WorldWideScience

Sample records for arc coal process

  1. The formation mechanism of CO2 and its conversion in the process of coal gasification under arc plasma conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Zheng, Mingdong; Qiu, Jieshan; Zhao, Zongbin; Ma, Tengcai

    2006-05-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) formation mechanism and co-conversion of CO2 with coal was investigated in the process of coal gasification in a steam medium at atmospheric pressure under arc plasma conditions in a tube-type setup. The arc plasma was diagnosed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy and the gas products were analysed by gas chromatography. CO2 yields are correlated with the quantitative emission peak intensity of the active species in plasma when the operating parameter is changed. The results show that the greater the emission peak intensity of the CH radicals, C2 radicals, OH radicals or O atoms, the smaller the CO2 yield is, which means that the CO2 formation process is inhibited by increasing the concentration of the mentioned active species under arc plasma conditions. On the basis of the diagnosis results, co-conversion of CO2 and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions was carried out in the same setup and the results show that CO2 conversion reaches 88.6% while the concentration of CO + H2 reaches 87.4%; at the same time, coal conversion is in the range 54.7-68.7%, which proves that co-conversion of CO2 and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions might be a prospective way to utilize CO2 and the production of synthesis gas.

  2. The formation mechanism of CO{sub 2} and its conversion in the process of coal gasification under arc plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.J.; Zheng, M.D.; Qiu, J.S.; Zhao, Z.B.; Ma, T.C. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Carbon Research Laboratory

    2006-05-15

    The carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) formation mechanism and co-conversion of CO{sub 2} with coal was investigated in the process of coal gasification in a steam medium at atmospheric pressure under arc plasma conditions in a tube-type setup. The arc plasma was diagnosed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy and the gas products were analysed by gas chromatography. CO{sub 2} yields are correlated with the quantitative emission peak intensity of the active species in plasma when the operating parameter is changed. The results show that the greater the emission peak intensity of the CH radicals, C2 radicals, OH radicals or O atoms, the smaller the CO{sub 2} yield is, which means that the CO{sub 2} formation process is inhibited by increasing the concentration of the mentioned active species under arc plasma conditions. On the basis of the diagnosis results, co-conversion of CO{sub 2} and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions was carried out in the same setup and the results show that CO{sub 2} conversion reaches 88.6% while the concentration of CO + H{sub 2} reaches 87.4%; at the same time, coal conversion is in the range 54.7 - 68.7%, which proves that co-conversion of CO{sub 2} and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions might be a prospective way to utilize CO{sub 2} and the production of synthesis gas.

  3. The formation mechanism of CO{sub 2} and its conversion in the process of coal gasification under arc plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xiaojun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Maanshan 243002 (China); Zheng Mingdong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Maanshan 243002 (China); Qiu Jieshan [Carbon Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemical, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Zhao Zongbin [Carbon Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemical, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Ma Tengcai [State Key Lab for Material Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2006-05-15

    The carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) formation mechanism and co-conversion of CO{sub 2} with coal was investigated in the process of coal gasification in a steam medium at atmospheric pressure under arc plasma conditions in a tube-type setup. The arc plasma was diagnosed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy and the gas products were analysed by gas chromatography. CO{sub 2} yields are correlated with the quantitative emission peak intensity of the active species in plasma when the operating parameter is changed. The results show that the greater the emission peak intensity of the CH radicals, C{sub 2} radicals, OH radicals or O atoms, the smaller the CO{sub 2} yield is, which means that the CO{sub 2} formation process is inhibited by increasing the concentration of the mentioned active species under arc plasma conditions. On the basis of the diagnosis results, co-conversion of CO{sub 2} and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions was carried out in the same setup and the results show that CO{sub 2} conversion reaches 88.6% while the concentration of CO + H{sub 2} reaches 87.4%; at the same time, coal conversion is in the range 54.7-68.7%, which proves that co-conversion of CO{sub 2} and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions might be a prospective way to utilize CO{sub 2} and the production of synthesis gas.

  4. Formation of carbon deposits from coal in an arc plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-07-01

    The issue of deposited carbon (DC) on a reactor wall during the production of acetylene by the coal/arc plasma process is a potential obstacle for the industrialization process. The formation mechanism of DC is very difficult to reveal because the high complexity of coal and the volatile matter. Combining with quenching technique, the methane, liquid petroleum gas and benzene were employed as the model materials to roughly act as the light gas, chain and aromatic subcomponents of volatile matter, and then the reasonable formation mechanism of DC was subtly speculated accordingly.

  5. Study of coal conversion in an arc plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, K.C.; Lu, Y.K.; Tian, Y.J.; Wang, D.Z. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2002-12-01

    Coal conversion in arc plasma with an initial temperature of 3700 K is complex; a new conversion mechanism is put forward in this article. The functions of pyrolysis and the interaction of active species containing plasma jets are the main factors for coal conversion under these conditions. This study indicates that when the coal feed rate is lower than 2.0 g/s, both pyrolysis and active species have evident contribution to coal conversion; the pyrolysis controls the coal conversion and the function of active species is very weak. It is also found that the coal feed rate has a large influence on coal conversion and the production of gas components.

  6. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  7. Novel plasma arc reactor with molted metal electrodes for coal gasification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predtechensky, M.R.; Kuropyatnik, I.N.; Tukhto, O.M. [International Scientific Center on Thermophysics and Energetics, Novosibirsk, Russia Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The process of steam gasification of coal has been studied using the new type of plasma chemical reactor with molten metal electrodes. Using of molten metal electrodes allows to increase significantly the continuous operation of the plasma arc reactor and to realize some additional advantages. (authors)

  8. Formation of NOx precursors during Chinese pulverized coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-ren Bao; Jin-cao Zhang; Fan Li; Li-ping Chang [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology

    2007-08-15

    The formation of NOx precursors (HCN and NH{sub 3}) from the pyrolysis of several Chinese pulverized coals in an arc plasma jet was investigated through both thermodynamic analysis of the C-H-O-N system and experiments. Results of thermodynamic analysis show that the dominant N-containing gaseous species is HCN together with a small amount of ammonia above the temperature of 2000 K. The increase of H content advances the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3}, but the yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are decreased with a high concentration of O in the system. These results are accordant with the experimental data. The increasing of input power promotes the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} from coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet. Tar-N is not formed during the process. The yield of HCN changes insignificantly with the changing of the residence time of coal particles in the reactor, but that of NH{sub 3} decreases as residence times increase because of the relative instability at high temperature. Adsorption and gasification of CO{sub 2} on the coal surface also can restrain the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} compare to the results in an Ar plasma jet. Yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are sensitive to the coal feeding rate, indicating that NOx precursors could interact with the nascent char to form other N-containing species. The formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} during coal pyrolysis in a H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet are not dependent on coal rank. The N-containing gaseous species is released faster than others in the volatiles during coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet, and the final nitrogen content in the char is lower than that in the parent coal, which it is independent of coal type. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Gliding arc triggered microwave plasma arc at atmospheric pressure for coal gasification application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal; Visani, A.; Patil, C.; Patel, B. K.; Sharma, P. K.; John, P. I.; Nema, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    Plasma torch is device that efficiently converts electrical energy in to thermal energy for various high temperature applications. The conventional plasma torch comprises of consumable electrodes namely anode and cathode electrodes. The replacement of these electrodes is a complex process owing to its cooling and process shut down requirements. However, microwave plasma arc is electrode-less plasma arc system that is an alternative method to conventional arc technology for generating plasma arc. In this technique, microwave power is efficiently coupled to generate plasma arc by using the property of polar molecule to absorb microwave power. The absorption of microwave power is in form of losses due to intermolecular friction and high collisions between the molecules. This is an efficient method because all microwave power can be absorbed by plasma arc. The main feature of microwave plasma arc is its large uniform high temperature column which is not possible with conventional arc discharge methods. Such type of plasma discharge is very useful in applications where sufficient residence time for treat materials is required. Microwave arc does not require any consumable electrodes and hence, it can be operated continuously that makes it very useful for hazardous effluent treatment applications. Further, microwave cannot ionize neutral particles at atmospheric pressure and hence, a gliding arc is initiated between two thin electrodes in the cavity by applying very low power high voltage (3kV) AC source. In this report, the method for generating microwave arc of 1kW power using commercial microwave oven is elaborated.

  10. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  11. ARc Welding (Industrial Processing Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARC WELDING , *BIBLIOGRAPHIES), (*ARC WELDS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES), ALUMINUM ALLOYS, TITANIUM ALLOYS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS, METAL PLATES, SPOT WELDING , STEEL...INERT GAS WELDING , MARAGING STEELS, MICROSTRUCTURE, HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, HEAT RESISTANT METALS, WELDABILITY, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, RESISTANCE WELDING

  12. Thermodynamic study on the formation of acetylene during coal pyrolysis in the arc plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Li, F.; Cai, G.; Lu, Y.; Chang, L. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2009-07-01

    Based on the principle of minimizing the Gibbs free energy, the composition of C-H-O-N-S equilibrium system about acetylene formation during the pyrolysis in arc plasma jet for four kinds of different rank-ordered coals such as Datong, Xianfeng, Yangcheng, and Luan was analyzed and calculated. The results indicated that hydrogen, as the reactive atmosphere, was beneficial to the acetylene formation. The coal ranks and the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur in coal all could obviously affect the acetylene yield. The mole fraction of acetylene is the maximum when the ratio value of atom H/C was 2. The content of oxygen was related to the acetylene yield, but it does not compete with CO formation. These agreed with the experimental results, and they could help to select the coal type for the production of acetylene through plasma pyrolysis process.

  13. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  14. Arc Interference Behavior during Twin Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjian Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process, the synchronous acquisition system has been established to acquire instantaneous information of arc profile including dynamic arc length variation as well as relative voltage and current signals. The results show that after trailing arc (T-arc is added to the middle arc (M-arc in a stable welding process, the current of M arc remains unchanged while the agitation increases; the voltage of M arc has an obvious increase; the shape of M arc changes, with increasing width, length, and area; the transfer frequency of M arc droplet increases and the droplet itself becomes smaller. The wire extension length of twin arc turns out to be shorter than that of single arc welding.

  15. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  16. Problems of processing alkaline coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheloufi, A.; Biletskyy, V.S. [Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk (Ukraine). Department of Coal Processing

    1999-07-01

    The desalting and use of salty coals are discussed. Various technologies are compared - desalting by water washing, desalting-hydrotransport, and desalting-agglomeration, and the dewatering process considered. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Effect of arc on radiation thermometry in welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮玉; 王燕; 武宝林

    2002-01-01

    The effect of arc on radiation thermometry is analyzed in a field close to the arc during the welding process, and the ratio of signal to noise and other factors are obtained for a small current arc .The method of the temperature measurement is feasible when the arc current is decreased to a smaller value in the welding process.

  18. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  19. GlidArc-assisted processing of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski, A.; Wesolowska, K. (ECP, La Ferte St Aubin (France)), Email: echph@wanadoo.fr

    2009-07-01

    Power generation or chemical applications of biogas can be difficult when CH{sub 4} content is too low and / or in the presence of sulphur compounds. We therefore propose two reformers based on electric discharges (GlidArc) that strike directly either in a poor biogas or in waste CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}S mixture generated during biogas cleaning. Direct application of GlidArc discharges to the poor biogas enhances its flammability through a partial conversion of CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2} into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (synthesis gas). Any level of sulphur (and other impurities) is accepted. Roughly 40 % of injected electric power is transferred into upgraded biogas as its additional chemical enthalpy. A few percent of resultant H{sub 2} and CO inside the biogas makes it more flammable, and therefore better to fuel an engine or gas turbine. As a result of biogas purification via amines-washing technologies, one gets concentrated pollutants in CO{sub 2} matrix. Instead of classical neutralisation, we propose H{sub 2}Svalorisation through the SulfArc process converting all H{sub 2}S into additional amounts of synthesis gas, while neutral elemental sulphur is removed from the system. Generated syngas can be injected into the main biogas flow to enhance its flammability. (orig.)

  20. Numerical Study on Arc Plasma Behavior During Arc Commutation Process in Direct Current Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 马瑞光; 吴翊; 孙昊; 纽春萍; 荣命哲

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of arc plasma behavior during arc commutation process in a medium-voltage direct current circuit breaker (DCCB) contact system. A three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model of air arc plasma in the contact system of a DCCB is developed, based on commercial software FLUENT. Coupled electromagnetic and gas dynamic interactions are considered as usual, and a thin layer of nonlinear electrical resistance elements is used to represent the voltage drop of plasma sheath and the formation of new arc root. The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of arc plasma in arc region are calculated. The simulation results indicate that the pressure distribution related to the contact system has a strong effect on the arc commutation process, arising from the change of electrical conductivity in the arc root region. In DCCB contact system, the pressure of arc root region will be concentrated and higher if the space above the moving contact is enclosed, which is not good for arc root commutation. However, when the region is opened, the pressure distribution would be lower and more evenly, which is favorable for the arc root commutation.

  1. Study on main factors influencing acetylene formation during coal pyrolysis in arc plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.R.; Chang, L.P.; Lu, Y.K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2006-05-15

    Acetylene from coal pyrolysis in arc plasma jet is simple and environmentally friendly with promising applications. A set of rank-ordered coal samples were selected in this study, in order to study the effects of volatile matter yield and the content of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in raw coal on the yield of acetylene from arc plasma pyrolysis. The influence of feeding rate on the conversion of coal and acetylene yield was also investigated. The results showed that acetylene and carbon monoxide were the main gaseous products during coal pyrolysis under plasma conditions. A higher acetylene yield of 17-22% could be obtained from coal with volatile matter yield of 25-40%. A high C/H mole ratio and low O/C mole ratio were favorable to the formation of acetylene. The percent conversion of coal, the yield of acetylene and the specific energy consumption (SEC) decreased as the feeding rate increased, but the trends in their changes were not identical. The relative volume fractions (RVF) in gaseous products of acetylene and carbon monoxide increased with increasing coal feeding rate until 5 g s{sup -1}, while the RVFs of light hydrocarbons such as CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} gradually increased. The change in the selectivity for acetylene was not obvious when the feeding rate was less than 4 g s{sup -1}. However, the portion of acetylene in the total gaseous products decreased rapidly when the coal feeding rate was further increased.

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  3. Process characteristics of fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A; Schnick, M; Rose, S; Demuth, C; Beyer, E; Fuessel, U, E-mail: achim.mahrle@iws.fraunhofer.de [Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Surface and Manufacturing Technology, PO Box, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-08-31

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding (LAPW) were performed. Welding experiments were carried out on aluminium and steel sheets. In the case of a highly focused laser beam and a separate arrangement of plasma torch and laser beam, high-speed video recordings of the plasma arc and corresponding measurements of the time-dependent arc voltage revealed differences in the process behaviour for both materials. In the case of aluminium welding, a sharp decline in arc voltage and stabilization and guiding of the anodic arc root was observed whereas in steel welding the arc voltage was slightly increased after the laser beam was switched on. However, significant improvement of the melting efficiency with the combined action of plasma arc and laser beam was achieved for both types of material. Theoretical results of additional numerical simulations of the arc behaviour suggest that the properties of the arc plasma are mainly influenced not by a direct interaction with the laser radiation but by the laser-induced evaporation of metal. Arc stabilization with increased current densities is predicted for moderate rates of evaporated metal only whereas metal vapour rates above a certain threshold causes a destabilization of the arc and reduced current densities along the arc axis.

  4. Coal desulfurization through reverse micelle biocatalysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Yen, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel bioprocess using micelle biocatalysis has been attempted to minimize several disadvantages of conventional microbial coal desulfurization scale-up processes. The reverse micelle biocatalysis process consists of a water-immiscible organic medium, a surfactant, an aqueous phase and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or enzymes. This process has been successful for removing sulfur from bituminous coal (Illinois coal 5). The preliminary results showed that coal desulfurization through the use of cell-free enzyme extracts of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 was better than that of bacteria itself. The use of enzymes has shown potential for commercial coal desulfurization process as well. This same process is being applied to the thermophillic bacteria Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ATCC 33909. The implications of these experimental results are discussed, including a hypothetical mechanism using reverse micelle biocatalytical process for coal desulfurization.

  5. Process for selective grinding of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  6. Rapid magmatic processes accompany arc-continent collision: the Western Bismarck arc, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Heather; Gill, Jim; Turner, Simon; Caulfield, John; Edwards, Louise; Day, Simon

    2012-11-01

    New U-Th-Ra, major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data are presented for young lavas from the New Britain and Western Bismarck arcs in Papua New Guinea. New Britain is an oceanic arc, whereas the latter is the site of an arc-continent collision. Building on a recent study of the Manus Basin, contrasts between the two arcs are used to evaluate the processes and timescales of magma generation accompanying arc-continent collision and possible slab detachment. All three suites share many attributes characteristic of arc lavas that can be ascribed to the addition of a regionally uniform subduction component derived from the subducting altered oceanic crust and sediment followed by dynamic melting of the modified mantle. However, the Western Bismarck arc lavas diverge from the Pb isotope mixing array formed by the New Britain and the Manus Basin lavas toward elevated 208Pb/204Pb. We interpret this to reflect a second and subsequent addition of sediment melt at crustal depth during collision. 238U and 226Ra excesses are preserved in all of the lavas and are greatest in the Western Bismarck arc. High-Mg andesites with high Sr/Y ratios in the westernmost arc are attributed to recent shallow mantle flux melting at the slab edge. Data for two historical rhyolites are also presented. Although these rhyolites formed in quite different tectonic settings and display different geochemical and isotopic compositions, both formed from mafic parents within millennia.

  7. Process characteristics of fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding

    OpenAIRE

    Mahrle, A; SCHNICK, M; Rose, S; Demuth, C; Beyer, E.; Füssel, U

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental and theoretical investigations on fibre-laser assisted plasma arc welding (LAPW) have been performed. Welding experiments were carried out on aluminium and steel sheets. In case of a highly focused laser beam and a separate arrangement of plasma torch and laser beam, high-speed video recordings of the plasma arc and corresponding measurements of the time-dependent arc voltage revealed differences in the process behaviour for both materials. In case of aluminium weldin...

  8. Investigation on the stepping arc stud welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Qiang; Zhang Jianxun; Fu Jifei; Zhang Youquan

    2005-01-01

    Through the investigation on traditional arc stud welding process, a new welding gun and its control system were developed in this paper. The stepping arc stud welding gun was mainly made by a stepping motor as actuating unit and a screw-driven device as moving unit. A control system with a MCS-51 single-chip microcomputer as main control component was used to realize the new stud welding procedure. This new welding process with stepping stud welding gun is named as stepping arc stud welding. In the new welding process, the stud action can be looked as constituted by some micro steps. The setting and adjusting of the stepping arc welding gun behavior parameters are accomplished independently. It is indicated from the results of process tests and bending test that the stepping arc stud welding process is practicable.

  9. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  10. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  11. Meeting processing challenges in clean coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A.; Barnwal, J.P. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2003-02-01

    The paper identifies some of the major challenges facing processing for clean coal utilization today. Some of the ongoing research at Southern Illinois University in the areas of plant optimization, fine coal cleaning and dewatering, fine coal-water slurry combustion, development of multiple products and mine-mouth utilization for lower grade products, and co-management of coal processing wastes and coal combustion byproducts underground, or as a cover material suitable for vegetation in surface mine reclamation is approaching commercialization. Additional research has been initiated recently in low cost desulfurization for SOx reduction, and/or reducing scrubbing costs. An integrated approach to evaluating processing unit operation for enhancing overall profitability of a mining complex is paying dividends. The approach is a good tool to assess role of processing for clean coal utilization in any setting. The authors have attempted to demonstrate its use for Indian coals. They plan to develop a computer program for making this integrated assessment approach more user friendly. 33 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. An advanced coal gasification desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in the process of developing an advanced coal gasification desulfurization process in which a calcium-based sorbent such as limestone or dolomite is injected into the fluidized-bed gasifier with coal to achieve in-bed desulfurization of coal as it is converted into clean fuel gas. The reactions involving calcium-based sorbents takes place in two steps. In the first step, the desulfurization reaction takes place between hydrogen sulfide and calcium oxide in the reducing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfide. The latter subsequently reacts with oxygen in the oxidizing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfate which can be safely disposed of along with the coal ash. This process will reduce the capital requirement for coal gasification plants and provide cost effective alternatives to scrubbers for industrial and utility use of high-sulfur coal. This paper addresses the basic research being conducted at IGT to confirm the viability of this process. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  14. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  15. Filtering and thermal processes in coal accumulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkovsky, P.S. [RESPIRATOR, Donetsk (Ukraine). Research-and-Manufacturing Association on Mine Rescue Work

    2001-07-01

    Oxidation processes are developed by leaving coal in mine goafs which results in appearance of places of spontaneous heating under certain conditions. One of the important factors causing spontaneous heating of coal is heat abstraction at the expense of filtration air losses in the goaf. At the same time appearance of the place of spontaneous heating and development of thermal drop of ventilation pressure influence on distribution of losses, in one's turn. Thus, it can influence formation and development of the place of spontaneous heating considerably. The filtering and thermal processes in coal accumulations are described by following equations: that one of motion of a filtering flow in three-dimensional direction; that one of continuity of the filtering flow representing the law of conservation of mass; that one of distribution of nonstationary temperature pattern and convection-and-diffusion mass transfer. To solve the equations the initial and boundary conditions are assigned. To determine the filtering and thermal fields in the goafs by spontaneous heating of coal algorithm and PC-aided calculation are developed. The possible temperature of spontaneous heating of coal allows to forecast the hazard of appearance of the spontaneous fires in concrete coal accumulations with high degree of reliability. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  17. Modelling of the arc reattachment process in plasma torches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trelles, J P; Pfender, E; Heberlein, J V R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2007-09-21

    The need to improve plasma spraying processes has motivated the development of computational models capable of describing the arc dynamics inside plasma torches. Although progress has been made in the development of such models, the realistic simulation of the arc reattachment process, a central part of the arc dynamics inside plasma torches, is still an unsolved problem. This study presents a reattachment model capable of mimicking the physical reattachment process as part of a local thermodynamic equilibrium description of the plasma flow. The fluid and electromagnetic equations describing the plasma flow are solved in a fully-coupled approach by a variational multi-scale finite element method, which implicitly accounts for the multi-scale nature of the flow. The effectiveness of our modelling approach is demonstrated by simulations of a commercial plasma spraying torch operating with Ar-He under different operating conditions. The model is able to match the experimentally measured peak frequencies of the voltage signal, arc lengths and anode spot sizes, but produces voltage drops exceeding those measured. This finding, added to the apparent lack of a well-defined cold boundary layer all around the arc, points towards the importance of non-equilibrium effects inside the torch, especially in the anode attachment region.

  18. SEM study on the deposition of coal pyrolysis in arc plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y.J.; Chen, H.G.; Yan, Y.L.; Lu, Y.K.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Shanxi Key Lab of Coal Science and Technology

    1999-07-01

    During coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma, residue was deposited on the reactor wall. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that metaplast were formed during the process. The mechanism of formation of deposits, their morphology, porosity and mechanical properties are discussed. It was shown that particles do not blend with plasma under these operation conditions. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z.; Morikawa, M.; Fujii, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Messerle; Alexander Ustimenko

    2012-01-01

    Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance ...

  1. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL's contract.

  2. Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

    1993-12-31

    Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

  3. Comparison between open phase fault of arc suppression coil and single phase to earth fault in coal mine distribution network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bo; WANG Chong-lin

    2008-01-01

    When, in a coal mine distribution network whose neutral point is grounded by an arc suppression coil (ASC), a fault occurs in the ASC, compensation cannot be properly realized. Furthermore, it can damage the safe and reliable run of the network.We first introduce a three-phase five-column arc suppression coil (TPFCASC) and discuss its autotracking compensation theory.Then we compare the single phase to ground fault of the coal mine distribution network with an open phase fault at the TPFCASC using the Thévenin theory, the symmetrical-component method and the complex sequence network respectively. The results show that, in both types of faults, zero-sequence voltage of the network will appear and the maximum magnitude of this zero-sequence voltage is different in both faults. Based on this situation, a protection for the open phase fault at the TPFCASC should be estab-lished.

  4. Mechanism of coal gasification in a steam medium under arc plasma conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Ma, Tengcai; Qiu, Jieshan; Sun, Tianjun; Zhao, Zongbin; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Jialiang

    2004-08-01

    The coal gasification mechanism in a steam medium under arc plasma conditions was investigated at atmospheric pressure in a tube-type setup. The gases obtained were analysed by gas chromatography. The active species in the plasma were monitored and analysed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The effects of operating parameters such as the current in the electromagnetic coil and the flow rate of carrier gas (air) on the gas yields as well as on the emission intensities of the active species were studied. The quantitative emission intensities of the active species are correlated with the yields of main components in the gas products. The results show that as the current in the electromagnetic coil increases, the yields of H2, CO, CO2 and O2 as well as the peak intensities of C atom, H atom, CH radical and CO+ ion detected by OES pass through a maximum. It is also found that as the flow rate of carrier gas (air) increases, the yields of CO, CO2 and O2 increase; at the same time, the yield of H2 and the peak intensities of C atoms, H atoms, CH radicals and OH radicals decrease. The presence of C atoms or H atoms in the reaction system favours the formation of H2, which is evidenced by the fact that the yield of H2 increases as the optical emission intensity of C atom or H atom species increases. Based on the experimental results, a possible mechanism of coal gasification in steam medium under plasma conditions is proposed and discussed.

  5. Mechanism of coal gasification in a steam medium under arc plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.J.; Ma, T.C.; Qiu, J.S.; Sun, T.J.; Zhao, Z.B.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, J.L. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Carbon Research Laboratory, Center for Nano Materials and Science

    2004-08-01

    The coal gasification mechanism in a steam medium under arc plasma conditions was investigated at atmospheric pressure in a tube-type setup. The gases obtained were analysed by gas chromatography. The active species in the plasma were monitored and analysed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The effects of operating parameters such as the current in the electromagnetic coil and the flow rate of carrier gas (air) on the gas yields as well as on the emission intensities of the active species were studied. The quantitative emission intensities of the active species are correlated with the yields of main components in the gas products. The results show that as the current in the electromagnetic coil increases, the yields of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} as well as the peak intensities of C atom, H atom, CH radical and CO{sup +} ion detected by OES pass through a maximum. It is also found that as the flow rate of carrier gas (air) increases, the yields of CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} increase; at the same time, the yield of H{sub 2} and the peak intensities of C atoms, H atoms, CH radicals and OH radicals decrease. The presence of C atoms or H atoms in the reaction system favours the formation of H{sub 2}, which is evidenced by the fact that the yield of H{sub 2} increases as the optical emission intensity of C atom or H atom species increases. Based on the experimental results, a possible mechanism of coal gasification in steam medium under plasma conditions is proposed and discussed.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  7. Geology Arc Export Layer From Coal Bearing Geology of the Gulf Coast Coal Region (gulf_geol_dd.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon vector coverage of coal bearing geologic units that occur in states which comprise the Gulf Coast Coal Assessment Region as defined by the...

  8. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-09-15

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  9. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

    1979-03-01

    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  10. Modeling of Fume Formation from Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapirakasam, S. P.; Mohan, Sreejith; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.; Surianarayanan, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a semi-empirical model of fume formation rate (FFR) from a shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process has been developed. The model was developed for a DC electrode positive (DCEP) operation and involves the calculations of droplet temperature, surface area of the droplet, and partial vapor pressures of the constituents of the droplet to predict the FFR. The model was further extended for predicting FFR from nano-coated electrodes. The model estimates the FFR for Fe and Mn assuming constant proportion of other elements in the electrode. Fe FFR was overestimated, while Mn FFR was underestimated. The contribution of spatters and other mechanism in the arc responsible for fume formation were neglected. A good positive correlation was obtained between the predicted and experimental FFR values which highlighted the usefulness of the model.

  11. Modeling of Fume Formation from Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapirakasam, S. P.; Mohan, Sreejith; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.; Surianarayanan, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a semi-empirical model of fume formation rate (FFR) from a shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process has been developed. The model was developed for a DC electrode positive (DCEP) operation and involves the calculations of droplet temperature, surface area of the droplet, and partial vapor pressures of the constituents of the droplet to predict the FFR. The model was further extended for predicting FFR from nano-coated electrodes. The model estimates the FFR for Fe and Mn assuming constant proportion of other elements in the electrode. Fe FFR was overestimated, while Mn FFR was underestimated. The contribution of spatters and other mechanism in the arc responsible for fume formation were neglected. A good positive correlation was obtained between the predicted and experimental FFR values which highlighted the usefulness of the model.

  12. The Influence of Contact Space on Arc Commutation Process in Air Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Chunping; DING Juwen; YANG Fei; DONG Delong; RONG Mingzhe; XU Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) arc simulation model is applied to analyze the arc motion during current interruption in a certain air circuit breaker (ACB).The distributions of pressure,temperature,gas flow and current density of the arc plasma in the arc region are calculated,and the factors influencing the commutation process are analyzed according to the calculated results.Based on the airflow in the arc chamber,the causes of arc commutation asynchrony and the back commutation are investigated.It indicates that a reasonable contact space design is crucial to a successful arc commutation process.To verify the simulation results,the influence of contact space on arc voltage and arc commutation is tested.This research can provide methods and references to the optimization of ACB design.

  13. High-Btu coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    This evaluation provides estimates of performance and cost data for advanced technology, high-Btu, coal gasification facilities. The six processes discussed reflect the current state-of-the-art development. Because no large commercial gasification plants have yet been built in the United States, the information presented here is based only on pilot-plant experience. Performance characteristics that were investigated include unit efficiencies, product output, and pollution aspects. Total installed plant costs and operating costs are tabulated for the various processes. The information supplied here will assist in selecting energy conversion units for an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES).

  14. Exergetic analysis of coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.; Conger, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency and economics of the Synthane Gasification process are evaluated and discussed. The efficiency of the Synthane process was determined using the exergy analysis (availability) approach to process evaluation. The exergy analysis utilizes both the first and second laws of thermodynamics to determine the efficiency of a process, and is very useful in determining the causes of inefficiency. In order to accurately apply the exergy analysis, it is essential that the absolute enthalpy and entropy values of each stream be determined. In this study, methods for predicting the enthalpy and entropy of coal, char, tar, and ash, as a function of temperature and material composition previously developed were used. A computer simulation of the Synthane process was developed which allowed for the effect of changes in plant operating parameters on both the efficiency and economics. The simulation included a three-section model of the Synthane fluidized bed gasifier.

  15. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RLJ Coetzer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of the Sasol-Lurgi gasification process was carried out by utilising the method of Factorial Experimental Design on the process variables of interest from a specifically equipped full-scale test gasifier. The process variables that govern gasification are not always fully controllable during normal operation. This paper discusses the application of statistical robustness studies as a method for determining the most efficient combination of process variables that might be hard-to-control during normal operation. Response surface models were developed in the process variables for each of the performance variables. It will be shown how statistical robustness studies provided the optimal conditions for sustainable gasifier operability and throughput. In particular, the optimum operability region is significantly expanded towards higher oxygen loads by changing and controlling the particle size distribution of the coal.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  17. Effects of process parameters on arc shape and penetration in twin-wire indirect arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-shan ZHANG; Mei-qing CAO; Dong-ting WU; Zeng-da ZOU

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of variable parameters on arc shape and depth of penetration in twin-wire indirect arc gas shielded welding were investigated. The variation of arc shape caused by changes of the parameters was recorded by a high-speed camera,and the depths of penetration of specimen were measured after bead welding by an optical microscope. Experiments indicated that proper parameters give birth to a concentrated and compressed welcimg arc, which Would increase the depth of penetration as the incensement of the arc foice Several pnncipal parameters including toe distance ot twin wires intersecting point to base metal,the included angle,and the content of shielding gas were determined. The arc turned more concentrated and the depth of penetration increased obviously as the welding current increased,the arc turned brighter while unobvlous change of penetration occurred as the arc voltage increased,and the deepest penetration was obtained when the welding speed was 10.5 mm/s..

  18. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  19. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to calibrate'' the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850[degrees]F[sup +] , 1050[degrees]F[sup +], and 850 [times] 1050[degrees]F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  20. Differential preservation in the geologic record of intraoceanic arc sedimentary and tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy; Clift, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Records of ancient intraoceanic arc activity, now preserved in continental suture zones, are commonly used to reconstruct paleogeography and plate motion, and to understand how continental crust is formed, recycled, and maintained through time. However, interpreting tectonic and sedimentary records from ancient terranes after arc–continent collision is complicated by preferential preservation of evidence for some arc processes and loss of evidence for others. In this synthesis we examine what is lost, and what is preserved, in the translation from modern processes to the ancient record of intraoceanic arcs. Composition of accreted arc terranes differs as a function of arc–continent collision geometry. ‘Forward-facing’ collision can accrete an oceanic arc on to either a passive or an active continental margin, with the arc facing the continent and colliding trench- and forearc-side first. In a ‘backward-facing’ collision, involving two subduction zones with similar polarity, the arc collides backarc-first with an active continental margin. The preservation of evidence for contemporary sedimentary and tectonic arc processes in the geologic record depends greatly on how well the various parts of the arc survive collision and orogeny in each case. Preservation of arc terranes likely is biased towards those that were in a state of tectonic accretion for tens of millions of years before collision, rather than tectonic erosion. The prevalence of tectonic erosion in modern intraoceanic arcs implies that valuable records of arc processes are commonly destroyed even before the arc collides with a continent. Arc systems are most likely to undergo tectonic accretion shortly before forward-facing collision with a continent, and thus most forearc and accretionary-prism material in ancient arc terranes likely is temporally biased toward the final stages of arc activity, when sediment flux to the trench was greatest and tectonic accretion prevailed. Collision geometry

  1. Evaluation of a novel fine coal dry cleaning process at Greenfields Coal Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratton, R.; Luttrell, G.; Kasindorf, H.; McGraw, G.; Robbins, R. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Coal mining and processing operations have in the past and continue to create large tonnages of fine coal and waste particles. While technological advances in wet processing has made it possible to efficiently recover coal fines, difficulties associated with dewatering make these fine particles unattractive economically for most coal markets. A novel system has been developed for cleaning fine raw coal utilizing a multistage dry classification process that removes the clay particles that are typically much smaller than the majority of the clean coal particles and that reduces the product surface moisture to as low as 1%. In this article, the novel dry coal-cleaning process under license to Greenfields Coal Company was evaluated. The classification process offers a viable alternative to traditional wet processing and dewatering of the fine particles, especially for operations recovering abandoned impoundments where a sufficient water source and/or a waste slurry disposal site are unavailable. This article presents the separation performance and operating results obtained from field testing with a 2t/hr pilot-scale unit located at an abandoned impoundment in southern West Virginia.

  2. The variable polarity plasma arc welding process: Characteristics and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Zhu, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advantages of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process include faster welding, fewer repairs, less joint preparation, reduced weldment distortion, and absence of porosity. The power distribution was analyzed for an argon plasma gas flow constituting the fluid in the VPPA Welding Process. The major heat loss at the torch nozzle is convective heat transfer; in the space between the outlet of the nozzle and the workpiece; radiative heat transfer; and in the keyhole in the workpiece, convective heat transfer. The power absorbed at the workpiece produces the molten puddle that solidifies into the weld bead. Crown and root widths, and crown and root heights of the weld bead are predicted. The basis is provided for an algorithm for automatic control of VPPA welding machine parameters to obtain desired weld bead dimensions.

  3. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  4. Image processing for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Miller-Kamm, Victoria; Orth, Charles; Roberts, Randy; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2016-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short-pulse kilo-Joule laser pulses with controllable delays that generate X-rays to provide backlighting for high-density internal confinement fusion (ICF) capsule targets. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. ARC is designed to employ up to eight backlighters with tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution, to record the dynamics and produce an X-ray "motion picture" of the compression and ignition of cryogenic deuterium-tritium targets. ARC will generate tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of ICF shots. Additionally, ARC supports a variety of other high energy density experiments including fast ignition studies on NIF. The automated alignment image analysis algorithms use digital camera sensor images to direct ARC beams onto the tens-of-microns scale metal wires. This paper describes the ARC automatic alignment sequence throughout the laser chain from pulse initiation to target with an emphasis on the image processing algorithms that generate the crucial alignment positions for ARC. The image processing descriptions and flow diagrams detail the alignment control loops throughout the ARC laser chain beginning in the ARC high-contrast front end (HCAFE), on into the ARC main laser area, and ending in the ARC target area.

  5. The Main Plasma Chemical Process of Nitric Oxide Production by Arc Discharge%The Main Plasma Chemical Process of Nitric Oxide Production by Arc Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旗; 胡辉; 陈卫鹏; 许杰; 张锦丽; 吴双

    2011-01-01

    By adopting the optical multi-channel analyzer combined with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, the dominant free radicals and products generated by arc discharge were measured and studied, and the main plasma chemical reaction process in the nitric oxide production by arc discharge was identified. Plasma chemical kinetic curves of O, O2, N2, N and NO were simulated by using CHEMKIN and MATLAB. The results show that the main plasma chemical reaction process of nitric oxide production by arc discharge is a replacement reaction between O and N2, where NO can be generated instantaneously when discharging reaches stable.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. FIMS analysis of direct coal liquefaction process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This study was designed to apply the method of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) for the analysis of direct coal liquefaction process-stream samples. The FIMS method was shown to have a high potential for application to direct coal liquefaction-derived samples in a Phase 1 project in this program. In this Phase 3 project, the FIMS method was applied to a set of samples produced in HRI bench-scale liquefaction Runs CC-15 and CC-16. FIMS was used to obtain the molecular weight profile of the samples and to identify specific prominent peaks in the low end (160--420 Da) region of the molecular weight profile. In the samples examined in this study, species were identified which previously were recognized as precursors to the formation of high molecular weight structures associated with the formation of coke in petroleum vacuum gas oils.

  7. Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Khurana, M. K.; Yadav, Pradeep K.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the application of Taguchi method combined with grey relational analysis to optimize the process parameters of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of AISI 1020 carbon steels for multiple quality characteristics (bead width, bead height, weld penetration and heat affected zone). An orthogonal array of L9 has been implemented to fabrication of joints. The experiments have been conducted according to the combination of voltage (V), current (A) and welding speed (Ws). The results revealed that the welding speed is most significant process parameter. By analyzing the grey relational grades, optimal parameters are obtained and significant factors are known using ANOVA analysis. The welding parameters such as speed, welding current and voltage have been optimized for material AISI 1020 using GMAW process. To fortify the robustness of experimental design, a confirmation test was performed at selected optimal process parameter setting. Observations from this method may be useful for automotive sub-assemblies, shipbuilding and vessel fabricators and operators to obtain optimal welding conditions.

  8. Ni/Al Intermetallics Plasma Transferred Arc Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VeronicaA.B.Almeida; AnaSofiaC.M.D'Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    In-situ alloy development during surface processing allows for a limitless materials selection to protect components exposed to severe service conditions. In fact surface alloying offers the possibility to strengthen surface components with alloys that would not be possible to process otherwise. This work used Plasma transferred arc (PTA) hardfacing for surface alloying. Different amounts of aluminium powder, 5-25%, were added to a Ni based superalloy, from Hastealloy C family, in the atomized form. The mixture was homogeneized in a ball mill and PTA deposited on carbon steel substrate. The influence of different processing parameters on the final surface alloy was evaluated as current intensity and depositing velocity were varied. Coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness profiles, under a 500g load. Results showed that PTA hardfacing is an adequate surface alloying. For the conditions tested increasing hardness was obtained by solid solution for the lower amounts of Al added and due to the new intermetallic phases for the richer Al mixture.

  9. Ni/Al Intermetallics Plasma Transferred Arc Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ver(o)nica A. B. Almeida; Ana Sofia C. M. D'Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    In-situ alloy development during surface processing allows for a limitless materials selection to protect components exposed to severe service conditions. In fact surface alloying offers the possibility to strengthen surface components with alloys that would not be possible to process otherwise. This work used Plasma transferred arc (PTA) hardfacing for surface alloying. Different amounts of aluminium powder, 5-25%, were added to a Ni based superalloy, from Hastealloy C family, in the atomized form. The mixture was homogeneized in a ball mill and PTA deposited on carbon steel substrate. The influence of different processing parameters on the final surface alloy was evaluated as current intensity and depositing velocity were varied. Coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness profiles, under a 500g load. Results showed that PTA hardfacing is an adequate surface alloying. For the conditions tested increasing hardness was obtained by solid solution for the lower amounts of Al added and due to the new intermetallic phases for the richer Al mixture.

  10. Supercritical Fluid Reactions for Coal Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles A. Eckert

    1997-11-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we developed a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The tautomeric equilibrium of a Schiff base was chosen as one model system and was investigated in supercritical ethane and cosolvent modified supercritical ethane. The Diels-Alder reaction of anthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was selected as a second model system, and it was investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D. (Consolidation Coal Co., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    SRI International evaluated two analytical methods for application to coal liquefaction. These included field ionization mass spectrometry and a technique employing iodotrimethylsilane for the derivatization of oxygen bound to alkyl carbon (alkyl ethers). The full report authored by the SRI researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by Consol into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract. (VC)

  12. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  13. Coal damage mechanism in the developing process of coal and gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hong-wei; HU Qian-ting; LIANG Yun-pei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the damage analysis of elliptical aperture, the mechanism of coal dam-age in the developing process of coal and gas outburst was researched. The results show that the damage to coal by gas is mainly caused by the concentrated tensile stress appearing near the endpoint of the pores. Fractures in coal, gas pressure, ground stress and the tensile strength of the coal matrix are the major controlling factors of this kind of damage. When the ground stress releases abruptly and the gas pressure is high, tensile failure will occur around the endpoint of the small pores due to gas pressure, and the coal may be broken up like pow-der; this is called pulverization. Otherwise, when the gas pressure is low, the tensile stress can only occur around the endpoint of the large pores and fractures due to gas pressure, the frac-tures in coal extend and link together, the fracture extension direction is statistically perpen-dicular to the direction of the minor principal stress. This kind of damage is shown as the strati-fied spall around the outburst hole.

  14. Formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} during Datong coal pyrolysis in arc plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Wei-ren; Zhang Jin-cao; Shen Shu-guang; Cao Qing; Lu Yong-kang [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology

    2006-07-01

    The formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} from coal-N was investigated in a plasma coal pyrolysis reactor. Based on Gibbs free energy minimization principle, Thermodynamic equilibrium fraction of C-H-O-N was calculated. The results from experiments and calculation suggest that HCN is the main product of coal-N at high temperature. Only a little coal-N convertedto NH{sub 3}. As the temperature increases, the yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} increases from the experimental results, but the theoretic calculated results show that HCN gradually increases and NH{sub 3} decreases. The possible reason is the influence of practical operating condition. The yield of HCN increases firstly and then decreases with increasing coal feeding rate, but NH{sub 3} is reverse. Enhancement of input power lease to the increase of HCN and NH{sub 3} yields. H{sub 2} acting as the reactive atmosphere benefits to the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3}, and CO{sub 2} may reduce the yields of HCN and NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2} enhance the formation of NH{sub 3}, but promotes the furthermore conversion of HCN. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  16. Experimental study of coal topping process in a downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.G.; Lu, X.S.; Yao, J.X.; Lin, W.G.; Cui, L.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Processing Engineering

    2005-02-02

    Experiments were carried out in a downer reactor integrated in a circulating fluidized bed combustor to examine the performance of the coal topping process. The effects of reaction temperature and coal particle size on the product distribution and their compositions were determined. The experimental results show that an increase in temperature will increase the yields of gas and liquid product, and the liquid yield decreases with the increase in coal particle size. The experiments exhibit an optimal condition for the liquid product. When the pyrolysis temperature is 660{sup o}C and coal particle size is less than 0.2-8 mm, the yield of light tar (hexane-soluble fraction) reaches 7.5 wt % (dry coal basis). The light tar is composed of acid groups (57.1 wt %), crude gasoline (aliphatics) (12.9 wt %), aromatics (21.4 wt %), and polar and basic groups (8.6 wt %). The experiments indicate that the coal topping process is a promising technology for partially converting coal into liquid fuels and fine chemicals.

  17. Technical, Energetics, and Economic Comparison of NRL Oxidative Coal Liquefaction Process with some Developed Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-05

    the synthesis step becomes two processes. synthesis CO + H2 catalyst ) methanol conversion methanol catalyst > gasoline + water Wiser states that...structure illustrates the main types of linkage between ring clusters and also some of the heteroatom forms that are found in coal. 20 APPENDIX II...used more widely as petroleum and natural gas resources are depleted and hydrogen for coal liquefaction processes will be produced predominantly from

  18. One-knob self-optimizing fuzzy control of CO2 arc welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞建荣; 蒋力培

    2002-01-01

    A new one-knob self-optimizing fuzzy control system of CO2 arc welding is established based on the synthetic performance evaluation of droplet transfer process. It includes two kinds of self-optimizing fuzzy controllers: the arc voltage controller and the current waveform controller. The fuzzy control principle and the key points of the control patterns are presented. Through on-line detecting, computing of characteristic parameters and one-knob self-optimizing adjusting, the characteristic parameters and welding variables can be adjusted to suitable ranges under the control of the arc voltage controller. Meanwhile the current waveform controller is active in the rear-time stage of the short-circuiting and the instant of re-triggering arc. The experiment results show that the control and its algorithm can improve the synthetic performance of arc welding process apparently.

  19. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregudov, V.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  20. Laser guided and stabilized gas metal arc welding processes (LGS-GMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorf, Jörg; Barroi, Alexander; Kaierle, Stefan; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    The demands of the industry are cheap and fast production of highly sophisticated parts without compromises in product quality. To realize this requirement, we have developed a laser guided and stabilized gas metal arc process (LGS-GMA welding). The new welding process is based on a gas metal arc process using low power laser radiation for stabilization. The laser stabilization of gas metal arcs welding is applied to joint welding and cladding. With only 400 W laser power and a focal spot of 1.6 mm the laser radiation is mainly interacting with the arc plasma in order to guide and stabilize it. In joint welding up to 100% increase in welding speed is possible, at equal penetration depth. The guidance effect also enables the process to weld in challenging situations like different sheet thicknesses. Used for cladding, the enhanced process stability allows low penetration depth with dilutions of only 3%. Coatings with up to 63 HRC were achieved.

  1. Numerical Simulation of the Eddy Current Effects on the Arc Splitting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 荣命哲; 吴翊; 孙昊; 马瑞光; 纽春萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on a numerical simulation of the arc plasma behavior in the arc splitting process, considering the eddy currents in the electrodes and the splitter plate. Based on three-dimensional (3D) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) theory, a thin layer of nonlinear electrical resistance elements is used in the model to represent the voltage drop of plasma sheath and the formation of new arc root in order to include the arc splitting process in the simulation. In the arcing process, eddy currents in metal parts are generated by a time-varying magnetic field. The arc model is calculated with the time-varying magnetic field term, so that the eddy current effects can be considered. The effect of nonlinear permeability of a ferromagnetic material is also involved in the calculation. Using the simulation results for the temperature, velocity and current density distribution, the arc splitting process is analyzed in detail. The calculated results are compared with the simulation neglecting eddy currents.

  2. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  3. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuo-gui; YANHong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surtace quench, the influence law ot me heat process, cooling course, temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  4. Arc sensing system for automatic weld seam tracking (II) ——Signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Due to violent disturbance of the welding arc, signal processingis the key problem of application of the sensor. By means of the new technique the arc sensor can recognize not only V-groove but also lap joint and butt joint. The sensor has good recognition ability even for welding process with very large current disturbance, e.g. pulsed arc and short circuit welding process, etc. The proposed technique is developed on the basis of modern digital filtering theory and mathematic transformation of the signals from time domain into frequency domain.

  5. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof; Pyka Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse ...

  6. Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical looping gasification processes, i. e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical intermediate. In this paper, these novel chemical looping gasification processes are described and their advantages and potential challenges for commercialization are discussed.

  7. Coal-derived carbon nanotubes by thermal plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, Y.L.; Wang, B.J.; Ji, W.J.; Zhang, Y.F.; Xie, K.C. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics

    2004-07-01

    A coal/arc-jet technique by directly and successively injecting coal fine particles into the arc plasma jet instead of arcing graphite or coal-based electrodes for producing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from coal was developed. The derived carbon products by this technique were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum. The experimental results clearly indicated that certain metal catalysts favored the growth of CNTs in the process, and the relevant growth mechanism was discussed in terms of the characterizations.

  8. Catalysis and ecological problems in salty coals thermodestruction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendrik, T.G.; Simonova, V.V.; Galushko, L.Y.; Afanasenko, L.Y.; Saranchuk, V.I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). L.M. Litvinenko Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Coals with high content of sodium and chlorine are very interesting natural object for studying, which have been formed in special natural conditions. Ukraine has large resources of salty coals (SC) (about 20 bill.t), which cannot be used in combustion because of their high slag ability and corrosion activity. Our institutes during 10 years are studying the possibilities for SC using in other processes: pyrolysis, hydrogenation, gasification and humic acids (HA) extraction. Catalytic influence of NaCl on thermodestruction of coal organic mass (COM) has been established. The forms and behaviour of chlorine at SC processing have taken to investigation in recent time actively in connection with environmental and technological problems. The goal of our investigations was the study of natural halite role in SC thermoprocessing, the Na and Cl distribution in ones, an estimation of probability for toxic compounds formation and determination rational ways for SC processing. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Model of coupled gas flow and deformation process in heterogeneous coal seams and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-hui; ZHAO Quan-sheng; YU Yong-jiang

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneity of coal was studied by mechanical tests. Probability plots of experimental data show that the mechanical parameters of heterogeneous coal follow a Weibull distribution. Based on elasto-plastic mechanics and gas dynamics, the model of coupled gas flow and deformation process of heterogeneous coal was presented and the effects of heterogeneity of coal on gas flow and failure of coal were investigated. Major findings include: The effect of the heterogeneity of coal on gas flow and mechanical failure of coal can be considered by the model in this paper. Failure of coal has a great effect on gas flow.

  10. In-process electrical discharge dressing of arc-shaped metal bonded diamond wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Fan, Fei; Tian, Guoyu; Zhang, Feihu; Liu, Zhongde

    2016-10-01

    Due to the high hardness of SiC ceramics, the wear of the arc-shaped metal bonded diamond wheels is very serious during the grinding process of large-aperture aspheric SiC mirrors. The surface accuracy and surface/sub-surface quality of the aspheric mirror will be affected seriously if the grinding wheel is not timely dressed. Therefore, this paper focus on the in-process dressing of the arc-shaped metal bonded diamond wheels. In this paper, the application of the asymmetric arc profile grinding wheel in the grinding of aspheric mirrors is discussed first. Then a rotating cup-shaped electrode in-process electro discharge dressing device for the arc-shaped wheels is developed based on the analysis. The dressing experiments are carried out with the device. The experimental results show that the in-process dressing device can did the dressing for the asymmetric and symmetric arc-shaped wheel. The profile error of the arc can reach to 3μm with the in-process dressing device.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  13. Numerical analysis on coal-breaking process under high pressure water jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-hua; LIANG Yun-pei; CHENG Guo-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of nonlinear dynamic finite element, the control equation of coal and water jet was acquired in the coal breaking process under a water jet. The calcu-lation model of coal breaking under a water jet was established; the fluid-structure cou-pling of water jet and coal was implemented by penalty function and convection calculation. The dynamic process of coal breaking under a water jet was simulated and analyzed by combining the united fracture criteria of the maximum tensile strain and the maximal shear strain in the two cases of damage to coal and damage failure to coal.

  14. Application studies of RFID technology in the process of coal logistics transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bingqin; Chang, Xiaoming; Hao, Meiyan; Kong, Dejin

    2012-04-01

    For quality control problems in coal transport, RFID technology has been proposed to be applied to coal transportation process. The whole process RFID traceability system from coal production to consumption has been designed and coal supply chain logistics tracking system integration platform has been built, to form the coal supply chain traceability and transport tracking system and providing more and more transparent tracking and monitoring of coal quality information for consumers of coal. Currently direct transport and combined transport are the main forms of coal transportation in China. The means of transport are cars, trains and ships. In the booming networking environment of RFID technology, the RFID technology will be applied to coal logistics and provide opportunity for the coal transportation tracking in the process transportation.

  15. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  16. Effect of Autogenous Arc Welding Processes on Tensile and Impact Properties of Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A K Lakshminarayanan; K Shanmugam; V Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    The effect of autogeneous arc welding processes on tensile and impact properties of ferritic stainless steel conformed to AISI 409M grade is studied.Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded jointa.Tensile and impact properties,microhardness,microstructure,and fracture surface morphology of continuous current gas tungsten arc welding (CCGTAW),pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW),and plasma arc welding (PAW) joints are evaluated and the results are compared.It is found that the PAW joints of ferritic stainless steel show superior tensile and impact properties when compared with CCGTAW and PCGTAW joints,and this is mainly due to lower heat input,finer fusion zone grain diameter,and higher fusion zone hardness.

  17. Behaviour of the iron vapour core in the arc of a controlled short-arc GMAW process with different shielding gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, G.; Kozakov, R.; Gött, G.; Schöpp, H.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2012-02-01

    The controlled metal transfer process (CMT) is a variation of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process which periodically varies wire feeding speed. Using a short-arc burning phase to melt the wire tip before the short circuit, heat input to the workpiece is reduced. Using a steel wire and a steel workpiece, iron vapour is produced in the arc, its maximum concentration lying centrally. The interaction of metal vapour and welding gas considerably impacts the arc profile and, consequently, the heat transfer to the weldpool. Optical emission spectroscopy has been applied to determine the radial profiles of the plasma temperature and iron vapour concentration, as well as their temporal behaviour in the arc period for different mixtures of Ar, O2 and CO2 as shielding gases. Both the absolute iron vapour density and the temporal expansion of the iron core differ considerably for the gases Ar + 8%O2, Ar + 18% CO2 and 100% CO2 respectively. Pronounced minimum in the radial temperature profile is found in the arc centre in gas mixtures with high Ar content under the presence of metal vapour. This minimum disappears in pure CO2 gas. Consequently, the temperature and electrical and thermal conductivity in the arc when CO2 is used as a shielding gas are considerably lower.

  18. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  19. Evaluation model for process stability of short-circuiting arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Yan; Yang Hailan; Hua Xueming; Wu Yixiong

    2008-01-01

    stability of welding process is the prerequisite and assurance for ideal joint. The structure of stability model and its optimization are the key to on-line evaluation technology of arc welding. Characteristic parameters are extracted from the single transfer period while variation coefficients of the characteristic parameters are concerned for whole welding process of continuous drop transfer. Based on the characteristic parameters and their variation coefficients, stability model of short-circuit arc welding process is established by partial-least-square regression (PLSR) that can overcome multicollinearity of input parameters. The experiment results show that this model can meet the requirement of accuracy.

  20. Simulation of droplet transfer process and current waveform control of CO2 arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation system used in the arc welding short-circuit transfer process and current waveform control process was developed in this paper. The simulation results are basically consistent with welding technical experiments. The simulation system can be used to simulate and test the current waveform control parameters with welding variables. By this simulation system, the influence regularities of the current waveform control parameters in the CO2 arc welding droplet short-circuit transfer process can be got. Moreover, the basic mode of real-time current waveform control can be also established by the simulation testing.

  1. Arc Export File Of Permitted and Mined Out Coal Areas of the Gulf Coast Coal-Bearing (gulfmines.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains permitted coal mines and mined out areas in the Gulf Coast coal-bearing geology prior to 1998. The data included in the coverage are mine...

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (USA)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Process for the extraction of thick coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsi, K.; Salamon, H.; Solymos, A.; Takacs, J.; Toth, I.

    1983-08-23

    There is disclosed a process for the extraction of thick coal seams by means of which coal seams not extractable in one bank or slice and/or located at peripheral areas may also be extracted under improved mine safety conditions and with high productivity. According to the invention the thick coal seam is if required, divided horizontally and/or vertically into extraction blocks which are bounded and separated by stowing pillars arranged according to the direction of advance of the extraction. The cavity of the pillars is advanced at a level higher than the level of the roof of the extraction space, after which the cavity of the pillar is back-filled. Then the block is extracted by means of block caving in a manner known per se. In a preferred embodiment of the invention incombustible material that agglomerates under the effect of the static pressure of the rock is used for stowing. The utilization of the process for extraction according to the invention results in a considerable increase of intensity. Whether the extraction is in one or more slices and whether using individual self-advancing supports, using track-bound or independent loading/conveyor equipment, an economic extraction of coal seams is achieved.

  4. The Effect of Process Parameters on Twin Wire Arc Spray Pattern Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Lynne Horner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A design of experiments approach was used to describe process parameter—spray pattern relationships in the Twin Wire Arc process using zinc feed stock in a TAFA 8835 (Praxair, Concord, NH, USA spray torch. Specifically, the effects of arc current, primary atomizing gas pressure, and secondary atomizing gas pressure on spray pattern size, spray pattern flatness, spray pattern eccentricity, and coating deposition rate were investigated. Process relationships were investigated with the intent of maximizing or minimizing each coating property. It was determined that spray pattern area was most affected by primary gas pressure and secondary gas pressure. Pattern eccentricity was most affected by secondary gas pressure. Pattern flatness was most affected by primary gas pressure. Coating deposition rate was most affected by arc current.

  5. Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 ˚ C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the

  6. Submerged arc furnace process superior to the Waelz process in reducing PCDD/F emission during thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fu-Qian; Huang, Shao-Bin; Liao, Wei-Tung; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Besides the Waelz process, the submerged arc furnace (SAF) process has also been extensively used to retain metals from ashes and scraps in the metallurgical industry. However, very little is known about the formation and depletion of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from this thermal process. In this study, an electric arc furnace (EAF) dust treatment plant adopting the SAF process was investigated and compared to the plant adopting the Waelz process. The predominant contributor of PCDD/F I-TEQ input was the EAF dusts, accounting for 98.4% of the total. The PCDD/F contents in the generated fly ashes of the SAF were extremely low, as almost all the organic compounds for PCDD/F formation were decomposed by the high operating temperatures (1500-1700 °C) of the SAF. Therefore, the PCDD/F emission factor of the SAF process (46.9 μg I-TEQ/tonne-EAF dust) was significantly lower than that of the Waelz process (840-1120 μg I-TEQ/tonne-EAF dust). Its PCDD/F output/input ratios (0.23 and 0.50 based on mass and toxicity) were also lower than those of the Waelz process plant (0.62 and 1.19). Therefore, the SAF process is superior to the Waelz process in reducing the potential of PCDD/F formation.

  7. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  8. Study on the formation mechanism of shock wave in process of coal and gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dong-ling; MIAO Fa-tian; LIANG Yun-pei

    2009-01-01

    According to the research results of motion parameters of coal-gas flow, ana-lyzed the formation mechanism of shock waves at different states of coal-gas flow in the process of coal and gas outburst, and briefly described the two possible cases of outburst shock wave formation and their formation conditions in the process of coal and gas out-burst, and then pointed out that a high degree of under-expanded coal-gas flow was the main reason for the formation of a highly destructive shock wave. The research results improved the shock wave theory in coal and gas outburst.

  9. Comparative cost estimates of five coal utilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Detailed capital and operating cost estimates were prepared for the generation of electric power in a new, net 500 MW (e), coal-burning facility by five alternative processes: conventional boiler with no control of SO/sub 2/ emissions, atmospheric fluidized bed steam generator (AFB), conventional boiler equipped with a limestone FGD system, conventional boiler equipped with magnesia FGD system, and coal beneficiation followed by a conventional boiler quipped with limestone FGD for part of the flue gas stream. For a coal containing 3.5% sulfur, meeting SO/sub 2/ emission limits of 1.2 pounds per million Btu fired was most economical with the limestone FGD system. This result was unchanged for a coal containing 5% sulfur; however, for 2% sulfur, limestone FGD and AFB were competitive methods of controlling SO/sub 2/ emissions. Brief consideration of 90% reduction of SO/sub 2/ emissions led to the choice of limestone FGD as the most economical method. Byproduct credit for the sulfuric acid produced in regenerating the magnesia could make that system competitive with the limestone FGD system, depending upon local markets. The cost of sludge fixation and disposal would make limestone FGD noneconomic in many situations, if these steps are necessary.

  10. Hydration process in Portland cement blended with activated coal gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-ping LIU; Pei-ming WANG; Min-ju DING

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the hydration of a blend of Portland cement and activated coal gangue in order to determine the relationship between the degree of hydration and compressive strength development.The hydration process was investigated by various means:isothermal calorimetry,thermal analysis,non-cvaporable water measurement,and X-ray diffraction analysis.The results show that the activated coal gangue is a pozzolanic material that contributes to the hydration of the cement blend.The pozzolanic reaction occurs over a period of between 7 and 90 d,consuming portlandite and forming both crystal hydrates and ill-crystallized calcium silicate hydrates.These hydrates are similar to those found in pure Portland cement.The results show that if activated coal gangue is substituted for cement at up to 30% (w/w),it does not significantly affect the final compressive strength of the blend.A long-term compressive strength improvement can in fact be achieved by using activated coal gangue as a supplementary cementing material.The relationship between compressive strength and degree of hydration for both pure Portland cement and blended cement can be described with the same equation.However,the parameters are different since blended cement produces fewer calcium silicate hydrates than pure Portland cement at the same degree of hydration.

  11. Availability (exergetic) analysis of coal gasification processes. Part II. The Synthane process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.; Conger, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency and economics of the Synthane Gasification process are evaluated and discussed. The efficiency of the Synthane process was determined using the 'availability analysis' approach to process evaluation and is given here as an example of the use of that approach. Computer simulation of the Synthane process was used to study the effect of changes in plant operating parameters on both the efficiency and economics of the process. Results of the availability analysis include an overall exergetic efficiency of 61.2 % for the operation of the Synthane plant with a Pittsburgh Seam feed coal, and an overall exergetic efficiency of 61.1 % for a Wyodak Seam feed coal. Increasing the ratio of steam to oxygen fed to the gasifier from 6.83 to 10.0 was found to increase the overall exergetic efficiency from 61.2 % to 64.6 % with a Pittsburgh feed coal. Utilizing an alternative methanator design similar to one presented in a IGT HYGAS process design was found to increase the overall efficiency to 62.3 % with the Pittsburgh feed coal and to 61.9 percent of the Wyodak feed coal. The production cost of the synthetic natural gas (SNG) product from the Synthane process was found to be 4.61 dollars/GJ with the Pittsburgh feed coal, and 6.23 dollars/GJ with the Wyodak feed coal, in third quarter 1979 dollars. The SNG production cost was found to decrease from 4.61 dollars/GJ to 4.37 dollars/GJ when the ratio of steam to oxygen fed to the gasifier was increased from 6.83 to 10.0. A 50 % increase in coal cost was found to increase the SNG production cost by 15 % and 18 % for the Pittsburgh and Wyodak feed coals, respectively, while a 100 % increase in coal cost increased the SNG production cost by 30 % and 36 %, respectively. Changing to the alternative (HYGAS) methanator design resulted in a decrease of 0.21 dollars/GJ in the SNG production cost for the Pittsburg feed coal, and a decrease of 0.26 dollars/GJ for the Wyodak coal.

  12. Plasma Processes : Arc root dynamics in high power plasma torches – Evidence of chaotic behavior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Das

    2000-11-01

    Although plasma torches have been commercially available for about 50 years, areas such as plasma gun design, process efficiency, reproducibility, plasma stability, torch lives etc. have remained mostly unattended. Recent torch developments have been focusing on the basic understanding of the plasma column and its dynamics inside the plasma torch, the interaction of plasma jet and the powders, the interaction of the plasma jet with surroundings and the impingement of the jet on the substrate. Two of the major causes of erratic and poor performance of a variety of thermal plasma processes are currently identified as the fluctuations arising out of the arc root movement on the electrodes inside the plasma torch and the fluid dynamic instabilities arising out of entrainment of the air into the plasma jet. This paper reviews the current state of understanding of these fluctuations as well as the dynamics of arc root movement in plasma torches. The work done at the author’s laboratory on studying the fluctuations in arc voltage, arc current, acoustic emissions and optical emissions are also presented. These fluctuations are observed to be chaotic and interrelated. Real time monitoring and controlling the arc instabilities through chaos characterization parameters can greatly contribute to the understanding of electrode erosion as well as improvement of plasma torch lifetime.

  13. Established and Adapted Diagnostic Tools for Investigation of a Special Twin-Wire Arc Spraying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Zimmermann, Stephan; Schein, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    In the LDS® ( Lichtbogendrahtspritzen) process, a twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS) process developed by Daimler AG, the gas injection and feed to the arc play a crucial role in separating the molten particles from the wire ends. This paper describes an investigation of the gas and particle behavior according to individual LDS® process parameters. Coating problems are not considered. The measurements are separated into two different parts: "cold" (without arc and particles) and "hot" (with arc and particles). The results provide the first detailed understanding of the effect of different LDS® process parameters. A correlation between the gas parameter settings and the particle beam properties was found. Using established and adapted diagnostic tools, as also applied for conventional TWAS processes, this special LDS® process was investigated and the results (gas and particle behavior) validated, thereby allowing explanation and comparison of the diagnostic methods, which is the main focus of this paper. Based on error analysis, individual instabilities, limits, and deviations during the gas determinations and particle measurements are explained in more detail. The paper concludes with presentation of the first particle-shadow diagnostic results and main statements regarding these investigations.

  14. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  15. Coal conversion processes and their materials requirements. Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.B.; Voorde, M. van de; Betteridge, W.

    1984-01-01

    The coal conversion processes combustion, gasification and liquefaction are discussed with respect to current industrial developments and material problems in industrial plants due to fouling, corrosion and erosion. The available materials are discussed by means of high temperature corrosion, erosion, ductibility, creep, fatigue and physical properties. Ceramics and refractories which are particularly used as thermal insulation are also discussed by means of corrosion and erosion and mechanical properties.

  16. Cathodic arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  17. A Technique for Decreasing Reactivity of Coal Material to Suppress the Oxygen Absorption Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu; Gubanova, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the mechanisms of self-ignition formation in coal liable to spontaneous combustion, on the basis of experimental works performed to analyze heat and mass transfer in the coal-air system. A new approach was developed to the coal self-heating suppression and thermodynamic control of the oxidation process. The influence of coal moisture content and thermal behaviour of air in the cooling process was studied during moisture evaporation.

  18. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  19. Characterization of Mullite-Zirconia Composite Processed by Non-Transferred and Transferred Arc Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. YUGESWARAN; V. SELVARAJAN; L. LUSVARGHI; A. I. Y. TOK; D. SIVA RAMA KRISHNA

    2009-01-01

    The arc plasma melting technique is a simple method to synthesize high temperature reaction composites. In this study, mullite-zirconia composite was synthesized by transferred and non-transferred arc plasma melting, and the results were compared. A mixture of alumina and zircon powders with a mole ratio of 3 : 2 were ball milled for four hours and melted for two minutes in the transferred and non-transferred mode of plasma arcs. Argon and air were used as plasma forming gases. The phase and microstructural formation of melted samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microstructure of the com-posites was found to be affected by the mode of melting. In transferred arc melting, zirconia flowers with uniform lines along with mullite whiskers were obtained. In the case of non-transferred arc plasma melting, mullite whiskers along with star shape zirconia were formed. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) of the synthesized mullite-zirconia composites provided a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of mullite formation during the two different processes.

  20. Comparative process analysis of fullerene production by the arc and the radio-frequency discharge methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Z; Todorović-Marković, B; Mohai, I; Farkas, Z; Kovats, E; Szepvolgyi, J; Otasević, D; Scheier, P; Feil, S; Romcević, N

    2007-01-01

    In this work, comparative analysis of processes in carbon arc and radio frequency (RF) plasma during fullerene synthesis has been presented. The kinetic model of fullerene formation developed earlier has been verified in both types of plasma reactors. The fullerene yield depended on carbon concentration, velocity of plasma flame and rotational temperature of C2 radicals predominantly. When mean rotational temperature of C2 radicals was 3000 K, the fullerene yield was the highest regardless of the type of used reactor. The zone of fullerene formation is larger significantly in RF plasma reactor compared to arc reactor.

  1. Process Parameter Optimization of the Pulsed Current Argon Tungsten Arc Welding of Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Balasubramanian; V.Jayabalan; V.Balasubramanian

    2008-01-01

    The selection of process parameters for obtaining optimal tensile properties in the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding is presented. The tensile properties include ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and notch tensile strength. All these characteristics are considered together in the selection of process parameters by modified taguchi method to analyse the effect of each welding process parameter on tensile properties. Experimental results are furnished to illustrate the approach.

  2. ARC Code TI: Block-GP: Scalable Gaussian Process Regression

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Block GP is a Gaussian Process regression framework for multimodal data, that can be an order of magnitude more scalable than existing state-of-the-art nonlinear...

  3. Experimental simulation and numerical analysis of coal spontaneous combustion process at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文虎; 徐精彩; 葛岭梅

    2001-01-01

    The characteristic of coal spontaneous, combustion includes oxidative property and exothermic capacity. It can really simulate the process of coal spontaneous combustion to use the large-scale experimental unit loading coal ! 000 kg. According to the field change of gas concentration and coal temperature determined through experiment of coal self-ignite at low temperature stage, and on the basis of hydromechanics and heat-transfer theory, some parameters can be calculated at different low temperature stage, such as, oxygen consumption rate, heat liberation intensity. It offers a theoretic criterion for quantitatively analyzing characteristic of coal self-ignite and forecasting coal spontaneous combustion. According to coal exothermic capability and its thermal storage surroundings, thermal equilibrium is applied to deduce the computational method of limit parameter of coal self-ignite. It offers a quantitative theoretic criterion for coal self-ignite forecasting and preventing. According to the measurement and test of spontaneous combustion of Haibei coal, some token parameter of Haibei coal,spontaneous combustion is quantitatively analyzed, such as, spontaneous combustion period of coal, critical temperature, oxygen consumption rate, heat liberation intensity, and limit parameter of coal self-ignite.

  4. Experimental simulation and numerical analysis of coal spontaneous combustion process at low temperature*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Hu; XU Jing-cai; GE Ling-mei

    2001-01-01

    The characteristic of coal spontaneous combustion includes oxidative p roperty and exothermic capacity. It can really simulate the process of coal spon taneous combustion to use the large-scale experimental unit loading coal 1 000 kg. According to the field change of gas concentration and coal temperature determi ned through experiment of coal self-ignite at low temperature stage, and on the basis of hydromechanics and heat-transfer theory, some parameters can be calcul at ed at different low temperature stage, such as, oxygen consumption rate, heat li beration intensity. It offers a theoretic criterion for quantitatively analyzing characteristic of coal self-ignite and forecasting coal spontaneous combustion . According to coal exothermic capability and its thermal storage surroundings, t hermal equilibrium is applied to deduce the computational method of limit parame ter of coal self-ignite. It offers a quantitative theoretic criterion for coal s elf-ignite forecasting and preventing. According to the measurement and test of spontaneous combustion of Haibei coal, some token parameter of Haibei coal spont aneous combustion is quantitatively analyzed, such as, spontaneous combustion pe riod of coal, critical temperature, oxygen consumption rate, heat liberation int ensity, and limit parameter of coal self-ignite.

  5. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal and products from coal liquefaction and pyrolysis processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.; Iacchelli, A.; Selucky, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are given for analysis of coal, coal liquefaction products, and coal pyrolysis products. Proximate analysis (determination of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) using the Fisher Coal Analyzer Model 490, and ultimate analysis (determination of C, H, N, S, O, and occasionally Cl) using the Perkin-Elmer Elemental Analyzer are described. Determination of calorific value of coal using the oxygen bomb calorimeter is also detailed, as well as procedures for trace element analysis and for removal of halogenated solvents from gravity separation fractions of coal. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  7. Applications of polymer extrusion technology to coal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Upon heating, many of the middle-aged bituminous coals exhibit a plasticity very similar to polyethylene for a few minutes. Plastic coal can be extruded, pelletized or molded using common plastics technology and equipment. Investigations concerning the plastic state of coals are conducted with the objective to develop techniques which will make useful commercial applications of this property possible. Experiments which show the characteristics of plastic-state coal are discussed, and problems related to a continuous extrusion of coal are considered. Probably the most significant difference between the continuous extrusion of coal and the extrusion of a thermoplastic polymer is that volatiles are continuously being released from the coal. Attention is given to aspects of dragflow, solids feeding, and melt pumping. Application potentials for plastic coal extrusion might be related to coal gasification, direct liquefaction, and coal combustion.

  8. Novel graphene production: an aqueous arc discharge process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sejung

    2015-01-01

    Graphene plays important roles in technological developments regarding electronic device, environment and energy management and the motivation to prepare two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. As the pioneer for 2D nanomaterials, graphene has been shown to be not only thermodynamically stable, but also superior in terms of electronic and mechanical properties and that it can be processed into a wide variety of novel materials. However, they are still limited to the challenges such as multi-stack...

  9. Synthetically quantitative evaluation function of characteristic parameters on CO2 arc welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The statistical probability and their variation regularity of the measurable characteristic parameters in the CO2 arc welding droplet short-circuiting transfer process have been studied. The statistical analysis shows that the sensitivity of each characteristic parameter with regard to the variation of the short-circuiting transfer process is different. The sensitivity of 4 kinds among these characteristic parameters is more intense than that of the short-circuiting transfer frequency. In order to take account of the synthetic influence of these characteristic parameters, by means of the characteristic parameters synthetic value, a quantitative evaluation function is built up to describe and evaluate the short-circuiting transfer process of CO2 arc welding in real time. The testing shows that the evaluation function can give a suitable synthetic valuation for the short-circuiting transfer process with a variety of welding variables.

  10. A Study on Process Characteristics and Performance of Hot Wire Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process for High Temperature Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanaban MR,Anantha; Neelakandan, Baskar; Kandasamy,Devakumaran

    2016-01-01

    Hot wire gas tungsten arc welding (HW-GTAW) process is the one where the filler wire is pre-heated close to its melting point before it is fed in to the arc. The effect of HW-GTAW parameters such as welding current, hot wire current and the wire feed rate during welding of super ASS 304H stainless steel tubes were evaluated in terms of heat input, voltage-current (V-I) characteristics and weld bead characteristics such as bead weight and geometry. The results obtained indicate that for a cons...

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  12. Coal Chemical Gasification Process Schedule Control%煤气化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振

    2015-01-01

    介绍了Lurgi炉固定床加压气化、Texaco水煤浆加压气化、Shell 煤气化工艺和 GSP 粉煤气化工艺4种煤气化工艺,阐述了Shell 煤气化工艺和 GSP 粉煤气化工艺的工艺流程,并对其进行了技术分析。%Introduces the Lurgi fixed bed gasification furnace,Texaco coal-water slurry gasification,Shell coal gasifica-tion Process,GSP coal gasification process four kinds of coal gasification process,and which elaborates technical character-istics and process of coal gasification process control of Shell coal gasification process and GSP process.

  13. The influence of Ac parameters in the process of micro-arc oxidation film electric breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the electric breakdown discharge process of micro-arc oxidation film on the surface of aluminum alloy. Based on the analysis of the AC parameters variation in the micro-arc oxidation process, the following conclusions can be drawn: The growth of oxide film can be divided into three stages, and Oxide film breakdown discharge occurs twice in the micro-arc oxidation process. The first stage is the formation and disruptive discharge of amorphous oxide film, producing the ceramic oxide granules, which belong to solid dielectric breakdown. In this stage the membrane voltage of the oxide film plays a key role; the second stage is the formation of ceramic oxide film, the ceramic oxide granules turns into porous structure oxide film in this stage; the third stage is the growth of ceramic oxide film, the gas film that forms in the oxide film’s porous structure is electric broken-down, which is the second breakdown discharge process, the current density on the oxide film surface could affect the breakdown process significantly.

  14. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  15. Study on the mechanism of coal liquefaction reaction and a new process concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-dong; LI Wen-bo; WANG Yong; GUO Zhi; LI Ke-jian

    2008-01-01

    The coal hydrogenation reaction process is simply considered as three steps. In the first step, the smaller molecules associated with coal structure units are released as some gases and water in the condition of solvent and heating. In this step, some weaker bonds of the coal structure units are ruptured to form free radicals. The radicals are stabi-lized by hydrogen atoms from donor solvent and/or H2. In the second step, chain reaction occurs quickly. In the process of chain reaction, the covalent bonds of coal structure units are attacked by the radicals to form some asphaltenes. In the third step, asphaltenes are hydrogenated form more liquids and some gases. In coal liquefaction, the second step of coal hydrogenation reaction should be controlled to avoid integration of radicals, and the third step of coal hydrogenation should be accelerated to increase the coal conversion and the oil yield. A new concept of coal liquefaction process named as China direct coal lique-faction (CDCL) process is presented based on the mechanism study of coal liquefaction.

  16. Vacuum Arc Melting Processes for Biomedical Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai De-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study primarily involved using a vacuum arc remelting (VAR process to prepare a nitinol shape-memory alloy with distinct ratios of alloy components (nitinol: 54.5 wt% to 57 wt%. An advantage of using the VAR process is the adoption of a water-cooled copper crucible, which effectively prevents crucible pollution and impurity infiltration. Optimising the melting production process enables control of the alloy component and facilitates a uniformly mixed compound during subsequent processing. This study involved purifying nickel and titanium and examining the characteristics of nitinol alloy after alloy melt, including its microstructure, mechanical properties, phase transition temperature, and chemical components.

  17. Arc-Plasma Wire Spraying: An Optical Study of Process Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, I. P.; Dolmatov, A. V.; Kharlamov, M. Yu.; Gulyaev, P. Yu.; Jordan, V. I.; Krivtsun, I. V.; Korzhyk, V. M.; Demyanov, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of heat- and mass-transfer processes in a Plazer 30-PL-W plasma-jet facility used for arc-plasma wire spraying. Using an original optical diagnostic system, we have studied melting behavior of the metal wire, break up and atomization of liquid metal. For the first time, experimental data on the in-flight velocity and temperature of spray particles in arc-plasma wire spraying were obtained. In spite of moderate particle velocities (about 50 m/s), the obtained steel coatings proved to have a low porosity of 1.5%. While studying the spraying process of tungsten wire, we observed the occurrence of anomalous high-velocity (over 4000 m/s) outbursts ejected from the surface of liquid metal droplets. The nature of such outbursts calls for further study.

  18. Obtaining and processing Daymet data using Python and ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohms, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    This set of scripts was developed to automate the process of downloading and mosaicking daily Daymet data to a user defined extent using ArcGIS and Python programming language. The three steps are downloading the needed Daymet tiles for the study area extent, converting the netcdf file to a tif raster format, and mosaicking those rasters to one file. The set of scripts is intended for all levels of experience with Python programming language and requires no scripting by the user.

  19. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  20. Biodesulfurization of Malaysian coals using mixed microbial cultures in batch and continuous processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafpour, G.D.; Azizan, A.; Harun, A. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The determination of chemolithotrophic microorganisms capable to grown on coal with high sulfur content, made it possible to develop mixed culture processes for coal desulfurization. The ability of the microbial cultures to metabolize different sulfur compounds originated from coal in the range of 3-5% sulfur, were demonstrated in batch experimental stage. Biodesulfurization of coal as suspended solid coal particles were carried out in a broth media for coal content of 1-5% solid. Four species of microbial culture were grown on coal and acclimated for optimal growth. The coal samples obtained from Malaysian coal mine with 2-5% of sulfur content were used in batch and continuous cultures experiments. The microbial cultures were used to reduce pyrite sulfur, inorganic sulfur content of coal. The culture isolated from pharmaceutical wastewater shown that more than 80% of sulfur content of coal was reduced. The growth of microorganisms on coal shown that maximum solid content of 5% was tolerable maximum grow on 3% coal shown high cell density. Nutrient media with acidic PH value of 3-4 was required for growth of Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Thiobacillus fierrooxidans. The growth was limited at PH = 2 but at PH 3-4 growth was stimulated. Phosphate buffer was used with coal solution to monitor the PH. The PH was initially adjusted but was not controlled during the period of incubation. An optimum PH for Thiobacillus species with maximum desulfuriation was 2.65. High coal content about 10% was shown that bacterial was unable to grow. The cell dry weight, cell optical density and sulfur content of coal samples using TGA and elemental analyzer were conducted for all experiments. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  2. An analysis of the dynamic resistance and the instantaneous energy of the CO2 arc welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhenmin; Xue Jiaxiang; Dong Fei; Yang Guohua; Lu Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    A self-developed welding dynamic arc wavelet analyzer was adopted to analyze and assess the welding process of two CO2 arc welding machines. The experimental results indicate that the instantaneous energy can reflect the influence of the welding current and voltage on dynamic arc characteristic synthetically. Through calculating and analyzing the instantaneous energy, the energy during arc ignition and short circuit in CO2 welding process can be confirmed rationally, thus the foundation for the accurate design and control of the welding current and voltage can be provided. By reducing the ripple disturbance of the dynamic resistance, avoiding peak current and voltage waveform,and enhancing the transition frequency of short circuit suitably, the stability of the welding arc and the weld appearance can be improved.

  3. Coupled interactions between volatile activity and Fe oxidation state during arc crustal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Madeleine C.S.; Brooker, R; Fraser, D.C.; Burgisser, A; Mangan, Margaret T.; McCammon, C

    2015-01-01

    Arc magmas erupted at the Earth’s surface are commonly more oxidized than those produced at mid-ocean ridges. Possible explanations for this high oxidation state are that the transfer of fluids during the subduction process results in direct oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge, or that oxidation is caused by the effect of later crustal processes, including protracted fractionation and degassing of volatile-rich magmas. This study sets out to investigate the effect of disequilibrium crustal processes that may involve coupled changes in H2O content and Fe oxidation state, by examining the degassing and hydration of sulphur-free rhyolites. We show that experimentally hydrated melts record strong increases in Fe3+/∑Fe with increasing H2O concentration as a result of changes in water activity. This is relevant for the passage of H2O-undersaturated melts from the deep crust towards shallow crustal storage regions, and raises the possibility that vertical variations in fO2 might develop within arc crust. Conversely, degassing experiments produce an increase in Fe3+/∑Fe with decreasing H2O concentration. In this case the oxidation is explained by loss of H2 as well as H2O into bubbles during decompression, consistent with thermodynamic modelling, and is relevant for magmas undergoing shallow degassing en route to the surface. We discuss these results in the context of the possible controls on fO2 during the generation, storage and ascent of magmas in arc settings, in particular considering the timescales of equilibration relative to observation as this affects the quality of the petrological record of magmatic fO2.

  4. Research on the controller of an arc welding process based on a PID neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuanfang HE; Shisheng HUANG

    2008-01-01

    A controller based on a PID neural network(PIDNN)is proposed for an arc welding power source whose output characteristic in responding to a given value is quickly and intelligently controlled in the welding process.The new method syncretizes the PID control strategy and neural network to control the welding process intelligently,so it has the merit of PID control rules and the trait of better information disposal ability of the neural network.The results of simulation show that the controller has the properties of quick response,low overshoot quick convergence and good stable accuracy,which meet the requirements for control of the welding process.

  5. Calculate land damage degree in the coal mining subsidence area by Python,ArcGIS script language%用 ArcGIS 的 Python 脚本计算采煤沉陷区土地损毁程度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宝才; 王文龙; 梁文俊

    2016-01-01

    For calculating land damage degree in the coal mining subsidence area,the Python that attached to ArcGIS,a script language compilation software,were used to predict the land damage degree area of every land use type.Land damaged degree result characterized as the SHP file format can be outputted directly and then the predicted figures of land damaged can be obtained,through the way that the subsidence contour,additional tilting contour and horizontal deformation contour files with DWG format and the land use file with SHP format were inputted altogether in the Py-thon software.The satisfactory result was obtained from SanYuanJiXiang Coal Mine.Therefore,the software can be applied directly to calculate land damaged degree in other coal mining subsidence area.It is promoted easily and conven-ient for the application of basic technician.%为计算井工煤矿采煤沉陷区土地损毁程度,利用 ArcGIS 的 Python 脚本语言编制软件,实现通过输入相同坐标系的下沉等值线、附加倾斜等值线及水平变形等值线3个 DWG 格式文件和土地利用现状 SHP 格式文件,直接输出土地损毁程度的 SHP 格式文件,从而获得沉陷区土地损毁程度预测图。通过对三元吉祥煤矿的实例分析,该软件亦可直接用于其他井工煤矿开采沉陷区土地损毁程度计算,且方便基层技术人员使用和推广。

  6. Evaporation Erosion During the Relay Contact Breaking Process Based on a Simplified Arc Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xinglei; ZHOU Xue; ZHAI Guofu; PENG Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Evaporation erosion of the contacts is one of the fundamental failure mechanisms for relays.In this paper,the evaporation erosion characteristics are investigated for the copper contact pair breaking a resistive direct current (dc) 30 V/10 A circuit in the air.Molten pool simulation of thc contacts is coupled with the gas dynamics to cMculate the evaporation rate.A simplified arc model is constructed to obtain the contact voltage and current variations with time for the prediction of the current density and the heat flux distributions flowing from the arc into the contacts.The evaporation rate and mass variations with time during the breaking process are presented.Experiments are carried out to verify the simulation results.

  7. "Learning Arc": The process of resolving concerns through student-student discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean; Angarita, Maria Paula; Durden, Jared; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2013-01-01

    In reformed classrooms that utilize student-student interactions, a student's concerns can often be resolved through student-student discourse with minimal to no direct input from the instructor. To gain insight into such interactions, we used video data from a Florida International University reformed introductory physics classroom. We micro-analyzed a segment in which the discourse between a group of students leads to the resolution of a concern. In this study, we identified a pattern of discourse which we are calling a "Learning Arc." In this paper, we present the "Learning Arc" as a 3-stage process by which students use discourse as a means to achieve a consensus that resolves a concern.

  8. NMR potentials for studying physical processes in fossil coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, Anatolii D; Ul' yanova, Ekaterina V; Vasilenko, Tat' yana A [Institute of Mining Processes Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2005-11-30

    High-resolution, pulsed, and wide-line NMR studies of fossil coals are reviewed. Coal substance conversion due to outbursts is discussed. Results on water and methane interactions with coal substance, which provide insight into the dynamic characteristics of boundary water, the location of methane in coal structure, and water and methane's hazard implications for coal beds (gas- or geodynamic phenomena) are presented; these are shown to have potential for predicting and preventing life threatening situations. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  9. Liquefaction/solubilization processes of Spanish coals by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Monistrol, I.F.; Luna, N.; Fernandez, M. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1997-12-31

    Several fundamental aspects of microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization have been studied in this work. The first one is the mechanisms implicated on coal transformation. During coal solubilization, fungal cells produced extracellular peroxidase, esterase and some times phenol oxidase enzymes which appear to be involved in solubilization. Moreover, the analysis of liquefaction/solubilization products was done. In this regard, a reduction on the average size of humic acids derived from lignite was observed, probably due to depolymerization caused by microorganisms. Finally, microorganisms showed a specific adherence to the coal surface, that seems to promote the microbial attack to coal. (orig.)

  10. Processes of liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Monistrol, I.F.; Luna, N.; Fernandez, M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1999-07-01

    Several fundamental aspects of microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization were studied. The liquefied/solubilized products from coal by microorganisms were analysed. The liquid products analysed by IR titration and UV/visible spectrometry showed some alterations with regard to the original coal. Humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite showed a reduction in the average molecular weight and a increase in the condensation index, probably due to depolymerization caused by microorganisms. The mechanisms implicated in coal biosolubilization by two fungal strains, M2 (Trichoderma sp.) and M4 (Penicillium sp.) were also studied. Extracellular peroxidase, esterase and phenoloxidase enzymes appear to be involved in coal solubilization. (orig.)

  11. Research on the evolvement of morphology of coking coal during the coking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiangyun; Wu, Shiyong; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhenning; Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Xi, Bai

    2013-12-01

    The evolvement of morphology and structure of the coal with different metamorphic degrees during coking process in the vertical furnace was investigated by infrared Image detector. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the radial direction and the crack formation were also studied in heating process. The results show that the amount of crack and the shrinkage level of char decrease with the coal rank rising. In addition, the initial temperature of crack formation for char increases with the coal rank rising.

  12. Plasma aided coal gasification and the variables in this process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, X.; Lu, Y.; Zhu, S. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2005-12-15

    In order to investigate the characters of plasma aided coal gasification in the industry-scale equipment, the tests with changing feeding rate, steam output pressure, feeding gas flux, input power of plasma generator and the additives were carried out with Datong coal. The produced gas components were analyzed by gas chromatography. And the optimal process conditions, such as, the feeding rate of 150 g/min, the feeding gas flow of 18 m{sup 3}/h, the output power of plasma generator of 100 kW, the steam output pressure of 0.3 MPa are obtained. When the contents of CaO and CaCO{sub 3} in the whole feed are 10 and 5% respectively, the experimental data show their catalytic effect is the best. Considering the molar mass of CaO and CaCO{sub 3}, it is concluded that the catalytic effect of CaO is more important than the reduction of CO{sub 2} in the gasification. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  14. Characterization of Ni ferrites powders prepared by plasma arc discharge process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Gheisari, Kh.; Farbod, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize a single-phase spinel structure from a mixture of zinc, iron and nickel powders by plasma arc discharge method. A mixture of zinc, iron and nickel powders with the appropriate molar ratio was prepared and formed into a cylindrical shape. The synthesis process was performed in air, oxygen and argon atmospheres with the applied arc current of 400 A and pressure of 1 atm. After establishing an arc between the electrodes, the produced powders were collected and their structure and magnetic properties were examined by XRD and VSM, respectively. ZnO as an impurity was appeared in the as-produced powders owing to the high reactivity of zinc atoms, preventing the formation of Ni-Zn ferrite. A pure spinel structure with the highest saturation magnetization (43.8 emu/g) was observed as zinc powders removed completely from the initial mixture. Morphological evaluations using field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that the mean size of fabricated nanoparticles was in the range 100-200 nm and was dependent on the production conditions.

  15. Efficient volatile metal removal from low rank coal in gasification, combustion, and processing systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Alan E.; Sellakumar, Kumar Muthusami; Newcomer, Jesse D.

    2017-03-21

    Efficient coal pre-processing systems (69) integrated with gasification, oxy-combustion, and power plant systems include a drying chamber (28), a volatile metal removal chamber (30), recirculated gases, including recycled carbon dioxide (21), nitrogen (6), and gaseous exhaust (60) for increasing the efficiencies and lowering emissions in various coal processing systems.

  16. Influence of Process Parameters on Coal Combustion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount...... study has been performed in order to initiate an investigation of the potential of chemical engineering models to predict NO from pulverized fuel burners. The success of chemical engineering modeling is strongly connected to the simplification of the flow pattern into a reactor configuration...... and swirl number on the flow pattern in the near burner zone of the laboratory furnace-model were studied. Experimentally obtained residence time distributions have been used to derive a chemical reaction engineering model for the mixing process. The model is based on a combination of plug flow reactors...

  17. Discussion the Development of Image-Process Tools Based on ArcGIS%浅谈基于ArcGIS的影像处理工具集开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周津津; 陈少锋; 刘晓娟

    2014-01-01

    随着数字省、数字城市的建设,对现势性好、分辨率高的正射影像需求呈现多样化。本文主要介绍Python脚本在ArcGIS软件影像处理中的应用,实现高效处理影像的同时,确保影像质量满足项目建设的要求。%With the construction of digital province and digital city , the demand for and current situation good and high -resolution digital orthophoto map presents various .This paper mainly introduced the application of Python script to image processing in ArcGIS , which could process images efficiently and make sure the quality of images satisfy the project construction requirement .

  18. Management of local economic and ecological system of coal processing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, T. V.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Karasev, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The management issues of local ecological and economic system of coal processing company - coal processing plant - are considered in the article. The objectives of the research are the identification and the analysis of local ecological and economic system (coal processing company) performance and the proposals for improving the mechanism to support the management decision aimed at improving its environmental safety. The data on the structure of run-of-mine coal processing products are shown. The analysis of main ecological and economic indicators of coal processing enterprises, characterizing the state of its environmental safety, is done. The main result of the study is the development of proposals to improve the efficiency of local enterprise ecological and economic system management, including technical, technological and business measures. The results of the study can be recommended to industrial enterprises to improve their ecological and economic efficiency.

  19. Microwave-induced co-processing of coal and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an attractive alternative for the conversion of solid fuels to valuable chemicals and bio-fuels. In order to obtain more H2 and syngas from pyrolysis of coal and biomass, microwave has been adopted to enhance the co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass, which has been investigated systematically in this study. Firstly, conventional pyrolysis of coal and biomass was carried out using a vertical tube furnace. Characterizations of pyrolytic gas, liquid and solid products were conducted...

  20. Pyrolysis of brown coal mixed with heavy products of coal and petroleum processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikhorev, A.A.; Syroezhko, A.M.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Akhmedov, N.A.

    1987-03-01

    Investigates effect of various additives on yield of liquid product from pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk (Berezovsk deposit) brown coal mixed with organic additives: waste from caprolactam plant consisting mostly of saturated oxygen containing compounds and mono- and di-carboxylic acid esters, waste from sabatic acid plant consisting predominantly of unsaturated acids, distillation residue of synthetic fatty acids, heavy residue from Arlansk oil refineries containing mainly condensed naphtheno-aromatic systems and heavy tar from rapid pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk coal. Finds that joint pyrolysis of brown coal with organic additives increases yield of liquid products and that intensive decomposition begins at lower temperatures. 4 refs.

  1. Improving Processes of Mechanized Pulsed Arc Welding of Low-Frequency Range Variation of Mode Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraev, Yu N.; Solodskiy, S. A.; Ulyanova, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    A new technology of low-frequency modulation of the arc current in MAG and MIG welding is presented. The technology provides control of thermal and crystallization processes, stabilizes the time of formation and crystallization of the weld pool. Conducting theoretical studies allowed formulating the basic criteria for obtaining strong permanent joints for high-duty structures, providing conditions for more equilibrium structure of the deposited metal and the smaller width of the HAZ. The stabilization of time of the formation and crystallization of the weld pool improves the formation of the weld and increases productivity in welding thin sheet metal.

  2. Sulfur Isotopic Characteristics of Coal in China and Sulfur Isotopic Fractionation during Coal—burning Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪业汤; 张鸿斌; 等

    1993-01-01

    The determined results of the sulfur contents and isotopic composition of coal samples from major coal mines in 15 provinces and regions of China show that the coal mined in the north of China is characterized by higher 34S and lower sulfur content, but that in the south of China has lower 34S and higher sulfur content.During the coal-burning process in both indrstrial and daily use of coal as fuel the released sulfur dioxide is always enriched in lighter sulfur isotope relative to the corresponding coal;the particles are always enriched in heavier sulfur isotope.The discussion on the environmental geochemical significance of the above-mentioned results also has been made.

  3. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  5. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  6. Reserch process geomigration during underground gasification and coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of subsoil water in the over- and subcoal deposits during underground combustion of brown coal can vary under coals thermal development product and pollution. Analysis of the substances-contaminants migratory in water is one of the main issues of further implementation of technologies UCG and UCC.

  7. Fractal characteristics of surface crack evolution in the process of gas-containing coal extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Peng; Wang Enyuan; Ou Jianchun; Li Zhonghui; Wei Mingyao; Li Xuelong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,simulated experiment device of coal and gas outburst was employed to perform the experiment on gas-containing coal extrusion.In the experiment,coal surface cracks were observed with a highspeed camera and then the images were processed by sketch.Based on the above description,the paper studied the fractal dimension values from different positions of coal surface as well as their changing laws with time.The results show that there is a growing parabola treen of crack dimension value in the process of coal extrusion.Accordingly,we drew the conclusion that extruded coal crack evolution is a process of fractal dimension value increase.On the basis of factal dimension values taken from different parts of coal masses,a fractal dimension of the contour map was drawn.Thus,it is clear that the contour map involves different crack fractal dimension values from different positions.To be specific,where there are complicated force and violent movement In coal mass,there are higher fractal dimension values,i.e.,the further the middle of observation surface is from the exit of coal mass,and the lower the fractal dimension value is.In line with fractal geometry and energy theory of coal and gas outburst,this study presents the relation between fractal dimension and energy in the process of extruding.In conclusion,the evolution of crack fractal dimension value can signify that of energy,which has laid a solid foundation for the quantification research on the mechanism of gas-containing coal extrusion.

  8. Study of oxidative desulphurization process of coal with different metamorphism degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SPYSH'YEV; V GUNKA; YPRYSIAZHNYI; K SHEVCHUK; A PATTEK-JANCZYK

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative desulphurization process of coal with different metamorphism degrees treated by an air-steam mixture has been studied.It has been shown that the pyrite present in black coal and anthracite is oxidized with the sulphur dioxide formation,and the process chemical mechanism does not depend on the quality of organic matter.The medium-metamorphized coal,capable of turning into a plastic state and cake in the range of investigated temperatures ( 350 ~ 450 ℃ ),is desulphurized with the greatest difficulty.The chemical mechanism dealing with the transformations of pyritic sulphur present in brown coal differs from similar processes taking place in black coal and anthracite,because FeS2 is converted with hydrogen sulphide formation at desulphurization.

  9. Membrane-integrated oxy-fuel combustion of coal: Process design and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Nijmeijer, A.; Winnubst, A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A membrane-integrated oxy-fuel combustion process is designed and simulated in UniSim Design®. The results of the simulation indicate that a net efficiency of 31.8% is obtained for a coal-fired power plant of 182 MWth (assuming only carbon in the coal), including the compression of CO2 to 100 bar. T

  10. Numerical simulation of the coal combustion process initiated by a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maksimov, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical experiments on the torch combustion of the coal dust prepared by a plasma-thermochemical treatment for combustion have been done using the method of three-dimensional simulation. It is shown that the plasma preparation of coal for combustion enables one to optimize the process, improve the conditions for inflammation and combustion and minimize the emissions of harmful substances.

  11. Colombian (Titiribi) coal liquefaction and its co-processing with Venezuelan (Morichal) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Ishiguro, H.; Maekawa, Y.; Mondragon, F. (Government Industrial Development Laboratory, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    The reactivity in the liquefaction of Titiribi coal from Colombia was studied without a vehicle oil and with Morichal crude oil from Venezuela and anthracene oil derived from coal as a vehicle oil in a batch autoclave in order to obtain fundamental data on the liquefaction and co-processing characteristics. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Proceedings of a workshop on the utilization of coal fuels in process heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Almost 5% of the nation's energy consumption takes place in tubular process heaters. Currently, these units are gas- and, to a lesser extent, oil-fired. Process heaters provide energy for refining petroleum and the manufacture of numerous chemicals and petrochemicals. Since the current state-of-the-art, using waste heat recovery and forced draft burners, can achieve thermal efficiencies of about 90%, it is unlikely that current process heat and fuel requirements will be dramatically reduced by process modifications and/or conservation measures. Hence, if this sizeable, inexorable drain on our fluid petroleum reserves is to be halted, it seems reasonable to consider the utilization of coal and/or coal-based fuels to fire process heaters. In order to assess the feasibility and potential for a coal-based process heater industry, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) organized a workshop to define and explore the various problems that must be solved in order to burn coal in process heaters. A primary aim of the workshop was to consider the design methodology for process heaters when firing coal and compare it to those for gas and oil firing. The overall conclusions were: that retrofitting present process heaters to coal fuel was impractical; that it would be difficult to fit larger heaters designed to burn coal into present refineries; that there would be difficulties with process heaters burning coal; and that a better approach would be one large utility coal heater with a circulating heat transfer medium. Seven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in submerged arc welding process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hari Om; Sunil Pandey

    2013-12-01

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion joining process, known for its high deposition capabilities. This process is useful in joining thick section components used in various industries. Besides joining, SAW can also be used for surfacing applications. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) produced within the base metal as a result of tremendous heat of arc is of big concern as it affects the performance of welded/surfaced structure in service due to metallurgical changes in the affected region. This work was carried out to investigate the effect of polarity and other SAW parameters on HAZ size and dilution and to establish their correlations. Influence of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone was then carried out. Four levels of heat input were used to study their effect on % dilution and HAZ area at both the electrode positive and electrode negative polarities. Proper management of heat input in welding is important, because power sources can be used more efficiently if one knows how the same heat input can be applied to get the better results. Empirical models have been developed using statistical technique.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DUST GENERATED IN THE RECYCLING PROCESS OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gonçalves Rizz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD is a solid waste generated by the production of steel through the Electric Arc Furnace. This waste is labeled dangerous, which motivates studies aiming its recycling. Experiments were made to study a pyrometallurgical process for the recycling of the dust, using the insertion of dust briquettes in molten pig iron in three temperatures. In the briquettes, there were made additions of calcium fluoride in four different concentrations. This paper has the objective to characterize the dust that results from this process, verifying the influence of the temperature and the concentration of calcium fluoride in the briquette in the morphology and chemical composition of the new dust, determining the optimal conditions for the recovery of the zinc content of the dust. This newly generated dust was analyzed in an Scanning Electronic Microscope, used to capture micrographs and chemical composition by EDS. The micrographs show that the temperature and the calcium fluoride concentration interfere in the way the dust particles agglomerate. Chemical analysis points that the higher zinc recuperation occurrs in the experiments at 1500°C with 7% addition of calcium fluoride.

  15. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high moisture, low rank coals to a high quality, low sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal process enhances low rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 Btu/lb, by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton per hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train load out facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. During this report period the primary focus has been to continue the operation of the demonstration facility. Production has been going to area power plants. Modifications and maintenance work was also performed this quarter.

  16. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  17. Influence of granularity on coal pyrolysis in Ar/H{sub 2} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Tian, Y.; Wang, D.; Xie, K.; Zhu, S. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of C1 Chemistry and Technology, Shanxi key Lab of Coal Science and Technology

    2002-06-01

    Coal pyrolysis in arc plasma is very complex. These are many factors affecting this process, such as coal particle size, type of coal, proportion of working gases (Ar/H{sub 2}) and input powders. Coal pyrolysis in H{sub 2}-rich Ar plasma jet reactor was performed. The effect of granularity on coal conversion, acetylene yield, acetylene molar ratio in product gas and coke formation at the wall of reactor was studied. According to the coke formation mechanism in which the granularity is the key factor, the new way of coal feeding with double apex distribution granularity was put forward to eliminate the coke formation. 10 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Design of a robust fuzzy controller for the arc stability of CO(2) welding process using the Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongcheol; Rhee, Sehun

    2002-01-01

    CO(2) welding is a complex process. Weld quality is dependent on arc stability and minimizing the effects of disturbances or changes in the operating condition commonly occurring during the welding process. In order to minimize these effects, a controller can be used. In this study, a fuzzy controller was used in order to stabilize the arc during CO(2) welding. The input variable of the controller was the Mita index. This index estimates quantitatively the arc stability that is influenced by many welding process parameters. Because the welding process is complex, a mathematical model of the Mita index was difficult to derive. Therefore, the parameter settings of the fuzzy controller were determined by performing actual control experiments without using a mathematical model of the controlled process. The solution, the Taguchi method was used to determine the optimal control parameter settings of the fuzzy controller to make the control performance robust and insensitive to the changes in the operating conditions.

  19. The Origin of Voluminous Dacite (vs. Andesite) at Mature, Thick Continental Arcs: A Reflection of Processes in the Deep Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    An outstanding question is why some continental arc segments are characterized by voluminous eruptions of dacite (65-70 wt% SiO2), whereas others erupt more andesite (58-64 wt% SiO2) than any other magma type. An example of the former is the Altiplano-Puna region of the central Andean arc, which has erupted a predominance of dacite over all magma types 10-1 Ma (de Silva, 1989). In contrast, a 200-km arc segment of the Mexican volcanic arc (Michoacán-Guanajuato arc segment) has erupted ~75% andesite, ~26% basaltic andesite and 20%) of hornblende-rich (~40%) gabbronorite in the deep crust, driven by mantle-derived basalt intrusions at depths of 30-40 km. The absence of any dacite or rhyolite along this arc segment indicates that interstitial liquid from crystal-rich andesites never segregated to form eruptible magma. Thus, little upper-crust differentiation occurred along this arc segment. On the basis of phase-equilibrium experiments in the literature (e.g., Sisson et al., 2005), it is proposed that rhyolite and dacite did form during partial melting of the lower arc crust, but at melt fractions too low (≤15%) to permit efficient transport to the upper crust (Vigneresse and Tikoff, 1999). It is further proposed that the reason why dacite is so abundant at mature thick continental arcs (e.g., Altiplano-Puno complex) may be because mantle-derived basalts are primarily emplaced at similar depths (~30-40 km) in continental arc crustal columns. If so, in the central Andean arc, a depth of 30-40 km is within the middle dioritic crust (Graeber and Asch, 1999). Partial melts of hornblende diorite (vs. hornblende gabbro) are predicted to be dacitic (vs. andesitic) at melt fractions of 20-25%, which permits transport to the upper crust. It is therefore proposed that it is deep crustal processes that determine whether andesite or dacite is the most voluminous magma type emplaced into the upper crust and erupted at arcs.

  20. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  1. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  2. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  3. Digital-image Based Numerical Simulation on Failure Process of High-sulfur Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Junjian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crushing of high-sulfur coal was important for physical desulfurization, but there were little research on crushing mechanism. This paper combined digital image processing technology and rock failure process analysis system RFPA2D to simulate the failure process of high-sulfur coal in Pu'an of Guizhou under uniaxial compression, and discussed the influence of horizontal restraint, existence and different geometric distribution of pyrite particle on mechanical performance and failure process of high-sulfur coal. The numerical results indicated that without horizontal restraint the compressive strength of high-sulfur coal was lower and monomial dissociation of pyrite particle was more sufficient than that with horizontal restraint. The compressive strength of coal containing pyrite particle was larger than that of pure coal and there was stress concentration in upper and lower pyrite particle during failure process. When pyrite particle distributed in the middle position of a coal sample, the compressive strength was higher than that of the other three positions, but monomial dissociation of pyrite particle was more sufficient than that of the other three positions, and this was beneficial to the following desulfurization operation. The study had certain reference value for crushing mechanism, crushing process design, selection of breaking equipment and energy saving and consumption reduction.

  4. Investigations of the effectiveness of lead disposal from hard coal through the cleaning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead, belonging to the category of toxic heavy metals, poses a major threat to the environment and the health and life of living organisms. Anthropogenic sources of lead emissions to the atmosphere include coal combustion, pyrolysis and gasification processes. This metal enters the atmosphere through the fly ashes and gases, causing chemical imbalance in the ecosystem. One way of reducing the emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere due to the thermochemical processing of coal involves removing impurities from the fuel prior to its use, e.g. through the coal cleaning processes. The removal of heavy metals from coal through these processes is possible due to the fact that these elements are mostly related to the mineral matter, which is separated from the organic matter. This paper presents the results of investigations of the removal efficiency of lead from coals through the coal cleaning processes in industrial plants. Additionally, the distribution of lead among individual products of these processes was identified. Raw coals, coal concentrates, intermediate products and waste from five plants of mechanical processing of coking coal were analyzed. The determination of the lead content was performed with the use of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. Moreover, for all the samples, a proximate analysis and ultimate analysis as well as the determination of the content of main elements of mineral matter were conducted. In order to confirm the mode of occurrence of lead in coal mineral matter, an elemental analysis was conducted with the use of an electron microprobe. The results of the investigations showed that with a significant reduction of mineral matter in the coal cleaning processes, the lead content is decreased, as a result of both, the application of the gravity and flotation methods. The analyzed metal accumulates primarily in the waste and/or intermediate products of coal cleaning. The lead content in the obtained coal

  5. Auxiliary particle filter-model predictive control of the vacuum arc remelting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.

    2016-07-01

    Solidification control is required for the suppression of segregation defects in vacuum arc remelting of superalloys. In recent years, process controllers for the VAR process have been proposed based on linear models, which are known to be inaccurate in highly-dynamic conditions, e.g. start-up, hot-top and melt rate perturbations. A novel controller is proposed using auxiliary particle filter-model predictive control based on a nonlinear stochastic model. The auxiliary particle filter approximates the probability of the state, which is fed to a model predictive controller that returns an optimal control signal. For simplicity, the estimation and control problems are solved using Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods. The validity of this approach is verified for a 430 mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode melted into a 510 mm (20 in) diameter ingot. Simulation shows a more accurate and smoother performance than the one obtained with an earlier version of the controller.

  6. Double-sided gas tungsten arc welding process on TC4 titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong-ming; BAI Yan; YANG Tian-dong

    2005-01-01

    TC4 titanium alloy was welded by double-sided gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW) process in comparison with conventional GTAW process, the microstructure and mechanical performance of weld were also studied. The results indicate that double-sided GTAW is superior over regular single-sided GTAW on the aspects of increasing penetration, reducing welding deformation and improving welding efficiency. Good weld joint was obtained, which can reach 96.14% tensile strength and 70.85 % elongation percentage of the base metal. The grains in heat-affected zone(HAZ) are thin and equiaxed and the degree of grain coarsening increases as one moves to the weld center line,and the interior of grains are α and α' structures. The coarse columned and equiaxed grains, which interlace martensitic structures α' and acicular α structures, are observed in weld zone. The fracture mode is ductile fracture.

  7. Crude-oil vs coal-oil processing comparison study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This study evaluates three refinery schemes that have been developed for the processing of H-Coal liquids. The refinery processing employed for the naphtha and lighter components of the H-Coal liquid is essentially the same for all three schemes. It is in the processing of the H-Coal distillate product that refinery variations occur, and these differences are outlined: hydrotreating of the middle coal distillate to produce a No. 2 fuel oil equivalent product; hydrocracking of the total coal distillate to produce more gasoline and higher quality distillate fuel; and hydrotreating of the light coal distillate to a No. 2 fuel oil equivalent, and hydrogenating the heavy coal distillate to upgrade feedstock to a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. To provide a perspective of the value of coal liquid relative to petroleum, a parallel set of petroleum refinery schemes, processing a 65/35 Light/Heavy Arabian crude oil blend, was developed: reduced crude desulfurization with FCC processing of the desulfurized VGO; reduced crude desulfurization with hydrocracking of the desulfurized VGO; solvent demetallization of the vacuum pitch with desulfurization and FCC processing of VGO and demetallized oil; and solvent demetallization of the vacuum pitch with hydrocracking of the VGO and demetallized oil. Various gasoline to distillate ratios were set as parameters in developing the best possible processing schemes. Linear programming techniques were used to select the optimal schemes at various product ratios. Applying the same product prices to all cases and subtracting operating costs and the capital change, a comparative feedstock value is calculated. This method places the various refinery schemes on a common basis and gives an appraisal of the relative value of the H-Coal liquid charge stock, based on new refinery facilities.

  8. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  9. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  10. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  11. The use of non-fossil derived hydrogen in coal conversion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J. S.; Merrick, D.; Smith, M.; Rasmussen, G.

    The National Coal Board, UK, carried out a technical and economic study of the use of non-fossil derived (NFD) hydrogen on three coal conversion processes: methanol synthesis, solid phase hydrogenation (hydrogasification) for substitute natural gas production, and liquid phase hydrogenation (liquifaction) for the manufacture of liquid fuels. Use of NFD hydrogen generally resulted in an increase in the conversion efficiency and carbon utilization, and a reduction in the number of component stages of the process. It was also shown that market conditions could exist in which the use of NFD hydrogen in coal conversion would be preferable to both conventional coal conversion and the direct use of hydrogen, irrespective of the coal price. Substitute natural gas production from synthesis gas (methanation) and the production of liquid fuels from synthesis gas by a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis route were also evaluated and showed similar technical and economic results. Preliminary results of the overall costs of using NFD hydrogen from a nuclear power/electrolysis plant showed that at present fuel prices, coal conversion processes using NFD hydrogen are not competitive with conventional processes, but would be if the price of coal were to double.

  12. Amenability to dry processing of high ash thermal coal using a pneumatic table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dey Shobhana; Gangadhar B.; Gopalkrishna S.J.

    2015-01-01

    High ash thermal coal from India was used to conduct the dry processing of fine coal using a pneumatic table to evolve a techno-economically novel technique. The fine as-received sample having 55.2%ash was subjected to washability studies at variant densities from 1.4 to 2.2 to assess the amenability to separa-tion. The experiments were conducted using a central composite design for assessing the interactive effects of the variable parameters of a pneumatic table on the product yield and ash content. The perfor-mance of the pneumatic table was analyzed in terms of clean coal yield, recovery of combustibles, separation efficiency (Esp) and useful heat value of clean coal. The combustibles of clean coal obtained through a single stage operation at 35% and 38.7% ash were 40% and 63% respectively. However, the two stage processing was more effective in reducing the ash content in the clean coal. The rougher con-centrate generated at higher ash level was subsequently processed in different conditions at 35% ash level, and 58%combustibles could be recovered. Hence, two stage processing increases the combustibles by 18 units and the useful heat value of clean coal increases from 1190 kcal/kg to 3750 kcal/kg.

  13. A comparison of the economics of materials processing with solar furnaces and high-intensity arc lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    The cost and performance of treating materials with a solar furnace were compared to similar treatment with high-intensity electric-arc lamps. Qualitative results indicate that because of the long focal length of the solar furnace, it is capable of performing much dirtier materials processing tasks than the arc lamp. Quantitative results indicate that if the furnace is located in a good solar region, the solar furnace can beat the economics of the lamp by as much as a factor of three under certain operating scenarios. In other scenarios, the lamp is more cost effective. The scenario that appears most promising for the furnace is batch processing that employs flux levels near 500 W/sq cm or greater. At lower flux levels, or in assembly-line-type processing tasks, the arc lamp is preferred.

  14. Biomedical implications of altered product composition in advanced coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Mahlum, D.D.; Pelroy, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Chemical and toxicologic characteristics of direct coal liquefaction materials are highly dependent upon the specific process operations by which the coal liquids were produced, including, in particular, those that affect boiling point range and degree of hydrogen incorporation. Recent advances in direct coal liquefaction technology, such as the use of catalytic hydrogenation, reduced liquefaction severity and lowering the upper temperature cut point for the distillation of fuels, have resulted in products with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios and lower heteroatom content. These higher-quality fuels tend to be less mutagenic and carcinogenic in laboratory assays than earlier coal liquefaction products. It is likely that application of postproduction hydrotreatment, as well as restriction of upper distillation temperature, for coal-based fuel products could result in materials that exhibit mutagenic or carcinogenic activity which is no greater than that of their petroleum-derived counterparts. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs.

  15. A two-stage metal valorisation process from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Issa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates possibility of separate zinc and lead recovery from coal composite pellets, composed of EAFD with other synergetic iron-bearing wastes and by-products (mill scale, pyrite-cinder, magnetite concentrate, through a two-stage process. The results show that in the first, low temp erature stage performed in electro-resistant furnace, removal of lead is enabled due to presence of chlorides in the system. In the second stage, performed at higher temperatures in Direct Current (DC plasma furnace, valorisation of zinc is conducted. Using this process, several final products were obtained, including a higher purity zinc oxide, which, by its properties, corresponds washed Waelz oxide.

  16. 基于 Python 的 ArcGIS 地理数据批处理%The Batch Processing of ArcGIS Geographic Data Based on Python

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方圣辉; 张玉贤; 佃袁勇; 毕创; 任赳龙

    2015-01-01

    ArcGIS地理处理工具一般只针对单个数据集执行,而运用Python脚本语言可以实现地理数据的批处理。本文以原始DEM影像插值生成特定空间分辨率的DEM影像为例,给出数据批处理的具体实现过程。%ArcGIS geoprocessing tools are usually used to process single dataset , however , the batch processing of geographic data can be achieved by using Python language .This article represents the specific processes of achieving the batch processing of geographic data , and gives an example of generating DEM images of specific special resolution with original DEM images .

  17. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  18. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  19. Evaluation of the graphite electrode arc melter for processing heterogeneous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Soelberg, N.R. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory); Anderson, G.L. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory)

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) conducted a series of 4 demonstration melting tests in a 3-phase AC graphite electrode arc furnace at its Albany Research Center (ALRC) thermal treatment facility in Albany, Oregon (now part of the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE). The scope of these tests provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a single melting technology regarding its applicability to the treatment of several different heterogeneous mixed wastes. The current system can continuously process combustible-bearing wastes at feedrates to 682 kg/h (1,500 lb/h), continuously tap slag or glass, and intermittently tap metal products, and includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer and air pollution control system (APCS). The 4 demonstration melting tests were conducted in cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC).

  20. Fine coal circuitry using advanced physical cleaning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Recent investigations have found that enhanced gravity separators (EGS) and flotation columns are highly efficient for cleaning fine coal. The test results presented in this publication show that a circuit comprised of two advanced gravity separators, i.e., a hindered-bed classifier and an EGS, and a flotation column provides an enhanced cleaning efficiency for the treatment of {minus}16 mesh coal. From in-plant experiments, the hindered-bed classifier was found to be a more efficient separation device (E{sub p} = 0.12) than coal spirals (E{sub p} = 0.18) for the treatment of a nominally 16 x 100 mesh coal. Since its efficiency declines for particle sizes less than 48 mesh, the hindered-bed classifier overflow was screened to produce a final +48 mesh concentrate and a {minus}48 mesh fraction that was subsequently treated by circuits incorporating the EGS and flotation column in combination and separately. The best overall circuits in terms of both ash and total sulfur reductions for treating the -16 mesh coal was found to be the Hindered Bed-EGS-EGS and Hindered Bed-EGS-Column circuits. Both circuits rejected over 70% of the ash and over 60% of the pyritic sulfur while recovering over 85% of the combustible material.

  1. Electric Arc Locator in Photovoltaic Power Systems Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Digulescu, Angela; Candel, Ion; Dahmani, Jawad; Ioana, Cornel; Vasile, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present two techniques for the localization of electric arcs produced in photovoltaic power systems. High order statistic analysis (HOSA) and recurrence plot analysis (RPA) have already proven successful in detecting the partial discharges associated with the production of an electric arc in a high voltage power system. However, this solves only the first half of the problem, since a localization of the arc also needed. Using a four sensors array dete...

  2. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  4. Effect of High Coal Injection on Low Silicon Ironmaking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-long; XU Nan-ping; WU Shi-ying

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different coal ratios and reaction temperatures on silicon content in hot metal were studied under the condition of high powder coal injection (PCI) ratio in laboratory. The samples of coke taken from tuyere were analyzed by chemical methods. According to the remnant silicon dioxide in different samples, the effect of PCI ratio on silicon content in hot metal was studied in tuyere area. The results can not only certify the traditional theory, but also explain the relation between high PCI ratio and low silicon.

  5. Raton Coal Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Raton Coal Basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  6. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  7. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)); Korkmaz, M. (Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m[mu] for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  8. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Korkmaz, M. [Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  9. Neuronet Modelling of the Processes of Budgeting and Use of Labour Resources at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlіnska Olha M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues of efficient budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It proves expediency of use of modern neuronet, namely, multilayer perceptron, for solution of tasks of modelling the process of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It shows that Statistika is the best software package for creation of neuronets of the multilayer perceptron architecture. On the basis of analysis and comparative characteristic the article selects the topology and builds a neuronet model of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises.

  10. A comparison of thermal conversion process for several coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y.; Shui, H.; Yuan, X. [East China Metallurgical Institute, Ma`anshan (China)

    1995-03-01

    The property and constituents of coal tar pitch are of great importance to the production of raw material for needle coke. Structural constituents of five coal tar pitches were determined using {sup 1}H-NMR. Besides, thermal conversion process of these pitches in which primary quinoline in soluble fraction was removed by centrifugal separation method was also investigated. The experimental results show Baogang (I) and Meishan coal tar pitches meet the requirements of raw material for needle coke. The thermal conversion data was correlated with structural parameters. 6 refs.,1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Numerical simulation of distribution regularities of dust concentration during the ventilation process of coal roadway driving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Jiang, Z.; Wang, S.; Liu, Y. [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    The paper examined the distribution regularities of dust, based on the theory of two-phase flow of gas and solid, and the characteristics of the coal mine driving working face, using the discrete phase models of computational fluid mechanics to simulate the dust concentration during the ventilation process of coal roadway driving with forced ventilation. In a coal roadway driving with forced ventilation, the concentration of whole dust and respirable dust is higher in the area close to the working face, the concentration will decrease towards the exit of the roadway. It was found that exhaust ventilation is better than forced ventilation for dust removal. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Relationship between geometric welding parameters and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arc in GMAW-S process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Huanca Cayo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Show the relationship between geometric characteristics of the weld bead and the optical-acoustic emissions from electric arc during welding in the GMAW-S process.Design/methodology/approach: Bead on plate welding experiments was carried out setting different process parameters. Every welding parameter group was set aiming to reach a high stability level what guarantee a geometrical uniformity in the weld beads. In each experiment was simultaneously acquired arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emissions; from them were computed parameters as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate. It was used a tri-dimensional LASER scanner for to acquire geometrical information from the weld beads surface as width and height of the bead. Depth penetration was measured from sectional cross cutting of weld beads.Findings: Previous analysis showed that the arc emission parameters reach a stationary state with different characteristic for each experiment group which means that there is some correlation level between them. Posterior analysis showed that from infrared parameter is possible to monitoring external weld bead geometry and principally its penetration depth. From acoustic parameter is possible to monitoring principally the external weld bead geometry. Therefore is concluded that there is a close relation between the arc emissions and the weld bead geometry and that them could be used to measuring the welding geometrical parameters.Research limitations/implications: After analysis it was noticed that the infrared sensing has a better performance than acoustic sensing in the depth penetration monitoring. Infrared sensing also sources some information about external geometric parameters that in conjunction with the acoustic sensing is possible to have reliable information about weld bead geometry. This method of sensing geometric parameters could be applied in other welding processes, but is necessary to have

  13. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  14. Sasol process technology - the challenge of synfuels from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.N.

    1986-08-01

    Description is given of how the design challenges were met in commissioning the Sasol Two plant in 1980, a larger plant than Sasol One, and devoted to producing liquid fuels. The design parameters included treating South African coals of poor quality with high ash contents, and rapidity in building the plant.

  15. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuo-gui; YAN Hong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surface quench, the influence law of the heat process、cooling course、 temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  16. Modeling and numerical analysis of an atypical convective coal drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stakic, M.; Tsotsas, E. [Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents modeling and numerical simulation of batch convective coal drying in a deep packed bed after a high-pressure steam treatment (a part of the Fleissner coal drying process). The process is atypical, because ambient air is used to dry, and cool hot particles, while usually, e.g., in the deep packed bed drying of biomaterials, hot air is contacting cold particles. Product-specific data (intraparticle mass transfer, gas-solids moisture equilibrium) for coal (here lignite) are taken from the literature. Available data on coal drying in packed beds of medium height are used for model validation. Then, the model is applied to the considered industrial process. The design point of the process is critically reviewed, and alternatives are developed by systematically simulating the influence of inlet air conditions (temperature, humidity, flow-rate) and coal particle size. This type of analysis is necessary for efficiently scheduling plant dryers, since coal particle size may change, and air inlet temperature and humidity are changing with the ambient conditions.

  17. Sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. Part II. A model of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Borislav Grubor; Mladen Ilic; Branimir Jovancicevic

    2003-07-01

    An overall model for sulfur self-retention in ash during coal particle combustion is developed in this paper. It is assumed that sulfur retention during char combustion occurs due to the reaction between SO{sub 2} and CaO in the form of uniformly distributed non-porous grains. Parametric analysis shows that the process of sulfur self-retention is limited by solid diffusion through the non-porous product layer formed on the CaO grains and that the most important coal characteristics which influence sulfur self-retention are coal rank, content of sulfur forms, molar Ca/S ratio and particle radius. A comparison with the experimentally obtained values in a FB reactor showed that the model can adequately predict the kinetics of the process, the levels of the obtained values of the SSR efficiencies, as well as the influence of temperature and coal particle size.

  18. Sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. Part II. A model of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANIMIR JOVANCICEVIC

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available An overall model for sulfur self-retention in ash during coal particle combustion is developed in this paper. It is assumed that sulfur retention during char combustion occurs due to the reaction between SO2 and CaO in the form of uniformly distributed non-porous grains. Parametric analysis shows that the process of sulfur self-retention is limited by solid difussion through the non-porous product layer formed on the CaO grains and that the most important coal characteristics which influence sulfur self-retention are coal rank, content of sulfur forms, molar Ca/S ratio and particle radius. A comparison with the experimentally obtained values in a FB reactor showed that the model can adequately predict the kinetics of the process, the levels of the obtained values of the SSR efficiencies, as well as the influence of temperature and coal particle size.

  19. Effect of annealing process on TiN/TiC bilayers grown by pulsed arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Rivera, L., E-mail: lramosr@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 via al Aeropuerto Campus La Nubia (Colombia); Escobar, D.; Benavides-Palacios, V.; Arango, P.J.; Restrepo-Parra, E. [Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 via al Aeropuerto Campus La Nubia (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, a study of annealing process effect on TiN/TiC bilayer is presented. The annealing temperature was varied between room temperature and 500 Degree-Sign C. Materials were produced by the plasma-assisted pulsed vacuum arc discharge technique. In order to grow the films, a target of Ti with 99.9999% purity and stainless-steel 304 substrate were used. For the production of TiN layer, the reaction chamber was filled up with nitrogen gas until reaching 25 Pa and the discharge was performed at 310 V. The TiC layer was grown in a methane atmosphere at 30 Pa and 270 V. X-ray diffraction and X photoelectron spectroscopy were employed for studying the structure and chemical composition evolution during the annealing process. At 400 Degree-Sign C, TiO{sub 2} phase begun to appear and it was well observed at 500 Degree-Sign C. Crystallite size and microstrain was obtained as a function of the annealing temperature. XPS technique was employed for analyzing the bilayers before and after the annealing process. Narrow spectra of Ti2p, N1s and O1s were obtained, presenting TiO phases.

  20. Uniaxial compression CT and acoustic emission test on the coal crack propagation destruction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-hong LIU; Yao-dong JIANG; Yi-xin ZHAO; Jie ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic emission test and CT scanning are important techniques in the study of coal crack propagation.A uniaxial compression test was performed on coal samples by integrating CT and acoustic emission.The test comparison analyzes the acoustic emission load and CT images for an effective observation on the entire process,from crack propagation to the samples' destruction.The box dimension of the coal samples' acoustic emission series and the CT images were obtained through calculations by using the authors' own program.The results show that the fractal dimension of both the acoustic emission energy and CT image increase rapidly,indicating coal and rock mass has entered a dangerous condition.Hence,measures should be taken to unload the pressure of the coal and rock mass.The test results provide intuitive observation data for the coal meso-damage model.The test contributes to in-depth studies of coal or rock crack propagation mechanisms and provides a theoretical basis for rock burst mechanism.

  1. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1991--September 19, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    One of the main goals for competitive coal liquefaction is to decrease gas yields to reduce hydrogen consumption. Complexing this element as methane and ethane decreases process efficiently and is less cost effective. To decrease the gas yield and increase the liquid yield, an effective preconversion process has been explored on the basis of the physically associated molecular nature of coal. Activities have been focused on two issues: (1) maximizing the dissolution of associated coal and (2) defining the different reactivity associated with a wide molecular weight distribution. Two-step soaking at 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C in a recycle oil was found to be very effective for coal solubilization. No additional chemicals, catalysts, and hydrogen are required for this preconversion process. High-volatile bituminous coals tested before liquefaction showed 80--90% conversion with 50--55% oil yields. New preconversion steps suggested are as follows: (1) dissolution of coal with two-step high-temperature soaking, (2) separation into oil and heavy fractions of dissolved coal with vacuum distillation, and (3) selective liquefaction of the separated heavy fractions under relatively mild conditions. Laboratory scale tests of the proposed procedure mode using a small autoclave showed a 30% increase in the oil yield with a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. This batch operation projects a substantial reduction in the ultimate cost of coal liquefaction.

  2. Net coal thickness in the Johnson-107 coal zone, South Carbon coalfield, Wyoming (sccat)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a representation of the Johnson-107 coal zone net coal thickness. The Johnson-107 coal zone is in the South Carbon coalfield in the...

  3. Deposição por plasma com arco transferido Hardfacing by plasma transfer arc process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vergara Díaz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude do Processo de Soldagem Plasma com Alimentação de Pó ter similaridades com o Processo de Soldagem Plasma com Alimentação de Arame, foi realizado um estudo comparativo entre ambos os processos utilizando-se a liga a base de cobalto comercialmente conhecida como Stellite 6, como material de adição na forma de pó e arame. A pesquisa foi realizada com a expectativa de ser aplicada nas operações de revestimentos de superfícies, em especial em pás de turbinas hidráulicas desgastadas por cavitação. A seleção do material de adição a ser empregado depende da natureza do mecanismo de desgaste encontrado. No Labsolda, a liga Stellite 6 vem sendo uma das mais utilizadas, por apresentar uma excelente resistência ao desgaste erosivo por cavitação. Foi avaliada a influência da vazão de gás de plasma a partir dos valores de diluição, dimensões do cordão, dureza e microestrutura. O Processo de Soldagem Plasma com Alimentação de Pó foi o que produziu o melhor acabamento superficial, menor diluição, melhor molhamento e maior largura. Com isto abre-se uma nova perspectiva para revestimentos metálicos e neste contexto se insere a recuperação por soldagem de partes erodidas de turbinas hidráulicas.The Plasma powder transferred arc welding process, which uses feed stock in the powder form, has similarities with Plasma wire transferred arc welding. This work describes a comparative study of the two processes using a Cobalt-based alloy commercially known as Stellite 6. This Co-based alloy is recognized for its superior cavitation erosion resistance. The aim of this work is to investigate the potential of PTA coatings for the protection and refurbishiment hydraulic turbine blades. Coatings were evaluated for the influence of Plasma gas flow rate on coating dilution, geometry, hardness and microstructure. Coatings processed with the atomized Stellite 6 powder feestock showed a superior surface quality, lower dilution

  4. 煤质变化对Shell粉煤气化工艺的影响%THE EFFECT OF COAL QUALITY CHANGE ON SHELL PULVERIZED-COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国祥

    2011-01-01

    The Shell pulverized-coal gasification process is introduced,the specific requirement for coal quality by Shell pulverized-coal gasification process summarized,several factors related to coal quality and the effect of the changes of these factors on Shell pulverized-coal gasification plant highlighted and the preventive measures based on the effects concluded.%介绍Shell粉煤气化工艺流程,总结Shell粉煤气化工艺对煤质的具体要求,阐述与煤质相关的几方面因素及这些因素的变化对Shell粉煤气化装置的影响,并根据这些影响得出相应的预防措施。

  5. Recovery of Zn from acid mine water and electric arc furnace dust in an integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Francisco; Romero, Rafael; Mazuelos, Alfonso; Iglesias, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the purification of acid mine water and the treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) are integrated into one process with the aim of recovering the Zn content of both effluent and waste. Zinc recovery can reduce the cost of their environmental management: purified acid mine water is discharged after removing all metals; EAFD ceases to be hazardous waste; and Zn is valorised. The process consists of the recovery of Zn as zinc oxide and its purification into commercial products. First, EAFD is leached with acid water and the dissolved metals are selectively precipitated as hydroxides. After EADF leaching, ferrous iron is bio-oxidized and Fe and Al are then precipitated; in the following stage, Cu, Ni, Co and Cd are cemented and finally Zn is precipitated as ZnO. In order to purify water that finally is discharged to a river, lime is used as the neutralizing agent, which results in a precipitate of mainly gypsum, MnO, and ZnO. From the impure zinc oxide produced, various alternatives for the attainment of commercial products, such as basic zinc carbonate and electrolytic zinc, are studied in this work.

  6. KEYHOLE IMAGE PROCESSING OF VARIABLE POLARITY PLASMA ARC WELDING BASED ON WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to realize the feedback control for variable polarity plasma arc welding (VPPAW) formation in the welding process, the geometrical sizes of the keyhole image must be extracted. With the properties of multiscale edge through the wavelet theory, the edge points were detected by getting the maximum modules of the gradient vector in the dircetion towards which the gradient vector points in the image plane. At coarse scales, the local maxima of modules have different positions and only detected the sharp edge. At fine scale, there are many maxima created by the image noise. The best scale where the edges are well discriminated from noises is discussed by the multiscale transform. At last, a new method of peak analysis for threshold selection is provided. It is based on the wavelet transform which provides a multiscale analysis of the information of the histogram. Many experiments show these ways are effective for the keyhole image to get the geometry parameters of the keyhole in the real-time VPPAW image processing.

  7. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  8. Coal Gasification Processes for Retrofitting Military Central Heating Plants: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    inorganic material remainitig after coal is completely combusted. At high temperatures, the ash will melt and clinkers may form. The ash composition ...was employed until 1941 by more than 9000 producers worldwide. Units installed in 1933 and 1948 are currently operating in South Africa . In 1980...Springs. South Africa Vaal Potteries Ltd. 1 8.5 Bituminous Operational Meyerton, South Africa Union Steel Corporation 2 10 Bituminous Operational

  9. Low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    Coal gasifiers, for the production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gases, come in a wide variety of designs and capacities. For single gasifier vessels gas energy production rates range from about 1 to 18 billion Btu/day. The key characteristics of gasifiers that would be of importance for their application as an energy source in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated here. The types of gasifiers considered here are single- and two-stage, fixed-bed units; fluidized-bed units; and entrained-bed units, as producers of both low-Btu (less than 200 Btu/SCF and medium-Btu (200 to 400 Btu/SCF) gases. The gasifiers are discussed with respect to maximum and minimum capacity, the effect of feed coal parameters, product characteristics, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, reliability, and cost. Some of the most recent development work in this area of coal conversion, and use of these gas products also is considered. Except in small plant installations (< 10/sup 9/ Btu/day) the annual operating costs for the various gasifier types are approximately the same. This is somewhat surprising in view of the personnel requirements, efficiencies, utility requirements, heating value of the product gas, and operating characteristics associated with each. Operating costs tend to increase with a power function exponent of 0.92 (i.e., a doubling in plant capacity increases the operating cost by about 1.9).

  10. CHINA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN COAL MINING,PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范维唐; 王成龙; 朱德仁

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art and outlook of coal mining and clean coal echnology in China. As the major mining method,underground mining accounts for 96% of the total production. Among the state own mines, the percentage of mechanized mining reached 71%. A rapid development of high-productive and high-profitable mines,especially those with longwall sublevel caving method, is described. The issues of heavy duty equipment, roof bolting, mine safety are also addressed. The Chinese government is paying more and more attention on the environmental problems inducing from coal mining,processing and utilization. A basic framework of clean coal technology is being formed and a wide range of technology is included.

  11. Evolution of Submicrometer Organic Aerosols during a Complete Residential Coal Combustion Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

    2016-07-19

    In the absence of particulate matter (PM) control devices, residential coal combustion contributes significantly to ambient PM pollution. Characterizing PM emissions from residential coal combustion with high time resolution is beneficial for developing control policies and evaluating the environmental impact of PM. This study reports the evolution of submicrometer organic aerosols (OA) during a complete residential coal combustion process, that is, from fire start to fire extinction. Three commonly used coal types (bituminous, anthracite, and semicoke coals) were evaluated in a typical residential stove in China. For all three types of coal, the OA emission exhibited distinct characteristics in the four stages, that is, ignition, fierce combustion, relatively stable combustion, and ember combustion. OA emissions during the ignition stage accounted for 58.2-85.4% of the total OA emission of a complete combustion process. The OA concentration decreased rapidly during the fierce combustion stage and remained low during the relatively stable combustion stage. During these two stages, a significant ion peak of m/z 73 from organic acids were observed. The degree of oxidation of the OA increased from the first stage to the last stage. Implications for ambient OA source-apportionment and residential PM emission characterization and control are discussed.

  12. Blending Influence on the Conversion Efficiency of the Cogasification Process of Corn Stover and Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ike Anukam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of biomass and coal were undertaken in order to compare their properties and determine the combustion characteristics of both feedstocks. The study was also intended to establish whether the biomass (corn stover used for this study is a suitable feedstock for blending with coal for the purpose of cogasification based on composition and properties. Proximate and ultimate analyses as well as energy value of both samples including their blends were undertaken and results showed that corn stover is a biomass material well suited for blending with coal for the purpose of cogasification, given its high volatile matter content which was measured and found to be 75.3% and its low ash content of 3.3% including its moderate calorific value of 16.1%. The results of the compositional analyses of both pure and blended samples of corn stover and coal were used to conduct computer simulation of the cogasification processes in order to establish the best blend that would result in optimum cogasification efficiency under standard gasifier operating conditions. The final result of the cogasification simulation process indicated that 90% corn stover/10% coal resulted in a maximum efficiency of about 58% because conversion was efficiently achieved at a temperature that is intermediate to that of coal and corn stover independently.

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  14. Investigating by EPR the reaction processes of intermediate products from the thermodestruction of binary mixtures of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonomopulo, V.P.

    1983-03-01

    Binary mixtures of long-flame, gas-bituminous, coking, lean-caking, and lean coals are used to study the processes for the interaction of intermediate products of the thermodestruction of coals. The value and sign of the paramagnetic effect which occurs during simultaneous heating of coals in a binary mixture are determined by the relative position of each coal on the metamorphic scale. The possible role of plastification and reaction of the two coals in the formation of an ordered paramagnetic structure are demonstrated. 4 references.

  15. Mathematical modelling of convective processes in a weld pool under electric arc surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychev, V. D.; Granovskii, A. Yu; Nevskii, S. A.; Konovalov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The authors develop the mathematical model of convective processes in a molten pool under electric arc surfacing with flux-cored wire. The model is based on the ideas of how convective flows appear due to temperature gradient and action of electromagnetic forces. Influence of alloying elements in the molten metal was modeled as a non-linear dependence of surface tension upon temperature. Surface tension and its temperature coefficient were calculated according to the electron density functional method with consideration to asymmetric electron distribution at the interface “molten metal / shielding gas”. Simultaneous solution of Navier-Stokes and Maxwell equations according to finite elements method with consideration to the moving heat source at the interface showed that there is a multi-vortex structure in the molten metal. This structure gives rise to a downward heat flux which, at the stage of heating, moves from the centre of the pool and stirs it full width. At the cooling stage this flux moves towards the centre of the pool and a single vortex is formed near the symmetry centre. This flux penetration is ∼ 10 mm. Formation of the downward heat flux is determined by sign reversal of the temperature coefficient of surface tension due to the presence of alloying elements.

  16. Integrated hydrometallurgical process for production of zinc from electric arc furnace dust in alkaline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youcai, Z; Stanforth, R

    2000-12-30

    In this study, a novel and integrated hydrometallurgical process for the production of zinc powder from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust in alkaline medium is reported. The dust is firstly hydrolysed in water, and then fused in caustic soda at 350 degrees C for 1h, followed by leaching in alkaline solution in which both zinc and lead are effectively extracted. Zinc powder is then produced by electrowinning from the leach solution after the lead is selectively removed by precipitation using sodium sulphide as precipitant. The EAF dust tested contained 25% Zn, 1.8% Pb and 33% Fe. It was found that 38% of zinc and 68% of lead could be extracted from the dust when leached directly in caustic soda solution. Leaching of zinc increased to 80% when dust was directly fused with caustic soda followed by alkaline leaching. However, the leaching further increased to 95% when the dust was hydrolysed first with water before fusion. Zinc powder with a purity of 99.95% was then produced by electrowinning from the lead depleted solution. Stainless electrodes were used as both anode and cathode.

  17. The record of magma chamber processes in plagioclase phenocrysts at Thera Volcano, Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelopoulou-Seymour, Karen; Vlassopoulos, Dimitrios; Pearce, Thomas H.; Rice, Craig

    1990-01-01

    Lavas and pyroclastic rocks throughout the volcanic stratigraphy of the Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic complex of Thera in the Aegean island arc display inhomogenous plagioclase populations and phenocryst resorption textures, interpreted as indicative of magma mixing. Plagioclase zoning characteristics studied by Nomarski and laser interferometry techniques establish three main categories of plagioclase: (i) inherited plagioclase (nucleated in endmember prior to initial mixing event) (ii) in situ plagioclase (nucleated in mixed or hybrid magma) and (iii) xenocrystic plagioclase. Nomarski contrast images and linearized compositional zoning profiles reveal striking differences between calcic and sodic plagioclases, depending on the composition of the lava in which they are hosted. These differences reflect the contrasting effects of changes in physical-chemical parameters in basic vis-a-vis more acidic melts during magma mixing and/or influx of new magma into the subvolcanic magma chamber, as well as the influence of magma chamber dynamics on plagioclase equilibration. Variations in bulk major and trace element abundances of Thera volcanic products reflect the dominant overprint of crystal fractionation, but decoupling between major and trace element fractionation models and variations in incompatible trace element distributions are all indicative of magma mixing processes, consistent with compositional and textural zoning in plagioclases.

  18. Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Gas-Containing Coal during Loading Dilation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw coal was used as the study object in this paper to identify the evolution characteristics of acoustic emission (AE during the dilation process of gas-containing coal. The coal specimens were stored in gas seal devices filled with gas at different pressures (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 MPa for 24 h prior to testing. Then, the specimens were tested in a rock-testing machine, and the deformation and crack fracture patterns were recorded by using strain gauges and an AE system. The axial and volumetric strains–stress curves were analyzed in relation to the AE and the failure mode. Results show that as gas pressure increases, the uniaxial compression strength and elasticity modulus of gas-containing coal decreases, whereas the Poisson’s ratio increases. In all the coal specimens, the dilation initiation stress decreases, and the dilation degree increases. During the dilation process, before the loaded coal specimens reach peak stress, and as the load increases, the changes in the specimens and in the AE energy parameter of specimens can be divided into four phases: crack closure deformation, elastic deformation, stable crack propagation, and unstable crack propagation (dilation process. Across the four phases, the AE energy increases evidently during crack closure and elastic deformation but decreases during stable crack propagation. As the gas pressure increases, the AE signal frequency increases from 4.5 KHz to 8.1 KHz during the dilation process. Thus, the gas presence in coal specimens exerts a significant influence on the closure of sample cracks and dilation damage.

  19. Sensoring fusion data from the optic and acoustic emissions of electric arcs in the GMAW-S process for welding quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Sadek Crisóstomo Absi; Cayo, Eber Huanca

    2012-01-01

    The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms.

  20. Sensoring Fusion Data from the Optic and Acoustic Emissions of Electric Arcs in the GMAW-S Process for Welding Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eber Huanca Cayo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms.

  1. Plasma Torch for Plasma Ignition and Combustion of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustimenko, Alexandr; Messerle, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-fuel systems (PFS) have been developed to improve coal combustion efficiency. PFS is a pulverized coal burner equipped with arc plasma torch producing high temperature air stream of 4000 - 6000 K. Plasma activation of coal at the PFS increases the coal reactivity and provides more effective ignition and ecologically friendly incineration of low-rank coal. The main and crucial element of PFS is plasma torch. Simplicity and reliability of the industrial arc plasma torches using cylindrical copper cathode and air as plasma forming gas predestined their application at heat and power engineering for plasma aided coal combustion. Life time of these plasma torches electrodes is critical and usually limited to 200 hours. Considered in this report direct current arc plasma torch has the cathode life significantly exceeded 1000 hours. To ensure the electrodes long life the process of hydrocarbon gas dissociation in the electric arc discharge is used. In accordance to this method atoms and ions of carbon from near-electrode plasma deposit on the active surface of the electrodes and form electrode carbon condensate which operates as ``actual'' electrode. Complex physicochemical investigation showed that deposit consists of nanocarbon material.

  2. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  3. New Coke Oven Facilities at Linhuan Coal Chemical Company Adopt LyondellBasell's Aromatics Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The new 80 kt/a coal chemical unit at the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company in Anhui province will adopt the aro-matics extraction process licensed by LyondellBasell Company. This unit is expected to come on stream by 2009.This technology is suitable for manufacture of high-purity aromatics with broad adaptability and large scale produc-tion capability. In the previous year LyondellBasell was awarded six patents on aromatics extraction process. It is told that the achievements to be adopted by the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company are partly a series of aromatics extrac-tion processes for recovery of coke oven light oil performed by LyondellBasell.

  4. The role of recycle oil in direct coal liquefaction process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, F.P.

    1995-08-01

    It has long been recognized that use of a recycle oil is a convenient and perhaps necessary feature of a practical direct coal liquefaction process. The recycle oil performs a number of important functions. It serves as a vehicle to convey coal into the liquefaction reactor and products from the reactor. It is a medium for mass and heat transfer among the solid, liquid, and gaseous components of the reactor inventory. It can act as a reactant or intermediate in the liquefaction process. Therefore, the nature of the recycle oil can have a determining effect on process configuration and performance, and the characterization of recycle oil composition and chemistry has been the subject of considerable interest. This paper discusses recycle oil characterization and its influence on the industrial development of coal liquefaction technology,

  5. Availability (energetic) analysis of coal gasification process. Pt. 1. Theoretical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.; Conger, W.L.

    1981-10-01

    The concepts of availability, energy, and of exergetic efficiency are developed for use in evaluating coal gasification processes. The problem of defining the thermodynamic surroundings is discussed, and the approach of Bosnjakovic is used to select surroundings. In the second paper in this series the analysis is illustrated by applying it in evaluating the Synthane Gasification process. (13 refs.)

  6. Hocodems technology in comparison with conventional separation processes for coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczynski, P. [Heinrich Holter GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The new Hocodems technology, which is an advanced development of the Larcodems process, is presented and compared with conventional separation processes in coal preparation: Ep values and separation densities for a selected particle size range are compared. Comparisons of investment and operating costs are also made. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD): part I: Characterization and leaching by diluted sulphuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustadakis, P; Tsakiridis, P E; Katsiapi, A; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2010-07-15

    The present paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the development of an integrated process for the recovery of zinc from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Part I presents the EAFD characterization and its leaching process by diluted sulphuric acid, whereas Part II deals with the purification of the leach liquor and the recovery of zinc by solvent extraction/electrowinning. The characterization of the examined electric arc furnace dust was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The leaching process was based on the Zn extraction with diluted sulphuric acid from EAFD under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The zinc recovery efficiency on the basis of EAFD weight reached 80%. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the leached residues.

  8. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) emissions from scrap processing steel plants with electric-arc furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) emissions of scrap iron processing steel plants were explored by measuring concentrations in stack gases of five plants, in the atmosphere (n=11) at a site close to those plants, and in soil at several sites in the region (n=40) in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey. Observed stack-gas Σ32PCN levels from the plants without scrap preheating (189±157ngNm(-3), average±SD, n=4) showed that they are substantial PCN emitting sources. Stack-gas Σ32PCN level for the plant with scrap preheating was considerably higher (1262ngNm(-3)). Similarly, Σ32PCN emission factor for this plant was substantially higher (11.9mgton(-1)) compared to those without scrap preheating (1.30±0.98mgton(-1)). Results have also suggested that the investigated steel plants emit large quantities of fugitive particle-phase PCNs. Measured soil Σ32PCN concentrations that are considered to be representative of the atmospheric levels were greatly variable in the region, ranging between 0.003 and 10.02μgkg(-1) (dry wt). Their spatial distribution showed that main PCN sources in the region were the iron-steel plants. Ambient air levels (1620±800pgm(-3)) were substantially higher than ones observed around the world and in the study area verifying that the steel plants with electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are important PCN sources. Investigation of possible mechanisms suggested that the combustion processes also contribute to emissions from EAFs in addition to evaporation of PCNs present in the scrap iron.

  9. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Part II: Downstream processing and zinc recovery by electrowinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Oustadakis, P; Katsiapi, A; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2010-07-15

    The characterization and the agitation leaching of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) by diluted sulphuric acid have been studied in Part I, as a separate article. The aim of the present research work (Part II) is the development of a purification process of the leach liquor for the recovery of high-purity zinc by electrowinning. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of the following four (4) unit operations: (1) Removal of iron as easily filterable crystalline basic sulphate salt of the jarosite type, at atmospheric pressure, by chemical precipitation at pH: 3.5 and 95 degrees C. (2) Zinc solvent extraction by Cyanex 272 at pH: 3.5, T: 40 degrees C, with 25% extractant concentration. (3) Stripping of the loaded organic phase by zinc spent electrolyte (62.5 g/L Zn(2+)) at T: 40 degrees C with diluted H(2)SO(4) (3 mol/L). (4) Zinc electrowinning from sulphate solutions (at 38 degrees C) using Al as cathode and Pb as anode. The acidity of the electrolyte was fixed at 180 g/L H(2)SO(4), while the current density was kept constant at 500 A/m(2).

  10. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-03-31

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the tenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period October 1 through December 31, 1996. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized two HTI coal/petroleum coprocessing samples for Ni and V concentrations, as requested by DOE. The results are reported in Appendix 1. (2) CONSOL began work to evaluate the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers, and specifically ethylphenyl ethers, from coal liquefaction phenols. The work includes a literature review and experimentation. The status of this ongoing work is described in this report. (3) A set of samples was requested from HTI Run ALC-2 (Appendix 2). (4) The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is developing a kinetic mechanistic model of resid reactivity. A summary of Delaware`s progress is appended to this report (Appendix 3). (5) A paper was submitted for presentation at the 213th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, April 13-17, 1997, in San Francisco, CA, (Appendix 4).

  11. Analysis of the Vacuum Arc Interruption Process in Aviation Intermediate-Frequency Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our research into the interruption performance of vacuum circuit breakers in aviation intermediate-frequency (360 Hz to 800 Hz power supply systems. Intermediate-frequency vacuum arc experiments were carried out in interrupters with a diameter of 41 mm and CuCr50 alloy contact material. The results show that, as the frequency and peak value of the current increase, both the peak value and rise rate of the intermediate-frequency vacuum arc voltage also increase, and the interruption ability decreases. However, compared to the power frequency current at the same value, the erosion of the contacts is weaker over a shorter arc period. When the vacuum arc reignites, metal droplets are emitted from the contacts. The drive force is from the center of the contact to the edge. If the density of the plasmas and metal vapors and the number of the metal droplets reaches a certain level, the arc may break down, which will cause the interruption to fail.

  12. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, J.P.; Pietruszka, A.J.; Trusdell, F.A.; Garcia, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4ka) and post-caldera (shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and an increase in the sediment contribution (higher Th/Nb, La/Sm, and Pb isotopic ratios) from Mt. Pagan to South Pagan could reflect systematic cross-arc or irregular along-arc melting variations. These observations indicate that the length scale of compositional heterogeneity in the mantle wedge beneath Mariana arc volcanoes is small (~10km).

  13. Application Of Relevance Maps Method To Evaluate The Suitability Of Coal Samples For Fluidal Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamroz Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The methods being used to visualization of multidimensional data through transformation of multidimensional space into two-dimensional space allow to present multidimensional data on computer screen. Among such methods, relevance maps method can be found which was used in this paper to present and analyze set of seven-dimensional data describing coal samples originating from both mines. It was decided to check whether this method of visualization of multidimensional data allows to divide the samples space into subspaces of various usefulness to the process of fluidal gasification or not. The method enables the visualisation of the optimal subspace containing the set requirements concerning the properties of coals intended for this process.

  14. Optimization of Process Parameters of Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding onto 316L Using Ensemble of Metamodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Jiang, Ping; Shao, Xinyu; Gao, Zhongmei; Cao, Longchao; Yue, Chen; Li, Xiongbin

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (LAW) provides an effective way to overcome problems commonly encountered during either laser or arc welding such as brittle phase formation, cracking, and porosity. The process parameters of LAW have significant effects on the bead profile and hence the quality of joint. This paper proposes an optimization methodology by combining non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and ensemble of metamodels (EMs) to address multi-objective process parameter optimization in LAW onto 316L. Firstly, Taguchi experimental design is adopted to generate the experimental samples. Secondly, the relationships between process parameters ( i.e., laser power ( P), welding current ( A), distance between laser and arc ( D), and welding speed ( V)) and the bead geometries are fitted using EMs. The comparative results show that the EMs can take advantage of the prediction ability of each stand-alone metamodel and thus decrease the risk of adopting inappropriate metamodels. Then, the NSGA-II is used to facilitate design space exploration. Besides, the main effects and contribution rates of process parameters on bead profile are analyzed. Eventually, the verification experiments of the obtained optima are carried out and compared with the un-optimized weld seam for bead geometries, weld appearances, and welding defects. Results illustrate that the proposed hybrid approach exhibits great capability of improving welding quality in LAW.

  15. Carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust and calcination of waelz oxide by semi-pilot scale rotary furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Morcali M.H.; Yucel O.; Aydin A.; Derin B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives a common outline about the known recycling techniques from electric arc furnace dusts and describes an investigation of a pyrometallurgical process for the recovery of zinc and iron from electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). In the waelz process, the reduction of zinc and iron from the waste oxides using solid carbon (lignite coal) was studied. In the reduction experiments; temperature, time and charge type (powder and pellet) were investigated in detail. It was demonstrate...

  16. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN: Underground Coal Mines in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COAL_UND, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN, is a polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the location and extent of underground coal mines in the...

  17. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN: Underground Coal Mine Entrances in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SW_COAL_ENTRY, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN, is a point- based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations of underground coal mine entrances in the...

  18. Application of coal-water slurry on the rotary calcining kiln of pedgion magnesium reduction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-qing; XIE Shui-sheng; LIU Jin-ping; WU Peng-yue; HUANG Guo-jie

    2006-01-01

    Energy saving has been an important concept in modern industry especially to the countries and regions with energy shortage such as China and Japan. Utilization of Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) can improve the burning efficiency of coal and reduce the pollutions of soot, sulfide and the nitride by burning lump coal directly. The CWS is a promising energy saving technique and the effectual substitute of oil. The study on the preparation and application of the CWS has made progresses in many aspects. The present paper studied the basal problems for applying the CWS on the rotary kilns during the calcining-dolomite process in the magnesium factory, summarized the key points for the application process of the CWS and gave the corresponding solutions.

  19. Alternative process schemes for coal conversion. Progress report No. 4, September 1, 1979-March 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansone, M.J.

    1980-04-01

    This progress report is divided into two parts. In Part A, the results of the first three progress reports which dealt with the separation of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2//CH/sub 4//CO mixtures resulting from coal gasification processes are briefly summarized. The separation calculations were performed for ideal, cryogenic, clathrate (gas-hydrate), and absorption/stripping separation processes. The cryogenic separation indicates the least energy requirement. Work on this phase of the program has been concluded. An experimental coal gasification program is being undertaken. In Part B, a review smmary of existing and developing coal gasificaton processes is presented. The relative merits of gasifier type, heating method, operating mode, process conditions, and gasifying medium are considered. This is followed by a qualitative appraisal of several selected coal gasification processes based upon the above considerations. It is intended that this report will help focus attention on those areas in which significant process improvements can be realized. The report concludes with a series of recommendations for future work.

  20. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy during Pulsed Plasma Arc Deposition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fujia Xu; Yaohui Lv; Yuxin Liu; Fengyuan Shu; Peng He; Binshi Xu

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed plasma arc deposition (PPAD),which combines pulsed plasma cladding with rapid prototyping,is a promising technology for manufacturing near net shape components due to its superiority in cost and convenience of processing.In the present research,PPAD was successfully used to fabricate the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 625 components.The microstructures and mechanical properties of deposits were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),optical microscopy (OM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS),microhardness and tensile testers.It was found that the as-deposited structure exhibited homogenous columnar dendrite structure,which grew epitaxially along the deposition direction.Moreover,some intermetallic phases such as Laves phase,minor MC (NbC,TiC) carbides and needle-like δ-Ni3Nb were observed in γ-Ni matrix.Precipitation mechanism and distribution characteristics of these intermetallic phases in the as-deposited 625 alloy sample were analyzed.In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of the deposits,microhardness was measured at various location (including transverse plane and longitudinal plane).The results revealed hardness was in the range of 260-285 HVo.2.In particular,microhardness at the interface region between two adjacent deposited layers was slightly higher than that at other regions due to highly refined structure and the disperse distribution of Laves particles.Finally,the influence of precipitation phases and fabrication strategies on the tensile properties of the as-deposited samples was investigated.The failure modes of the tensile specimens were analyzed with fractography.

  1. Gliding arc surface modification of carrot nanofibre coating - perspective for composite processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Berglund, L; Aitomäki, Y

    2016-01-01

    Surfaces of carrot nanofibre coatings were modified by a gliding arc in atmospheric pressure air. The treatment strengthened wetting of deionized water and glycerol, increased an oxygen content, C-O and C=O, and moderately roughened the surfaces. In the perspective of composite materials, these c......Surfaces of carrot nanofibre coatings were modified by a gliding arc in atmospheric pressure air. The treatment strengthened wetting of deionized water and glycerol, increased an oxygen content, C-O and C=O, and moderately roughened the surfaces. In the perspective of composite materials...

  2. Vision of the Arc for Quality Documentation and for Closed Loop Control of the Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Kristiansen, Ewa; Jensen, Casper Houmann;

    2014-01-01

    For gas metal arc welding a vision system was developed, which was robust to monitor the position of the arc. The monitoring documents the welding quality indirectly and a closed loop fuzzy control was implemented to control an even excess penetration. For welding experiments on a butt......-joint with a V-groove with varying root gapthe system demonstrated increased welding quality compared to the system with no control. The system was implemented with a low cost vision system, which makes the system interesting to apply in industrial welding automation systems....

  3. Numerical Simulation of Gas Flow During Arcing Process for 252 kV Puffer Circuit Breakers%Numerical Simulation of Gas Flow During Arcing Process for 252 kV Puffer Circuit Breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军辉; 王小华; 马志瀛; 荣命哲; 闫静

    2011-01-01

    A numerical simulation model for 252 kV puffer circuit breaker is constructed, by using a proven commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package, PHOENICS. The model takes into account the moving parts in the circuit breaker, turbulence enhanced momentum and energy transport, radiation transport. The arcing process in a SF6 puffer circuit breaker with two hollow contacts is simulated under different conditions, and the simulation results are verified with experimental results. Through simulation, the pressure, temperature and velocity in the arc quenching chamber can be obtained. The simulation model is also capable of predicting the influence of design parameters variations on breaker performance, and can thus help to reduce the number of short-circuit tests during the design stage.

  4. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  5. Development of advanced coal cleaning process; Kodo sekitan kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, S. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, A.; Yamashita, T. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a clean coal production process which excellently removes environmental pollutant, is low-costed, and need no particular systems for distribution of products. The result of the development was described paying attention to column flotation which is a technology to high-efficiently select particulate regions, particulate heavy media cyclone, magnetic separation, and the basic design of the process into which those above were integrated. The two-stage selection process, which is an integration of column flotation and particulate heavy media cyclone into the conventional coal preparation equipment, can produce low-ash clean coal at high separation efficiency and also suppress the rise in processing cost. This process was also effective for removal of sulfur content and trace metal elements. The use of clean coal at power plant can be effective for not only the reduction in ash treatment amount, but the aspect of boiler operation characteristics such as heat transfer efficiency of boiler furnace wall, ash related troubles, loads of electrostatic precipitator, loads of flue gas desulfurization facilities. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-06-30

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

  7. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  8. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    Coal ash obtained from Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. It is concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  9. The Scientific Development of Coal Gasification Process%煤气化的科学发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌

    2011-01-01

    煤气化是一种大型化、适用煤种广、低成本、低污染和易净化气体的技术。文章介绍了煤气化技术发展的前景,着重介绍等离子体煤气化制合成气,焦炉煤气转化为合成气等技术,并且介绍煤气化技术在多级联产,合成醇醚燃料和电力方面的应用,根据现有状况预测其发展趋势。%Coal gasification process is a large-scale process technology, which has the benefits of low cost. low pollution and more adaptability in coal type. It can also produce gas which is easy to purify. The article introduces the prospect of Coal gasification process, and highlights the technology of synthetic gas which is produced by plasma coal gasification process and by the conversion of the coke oven gas, and also introduces the application in synthetic alcohol ether fuel and power fields, and predicts the development trends.

  10. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Allentown, PA); Tewari, Krishna (Allentown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  11. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfenbrenner, J.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-11-26

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  12. Coal-oxygen process provides CO/sub 2/ for enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, B.M.

    1982-03-15

    Carbon dioxide for use in enhanced oil recovery could be produced by electric power plants which burn coal in an O/SUB/2/CO/SUB/2 mixture. The process appears to be competitive with the monoethanol amine and hot potassium carbonate methods of CO/SUB/2 recovery from flue gases.

  13. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

  14. Welding arc plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  15. Study on Arc Stability Evaluation Index of CO2 Arc Welding Process%CO2气体保护焊电弧稳定性评价指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧敏; 凌泽民; 何建

    2016-01-01

    The Hannover analyzer was used to acquire the signal result of voltage and current.The voltage-current waveform,probability distribution diagram of voltage and current (PDD) and frequency distribution of short-circuit time,arcing time,weighted arcing time,and the short-circuit cycle time (CFD) were automatically generated.The main influenced factors of arc droplet transfer and weld seam formation based on the analysis of the electrical characteristics of the arc process were obtained.The results show that the main factors which influence the arc process characteristics and weld appearance are weld current and arc voltage.Arc voltage influences the droplet diameter,stability of arc,spatter and the width of weld.When the arc voltage is lower,the transition process is unstable and the spatter is bigger.When the arc voltage is higher,mixed transition appears.When the arc voltage is 18V,the stability of arc is better.The welding current can affect wire melting speed,the frequency of transition,spatter,and weld seam quality and so on.When the current is lower,the broken arc phenomenon appears,and the fromation of weld seam is bad.While the higher welding current,the bigger spatter and the bad stability of the arc,and the invalid short circuit appear.When the welding current is 160A,smaller spatter and better weld seam formation can be obtained.%本试验采用汉诺威焊接质量分析仪对电弧电压和焊接电流信号进行采集,并自动生成电压电流波形图、电弧电压和焊接电流的概率密度分布图(PDD图)及短路时间、燃弧时间、加权燃弧时间、短路周期的频次分布图(CFD图),并分析电弧过程的电特性,找到熔滴过渡以及焊缝成形的主要影响因素.结果表明:电弧电压和电流对短路过渡有明显影响.电弧电压影响电弧稳定性、飞溅大小、焊缝熔宽等.电压偏低,过渡过程不稳定,飞溅较大;电压偏高,将会出现混合过渡;当电弧电压在18V时,电弧稳定性

  16. Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Crustal construction along arc-backarc transition zone in the Japan Sea and implications for seismogenic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; No, T.; Sato, T.; Sato, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Japan Sea, which is a backarc basin between Japanese island arc and the Asian continent, has a unique setting in terms of a formation process as well as a seismogenic process. The opening of the Japan Sea was initiated by crustal rifting and the separation of Japan Island Arcs from the Asian continent in the early Oligocene (~ 32 Ma), with subsequent ocean floor spreading in the late Oligocene (~ 28 Ma). Then, the opening stopped, between 10 and 3.5 Ma, and at 3.5 Ma, the crustal shortening occurred under a strong compressional stress regime in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. Several seismic surveys had been conducted in this region since the last more than two decades, however, a conclusive discussion concerning a crustal construction in the arc-backarc transition zone had not been made, due to lack of resolution of structural models and sparse distribution of profiles. Moreover, magnitude-7 class earthquakes repeatedly occurred along this margin, such as, the 1964 Niigata earthquake (M7.5), 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake (M7.7), 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake (M7.8), and those events are recognized to have compressional fault mechanisms by reflecting a present-day stress regime. However, structural factor controlling the distribution and mechanism of those compressional events has not been well studied. In order to understand a crustal formation process in this margin and its relation to the seismogenic process at the present, we have been carrying our series of active-source seismic survey to cover the eastern margin of the central to northern Japan Sea. Results from those surveys successfully mapped a distribution of the arc crust, the oceanic crust and the amorously thick oceanic crust in the transition zone. From a comparison the rupture zones of the magnitude-7 class earthquake with the detailed crustal structure, we conclude that the large compressional events, more than M>7.5, occurred in a seismogenic zone fault which used to be formed a

  18. Rings and arcs around evolved stars - I. Fingerprints of the last gasps in the formation process of planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Santamaría, E.; Guerrero, M. A.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Sabin, L.; Toalá, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Evolved stars such as asymptotic giant branch stars (AGB), post-AGB stars, proto-planetary nebulae (proto-PNe), and planetary nebulae (PNe) show rings and arcs around them and their nebular shells. We have searched for these morphological features in optical Hubble Space Telescope and mid-infrared Spitzer Space Telescope images of ˜650 proto-PNe and PNe and discovered them in 29 new sources. Adding those to previous detections, we derive a frequency of occurrence ≃8 per cent. All images have been processed to remove the underlying envelope emission and enhance outer faint structures to investigate the spacing between rings and arcs and their number. The averaged time lapse between consecutive rings and arcs is estimated to be in the range 500-1200 yr. The spacing between them is found to be basically constant for each source, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the formation of these structures in the final stages of evolved stars is stable during time periods of the order of the total duration of the ejection. In our sample, this period of time spans ≤4500 yr.

  19. New catalysts for coal processing: Metal carbides and nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ted Oyama; David F. Cox

    1999-12-03

    The subject of this research project was to investigate the catalytic properties of a new class of materials, transition metal carbides and nitrides, for treatment of coal liquid and petroleum feedstocks. The main objectives were: (1) preparation of catalysts in unsupported and supported form; (2) characterization of the materials; (3) evaluation of their catalytic properties in HDS and HDN; (4) measurement of the surface properties; and (5) observation of adsorbed species. All of the objectives were substantially carried out and the results will be described in detail below. The catalysts were transition metal carbides and nitrides spanning Groups 4--6 in the Periodic Table. They were chosen for study because initial work had shown they were promising materials for hydrotreating. The basic strategy was first to prepare the materials in unsupported form to identify the most promising catalyst, and then to synthesize a supported form of the material. Already work had been carried out on the synthesis of the Group VI compounds Mo{sub 2}C, Mo{sub 2}N, and WC, and new methods were developed for the Group V compounds VC and NbC. All the catalysts were then evaluated in a hydrotreating test at realistic conditions. It was found that the most active catalyst was Mo{sub 2}C, and further investigations of the material were carried out in supported form. A new technique was employed for the study of the bulk and surface properties of the catalysts, near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), that fingerprinted the electronic structure of the materials. Finally, two new research direction were explored. Bimetallic alloys formed between two transition metals were prepared, resulting in catalysts having even higher activity than Mo{sub 2}C. The performance of the catalysts in hydrodechloration was also investigated.

  20. Plutonic xenoliths from Martinique, Lesser Antilles: evidence for open system processes and reactive melt flow in island arc crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George F.; Davidson, Jon P.; Blundy, Jon D.

    2016-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc is remarkable for the abundance and variety of erupted plutonic xenoliths. These samples provide a window into the deeper crust and record a more protracted crystallisation history than is observed from lavas alone. We present a detailed petrological and in situ geochemical study of xenoliths from Martinique in order to establish their petrogenesis, pre-eruptive storage conditions and their contribution to construction of the sub-volcanic arc crust. The lavas from Martinique are controlled by crystal-liquid differentiation. Amphibole is rarely present in the erupted lavas, but it is a very common component in plutonic xenoliths, allowing us to directly test the involvement of amphibole in the petrogenesis of arc magmas. The plutonic xenoliths provide both textural and geochemical evidence of open system processes and crystal `cargos'. All xenoliths are plagioclase-bearing, with variable proportions of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and amphibole, commonly with interstitial melt. In Martinique, the sequence of crystallisation varies in sample type and differs from other islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. The compositional offset between plagioclase (~An90) and olivine (~Fo75), suggests crystallisation under high water contents and low pressures from an already fractionated liquid. Texturally, amphibole is either equant (crystallising early in the sequence) or interstitial (crystallising late). Interstitial amphibole is enriched in Ba and LREE compared with early crystallised amphibole and does not follow typical fractionation trends. Modelling of melt compositions indicates that a water-rich, plagioclase-undersaturated reactive melt or fluid percolated through a crystal mush, accompanied by the breakdown of clinopyroxene, and the crystallisation of amphibole. Geothermobarometry estimates and comparisons with experimental studies imply the majority of xenoliths formed in the mid-crust. Martinique cumulate xenoliths are

  1. Image pre-processing research of coal level in underground coal pocket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bing; GAO Na

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical morphology is widely applicated in digital image procesing. Vari-ary morphology construction and algorithm being developed are used in deferent digital image processing. The basic idea of mathematical morphology is to use construction ele-ment measure image morphology for solving understand problem. The article presented advanced cellular neural network that forms mathematical morphological cellular neural network (MMCNN) equation to be suit for mathematical morphology filter. It gave the theo-ries of MMCNN dynamic extent and stable state. It is evidenced that arrived mathematical morphology filter through steady of dynamic process in definite condition.

  2. Influence of process parameters on coal combustion performance. Review, experiments and engineering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lans, R.P. van der

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount of carbon in ash. To this purpose, the effect of coal quality on NO and burnout has been investigated experimentally, a radiation heat balance has been developed based on a simple chemical engineering methodology, and a mixing study has been conducted in order to describe the near burner macro mixing in terms of a reactor configuration. The influence of coal type and process conditions on NO formation and carbon burnout has been investigated experimentally in a 400 MW{sub e} corner fired boiler with over fire air, a 350 MW{sub e} opposed fired boiler, and in a 160 kW{sub t} pilot scale test rig. Three different coals were fired in each of the furnaces as part of the activities in group 3 of the European Union JOULE 2 Extension project `Atmospheric Pressure Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Coal Based Blends for Power Generation`. On the pilot scale test both single stage and air staged tests were performed. A simple, one-dimensional combustion and radiation heat transfer model has been developed for the furnace of full scale boilers. The model has been applied to the two boilers mentioned above, and is validated against measured temperatures and carbon in ash concentrations. A mixing study has been performed in order to initiate an investigation of the potential of chemical engineering models to predict NO from pulverized fuel burners. (EG) 11 refs.

  3. UNDERGROUNG PLACEMENT OF COAL PROCESSING WASTE AND COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS BASED PASTE BACKFILL FOR ENHANCED MINING ECONOMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Biswas; D. Deb

    2002-06-01

    This project has successfully demonstrated that the extraction ratio in a room-and-pillar panel at an Illinois mine can be increased from the current value of approximately 56% to about 64%, with backfilling done from the surface upon completion of all mining activities. This was achieved without significant ground control problems due to the increased extraction ratio. The mined-out areas were backfilled from the surface with gob, coal combustion by-products (CCBs), and fine coal processing waste (FCPW)-based paste backfill containing 65%-70% solids to minimize short-term and long-term surface deformations risk. This concept has the potential to increase mine productivity, reduce mining costs, manage large volumes of CCBs beneficially, and improve the miner's health, safety, and environment. Two injection holes were drilled over the demonstration panel to inject the paste backfill. Backfilling was started on August 11, 1999 through the first borehole. About 9,293 tons of paste backfill were injected through this borehole with a maximum flow distance of 300-ft underground. On September 27, 2000, backfilling operation was resumed through the second borehole with a mixture of F ash and FBC ash. A high-speed auger mixer (new technology) was used to mix solids with water. About 6,000 tons of paste backfill were injected underground through this hole. Underground backfilling using the ''Groutnet'' flow model was simulated. Studies indicate that grout flow over 300-foot distance is possible. Approximately 13,000 tons of grout may be pumped through a single hole. The effect of backfilling on the stability of the mine workings was analyzed using SIUPANEL.3D computer program and further verified using finite element analysis techniques. Stiffness of the backfill mix is most critical for enhancing the stability of mine workings. Mine openings do not have to be completely backfilled to enhance their stability. Backfill height of about 50% of the seam

  4. Coal fields and outlines of coal-bearing strata in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpcf*g)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO coverages of coal fields and coal-bearing formations in the Colorado Plateau. These GIS layers were created by combining numerous...

  5. Trace component analysis of process hydrogen streams at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfenbrenner, J.C.

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes subcontracted work done by the Radian Corporation to analyze trace components in process hydrogen streams at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The data will be used to help define whether the gas streams to be treated in the hydrogen processing unit in the SRC-I Demonstration Plant will require further treatment to remove trace contaminants that could be explosive under certain conditions. 2 references.

  6. Coal Fields - COAL_NCRDS_IN: Coal Resource Data in Indiana, Derived from the National Coal Resource Data System (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This ESRI ArcInfo point shapefile depicts the location of 9,117 public point-source coal resource data points in Indiana. This shapefile includes location and coal...

  7. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  8. Two-dimensional time-dependent modelling of fume formation in a pulsed gas metal arc welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, M.; Colombo, V.; Ghedini, E.; Gherardi, M.; Sanibondi, P.

    2013-06-01

    Fume formation in a pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process is investigated by coupling a time-dependent axi-symmetric two-dimensional model, which takes into account both droplet detachment and production of metal vapour, with a model for fume formation and transport based on the method of moments for the solution of the aerosol general dynamic equation. We report simulative results of a pulsed process (peak current = 350 A, background current 30 A, period = 9 ms) for a 1 mm diameter iron wire, with Ar shielding gas. Results showed that metal vapour production occurs mainly at the wire tip, whereas fume formation is concentrated in the fringes of the arc in the spatial region close to the workpiece, where metal vapours are transported by convection. The proposed modelling approach allows time-dependent tracking of fumes also in plasma processes where temperature-time variations occur faster than nanoparticle transport from the nucleation region to the surrounding atmosphere, as is the case for most pulsed GMAW processes.

  9. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  10. Safety research in the gasification process of novel multi-thermal-source coal gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yu-xian; WU Min-huan; WANG Xiao-gang; ZHANG Ya-ping; QIANG Jun-feng; TIAN Xin-wei; WANG Xi-lian

    2009-01-01

    In order to collect the gas safely produced in the gasification process of the novel multi-thermal-source coal gasifier,based on its gasification skill and the characteristics of the products, this paper analyzes the possible dangers in the gasification process, devises the gasifier eruption and explosion experiments, explores the conditions of gasifier eruption and gas explosion, studies their effects on the gasification process and establishes safe operation measures. Gasifier eruption hazard occurs easily in the gasification process of one-thermal-source coal gasifier when Msio: is far higher than that in the normal adjuvant. The gas permeability in the gasifier is not the same and the power supply is too large. However, similar conditions in the gasification of multi-thermal-source coal gasifier do not produce a gasifier eruption accident so easily. When it erupts, the gasifier should be stopped and then cooled down naturally or inert gas can be sprayed on the gasifier to cool it off, and thus gas explosion can be avoided. There is a possibility of direct gas explosion, but it can be avoided when the gas in the gas collecting space is replaced slowly by supplying a small amount of power or the inert gas fills the space in the previous gasification. The time a fire is lit is strictly controlled, the gas is drawn in by using the aspirator pump, and the gasifier pressure is kept in the state of micro-positive pressure in the middle and later gasification process. The conclusion is that the gasification process of the novel multi-thermal-source coal gasifier is safe according to normal operation rules.

  11. New Approach to Study the Ignition Processes of Organic Coal-Water Fuels in an Oxidizer Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin T.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To converge the conditions of organic water-coal fuel composition combustion in the typical power equipment we developed a new approach and installed an experimental setup, eliminating the traditional fixing the fuel droplets on the thermocouples or rods. Specialized cone-shaped chamber was used to implement the process of lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets were established. We determined the parameters of the system (droplet size of 0.4-0.6 mm, temperatures 823-903 K and the velocity of the oxidizer flow 1.5-6 m/s at which the droplets were consistently ignited in the process of lingering. Minimum temperatures and ignition delay times of organic water-coal fuel droplets based on brown coal, used motor, turbine, transformer oils, kerosene, gasoline and water were defined.

  12. Usage of Thermodynamic Activity for Optimization of Power Expenses in Respect of Casting Process in Arc Steel-Melting Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium between carbon and oxygen has been investigated during oxidizing refining in an arc steel-melting furnace. It is shown that there is a possibility to apply an equilibrium thermodynamic. It has been established that during oxidizing refining FeO concentration in slag practically does not depend on C concentration in metal. It is demonstrated that in a number of cases metal carbon oxidation is characterized by the presence of a transit period that may be attributed to incomplete slag-formation process.

  13. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  14. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. The paper describes activities carried out this quarter. 11 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. U-GAS coal gasification process with in-situ desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium based sorbents such as limestone and dolomite have been used in conjunction with the U-GAS coal gasification process for in-situ capture of sulfur present in the coal. Under the reducing conditions of the gasifier, these sorbents react with sulfur compounds to form calcium sulfide. As a unique feature of the U-GAS process, the calcium sulfide could be further reacted with air in the ash discharge zone to form calcium sulfate, which is environmentally acceptable for disposal directly from the gasifier along with the agglomerated ash. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has conducted considerable testing in this area under different programs. The suitability of dolomite as in-situ sulfur capturing agent has been verified in U-GAS process using high-sulfur Pittsburgh coal. The gasification tests were conducted at 1850{degree}F in pressure ranges of 100 to 450 psig. The kinetics of the reaction between calcium based sorbents and hydrogen sulfide at these gasification conditions have been derived separately using a thermogravimetric technique. Effect of temperature, pressure, and particle size on the reaction rate were also included in these latter tests. Furthermore, the operating conditions and the type of sorbents suitable for achieving maximum calcium conversion to calcium sulfate during the oxidation step of the process have also been identified. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [Effect of preconversion heat soak with coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation:. Characterization of coal liquids by field ionization mass spectrometry and iodotrimethylsilane derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D. [Consolidation Coal Co., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.

    1992-01-01

    SRI International evaluated two analytical methods for application to coal liquefaction. These included field ionization mass spectrometry and a technique employing iodotrimethylsilane for the derivatization of oxygen bound to alkyl carbon (alkyl ethers). The full report authored by the SRI researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by Consol into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract. (VC)

  18. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  19. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  20. Role of the Liquids From Coal process in the world energy picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, J.P.; Knottnerus, B.A. [ENCOAL Corp., Gillette, WY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned indirect subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company, has essentially completed the demonstration phase of a 1,000 Tons per day (TPD) Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) plant near Gillette, Wyoming. The plant has been in operation for 4{1/2} years and has delivered 15 unit trains of Process Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}), the low-sulfur, high-Btu solid product to five major utilities. Recent test burns have indicated the PDF{trademark} can offer the following benefits to utility customers: lower sulfur emissions, lower NO{sub x} emissions, lower utilized fuel costs to power plants, and long term stable fuel supply. More than three million gallons of Coal Derived Liquid (CDL{trademark}) have also been delivered to seven industrial fuel users and one steel mill blast furnace. Additionally, laboratory characteristics of CDL{trademark} and process development efforts have indicated that CDL{trademark} can be readily upgraded into higher value chemical feedstocks and transportation fuels. Commercialization of the LFC{trademark} is also progressing. Permit work for a large scale commercial ENCOAL{reg_sign} plant in Wyoming is now underway and domestic and international commercialization activity is in progress by TEK-KOL, a general partnership between SGI International and a Zeigler subsidiary. This paper covers the historical background of the project, describes the LFC{trademark} process and describes the worldwide outlook for commercialization.

  1. Coal cinder filtration as pretreatment with biological processes to treat pharmaceutical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Hao, Zhi-ming; Wang, Dong-bo; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at coupling coal cinder filter with biological process to improve pharmaceutical wastewater quality and reduce the disposal cost. In the coal cinder filter, the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD(5), SS and color were 90+/-2%, 72+/-2%, 95+/-2% and 80+/-2%, respectively. The results attribute to the big specific surface area and strong adsorption ability. Coal cinder filter removes a large portion of the pollutants in the influent wastewater, which would strongly stable the effluent waste water quality, and reduce the load of follow-up biological treatment process. The average removal efficiencies for COD, BOD(5), SS and color of the combined process were about 99.7+/-3%, 98.2+/-4%, 98.5+/-3% and 96.3+/-2%, respectively, with the average effluent quality of COD 16+/-1 mg/L, BOD(5) 11+/-1 mg/L, SS 10+/-0.6 mg/L and color 22+/-1 (multiple), which are consistent with the national requirements of the waste pollutants for pharmaceutical industry of chinese traditional medicine discharge standard (GB 21906-2008). The results indicated that the combined procedure could offer an attractive solution for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment with considerable low cost.

  2. Conceptual design and retrofitting of the coal-gasification wastewater treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, H.; Jiang, Y.; Qian, Y.; Kraslawski, A. [South China University of Technology, Ghangzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The coal-gasification wastewater treatment is the most difficult pollution control task for coal-gasification plants. It is identified that there are two serious problems occurring in the current treatment process, i.e., low performance of phenols removal and plugging induced by ammonia salts. A new treatment process is proposed in this paper to solve these severe problems and pursue clean production. First, ammonia stripping is accomplished before phenols recovery to reduce pH value of the wastewater and to improve the phenols removal performance of extraction. Second, a complex stripper with a side draw is introduced to stripping ammonia and sour gas simultaneously. It is done to eliminate the ionic interaction during stripping and to improve the removal performance of ammonia and sour gas (carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide). Finally, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is used as extraction solvent instead of diisopropyl ether (DIPE) for further improvement of the phenols removal performance. Conceptual design of the proposed process is accomplished for a large-scale coal-gasification plant based on process simulation. With the proposed process, the concentration of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia in wastewater are reduced to trace, less than 10 mg/L, and about 30 mg/L, respectively. As a result, pH value of the wastewater is reduced from >9 to <7 before extraction, thus the phenols removal performance is greatly improved. Compare to the current process, the removal ratios increase from 60% to 99% for carbon dioxide, 96% to 99.6% for ammonia, and 80% to 94% for total phenols using the proposed process. In consequence, the biochemical treatment of wastewater becomes easier. The economical analysis shows that the operating cost of the proposed process is much lower than that of the current process.

  3. Wastes from the coal-enrichment process as alternative reducers for lead smelting from lead-acid accmulator scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lipart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of the study on a possible utilization of coal-enrichment wastes as alternative reducers for lead smelting from acid-lead accumulator scrap are presented. For the experiments, the following alternative carboniferous reducers were selected: coal slurry, anthracite dust and coal soot. The investigations included both laboratoryscale experiments and semi-industrial tests in a rotary furnace. The findings allowed for a review of the effects of a sample type (loose material or material post a preliminary agglomeration process, loaded into the furnace, on a final process yield.

  4. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  5. Application of microcomputers for electric arc heating processes. Session 2. 2b N. 2. 2. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitarts, D.A.; Izakson-Demidov, Y.A.; Kalistratov, V.A.; Edemsky, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Control systems employed with furnaces for steel production and for smelting of ores together with installations of electroslag and vacuum-arc remelting equipments are described. Details of mathematical models and control algorithms is given in addition to the schematic electrical circuits and lists of component parts of the control systems. The particular feature of the mathematical model is the application of the general state parameters and the static methods for their identification and adaptation. The variety of control system types employed in electroheat and having the possibility of using microcomputers, allows for expediency by using a single system approach for designing algorithm, a programme and the hardware to be used. Provision of the hardware to be employed for the real-time system, is based on a developed system of interruptions and use of a single library of hard and software modules, the latter having a general design of its layout for the different systems.

  6. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  7. Resource requirements and economics of the coal-mining process: a comparative analysis of mines in selected countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astakhov, A.; Gruebler, A.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the natural resource requirements and economics of the resource extraction process, taking coal-mining activities as an example. Coal was chosen for the study because it is receiving growing attention as the fossile energy resource with the largest potential to contribute to the world's long-term energy supply. The computerized description of the extraction process is stored in the Coal Mines Data Base (CMDB) which was developed within the framework of this study. The data base currently holds information on 70 mines located in different countries. The analytic approach used is the first of its kind to compare resource requirements and economics of coal mines under such a broad range of geological and socioeconomic conditions. A general model of the factors influencing resource inputs and impacts of the coal-mining process is presented. Then for each of the main mining methods (opencast, conventional underground, and hydraulic underground) the principal geological and technological factors influencing the resource requirements, economics, and environmental impacts, as well as the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each mining method, are discussed. For the three main mining methods the resource requirements (including manpower, energy, materials, and land) and the economics (including construction investments and operating costs) are then quantified and their cost structures (i.e. requirements for the different operations at a mine) are examined in detail using data from coal mines in the USA, the USSR, and other selected coal-producing countries (Australia, Austria, and France).

  8. H/sub 2/S-removal processes for low-Btu coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Process descriptions are provided for seven methods of removing H/sub 2/S from a low-Btu coal-derived gas. The processes include MDEA, Benfield, Selexol, Sulfinol, Stretford, MERC Iron Oxide, and Molecular Sieve. Each of these processes was selected as representing a particular category of gas treating (e.g., physical solvent systems). The open literature contains over 50 processes for H/sub 2/S removal, of which 35 were briefly characterized in the literature survey. Using a technical evaluation of these 35 processes, 21 were eliminated as unsuitable for the required application. The remaining 14 processes represent six categories of gas treating. A seventh category, low-temperature solid sorption, was subsequently added. The processes were qualitatively compared within their respective categories to select a representative process in each of the seven categories.

  9. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing. Final report, September 15, 1988--September 14, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, F. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Eckert, C.A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

    1988-09-15

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  10. Isolation of a highly mutagenic aminophenanthrene from a coal gasification process tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, D A; Stamoudis, V C; Peak, M J; Boparai, A S

    1986-02-01

    A major portion of the mutagenic activity associated with products and by-products of coal conversion can be ascribed to nitrogen-containing bases. We improved the extraction efficiencies for three- to five-ring aromatic bases by extracting them with a mixture of methanol and aqueous HCl, rather than with aqueous HCl alone. A complex mutagenic basic fraction of a coal gasification process tar was successively fractionated using cation exchange and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were assayed for mutagenic activity and were chemically analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aminophenanthrenes were identified as major contributors to the mutagenicity of the basic fraction. Aminonaphthalenes, aminobiphenyls, and their alkyl homologs were also present but were not detected as principal mutagens.

  11. State of the art of biological processes for coal gasification wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) poses a serious challenge on the sustainable development of the global coal industry. The CGW contains a broad spectrum of high-strength recalcitrant substances, including phenolic, monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds and long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon. So far, biological treatment of CGW has been considered as an environment-friendly and cost-effective method compared to physiochemical approaches. Thus, this reviews aims to provide a comprehensive picture of state of the art of biological processes for treating CGW wastewater, while the possible biodegradation mechanisms of toxic and refractory organic substances were also elaborated together with microbial community involved. Discussion was further extended to advanced bioprocesses to tackle high-concentration ammonia and possible options towards in-plant zero liquid discharge.

  12. Hydrometallurgical-UV process to produce ferrous sulfate from the pyrite present in coal tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viganico, E.M.; Silva, R.A. [South Rio Grande Federal Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil).Graduate Program in Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Technology Center

    2010-07-01

    The oxidation of pyrite can promote acid mine drainage (AMD). This study developed a hydrometallurgical-UV route for the production of ferrous sulfate. The laboratory study was conducted using a pyrite concentrate obtained from a processed coal tailing. Leaching of the tailing was performed in packed bed columns in an oxidizing environment with an aqueous medium. Recirculation of the liquor produced an Fe{sup 3+} iron rich extract. Ultraviolet irradiation was then used to convert the Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+}. Heat provided by the UV lamps caused the ferrous sulfate to crystallize. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the crystals demonstrated that it is possible to produce commercial-grade ferrous sulfate heptahydrate crystals from the pyrite present in coal tailings. The crystals are used to treat anemia in humans and animals, and are also used as reagents for waste and waste water treatment. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Security information processing system in Mitsui Miike Coal Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Tsutomu; Makino, Hideyuki (Mitsui Coal Mining Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-10-25

    A comment says that the security system failed to properly function to combine and reckon the information reported and the data detected by the sensor at the time of past disasters. An integrated data processing system which incorporates the independent function to predict an accident and is capable of offering a guideline to take the lead in evacuation and to prevent the spread of disaster has been developed. It is capable of obviating any disaster while directing the operation of various equipment in the pit and the fluctuation of environmental conditions in the pit including the gas concentration and temperature. Furthermore, it works to prevent the spread of disaster at the time of emergency. The major features of the system are that the system is designed to ignore the fluctuation of CO condensation at the time of normal blasting and to quickly and accurately catch any premonitory fluctuation when it detects any abnormal fluctuation. It combines the plural numbers of data indicating the possible accident and arrange them in order. Then it displays the data warning the workers on the CRT. When the machines replace manual labor, the problem is that the machines cannot make systematic response, which is the most advantageous point of the manual supervision. Development of a software capable of making systematic judgement as a man does is hope for in the future. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Frothing in flotation. Volume 2: Recent advances in coal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskowski, J.S. [ed.] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Woodburn, E.T. [ed.] [Univ. of Manchester Inst. of Science and Technology (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    This volume summarizes the achievements on various aspects of flotation froth properties and behavior, and relationship between froth appearance and flotation performance. Flotation kinetics involves a number of mass transfer processes with some of them being critically determined by the behavior of froth. Since froth is complex, and controlled experimentation is difficult, the froth phase was, until recently, either ignored or treated entirely empirically. With wide applications of flotation columns, the behavior of the froth is now often recognized as being dominant in determining flotation performance, and the research in this area is one of the most actively pursued. Contents include: Frothers and frothing; Effect of particle and bubble size on flotation kinetics; Water content and distribution in flotation froths; Mechanisms operating in flotation froths; Characterization of flotation froth; Simultaneous determination of collection zone rate constant and froth zone recovery factor; Modelling of froth dynamics with implications for feed-back control; The interrelationship between flotation variables and froth appearance; Froth image analysis in a flotation control system; Kinetic flotation modelling using froth imaging data; and Dependence of froth behavior on galvanic interactions.

  15. Surface Modification of Micro-Alloyed High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel by Controlled TIG Arcing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-02-01

    Surface modification of micro-alloyed HSLA steel plate has been carried out by autogenous conventional and pulse current tungsten inert gas arcing (TIGA) processes at different welding parameters while the energy input was kept constant. At a given energy input the influence of pulse parameters on the characteristics of surface modification has been studied in case of employing single and multi-run procedure. The role of pulse parameters has been studied by considering their summarized influence defined by a factor Φ. The variation in Φ and pulse frequency has been found to significantly affect the thermal behavior of fusion and accordingly the width and penetration of the modified region along with its microstructure, hardness and wear characteristics. It is found that pulsed TIGA is relatively more advantageous over the conventional TIGA process, as it leads to higher hardness, improved wear resistance, and a better control over surface characteristics.

  16. Effects of welding wire composition and welding process on the weld metal toughness of submerged arc welded pipeline steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-liang Ren; Fu-ren Xiao; Peng Tian; Xu Wang; Bo Liao

    2009-01-01

    The effects of alloying elements in welding wires and submerged arc welding process on the microstructures and low-temperature impact toughness of weld metals have been investigated.The results indicate that the optimal contents of alloying elements in welding wires can improve the low-temperature impact toughness of weld metals because the proentectoid ferrite and bainite formations can be suppressed,and the fraction of acicular ferrite increases.However,the contents of alloying elements need to vary along with the welding heat input.With the increase in welding heat input,the contents of alloying elements in welding wires need to be increased accordingly.The microstructures mainly consisting of acicular ferrite can be obtained in weld metals after four-wire submerged arc welding using the wires with a low carbon content and appropriate contents of Mn,Mo,Ti-B,Cu,Ni,and RE,resulting in the high low-temperature impact toughness of weld metals.

  17. 配煤技术在Shell粉煤气化中的应用及优化%THE APPLICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF COAL BLENDING IN SHELL PULVERIZED-COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国祥

    2012-01-01

    The requirement for coal property on Shell pulverized-coal gasification process is simply introduced and the definition and theoretical foundation of Coal blending technology are described.The main reasons for coal blending measure to Shell coal gasification plant are analyzed and concrete procedures of coal blending technology and corresponding cases are discussed in detail and the optimized measures for coal blending are resulted in.%介绍Shell粉煤气化工艺对煤质的要求,阐述配煤技术的定义及理论依据,分析Shell气化采用配煤措施的主要原因,详细论述配煤技术的具体实施步骤及相应案例,得出优化配煤的措施。

  18. Evaluation of Structural Changes in the Coal Specimen Heating Process and UCG Model Experiments for Developing Efficient UCG Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gota Deguchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the underground coal gasification (UCG process, cavity growth with crack extension inside the coal seam is an important phenomenon that directly influences gasification efficiency. An efficient and environmentally friendly UCG system also relies upon the precise control and evaluation of the gasification zone. This paper presents details of laboratory studies undertaken to evaluate structural changes that occur inside the coal under thermal stress and to evaluate underground coal-oxygen gasification simulated in an ex-situ reactor. The effects of feed temperature, the direction of the stratified plane, and the inherent microcracks on the coal fracture and crack extension were investigated using some heating experiments performed using plate-shaped and cylindrical coal specimens. To monitor the failure process and to measure the microcrack distribution inside the coal specimen before and after heating, acoustic emission (AE analysis and X-ray CT were applied. We also introduce a laboratory-scale UCG model experiment conducted with set design and operating parameters. The temperature profiles, AE activities, product gas concentration as well as the gasifier weight lossess were measured successively during gasification. The product gas mainly comprised combustible components such as CO, CH4, and H2 (27.5, 5.5, and 17.2 vol% respectively, which produced a high average calorific value (9.1 MJ/m3.

  19. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  20. Cathodic arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Andre

    2003-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas stand out due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bia...

  1. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  2. Quantitative carbon analysis in coal by combining data processing and spatial confinement in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiongwei [State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Guodian New Energy Technology Research Institute, Beijing (China); Yin, Hualiang [State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Zhe, E-mail: zhewang@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou [State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-09-01

    Online measurement of carbon content of coal is important for coal-fired power plants to realize the combustion optimization of coal-fired boilers. Given that the measurement of carbon content of coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) suffers from low measurement accuracy because of matrix effects, our previous study has proposed a combination model to improve the measurement accuracy of carbon content of coal. The spatial confinement method, which utilizes the spectral emissions of laser-induced plasmas spatially confined by cavities for quantitative analysis, has potential to improve quantitative analysis performance. In the present study, the combination model was used for coal measurement with cylindrical cavity confinement to further improve the measurement accuracy of carbon content of coal. Results showed that measurement accuracy was improved when the combination model was used with spatial confinement method. The coefficient of determination, root-mean-square error of prediction, average relative error, and average absolute error for the combination model with cylindrical cavity confinement were 0.99, 1.35%, 1.66%, and 1.08%, respectively, whereas values for the combination model without cylindrical cavity confinement were 0.99, 1.63%, 1.82%, and 1.27%, respectively. This is the first time that the average absolute error of carbon measurement for coal analysis has achieved close to 1.0% using LIBS, which is the critical requirement set for traditional chemical processing method by Chinese national standard. These results indicated that LIBS had significant application potential for coal analysis. - Highlights: • Spatial confinement method is applied for the measurement of carbon content in coal. • Previously proposed combination model is used with spatial confinement method. • The final result is firstly close to the critical reproducibility requirement of Chinese national standard.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  4. The Texaco coal gasification process for manufacture of medium BTU gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlinger, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the Texaco coal gasification process is discussed with particular emphasis on its close relationship to the fully commercialized Texaco synthesis gas generation process for residual oil gasification. The end uses of the product gas are covered, with special attention to electric power generation via combined cycle technology. Control of SO2, NOx, and particulate emissions in the power generating mode is also covered. The application of this technology in a proposed Texaco-Southern California Edison demonstration project is mentioned. Investment information released for a 1000-megawatt advanced combined cycle gasification facility, is also reviewed.

  5. A CUSP CATASTROPHE, PRECURSORS PATTERN ANDEVOLUTION PROCESS OF ROCKBUST OF COAL PILLARUNDER A HARD ROCK SUBJECT TO ELASTIC SUPPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐曾和; 徐小荷

    1996-01-01

    The rockburst of the coal pillar under a thick hard roof stratum is modelled as the instability failure problem of coal pillars under strata subject to elastic support. The instability mechanism of rockburst is studied by applying cusp catastrophic theory. The effects of the stiffness ratio of the system and loads imposed on the system on the rockburst are explicated.The factors affecting rockbursts are discussed. Based on them, the "evolution process, the forewarning regularity and forewarning sings of rockbursts are studied. It is indicated that the subsidence velocity of roof stratum, which increases quickly and tends to infinity, is the forewarning measurable signs of the rockbursts of coal pillar.

  6. Combined coal gasification and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-reduction using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaura, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ehrensberger, K.; Steinfeld, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The coal/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} system was experimentally studied at PSI solar furnace. The reactants were directly exposed to a solar flux irradiation of 3,000 suns (1 sun = 1 kW/m{sup 2}). The combined gasification of coal and reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} proceeded rapidly after only one second exposure, suggesting an efficient heat transfer and chemical conversion by direct solar energy absorption at the reaction site. The proposed solar thermochemical process offers the possibility of converting coal to a cleaner fluid fuel with a solar-upgraded calorific value. (author) 2 figs., 8 refs.

  7. Materials technology for coal-conversion processes. Progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, William A.

    1980-06-01

    The program entails nondestructive testing, failure analysis, and studies of erosive wear, corrosion, and refractory degradation. Analysis of recent refractory-slag interaction tests suggests that as the chromia content is increased from 10 to 32%, the primary reaction product changes from calcium hexaluminate to spinel, significantly increasing the corrosion resistance of the refractory. Field reliability of the high-temperature ultrasonic erosion scanner was demonstrated at both a coal liquefaction plant (SRC at Tacoma, WA) and a coal gasification plant (Morgantown, WV). Continuous high-temperature operation has been demonstrated and an accuracy of +-0.025 mm seems achievable. Equipment has been ordered for field tests of passive acoustic systems at Exxon. This includes a four-channel tape recorder, differential amplifiers, and signal conditioners. Corrosion studies have been completed on effects of multicomponent gas environments on corrosion mechanisms and uniaxial tensile properties of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys. Results of these and other tests utilizing 10,000-h exposures suggest that corrosion rates of 0.6 mm/y can be expected. Failure analysis activities included studies of compressor diaphragms from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center coal-liquefaction continuous-process unit. Cracks were found in two of the three diaphragms. Failure of an internal solids transfer line from HYGAS appears to have been caused by severe localized sulfidation of the high-nickel Inconel 182 weld metal used to fabricate the line.

  8. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Konieczyński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury.

  9. Toxicologic studies of emissions from coal gasification process. I. Subchronic feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostial, K; Kello, D; Blanusa, M; Maljković, T; Rabar, I; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1980-09-01

    The increasing use of new sources of energy may result in additional contamination of the human environment with inorganic and organic pollutants which are not yet adequately investigated with regard to their potential impact on human health. However, some evidence exists that several trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in coal processing residues may constitute potential health problems. Therefore, the comparative biological hazards of solid wastes and effluents from a Lurgi coal gasification plant were initially evaluated using acute and chronic feeding experiments in male and female rats. In the subchronic experiment, six-week old animals were fed diets wih various levels of ash (slag) additive (0.5%, 1%, and 5%) for period of 16 weeks. Following exposure, blood samples were taken and 22-hour urine samples were collected. Livers and kidneys, and testicles in males, were taken for trace element analysis or histologic examination. The urinary values, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and concentration of trace elements in exposed animals were determined. The addition of ash (slag) to the diet in concentrations much higher than expected in conditions of environmental contamination had no measurable health effects. Although these initial results obtained in relatively short-term experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to human health effects, particularly not for carcinogenic assessment, there is an indication that exposure to solid wastes from the coal gasification plant may not be toxic.

  10. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    A set of statistically designed experiments was used to study the effects of several important operating variables on coal liquefaction product yield structures. These studies used a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor to provide a hydrodynamically well-defined system from which kinetic data could be extracted. An analysis of the data shows that product yield structures can be adequately represented by a correlative model. It was shown that second-order effects (interaction and squared terms) are necessary to provide a good model fit of the data throughout the range studied. Three reports were issued covering the SRC-II database and yields as functions of operating variables. The results agree well with the generally-held concepts of the SRC reaction process, i.e., liquid phase hydrogenolysis of liquid coal which is time-dependent, thermally activated, catalyzed by recycle ash, and reaction rate-controlled. Four reports were issued summarizing the comprehensive SRC reactor thermal response models and reporting the results of several studies made with the models. Analytical equipment for measuring SRC off-gas composition and simulated distillation of coal liquids and appropriate procedures have been established.

  11. Twin-wire Submerged Arc Welding Process of a High-strength Low-alloy Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiuzhi; XU Qinghua; YIN Niandong; XIAO Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of thermal cycle curves of a high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA)subjected twin-wire submerged arc welding (SAW) was introduced. The thermal simulation test was performed by using the obtained curves. The impact toughness at -50 ℃ temperature of the simulated samples was also tested. OM, SEM and TEM of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of some simulation specimens were investigated. The results showed that the HSLA endured the twin-wire welding thermal cycle, generally, the low-temperature toughness values of each part of HAZ was lower than that of the parent materials, and the microstructure of coarse-grained zone(CGHAZ) mainly made up of granular bainite is the reason of the toughness serious deterioration. Coarse grain, grain boundary carbide extract and M-A island with large size and irregular polygon, along the grain boundary distribution, are the reasons for the toughness deterioration of CGHAZ. The research also showed that selected parameters of twin-wire SAW can meet the requirements to weld the test steel.

  12. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  13. OXYCOAL-AC: Towards an integrated coal-fired power plant process with ion transport membrane-based oxygen supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneer, R.; Toporov, D.; Forster, M.; Christ, D.; Broeckmann, C.; Pfaff, E.; Zwick, M.; Engels, S.; Modigell, M. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Heat & Mass Transfer

    2010-07-01

    The cooperative project OXYCOAL-AC aims at the development of a zero-CO{sub 2}-emission coal combustion process for power generation. The scope of the research comprises a multitude of aspects. This article focuses on membrane-based air separation modules and their design for oxycoal conditions, the specifics of coal combustion in a CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere including related burner design as well as the cleaning of hot flue gas from oxycoal combustion.

  14. Systems studies of coal conversion processes using a reference simulator. Quarterly report, July 1, 1977--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reklaitis, G.V.; Sood, M.K.; Raghavan, S.; Overturf, B.W.; Fazzoni, G.F.; Ford, J.R.

    1977-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop a conceptual flowsheet of a coal conversion plant which will process Illinois No. 6 coal and will employ the basic processing sequence proposed by the Illinois Coal Gasification Group. The conceptual flowsheet differs from the ICGG proposal in that proprietary or otherwise ill-defined processing steps are replaced with units whose operating data is adequately reported in the open literature and for which satisfactory design models can be formulated. The purpose for formulating this flowsheet is to define a base case conceptual process which will be modelled using both the steady state process simulation package being developed for DOE/FE under our current contract as well as the dynamic simulation library being developed by Lehigh University under a separate contract. Key elements in the process are described.

  15. Study of Pyrolysisis of Polymers and Coal and Co-Pyrolysis of Their Blends, Kinetics of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana MIKULOVÁ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Amount of polymer waste increase every year and for this reason upgrading of this waste is a necessity. Nowadays waste disposal and incineration of polymers waste are the most frequently used methods which (i did not allowed chemical and energy utilization and (ii are not environmentally friendly. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis provide an attractive way to dispose of and convert polymer waste and coal into higher value fuel and the specific benefits of this method potentially include many environmental friendly advantages. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis has been studied using termogravimetry apparatus NETZCH TG-DTA STA 409 EP. The pyrolysis of all polymers except for scrap tyres was a one-step process and temperature range was narrower than for coal pyrolysis. The overlapping temperature range for pyrolysis of polymers and coal was 200–600°C. The synergic effect and kinetics of co-pyrolysis of polymers and coal has been studied in the given temperature range. The addition of polymers to coal led to (i the enhancement of weight loss of brown coal, (ii the shift of temperature of the max pyrolysis speed and (iii the slight influence of EA of coal pyrolysis.

  16. Influences of the microstructure on the wear resistance of cobalt-based ahoy coatings obtained by plasma transferred arc process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qingyu; GAO Jiasheng

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure, substructure, and wear characteristic of cobalt-based alloy coatings obtained by plasma transferred arc (PTA) process were investigated using optical metallurgical microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and dry sand abrasion tester (DSAT). The aging effect on the structure and wear resistance of the cobalt-based PTA coating was also studied. The results show that the as-welded coating consists of cobalt-based solid solution with face-centered cubic structure and hexagonal (Cr, Fe)7C3. There are a lot of stacking faults existing in the cobalt-based solid solution. After aging at 600℃ for 60 h, the microstructure becomes coarse, and another carbide (Cr, Fe)23C6 precipitates. As a result, the wear mass loss of the aged sample is higher than that of the as-welded sample.

  17. Implementing an extension of the analytical hierarchy process using ordered weighted averaging operators with fuzzy quantifiers in ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroushaki, Soheil; Malczewski, Jacek

    2008-04-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of GIS and an extension of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) using quantifier-guided ordered weighted averaging (OWA) procedure. AHP_OWA is a multicriteria combination operator. The nature of the AHP_OWA depends on some parameters, which are expressed by means of fuzzy linguistic quantifiers. By changing the linguistic terms, AHP_OWA can generate a wide range of decision strategies. We propose a GIS-multicriteria evaluation (MCE) system through implementation of AHP_OWA within ArcGIS, capable of integrating linguistic labels within conventional AHP for spatial decision making. We suggest that the proposed GIS-MCE would simplify the definition of decision strategies and facilitate an exploratory analysis of multiple criteria by incorporating qualitative information within the analysis.

  18. STUDY ON THE PRESSURE IN PLASMA ARC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The axial pressure in plasma arc is measured under different conditions. The effects of the parameters, such as welding current, plasma gas flow rate, electrode setback and arc length, on the pressure in plasma arc are investigated and quantitative analyzed to explain the relationship between the quality of weld and the matching of parameters in plasma arc welding process.

  19. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131668 Chang Huizhen(Key Laboratory of Coalbed Methane Resources and Reservoir Formation Process,CUMT,Ministry of Edu-cation,School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Qin Yong Differences in of Pore Structure of Coals and Their Impact on the Permeability of Coals from the

  20. Numerical Analysis of Two-Way Interaction between Weld-Pool and Arc for GTA Welding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model to describe the heat transfer and fluid flow in the mutually coupled weld pool and arc by an interactive free surface of the pool for a stationary gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is developed. The two sets of governing equations and auxiliary formulas, controlling the weld pool and plasma arc systems respectively, were solved by a finite difference method. A boundary-fitted coordinate system was adopted because the free surface has a curved and unknown shape during welding. The results of this work provide a fundamental basis for predicting the behavior of an integrated weld pool and arc system from first principles.

  1. The whole process confirmation management and its application in coal mine safe production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Hai-fei

    2012-01-01

    After analyzing the reasons for coal mine accidents and the current management methods,effective actions for the implementation of safety management were put forward by carrying out the whole process confirmation management.The basic content and the five implementation steps were described,and the implementation method and the program of every step were introduced.Some rules for the implementation of the whole process confirmation management in coal mine safety production were explained,such as during the process of preproduction,before descent,descent,after descent,walking in the roadway,post-operation,shift,and hoisting after work.The results show that the guardians and the executors should both confirm the implementation,which can improve the workers' attention and self-awareness to avoid errors in detail and reduce the "three violations" phenomenon.To ensure the effect of the whole process confirmation management,relevant departments should designate a person-in-charge in the specific work in all stages,make a work plan,and strengthen the internal evaluation.

  2. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-11-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1).

  3. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolka-Danielowska, D. [University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland). Faculty of Earth Science

    2010-11-15

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations of Th-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: {sup 226}Ra - 85.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 40}K-689 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 232}Th - 100.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 235}U - 13.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 238}U - 50 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 228}Ac - 82.4 Bq kg{sup -1}.

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INTEGRATED CARBON RECOVERY SYSTEMS FROM FINE COAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Patil; A. Patwardhan; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh; D. Tao; Latif Khan

    2000-07-01

    The project involves the development of an efficient, environmentally friendly system for the economical recovery of carbon from fine-coal refuse ponds. The project will be conducted in two phases. Phase I was involved in the development and evaluation of process equipment and techniques to be used in carbon recovery, product dewatering and reconstitution, and refuse management. Phase II will integrate the various units into a continuously operating circuit that will be demonstrated at a site selected based on the results presented in this study.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  6. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  7. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Keith B.C. Brady,

    2015-01-01

    Clean sampling and analysis procedures were used to quantify more than 70 inorganic constituents, including 35 potentially toxic or hazardous constituents, organic carbon, and other characteristics of untreated (influent) and treated (effluent) coal-mine discharges (CMD) at 38 permitted coal-mining or coal-processing facilities in the bituminous coalfield and 4 facilities in the anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania. Of the 42 facilities sampled during 2011, 26 were surface mines, 11 were underground mines, and 5 were coal refuse disposal operations. Treatment of CMD with caustic soda (NaOH), lime (CaO or Ca(OH)2), flocculent, or limestone was ongoing at 21%, 40%, 6%, and 4% of the facilities, respectively; no chemicals were added at the remaining facilities. All facilities with CMD treatment incorporated structures for active or passive aeration and settling of metal-rich precipitate.

  8. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  9. Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Modeling and Prediction of Weld Microstructure in MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Arakere, A.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Montgomery, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    A conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) butt-joining process has been modeled using a two-way fully coupled, transient, thermal-mechanical finite-element procedure. To achieve two-way thermal-mechanical coupling, the work of plastic deformation resulting from potentially high thermal stresses is allowed to be dissipated in the form of heat, and the mechanical material model of the workpiece and the weld is made temperature dependent. Heat losses from the deposited filler-metal are accounted for by considering conduction to the adjoining workpieces as well as natural convection and radiation to the surroundings. The newly constructed GMAW process model is then applied, in conjunction with the basic material physical-metallurgy, to a prototypical high-hardness armor martensitic steel (MIL A46100). The main outcome of this procedure is the prediction of the spatial distribution of various crystalline phases within the weld and the heat-affected zone regions, as a function of the GMAW process parameters. The newly developed GMAW process model is validated by comparing its predictions with available open-literature experimental and computational data.

  10. Process development studies on recovery of clean coal from ultra fine hardcoal tailings using enhanced gravity separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgen, S.; Turksoy, V.O.; Sabah, E.; Oruc, F. [Afyon Kocatepe Univ., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-10-15

    Gravity-based processing methods were used to process and recover clean coal from ultra-fine hardcoal tailings at a site in Turkey. The coal samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. A hydrocyclone was used to conduct classification tests and to separate the clay minerals from the coal. The effects of various operating parameters were also investigated. Regression analysis was used to characterize the relationship between the ash content and coal recovery rate and the feed solid, inlet pressure, diameter of vortex, and diameter of apex variables of the hydrocyclone. The effects of feed pressure were also investigated. The study showed that coal can be economically recovered from hardcoal tailings containing clay minerals. It was concluded that a coal sample with 6.98 per cent ash content and a net calorific value of 28,778 kJ was obtained with a weight recovery of 61.73 per cent. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 18 figs.

  11. Improved Workability of the Nanocomposited AgSnO2 Contact Material and Its Microstructure Control During the Arcing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Li, Haiyan

    2017-02-01

    There are two major weaknesses for the AgSnO2 contacts used in the low voltage switch devices. One is poor workability, which causes the AgSnO2 materials to hardly deform into the required shape. Another is the increased contact resistance after arcing, which, in turn, causes an unfavorable temperature rise in the switches. In this article, the nanocomposited AgSnO2 materials were developed to overcome the weaknesses. The nanosized SnO2 powders with or without CuO additive were prepared by the chemical precipitation method. The SnO2 powders and Ag powders were high energy milled together to obtain AgSnO2 composite powders, which were then sintered, hot pressed and extruded. It was found that the SnO2 particles mainly distribute in the interior of Ag grains with Ag film on the grain boundary. The hardness of AgSnO2 composites and the wetting angle of Ag melt on SnO2 particles decreased with the addition of a small amount of CuO. By the combining effect of Ag film on grain boundary and the addition of CuO, the elongation and workability of the AgSnO2 materials improved. The experiments of rapid solidification revealed that more SnO2 particles with CuO addition were engulfed in the Ag matrix than those without CuO, which inhibited the redistribution of SnO2 particles on the contact surface during the arcing process. The industrial type test in the 45A contactor suggested that the nanocomposited AgSnO2 materials are suitable to be used as contacts in low voltage switches.

  12. Reconfigured, close-coupled reconfigured, and Wyodak coal integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville facility: Chemical and toxicological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document reports the results of the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of process materials sampled during the operation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, AL) in the reconfigured, integrated (RITSL run No. 247), the close-coupled, reconfigured, integrated (CCRITSL run No. 249), and the Wyodak coal integrated (ITSL run No. 246) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Chemical methods of analysis included proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, adsorption column chromatography, high resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. Toxicological evaluation of the process materials included a histidine reversion assay for microbial mutagenicity, an initiation/promotion assay for tumorigenicity in mouse skin, and an aquatic toxicity assay using Daphnia magna. The results of these analyses and tests are compared to the previously reported results derived from the Illinois No. 6 coal ITSL and nonintegrated two-stage liquefaction (NTSL) process materials from the Wilsonville facility. 21 refs., 13 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. Breakdown Electric Field of Hot 30% CF3I/CO2 Mixtures at Temperature of 300-3500 K During Arc Extinction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Jiao, Juntao; Xiao, Dengming

    2016-11-01

    We calculated the uniform dielectric breakdown field strength of residual 30% CF3I/CO2 gas mixtures during the arc extinction process over the temperature range 300-3500 K at 0.1 MPa. The limiting reduced field strengths are decided by a balance of electron generation and loss based on chemical reactions estimated by the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), which employs the Boltzmann equation method with two-term expanding approximation in the steady-state Townsend (SST) condition. During the insulation recovery phase, the hot CF3I/CO2 gas mixtures have maximum dielectric strength at a temperature of about 1500 K. At room temperature 300 K, the electric strength after arc extinction (90.3 Td, 1 Td=10-21 V·m2) is only 38% of the original value before arc (234.9 Td). The adverse insulation recovery ability of CF3I/CO2 gas mixtures in arc extinction hinders its application in electric circuit breakers and other switchgears as an arc quenching and insulating medium. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10875093)

  14. Effect of georesource–consumer process flows on coal loss in energy supply of the Polar regions in Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, SM; Gavrilov, VL

    2017-02-01

    It is shown that the process flows of mining, haulage and utilization of coal in the Polar regions in Yakutia feature high quantitative and qualitative loss. In case the process flows are considered as integrated systems aimed at the overall performance efficiency, it is possible to reduce the loss per each individual chain loop. The authors formulate approaches intended to lower total loss of coal in process flows. The geotechnical and organizational solutions are put forward to improve and stabilize quality of fuel used by local fuel and energy industry.

  15. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. The kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.; Wang, S.; Campbell, D.

    1998-03-01

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc., the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. The program at Delaware was conducted between August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivity toward hydrocracking of coal-derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An introduction and Summary of the project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here.

  16. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  17. Analysis of Combustion Process of Sewage Sludge in Reference to Coals and Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Środa, Katarzyna; Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Production of sewage sludge is an inseparable part of the treatment process. The chemical and sanitary composition of sewage sludge flowing into the treatment plant is a very important factor determining the further use of the final product obtained in these plants. The sewage sludge is characterized by heterogeneity and multi-components properties, because they have characteristics of the classical and fertilizer wastes and energetic fuels. The thermal utilization of sewage sludge is necessary due to the unfavorable sanitary characteristics and the addition of the industrial sewage. This method ensures use of sewage sludge energy and return of expenditure incurred for the treatment of these wastes and their disposal. Sewage sludge should be analyzed in relation to conventional fuels (coals and biomass). They must comply with the applicable requirements, for example by an appropriate degree of dehydration, which guarantee the stable and efficient combustion. This paper takes the issue of the combustion process of the different sewage sludge and their comparison of the coal and biomass fuels.

  18. Seepage laws of two kinds of disastrous gas in complete stress-strain process of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Shugang; Guo Ping; Zhang Zunguo; Li Yi; Wang Yong

    2011-01-01

    The similarities and differences in seepage flow evolution laws of CH4 and CO2 during complete stressstrain process of samples were comparatively analyzed.The results show that the seepage flow evolution laws of CH4 and CO2 are extremely similar during the stress-strain process,showing that the characteristic first decreased and then increased.A mathematical model was also established according to the relationship of seepage velocity and axial strain.However,due to the strong adsorption ability of CO2,the coal samples generated a more serious “Klinkenberg effect” under the condition of CO2.Owing to this,the CO2 seepage flow resulted into occurrence of “stagnation” phenomenon during the late linear elastic stage Ⅱ.In the strain consolidation stage Ⅲ,the increment rate of CH4 seepage velocity was significantly greater than that of CO2.In the stress descent stage Ⅳ,when the axial load reached the peak pressure of coal,the increment rates of CH4 seepage velocity presented a turning point.But the changing rate of CO2 seepage velocity still remained slow and a turning point was presented at one time after the peak of the strain pressure,which showed an obvious feature of hysteresis.

  19. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  20. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  1. Effect of radicals combination on acetylene yield in process of coal pyrolysis by hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, B.; Fan, Y.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics

    1999-07-01

    A new process for production of acetylene by pyrolysis of coal in hydrogen plasma overcomes the disadvantage of discontinuity and pollution in the conventional carbide method. Complex homogeneous reactions take place after pulverized coal is injected into a high-temperature plasma reactor. In order to preserve C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in low-temperature gas, quenching is needed to avoid the dissociation of acetylene. The objective of this paper is to indicate that radicals recombination is also important in acetylene production. Therefore the quenching process should be optimized to obtain high yield of acetylene. In this work, C-H equilibrium system in high-temperature range of 2000-5000 K is obtained using the free energy minimization method. At lower temperature, the decomposition of acetylene can be avoided while the recombination reaction of radicals C{sub 2}H and H will not be interrupted. As a result, the acetylene concentration in quenched gas will increase. The theoretical acetylene content in quenched gas is computed using the radical recombination mechanism based on the composition of thermal equilibrium, and the optimized C/H ratio is determined simultaneously. The maximum acetylene content is 59.9% in volume. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Understanding plasma spraying process and characteristics of DC-arc plasma gun (PJ-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Ružić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal spray processes are a group of coating processes used to apply metallic or non-metallic coatings. In these processes energy sources are used to heat the coating material (in the form of powder, wire, or rod form to a molten or semi-molten state and accelerated towards a prepared surface by either carrier gases or atomization jets. In plasma spraying process, the spraying material is generally in the form of powder and requires a carrier gas to feed the powder into the plasma jet, which is passing between the hot cathode and the cylindrical nozzle-shaped anode. The design of DC plasma gun (PJ - 100 is designed and manufactured in Serbia. Plasma spaying process, the powder injection with the heat, momentum and mass transfers between particles and plasma jet, and the latest developments related to the production of DC plasma gun are described in this article.

  3. Chemical analysis and mutational assay of distilled oils from the H-coal direct liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Later, D.W.; Wright, C.W.; Stewart, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from the H-Coal process, a catalytic, single-stage, coal liquefaction technology, were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. For these investigations, a blend of light and heavy H-Coal process oils was fractionally distilled into 50/sup 0/F boiling point cuts. The chemical analyses and biological testing results presented in this status report deal primarily with the blended material and the distillate fractions boiling above 650/sup 0/F. Results from the microbial mutagenicity assays indicated that onset of biological activity in the crude materials occurred above 700/sup 0/F. Similar trends have been observed for Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) I, SRC II, Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) and Exxon EDS process materials. After chemical class fractionation, the primary source of microbial mutagenicity of the crude boiling point cuts was the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) fractions. Amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (amino-PAH) were present at sufficient concentration levels in the N-PAC fractions to account for the observed mutagenic responses. In general, the chemical composition of the H-Coal materials studied was similar to that of other single-stage liquefaction materials. The degree of alkylation in these materials was determined to be greater than in the SRC and less than in the EDS process distillate cuts. 13 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  4. Laser Shock Processing of Surface Copperize on Arc-Meshes Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德毅; 刘继光; 宋丹路

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents surface modifications of aluminum-alloy induced by laser-shock processing (LSP). In the first part, the basic principles are discussed to provide an overview of the physical processes involved in laser shock processing, and to introduce pressure loadings generated by different laser generators. In the second part, emphases are given to the effects of laser intensity, target material, laser pulse duration and laser wavelength, and uniform and localized modeling of fatigue behavior after LSP. In the third part,experimental results are given to show the laser-induced pure mechanical effects on aluminum-alloy by using LSP.

  5. Variable polarity arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  6. Mineral processing and characterization of coal waste to be used as fine aggregates for concrete paving blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Santos

    Full Text Available Commercial coal production in the southern region of Brazil has been occurring since the beginning of the twentieth century. Due to the geological characteristics of the region, large amounts of solid wastes are generated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of coal waste to produce concrete paving blocks. A procedure to process the coal waste with the purpose of reducing the sulfur content and changing the particle size distribution of the material to meet the specification of fine aggregates was developed. The methodology considered the following steps: (a sampling of a coal mining waste; (b gravity separation of the fraction with specific gravity between 2.4 and 2.8; (c comminution of the material and particle size analysis; (d technological characterization of the material and production of concrete paving blocks; and (e acidity generation prediction (environmental feasibility. The results showed that the coal waste considered in this work can be used to replace conventional sand as a fine aggregate for concrete paving blocks in a proportion of up to 50%. This practice can result in cleaner coal production and reduce the demand for exploitation of sand deposits.

  7. Toxicity studies of underground coal gasification and tarsands processes. Progress report, February 1, 1982-January 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Process waters were obtained from trial coal gasification experiments at Hanna, Wyoming and Vernal, Utah. Samples were assayed for toxicity using the Ames test and the Paramecium bioassay. Results indicate that both the Paramecium and Ames bioassays show sporadic genotoxic response to the process waters. (DMC)

  8. Warm Cleanup of Coal-Derived Syngas: Multicontaminant Removal Process Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Kurt A.; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Braunberger, Beau; Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2017-02-15

    Warm cleanup of coal- or biomass-derived syngas requires sorbent and catalytic beds to protect downstream processes and catalysts from fouling. Sulfur is particularly harmful because even parts-per-million amounts are sufficient to poison downstream synthesis catalysts. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a conventional sorbent for sulfur removal; however, its operational performance using real gasifier-derived syngas and in an integrated warm cleanup process is not well reported. In this paper, we report the optimal temperature for bulk desulfurization to be 450oC, while removal of sulfur to parts-per-billion levels requires a lower temperature of approximately 350oC. Under these conditions, we found that sulfur in the form of both hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide could be absorbed equally well using ZnO. For long-term operation, sorbent regeneration is desirable to minimize process costs. Over the course of five sulfidation and regeneration cycles, a ZnO bed lost about a third of its initial sulfur capacity, however sorbent capacity stabilized. Here, we also demonstrate, at the bench-scale, a process and materials used for warm cleanup of coal-derived syngas using five operations: 1) Na2CO3 for HCl removal, 2) regenerable ZnO beds for bulk sulfur removal, 3) a second ZnO bed for trace sulfur removal, 4) a Ni-Cu/C sorbent for multi-contaminant inorganic removal, and 5) a Ir-Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst employed for ammonia decomposition and tar and light hydrocarbon steam reforming. Syngas cleanup was demonstrated through successful long-term performance of a poison-sensitive, Cu-based, water-gas-shift catalyst placed downstream of the cleanup process train. The tar reformer is an important and necessary operation with this particular gasification system; its inclusion was the difference between deactivating the water-gas catalyst with carbon deposition and successful 100-hour testing using 1 LPM of coal-derived syngas.

  9. Structure and Pozzolanic Activity of Calcined Coal Gangue during the Process of Mechanical Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; LI Dongxu; CHEN Jianhua; YANG Nanru

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing coal gangue's chemical and mineral compositions, the structure change of coal gangue during the mechanical activation was investigated by XRD, FTIR,NMR, and the mechanical strength of the cement doped coal gangue with various specific surface area was tested. The experimental results indicate that, the lattice structure of metakaolin in coal gangue samples calcined at 700 ℃ disorganizes gradually and becomes disordered, and the lattice structure of α-quartz is distorted slightly. The pozzolanic activity of the coal gangue increases obviously with its structural disorganization.

  10. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  11. Test study on rupture process and permeability properties of coal-rock in simulating mining stress effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO gao-bin; LI Hua-min; QIAO Chun-sheng; SU Cheng-dong; WANG Wen

    2009-01-01

    A test system was designed by using a set of self-made experimental devices of coupled coal-gas in simulating mining stress effect,combining the equipment with RMT-150B rock mechanical experimental system,monitoring the rupture process of coal-rock with an acoustic emission (AE) device and collecting gas-flow rate and gas-stress data in real-time automatically with a gas flow-meter and gas pressure sensor.The fracture process and permeability properties test of the coal-rock in mining stress ef-fect was carried out.Test results indicate that AE events and variation of stresses have the same variance tendency and the rupture process of coal-rock can be monitored by AE.The relation curves among stresses,parameters of AE and permeability properties dem-onstrate that the permeability of coal-rock decreases gradually at quasi-elastic stage,in-creases gradually at plastic damage micro-fracture stage,rises suddenly near the peak point and has multi-variation at post-peak slip stage.From the results,such conclusion can be drawn that the variation of permeability can be monitored by AE parameters or stress change.

  12. Growth process and corrosion resistance of ceramic coatings of micro-arc oxidation on Mg-Gd-Y magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 李建平; 郭永春; 杨忠

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of ceramic coating formed by micro-arc oxidation on Mg-11Gd-1Y-0.5Zn (wt.%) magnesium alloys was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The relation of phase structure and corrosion resistance of MgO coating formed by micro-arc oxidation in different growth stages was analyzed. The results showed that the growth of coating accorded with linear regularity in the initial stage of micro-arc oxidation, which was the stage of anodic oxidation controlled ...

  13. Equidensitometric Methods In An Evaluation Process Of A Film Record Of A Switching Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejda, Bohuslav; Gross, Boleslav

    1983-03-01

    A high speed cinematography is also one of useful and fruitful methods of optical plasma diagnostics. Value levels of informations obtained from a film record can be very different; this fact depends very much on a used evaluation process. An equidensitometrical investigation is a suitable method for an increase of the information capacity and it presents a possibility how to obtain more valuable informations. Two ways directing to the acquirement of equidensitometric maps were used in our work: a wet photographic process using the Sabattier effect and an electronic device constructed for the special purpose. Some results obtained by these both evaluation methods are compared and discussed.

  14. North Park Basin, Colorado, for 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the North Park coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  15. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  16. Development of an innovative approach for management of coal processing waste with natural resource utilization byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Raju, C.B.; Patwardhan, A. [Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The paper summarizes studies to develop and demonstrate suitable bulk mixes of tailings or fine coal processing waste (FCPW) and coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) that will minimize environmental impacts on the land, water and air in the short-term as well as in the long-term. Samples of FCPW and slurry pond water were characterized for total and pyritic sulfur, trace elements, and water chemistry. Important characteristics of desired mixes were also identified based on planned use at each study mine. Tailings were characterized for particle size distribution, calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE) oxide composition, and ASTM leaching characterization tests. A series of mixes were developed. The test data was developed using standardized test procedures. These studies were first conducted on a small scale (100-200 gm sample size) and then scaled up to 500-1000 gm size samples. The final developed mixes were tested for their environmental properties in columns developed accounting to ASTM standards. Vegetation studies on the developed mixes were initiated in ice-cube trays and eventually upscaled to 2-gallon size aquariums. The studies involved plant-height growth, soil studies, water-pH and changes in soil mineralogy. 5 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to ``calibrate`` the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850{degrees}F{sup +} , 1050{degrees}F{sup +}, and 850 {times} 1050{degrees}F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  18. A process for generating power from the oxidation of coal in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.D. Bermejo; M.J. Cocero; F. Fernandez-Polanco [Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical study of power generation from oxidation of coal by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is presented. Two versions of SCWO power plant are compared to two of the most efficient conventional power plant processes: pulverised coal power plants and pressurised fluidised bed power plant. The effects of steam pressure and temperature on produced (W{sub p}), consumed (W{sub c}) and net work (W{sub N}) are calculated in order to compare the efficiency of these power plants for the same steam conditions. Enthalpies have been calculated using residual enthalpies by Peng Robinson equation of state. Calculated results show that net work in SCWO power plant is 5% higher than in other power plants, due to the fact that no air surplus is necessary for complete combustion and because steam is produced by direct heating. Energetic efficiency of SCWO increases more quickly with temperature than for the other power plants. The effect of steam pressure is different: until 30 MPa power plant efficiencies increase more quickly in SCWO power plants than in conventional plants, but when steam pressures increases beyond 30 MPa, efficiencies decrease in SCWO power plants. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL-FIRED POWER PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon R. Glicksman; Michael Louge; Hesham F. Younis; Richard Tan; Mathew Hyre; Mark Torpey

    2003-11-24

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an agency thereof, nor any of the their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, A combined-cycle High Performance Power System (HIPPS) capable of overall cycle efficiencies approaching 50% has been proposed and designed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). A pyrolyzer in the first stage of the HIPPS process converts a coal feedstock into fuel gas and char at an elevated pressure of 1.4 Map. (206 psia) and elevated temperature of 930 C (1700 F). The generated char serves as the feedstock for a Pulverized Coal (PC) boiler operating at atmospheric pressure, and the fuel gas is directly fired in a gas turbine. The hydrodynamic behavior of the pyrolyzer strongly influences the quality of both the fuel gas and the generated char, the energy split between the gas turbine and the steam turbine, and hence the overall efficiency of the system. By utilizing a simplified set of scaling parameters (Glicksman et al.,1993), a 4/7th labscale cold model of the pyrolyzer operating at ambient temperature and pressure was constructed and tested. The scaling parameters matched include solid to gas density ratio, Froude number, length to diameter ratio; dimensionless superficial gas velocity and solid recycle rate, particle sphericity and particle size distribution (PSD).

  20. Mathematical simulation of plasma-chemical coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerle, A.V. [Bauman State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-02-01

    A mathematical model that describes the conversion of a coal-dust flow in a cylindrical plasma reactor is presented. The model describes a two-phase (coal particles + air) chemically reacting flow, which propagates in a channel with or without an internal heat source (an electric arc, a plasmatron torch, or exothermic chemical reactions). The model is based on the assumption that the process is quasi-stationary and one-dimensional; coal particles are taken as isothermal, and ash is assumed to be an inert component. The model represents the composition of coals by their organic and mineral constituents. The model was implemented as a pro-ram for personal computers; calculations performed with the use of this program are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  1. Processing of ash and slag waste of heating plants by arc plasma to produce construction materials and nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Yu; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The resultsare presented of plasma processing slag and ash waste from coal combustion in heating plants. Melting mechanism of ashand slagraw material is considered by an electromagnetic technological reactor. The analysis was conducted of temperature and phase transformations of raw material when it is heated up to the melting point, and also determination of specific energy consumption by using a generalized model of the thermodynamic analysis of TERRA. The study of materials melting temperature conditions and plum of melt was carried with high-temperature thermal imaging method, followed by mapping and 3D-modeling of the temperature fields. The investigations to establish the principal possibilities of using slag waste of local coal as raw material for the production of mineral (ash and slag) fibers found that by chemical composition there are oxides in the following ranges: 45-65% SiO2; 10-25% Al2O3; 10-45% CaO; 5-10% MgO; other minerals (less than 5%). Thus, these technological wastes are principally suitable for melts to produce mineral wool by the plasma method. An analysis of the results shows the melting point of ash and slag waste - 1800-2000 °C. In this case the specific energy consumption of these processes keeps within the limits of 1.1-1.3 kW*h/kg. For comparison it should be noted that the unit cost of electricity in the known high-melting industrial installations 5-6 kW*h/kg. Upon melting ash and slag waste, which contains up to 2-5% of unburned carbon, carbon nanomaterials were discovered.in the form of ultrafine soot accumulating as a plaque on the water-cooled surfaces in the gas cleaning chamber. The process of formation of soot consists in sublimation-desublimation of part of carbon which is in ash and slag, and graphite electrode. Thus, upon melting of ash and slag in the electromagnetic reactor it is possible to obtain melt, and in the subsequent mineral high quality fiber, which satisfies the requirements of normative documents, and

  2. Net coal thickness in the Hanna 77, 78, 79 and 81 coal zones of Hanna Basin, Wyoming (ha*catg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of the net coal thickness in the Hanna 77, 78, 79 and 81 coal zones, Hanna coalfield, Hanna Basin, Wyoming. These...

  3. Net coal thickness isopachs, Ferris 23, 25, 31, 50 and 65 coal zones, Hanna Basin Wyoming (fer*catg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These ArcView shapefiles contain representations of the net coal thickness in the Ferris 23, 25, 31, 50 and 65 coal zones in the Ferris coalfield, Hanna Basin,...

  4. An Easy Setup for Parallel Medical Image Processing: Using Taverna and ARC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Krabbenhöft, Hajo; Niinimäki, Marko; Depeuringe, Adrien; Möller, Steffen; Müller, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Medical image processing is known as a computationally expensive and data intensive domain. It is thus well-suited for Grid computing. However, Grid computing usually requires the applications to be designed for parallel processing, which is a challenge for medical imaging researchers in hospitals that are most often not used to this. Making parallel programming methods easier to apply can promote Grid technologies in clinical environments. Readily available, functional tools with an intuitive interface are required to really promote healthgrids. Moreover, the tools need to be well integrated with the Grid infrastructure. To facilitate the adoption of Grids in the Geneva University Hospitals we have set up a develop environment based on the Taverna workflow engine. Its usage with a medical imaging application on the hospitals' internal Grid cluster is presented in this paper.

  5. Recycling of electric arc furnace (EAF dust for use in steel making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alencastro de Araújo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EAF dust is listed as hazardous waste from specific source, K061, according to ABNT 10004:2004 and constitutes one of the major problems of electrical steel plant. This work suggests recycling of the EAF dust by sintering of a composite, pre-cast agglomerate (PCA consisting of EAF dust agglomerate to coke particles, mill scale and ceramic fluorite into pellets. The work was divided into three stages, in the first stage the technical viability of using only solid waste industrial to produce a PCA was observed, in the second phase, the main effects between the components of the PCA to obtain the optimal formulation was tested. In the third phase the intensity of the variables, coke and fluorite ceramics, for removing zinc of PCA was checked. Every stage was chemically analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The first two stages of the production PCA were carried out in a pilot plant sintering downstream and the third phase in a pilot plant upstream. As a result of the process two by-products were obtained, the pre-cast agglomerated, PCA, with total iron content exceeding 70%, object of the process of sintering and zinc dust, containing more than 50% zinc resulting from volatilization of this metal during the sintering process and collected by bag filter. In addition, approximately 90% of lead and cadmium contained in the initial EAF dust was extracted.

  6. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  7. Chlorine and fluorine partition coefficients and abundances in sub-arc mantle xenoliths (Kamchatka, Russia): Implications for melt generation and volatile recycling processes in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, A.; Koga, K. T.; Shimizu, N.; Kendrick, M. A.; Ionov, D. A.; Nebel, O.; Arculus, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    We report chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F) abundances in minerals, interstitial glasses, and melt inclusions in 12 andesite-hosted, spinel harzburgite xenoliths and crosscutting pyroxenite veins exhumed from the sub-arc lithospheric mantle beneath Avacha volcano in the Kamchatka Arc (NE Russia). The data are used to calculate equilibrium mineral-melt partition coefficients (D mineral / melt) for Cl and F relevant to subduction-zone processes and unravel the history of volatile depletion and enrichment mechanisms in an arc setting. Chlorine is ∼100 times more incompatible in pyroxenes (DClmineral/melt = 0.005-0.008 [±0.002-0.003]) than F (DFmineral/melt = 0.50-0.57 [±0.21-0.24]), which indicates that partial melting of mantle sources leads to strong depletions in Cl relative to F in the residues. The data set in this study suggests a strong control of melt composition on DCl,Fpyroxene/melt, in particular H2O contents and Al/(Al + Si), which is in line with recent experiments. Fluorine is compatible in Ca-amphibole in the 'wet' sub-arc mantle (DFamphibole/melt = 3.5-3.7 [±1.5]) but not Cl (DClamphibole/melt = 0.03-0.05 [±0.01-0.03]), indicating that amphibole may fractionate F from Cl in the mantle wedge. The inter-mineral partition coefficients for Cl and F in this study are consistent amongst different harzburgite samples, whether they contain glass or not. In particular, disseminated amphibole hosts much of the Cl and F bulk rock budgets of spinel harzburgites (DClamphibole/pyroxene up to 14 and DFamphibole/pyroxene up to 40). Chlorine and fluorine are variably enriched (up to 1500 ppm Cl and 750 ppm F) in the parental arc picrite and boninite melts of primitive pyroxenite veins (and related melt inclusions) crosscutting spinel harzburgites. Based on the data in this study, the main inferences on the behaviour of Cl and F during melting and metasomatic processes in the sub-arc mantle are as follow: (i) Melting models show that most depleted mantle protoliths

  8. Systems studies of coal conversion processes using a reference simulator. Quarterly progress report, June 13--September 12, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reklaitis, G.V.; Woods, J.M.

    1976-09-27

    This project has two principal objectives. The first is to construct a modular computer simulation/design package for coal conversion systems. The second is to use this package to study in a programmatic fashion an array of coal conversion flowsheet alternatives. The computerized package is to be based on bench- and large-scale pilot plant data developed by other organizations under ERDA contracts. It is to have sufficient flexibility to permit the user to incorporate process alternatives and engineering design modifications and is to have the capability for detailed cost estimation and economic evaluation. The Illinois Coal Gasification Group Demonstration Plant based on COED and COGAS development work is the first conversion process to be investigated with the simulation package. Other variations to this flowsheet, which retain the COGAS and COED primary conversion sections will be investigated, as well as several alternatives involving other primary conversion technologies currently under development for ERDA.

  9. The influence of process parameters on desulfurization of Mezino coal by HNO{sub 3}/HCl leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, H.G.; Moghaddam, A.Z.; Omidkhah, M.R. [Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    Coal desulfurization prior to usage is a preprocessing in order to achieve clean fuel and reduce environmental impacts such as acid rain. Desulfurization of Tabas Mezino coal was conducted with two consecutive steps of froth flotation at ambient temperature followed by leaching at various conditions. Reducing the ash content of Mezino coal by 35.7 wt.% and its total sulfur content by 36.9% using froth flotation process was successful. HCl and HNO{sub 3} were used, separately, to leach the floated coal, and the effectiveness of each acid on Mezino coal desulfurization was investigated. Nitric acid was found to be much more effective than HCl and the effects of reaction time, acid concentration and temperatures as well as stirring speed were studied as major parameters in the nitric leaching process. Taguchi orthogonal experiment with the above mentioned parameter elements; one at three levels was used to optimize the experiment parameters by the analysis of variances. Applying of the Taguchi technique significantly reduced the time and cost required for the experimental investigation. The findings indicated that acid concentration, with a high contribution, had the most dominant effect on desulfurization performance, followed by temperature, stirring speed and time. Accordingly, the optimum condition was obtained as, temperature: 90 C., acid concentration: 30%., and stirring rate: 1000 rpm. The total sulfur and ash removal after flotation and leaching at optimum condition reached to 75.4 and 53.2% respectively that is a remarkable result compared to the previous works. (author)

  10. ArcGIS 字段计算工具在空间数据属性处理中的应用%The Application of ArcGIS Field Calculate Tools in the Processing of Vector Data Attributes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余咏胜; 傅晓俊; 李琼; 魏祥

    2015-01-01

    针对地理空间数据生产中常见的属性数据处理问题,通过ArcGIS系统中的字段计算工具,结合Python脚本语言对空间数据的几何属性和非几何属性进行操作与处理,满足各类不同的应用需求,避免使用第三方工具或软件,提高了地理空间数据属性处理的工作效率。%According to the attribute data processing problems in geospatial data production , geometric properties and non -geometric attributes of spatial data were operated and processed through field calculate tools in ArcGIS system and python script language .Differ-ent sorts of application requirements were met without using third party tools or software .The working efficiency of geographic spatial data and attribute processing were greatly improved .

  11. 手工电弧焊过程危害及防护研究∗%Study on Harm and Protection of Manual Arc Welding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学凌

    2016-01-01

    The arc welding is a common metal thermal processing technology, because its operation is simple and flexible, it is widely used in various machinery manufacturing fields, and it plays an important role. Its working principle is to make the metal junction surface melt into the plastic state with the use of heat or pressure, thus to achieve the purpose of permanent firmly adhered. While in the process of manual electric arc welding, there are many contact opportunities for occupational haz-ard factors, such as smoke, gas, noise, and arc radiation, they all would harm the health of operators. Therefore, the working principle of manual electric arc welding will be briefly introduced in this paper, and based on the damage in the process of manual arc welding, the corresponding protective measures will be proposed.%电弧焊是常见的金属热加工的工艺,因其操作简单灵活,因而被广泛应用于机械制造的各个领域,发挥了重要的作用。其工作原理是利用加热或者加压来使金属连接面融化成为塑性状态,从而达到永久牢固粘接的目的。而在手工电弧焊的过程中接触职业病危害因素的机会很多,烟尘、气体、噪声、弧光辐射都会对操作人员的健康带来危害。简要介绍手工电弧焊的工作原理,并基于手工电弧焊接过程中的危害提出相应的防护措施。

  12. Evaluation of erythemal UV effective irradiance from UV lamp exposure and the application in shield metal arc welding processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Tsao, Ta-Ho; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2008-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause potential effects such as erythema in skin. For UV-induced erythema (sunburn), the action spectrum from the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was adopted. Erythemal UV effects from UVR lamp exposure were investigated with commercial spectroradiometry devices in this research. Three kinds of portable UV germicidal lamps with broadband UVA (BB UVA, 350-400 nm), broadband UVB (BB UVB, 280-350 nm), and narrowband UVC (NB UVC, 254 nm) wavelengths served as the UVR emission sources. An action spectrum expresses the effectiveness of radiation for assessing the hazard of UVR in the erythemal action spectrum from 250-400 nm. The UV Index (UVI) is an irradiance scale computed by multiplying the CIE erythemal irradiance integral in milliwatts per square meter by 0.04 m mW. A comprehensive approach to detecting erythemal UVR magnitude was developed to monitor the effective exposure from UV lamps. The erythemal UVR measurement was established and the exposure assessment was applied to monitor erythemal UVR magnitude from shield metal arc welding (SMAW) processing. From this study, the erythemal UVR exposures were assessed and evaluated with environmental solar simulation of the UVI exposure.

  13. Properties of boron and phosphorous incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films grown using filtered cathodic vacuum arc process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Khan, Mohd Alim [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Satyanarayana, B.S. [40, Sreeniketan, NDSE 24, New Delhi 110096 (India); Kumar, Sushil; Ishpal [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2010-04-15

    This paper reports the electrical, mechanical, structural and field emission properties of as grown and also boron and phosphorous incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films, deposited using a filtered cathodic vacuum arc process. The effect of varying boron and phosphorous content (up to 2.0 at.% in to ta-C) on the conductivity ({sigma}{sub D}), activation energy ({Delta}E{sub 1}), hardness, microstructure, emission threshold (E{sub turn-ON}) and emission current density (J) at 12.5 V/{mu}m of ta-C: B and ta-C: P films deposited at a high negative substrate bias of -300 V are reported. It is observed that both boron and phosphorous incorporation leads to a nearly an order increase in {sigma}{sub D} and corresponding decrease in {Delta}E{sub 1} and a slight increase in hardness as compared to as grown ta-C films. In the case of field assisted electron emission, it is observed that E{sub turn-ON} increases and J decreases. The changes are attributed to the changes in the sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio of the films due to boron and phosphorous incorporation. The effect of boron on ta-C is to give a p-type effect whereas the effect of phosphorous gives n-type doping effect.

  14. Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M

    2013-01-01

    The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

  15. Emission of volatile organic compounds from domestic coal stove with the actual alternation of flaming and smoldering combustion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Chenglong; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2017-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the chimney of a prevailing domestic stove fuelled with raw bituminous coal were measured under flaming and smoldering combustion processes in a farmer's house. The results indicated that the concentrations of VOCs quickly increased after the coal loading and achieved their peak values in a few minutes. The peak concentrations of the VOCs under the smoldering combustion process were significantly higher than those under the flaming combustion process. Alkanes accounted for the largest proportion (43.05%) under the smoldering combustion, followed by aromatics (28.86%), alkenes (21.91%), carbonyls (5.81%) and acetylene (0.37%). The emission factors of the total VOCs under the smoldering combustion processes (5402.9 ± 2031.8 mg kg(-1)) were nearly one order of magnitude greater than those under the flaming combustion processes (559.2 ± 385.9 mg kg(-1)). Based on the VOCs emission factors obtained in this study and the regional domestic coal consumption, the total VOCs emissions from domestic coal stoves was roughly estimated to be 1.25 × 10(8) kg a(-1) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

  16. Weld pool temperatures of steel S235 while applying a controlled short-circuit gas metal arc welding process and various shielding gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakov, R.; Schöpp, H.; Gött, G.; Sperl, A.; Wilhelm, G.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2013-11-01

    The temperature determination of liquid metals is difficult and depends strongly on the emissivity. However, the surface temperature distribution of the weld pool is an important characteristic of an arc weld process. As an example, short-arc welding of steel with a cold metal transfer (CMT) process is considered. With optical emission spectroscopy in the spectral region between 660 and 840 nm and absolute calibrated high-speed camera images the relation between temperature and emissivity of the weld pool is determined. This method is used to obtain two-dimensional temperature profiles in the pictures. Results are presented for welding materials (wire G3Si1 on base material S235) using different welding CMT processes with CO2 (100%), Corgon 18 (18% CO2 + 82% Ar), VarigonH6 (93.5% Ar + 6.5% H2) and He (100%) as shielding gases. The different gases are used to study their influence on the weld pool temperature.

  17. Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The tautomeric equilibrium of a Schiff base was chosen as the model system and was investigated in supercritical ethane and cosolvent modified supercritical ethane.

  18. Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The tautomeric equilibrium of a Schiff base was chosen as the model system and was investigated in supercritical ethane and cosolvent modified supercritical ethane.

  19. Fires in Operating or Abandoned Coal Mines or Heaps of Reactive Materials and the Governing Transport and Reaction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Kessels, W.; Wessling, S.; Han, J.

    2007-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion is a world wide problem for technical operations in mining, waste disposal and power plant facilities. The principle driving the combustion is every where the same independent of the different reactive materials: Fresh air with the common oxygen content is getting in contact with the reactive material by human operations. The following reaction process produces heat at a usually low but constant rate. The reactive material in operating or abandoned coal mines, heaps of coal, waste or reactive minerals is most times strongly broken or fractured, such that the atmospheric oxygen can deeply penetrate into the porous or fractured media. Because the strongly broken or fractured medium with air filled pores and fractures is often combined with a low thermal conductivity of the bulk material the produced heat accumulates and the temperature increases with time. If the reactivity strongly increases with temperature, the temperature rise accelerates up to the "combustion temperature". Once the temperature is high enough the combustion process is determined by the oxygen transport to the combustion center rather than the chemical reactivity. Spontaneous combustion is thus a self- amplifying process where an initial small variation in the parameters and the starting conditions can create exploding combustion hot spots in an apparently homogenous material. The phenomenon will be discussed by various examples in the context of the German - Sino coal fire project. A temperature monitoring in hot fracture systems documents the strong influence of the weather conditions on the combustion process. Numerical calculations show the sensitivity of the combustion to the model geometries, the boundary conditions and mainly the permeability. The most used fire fighting operations like covering and water injection are discussed. A new method of using saltwater for fire fighting is presented and discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wessling, S., Li, X., and Wuttke, M

  20. Systems studies of coal conversion processes using a reference simulator. Quarterly report, December 12, 1976--March 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reklaitis, G.V.; Woods, J.M.; Kayihan, F.; Sood, M.

    1977-04-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a modular computer simulation/design package for coal conversion systems based on bench-scale and large pilot plant data. The initial work is based on COGAS and COED process results. The package should be useful for evaluating various flowsheet alternatives. (LTN)

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 2. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work pertaining to the development of models for coal gasification and combustion processes. This volume, volume 1, part 2, contains research progress in the areas of large particle oxidation at high temperatures, large particle, thick-bed submodels, sulfur oxide/nitrogen oxides submodels, and comprehensive model development and evaluation.

  2. Modeling of air-gas and dynamic processes in driving development workings in the gas-bearing coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presler, V.T. [Russian Academy of Science, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Siberian Branch, Inst. of Coal & Coal Fuel Chemistry

    2002-04-01

    The models for air-gas processes of different hierarchical level are considered in designing and driving development workings in the coal seams. The procedure is proposed for model adaptation according to the on-line data, which makes it possible to estimate the state of medium and working capacity of measuring equipment.

  3. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  4. Study on activity evaluation of activated coal-gangue and the hydration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chemical compositions, mineral compositions and the activated mechanism of the coal-gangue were analyzed. And pozzolana activities of the coal-gangue were evaluated after activated. Moreover, hydration heat and hydration compositions of activated coal-gangue-calcium oxide system, as well as hydration degree and hardened paste microstructures of activated coal-gangue-cement system were studied. Results show that pozzolana activities of the activated coal-gangue root in amorphous SiO2 and activated Al2 O3. With the exciting of gypsum, the reaction of activated coal-gangue and Ca(OH)2 would produce hydration products as ettringite, calcium silicate hydrate, and calcium aluminate. The relationship between the curing age and the content of Ca(OH)2 in coal-gangue-cement system was ascertained. Unhydrated particles in the coal-gangue-cement paste were more than that in the neat cement paste at the same hydration periods, and even existed at the later stage of hydration. Furthermore, the activated coal-gangue could inhibit growth and gathering of the calcium oxide crystal, and improve the structure of hardened cement paste.

  5. A review of state-of-the-art processing operations in coal preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noble Aaron; Luttrell Gerald H.

    2015-01-01

    Coal preparation is an integral part of the coal commodity supply chain. This stage of post-mining, pre-utilization beneficiation uses low-cost separation technologies to remove unwanted mineral matter and moisture which hinder the value of the coal product. Coal preparation plants typically employ several parallel circuits of cleaning and dewatering operations, with each circuit designed to optimally treat a specific size range of coal. Recent innovations in coal preparation have increased the efficiency and capac-ity of individual unit operations while reinforcing the standard parallel cleaning approach. This article, which describes the historical influences and state-of-the-art design for the various coal preparation unit operations, is organized to distinguish between coarse/intermediate coal cleaning and fine/ultrafine coal cleaning. Size reduction, screening, classification, cleaning, dewatering, waste disposal unit operations are particularly highlighted, with a special focus on the U.S. design philosophy. Notable differences between the U.S. and international operations are described as appropriate.

  6. Further Processing of Coal Tar Pitch%煤焦油沥青深加工利用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永林; 李好管

    2001-01-01

    Further Processing of coal tar pitch to raise the additionalvalue is one of key subjects in coal tar pro cessing. This paper discusses the present situation of coal tar pitch derived products such as modified pitch, paving pitch, coatings, carbon fiber, needle-coke.%概述了国外煤焦油沥青深加工利用现状,并对改质沥青(浸渍剂、粘结剂)、筑路沥青、涂料、碳纤维、针状焦等煤沥青深加工产品的技术开发、生产及应用进行了分析。

  7. Emission characteristics of chlorine in the process of coal and WP co-pyrolysising and exploring on its mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Shi, Y.; Zhao, S. [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2007-04-15

    The emission characteristics of chlorine as well a the yield of coke during the process of waste plastic (WP) and coal co-pyrolysis was studied. The result indicates that the emission ratio of chlorine and yield of coke are dependent on pyrolysing temperature, percentage of WP and time of constant temperature. When percentage of WP is big the remains of chlorine in the coke is the same as it in common coal, even though pyrolysis temperature is 1000{sup o}C. However the remains of chlorine in coke decreases with the increase of constant temperature time. So the remains of chlorine in coke can be controlled by controlling the constant temperature time. Additionally, the mechanism of chlorine emission was studied base don the experimental data and comparison with co-pyrolysis of coal and PVC, and a dynamic equation of chlorine emission was derived. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  9. Exxon catalytic coal-gasification process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euker, Jr, C. A.

    1980-03-01

    Work continued on the catalyst recovery screening studies to evaluate the economic impacts of alternative processing approaches and solid-liquid separation techniques. Equipment specifications have been completed for two cases with countercurrent water washing using rotary-drum filters for the solid-liquid separations. Material and energy balances have been completed for an alternative methane recovery process configuration using low pressure stripping which requires 26% less horsepower than the Study Design system. A study has been initiated to identify trace components which might be present in the CCG gas loop and to assess their potential impacts on the CCG process. This information will be used to assist in planning an appropriate series of analyses for the PDU gasifier effluent. A study has been initiated to evaluate the use of a small conventional steam reformer operating in parallel with a preheat furnace for heat input to the catalytic gasifier which avoids the potential problem of carbon laydown. Preliminary replies from ten manufacturers are being evaluated as part of a study to determine the types and performance of coal crushing equipment appropriate for commercial CCG plants. A material and energy balance computer model for the CCG reactor system has been completed. The new model will provide accurate, consistent and cost-efficient material and energy balances for the extensive laboratory guidance and process definition studies planned under the current program. Other activities are described briefly.

  10. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  11. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Quarterly technical report: March 1, 1993 to May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.; Ilias, S. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1993-11-01

    The viscosity of coal derived liquids is an important property that is required for the design of the coal liquefaction processes, as well as for understanding the flow characteristics of coal liquids. Coal liquids are complex undefined mixtures and boil over a wide range of temperatures. One method of characterizing coal liquids is to treat coal liquids as a continuous distribution of molecular weights. Upon review of the literature for viscosity correlations, the authors quickly concluded that there is no accurate method available that may be successfully applied to coal liquids. They generally believe that correlations based on molecular structure of materials are superior to those that use solely the characterization parameters such as refractive index, critical properties, density, boiling points etc. A few correlations in the literature do consider molecular structures in viscosity determinations. Using important features in these correlations, they set out to develop a new viscosity correlation that would apply to model coal aromatic compounds, their mixtures and finally to coal derived liquids themselves. The correlation for pure compounds and mixtures has been developed and is discussed below. Attempts are now being made to apply this to coal derived liquids.

  12. Fluidized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  13. Innovative oxy-coal combustion process suitable for future and more efficient zero emission power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benelli, G.; Malavasi, M.; Girardi, G. [ENEL Ricerca (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    The problem with CO{sub 2} capture from a flue gas stream is related to its low concentration, which makes the process of separation very energy-intensive, complex and, as a result, expensive. The CO{sub 2} separation process can be optimized by increasing the concentration of CO{sub 2} and reducing nitrogen concentration in the stream as it happens, in the oxy-fuel combustion process. In such a case, the oxidant flow is typically a mixture of oxygen, steam and carbon dioxide, with a very low concentration of nitrogen. Since the oxy-combustion process leads to very high temperatures, flue gases must be circulating through the chemical reactor to keep the combustion adiabatic temperature below acceptable values, due to the limits imposed by material resistance. This paper focuses on an innovative oxy-coal combustion process named ISOTHERM{reg_sign}, based on a flameless combustion technique which is mentioned in recent literature also as 'Mild' combustion. The combustion process takes place within a pressurized and refractory-lined furnace, approaching temperatures close to 2000 K. The process has been experienced at pressurized conditions up to 4 bar on a 5 MW pilot plant for thousands of hours. In this paper, starting from a detailed description of the process, results obtained by the preliminary experimental tests are presented and discussed. Then, a development and demonstration program to assess the suitability of this technology for zero emission power generation at large scale in one of the units of Brindisi power station is presented. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    surface moisture of the feed coal exceeds the maximum limit. However, the content of -6mm in the feed to the FGX separator should be maintained between 10% and 20% to ensure an adequate fluidized bed. A parametric evaluation was conducted using a 3-level experimental design at each test site to identify the optimum separation performance and parameter values. The test data was used to develop empirical expressions that describe the response variables (i.e., mass yield and product ash content) as a function of the operating parameter values. From this process, it was established that table frequency and longitudinal slope are the most critical factors in controlling both mass yield and clean coal ash while the cross table slope was the least significant. Fan blower frequency is a critical parameter that controls mass yield. Although the splitter positions between product and middling streams and the middling and tailing streams were held constant during the tests, a separate evaluation indicated that performance is sensitive to splitter position within certain lengths of the table and insensitive in others. For a Utah bituminous coal, the FGX separator provided clean coal ash contents that ranged from a low of 8.57% to a high of 12.48% from a feed coal containing around 17% ash. From the 29 tests involved in the statistically designed test program, the average clean coal ash content was 10.76% while the tailings ash content averaged around 72%. One of the best separation performances achieved an ash reduction from 17.36% to 10.67% while recovering 85.9% of the total feed mass, which equated to an ash rejection value of around 47%. The total sulfur content was typically decreased from 1.61% to 1.49%. These performances were quantified by blending the middlings stream with the clean coal product. At a second Utah site, coal sources from three different bituminous coal seams were treated by the FGX deshaling unit. Three parameter values were varied based on the results

  15. Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Guide for Authors Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(English Edition), a comprehensive academic periodical of the China Coal Society, covers the fields of coal science and technology including coal geology, exploration,mine survey, mine project assessment, mine construction, coal mining, coal mine electrical machinery,mine safety, coal processing and utilization, coal mine environmental protection, etc. It reflects the latest research results and findings.

  16. Simulation of the Process of Arc Energy-Effect in High Voltage Auto-Expansion SF6 Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Mingzhe; Yang Qian; Fan Chunduo

    2005-01-01

    A new magnetic hydro-dynamics (MHD) model of arc in H.V. auto-expansion SF6circuit breaker that takes into consideration nozzle ablation due to both radiation and thermal conduction is presented in this paper. The effect of PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene) vapor is considered in the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations of the constructed model. Then,the gas flow fields with and without conduction considered are simulated. By comparing the aforementioned two results, it is indicated that the arc's maximal temperature with conduction considered is 90 percent of that without considering conduction.

  17. ALICE-ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    2008-01-01

    Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data...

  18. Gas tungsten arc welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  19. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  20. Development of biotechnical processes for purification of liquid waste from coal processing. Final report. Entwicklung biotechnischer Verfahren zur Behandlung von Abwaessern aus der Kohleveredlung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jockers, R.; Patalas, N.; Schacht, S.; Rehm, H.J.; Freier, D.

    1988-04-01

    Within the framework of the project special cultures of microorganisms were tested for their efficiency for the degradation of phenol-containing waste waters from coal upgrading plants. Furthermore, different immobilization methods and reactor types for the use of highly polluted waste waters were tested. A biotechnical process was developed which is expected to have excellent chances for practical realization on an industrial scale.

  1. Development and Testing of an Experimental Polysensory Instructional System for Teaching Electric Arc Welding Processes. Report No. 24. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Harold A.

    The population of the study consisted of 15 high school industrial arts students, 10 freshman and sophomore college students, and 10 adults. A polysensory, self-pacing instructional system was developed which included (1) pretests and post tests, (2) a general instruction book, (3) equipment to practice arc welding, (4) programed instruction…

  2. Application of welding science to welding engineering: A lumped parameter gas metal arc welding dynamic process model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, P.E.; Smartt, H.B.; Johnson, J.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    We develop a model of the depth of penetration of the weld pool in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) which demonstrates interaction between the arc, filler wire and weld pool. This model is motivated by the observations of Essers and Walter which suggest a relationship between droplet momentum and penetration depth. A model of gas metal arc welding was augmented to include an improved model of mass transfer and a simple model of accelerating droplets in a plasma jet to obtain the mass and momentum of impinging droplets. The force of the droplets and depth of penetration is correlated by a dimensionless linear relation used to predict weld pool depth for a range of values of arc power and contact tip to workpiece distance. Model accuracy is examined by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of the pool depth obtained from bead on plate welds of carbon steel in an argon rich shielding gas. Moreover, theoretical predictions of pool depth are compared to the results obtained from the heat conduction model due to Christensen et al. which suggest that in some cases the momentum of impinging droplets is a better indicator of the depth of the weld pool and the presence of a deep, narrow penetration.

  3. Experimental and modeling study of the effect of CH(4) and pulverized coal on selective non-catalytic reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Cai, Ningsheng; Yang, Jingbiao; Xu, Bo

    2008-10-01

    The reduction of nitric oxide using ammonia combined with methane and pulverized coal additives has been studied in a drop tube furnace reactor. Simulated flue gas with 1000 ppm NO(x) and 3.4% excess oxygen was generated by cylinder gas. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 700-1200 degrees C to investigate the effects of additives on the DeNO(x) performance. Subsequently, a kinetic mechanism was modified and validated based on experimental results, and a computational kinetic modeling with CHEMKIN was conducted to analyze the secondary pollutants. For both methane and pulverized coal additives, the temperature window is shifted towards lower temperatures. The appropriate reaction temperature is shifted to about 900 and 800 degrees C, respectively with 1000 ppm methane and 0.051 g min(-1) pulverized lignite coal. The addition of methane and pulverized coal widens the temperature window towards lower temperature suggesting a low temperature application of the process. Furthermore, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reaction rate is accelerated evidently with additives and the residence time to complete the reaction is shortened distinctly. NO(x) reduction efficiency with 80% is achieved in about 0.3s without additive at 1000 degrees C. However, it is achieved in only about 0.2s with 100 ppm methane as additive, and only 0.07 and 0.05s are needed respectively for the cases of 500 and 1000 ppm methane. The modified kinetic modeling agrees well with the experimental results and reveals additional information about the process. Investigation on the byproducts where NO(2) and N(2)O were analyzed by modeling and the others were investigated by experimental means indicates that emissions would not increase with methane and pulverized coal additions in SNCR process and the efficacious temperature range of SNCR reaction is widened approximately with 100 degrees C.

  4. Monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion processes via ultrasound. [Ultrasonic thermometry proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    1980-02-01

    A study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion systems has been carried out. The instrumentation types studied include Thermocouples, Radiation Pyrometers, and Acoustical Thermometers. The capabilities and limitations of each type are reviewed. The study determined that ultrasonic thermometry has the potential of providing viable instrumentation. Consequently, a feasibility study of the ultrasonic thermometry was undertaken. A mathematical model of a pulse-echo ultrasonic temperature measurement system is developed using linear system theory. The mathematical model lends itself to the adaptation of generalized correlation techniques for the estimation of propagation delays. Computer simulations are made to test the efficacy of the signal processing techniques for noise-free as well as noisy signals. Based on the theoretical study, acoustic techniques to measure temperature in reactors and combustors are feasible. To experimentally verify the technique it is needed (a) to test the available sensor materials at high temperatures under erosive and corrosive conditions and (b) upon the selection of the appropriate sensor material to validate the proposed signal processing technique. The base for the applicability of this technique will be the frequency of operation, which will determine the length of the sensor and the noise background at the frequency of interest. It is, however, believed that the proposed technique will provide reliable estimates under the noise background.

  5. Application of the SULF-X process to coal conversion and utilization. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, E.; Bramer, H.C.; New, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Pittsburgh Environmental and Energy Systems, Inc. contracted with the Department of Energy to demonstrate the efficacy of an iron sulfide flue gas treatment system (FGT) for removing sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and to correlate process variables to system performance. Laboratory and bench-scale testing was conducted with the SULF-X process, using both synthesized gas and actual flue gas from a coal-fired furnace. Laboratory tests resulted in 95% SO/sub 2/ removal and up to 95% NO/sub x/ removal. The bench-scale system demonstrated similar SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies, but achieved only 39% NO/sub x/ removal due to relatively high oxygen concentrations in the flue gas and insufficient liquid-gas interfacial area within the absorber. Elemental sulfur was recovered during the regeneration steps. Total capital investment for the SULF-X system was estimated to be $91 to $103 per kilowatt (electric), compared to $90/kw for sodium solution scrubbing, $78 to $83/kw for magnesia slurry scrubbing and $74/kw for limestone slurry scrubbing. Annual operating costs for the SULF-X system were estimated to be 5.44 to 6.90 mills per kilowatt-hour, compared to 4.96 to 5.22 for sodium, 3.68 to 3.99 for magnesia and 3.73 to 4.25 for limestone. 6 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  6. Explosions of coal powder in pressured process; Explosiones de Polvo de Carbon en Procesos a Presion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    As continuation of the previous introductory work about explosions of coal under hyperbaric conditions and considering the higher risk of explosions repercution with pressure; it was decided to develop this ambitious project, taking into account the more extensive range of type of coals: since subbituminous coals through hard coal to anthracite. It has been considered also several type of sorbents as limestones and others. The main objective of the project is to define, by experimental way, the utilization conditions for a safety coal handling. Many variables have been analyzed: Coal characteristics and origin, type of limestones, oxygen. moisture, temperature, and pressure. Due the great project complexity it was necessary to build one especial installation for trails under high pressure, where it was possible to use all the big number of variable combinations. The main research result has been the development of a model which has the possibility to simulate and analyze the foreseeable performance of coals and sorbent blends, in order to avoid the exploitations using specific handling methods. (Author)

  7. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  8. Integration of coal pyrolysis process with iron ore reduction:Reduction behaviors of iron ore with benzene-containing coal pyrolysis gas as a reducing agent☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Helong Hui; Songgeng Li; Lu He; Lijie Cui

    2016-01-01

    An integrated coal pyrolysis process with iron ore reduction is proposed in this article. As the first step, iron oxide reduction is studied in a fixed bed reactor using simulated coal pyrolysis gas with benzene as a model tar com-pound. Variables such as reduction temperature, reduction time and benzene concentration are studied. The car-bon deposition of benzene results in the retarded iron reduction at low temperatures. At high temperatures over 800 °C, the presence of benzene in the gas can promote iron reduction. The metallization can reach up to 99%in 20 min at 900 °C in the presence of benzene. Significant increases of hydrogen and CO/CO2 ratio are observed in the gas. It is indicated that iron reduction is accompanied by the reforming and decomposition of benzene. The degree of metal ization and reduction increases with the increasing benzene concentration. Iron oxide can nearly completely be converted into cementite with benzene present in the gas under the experimental conditions. No sintering is found in the reduced sample with benzene in the gas.

  9. Case studies of a COED-based coal-conversion process. Final report, August 1, 1979-July 15, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reklaitis, G.V.

    1983-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to investigate the process section models developed under a previous DOE contract into a single modified COED coal-conversion process model; to conduct case studies with selected process section models; and to supplement these studies by developing several additional models. A cyclone coal/char combustor model was developed, implemented and documented. A major program of case studies involving three alternative coal-conversion-process configurations (modified COED, COGAS, and COED) was executed. The COGAS configuration proved superior to the modified COED but was shown to be quite limited in the range of feasible operating conditions. Based on a second-law analysis the COED configuration was the most energy efficient of the three. An oil-vapor-quench-process section model was developed. The key element was a three phase stage-wise absorber with external heat removal and side streams. The model was validated against literature performance data. Comparison of the two quench systems showed them to be comparable in capital cost. Finally, flowsheet models were created of three bulk methanation systems. Suitable base cases were identified for each flowsheet. Extensive experimentation was carried out to speed up integration and to improve recycle convergence calculations. Because of excessive computer charges further case studies were terminated.

  10. Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Płaza, Grażyna A; Kwaśniewska, Jolanta; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots.

  11. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including

  12. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  13. Numerical modelling of lighting process in pulverized-coal burner of a boiler unit by the low-temperature plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miloshevich, H.; Rychkov, A.D. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Occupational Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The authors numerically modelled the process of aeromixture ignition in a pulverized-coal burner by a central axysymmetric jet of air that is heated in an electrical are plasma generator up to about 5000 K. The aim was to investigate the process of coal particle ignition in the flow and establish the conditions under which the independent combustion of pulverized coal mixture occurs. The results obtained showed the important role of radiation heat transfer in initiating the combustion process of solid fuel particles. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  14. A process concept for the production of benzene-ethylene-SNG from coal using flash hydropyrolysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M. I.; Ladelfa, C. J.; Bivacca, S. J.

    1980-05-01

    Flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) of coal is an emerging technology for the direct production of methane, ethane and BTX in a single-stage, high throughput reactor. The FHP technique involves the short residence time (1-2 seconds), rapid heatup of coal in a dilute-phase, transport reactor. When integrated into an overall, grass-roots conversion complex, the FHP technique can be utilized to generate a product consisting of SNG, ethylene/propylene, benzene and Fischer-Tropsch-based alcohols. This paper summarizes the process engineering and economics of conceptualized facility based on an FHP reactor operation with a lignitic coal. The plant is hypothetically sited near the extensive lignite fields located in the Texas region of the United States. Utilizing utility-financing methods for the costing of SNG, and selling the chemicals cogenerated at petrochemical market prices, the 20-year average SNG cost has been computed to vary between $3-4/MM Btu, depending upon the coal costs, interest rates, debt/equity ratio, coproduct chemicals prices, etc.

  15. Preparation and characterization of porous bioceramic layers on pure titanium surfaces obtained by micro-arc oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Hung, Yu-Chien; Hong, Ting-Fu; Wu, Chung-Chun; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Lee, Tzer-Min; Liao, Tze-Yuan; Lin, Huan-Chang; Chuang, Cheng-Hsin

    2017-03-01

    Fluorapatite (FA) has better chemical and thermal stability than hydroxyapatite (HA), and has thus attracted significant interest for biomaterial applications in recent years. In this study, porous bioceramic layers were prepared on pure titanium surfaces using a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique with an applied voltage of 450 V and an oxidation time of 5 min. The MAO process was performed using three different electrolyte solutions containing calcium fluoride (CaF2), calcium acetate monohydrate (Ca(CH3COO)2·H2O), and sodium phosphate monobasic dihydrate (NaH2PO4·2H2O) mixed in ratios of 0:2:1, 1:1:1, and 2:0:1, respectively. The surface morphology, composition, micro-hardness, porosity, and biological properties of the various MAO coatings were examined and compared. The results showed that as the CaF2/Ca(CH3COO)2·H2O ratio increased, the elemental composition of the MAO coating transformed from HA, A-TiO2 (Anatase) and R-TiO2 (Rutile); to A-TiO2, R-TiO2, and a small amount of HA; and finally A-TiO2, R-TiO2, CaF2, TiP2O5, and FA. The change in elemental composition was accompanied by a higher micro-hardness and a lower porosity. The coatings exhibited a similar in vitro bioactivity performance during immersion in simulated body fluid for 7-28 days. Furthermore, for in initial in vitro biocompatibility tests performed for 24 h using Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplement containing 10%Fetal bovine serum, the attachment and spreading of osteoblast-like osteosarcoma MG63 cells were found to increase slightly with an increasing CaF2/Ca(CH3COO)2·H2O ratio. In general, the results presented in this study show that all three MAO coatings possess a certain degree of in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility.

  16. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  17. XRD evaluating of KOH activation process and influence of coal rank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, N.; Maruyama, K.; Yamada, Y.; Ishikawa, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Toda, Y.; Shiraishi, M. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Three Japanese coals with different rank (Ohmine, Miike and Taiheiyo coals) were activated with KOH from 300 to 850{degree}C. Higher rank coal with lower oxygen content showed a high yield and also a large specific surface area determined by N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the activated carbons were measured to characterize stacking structure of aromatic layers by standardized analysis of coal by XRD method, considering the presence of slit-shaped micropores among the stacking structure. Structural parameters obtained by this method were related to the yield and the surface area in order to discuss the feature of micropores developed during the activation. 27 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 30 CFR 77.1112 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1112 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards. (a) When welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame near...

  19. Process and apparatus for conversion of water vapor with coal or hydrocarbon into a product gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.; Barnert, H.; Oertel, M.; Schulten, R.

    1990-03-27

    A process and apparatus are provided for conversion of steam and hydrocarbon, or steam and coal, into a product gas which contains hydrogen. The conversion rate is augmented by effective extraction and removal of hydrogen as and when hydrogen is generated. Within a reaction vessel wherein the conversion takes place, a chamber for collection of hydrogen is formed by the provision of a hydrogen permeable membrane. The chamber is provided with a hydrogen extraction means and houses a support structure, for example, in the form of a mesh providing structural support to the membrane. The membrane may be of a pleated or corrugated construction, so as to provide an enlarged surface for the membrane to facilitate hydrogen extraction. Also, to further facilitate hydrogen extraction, a hydrogen partial pressure differential is maintained across the membrane, such as, for example, by the counter pressure of an inert gas. A preferred configuration for the apparatus of the invention is a tubular construction which houses generally tubular hydrogen extraction chambers. 5 figs.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  1. Microstructure and abrasive wear properties of M(Cr,Fe7C3 carbides reinforced high-chromium carbon coating produced by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner BUYTOZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, high-chromium ferrochromium carbon hypereutectic alloy powder was coated on AISI 4340 steel by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process. The coating layers were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Depending on the gas tungsten arc welding pa-rameters, either hypoeutectic or hypereutectic microstructures were produced. Wear tests of the coatings were carried out on a pin-on-disc apparatus as function of contact load. Wear rates of the all coating layers were decreased as a function of the loading. The improvement of abrasive wear resistance of the coating layer could be attributed to the high hardness of the hypereutectic M7C3 carbides in the microstruc-ture. As a result, the microstructure of surface layers, hardness and abrasive wear behaviours showed different characteristics due to the gas tungsten arc welding parameters.

  2. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Wencheng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Sewage sludge from a biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl2 as activation agent, which was used as a support for ferric oxides to form a catalyst (FeOx/SBAC) by a simple impregnation method. The new material was then used to improve the performance of Fenton oxidation of real biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the prepared FeOx/SBAC significantly enhanced the pollutant removal performance in the Fenton process, so that the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic. The best performance was obtained over a wide pH range from 2 to 7, temperature 30°C, 15 mg/L of H2O2 and 1g/L of catalyst, and the treated effluent concentrations of COD, total phenols, BOD5 and TOC all met the discharge limits in China. Meanwhile, on the basis of significant inhibition by a radical scavenger in the heterogeneous Fenton process as well as the evolution of FT-IR spectra of pollutant-saturated FeOx/BAC with and without H2O2, it was deduced that the catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals, and a possible reaction pathway and interface mechanism were proposed. Moreover, FeOx/SBAC showed superior stability over five successive oxidation runs. Thus, heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of biologically pretreated CGW by FeOx/SBAC, with the advantages of being economical, efficient and sustainable, holds promise for engineering application.

  3. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  4. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, James D; Biswas, Pratim; Giammar, Daniel E

    2007-07-01

    Leaching of mercury from coal combustion byproducts is a concern because of the toxicity of mercury. Leachability of mercury can be assessed by using sequential extraction procedures. Sequential extraction procedures are commonly used to determine the speciation and mobility of trace metals in solid samples and are designed to differentiate among metals bound by different mechanisms and to different solid phases. This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acid-soluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto

  5. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS TO MINIMIZE ANGULAR DISTORTION IN GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDED STAINLESS STEEL 202 GRADE PLATES USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SUDHAKARAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on optimization of process parameters using particle swarm optimization to minimize angular distortion in 202 grade stainless steel gas tungsten arc welded plates. Angular distortion is a major problem and most pronounced among different types of distortion in butt welded plates. The process control parameters chosen for the study are welding gun angle, welding speed, plate length, welding current and gas flow rate. The experiments were conducted using design of experiments technique with five factor five level central composite rotatable design with full replication technique. A mathematical model was developed correlating the process parameters with angular distortion. A source code was developed in MATLAB 7.6 to do the optimization. The optimal process parameters gave a value of 0.0305° for angular distortion which demonstrates the accuracy of the model developed. The results indicate that the optimized values for the process parameters are capable of producing weld with minimum distortion.

  7. Some Studies of Optimal Process Parameters For Solid Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Neural Network Technique And Simulation Using Ansys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritprava Sahoo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding is an arc welding process which is widely used in industry to join the metals. In this present work we have investigated the effect of varying welding parameters on the weld bead quality of Mild Steel flat having 12mm thickness. The chosen input parameters for the study are Welding Voltage, Welding Current and the travel speed of welding torch. The output parameters chosen are Weld Bead Width, Weld Bead Height, Depth of Penetration and Depth of Heat Affected Zone (HAZ. The four levels of experimental set-ups for each of the input parameters are considered and other process parameters are kept constant for the study. Hence the total numbers of experimental set-ups are 64 and the corresponding values of output parameters are found. As this is a Multi-Response Problem, it is being optimized to Single-Response Problem using Weighted Principal Components (WPC Method. Artificial Neural Networks (sANN, Error Back Propagation Procedure is being used for the prediction of optimal process parameters for GMAW process in this present work. The finite element analysis of residual stresses in butt welding of two similar plates is performed with the ANSYS software.

  8. Study on law of raw coal seepage during loading process at different gas pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Junqing; Nie Baisheng; Zhao Bi; Ma Yechao

    2015-01-01

    In order to reveal the law of raw coal seepage at different gas pressures, the gravity constant load seepage experimental system was developed and used. The law of raw coal seepage at different gas pressures with He, N2 and CO2 was investigated. The results show that, in a given state of stress during the experiment, with the increase of gas pressure, the permeability of raw coal sample prone to outburst exhibits a significantly decrease, and then exhibits an increasing trend when reaching the extreme point. The law of Klingberg coefficient related to the stress state and the gas adsorption properties was also obtained. Under the same experimental conditions, the Klingberg coefficient of He is greater than that of N2; and the Klingberg coefficient of CO2 has minimum value; so the stronger the gas adsorption is, the smaller the Klingberg coefficient of gas goes. Klinkenberg coefficient decreases with the increase of effective stress. Under the same conditions, the permeability of He is greater than that of N2; the permeability of CO2 has minimum value;so the stronger the gas adsorption is, the lower the permeability of the coal sample goes. The results have important significance in revealing the mechanism of gas seepage, predicting coal mine gas disaster, and gas drainage and safety production.

  9. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. [Runs 49 to 57 and 59 to 62

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project for the period January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. The fourth quarter of 1979 is reported here in detail. Turnaround activities at the Fort Lewis SRC-II Pilot Plant were completed. During the shutdown, installation of Slurry Preheater B was completed. In addition, extensive modifications were completed to improve operability and slurry handling capabilities. The experimental program for testing Slurry Preheater B was revised to improve the data base for design scale-up considerations. Coal feed was established using Powhatan No. 6 coal. Twenty slurry survey tests were designed to establish the effects of varous slurry and heater inlet hydrogen flow rates on heat transfer, heater coil pressure drop, and heater operability. Additional tests were also added to the preheater evaluation program to study the effects of coal concentration, recycle pyridine insoluble concentration and preheater outlet temperatures. During 1979, PDU P-99 completed 13 runs (Runs 49 to 57 and 59 to 62). All these runs were made feeding coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine.

  10. Coherence of Auger and inter-Coulombic decay processes in the photoionization of Ar@C60 versus Kr@C60

    CERN Document Server

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Javani, Mohammad H; Madjet, Mohamed E; Manson, Steven T; Chakraborty, Himadri S

    2015-01-01

    For the asymmetric spherical dimer of an endohedrally confined atom and a host fullerene, an innershell vacancy of either system can decay through the continuum of an outer electron hybridized between the systems. Such decays, viewed as coherent superpositions of the single-center Auger and two-center inter-Coulombic (ICD) amplitudes, are found to govern leading decay mechanisms in noble-gas endofullerenes, and are likely omnipresent in this class of nanomolecules. A comparison between resulting autoionizing resonances calculated in the photoionization of Ar@C60 and Kr@C60 exhibits details of the underlying processes.

  11. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  12. Mafic magmas from Mount Baker in the northern Cascade arc, Washington: probes into mantle and crustal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicole E.; Debari, Susan M.

    2012-03-01

    Five mafic lava flows located on the southern flank of Mount Baker are among the most primitive in the volcanic field. A comprehensive dataset of whole rock and mineral chemistry reveals the diversity of these mafic lavas that come from distinct sources and have been variably affected by ascent through the crust. Disequilibrium textures present in all of the lavas indicate that crustal processes have affected the magmas. Despite this evidence, mantle source characteristics have been retained and three primitive endmember lava types are represented. These include (1) modified low-K tholeiitic basalt (LKOT-like), (2) typical calc-alkaline (CA) lavas, and (3) high-Mg basaltic andesite and andesite (HMBA and HMA). The Type 1 endmember, the basalt of Park Butte (49.3-50.3 wt% SiO2, Mg# 64-65), has major element chemistry similar to LKOT found elsewhere in the Cascades. Park Butte also has the lowest overall abundances of trace elements (with the exception of the HREE), indicating it is either derived from the most depleted mantle source or has undergone the largest degree of partial melting. The Type 2 endmember is represented by the basalts of Lake Shannon (50.7-52.6 wt% SiO2, Mg# 58-62) and Sulphur Creek (51.2-54.6 wt% SiO2, Mg# 56-57). These two lavas are comparable to calc-alkaline rocks found in arcs worldwide and have similar trace element patterns; however, they differ from each other in abundances of REE, indicating variation in degree of partial melting or fractionation. The Type 3 endmember is represented by the HMBA of Tarn Plateau (51.8-54.0 wt% SiO2, Mg# 68-70) and the HMA of Glacier Creek (58.3-58.7 wt% SiO2, Mg# 63-64). The strongly depleted HREE nature of these Type 3 units and their decreasing Mg# with increasing SiO2 suggests fractionation from a high-Mg basaltic parent derived from a source with residual garnet. Another basaltic andesite unit, Cathedral Crag (52.2-52.6 wt% SiO2, Mg# 55-58), is an Mg-poor differentiate of the Type 3 endmember. The calc

  13. Waste Minimization Protocols for the Process of Synthesizing Zeolites from South African Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie F. Petrik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of a high value zeolite from fly ash has been shown to be an avenue for the utilization of South African fly ash which presently constitutes a huge disposal problem. The synthesis of zeolites Na-P1 and analcime on a micro-scale has been successful and preliminary investigation shows that scale-up synthesis is promising. However, the post-synthesis supernatant waste generated contains high levels of NaOH that may constitute a secondary disposal problem. A waste minimization protocol was developed to reduce the volume of waste generated with a view to enhancing the feasibility of the scale synthesis. Series of experiments were conducted in 100 mL jacketed batch reactors. Fly ash was reacted with 5 Mol NaOH on a 1:1 mass basis during the aging step, followed by hydrothermal treatment in which ultrapure water was added to the slurry. This study shows that by re-introducing the supernatant waste into the experiments in such a way that it supplies the required reagent (NaOH for the zeolite synthesis, zeolite Na-P1 and analcime can be synthesized. It also shows that the synthesis process can be altered to allow up to 100% re-use of the supernatant waste to yield high value zeolitic products. This study effectively constructed two protocols for the minimization of waste generated during the synthesis of zeolites from South African coal fly ash. This result could be used to establish a basis for legal and environmental aspects involved in the commission of a full-scale plant synthesizing zeolites NaP1 and analcime.

  14. SH radical: the key intermediate in sulfur transformation during thermal processing of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinding; Yang, Jianli; Liu, Zhenyu

    2005-07-01

    To uncouple the complex behavior of sulfur transformation during thermal processing of coal and to elucidate the main mechanism, typical organic and inorganic sulfur compounds impregnated on or mixed with a low-ash char are studied through temperature-programmed decomposition coupled with online mass spectrum analysis (TPDMS) and followed by temperature-programmed oxidation coupled also with online mass spectrum analysis (TPOMS) in a temperature range of up to 800 degrees C. It is evident that the cleavages of Cal-S and Car-S bonds, where the subscripts al and ar stand for aliphatic and aromatic carbon, respectively, in the organic compounds result in the formation of SH radicals, which then undergo secondary reactions with the char to form various sulfur compounds such as H2S, SO2, COS, and elemental sulfur, as well as sulfur structures in the char. H2 has the ability to stabilize the -* SH radicals and weaken the interactions between the -* SH radicals and the char. For the sulfur compounds, which do not generate the *SH radical, the only sulfur products detected are those formed directly from the decomposition of the starting sulfur compounds, H2S from FeS2 in H2 or SO2 from Fe2(SO4)3 in He, for example, and no sulfur structure is formed in the char. Minerals have significant effects on the bond cleavage temperature and the reactions of the *SH radicals with the char. It is clear that the *SH radical is a key species interacting with the char to form secondary sulfur compounds, while H2S and SO2 play no role in the sulfur transformation to the carbon structure.

  15. Hydrogen production by coal plasma gasification for fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvita, V. [Max-Planck-Institute, Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstrasse 1, 39106, Magdeburg (Germany); Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Research Department of Plasmotechnics, 22 Zvereva str., 050100 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2007-11-15

    Coal gasification in steam and air atmosphere under arc plasma conditions has been investigated with Podmoskovnyi brown coal, Kuuchekinski bituminous coal and Canadian petrocoke. It was found that for those coals the gasification degree to synthesis gas were 92.3%, 95.8 and 78.6% correspondingly. The amount of produced syngas was 30-40% higher in steam than in air gasification of the coal. The reduction of the carbon monoxide content in the hydrogen-rich reformate gas for low-temperature fuel cell applications normally involves high- and low-temperature water gas shift reactors followed by selective oxidation of residual carbon monoxide. It is shown that the carbon monoxide content can be reduced in one single reactor, which is based on an iron redox cycle. During the reduction phase of the cycle, the raw gas mixture of H{sub 2} and CO reduces a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sample, while during the oxidation phase steam re-oxidizes the iron and simultaneously hydrogen is being produced. The integration of the redox iron process with a coal plasma gasification technology in future allows the production of CO{sub x}-free hydrogen. (author)

  16. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is an unconventional method for recovering energy from coal resources through in-situ thermo-chemical conversion to gas. In the core of the UCG lays the coal gasification process which involves the engineered injection of a blend of gasification agents into the coal resource and propagating its gasification. Athough UCG technology has been known for some time and considered a promising method for unconventional fossil fuel resources exploitation, there are limited modelling studies which achieve the necessary accuracy and realistic simulation of the processes involved. This paper uses the existing knowledge for surface gasifiers and investigates process designs which could be adapted to model UCG. Steady state simulations of syngas production were developed using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen) Plus software. The Gibbs free energy minimisation method was used to simulate the different chemical reactor blocks which were combined using a FORTRAN code written. This approach facilitated the realistic simulation of the gasification process. A number of model configurations were developed to simulate different subsurface gasifier layouts considered for the exploitation of underground coal seams. The two gasifier layouts considered here are the linked vertical boreholes and the controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) methods. Different stages of the UCG process (i.e. initialisation, intermediate, end-phase) as well as the temperature level of the syngas collection point in each layout were found to be the two most decisive and distinctive parameters during the design of the optimal model configuration for each layout. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the significance of the operational parameters and the performance indicators used to evaluate the results. The operational parameters considered were the type of reagents injected (i.e. O2, N2, CO2, H2O), the ratio between the injected reagents

  17. ALICE - ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic...... Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data...... management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. dCache provides support for several data management tools (among them for xrootd the tools used by AliEn) using the so called "doors". Therefore, we will concentrate on the second...

  18. Modeling rf breakdown arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Huang, Dazhang; Mahalingam, Sudhakar; Veitzer, Seth

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakdown in 805 MHz rf accelerator cavities in terms of a number of mechanisms. We devide the breakdown process into three stages: (1) we model surface failure using molecular dynamics of fracture caused by electrostatic tensile stress, (2) we model the ionization of neutrals responsible for plasma initiation and plasma growth using a particle in cell code, and (3) we model surface damage by assuming a process similar to unipolar arcing. Although unipolar arcs are strictly defined with equipotential boundaries, we find that the cold, dense plasma in contact with the surface produces very small Debye lengths and very high electric fields over a large area. These high fields produce strong erosion mechanisms, primarily self sputtering, compatible with the crater formation that we see. Results from the plasma simulation are included as a guide to experimental verification of this model.

  19. An evaluation of a two-stage spiral processing ultrafine bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew D. Benusa; Mark S. Klima [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of a multistage Multotec SX7 spiral concentrator treating ultrafine bituminous coal. This spiral mimics a two-stage separation in that the refuse is removed after four turns, and the clean coal and middlings are repulped (without water addition) and then separated in the final three turns. Feed samples were collected from the spiral circuit of a coal cleaning plant located in southwestern Pennsylvania. The samples consisted of undeslimed cyclone feed (nominal -0.15 mm) and deslimed spiral feed (nominal 0.15 x 0.053 mm). Testing was carried out to investigate the effects of slurry flow rate and solids concentration on spiral performance. Detailed size and ash analyses were performed on the spiral feed and product samples. For selected tests, float-sink and sulfur analyses were performed. In nearly all cases, ash reduction occurred down to approximately 0.025 mm, with some sulfur reduction occurring even in the -0.025 mm interval. The separation of the +0.025 mm material was not significantly affected by the presence of the -0.025 mm material when treating the undeslimed feed. The -0.025 mm material split in approximately the same ratio as the slurry, and the majority of the water traveled to the clean coal stream. This split ultimately increased the overall clean coal ash value. A statistical analysis determined that both flow rate and solids concentration affected the clean coal ash value and yield, though the flow rate had a greater effect on the separation. 23 refs.

  20. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohene, F.

    1997-05-01

    To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

  1. Quality characterization of Cretaceous coal from the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpchmg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and ARC/INFO point coverage of coal geochemistry in the Colorado Plateau. This GIS layer was created from the U.S. Geological Survey's USCHEM...

  2. Technological Analysis on Choren High-Pressure Pulverized Coal Gasification Process%科林高压干粉煤气化工艺技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小倩; 胡长胜

    2011-01-01

    The process and features of Choren high-pressure pulveried coal gasification are presented. Operability of the gasification technology is analysed. And the operation data as compared with the other two coal gasification processes, i.e. pulverized coal gasification process with waste heat boiler and coal-water slurry pressure gasification process, using in China are described briefly. Choren high-pressure pulverized coal gasification process is featured with simple in equipment structure, wider applicability of coal variety, lower consumption and high localization of equipment.%介绍了科林高压干粉煤气化的工艺流程、工艺特点.对该气化技术的可操作性进行了分析,并与国内应用的2种煤气化工艺(干粉煤废锅气化工艺和水煤浆加压气化工艺)数据进行了简单对比.科林高压干粉煤气化工艺具有设备结构简单、煤种适用性更宽、消耗低和设备国产化程度高的特点.

  3. New insights into hydrothermal vent processes in the unique shallow-submarine arc-volcano, Kolumbo (Santorini), Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilias, Stephanos P; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Argyraki, Ariadne; Carey, Steven; Gamaletsos, Platon; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Stathopoulou, Eleni; Goettlicher, Joerg; Steininger, Ralph; Betzelou, Konstantina; Livanos, Isidoros; Christakis, Christos; Bell, Katherine Croff; Scoullos, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report on integrated geomorphological, mineralogical, geochemical and biological investigations of the hydrothermal vent field located on the floor of the density-stratified acidic (pH ~ 5) crater of the Kolumbo shallow-submarine arc-volcano, near Santorini. Kolumbo features rare geodynamic setting at convergent boundaries, where arc-volcanism and seafloor hydrothermal activity are occurring in thinned continental crust. Special focus is given to unique enrichments of polymetallic spires in Sb and Tl (±Hg, As, Au, Ag, Zn) indicating a new hybrid seafloor analogue of epithermal-to-volcanic-hosted-massive-sulphide deposits. Iron microbial-mat analyses reveal dominating ferrihydrite-type phases, and high-proportion of microbial sequences akin to "Nitrosopumilus maritimus", a mesophilic Thaumarchaeota strain capable of chemoautotrophic growth on hydrothermal ammonia and CO2. Our findings highlight that acidic shallow-submarine hydrothermal vents nourish marine ecosystems in which nitrifying Archaea are important and suggest ferrihydrite-type Fe(3+)-(hydrated)-oxyhydroxides in associated low-temperature iron mats are formed by anaerobic Fe(2+)-oxidation, dependent on microbially produced nitrate.

  4. Danforth Hills coal resources calculation area, Northwest Colorado (dan*bndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO coverages that outline the areas within which coal resources are calculated and reported for the A/B through G coal zones, Danforth...

  5. Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 μg/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed.

  6. Systems studies of coal coal conversion processes using a reference simulator. Quarterly report, July 1, 1978--September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reklaitis, G.V.; Sood, M.K.; Soni, Y.; Overturf, B.W.; Buchanan, P.; Weide, W. Jr.; Wilkinson, C.R.; Boo, J.

    1978-11-01

    The plant capital cost estimation package has been largely implemented. Testing and documentation is projected to be completed by the end of the next quarter. Additions consisting of the physical properties package of entropy estimation capabilities and of automatic selection of the steam table routines when appropriate were made. Significant progress has been made in developing equipment modules for the pyrolysis vapor recovery, heat recovery, bulk methanation, and H/sub 2/ plant sections. These modules include an ejector model, an electrostatic precipitator model, an alternate three phase column routine, a multiphase heat exchanger design routine, as well as a steam reformer furnace design program. Case studies have been carried out on the heat recovery section. Integrated simulations of the methanation, vapor recovery, and H/sub 2/ plant sections are in various stages of assembly. The hierarchical calculation strategy which is to allow execution of over-all flowsheet simulations in terms of a linked sequence of process section simulations has been demonstrated successfully. An available ethylene oxide/glycol process simulation model was used as a test case. Execution time reductions to 1/3 of the direct simulation time could be shown. Work is in progress in generalizing the interfacing and applying the strategy to portions of the modified COED flowsheet. Successful linkage of the combined pryolysis, gasifier, lift-tube, and combustor models was achieved. These models include detailed kinetics, heat transfer calculations as well as particle balance calculations which allow both particle shrinkage at constant density and reduction of particle density at constant size. Several case studies were run and more are projected.

  7. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  8. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  9. Coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. This includes new installations and those existing installations that were originally designed for oil or gas firing. The data generated by these projects must be sufficient for private-sector decisions on the feasibility of using coal as the fuel of choice. This work should also provide incentives for the private sector to continue and expand the development, demonstration, and application of these combustion systems. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications is being developed under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 as part of this DOE development program. The current contract represents the third phase of a three-phase development program. Phase I of the program addressed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and was initiated in 1987 and completed 1989. Phase II was initiated in 1989 and completed in 1990. During Phase II of the development, design improvements were made to critical components and the test program addressed the performance of the process using several different feedstocks. Phase III of the program was initiated September 1991 and is scheduled for completion in 1994. The Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value-added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and selected industrial wastes.

  10. Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Process for Maximum Ballistic Limit in MIL A46100 Steel Welded All-Metal Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Our recently developed multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the process optimization for the attainment of maximum ballistic limit within the weld. The original model consists of six modules, each dedicated to handling a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e., (a) electro-dynamics of the welding gun; (b) radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler metal consumable electrode to the weld; (c) prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; (d) the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; (e) spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties; and (f) spatial distribution of the material ballistic limit. In the present work, the model is upgraded through the introduction of the seventh module in recognition of the fact that identification of the optimum GMAW process parameters relative to the attainment of the maximum ballistic limit within the weld region entails the use of advanced optimization and statistical sensitivity analysis methods and tools. The upgraded GMAW process model is next applied to the case of butt welding of MIL A46100 (a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel) workpieces using filler metal electrodes made of the same material. The predictions of the upgraded GMAW process model pertaining to the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt weld are found to be consistent with general expectations and prior observations.

  11. A Contribution to Arc Length Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation was raising the question: "What does 'arc length' mean?" Actually, it is considered expressing a kind of natural relationship between arc voltage and arc column shape. Statements such as "The higher the voltage the longer the arc" or "The arc voltage proves approximately proportional to the arc length", are frequently noticed in this conjunction. However, the author suggests that there is no general possibility of describing 'arc length' over the whole welding process range. Instances are represented in this paper, showing both theoretical attempts of definition and practical observations. This paper intends to contribute to a serious discussion of something trivial, indeed very well-known or used among welding experts, but actually yet hardly understood, at least as when it comes to closer examination

  12. Simultaneous effect of mechanical alloying and arc-melting processes in the microstructure and hardness of an AlCoFeMoNiTi high-entropy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldenebro-Lopez, F.J. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Facultad de Ingeniería Mochis, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Prol. Ángel Flores y Fuente de Poseidón, S.N., 81223 Los Mochis, Sinaloa (Mexico); Herrera-Ramírez, J.M. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Arredondo-Rea, S.P. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mochis, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Prol. Ángel Flores y Fuente de Poseidón, S.N., 81223 Los Mochis, Sinaloa (Mexico); Gómez-Esparza, C.D. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Martínez-Sánchez, R., E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Multi-component systems of AlCoFeMoNiTi were produced by mechanical alloying. • Consolidated samples were fabricated by two different processing routes, sintering and arc melting. • Effect of routes of consolidation on microstructural evolution and microhardness is reported. • High hardness values are found in consolidated samples. • Alloying elements, grain size, and precipitates have a high effect on microhardness. - Abstract: A nanostructured AlCoFeMoNiTi high entropy alloy was synthesized through the mechanical alloying process. Bulk samples were obtained by two different routes to compare the microstructural evolution and hardness behavior: sintering and arc melting. Through electron microscopy analyses the formation of Mo-rich and Ti-rich phases were identified in the melted sample, while Ti-rich nano-precipitates were observed in the sintered sample. A higher microhardness value was achieved on the sintered sample than for the melted sample. The disadvantage of porosity in the sintered sample in comparison to the melted one was overcome by the hardening effect produced by the mechanical alloying.

  13. Matrials technology for coal-conversion processes. Progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, W A

    1980-10-01

    The twelfth 500-h slag-refractory test run, which involved a high-iron-content acidic coal slag, was completed. High chromia content and high density were again identified as important factors in minimizing corrosion of refractories. Results from the high-temperature nondestructive erosion-scanner installation at the Solvent Refined Coal plant has revealed the presence of a hard film composed of Cr, Fe, S and O/sub 2/, which seems to reduce erosive wear but is acoustically transparent. Further improvements in the erosion-scanner data-acquisition system through employment of a correction for through-wall thermal gradients have reduced data scatter to < +- 0.05 mm. Quantitative detection of internal liquid leaks past critical valves in coal liquefaction plants seems possible through use of low-velocity ultrasonic or strain-sensitive flowmeters together with passive acoustic systems. Studies of high-temperature gaseous corrosion in low-Btu environments show that the potential exists for sulfide attack even in high-chromium alloys such as 310 SS. Recent results show that the oxygen partial pressure threshold above which a protective oxide film forms is 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/ (at 1144 and 923 K, respectively) times the oxygen partial pressure for Cr oxide/Cr sulfide equilibrium. Four of the seven special thermowells installed at IGT's U-gas plant have shown no significant degradation after an additional 500-h run. Failure-analysis activities this period included analysis of a failed internal transfer line and a thermocouple sheath, both from the HYGAS coal-gasification pilot plant. A complete summary of the more important coal-gasification failures analyzed at Argonne is included in this report.

  14. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  15. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  16. TRANSIENT FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF AA2219 WELD JOINT USING GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraman Arunkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on finite element simulation of gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW of AA2219 aluminum alloy and the behavioral of the microstructure before and after weld. The simulations were performed using commercial COMSOL Multiphysics software. The thermal history of the weld region was studied by initially developed mathematical model. A sweep type meshing was used and transient analysis was performed for one welding cycle. The highest temperature noted was 3568 °C during welding. The welding operation was performed on 200×100×25 mm plates. Through metallurgical characterization, it was observed that a fair copper rich cellular (CRC network existed in the weld region. A small amount of intermetallic compounds like Al2Cu is observed through the XRD pattern.

  17. Peridotite xenoliths from the Shiribeshi Seamount, Japan Sea: insights into mantle processes in a back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Morishita, Tomoaki; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji

    2016-10-01

    Orthopyroxene-rich and orthopyroxene-poor peridotite xenoliths were sampled from quaternary basaltic to andesitic lava flows of the Shiribeshi seamount, Japan Sea. These xenoliths were affected by reactions with the host magma during transportation to the surface, which caused partial orthopyroxene dissolution and intergrowth with vermicular spinel. Chromian spinel and clinopyroxene major element compositions in the Shiribeshi peridotite are similar to those in abyssal peridotites. REE modeling indicates that the Opx-rich peridotite experienced decompression partial melting from the garnet to the spinel peridotite stability field. Rare earth element (REE) patterns of clinopyroxene in the Opx-rich peridotite show various degrees of enrichment in light REE, which resulted from melt percolation through the reaction with host magma. Comparison with peridotite xenoliths from two other localities (Seifu and Oshima-Ōshima) in the Japan Sea suggests that the Oshima-Ōshima peridotite record higher degree of partial melting than the Shiribeshi and Seifu peridotites. Oxygen fugacities calculated from chromian spinel in the Japan Sea peridotites are comparable to those of arc peridotites. The high degree of partial melting of the Oshima-Ōshima peridotite was possibly caused by the infiltration of a H2O-bearing flux released from the subducted slab. The Shiribeshi peridotite is interpreted as the residue formed after the extraction of depleted back-arc basalts during a later stage of the Japan Sea opening in the Middle Miocene, whereas the Oshima-Ōshima peridotite is residual after the extraction of enriched basalts during an earlier stage of the opening of the Japan Sea.

  18. Volcano-sedimentary processes operating on a marginal continental arc: the Archean Raquette Lake Formation, Slave Province, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, W. U.; Corcoran, P. L.

    2001-06-01

    The 200-m thick, volcano-sedimentary Raquette Lake Formation, located in the south-central Archean Slave Province, represents a remnant arc segment floored by continental crust. The formation overlies the gneissic Sleepy Dragon Complex unconformably, is laterally interstratified with subaqueous mafic basalts of the Cameron River volcanic belt, and is considered the proximal equivalent of the turbidite-dominated Burwash Formation. A continuum of events associated with volcanism and sedimentation, and controlled by extensional tectonics, is advocated. A complex stratigraphy with three volcanic and three sedimentary lithofacies constitute the volcano-sedimentary succession. The volcanic lithofacies include: (1) a mafic volcanic lithofacies composed of subaqueous pillow-pillow breccia, and subaerial massive to blocky flows, (2) a felsic volcanic lithofacies representing felsic flows that were deposited in a subaerial environment, and (3) a felsic volcanic sandstone lithofacies interpreted as shallow-water, wave- and storm-reworked pyroclastic debris derived from explosive eruptions. The sedimentary lithofacies are represented by: (1) a conglomerate-sandstone lithofacies consistent with unconfined debris flow, hyperconcentrated flood flow and talus scree deposits, as well as minor high-energy stream flow conglomerates that formed coalescing, steep-sloped, coarse-clastic fan deltas, (2) a sandstone lithofacies, interpreted as hyperconcentrated flood flow deposits that accumulated at the subaerial-subaqueous interface, and (3) a mudstone lithofacies consistent with suspension sedimentation in a small restricted lagoon-type setting. The Raquette Lake Formation is interpreted as a fringing continental arc that displays both high-energy clastic sedimentation and contemporaneous effusive and explosive mafic and felsic volcanism. Modern analogues that develop along active plate margins in which continental crust plays a significant role include Japan and the Baja California

  19. Japan's Sunshine Project 1988 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Describes work carried out during the year on coal liquefaction and gasification technologies, bituminous and brown coal liquefaction, development of machinery and materials for coal liquefaction plant, coal type selection studies, data collection and processing, utilization and upgrading technology of coal derived products, toxicological and environmental effects of liquefied coal, coal-based hydrogen production technology and technology for entrained flow coal gasification.

  20. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i

  1. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  2. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (similar to 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  3. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Braganca; J.L. Castellan [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidised bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (about 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Biohydrometallurgical process to produce the coagulant ferric sulfate from the pyrite present in coal tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colling, A.V.; Santos Menezes dos, J.C.S.; Silveira, P.S.; Schneider, I.A.H. [South Rio Grande Federal Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Graduate Program in Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Technology Center

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented details of a biohydrometallurgical study conducted to characterize the production of a ferric sulfate coagulate from pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) contained in coal tailings. Leaching experiments were conducted with coal tailings samples from the Santa Catarina mining site in Brazil. The experiments were conducted for sterile and non-sterile samples, as well as samples inoculated with acidophilic bacteria and acidophilic bacteria with the addition of nutrients. Samples were collected weekly in order to analyze total iron, sulfate, and the amounts of Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans bacteria. An analysis of the samples showed that the pyrite oxidation, iron sulfate production, and quantities of bacteria were higher in the column inoculated with the bacteria and nutrient additions. The samples produced an aqueous solution that was rich in ferric sulfate. Water treatment tests demonstrated that the resulting coagulant is as efficient as conventionally-produced coagulants. 8 refs., 2 tab., 2 figs.

  5. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO2 sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O2 level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (~60% for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  6. 基于Aspen Plus的褐煤热解过程模拟%The Lignite Coal Pyrolysis Process Simulation Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 商玉坤; 武建军

    2011-01-01

    With high moisture lignite coal as an example, the method and procedure to build simplified model for coal pyrogenation process (CPD) using the chemical process simulation software Aspen Plus were introduced. Setting process of CPD model simulation parameter was given, and the Aspen Plus software was used to simulate the calculation process of coal pyrogenation, and the obtained simulation value was compared with the actual value. At the same time, the coal pyrolysis simulation process and the results were analyzed and provided basic reference to coal pyrogenation process development and optimization.%以高水分褐煤为例,介绍了利用Aspen Plus化工流程模拟软件建立煤热解过程简化模型的方法及步骤.阐述了CPD模型模拟参数的设置过程,并利用Aspen Plus软件对煤热解过程进行了模拟计算,将得出的模拟值与实际值进行了比较.同时,对煤热解模拟过程及结果进行了分析,给煤热解过程的工艺开发和工艺优化提供了参考依据.

  7. Analysis and Processing about Spontaneous Combustion of Coal in Enclosed Circular Coal Yard with Large Coal Reserves%封闭式大储量圆形煤场储煤自燃分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建华; 沈建军; 龚福; 黄健

    2014-01-01

    Due to many spontaneous combustions of coal in enclosed circular coal yard with large coal reserves, it is imminent to know how to prevent and control coal spontaneous combustion.As analysised,the main rea-sons of coal spontaneous combustion are Coal stocks,high coal volatile,increase of coal oxidation layer and water catalytic.So,the keys to prevent and control coal spontaneous combustion are reduce of the contact area of the air and coal,control of moisture content in coal,good ventilation cooling measures and so on.There-fore,,putting forward the establishment of a sound quality management files,“first in first out,burn the old new,regular replacement”,control of the oxygen supply for spontaneous combustion of coal,timely treatment once finding the signs,strict control of time of spontaneous combustion of coal entry storage and measures on how to treat the spontaneous combustion of coal strategy measures can greatly improve the safety factor of the coal yard and the economic benefits of the power plant.%针对燃煤电厂发生多起封闭式大储量圆形煤场储煤自燃问题,如何防止和治理煤炭自燃迫在眉睫。分析认为,煤炭自燃的主要原因是煤场库存量大、煤炭挥发分高、堆煤氧化层增大和水分催化,而减少空气与煤的接触面,控制煤中的水分含量,做好通风散热等措施,是预防和治理圆形煤场储煤自燃的关键。为此,提出建立健全煤质管理档案、“先进先出,烧旧存新,定期置换”、控制煤炭自燃的供氧量、发现自燃征兆及时处理、严控自燃煤的入场堆存时间和处理煤炭自燃的策略等措施,提高煤场的安全运行和电厂的经济效益。

  8. On arc efficiency in gas tungsten arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Stenbacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the literature on published arc efficiency values for GTAW and, if possible, propose a narrower band. Articles between the years 1955 - 2011 have been found. Published arc efficiency values for GTAW DCEN show to lie on a wide range, between 0.36 to 0.90. Only a few studies covered DCEP - direct current electrode positive and AC current. Specific information about the reproducibility in calorimetric studies as well as in modeling and simulation studies (considering that both random and systematic errors are small was scarce. An estimate of the average arc efficiency value for GTAW DCEN indicates that it should be about 0.77. It indicates anyway that the GTAW process with DCEN is an efficient welding method. The arc efficiency is reduced when the arc length is increased. On the other hand, there are conflicting results in the literature as to the influence of arc current and travel speed.

  9. New method for capturing arc of moving on switching apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiao-min; WANG Jing-hong

    2007-01-01

    The switching arc that occurs in contact gap when contact of low voltage apparatus closes or breaks in electric circuit is harmful to the contacts, insulation, and reliability of electrical gear because of its very high temperature. As arcing time is very short in switching gear, it is very difficult to observe arc phenomena directly for researchers. Therefore, visualization of switching arc is important for understanding arc phenomena, to analyze the arc features, and to improve the design and reliability of switching gear. Based on analyzing the visualization methods proposed by researchers, a new switching arc capturing approach is introduced in this paper. Arc image acquisition, and image processing techniques were studied. A switching arc image acquisition and visual simulation software based on high speed CCD camera hard ware system was designed and implemented to yield enhanced arc image with good visual effect.

  10. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Status assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils and an updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams is presented in this document. Analytical methodologies included here are either those which are different than those previously surveyed or are improvements on, or significantly different applications of methods previously surveyed. The literature cited spans the time period from 1991 to the present. The literature was examined from the 1960s through the present. When possible, for each model described, the methodology for deriving the model and the relative quality of the kinetic parameters derived is discussed. Proposed reaction schemes used for constructing coal-conversion models, in many cases, include the conversion of a resid intermediate to light products. These models are, therefore, also of interest, and are included here. Analytical techniques were identified that were shown to be useful for providing physico-chemical information of coal-liquefaction resids. These techniques are nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (especially the technique of field ionization mass spectrometry), electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled to thermogravimetric analysis, and a suite of petroleum inspection tests. It is recommended that these techniques be used in the present contract. 76 refs.

  11. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  12. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant.

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  14. 挪威Hardanger大桥钢箱梁外侧电弧喷锌工艺设计%Design of zinc arc-spraying process for outer steel box girder of Hardanger Bridge in Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪德强; 钱胜杰; 金树军; 李敏风; 丁祥

    2012-01-01

    在承接挪威Hardanger大桥钢结构制作中,根据业主的要求,以电弧喷锌作为配套涂层底漆.为了适应钢结构涂装流水线以及佐敦公司的重防腐配套涂料,从钢结构缺陷处理等级、磨料拼配方案、喷砂技术条件、电弧喷锌设备及锌丝线材要求、电弧喷锌工艺参数以及喷锌层质量要求等方面对钢箱梁外侧电弧喷锌工艺进行了设计.%Based on the requirement of proprietor, arc zinc spray coating was used as a primer during the manufacturing of the Norwegian Hardanger bridge's steel structure. In order to adapt the steel structure coating flow line and Jotun's heavy corrosion protection accessory coating, the arc zinc spraying process of outer steel box girder was designed from aspects of pretreatment grade of defects in steel structure, composition for abrasives, sandblasting process conditions, arc zinc spraying equipment, zinc wire requirement, arc zinc spraying process parameters, quality requirement of arc sprayed zinc coating, etc.

  15. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  16. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW.

  17. Optimization of Process Parameters to Minimize Angular Distortion in Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Stainless Steel 202 Grade Plates Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakaran .R,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on optimization of process parameters using genetic algorithm to minimize angular distortion in 202 grade stainless steel gas tungsten arc welded plates. Angular distortion is a major problem and most pronounced among different types of distortion in butt welded plates. The extent of distortion depends onthe welding process control parameters. The important process control parameters chosen for study are gun angle (θ, welding speed (V, plate length (L, welding current (I and gas flow rate (Q. The experiments are conducted based on five factor five level central composite rotatable designs with full replication technique. A mathematical model was developed correlating the process parameters and the angular distortion. The developed model is checked for the adequacy based on ANOVA analysis and accuracy of prediction by confirmatory test. The optimization of process parameters was done using genetic algorithms (GA. A source code was developed using C language to do the optimization. The optimal process parameters gave a value of 0.000379° for angular distortion which demonstrates the accuracy and effectiveness of the model presented and program developed. The obtained results indicate that the optimized parameters are capable of producing weld with minimum distortion.

  18. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW).

  19. BASIC THEORY AND METHOD OF WELDING ARC SPECTRAL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junyue; Li Zhiyong; Li Huan; Xue Haitao

    2004-01-01

    Arc spectral information is a rising information source which can solve many problems that can not be done with arc electric information and other arc information.It is of important significance to develop automatic control technique of welding process.The basic theory and methods on it play an important role in expounding and applying arc spectral information.Using concerned equation in plasma physics and spectrum theory,a system of equations including 12 equations which serve as basic theory of arc spectral information is set up.Through analyzing of the 12 equations,a basic view that arc spectral information is the reflection of arc state and state variation,and is the most abundant information resource reflecting welding arc process is drawn.Furthermore,based on the basic theory,the basic methods of test and control of arc spectral information and points out some applications of it are discussesed.

  20. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.