percentage of volume receiving dose of ≥12 Gy was 95%). The treatments were delivered and verified using MapCheck and ion chamber measurements. Results: The VMAT-TMI technique reported in the present study provided comparable dose distributions with respect to the fixed gantry linear accelerator intensity-modulated TMI. RapidArc planning was less subjective and easier, and, most importantly, the delivery was more efficient. RapidArc reduced the treatment delivery time to approximately 18 min from 45 min with the fixed gantry linear accelerator intensity-modulated TMI. When the prescription dose coverage was reduced to 85% from 95% and the mandible and maxillary structures were not included in the planning target volume as reported in a tomotherapy study, a considerable organ at risk dose reduction of 4.2-51% was observed. The average median dose for the lungs and lenses was reduced to 5.6 Gy from 7.2 Gy and 2.4 Gy from 4.5 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The RapidArc VMAT technique improved the treatment planning, dose conformality, and, most importantly, treatment delivery efficiency. The results from our study suggest that the RapidArc VMAT technology can be expected to facilitate the clinical transition of TMI.

  7. A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HO Tsohsiu; QING Cheng-Rui; CHEN Ying-Tian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the experimental results of Chen et al.to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces.The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction.It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universall in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

  8. Application study of complex control algorithm for regenerative furnace temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lusheng GE

    2004-01-01

    Altemative switch combustion mode of air and gas is adopted on the two sides of the regenerative furnace, its temperature is in uncontrolled state in the switching process and the switch period is generally 3 ~ 5 min. Thus, the conventional bi-cross limited combustion control method is no longer applicable to the object. This paper makes use of neutral network algorithm to adjust the static operating point. On this basis, fuzzy control strategy is used for the furnace temperature control. The actual application result shows that the control strategy is effective to solve the problem of the combustion control for regenerative furnace.

  9. RESEARCH ON THE DYNAMIC MATHEMATICAL MODELOF REHEATING FURNACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立云; 张斌; 王景成; 邵惠鹤

    2001-01-01

    This paper presented a dynamical mathematical model for reheating furnace based on energy balance, which consists of three submodels. With the inputting parameters, adopting the finite difference technique, not only the combustion gas temperature but also the temperature distribution of slabs in the furnace can be predicated. The dynamical mathematical model is the base for the further control and it also can be treated as a simulator of a reheating furnace, optimal and advanced controlling strategies can be applied based on the dynamical model.

  10. Electric furnace dust: Can you bury the hazard?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManus, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    Electric furnace waste treatment is moving into high gear, but the exact direction is unclear. On one hand, there is a trend toward complete recycling of the dust captured in furnace baghouses. Iron units as well as zinc and other elements are being reclaimed. On the other side, recent actions by regulators indicate recycling may not be required at all. With the correct chemical stabilization, it appears, dust may simply be placed in ordinary landfill. This paper describes three processes for waste treatment of furnace dust: Super Detox, a process for zinc removal from galvanized scrap before melting, and the INMETCO process.

  11. Analysis of fuel savings in metallurgical furnaces with protective atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a case of improvement in energy efficiency of a rollway-continuous furnace used for heat treatment in production of cold-drawn tubes as well as gas savings resulting from application of modern burners for radiant tubes was considered. For the investigated furnace, energy balance calculations were performed for the currently operating status as well as following replacement of burners for modern devices with better parameters of combustion and recuperation, which showed a significant reduction in fuel consumption. The burners ensure uniform temperature distribution along the radiant tube, stable operation, high energy efficiency (also in high temperature furnaces and low emissions.

  12. A furnace for high temperature perturbed angular correlation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forker, M.; Herz, W.; Huetten, U.; Mueller, M.; Muesseler, R.; Schmidberger, J.; Simon, D.; Weingarten, A.; Bedi, S.C. (Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Univ. Bonn (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    A compact furnace for perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements at high temperatures is described. Using a graphite heating element, the furnace combines small dimensions and high temperatures. With an outer diameter of only 23 mm and outer walls at room temperature, it provides sample temperatures up to 2350 K. Test measurements carried out up to this temperature with the standard PAC probe [sup 181]Ta in Zr and Hf metal and in undoped zirconia ZrO[sub 2] show problems arising from interactions of the sample with furnace materials, but at the same time illustrate the great potential of high-temperature PAC spectroscopy for solid state reaction studies. (orig.).

  13. Axisymmetric arc in a supersonic nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axisymmetric arc burning in a supersonic nozzle has wide technical applications (eg in gas blast circuit breaker, arc heaters etc.). Mathematical modelling of such an arc is usually based on boundary-layer assumption which assumes a known pressure distribution imposed on the arc or based on the integral method of arc analysis. Thus, the flow outside of the arc's thermal influence is assumed to be one dimensional. In practice, this is not the case as the nozzle is not sufficiently gentle in the axial direction or the presence of the upstream electrode makes the assumption of one-dimensional flow invalid. The purpose of the present investigation is to model the arc based on Navier-Stokes equations which are modified to take into account of electrical power input and radiation transport. The arcing gas is SF6, the transport properties of which (electrical conductivity, viscosity, thermal conductivity etc.) are highly nonlinear functions of temperature but only weakly dependent on the pressure

  14. Craniospinal irradiation using Rapid Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fandino, J. M.; Silva, M. C.; Marino, A.; Candal, A.; Diaz, I.; Fernandez, C.; Gesto, C.; Izquierdo, P.; Losada, C.; Poncet, M.; Soto, M.; Triana, G.

    2013-07-01

    Cranio-Spinal Irradiation is technically very challenging, historically field edge matching is needed because of the mechanical limitations of standard linear accelerators. The purpose of this study is to assess the Volumetric Arc Therapy as a competitive technique for Cranio-Spinal Irradiation compared to the conventional 3D Conformal Radiotherapy technique. (Author)

  15. A rotating arc plasma invertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is described for the inversion of direct current to alternating current. The main feature is the use of a rotating plasma arc in crossed electric and magnetic fields as a switch. This device may provide an economic alternative to other inversion methods in some circumstances

  16. Conversion of Furnace oil fired boiler to biomass(Gliricidia) fired (External/Internal) furnace boiler : NA

    OpenAIRE

    Channa Gaya Siriwardhana, Kahandawa Arachchilage

    2010-01-01

    In the present era, with the prevailing competition, the cost of production plays a vital role. As the price of petroleum oils, especially diesel and furnace oil are growing at a steeper rate than solid fuel price, finding a substitute for furnace oil is one of the alternative available. Furnace oil used in boilers can be totally substitute by biomass with an equivalent ratio of 3.5:1 kg/liter on the basis of calorific value. This may results in saving of more than 60% of operating cost and w...

  17. The next-generation ARC middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appleton, O.; Cameron, D.; Cernak, J.;

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) is a light-weight, non-intrusive, simple yet powerful Grid middleware capable of connecting highly heterogeneous computing and storage resources. ARC aims at providing general purpose, flexible, collaborative computing environments suitable for a range of uses...... the next-generation ARC middleware, implemented as Web Services with the aim of standard-compliant interoperability....

  18. Stability of alternating current gliding arcs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank;

    2014-01-01

    on Ohm’s law indicates that the critical length of alternating current (AC) gliding arc discharge columns can be larger than that of a corresponding direct current (DC) gliding arc. This finding is supported by previously published images of AC and DC gliding arcs. Furthermore, the analysis shows...

  19. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daech, Alfred F.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  20. An induction heating furnace for radioactive waste fixation in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The furnace is designed for the processing of liquid or loose solid, medium- or high-level radioactive wastes. The furnace lid is firmly attached to the frame. The furnace vessel is made of a refractory, corrosion resistant alloy, and it is attached to the bottom side of the lid using mechanisms remotely controlled with compressed air. The components connected to the lid and protruding into the melt, such as the tapping bar, are adapted to being remotely disassembled into two parts. The design enables the vessel to be lowered away. Remote dismantling of the furnace comprises three operations: disassembling the components connected to the lid and protruding into the melt, uncoupling the vessel from the lid, and lowering the vessel with the vitreous material into a shielded shipping container. (J.B.). 4 figs

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A FURNACE TO FABRICATE SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Boscato Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell world market had an exponential growth in the last decade and nowadays it continues in expansion. To produce solar cells, dopants need to be introduced into the crystalline silicon wafer in order to form the pn junction. This process is carried out in diffusion furnaces. The aim of this paper is to present the development of a compact diffusion furnace to process up to 156 mm × 156 mm silicon wafers and to operate at temperature up to 1100°C. The furnace is automated and it is constituted by a heating system with three zones and systems to introduce the wafers inside the furnace as well as to control of gas flows. This equipment is the first one developed in Brazil to promote impurity diffusions in order to produce silicon solar cells and it was manufactured jointly with a Brazilian company.

  2. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  3. Refractory Gunning Material for Inner Lining Maintenance of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of refractory gunning material for inner lining maintenance of blast furnace .

  4. Moving behavior of pellets in a pellet shaft furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁儒全; 赫冀成

    2008-01-01

    The downward moving behavior of pellets in a 8 m2 pellet shaft furnace with an internal vertical air channel and a drying bed was studied by means of a visualized model(1-15) and a top model(1-1).The visualized model experiment shows that the downward movement of pellets can be regarded as plug flow approximately inside the furnace except for the lower region of cooling zone due to the influence of the drained hopper.The top model experiment reveals that the pellet sizes increase along the moving direction because of the percolation phenomenon,which results in a decrease of the resistance coefficient and an increase of the gas flow rate from the furnace wall toward the furnace center.

  5. Radial furnace shows promise for growing straight boron carbide whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.

    1967-01-01

    Radial furnace, with a long graphite vaporization tube, maintains a uniform thermal gradient, favoring the growth of straight boron carbide whiskers. This concept seems to offer potential for both the quality and yield of whiskers.

  6. Optimization of the melting process of electrical furnaces in drenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haxhiaj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The weight, composition and loads are the main parameters of the melting process in electrical furnace. The charge is roasted in rotary furnace. Roasting of charge which consists of Drenas and Albanians ore is done at about 950°C. Also, article has the experimental analyses that modify some parameters of the production which are the reduction of quantity of limestone and the increase of quantity of quartz in the charge. The paper analysis the possibility of mixing the ore from Kosova with lateritic ore from Albania with the aim of reducing the acidity of weight which is loaded in the electrical furnace. The composition of the furnace must satisfy the ratio 1:10 of ore from Kosova and Albania.

  7. Qut-of-furnace steel treatment in machine-building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The examples of out-of-furnace steel melt treatment at domestic and foreign power machine-building plants are given. The main parameters and equipment design are noted to have no principal distinctions from those applied in metallurgy. The more usable equipment for out-of-furnace melt treatment is shown to be the following: one-or multistand ladle vacuum unit with facilities for heating, desulfurization and decarbonization of steel in combination with a casting machine

  8. Investigation on the Potentials of Cupola Furnace Slag in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Adeyemi Alabi; Joseph O. Afolayan

    2013-01-01

    The compressive strength of the concrete designed using blast cupola furnace slag and granulated cupola slag as a coarse aggregate and partial replacement for cement was investigated. A series of experimental studies were conducted involve concrete production in two stages. The first stage comprised of normal aggregate concrete (NAC) produced with normal aggregates and 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Meanwhile, the second stage involved production of concrete comprising of cupola furnace...

  9. Review and evaluation of alternative processes to the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review on the alternative processes to the blast furnace, involving both solid and liquid state reduction is presented. Process comparison allows to identify advantages and disadvantages of each type of processes as well as to highlight the major challenges faced in order to compete with the traditional iron making route: the blast furnace, which today rules the production of iron units worldwide. (Author) 31 refs

  10. Maximizing the injection of hydrocarbons in the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olschewski, K.H.; Posch, W.

    1974-01-01

    Maximized fuel oil injection for blast furnaces is reviewed in relation to minimum pollutant formation. Topics covered include: theoretical considerations dealing with combustion in the tuyere level and constant gas ratios in the overall blast furnace process; cost considerations involving fuel oil and coke; and investigations studying the preparation, spraying, mixing, and combustion of fuel oil with minimum soot formation within sub-stoichiometric limits and under optimum combustion conditions at the tuyere level.

  11. Carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainless steel containing molybdenum are usually recommended to resist naphtenic acid corrosion in vacuum heaters. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316 Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service and just one year after undergoing the last inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 Centigrade. Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023%). Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur produced by asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures. (Author)

  12. Gas Flow Distribution in Pelletizing Shaft Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; DONG Hui; WANG Guo-sheng; YANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Through thermal test, cold state experiment, analysis and simulation of thermal process, the gas flow distribution in pelletizing shaft furnace (PSF) was discussed. The results show that there are five flowing trends; among them, the downward roasting gas and the upward cooling gas are the most unsteady, which influence flow distribution greatly. Among the operating parameters, the ratio of inflow is a key factor affecting the flow distribution. The roasting and cooling gases will entirely flow into the roasting zone and internal vertical air channels (IVAC), respectively, if the ratio of inflow is critical. From such a critical operating condition increasing roasting gas flow or decreasing cooling gas flow, the roasting gas starts flowing downwards so as to enter the inside of IVAC; the greater the ratio of inflow, the larger the downward flowrate. Among constructional parameters, the width of roasting zone b1, width of IVAC b2 and width of cooling zone b3, and the height of roasting zone h1, height of soaking zone h2 and height of cooling zone h3 are the main factors affecting flow distribution. In case the ratio of b2/b1, or h3/h2, or h1/h2 is increased, the upward cooling gas tends to decrease while the downward roasting gas tends to increase with a gradual decrease in the ratio of inflow.

  13. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 2: Summary of technical reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a modular facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF is designed for crystal growth and solidification research in the fields of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics, and will allow for experimental determination of the role of gravitational forces in the solidification process. The facility will provide a capability for basic scientific research and will evaluate the commercial viability of low-gravity processing of selected technologically important materials. In order to accommodate the furnace modules with the resources required to operate, SSFF developed a design that meets the needs of the wide range of furnaces that are planned for the SSFF. The system design is divided into subsystems which provide the functions of interfacing to the SSF services, conditioning and control for furnace module use, providing the controlled services to the furnace modules, and interfacing to and acquiring data from the furnace modules. The subsystems, described in detail, are as follows: Power Conditioning and Distribution Subsystem; Data Management Subsystem; Software; Gas Distribution Subsystem; Thermal Control Subsystem; and Mechanical Structures Subsystem.

  14. Monitoring Method for Blast Furnace Wall With Copper Staves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Su-sen; QIAN Liang; ZHAO Hong-bo

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring method that has been designed for the first time for blast furnace wall with copper staves manufactured in China was introduced. Combining the method of "inverse problem" and the concept "non-inverse problem", the monitoring program for blast furnace wall with copper staves has been realized, which can be used to calculate online the accretion thickness and temperature of hot surface of copper staves after obtaining the values of thermocouples of copper staves. The accretion state obtained in the actual investigation has proved that the result of the program is correct. The monitoring program shows that the accretion would easily fluctuate when the accretion layer is extremely thick or thin, thereby the stable and smooth operation of the blast furnace is hindered. By maintaining appropriate accretion thickness, both long campaigns and high productivity of the blast furnace can be achieved; furthermore, it can also optimize the operation of blast furnace and maximize its production. Approximately 30-50 mm in thickness of accretion layer is maintained on the wall of Shougang blast furnace 2, which can meet the requirement for obtaining both long campaign and high productivity.

  15. Hybrid furnace system for the plasma melting of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid type plasma melting furnace has been designed for vitrification of medium and low level radioactive wastes. Refractory is used the bottom side of the furnace while the upper side consists of water-cooled metal plate. Such configuration takes the advantages of all refractory furnace (easy heating and tapping) and all water-cooled furnace (no additional waste production and reduced carry-over of volatile metals). The system uses two plasma torches - a main torch for the melting of incoming wastes and a subsidiary torch for the slag tapping. The torch will use air for the plasma medium and in order for the reduction of NOx, an appropriate amount of hydrocarbon gas will be supplied to the furnace at the time. A load-lock type feeder will be used together with a conveyer system. A water cooled baffle will be used at the off-gas exit to reduce the amount of carry-over of dust. The configuration and advantage of such hybrid type melting furnace is discussed

  16. FINDING WAYS OF RECYCLING DUST OF ARC STEEL FURNACES AT THE BELARUSIAN METALLURGIC PLANT. PART 3. EXPERIMENTS ON BRIQUETTING OF DUST OFARC STEEL FURNACES

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Rozhkov; E. V. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the global experience of recycling dust by briquetting. The advantages and disadvantages of recycling dust with its preliminary briquetting are described. Information about experiments on briquetting of dust generated in different organizations of the Belarusian metallurgy plant with various binders is given. Economic calculations were performed on the basis of technical data obtained during the manufacture of prototypes of briquettes. The results of the calcu...

  17. FINDING WAYS OF RECYCLING DUST OF ARC STEEL FURNACES AT THE BELARUSIAN METALLURGIC PLANT. PART 3. EXPERIMENTS ON BRIQUETTING OF DUST OFARC STEEL FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rozhkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the global experience of recycling dust by briquetting. The advantages and disadvantages of recycling dust with its preliminary briquetting are described. Information about experiments on briquetting of dust generated in different organizations of the Belarusian metallurgy plant with various binders is given. Economic calculations were performed on the basis of technical data obtained during the manufacture of prototypes of briquettes. The results of the calculations showedinexpediency of recycling dust briquetting method because of the low iron content in the dust, high cost of binder and a relatively small rate of ecological tax.

  18. Methods of mathematical modeling for evaluation of energy management of blast-furnace plant

    OpenAIRE

    M. Szega; Blacha, L.; W. Stanek

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of energy consumption in the blast furnace is still the subject of investigations using mathematical modelling of a blast furnace plant. Theoretical-empirical hybrid models of a blast furnace and its equipment have been presented. This model is built based on the mass and energy balances of furnace zones and empirical data from the measurement of a blast furnace. The results of a numerical simulation of the injection of auxiliary fuels and the top-gas recirculation after the rem...

  19. Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall

    OpenAIRE

    Dorčák, L'.; J. Terpák; I. Podlubný; L. Pivka

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the hea...

  20. Relationship between arc voltage current and arc length in TIG welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between arc voltage, arc length and current in Tungsten Inert Gas welding has been investigated. It was not possible to determine a correlation between arc voltage, current and arc length because of the inherent variability in the experimental results. A typical value for the error in controlling the arc length using arc voltage was calculated and found to be ± 0.5mm. The variation in arc voltage at constant conditions has two components, long term and short term. Long term is the variation in voltage between welds, short term is voltage variation within a few seconds. Both are about 5% of the total arc voltage. Since only a fraction of the arc voltage depends on arc length, this leads to a much larger variation in arc length if Arc Voltage Control (AVC) is used to control arc length (about 15% in each case at 3mm arc length). A weld procedure based on AVC is likely to yield a different variability in weld bead geometry from one based on constant arc length. (author)

  1. Simulation of Magnetically Dispersed Arc Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白冰; 查俊; 张晓宁; 王城; 夏维东

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically dispersed arc plasma exhibits typically dispersed uniform arc column as well as diffusive cathode root and diffusive anode root. In this paper magnetically dispersed arc plasma coupled with solid cathode is numerically simulated by the simplified cathode sheath model of LOWKE . The numerical simulation results in argon show that the maximum value of arc root current density on the cathode surface is 3.5×10^7 A/m^2), and the maximum value of energy flux on the cathode surface is 3× 10^7 J/m^2, both values are less than the average values of a contracted arc, respectively.

  2. A mechanism that triggers double arcing during plasma arc cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemchinsky, Valerian, E-mail: nemchinsky@bellsouth.ne [Keiser University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309 (United States)

    2009-10-21

    Double arcing (DA) is a phenomenon when a transferred arc, flowing inside an electrically insulated nozzle, breaks into two separate arcs: one that connects the cathode and the nozzle and another that connects the nozzle and a work-piece. It is a commonly accepted opinion that the reason for DA is high voltage drop in the plasma inside the nozzle. However, the specific mechanism that triggers the DA development is not clear. In this paper, we propose such a mechanism. Dielectric films deposited inside the nozzle's orifice play the key role in this mechanism. These films are charged by ion current from plasma. A strong electric field is created inside the film and at the boundary of the film and clean metal of the nozzle. This gives rise to a thermo-field electron emission from the clean metal that borders the film. Emitted electrons are accelerated at the voltage drop between the nozzle and plasma. These electrons produce extra ions, which in turn move back to the film and additionally charge it. This sequence of events leads to explosive instability if the voltage drop inside the nozzle is high enough. Experiments to check the proposed mechanism are suggested.

  3. Parametric Study on Arc Behavior of Magnetically Diffused Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tang; Li, Hui; Bai, Bing; Liao, Mengran; Xia, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    A model coupling the plasma with a cathode body is applied in the simulation of the diffuse state of a magnetically rotating arc. Four parametric studies are performed: on the external axial magnetic field (AMF), on the cathode shape, on the total current and on the inlet gas velocity. The numerical results show that: the cathode attachment focuses in the center of the cathode tip with zero AMF and gradually shifts off the axis with the increase of AMF; a larger cathode conical angle corresponds to a cathode arc attachment farther away off axis; the maximum values of plasma temperature increase with the total current; the plasma column in front of the cathode tip expands more severely in the axial direction, with a higher inlet speed; the cathode arc attachment shrinks towards the tip as the inlet speed increases. The various results are supposed to be explained by the joint effect of coupled cathode surface heating and plasma rotating flow. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11475174, 11035005 and 50876101)

  4. Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority of adsorption was completed in 5~10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically by acid treatment. The relative contribution of adsorption to the total removal of phosphate was 26%~28%. Phosphate adsorption on BFS and SFS follows the Freundlich isotherm, with the related constants ofk 6.372 and 1/n 1.739 for BFS, and ofk 1.705 and 1/n 1.718 for SFS. The pH and Ca2+ concentration were decreased with the addition of phosphate, suggesting the formation of calcium phosphate precipitation. At pH 2.93 and 6.93, phosphate was desorbed by about 36%~43% and 9%~11%, respectively.These results indicate that the P adsorption on the slag is not completely reversible and that the bond between the slag particles and adsorbed phosphate is strong. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of BFS and SFS before and after phosphate adsorption verify SFS is related to the formation of phosphate calcium precipitation and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results show that BFS and SFS removed phosphate nearly 100%, indicating they are promising adsorbents for the phosphate removal in wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  5. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  6. Models of plasma arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex model of energy transfer from ionized gas through a weld-pool to a heat affected zone (HAZ) is considered here. The model consists of three sub-models: a model of the arc column with skin layers - sheaths coating electrodes, a model of liquid metal flow in a weld-pool, and a model of coupled thermo-mechanical-metallurgical processes in HAZ. These sub-models are descried in three reports. The first report is devoted to a short review of welding plasma models based mostly on the Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) theory successfully applied to the simulation of welding process. This report is illustrated by arc models for TIG and PAW welding. The description of thermal energy transfer between three sub-regions of the complex welding domain refers to a large number of processes observed in gaseous electronics, thermodynamics of reacting gases, electro-dynamics of fluid, micro-metallurgy. (author)

  7. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  8. Minor arcs for Goldbach's problem

    CERN Document Server

    Helfgott, H A

    2012-01-01

    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number $n\\geq 7$ is the sum of three primes. The estimation of sums of the form $\\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p)$, $\\alpha = a/q + O(1/q^2)$, has been a central part of the main approach to the conjecture since (Vinogradov, 1937). Previous work required $q$ or $x$ to be too large to make a proof of the conjecture for all $n$ feasible. The present paper gives new bounds on minor arcs and the tails of major arcs. For $q\\geq 4\\cdot 10^6$, these bounds are of the strength needed to solve the ternary Goldbach conjecture. Only the range $q\\in \\lbrack 10^5, 4\\cdot 10^6\\rbrack$ remains to be checked, possibly by brute force, before the conjecture is proven for all $n$. The new bounds are due to several qualitative improvements. In particular, this paper presents a general method for reducing the cost of Vaughan's identity, as well as a way to exploit the tails of minor arcs in the context of the large sieve.

  9. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, P.W. [British Steel Technical, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom). Teesside Labs.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  10. Modernization of USS/KOBE No. 3 blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, D.J.; VanderSluis, F.H.; Yukubo, Y.; Bernarding, T.F.; Emoto, E. (Kobe Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States). USS)

    1993-01-01

    The USS/KOBE Steel Company was formed on July 1, 1989 as a joint venture between USS and KOBE Steel of Japan. A major premise of the joint venture was to use generated capital for the modernization of the plant's facilities. The first major project of the new company was the total renovation of No. 3 Blast Furnace. This furnace is to be the mainstay of quality hot metal production for the future of the new company. No. 3 Blast Furnace was last operated in 1982. An original reline was planned in 1981, but was deferred due to economic conditions. Subsequent dismantling and engineering were performed in 1985 but the facility basically laid dormant for ten years until 1991. This paper discusses the various systems installed during the furnace rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild. Modernized USS/KOBE No. 3 Blast Furnace (Blow-in: May 4, 1992) introduced various improvements of equipment and technology, such as a Paul Wurth Top, coke screening, casthouse, gas cleaning, stoves, and automatic stockhouse in order to make it a world class competitor.

  11. Proposition of a modification to the VAR process and its application in the consolidation of pressed zircaloy chips and the evaluation of the dynamical system of the electric arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is the investigation of a new process as an alternative to the Vacuum Arc Remelting technology in the consolidation of Zircaloy chips. A procedure is proposed for the recycling of primary Zircaloy scraps by means of a modified VAR furnace. The performed studies were made in order to optimise the low cost new devices added to existing VAR furnace prototype, find ideal operational conditions, evaluate data acquisition system and the electric arc dynamical system in order to made viable the automated control of the modified VAR prototype. A funnel-crucible special device was developed and installed in a VAR prototype furnace allowing ingots to be obtained from pressed chips. This indicated the viability of creation of a new process for the consolidation of Zircaloy chips. The voltage of the electric arc during the melting runs was digitally recorded allowing the evaluation of the electric arc dynamics by using the topological invariant of the system: correlation dimension and the higher Liapunov exponent. (author)

  12. PSI's 1kW imaging furnace-A tool for high-temperature chemical reactivity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesdon, C.; Alxneit, I.; Tschudi, H.R.; Wuillemin, D.; Brunner, Y.; Winkel, L.; Sturzenegger, M. [Laboratory for High-Temperature Solar Technology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Petrasch, J. [Professorship for Renewable Energy Carriers, ETHZ Zentrum, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-10-15

    A new experiment has been installed to conduct studies at temperatures as high as 2500K on chemical reactions that involve solids or melts and the release of condensable gases. The sample is radiatively heated by a 1kW xenon short arc lamp placed in the upper focus of a vertically oriented ellipsoid of revolution. The optimal optical configuration has been determined by a Monte-Carlo Ray tracing method. Several methods to machine the reflector have been evaluated by experimentally determining the optical quality of the surface of plane test pieces. In the imaging furnace the sample is placed on a water-cooled support and heated by the concentrated radiation. This arrangement allows for fast heating and impedes the reaction of the sample with crucible material. A remotely controlled hammer allows for freezing the high-temperature composition of the sample by a fast quench. Thus, the sample can be later analyzed by conventional methods such as XRD or TEM. To allow for measurements under defined atmospheres and to protect the ellipsoidal reflector from liberated condensable products, the entire sample stage is enclosed by a hemispherical glass dome. The dome itself is protected from condensable compounds by a laminar flow of inert gas. Experiments with an incense cone at the place of the sample to visualize the gas flow showed that a steady layer of inert gas protects the dome from smoke, if the inert gas flow is properly adjusted. Measured peak flux densities clearly exceed 500Wcm{sup -2} required to access temperatures of at least 2500K. Decomposition experiments on copper sulfides confirmed the operation of the furnace. In the near future flash assisted multi-wavelength pyrometry (FAMP) will be implemented to measure sample temperatures online. Though the imaging furnace was developed to study the decomposition of metal sulfides it is obviously suited to conduct high-temperature studies on most materials relevant for high-temperature solar technology. (author)

  13. Evaluation on chemical stability of lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Guyot, François; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-09-15

    The leaching behavior of Pb and Zn from lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags sampled in the North of France was studied as a function of pHs and under two atmospheres (open air and nitrogen). The leaching of major elements from the slags was monitored as a function of pH (4, 5.5, 7, 8.5 and 10) under both atmospheres for different slag-water interaction times (1 day and 9 days). The leaching results were coupled with a geochemical model; Visual MINTEQ version 3.0, and a detailed morphological and mineralogical analysis was performed on the leached slags by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Significant amounts of Ca, Fe and Zn were released under acidic conditions (pH 4) with a decrease towards the neutral to alkaline conditions (pH 7 and 10) for both LBF and ISF slags. On the other hand, Fe leachability was limited at neutral to alkaline pH for both slags. The concentrations of all elements increased gradually after 216 h compared to initial 24 h of leaching period. The presence of oxygen under open-air atmosphere not only enhanced oxidative weathering but also encouraged formation of secondary oxide and carbonate phases. Formation of carbonates and clay minerals was suggested by Visual MINTEQ which was further confirmed by SEM & TEM. The hydration and partial dissolution of hardystonite, as well as the destabilization of amorphous glassy matrix mainly contributed to the release of major elements, whereas the spinel related oxides were resistant against pH changes and atmospheres within the time frame concerned for both LBF and ISF slags. The total amount of Pb leached out at pH 7 under both atmospheres suggested that both LBF and ISF slags are prone to weathering even at neutral environmental conditions. PMID:27240207

  14. ARC length control for plasma welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A control system to be used with a plasma arc welding apparatus is disclosed. The plasma arc welding apparatus includes a plasma arc power supply, a contactor, and an electrode assembly for moving the electrode relative to a work piece. The electrode assembly is raised or lowered by a drive motor. The present apparatus includes a plasma arc adapter connected across the power supply to measure the voltage across the plasma arc. The plasma arc adapter forms a dc output signal input to a differential amplifier. A second input is defined by an adjustable resistor connected to a dc voltage supply to permit operator control. The differential amplifier forms an output difference signal provided to an adder circuit. The adder circuit then connects with a power amplifier which forms the driving signal for the motor. In addition, the motor connects to a tachometor which forms a feedback signal delivered to the adder to provide damping, therby avoiding servo loop overshoot.

  15. A static approach towards coke collapse modelling in blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, S.; Basu, S. Yu, A.B.

    2009-10-15

    Burden distribution control in a blast furnace has a close relationship with wind acceptance and gas utilisation. Quantification of radial distribution of ore and coke is important for proper control of blast furnace operation. Charging of metallic burden over a layer of coke causes a portion of the coke layer to get dislodged from its original position, similar to the situation observed when a heavy material is dropped on a bed of lighter particles. This phenomenon, designated 'coke collapse', significantly changes the ore/coke distribution in the radial direction and thus affects the permeability of the furnace shaft. In the present work a mathematical model for quantifying the amount of coke collapse has been proposed on the basis of 'stability of slope theory'. The calculation from this model has been compared with the results from experiments in simplified physical models. Predictions of the mathematical model are in good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Role of mini-blast furnaces in South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, V.K.; Pfeifer, H.C. [Tata Korf Engineering Services, Calcutta (India)

    1997-12-31

    Mini blast furnaces (MBFs) are a small, economic, proven iron production technology. They are widely used in mini integrated steel plants and are likely to be yet more widely used. MBFs are described, contrasting them with direct reduction technology and with conventional blast furnaces. Besides their economic advantages they also cause few adverse environmental effects. These features have made MBF plant popular in Brazil and India in recent years, and plants are also planned in Indonesia. MBF-EOF (Energy optimising furnace) plants are also gaining popularity. They are useful where power is scarce and expensive. MBF-EOF plants are under construction in India and Indonesia. The future use of MBF plants in Asia is discussed. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. A Composite Model Predictive Control Strategy for Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zang; Hongguang Li; Jingwen Huang; Jia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Tube furnaces are essential and primary energy intensive facilities in petrochemical plants. Operational optimi-zation of furnaces could not only help to improve product quality but also benefit to reduce energy consumption and exhaust emission. Inspired by this idea, this paper presents a composite model predictive control (CMPC) strategy, which, taking advantage of distributed model predictive control architectures, combines tracking nonlinear model predictive control and economic nonlinear model predictive control metrics to keep process running smoothly and optimize operational conditions. The control ers connected with two kinds of communi-cation networks are easy to organize and maintain, and stable to process interferences. A fast solution algorithm combining interior point solvers and Newton's method is accommodated to the CMPC realization, with reason-able CPU computing time and suitable online applications. Simulation for industrial case demonstrates that the proposed approach can ensure stable operations of furnaces, improve heat efficiency, and reduce the emission effectively.

  18. Investigation on the Potentials of Cupola Furnace Slag in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Adeyemi Alabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of the concrete designed using blast cupola furnace slag and granulated cupola slag as a coarse aggregate and partial replacement for cement was investigated. A series of experimental studies were conducted involve concrete production in two stages. The first stage comprised of normal aggregate concrete (NAC produced with normal aggregates and 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC. Meanwhile, the second stage involved production of concrete comprising of cupola furnace slag an aggregates with 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC and subsequently with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% cementitious replacement with granulated cupola furnace slag that had been grounded and milled to less than 75 µm diameter. The outcomes of compressive strength test conducted on the slag aggregate concrete (SAC with and without granulated slag cementitious replacement were satisfactory compared to normal aggregate concretes (NAC.

  19. Computer simulation of gas flow in the flash smelting furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokilaakso, A.; Yang, Yongxiang; Teppo, O.; Ahokainen, T.; Haenninen, A.

    1993-12-31

    This report presents the detailed results of computer simulation of flow in the Outokumpu flash smelting furnace. The work belongs to the project SULA-10: `Reaction and flow dynamic modelling of suspension smelting technology`, and was carried out in Laboratory of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy at Helsinki University of Technology. The geometry of the flash smelting furnace was simulated with a laboratory scale water and gas models. The same geometry was created as computational grids, in which the flow situation was analysed. The results from the laboratory models and computational grids were found to be in good agreement. The computer simulation was then extended to an industrial-scale flash smelting furnace. Cold gas flow was analysed in order to obtain a general flow pattern and working computational grid for future work with heat transfer, two-phase flow and chemical reactions. The computation was carried out with PHOENICS-based software EasyFlow and CFD2000. (orig.)

  20. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  1. On the formation of auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new mechanism for auroral arc formation is presented. The characteristic linear shape of auroral arcs is determined by magnetically connected plasma clouds in the distant equatorial magnetosphere. These clouds originate as high speed plasma beams in the magnetotail and in the solar wind. It is found that the free energy for driving an auroral arc is provided by the difference of pressure between the cloud and the ambient plasma. (author)

  2. Programming ArcGIS with Python cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pimpler, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Programming ArcGIS with Python Cookbook, Second Edition, is written for GIS professionals who wish to revolutionize their ArcGIS workflow with Python. Whether you are new to ArcGIS or a seasoned professional, you almost certainly spend time each day performing various geoprocessing tasks. This book will teach you how to use the Python programming language to automate these geoprocessing tasks and make you a more efficient and effective GIS professional.

  3. FASTER MUSE CSP ARC CONSISTENCY ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Mary P.; White, Christopher M.; Helzerman, Randall A.; Hockema, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    MUSE CSP (Multiply SEgmented Constraint Satisfaction Problem) [5, 61 is an extension to the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) which is especially useful for problems that segment into riultiple instances of CSP that share variables. In Belzerman and Harper [6], the concepts of MUSE node, arc, and path consistency were defined and algorithms for MUSE arc consistency, MUSE AC-1, and MUSE path consistency were developed. MUSE AC-1 is similar to the CSP arc consistency algorithm AC-4 [ l j ] ...

  4. Effect of Gravity on Arc Shape in GTA Welding-for Low Electric Arc Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidetoshi FUJII; Yosuke SUMI; Manabu TANAKA; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2003-01-01

    Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding was performed both in a microgravity environment and in a terrestrial environment,and the arc shapes in both environments were compared. A microgravity condition was obtained using the free fallsystem at the Japan Microgravi

  5. Diffuse and spot mode of cathode arc attachments in an atmospheric magnetically rotating argon arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model including the cathode, near-cathode region, and arc column was constructed. Specifically, a thermal perturbation layer at the arc fringe was calculated in order to couple sheath/presheath modelling with typical arc column modelling. Comparative investigation of two modes of attachment of a dc (100, 150, 200 A) atmospheric-pressure arc in argon to a thermionic cathode made of pure tungsten was conducted. Computational data revealed that there exists two modes of arc discharge: the spot mode, which has an obvious cathode surface temperature peak in the arc attachment centre; and the diffuse mode, which has a flat cathode surface temperature distribution and a larger arc attachment area. The modelling results of the arc attachment agree with previous experimental observations for the diffuse mode. A further 3D simulation is obviously needed to investigate the non-axisymmetrical features, especially for the spot mode. (paper)

  6. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.C.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

  7. Major arcs for Goldbach's problem

    OpenAIRE

    Helfgott, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number $n\\geq 7$ is the sum of three primes. The estimation of the Fourier series $\\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p)$ and related sums has been central to the study of the problem since Hardy and Littlewood (1923). Here we show how to estimate such Fourier series for $\\alpha$ in the so-called major arcs, i.e., for $\\alpha$ close to a rational of small denominator. This is part of the author's proof of the ternary Goldbach conjecture. In contrast ...

  8. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  9. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  10. Performance tracking under ARCS contracts. Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directive discusses the development of a non-resource intensive method for reporting performance based work allocation results under the ARCS (Alternative Remedial Contracting Strategy) contractors

  11. Generalized hyperfocused arcs in $PG(2,p)$

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, A Aart; Marino, G.; Mazzocca, F.

    2013-01-01

    A {\\em generalized hyperfocused arc} $\\mathcal H $ in $PG(2,q)$ is an arc of size $k$ with the property that the $k(k-1)/2$ secants can be blocked by a set of $k-1$ points not belonging to the arc. We show that if $q$ is a prime and $\\mathcal H$ is a generalized hyperfocused arc of size $k$, then $k=1,2$ or 4. Interestingly, this problem is also related to the (strong) cylinder conjecture [Ball S.: The polynomial method in Galois geometries, in Current research topics in Galois geometry, Chap...

  12. Micro-arcing and arc erosion minimization using a DC hybrid switching device

    OpenAIRE

    Swingler, J.; McBride, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid switching devices utilize the advantages of both conventional electrical contacts and solid state electronics to minimize arcing during opening and closing operations. This can result in higher reliability and reduces the need for high cost specialist contact materials. The hybrid switch does not eliminate arcing completely, due to the inductive nature of circuits; micro-arcing is known to occur. An experimental dc hybrid switching device is introduced which minimizes arcing for 42 ...

  13. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G.; Giuli, M.; Davide, A.; Carlesi, C. (Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa (Italy); Deltasider, Piombino (Italy))

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  14. A new sulphur furnace in the ``Cagny`` sugar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, P.; Aznarez, X.; Koscielniak, J.; Michel, J.; Rousseau, G.

    1996-07-01

    It would be very difficult not to use SO{sub 2} in sugar factories because it is a very useful additive. The reglementary restraints have obliged us to stop using SO{sub 2} liquid. So, the Generale Sucriere with the help of the Choquenet Company have developed a sulphur furnace. It is robust, reliable and in agreement with the safety requirements for the environment. The process consists of producing SO{sub 2} by natural combustion of sulphur granules in a low - pressure furnace. A well adjusted sulphite appliance completes the installation and guaranties the difficulty in detecting the sulphur rejects into the atmosphere. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Simulation study on radiative imaging of combustion flame in furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radiative imaging of combustion flame in furnace of power plant plays an increasingly important role in combustion diagnosis. This paper presents a new method for calculating the radiative imaging of three-dimensional (3D) combustion flame based on Monte Carlo method and optical lens imaging. Numerical simulation case was used in this study. Radiative images were calculated and images obtained can not only present the energy distribution on the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera target plane but also reflect the energy distribution condition in the simulation furnace. Finally the relationships between volume elements and energy shares were also discussed.

  16. DUCT RETROFIT STRATEGY TO COMPLEMENT A MODULATING FURNACE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2002-10-02

    Some recent work (Walker 2001, Andrews 2002) has indicated that installing a modulating furnace in a conventional duct system may, in many cases, result in a significant degradation in thermal distribution efficiency. The fundamental mechanism was pointed out nearly two decades ago (Andrews and Krajewski 1985). The problem occurs in duct systems that are less-than-perfectly insulated (e.g., R-4 duct wrap) and are located outside the conditioned space. It stems from the fact that when the airflow rate is reduced, as it will be when the modulating furnace reduces its heat output rate, the supply air will have a longer residence time in the ducts and will therefore lose a greater percentage of its heat by conduction than it did at the higher airflow rate. The impact of duct leakage, on the other hand, is not expected to change very much under furnace modulation. The pressures in the duct system will be reduced when the airflow rate is reduced, thus reducing the leakage per unit time. This is balanced by the fact that the operating time will increase in order to meet the same heating load as with the conventional furnace operating at higher output and airflow rates. The balance would be exact if the exponent in the pressure vs. airflow equation were the same as that in the pressure vs. duct leakage equation. Since the pressure-airflow exponent is usually {approx}0.5 and the pressure-leakage exponent is usually {approx}0.6, the leakage loss as a fraction of the load should be slightly lower for the modulating furnace. The difference, however, is expected to be small, determined as it is by a function with an exponent equal to the difference between the above two exponents, or {approx}0.1. The negative impact of increased thermal conduction losses from the duct system may be partially offset by improved efficiency of the modulating furnace itself. Also, the modulating furnace will cycle on and off less often than a single-capacity model, and this may add a small amount

  17. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow in Blast Furnace Hearth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min-ge; SUN Tian-liang; CHENG Su-sen; GAO Zheng-kai

    2005-01-01

    The liquid flow in blast furnace hearth can result in the erosion of hearth. To prolong the campaign life of blast furnace, the effects of coke bed structure, coke porosity and deepness of taphole on liquid flow in hearth were studied by κ-ε model under different conditions. The results show that with the decrease of coke porosity, the peripheral flow is enhanced. Moreover, the existence of narrow coke free zone and the deepness reduction of taphole can increase the flowability on the bottom of hearth.

  18. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  19. Prospects for energy saving in the Italian iron and steel industry using electric furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, G. (Italimpianti S.p.A., Genoa (IT))

    1990-01-01

    The energy consumption of the Italian iron and steel industry is examined with particular attention to the electricity used. Topics covered include scrap melting in electric furnaces, reheating furnaces and new productive methods. Opportunities for energy savings are highlighted. (UK).

  20. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    OpenAIRE

    Konstanciak, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  1. Numerical Study of the Reduction Process in an Oxygen Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2016-02-01

    Based on computational fluid dynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, principles of transfer in metallurgy, and other principles, a multi-fluid model for a traditional blast furnace was established. The furnace conditions were simulated with this multi-fluid mathematical model, and the model was verified with the comparison of calculation and measurement. Then a multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace in the gasifier-full oxygen blast furnace process was established based on this traditional blast furnace model. With the established multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace, the basic characteristics of iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace were summarized, including the changing process of the iron ore reduction degree and the compositions of the burden, etc. The study found that compared to the traditional blast furnace, the magnetite reserve zone in the furnace shaft under oxygen blast furnace condition was significantly reduced, which is conducive to the efficient operation of blast furnace. In order to optimize the oxygen blast furnace design and operating parameters, the iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace was researched under different shaft tuyere positions, different recycling gas temperatures, and different allocation ratios of recycling gas between the hearth tuyere and the shaft tuyere. The results indicate that these three factors all have a substantial impact on the ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace. Moderate shaft tuyere position, high recycling gas temperature, and high recycling gas allocation ratio between hearth and shaft could significantly promote the reduction of iron ore, reduce the scope of the magnetite reserve zone, and improve the performance of oxygen blast furnace. Based on the above findings, the recommendations for improvement of the oxygen blast furnace design and operation were proposed.

  2. The structure and singularities of arc complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penner, Robert

    A classical combinatorial fact is that the simplicial complex consisting of disjointly embedded chords in a convex planar polygon is a sphere. For any surface F with non-empty boundary, there is an analogous complex Arc(F) consisting of suitable equivalence classes of arcs in F connecting its bou...

  3. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  4. Implementing RapidArc into clinical routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Esch, Ann; Huyskens, Dominique P; Behrens, Claus F;

    2011-01-01

    With the increased commercial availability of intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) comes the need for comprehensive QA programs, covering the different aspects of this newly available technology. This manuscript proposes such a program for the RapidArc (RA) (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto) I...

  5. Characterization of Micro-arc Oxidized Titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The observation of the sparkling discharges during the micro-arc oxidation process in KOH aqueous electrolyte was achieved. The change of surface morphology was progressively observed and a plausible pore formation mechanism is proposed. Cell proliferation and ALP activity of micro-arc oxidized titanium was evaluated by human body derived osteoblasts and slightly better than those of blasted surface.

  6. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO2 and NOX emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO2-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO3, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO3 sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO2 atmosphere due to the higher CO2 partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO2 atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain–subgrain structure model in both the air and CO2 atmospheres.

  7. The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge. Chemical treatment was performed by acetic acid adsorption on BFS.Microscopic observation was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM method. Changes in examined surface area properties were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods.Increasing of specific surface area, decreasing of pore size and better pore size distribution in BFS samples were registered after the applied experimental procedure. The obtained results revealed that the performed chemical and heat treatment presented the activation of blast furnace sludge.

  8. MULTISTAGED BURNER DESIGN FOR IN-FURNACE NOX CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high nitrogen fuel combustion applications. A low NOx precomb...

  9. Research on Microwave Heating-Direct Steelmaking in Electric Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin; LIU Liu; ZENG Jia-qing; REN Rui-gang; LIU Jin-ying

    2005-01-01

    Self-fluxing iron ore concentrates containing coal have good microwave absorbability.With the voluminal heating property of microwave,the concentrates can be reduced uniformly and swiftly.The metallized semi-product can be directly charged into electric furnace for making clean steel.The total consumed energy of overall route is about 20.98 GJ.

  10. The influence of furnace wall emissivity on steel charge heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švantner, Michal; Honnerová, Petra; Veselý, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Radiation heat transfer is one of the most important heat transfer modes in high-temperature applications. It is a strongly non-linear process, which depends on the temperature and emissivity of heat exchange surfaces, their geometrical configuration and properties of the surrounding atmosphere. Heat exchange intensity between the surfaces depends mainly on their temperature differences. However, their emissivities influence significantly the radiation heat transfer process as well. Emissivity is a function of surface state or atmospheric chemical reactions, temperature and wavelengths. Because of these non-linearities, it is very complicated to evaluate such a real problem by numerical simulation, and experimental work seems to be the most reliable evaluation procedure. We applied special high-temperature coatings of different emissivities on furnace walls to evaluate the dependence between the furnace wall emissivity and steel charge heating. The emissivity analyses of the coatings used and emissivity measurement results in dependence on wavelength are presented in this paper. The dependence of the charge heating on the furnace wall emissivity, the importance of emissivity wavelength dependence and significant differences of the emissivity effect in electrical and gas heated furnaces are shown. The possible consequences and practical benefits are also discussed in this paper.

  11. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  12. REACTIVATION OF GRANULAR CARBON IN AN INFRARED TRAVELING BELT FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An all-electrical Shirco carbon regeneration furnace and its air pollution control system have been evaluated for cost and process effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The granular activated carbon used for the Shirco...

  13. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Jung, Jae Hee; Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO₂ and NO(x) emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO₂-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO₃, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO₃ sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO₂ atmosphere due to the higher CO₂ partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO₂ atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO₂ atmospheres. PMID:22578525

  14. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  15. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology is a treatment process for contaminated soils. he process was evaluated to determine its ability to destroy semivolatile organics and to isolate metals and simulated radionuclides into a non-leachable slag materi...

  16. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and organics. oth the technical and economic aspects of...

  17. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  18. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 24000C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author)

  19. 77 FR 28673 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... furnaces and central air conditioners and heat pumps and are, therefore, also widely used by HVAC product..., Methods of Testing for Rating Electrically Driven Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat ] Pump Equipment. The... the energy conservation standard rulemaking for furnace fans. 75 FR 31323. DOE posted the furnace...

  20. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces

  1. Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Rita G.

    The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

  2. Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-29

    The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)

  3. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  4. Numerical Study on Arc Plasma Behavior During Arc Commutation Process in Direct Current Circuit Breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of arc plasma behavior during arc commutation process in a medium-voltage direct current circuit breaker (DCCB) contact system. A three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model of air arc plasma in the contact system of a DCCB is developed, based on commercial software FLUENT. Coupled electromagnetic and gas dynamic interactions are considered as usual, and a thin layer of nonlinear electrical resistance elements is used to represent the voltage drop of plasma sheath and the formation of new arc root. The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of arc plasma in arc region are calculated. The simulation results indicate that the pressure distribution related to the contact system has a strong effect on the arc commutation process, arising from the change of electrical conductivity in the arc root region. In DCCB contact system, the pressure of arc root region will be concentrated and higher if the space above the moving contact is enclosed, which is not good for arc root commutation. However, when the region is opened, the pressure distribution would be lower and more evenly, which is favorable for the arc root commutation.

  5. Arc flash hazard analysis and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2012-01-01

    "All the aspects of arc flash hazard calculations and their mitigation have been covered. Knowledge of electrical power systems up to undergraduate level is assumed. The calculations of short-circuits, protective relaying and varied electrical system configurations in industrial power systems are addressed. Protection systems address differential relays, arc flash sensing relays, protective relaying coordination, current transformer operation and saturation and applications to major electrical equipments from the arc flash considerations. Current technologies and strategies for arc flash mitigation have been covered. A new algorithm for the calculation of arc flash hazard accounting for the decaying nature of the short-circuit currents is included. There are many practical examples and study cases. Review questions and references follow each chapter"--

  6. Sensor Control of Robot Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, F. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The potential for using computer vision as sensory feedback for robot gas-tungsten arc welding is investigated. The basic parameters that must be controlled while directing the movement of an arc welding torch are defined. The actions of a human welder are examined to aid in determining the sensory information that would permit a robot to make reproducible high strength welds. Special constraints imposed by both robot hardware and software are considered. Several sensory modalities that would potentially improve weld quality are examined. Special emphasis is directed to the use of computer vision for controlling gas-tungsten arc welding. Vendors of available automated seam tracking arc welding systems and of computer vision systems are surveyed. An assessment is made of the state of the art and the problems that must be solved in order to apply computer vision to robot controlled arc welding on the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  7. QUARTZ MELT RATE FURNACE EVALUATION USING SLUDGE BATCH 3 FEED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Quartz Melt Rate Furnace (QMRF) was developed to study the melt rate and offgas composition of simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed. The objective of this testing was to evaluate whether the apparatus could be used to study the offgas chemistry of melting batches and perform small-scale slurry-fed melt rate tests. The furnace was tested in three different configurations: a dry-fed test with offgas analysis, a slurry-fed test without offgas analysis, and a slurry-fed test with offgas analysis. During the dry-fed test, offgas composition was successfully measured throughout the run and total offgas flow was calculated from the helium tracer concentration. During the slurry-feeding tests without offgas analysis, the furnace exhibited stable feeding behavior with no problems with feed tube pluggage. Feeding behavior was used to measure the melt rate of Sludge Batch 3 with Frit 320 and with Frit 418. Both frits had approximately the same melt rate during the tests based on amount of melter feed added per minute. During the slurry-fed test with offgas analysis, spikes in the data prevented overall offgas flow analysis from the helium tracer, but the ratio of different offgas species allowed the composition data to be compared between runs. Minor improvements were identified that would enhance the performance of the furnace and further testing should be performed to optimize the performance of the apparatus. These tests should focus on increasing the stability of offgas composition data by providing more surge capacity in the offgas system, determining the sensitivity of the furnace to melt rate during slurry-fed tests and refining the lid heat power to optimize melt rate measurements, and to develop the capability to utilize the system with radioactive feeds

  8. Air-cooled CWS warm air furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litka, A.F.; Becker, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    Thermo Power Corporation, Tecogen Division, has developed coal water slurry (CWS) combustion technologies specifically tailored to meet the space heating needs of the residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. This furnace was extensively tested and met all the design and operating criteria of the development program, which included combustion efficiencies in excess of 99%, response to full load from a cold start in less than 5 minutes, and steady-state thermal efficiencies as high as 85%. While this furnace design is extremely versatile, versatility came at the expense of system complexity and cost. To provide a more cost effective CWS-based option for the residential market sector, Tecogen, developed a totally air-cooled CWS-fired residential warm air heating system. To minimize system cost and to take advantage of industry manufacturing practices and experience, a commercially available oil/gas solid fuel-fired central furnace, manufactured by Yukon Energy Corporation, was used as the platform for the CWS combustor and related equipment. A prototype furnace was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory to verify system integrity and operation. This unit was then shipped to the PETC to undergo demonstration operation and serve as a showcase of the CWS technology. An in-depth Owners Manual was prepared and delivered with the furnace. This Owners Manual, which is included as Appendix A of this report, includes installation instructions, operating procedures, wiring diagrams, and equipment bulletins on the major components. It also contains coal water slurry fuel specifications and typical system operating variables, including key temperatures, pressures, and flowrates.

  9. Melting Decontamination of the Aluminum Wastes generated from TRIGA MARK-III Research Reactor in the Electric Arc Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been growing interest in D and D (Decommissioning and decontamination) of the nuclear facilities around world. In Korea the TRIGA MARK III research reactor has been dismantled since 1997. These decommissioning works result in the various metal wastes such as stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum and copper. Since the total amount of the steel (stainless steel, carbon steel) wastes from nuclear facilities was up to 70 ∼ 80%, considerable researches have been devoted to the radionuclides distribution and decontamination characteristics of the steel until now. But based on the report by Garbay and Chapuis, they concluded that a PWR contained 20 to 100 ton of aluminum, mostly as electrical cable. Therefore rather more study has been paid to the characteristics of the aluminum melting and the distribution of radionuclides

  10. 40 CFR 63.10686 - What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen decarburization vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test for an EAF or AOD vessel according to the procedures in § 63.7 and 40 CFR 60.275a using the following test methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendices A-1, A-2, A-3, and A-4: (i) Method 1 or 1A of appendix A-1 of 40 CFR part 60 to select sampling port locations and the number of traverse points in...

  11. Melting Decontamination of the Aluminum Wastes generated from TRIGA MARK-III Research Reactor in the Electric Arc Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Youn; Kang, Yong [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Pyung Seob; Choi, Wang Kyu; Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in D and D (Decommissioning and decontamination) of the nuclear facilities around world. In Korea the TRIGA MARK III research reactor has been dismantled since 1997. These decommissioning works result in the various metal wastes such as stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum and copper. Since the total amount of the steel (stainless steel, carbon steel) wastes from nuclear facilities was up to 70 {approx} 80%, considerable researches have been devoted to the radionuclides distribution and decontamination characteristics of the steel until now. But based on the report by Garbay and Chapuis, they concluded that a PWR contained 20 to 100 ton of aluminum, mostly as electrical cable. Therefore rather more study has been paid to the characteristics of the aluminum melting and the distribution of radionuclides.

  12. Role of arc mode in laser-metal active gas arc hybrid welding of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pulsed arc is more effective to improve the stability of laser-arc hybrid welding. • LCHW has the highest fraction of acicular ferrite and high-angle grain boundaries. • Grain refinement depends on effective current of the arc. • LSHW has the most apparent vestige of texture components. • The microstructure and microtexture formation mechanisms were summarized. - Abstract: Arc mode plays an important role in joint characterizations of arc welding, but it has been seldom considered in laser-arc hybrid welding. This paper investigated the role of arc mode on laser-metal active gas (MAG) arc hybrid welding of mild steel. Three arc modes were employed, which were cold metal transfer (CMT), pulsed spray arc and standard short circuiting arc. Microtexture of the joints were observed and measured via electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) system to reveal the effect of arc mode on microstructure. Mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated by tensile and Charpy V-notch impact tests. It was found that both the stability and mechanical properties of laser-CMT hybrid welding (LCHW) is the best, while those of laser-standard short circuiting arc welding (LSHW) is the worst. OM and EBSD results showed that the fraction of acicular ferrite and high-angle grain boundaries in fusion zone decreases gradually in the sequence of LCHW, laser-pulsed spray arc welding and LSHW, while the mean grain size increases gradually. Finally, the microstructure formation mechanisms and the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties were summarized by the loss of alloying element and the stirring effect in molten pool

  13. INTERPOLATION WITH RESTRICTED ARC LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov

    2003-01-01

    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  14. Computer simulation to arc spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志芳; 李午申; 王迎娜

    2004-01-01

    The arc spraying process is divided into two stages: the first stage is atomization-spraying stream (ASS) and the second one is spraying deposition (SD). Then study status is described of both stages' physical model and corresponding controlling-equation. Based on the analysis of study status, the conclusion as follows is got. The heat and mass transfer models with two or three dimensions in ASS stage should be established to far deeply analyses the dynamical and thermal behavior of the overheat droplet. The statistics law of overheated droplets should be further studied by connecting simulation with experiments. More proper validation experiments should be designed for flattening simulation to modify the models in SD stage.

  15. Evaluation of the clinical usefulness of modulated Arc treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Kyu; Jang, Hong Seok; Kim, Yeon Sil; Choi, Byung Ock; Nam, Sang Hee; Park, Hyeong Wook; Kim, Shin Wook; Shin, Hun Joo; Lee, Jae Choon; Kim, Ji Na; PARK, SUNG KWANG; Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Young-Nam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of modulated arc (mARC) treatment techniques. The mARC treatment plans of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were performed in order to verify the clinical usefulness of mARC. A pre study was conducted to find the most competent plan condition of mARC treatment and the usefulness of mARC treatment plan was evaluated by comparing it with the other Arc treatment plans such as Tomotherapy and RapidArc. In the case of m...

  16. Propagation of back-arc extension into the arc lithosphere in the southern New Hebrides volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriat, M.; Collot, J.; Danyushevsky, L.; Fabre, M.; Meffre, S.; Falloon, T.; Rouillard, P.; Pelletier, B.; Roach, M.; Fournier, M.

    2015-09-01

    New geophysical data acquired during three expeditions of the R/V Southern Surveyor in the southern part of the North Fiji Basin allow us to characterize the deformation of the upper plate at the southern termination of the New Hebrides subduction zone, where it bends eastward along the Hunter Ridge. Unlike the northern end of the Tonga subduction zone, on the other side of the North Fiji Basin, the 90° bend does not correspond to the transition from a subduction zone to a transform fault, but it is due to the progressive retreat of the New Hebrides trench. The subduction trench retreat is accommodated in the upper plate by the migration toward the southwest of the New Hebrides arc and toward the south of the Hunter Ridge, so that the direction of convergence remains everywhere orthogonal to the trench. In the back-arc domain, the active deformation is characterized by propagation of the back-arc spreading ridge into the Hunter volcanic arc. The N-S spreading axis propagates southward and penetrates in the arc, where it connects to a sinistral strike-slip zone via an oblique rift. The collision of the Loyalty Ridge with the New Hebrides arc, less than two million years ago, likely initiated this deformation pattern and the fragmentation of the upper plate. In this particular geodynamic setting, with an oceanic lithosphere subducting beneath a highly sheared volcanic arc, a wide range of primitive subduction-related magmas has been produced including adakites, island arc tholeiites, back-arc basin basalts, and medium-K subduction-related lavas.

  17. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces; La metalurgia del mercurio en Almaden: desde los hornos de aludeles a los hornos Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  18. Cost cutting/energy saving revamp for steel mill reheat furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, A.

    1981-10-01

    Modifications to a 385-ton/h walking beam slab reheating furnace and a 100-ton/h pusher furnace provide estimated energy savings of 14 and 37% respectively with payback periods of approximately 9 and 21 months. Changes in furnace operation and equipment discussed include an automatic control system to improve the distribution of heat to the different furnace zones, burner design, improved design of discharge doors and recuperator operation. Cost savings for five years of operation are in excess of $12 million and $3.5 million for the walking beam and pusher furnace.

  19. Numerical Computation of Net Radiative Heat Transfer within a Non Absorbing Furnace Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Ndache MOHAMMED

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical evaluation of the net radiative heat transfer rate in a single zone, non absorbing furnace enclosure is reported. In this analysis, simplified mathematical furnace model namely, the long furnace model is used to determine furnace performance. The formulation assumes some known temperature values. Thus, heat transfer equations were set up and solved numerically. A FORTRAN computer program was developed and debugged. Results obtained from this study compare favourably well with the results from the traditional graphical method. Also, the computer program developed can handle variations in furnace operating conditions, temperatures, thermal properties and dimensions.

  20. Design and Fabrication of a Stir Casting Furnace Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabhanjan Sahoo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days a large variety of heating techniques/furnaces are available. There may be many method for supplying heat to the work but heat is produced either by combustion of fuel or electric resistance heating. Taking into consideration the effect of cost, safety, simplicity and ease of construction we are going for an electrical resistance heating furnace with indirect heating provisions. The stir casting furnace has two main parts that enable to perform all its operations, they are: Furnace Elements and Control Panel. This paper shows the design and fabrication of stir-casting furnace and aluminium melted and casted to form.

  1. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by laser ablation in graphite substrate of industrial arc electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an inexpensive and simple technique for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by using graphite as the target for IR laser radiation is presented. This graphite material is obtained from the recycled graphite electrode core of an electric arc furnace. The experiment was carried out in a reaction chamber in an argon atmosphere at a low pressure. For laser ablation, a Lumonics TEA CO2 laser beam (7 J; 0.05-50 μs pulse length) was used in multimode operation. Products were collected on free mica sheets. The substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the products were characterized (collected as powder) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They showed significant amounts of high-quality dense filaments (CNTs) that were morphologically not aligned.

  2. Evaluation of the graphite electrode arc melter for processing heterogeneous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Soelberg, N.R. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory); Anderson, G.L. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory)

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) conducted a series of 4 demonstration melting tests in a 3-phase AC graphite electrode arc furnace at its Albany Research Center (ALRC) thermal treatment facility in Albany, Oregon (now part of the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE). The scope of these tests provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a single melting technology regarding its applicability to the treatment of several different heterogeneous mixed wastes. The current system can continuously process combustible-bearing wastes at feedrates to 682 kg/h (1,500 lb/h), continuously tap slag or glass, and intermittently tap metal products, and includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer and air pollution control system (APCS). The 4 demonstration melting tests were conducted in cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC).

  3. High temperature corrosion behavior of arc-sprayed aluminum coatings on steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-bo; WANG Yong; DONG Li-xian

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum coatings were sprayed on the substrate of steel Q235 by arc spraying. The test samples of Q235, Al coatings and Al coatings with seal coat were placed in box type electric resistance furnace at 400, 500,600, 650 ℃ when their oxidation behaviors were studied. And their oxidation kinetics curves were protracted. Microstructure, microhardness, bond strength and distribution of section elements were investigated by optical microscope(OM), Vickers microhardness instrument, electric tensile test machine and EPMA. Al coatings and Al coatings with seal coat can enhance the oxidation-resistance of substrate under 500 ℃. The latter has the best corrosion resistance. The coatings can't protect the substrate against oxidation above 600 ℃. After a long time corrosion there is enriched oxygen element at interface.

  4. A contribution to the study of arc melting in inert gas atmospheres of zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettalic zirconium is a material of great interest in the nuclear industry due to its low thermal neutron cross section, high strength and corrosion resistance. The latter permits its use in the chemical industry. In this study, a critical bibliographic revision of the industrial processes used for the melting and consolidation of zirconium sponge has been carried out. A procedure for the melting of zirconium on a laboratory scale, has been established. An nonconsumable-electrode arc furnace have been used. The effect of process variables like atmosphere, melting current and getter, have been showed. The influence of sponge characteristics on the qualities of cast zirconium buttons have been studied. The present study is a contribution towards future investigations to obtain high purity cast zirconium and its alloys commercially known as zircaloy. (author)

  5. Fuel sparing: Control of industrial furnaces using process gas as supplemental fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustible gases from industrial processes can be used to spare purchased fuels such as natural gas and avoid wasteful flaring of the process gases. One of the challenges of incorporating these gases into other furnaces is their intermittent availability. In order to incorporate the gases into a continuously operating furnace, the furnace control system must be carefully designed so that the payload is not affected by the changing fuel. This paper presents a transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial furnace that supplements natural gas with carbon monoxide during furnace operation. A realistic control system of the furnace is simulated as part of the CFD calculation. The time dependent changes in fuels and air injection on the furnace operation is observed. It is found that there is a trade-off between over-controlling the furnace, which results in too sensitive a response to normal flow oscillations, and under-controlling, which results in a lagged response to the fuel change. - Highlights: •Intermittently available process gases used in a continuously operating furnace. •Study shows a trade-off between over-controlling and under-controlling the furnace. •Over-controlling: response too sensitive to normal flow oscillations. •Under-controlling: lagged response to changing fuel composition. •Normal flow oscillations in furnace would not be apparent in steady-state model

  6. Measurement method and experimental research on flame emissivity in Coal-fired furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chao; LOU Chun; JIANG Zhi-wei; ZHOU Huai-chun

    2007-01-01

    The combustion condition in coal-fired furnaces of the large power station boiler is very complex and the flame emissivity is one of the important combustion parameters.A measurement method of the flame emissivity based on the blackbody furnace calibration of CCD(Charge Coupled Device)cameras and the color image processing techniques of computer was introduced.The experimentaI research on the flame emissivity in a 200 MW boiler furnace and a 300 MW boiler furnace was conducted respectively through the several CCD cameras installed at different height in furnace.The measurement results show:the flame emissivity increases with the increase of the unit load.the flame emissivity of the burner areas in furnace is the highest and the flame emissivity decrease with the increase of height of furnace above the burners area.

  7. Batch Preheat for glass and related furnace processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy & Environmental Resources, Inc

    2002-08-12

    The objectives that our development work addressed are: (1) Establish through lab tests a salt eutectic with a melting point of about 250 F and a working range of 250 to 1800 F. (2) Establish the most economical material of construction for the screened salt eutectics identified in the first objective. (3) Establish the material of construction for the salt heater liner. Objectives 2 and 3 were determined through corrosion tests using selected metallurgical samples. Successful completion of the above-stated goals will be incorporated in a heat recovery design that can be used in high temperature processes and furnaces, typical of which is the glass melting process. The process design incorporates the following unit operations: a vertical batch heater (whereby the batch flows down through tubes in a shell and tube exchanger; a molten salt eutectic is circulated on the shell side); a molten salt heater utilizing furnace flue gas in a radiation type heater (molten salt is circulated in the annular space between the inner and outer shells of the vertical heater, and flue gas passes from the furnace exhaust through the inner shell of the heater); a cantilever type molten salt circulating pump; and a jacketed mixer/conveyor to drive off moisture from the batch prior to feeding the batch to the vertical batch heater. Historically, radiation heaters, when applied to glass or fiberglass furnace recuperation, have experienced failures due to uneven heat flux rates, which increases internal stresses and spot overheating conditions. Low heat transfer coefficients result in requirements for large heat transfer surface areas in gas to gas or gas to air exchangers. Fouling is another factor that results in lower unit availability and reduced performance. These factors are accommodated in this process by the incorporation of several design features. The salt heater will be a vertical double wall radiation design, similar to radiation air heaters used in high temperature heat

  8. CFD simulation of gas and particles combustion in biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griselin, Nicolas

    2000-11-01

    In this thesis, gas and particle combustion in biomass furnaces is investigated numerically. The aim of this thesis is to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology as an effective computer based simulation tool to study and develop the combustion processes in biomass furnaces. A detailed model for the numerical simulation of biomass combustion in a furnace, including fixed-bed modeling, gas-phase calculation (species distribution, temperature field, flow field) and gas-solid two-phase interaction for flying burning particles is presented. This model is used to understand the mechanisms of combustion and pollutant emissions under different conditions in small scale and large scale furnaces. The code used in the computations was developed at the Division of Fluid Mechanics, LTH. The flow field in the combustion enclosure is calculated by solving the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with standard {kappa} - {epsilon} turbulence closure, together with the energy conservation equation and species transport equations. Discrete transfer method is used for calculating the radiation source term in the energy conservation equation. Finite difference is used to solve the general form of the equation yielding solutions for gas-phase temperatures, velocities, turbulence intensities and species concentrations. The code has been extended through this work in order to include two-phase flow simulation of particles and gas combustion. The Favre-averaged gas equations are solved in a Eulerian framework while the submodels for particle motion and combustion are used in the framework of a Lagrangian approach. Numerical simulations and measurement data of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), CO, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and temperature on the top of the fixed bed are used to model the amount of tar and char formed during pyrolysis and combustion of biomass fuel in the bed. Different operating conditions are examined. Numerical calculations are compared with the measured data. It is

  9. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels;

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied with....... With the addition of a plasma arc, the hardness could overall be reduced to between 200 and 220 HV1, i.e. about 27 percent. In the seam middle, the reduction was 36 percent....

  10. Arc saw and its application to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arc saw is a toothless, circular saw that cuts by arc erosion. A model was built to study the arc saw's usefulness in cutting up radioactively contaminated metal scrap. It was chosen because it cuts with very little contact to the work piece and because cutting is not affected by material hardness. After installation of several improvements it was found it could cut almost any combination of metals and that clamping or fixturing requirements were minimum. Cutting proceeds rapidly and efficiently. 10 figures

  11. Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    for varying the damping characteristics of the SFD as well as the dynamic forces acting on the SFD. Phase plane orbits together with Poincar´e maps are given for different arc spring damping and static and dynamic load cases. Besides, bifurcation diagrams as a function of the arc spring damping and...... forces acting on the SFD are presented. It is worth mentioning, that the maps and diagrams can be used as design guidance. Finally, a comparison between the numerical results and experimental result is facilitated in form of waterfall diagrams. For this, a full scale model of the arc-spring damper was...

  12. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  13. Formation of the G-ring arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, N. C. S.; Vieira Neto, E.; Foryta, D. W.

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, the images obtained by Cassini spacecraft's on-board cameras have revealed the existence of several small satellites in the Saturn system. Some of these small satellites are embedded in arcs of particles. While these satellites and their arcs are known to be in corotation resonances with Mimas, their origin remains unknown. This work investigates one possible process for capturing bodies into a corotation resonance, which involves raising the eccentricity of a perturbing body. Therefore, through numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show a scenario that the excitation of Mimas' eccentricity could capture particles in a corotation resonance and given a possible explanation for the origin for the arcs.

  14. Arc pressure control in GTA welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relationships are established between the peak current of a pulsed, rectangular current waveform and the pulse current duty cycle under conditions of constant arc power. By appropriate choice of these interrelated parameters, it is shown that the arc pressure may be varied over a wide range even though the arc power is held constant. The methodology is suggested as a means of countering the effect of gravity in 5-G welding, while maintaining constant heat input to the weld. Combined with appropriate penetration sensors, the methodology is additionally suggested as a means of controlling penetration

  15. Formation of the G-ring arc

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, N C S; Foryta, D W

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, the images obtained by Cassini spacecraft's on-board cameras have revealed the existence of several small satellites in the Saturn system. Some of these small satellites are embedded in arcs of particles. While these satellites and their arcs are known to be in corotation resonances with Mimas, their origin remains unknown. This work investigates one possible process for capturing bodies into a corotation resonance, which involves raising the eccentricity of a perturbing body. Therefore, through numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show a scenario that the excitation of Mimas' eccentricity could capture particles in a corotation resonance and given a possible explanation for the origin for the arcs.

  16. Production Scheduling for the Furnace - Casting Line System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem considered in the paper is motivated by production planning in a foundry equipped with the furnace and casting line, which provides a variety of castings in various grades of cast iron/steel for a large number of customers. The quantity of molten metal does not exceed the capacity of the furnace, the load is a particular type of metal from which the products are made in the automatic casting lines. The goal is to create the order of the melted metal loads to prevent delays in delivery of goods to customers. This problem is generally considered as a lot-sizing and scheduling problem. The paper describes two computational intelligence algorithms for simultaneous grouping and scheduling tasks and presents the results achieved by these algorithms for example test problems.

  17. Water cooling system for sintering furnaces of nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has as a main objective to develop a continuous cooling water system, which is necessary for the cooling of the sintering furnaces. This system is used to protect them as well as for reducing the water consumption, ejecting the heat generated into this furnaces and scattering it into the atmosphere in a fast and continuous way. The problem was defined and the reference parameters established, making the adequate research. The materials were selected as well as the length of the pipeline which will carry the secondary refrigerant fluid (water). Three possible solutions were tried,and evaluated, and from these, the thermal and economically most efficient option was selected. The layout of the solution was established and the theoretical construction of a cooling system for liquids using dichlorofluoromethane (R-22), as a refrigerant and a air cooled condenser, was accomplished. (Author)

  18. Advanced wood burning furnaces. 2. rev. ed.; Moderne Holzfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    New and environment-friendly technologies meet high requirements in terms of emission reduction and comfort of operation. In the field of wood burning furnaces, there is still a lack of knowledge which results in excessive cost, environmental pollution and loss of image. This brochure shows how wood furnaces should be operated correctly and also reviews the state of the art. [German] Durch die technische Entwicklung neuer, wirkungsvoller und vor allem umweltfreundlicher Heiztechniken wird zudem den in den letzten Jahren gestiegenen Anforderungen an den Emissionsschutz und den Bedienungskomfort Rechnung getragen. Mit Holz wird jedoch z. T. nicht immer richtig geheizt. Das kostet Geld und fuehrt zu vermeidbaren Umweltbelastungen und Imageschaeden. Ziel dieser Broschuere ist es daher, mit den Techniken des Heizens mit Holz vertraut zu machen und einen Ueberblick ueber den heutigen Stand zu geben. (orig.)

  19. Development of a mono-ellipsoidal imaging furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesdon, C.; Alxneit, I.; Tschudi, H.-R.; Petrasch, J.; Sturzenegger, M

    2003-03-01

    To overcome the limitations of thermogravimetric decomposition studies an imaging furnace was developed. In an imaging furnace the sample is radiatively heated by focusing the output of a light source tightly onto it. Calculations with a Monte Carlo based ray tracing program were performed to evaluate different configurations of the set up using an ellipsoid of revolution as reflector. The best results were obtained for a vertical orientation of the ellipsoid with the lamp parallel to the axis of revolution of the reflector. Maximum flux densities on a sample with a diameter of 5 mm largely exceed the required 500 Wcm{sup -2} and thus temperatures of about 2500 K of the sample placed on a water cooled metal surface are to be expected. (author)

  20. Annealing of drawing grade steel coils at bell type furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low carbon steel sheets are produced up to 0.5 mm thickness at Pakistan Steel. These sheets are used for different forming operations to produce auto parts, household appliances, car bodies etc. For such application the metal must have high ductility, good forming properties and low yield strength. Hot band from 2-3 mm thickness is cold reduced up to 0.5 mm thickness at reversible cold rolling mill. Then annealed in bell type furnaces with inner height of 4.7 meters, where coils are heated up to lower critical line in controlled atmosphere of nitrogen and hydrogen. The material may fail during subsequent forming operation if the annealing regime at the bell type furnaces is not optimum. Objective of the work undertaken is to produce sheet of good shape up to 0.3 mm thickness and evaluate annealing regime to have intended forming properties. (author)

  1. Simulation, optimization and control of a thermal cracking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoumi, M.E.; Sadrameli, S.M.; Towfighi, J. [Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran, Iran (Iran); Niaei, A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tabriz, 51666-14766 Tabriz, Iran (Iran)

    2006-03-01

    The ethylene production process is one of the most important aspect of a petrochemical plant and the cracking furnace is the heart of the process. Since, ethylene is one of the raw materials in the chemical industry and the market situation of not only the feed and the product, but also the utility is rapidly changing, the optimal operation and control of the plant is important. A mathematical model, which describes the static and dynamic operations of a pilot plant furnace, was developed. The static simulation was used to predict the steady-state profiles of temperature, pressure and products yield. The dynamic simulation of the process was used to predict the transient behavior of thermal cracking reactor. Using a dynamic programming technique, an optimal temperature profile was developed along the reactor. Performances of temperature control loop were tested for different controller parameters and disturbances. The results of the simulation were tested experimentally in a computer control pilot plant. (author)

  2. Simulating the heat transfer process of horizontal anode baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Q. Zhang; C.G. Zheng; M.H. Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2005-07-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complex thermal phenomena in a baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matters, combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the process is simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases. It is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will help to save fuel. The model is proved to be a useful tool for the process optimisation of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry.

  3. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs

  4. System design description for the whole element furnace testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition

  5. Characterization of the structure of PM-16E furnace black

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlakov, V.P.; Fialkov, A.S.; Smirnov, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the structure of PM-16E furnace black in the initial and graphitized states has been carried out with the aid of phase-contact electron microscopy with direct resolution of the carbon layers (002). A two-stage mechanism of the formation of furnace black has been confirmed. In the first stage there is a free-radical mechanism of the formation of the particles of carbon black. In the second stage the orientated deposition of pyrolysis products takes place on the particles and their aggregates in the form of planar carbon layers. The structure of graphitized carbon black is represented in the form of a hollow polyhedron the faces of which consist of packets of continuous closed carbon layers.

  6. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  7. Numerical investigations of arc behaviour in gas metal arc welding using ANSYS CFX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, M.; Fuessel, U.; Hertel, M.; Spille-Kohoff, A.; Murphy, A. B.

    2011-06-01

    Current numerical models of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) are trying to combine magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models of the arc and volume of fluid (VoF) models of metal transfer. They neglect vaporization and assume an argon atmosphere for the arc region, as it is common practice for models of gas tungsten arc welding. These models predict temperatures above 20 000 K and a temperature distribution similar to tungsten inert gas (TIG) arcs. However, current spectroscopic temperature measurements in GMAW arcs demonstrate much lower arc temperatures. In contrast to TIG arcs they found a central local minimum of the radial temperature distribution. The paper presents a GMAW arc model that considers metal vapour and which is in a very good agreement with experimentally observed temperatures. Furthermore, the model is able to predict the local central minimum in the radial temperature and the radial electric current density distributions for the first time. The axially symmetric model of the welding torch, the work piece, the wire and the arc (fluid domain) implements MHD as well as turbulent mixing and thermal demixing of metal vapour in argon. The mass fraction of iron vapour obtained from the simulation shows an accumulation in the arc core and another accumulation on the fringes of the arc at 2000 to 5000 K. The demixing effects lead to very low concentrations of iron between these two regions. Sensitive analyses demonstrate the influence of the transport and radiation properties of metal vapour, and the evaporation rate relative to the wire feed. Finally the model predictions are compared with the measuring results of Zielińska et al.

  8. Prostate treatments, 1MRT o RapidArc; Tratamiento de prostata, IMART o RapidArc?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro novais, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Cerro Penalver, E.

    2015-07-01

    Techniques that modulate the dose (as IMRT or RapidArcTM) improve dose homogeneity within the target volume decreasing the dose in healthy organs. The aim of this work is to study the dosimetric differences in prostate radiotherapy treatments with IMRT and RapidArcTM. The results of the 109 patients studied show that plans to RapidArcTM have better coverage, compliance and dose gradient outside the target volume. (Author)

  9. Smelting Furnaces between XVI and XVIII century in New Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Monroy Braham

    2015-01-01

    The Sixteenth century brought new techniques of mining extraction and transformation that substitute the ancient form of mining, handle by prehispanic cultures -like surface mining and small blast furnaces- to the New World. Although in all cases they were replaced, the old methods served to face the new conditions resulting in new extractive and transformation metallurgist constructions and new methods for drifting mining on barely develop mineral deposits in Nueva España. The study of the p...

  10. Injection of pulverised coal into the Sidmar blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilius, A. (and others)

    1989-05-01

    The coal preparation equipment supplied by Heurbel and the injection equipment provided by Paul Wurth for two furnaces are described and operating results are reported. An injection rate of 120 kg/t iron has been used so far, with a coke rate of 365 kg/t and an increase in output from 53 to 60 t/m{sup 2}d; production cost savings have meant a payback period of only 1.7 years.

  11. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  12. Sitka, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  13. Sitka, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 3 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  14. Stretched arc discharge in produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

  15. Magneto-plasma-dynamic arc thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, J. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The performance of a magnetoplasmadynamic arc thruster, in the 600 to 2,100 seconds specific impulse range, was improved by locating its cathode in the exhaust beam downstream of the anode and main propellant injection point.

  16. Observation of gliding arc surface treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Zhu, Jiajian; Ehn, A.;

    2015-01-01

    . Water contact angle measurements indicate that the treatment uniformity improves significantly when the AC gliding arc is tilted to the polymer surface. Thickness reduction of the gas boundary layer, explaining the improvement of surface treatment, by the ultrasonic irradiation was directly observed for......An alternating current (AC) gliding arc can be conveniently operated at atmospheric pressure and efficiently elongated into the ambient air by an air flow and thus is useful for surface modification. A high speed camera was used to capture dynamics of the AC gliding arc in the presence of polymer...... surfaces. A gap was observed between the polymer surface and the luminous region of the plasma column, indicating the existence of a gas boundary layer. The thickness of the gas boundary layer is smaller at higher gas flow-rates or with ultrasonic irradiation to the AC gliding arc and the polymer surface...

  17. Archival Research Catalog (ARC) Archival Descriptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Archival Research Catalog (ARC) data set provides archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody of the National...

  18. Seward, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of .89-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  19. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  20. Effect of arc on radiation thermometry in welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮玉; 王燕; 武宝林

    2002-01-01

    The effect of arc on radiation thermometry is analyzed in a field close to the arc during the welding process, and the ratio of signal to noise and other factors are obtained for a small current arc .The method of the temperature measurement is feasible when the arc current is decreased to a smaller value in the welding process.

  1. Melting method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste and melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vessel containing miscellaneous solid wastes is inserted in a crucible having a releasable material on the inner surface, they are induction-heated from the outside of the crucible by way of low temperature heating coils to melt low melting point materials in the miscellaneous wastes within a temperature range at which the vessel does not melt. Then, they are induction-heated by way of high temperature heating coils to melt the vessel and not yet melted materials, those molten materials are cooled, solidified molten material and the releasable material are taken out, and then the crucible is used again. Then, the crucible can be used again, so that it can be applied to a large scaled melting furnace which treats wastes by a unit of drum. In addition, since the cleaning of the used crucible and the application of the releasable material can be conducted without interrupting the operation of the melting furnace, the operation cycle of the melting furnace can be shortened. (N.H.)

  2. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. Silica crown refractory corrosion in glass melting furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balandis A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical parameters of silica refractories, such as compressive strength, bulk, density, quantity of silica, microstructure and porosity were evaluated of unused and used bricks to line the crowns of glass furnaces, when the rate of corrosion of crowns were about 2 times greater. The change of these parameters, the chemical composition and formation of the microcracks in the used silica refractories material were studied. It was established that the short time at service of container glass furnace crown can be related to low quality of silica brick: high quantity of CaO and impurities, low quantity of silica, low quantity of silica, transferred to tridymite and cristobalite and formation of 5-10 μm and more than 100 μm cracks in the crown material. The main reason of corrosion high quality silica bricks used to line the crown of electrovacuum glass furnace is the multiple cyclic change of crown temperature at 1405 - 1430°C range in the initial zone of crown and at 1575 - 1605°C range in the zone of highest temperatures.

  4. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report

  5. Equipment and wafer modeling of batch furnaces by neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, N.; Schneider, Claus; Lehnert, Wolfgang; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    1999-04-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing there is a great demand for innovations towards higher cost-effectiveness. The increasing employment of advanced control systems for process and equipment control is one means to improve manufacturing processes effectively and, hence, to lower costs. A precondition for an accurate and fast control is the availability of process models. In this paper neural networks are applied to non-linear system identification as an alternative or addition to physical models. Neural empirical models are developed with the help of measured input and output data of a system or process. After a brief summary of the theory of neural networks their application to system identification is described in detail. The capabilities of the neural network models are demonstrated by several examples. The temperature dynamics of a vertical furnace for the oxidation of 300 mm wafers as well as the zone temperatures of a 150 mm LPCVD furnace are simulated and the results are verified by measurements. Moreover, in order to control wafer temperatures in batch furnaces, an appropriate model was developed and implemented in a model- based controller.

  6. Simulating flash heating in a muffle tube furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Susan V.; Hewins, Roger H.

    1999-11-01

    Very rapid heating is an important chondrule formation process and it has not been clear whether conventional equipment, such as a muffle tube furnace, is adequate for the simulation of heating on a time scale of seconds. We present a method for measuring the internal temperature reached by a charge during rapid heating when the thermocouple response lags. We have constrained charge temperatures by monitoring the time required to melt metal wires of various compositions and melting points placed inside charges with furnace temperature at 1400o, 1500o and 1600oC. The times required for melting of the metal wires define the temperature paths inside the charges. At 1400oC, a charge takes 31 s to reach 1399oC, at 1500oC, a charge takes 10 s to reach 1495oC and at 1600oC, a charge takes 6 s to reach 1538oC. Heating rates in vertical muffle tube furnaces are adequate for studying flash melting processes, i.e. of <<1 min duration, invoked, for example, in the formation of chondrules.

  7. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  8. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Pathak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today‟s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and this material is obtained from the blast furnace of cement plant, which is the byproduct of iron (from ACC plant, sindri. It is generally obtained in three shaped one is air cooled, foamed shaped and another is in granulated shaped. The use of by-product materials for stabilisation has environmental and economic benefits. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS material is used in the current work to stabilise soil (clay. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of GGBS on the engineering property (optimum moisture content and maximum dry density, plastic limit, liquid limit, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, triaxial and California bearing ratio test of the soil and determine the engineering properties of the stabilised.

  9. Sensitivity of collapsed arc QA method for delivery errors in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the sensitivity of an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) to detecting introduced Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) treatment errors was studied using the Collapsed Arc method. Two clinical Head and Neck (H and N) and Prostate treatment plans had gantry dependent dose and MLC errors introduced to the plans. These plans were then delivered to an Elekta Synergy Linear Accelerator EPID and compared to the original treatment planning system Collapsed Arc dose matrix. With the Collapsed Arc technique the EPID was able to detect MLC errors down to 2mm and dose errors of down to 3% depending on the treatment plan complexity and gamma tolerance used

  10. Spectral characteristics of arc plasma during laser-arc double-sided welding for aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kezhao Zhang; Zhenglong Lei; Xianglong Wang; Yanbin Chen; Yaobang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    In laser-arc double-sided welding,the spectral characteristics of the arc plasma are calculated and analyzed by spectroscopic diagnosis.The results show that,compared with conventional tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding,the introduction of a laser changes the physical characteristics of the arc plasma regardless of whether laser plasma penetration takes place,and that the influence of the laser mainly affects the near-anode region of the arc.When the laser power is relatively low,the arc column tends to compress,and the arc spectral characteristics show no significant difference.When the arc root constricts,compared with pure TIG arc,the electron density increases by ~2.7 times and the electron temperature decreases by ~3000 K.When the arc column expands,the intensities of spectral lines of both the metal and Ar atoms are the strongest.But it is also observed that the electron density reduces,whereas there is no obvious decrease of electron temperature.

  11. Heat flow in the Lesser Antilles island arc and adjacent back arc Grenada basin

    OpenAIRE

    Manga, Michael; Hornbach, Matthew J.; Friant, Anne Le; Ishizuka, Osamu; Stroncik, Nicole; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Boudon, Georges; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Fraass, Andrew; Fujinawa, Akihiko; Hatfield, Robert; Jutzeler, Martin; Kataoka, Kyoko; Lafuerza, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Using temperature gradients measured in 10 holes at 6 sites, we generate the first high fidelity heat flow measurements from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program drill holes across the northern and central Lesser Antilles arc and back arc Grenada basin. The implied heat flow, after correcting for bathymetry and sedimentation effects, ranges from about 0.1 W/m2 on the crest of the arc, midway between the volcanic islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, to 15 km from the crest in the back arc direct...

  12. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding Tanks Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulskiy, I.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.; Klimova-Korsmik, O.

    2016-04-01

    The results investigate hybrid laser-arc welding of high strength steels using design responsible metallic construction and the highest strength body of vehicles. Welds from modern high strength steels grade Hardox 400, Hardox 450, Armox 600T and AB were created. High power fiber laser LS-15 with output 15 kW and arc rectifier VDU - 1500 DC were used in the experiment. Results of the metallographic research and mechanical tests are presented.

  13. Overtwisted open books from sobering arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Noah

    2004-01-01

    We study open books on three manifolds which are compatible with an overtwisted contact structure. We show that the existence of certain arcs, called sobering arcs, is a sufficient condition for an open book to be overtwisted, and is necessary up to stabilization by positive Hopf-bands. Using these techniques we prove that some open books arising as the boundary of symplectic configurations are overtwisted, answering a question of Gay in Algebr. Geom. Topol. 3 (2003) 569--586.

  14. Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2010-01-01

    The Tin Whisker Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool has been designed to evaluate the risk of metal vapor arcing and to help facilitate a decision toward a researched risk disposition. Users can evaluate a system without having to open up the hardware. This process allows for investigating components at risk rather than spending time and money analyzing every component. The tool points to a risk level and provides direction for appropriate action and documentation.

  15. Multi-color detection of gravitational arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Maturi, Matteo; Mizera, Sebastian; Seidel, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides fundamental insights into the understanding of the dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, galaxy clusters and the background cosmology. Despite their importance, the number of gravitational arcs discovered so far is small. The urge for more complete, large samples and unbiased methods of selecting candidates is rising. A number of methods for the automatic detection of arcs have been proposed in the literature, but large amounts of spurious detecti...

  16. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnova, O; Cameron, D; Ellert, M; Groenager, M; Johansson, D; Kleist, J [NDGF, Kastruplundsgade 22, DK-2770 Kastrup (Denmark); Dobe, P; Joenemo, J; Konya, B [Lund University, Experimental High Energy Physics, Institute of Physics, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Fraagaat, T; Konstantinov, A; Nilsen, J K; Saada, F Ould; Qiang, W; Read, A [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kocan, M [Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Faculty of Science, Jesenna 5, SK-04000 Kosice (Slovakia); Marton, I; Nagy, Zs [NIIF/HUNGARNET, Victor Hugo 18-22, H-1132 Budapest (Hungary); Moeller, S [University of Luebeck, Inst. Of Neuro- and Bioinformatics, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Luebeck (Germany); Mohn, B, E-mail: oxana.smirnova@hep.lu.s [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Div. of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Box 535, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  17. Physics of arcs in circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some typical examples of circuit breakers are shown. Common to all these devices is that an electric arc is formed when the breaker operates which is responsible for the current interruption. The physics of those arcs can be described by the simplest single-fluid model of plasma physics which differs from the set of gas dynamic equations only by the following three terms: radiative energy transfer magnetic force and Joulean heating. These terms describe typical circuit breaker arc phenomena. This is discussed by means of three examples. The first example treats the influence of the radiative energy transfer on the temperature distribution of high-voltage circuit-breaker arcs. The second example is a discussion of the magnetic stability of circuit breaker arcs and the third example is concerned with the problem of flow turbulence produced at the arc boundary. The last effect is closely related to the current interruption process in high-voltage circuit breakers. A semi-empirical description of the turbulent heat exchange leads to a prediction of the breaking capacity for this type of circuit breaker. (author)

  18. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  19. New method for capturing arc of moving on switching apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiao-min; WANG Jing-hong

    2007-01-01

    The switching arc that occurs in contact gap when contact of low voltage apparatus closes or breaks in electric circuit is harmful to the contacts, insulation, and reliability of electrical gear because of its very high temperature. As arcing time is very short in switching gear, it is very difficult to observe arc phenomena directly for researchers. Therefore, visualization of switching arc is important for understanding arc phenomena, to analyze the arc features, and to improve the design and reliability of switching gear. Based on analyzing the visualization methods proposed by researchers, a new switching arc capturing approach is introduced in this paper. Arc image acquisition, and image processing techniques were studied. A switching arc image acquisition and visual simulation software based on high speed CCD camera hard ware system was designed and implemented to yield enhanced arc image with good visual effect.

  20. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.