WorldWideScience

Sample records for arboviruses

  1. [Emerging arboviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Amandine; Moulin, Estelle; Cherpillod, Pascal; Kaiser, Laurent; De Vallière, Serge; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie

    2016-05-01

    Many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) underwent a dramatic geographic expansion over the last few years, following the spread of their vectors. It is the case for dengue, currently endemic in most tropical regions, for chikungunya and Zika viruses, which propagated rapidly over a considerable territory. West Nile is one of the most broadly distributed arboviruses in the world. The clinical presentation of these viral infections is non-specific (fever, arthralgia, headache, rash). For travelers presenting with fever within 15 days after returning from an endemic area, laboratory tests can distinguish them. The management is essentially supportive but a specific diagnosis might be important in anticipating possible complications and in decreasing the number of laboratory tests often offered in the case of fever of unknown origin.

  2. Mosquito immunity against arboviruses.

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    Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-19

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector.

  3. Arbovirus-mosquito interactions: RNAi pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ken E; Blair, Carol D

    2015-12-01

    Arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses infect hematophagous arthropods (vectors) to maintain virus transmission between vertebrate hosts. The mosquito vector actively controls arbovirus infection to minimize its fitness costs. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is the major antiviral response vectors use to restrict arbovirus infections. We know this because depleting RNAi gene products profoundly impacts arbovirus replication, the antiviral RNAi pathway genes undergo positive, diversifying selection and arboviruses have evolved strategies to evade the vector's RNAi responses. The vector's RNAi defense and arbovirus countermeasures lead to an arms race that prevents potential virus-induced fitness costs yet maintains arbovirus infections needed for transmission. This review will discuss the latest findings in RNAi-arbovirus interactions in the model insect (Drosophila melanogaster) and in specific mosquito vectors.

  4. Molecular detection technologies for arboviruses

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    Arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) cause significant livestock and economic losses to world agriculture. This paper discusses the current and potential impact of these viruses, as well as the current and developing molecular diagnostic tools for these emerging and re-emerging insect transm...

  5. [Entomological factors of arboviruses emergences].

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    Jourdain, F; Roiz, D; Perrin, Y; Grucker, K; Simard, F; Paupy, C

    2015-08-01

    Arboviruses - viruses transmitted by haematophagous arthropods - are responsible for febrile syndromes, which sometimes include haemorrhagic or neurological symptoms. Human activities have facilitated the emergence of these originally zoonotic viruses and the domestication and spread throughout the world of their major vectors. The last decade has seen significant changes in the epidemiology of arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, particularly in relation to the intercontinental spread of Aedes albopictus. Here, we address the epidemiological consequences of the invasion by this species into Central Africa and Europe in a context of viral globalization. The risk of transmission in these areas is influenced by virus-vector adaptation phenomena as well as environmental phenomena including climate. Faced with these new risks, it is essential to develop competences in entomological and virological surveillance, risk assessment and forecasting of epidemic risk in order to develop strategies for the prevention and control of epidemics.

  6. Encephalitic Arboviruses: Emergence, Clinical Presentation, and Neuropathogenesis.

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    Salimi, Hamid; Cain, Matthew D; Klein, Robyn S

    2016-07-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that exhibit worldwide distribution, contributing to systemic and neurologic infections in a variety of geographical locations. Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebral hosts during blood feedings by mosquitoes, ticks, biting flies, mites, and nits. While the majority of arboviral infections do not lead to neuroinvasive forms of disease, they are among the most severe infectious risks to the health of the human central nervous system. The neurologic diseases caused by arboviruses include meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, encephalomyelitis, neuritis, and myositis in which virus- and immune-mediated injury may lead to severe, persisting neurologic deficits or death. Here we will review the major families of emerging arboviruses that cause neurologic infections, their neuropathogenesis and host neuroimmunologic responses, and current strategies for treatment and prevention of neurologic infections they cause.

  7. Tissue Barriers to Arbovirus Infection in Mosquitoes.

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    Franz, Alexander W E; Kantor, Asher M; Passarelli, A Lorena; Clem, Rollie J

    2015-07-08

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the arbovirus disease cycle requires replication in the cellular environment of the arthropod vector. Once the vector has become systemically and persistently infected, the vector is able to transmit the virus to an uninfected vertebrate host. In order to systemically infect the vector, the virus must cope with innate immune responses and overcome several tissue barriers associated with the midgut and the salivary glands. In this review we describe, in detail, the typical arbovirus infection route in competent mosquito vectors. Based on what is known from the literature, we explain the nature of the tissue barriers that arboviruses are confronted with in a mosquito vector and how arboviruses might surmount these barriers. We also point out controversial findings to highlight particular areas that are not well understood and require further research efforts.

  8. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

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    Sebastian Lequime

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission (VT and horizontal transmission (HT of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  9. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequime, Sebastian; Paul, Richard E; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Vertical transmission (VT) and horizontal transmission (HT) of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  10. Sylvatic transmission of arboviruses among Bornean orangutans.

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    Wolfe, N D; Kilbourn, A M; Karesh, W B; Rahman, H A; Bosi, E J; Cropp, B C; Andau, M; Spielman, A; Gubler, D J

    2001-01-01

    Wild populations of nonhuman primates live in regions of sylvatic arbovirus transmission. To assess the status of arbovirus transmission in Bornean forests and the susceptibility of wild orangutans to arboviral infection, blood samples of wild orangutans, semi-captive orangutans, and humans were examined. Samples were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test for antibodies to viruses representing three families (Flaviviridae, Alphaviridae, and Bunyaviridae), including dengue-2, Japanese encephalitis, Zika, Langat, Tembusu, Sindbis, Chikungunya, and Batai viruses. Both wild and semi-captive orangutan groups as well as local human populations showed serologic evidence of arbovirus infection. The presence of neutralizing antibodies among wild orangutans strongly suggests the existence of sylvatic cycles for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and sindbis viruses in North Borneo. The present study demonstrates that orangutans are susceptible to arboviralinfections in the wild, although the impact of arboviral infections on this endangered ape remain unknown.

  11. World Reference Center and Arbovirus Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-10

    76: 211- 213. Kapikian, A. and Shope, R.E. Reoviruses in " Medical Microbiology : Principles and Concepts", Baron, S. (ed.), ppv 1250-1264, Addison...Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Brazilian Academy of Sciences Rio de Janeiro, pp. 105-116, 1982. Shope, R.E. Bunyaviruses in " Medical Microbiology : Principles

  12. Arbovirus en Latinoamérica

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    JL Arredondo-García

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades producidas por arbovirus son un problema muy grave a nivel mundial, debido a que su vigilancia y prevención implica también la vigilancia de sus vectores, lo que hace difícil su control y casi imposible evitar su expansión a cualquier país tropical o subtropical, e incluso algunas regiones templadas. A nivel mundial, el  dengue es la enfermedad por arbovirus más común con 40% de la población mundial viviendo en zonas de transmisión del virus del dengue. De las 390 millones de infecciones estimadas y 100 millones de casos anuales, una proporción pequeña de estos casos progresa a dengue grave. Aproximadamente uno de cada 2,000 casos de dengue causan la muerte; sin embargo, la tasa de letalidad de los pacientes con dengue grave se puede reducir de casi 10% a menos del 0.1% si se actúa rápidamente y con calidad en la atención clínica que reciben los pacientes. Esto, aunado a la reciente y rápida propagación del virus chikungunya y el brote de virus zika en países latinoamericanos, como México, hace necesaria la actualización médica y revisión de bibliografía respecto a la prevención, control y gestión de las infecciones causadas por arbovirus. Por lo tanto, presentamos una revisión de lo más reciente sobre enfermedades por arbovirus en América Latina.

  13. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic arboviruse

  14. Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community

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    Bethany G. Bolling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. Over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has provided new insights about viral diversity and evolution, including that of arboviruses. It has also raised questions about what effects the mosquito virome has on arbovirus transmission. Additionally, the discovery of these new viruses has generated interest in their potential use as biological control agents as well as novel vaccine platforms. The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching.

  15. Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community.

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    Bolling, Bethany G; Weaver, Scott C; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-09-10

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. Over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has provided new insights about viral diversity and evolution, including that of arboviruses. It has also raised questions about what effects the mosquito virome has on arbovirus transmission. Additionally, the discovery of these new viruses has generated interest in their potential use as biological control agents as well as novel vaccine platforms. The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching.

  16. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  17. The insect microbiome modulates vector competence for arboviruses.

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    Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-11

    Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control.

  18. Deployable Molecular Detection of Arboviruses in the Australian Outback.

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    Inglis, Timothy J J; Bradbury, Richard S; McInnes, Russell L; Frances, Stephen P; Merritt, Adam J; Levy, Avram; Nicholson, Jay; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael; Smith, David W

    2016-09-01

    The most common causes of human infection from the arboviruses that are endemic in Australia are the arthritogenic alphaviruses: Ross River virus (RRV) and Barmah Forest virus (BFV). The most serious infections are caused by the neurotropic flaviviruses, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and the Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus. The greatest individual risk of arbovirus infection occurs in tropical/subtropical northern Australia because of the warm, wet summer conditions from December to June, where conventional arbovirus surveillance is difficult due to a combination of low population density, large distances between population centers, poor roads, and seasonal flooding. Furthermore, virus detection requires samples to be sent to Perth up to 2,000 km away for definitive analysis, causing delays of days to weeks before test results are available and public health interventions can be started. We deployed a portable molecular biology laboratory for remote field detection of endemic arboviruses in northern Queensland, then in tropical Western Australia and detected BFV, MVEV, and RRV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of extracts from mosquitoes trapped in Queensland. We then used a field-portable compact real-time thermocycler for the samples collected in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Real-time field PCR assays enabled concurrent endemic arbovirus distribution mapping in outback Queensland and Western Australia. Our deployable laboratory method provides a concept of operations for future remote area arbovirus surveillance.

  19. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man. Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus). They are transmitted to animals by five groups of hematophagous arthropods of the subphyllum Chelicerata (order Acarina, families Ixodidae and Argasidae-ticks) or members of the class Insecta: mosquitoes (family Culicidae); biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae); sandflies (subfamily Phlebotominae); and cimicid bugs (family Cimicidae). Arboviral diseases in endotherm animals may therefore be classified as: tick

  20. RNA interference targets arbovirus replication in Culicoides cells.

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    Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses.

  1. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003-2006.

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    Anderson, John F; Main, Andy J; Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Ferrandino, Francis J

    2015-02-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003-2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively.

  2. Vector competence of New Zealand mosquitoes for selected arboviruses.

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    Kramer, Laura D; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Mackereth, Graham

    2011-07-01

    New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission.

  3. Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya: Emerging Arboviruses in the New World

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    Jessica Patterson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The arboviruses that cause dengue, chikungunya, and Zika illnesses have rapidly expanded across the globe in recent years, with large-scale outbreaks occurring in Western Hemisphere territories in close proximity to the United States (U.S.. In March 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC expanded its vector surveillance maps for A. aegypti and A. albopictus, the mosquito vectors for these arboviruses. They have now been shown to inhabit a larger portion of the U.S., including the heavily populated northeast corridor. Emergency physicians need to further familiarize themselves with these diseases, which have classically been considered only in returning travelers but may soon be encountered in the U.S. even in the absence of travel. In this paper, we discuss the presentation and treatment of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya, as well as special challenges presented to the emergency physician in evaluating a patient with a suspected arbovirus infection.

  4. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

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    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. PMID:27355468

  5. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

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    Tamara Nunes Lima-Camara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country.

  6. The Insect Microbiome Modulates Vector Competence for Arboviruses

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    Natapong Jupatanakul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control.

  7. Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe.

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    Carpenter, Simon; Groschup, Martin H; Garros, Claire; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Purse, Bethan V

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of multiple strains of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recent discovery of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe have highlighted the fact that exotic Culicoides-borne arboviruses from remote geographic areas can enter and spread rapidly in this region. This review considers the potential for this phenomenon to impact on human health in Europe, by examining evidence of the role of Culicoides biting midges in the zoonotic transmission and person-to-person spread of arboviruses worldwide. To date, the only arbovirus identified as being primarily transmitted by Culicoides to and between humans is Oropouche virus (OROV). This member of the genus Orthobunyavirus causes major epidemics of febrile illness in human populations of South and Central America and the Caribbean. We examine factors promoting sustained outbreaks of OROV in Brazil from an entomological perspective and assess aspects of the epidemiology of this arbovirus that are currently poorly understood, but may influence the risk of incursion into Europe. We then review the secondary and rarely reported role of Culicoides in the transmission of high-profile zoonotic infections, while critically reviewing evidence of this phenomenon in endemic transmission and place this in context with the presence of other potential vector groups in Europe. Scenarios for the incursions of Culicoides-borne human-to-human transmitted and zoonotic arboviruses are then discussed, along with control measures that could be employed to reduce their impact. These measures are placed in the context of legislative measures used during current and ongoing outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in Europe, involving both veterinary and public health sectors.

  8. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil Arboviroses emergentes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Tadeu de Moraes Figueiredo

    2007-01-01

    Brazil is a large tropical country (8,514,215km²) with 185,360,000 inhabitants. More than one third of its territory is covered by tropical forests or other natural ecosystems. These provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses, which are maintained in a large variety of zoonotic cycles. The risk that new arboviruses might emerge in Brazil is related to the existence of large, densely populated cities that are infested by mosquitoes such as Culex and the highly anthropophili...

  9. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

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    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  10. Collection & Processing of Medically Important Arthropods for Arbovirus Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; Chamberlain, Roy W.

    The methods given for collecting, preserving, and processing mosquitoes and other archropods for isolation of arboviruses are those used by the National Communicable Disease Center. Techniques of collecting mosquitoes as they bite, using light or bait traps, and from their daytime resting sites are described and illustrated. Details of subsequent…

  11. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

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    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature and environmental (nurture factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  12. Nature, nurture and evolution of intra-species variation in mosquito arbovirus transmission competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2013-01-11

    Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  13. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-05-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses. In this short review, I highlight the successes and challenges in eVLP production for members of the three major arbovirus families: Flaviviridae (e.g., dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis); Bunyaviridae (e.g., Rift Valley fever); and Togaviridae (e.g., chikungunya). The results from pre-clinical testing will be discussed as well as specific constraints to the large-scale manufacture and purification of eVLPs, which are complex assemblies of membranes and viral glycoproteins. Insect cells emerge as ideal substrates for correct arboviral glycoprotein folding and posttranslational modification to yield high quality eVLPs. Furthermore, baculovirus expression in insect cell culture is scalable and has a proven safety record in industrial human and veterinary vaccine manufacturing. In conclusion, eVLPs produced in insect cells using modern biotechnology have a realistic potential to be used in novel vaccines against arboviral diseases.

  14. Vertical transmission of arboviruses in mosquitoes: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2014-12-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are mainly transmitted horizontally among vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding invertebrate vectors, but can also be transmitted vertically in the vector from an infected female to its offspring. Vertical transmission (VT) is considered a possible mechanism for the persistence of arboviruses during periods unfavorable for horizontal transmission, but the extent and epidemiological significance of this phenomenon have remained controversial. To help resolve this question, we reviewed over a century of published literature on VT to analyze historical trends of scientific investigations on experimental and natural occurrence of VT in mosquitoes. Our synthesis highlights the influence of major events of public health significance in arbovirology on the number of VT publications. Epidemiological landmarks such as emergence events have significantly stimulated VT research. Our analysis also reveals the association between the evolution of virological assays and the probability of VT detection. Increased sensitivity and higher-throughput of modern laboratory assays resulted in enhanced VT detection. In general, VT contribution to arbovirus persistence is likely modest because vertically infected mosquitoes are rarely observed in nature. Taken together, however, our results call for caution when interpreting VT studies because their conclusions are context- and method-dependent.

  15. Come Fly With Me : Integration of travel medicine and arbovirus surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.B. Cleton (Natalie)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe goal of this thesis was to study how existing medical information and health structures can be used for arbovirus surveillance in the Netherlands. To achieve this, we combined and analysed all routine diagnostic data for Dutch travellers for suitability in arbovirus surveillance.

  16. Come fly with me: review of clinically important arboviruses for global travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Reimerink, Johan; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Reusken, Chantal

    2012-11-01

    Western tourists are increasingly traveling to exotic locations often located in tropical or subtropical regions of the world. The magnitude of international travel and the constantly changing dynamics of arbovirus diseases across the globe demand up-to-date information about arbovirus threats to travelers and the countries they visit. In this review, the current knowledge on arbovirus threats to global travelers is summarized and prioritized per region. Based on most common clinical syndromes, currently known arboviruses can be grouped to develop diagnostic algorithms to support decision-making in diagnostics. This review systematically combines and structures the current knowledge on medically important travel-related arboviruses and illustrates the necessity of a detailed patient history (travel history, symptoms experienced, vaccination history, engaged activities, tick or mosquito bite and use of repellent and onset of symptoms), to guide the diagnosis.

  17. Emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Gerhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arboviruses are transmitted in nature exclusively or to a major extend by arthropods. They belong to the most important viruses invading new areas in the world and their occurrence is strongly influenced by climatic changes due to the life cycle of the transmitting vectors. Several arboviruses have emerged in new regions of the world during the last years, like West Nile virus (WNV in the Americas, Usutu virus (USUV in Central Europe, or Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV in the Arabian Peninsula. In most instances the ways of introduction of arboviruses into new regions are not known. Infections acquired during stays in the tropics and subtropics are diagnosed with increasing frequency in travellers returning from tropical countries, but interestingly no attention is paid on accompanying pet animals or the hematophagous ectoparasites that may still be attached to them. Here we outline the known ecology of the mosquito-borne equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV, WNV, USUV, RVFV, and Japanese Encephalitis virus, as well as Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus and its North American counterpart Powassan virus, and will discuss the most likely mode that these viruses could expand their respective geographical range. All these viruses have a different epidemiology as different vector species, reservoir hosts and virus types have adapted to promiscuous and robust or rather very fine-balanced transmission cycles. Consequently, these viruses will behave differently with regard to the requirements needed to establish new endemic foci outside their original geographical ranges. Hence, emphasis is given on animal trade and suitable ecologic conditions, including competent vectors and vertebrate hosts.

  18. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil Arboviroses emergentes no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a large tropical country (8,514,215km² with 185,360,000 inhabitants. More than one third of its territory is covered by tropical forests or other natural ecosystems. These provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses, which are maintained in a large variety of zoonotic cycles. The risk that new arboviruses might emerge in Brazil is related to the existence of large, densely populated cities that are infested by mosquitoes such as Culex and the highly anthropophilic Aedes aegypti. Infected humans or animals may come into these cities from ecological-epidemiological settings where arbovirus zoonoses occur. This study analyzes the risk of emergence of the alphaviruses Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis and Chikungunya; the flaviviruses yellow fever, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile; and the orthobunyavirus Oropouche.O Brasil é país tropical de grande extensão territorial (8.514.215km² e com 185.360.000 habitantes. Mais de 1/3 deste território é recoberto por florestas tropicais ou outros ecossistemas naturais com condições ideais para a ocorrência de diversas arboviroses as quais são mantidas em uma grande variedade de ciclos zoonóticos. O risco para a emergência de novos arbovirus no Brasil relaciona-se à existência de cidades grandes, populosas e infestadas por mosquitos Culex bem como o altamente antropofílico Aedes aegypti. Nas cidades poderiam ser introduzidos seres humanos ou animais infectados oriundos de sítios eco-epidemiológicos onde existem zoonoses arbovíricas. Neste trabalho, analisa-se o risco de emergência dos alphavirus Mayaro, da encefalite eqüina venezuelana, da encefalite eqüina do leste e Chikungunya, dos flavivirus, da febre amarela, Rocio, da encefalite de Saint Louis e do Nilo Ocidental, e do orthobunyavirus Oropouche.

  19. Experimental infections of Oryzomys couesi with sympatric arboviruses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R; Forrester, Naomi L; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P; Estrada-Franco, Jose G; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2010-02-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature.

  20. Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016

  1. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  2. Selective Factors Associated with the Evolution of Codon Usage in Natural Populations of Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Zarate, Selene; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pereira Lobo, Francisco; Gladue, Douglas P.; Arzt, Jonathan; Novella, Isabel S.; Rodriguez, Luis L.

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) have life cycles that include both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts with substantial differences in vector and host specificity between different viruses. Most arboviruses utilize RNA for their genetic material and are completely dependent on host tRNAs for their translation, suggesting that virus codon usage could be a target for selection. In the current study we analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) patterns of 26 arboviruses together with 25 vectors and hosts, including 8 vertebrates and 17 invertebrates. We used hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify trends in codon usage. HCA demonstrated that the RSCU of arboviruses reflects that of their natural hosts, but not that of dead-end hosts. Of the two major components identified by PCA, the first accounted for 62.1% of the total variance, and among the 59 codons analyzed in this study, the leucine codon CTG had the highest correlation with the first principal component, however isoleucine had the highest correlation during amino acid analysis. Nucleotide and dinucleotide composition were the variables that explained most of the total codon usage variance. The results suggest that the main factors driving the evolution of codon usage in arboviruses is based on the nucleotide and dinucleotide composition present in the host. Comparing codon usage of arboviruses and potential vector hosts can help identifying potential vectors for emerging arboviruses. PMID:27455096

  3. Selective Factors Associated with the Evolution of Codon Usage in Natural Populations of Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Zarate, Selene; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pereira Lobo, Francisco; Gladue, Douglas P; Arzt, Jonathan; Novella, Isabel S; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) have life cycles that include both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts with substantial differences in vector and host specificity between different viruses. Most arboviruses utilize RNA for their genetic material and are completely dependent on host tRNAs for their translation, suggesting that virus codon usage could be a target for selection. In the current study we analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) patterns of 26 arboviruses together with 25 vectors and hosts, including 8 vertebrates and 17 invertebrates. We used hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify trends in codon usage. HCA demonstrated that the RSCU of arboviruses reflects that of their natural hosts, but not that of dead-end hosts. Of the two major components identified by PCA, the first accounted for 62.1% of the total variance, and among the 59 codons analyzed in this study, the leucine codon CTG had the highest correlation with the first principal component, however isoleucine had the highest correlation during amino acid analysis. Nucleotide and dinucleotide composition were the variables that explained most of the total codon usage variance. The results suggest that the main factors driving the evolution of codon usage in arboviruses is based on the nucleotide and dinucleotide composition present in the host. Comparing codon usage of arboviruses and potential vector hosts can help identifying potential vectors for emerging arboviruses.

  4. Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J S C; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J

    2015-03-10

    Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors.

  5. Factors responsible for the emergence of arboviruses; strategies, challenges and limitations for their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guodong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Gould, Ernest A

    2015-03-01

    Slave trading of Africans to the Americas, during the 16th to the 19th century was responsible for the first recorded emergence in the New World of two arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), yellow fever virus and dengue virus. Many other arboviruses have since emerged from their sylvatic reservoirs and dispersed globally due to evolving factors that include anthropological behaviour, commercial transportation and land-remediation. Here, we outline some characteristics of these highly divergent arboviruses, including the variety of life cycles they have developed and the mechanisms by which they have adapted to evolving changes in habitat and host availability. We cite recent examples of virus emergence that exemplify how arboviruses have exploited the consequences of the modern human lifestyle. Using our current understanding of these viruses, we also attempt to demonstrate some of the limitations encountered in developing control strategies to reduce the impact of future emerging arbovirus diseases. Finally, we present recommendations for development by an international panel of experts reporting directly to World Health Organization, with the intention of providing internationally acceptable guidelines for improving emerging arbovirus disease control strategies. Success in these aims should alleviate the suffering and costs encountered during recent decades when arboviruses have emerged from their sylvatic environment.

  6. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-06-27

    Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. RESUMO A modificação do ambiente por ações antrópicas, o crescimento urbano desordenado, o processo de globalização do intercâmbio internacional e as mudanças climáticas são alguns fatores que vêm facilitando a emergência e disseminação de doenças infecciosas humanas transmitidas por vetores. Este comentário aborda a recente entrada de três arbovírus no Brasil, Chikungunya (CHIKV), West Nile (WNV) e Zika (ZIKV), com enfoque nos desafios para a Saúde Pública do País. Transmitidos por mosquitos vetores amplamente distribuídos no território nacional e associados ao homem, a população brasileira encontra-se exposta à infecção por esses três arbovírus. Na ausência de vacina eficaz e tratamento específico, são importantes a manutenção e integração de uma vigilância entomológica e epidemiológica contínua, a fim de direcionarmos métodos de controle e prevenção contra essas arboviroses no País.

  7. Role of microRNAs in arbovirus/vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Sassan

    2014-09-23

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs in regulation of gene expression has been recognized. They appear to be involved in regulation of a wide range of cellular pathways that affect several biological processes such as development, the immune system, survival, metabolism and host-pathogen interactions. Arthropod-borne viruses impose great economic and health risks around the world. Recent advances in miRNA biology have shed some light on the role of these small RNAs in vector-virus interactions. In this review, I will reflect on our current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in arbovirus-vector interactions and the potential avenues for their utilization in limiting virus replication and/or transmission.

  8. Early interactions during the encounter of plants, aphids and arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Aurélie; Martinière, Alexandre; Blanc, Stéphane; Drucker, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Aphids infest many plants and cause damage by depriving them of nutrients and by transmitting many viral diseases. Aphid infestation and arbovirus transmission are controlled by establishment (or not) of a compatible reaction between the insects and the plants. This reaction is the result of defense reactions of the plant and counter-defense reactions of the parasite. Contrarily to plant-bacteria, plant-fungi and plant-herbivorous insects pathosystems, the plant-aphid pathosystem is understudied, although recent advances have begun to uncover some of its details. Especially the very early steps in plant-aphid interactions are hardly known. We here resume the present knowledge of these interactions. We discuss further how an aphid-transmitted plant virus that is transmitted during the first moments of the plant-aphid encounter, might help to study the very early plant aphid interactions.

  9. Apoptosis, autophagy and unfolded protein response pathways in Arbovirus replication and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Mahmoud; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Yazdi, Mina; Ande, Sudharsana R; Alizadeh, Javad; Wiechec, Emilia; Lindsay, Robbin; Drebot, Michael; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saeid

    2016-01-19

    Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses. In this review, we focus on the importance of these pathways in the arbovirus replication and infection processes. We provide a brief introduction on how apoptosis, autophagy and the UPR are initiated and regulated, and then discuss the involvement of these pathways in regulation of arbovirus pathogenesis.

  10. Mosquito-borne Arbovirus Surveillance at Selected Sites in Diverse Ecological Zones of Kenya 2007 -- 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Med Hyg 2008, 102(8):817–822. 5. Gould EA, Higgs S: Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases. Trans R Soc Trop...streptomycin and 1 µl/ml of Fungizone). Cells were incubated at 37°C and observed daily for cytopathic changes . Cell culture supernatants were...reference and research on arboviruses and haemorrhagic fever viruses. Dakar, Senegal : Institut Pasteur de Dakar; 2000. 8. Kalunda M, Lwanga-Ssozi C

  11. The role of RNA interference (RNAi) in arbovirus-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Carol D; Olson, Ken E

    2015-02-17

    RNA interference (RNAi) was shown over 18 years ago to be a mechanism by which arbovirus replication and transmission could be controlled in arthropod vectors. During the intervening period, research on RNAi has defined many of the components and mechanisms of this antiviral pathway in arthropods, yet a number of unexplored questions remain. RNAi refers to RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression. Originally, the term described silencing of endogenous genes by introduction of exogenous double-stranded (ds)RNA with the same sequence as the gene to be silenced. Further research has shown that RNAi comprises three gene regulation pathways that are mediated by small RNAs: the small interfering (si)RNA, micro (mi)RNA, and Piwi-interacting (pi)RNA pathways. The exogenous (exo-)siRNA pathway is now recognized as a major antiviral innate immune response of arthropods. More recent studies suggest that the piRNA and miRNA pathways might also have important roles in arbovirus-vector interactions. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of the exo-siRNA pathway as an arthropod vector antiviral response and on emerging research into vector piRNA and miRNA pathway modulation of arbovirus-vector interactions. Although it is assumed that arboviruses must evade the vector's antiviral RNAi response in order to maintain their natural transmission cycles, the strategies by which this is accomplished are not well defined. RNAi is also an important tool for arthropod gene knock-down in functional genomics studies and in development of arbovirus-resistant mosquito populations. Possible arbovirus strategies for evasion of RNAi and applications of RNAi in functional genomics analysis and arbovirus transmission control will also be reviewed.

  12. The Role of RNA Interference (RNAi in Arbovirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol D. Blair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi was shown over 18 years ago to be a mechanism by which arbovirus replication and transmission could be controlled in arthropod vectors. During the intervening period, research on RNAi has defined many of the components and mechanisms of this antiviral pathway in arthropods, yet a number of unexplored questions remain. RNAi refers to RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression. Originally, the term described silencing of endogenous genes by introduction of exogenous double-stranded (dsRNA with the same sequence as the gene to be silenced. Further research has shown that RNAi comprises three gene regulation pathways that are mediated by small RNAs: the small interfering (siRNA, micro (miRNA, and Piwi-interacting (piRNA pathways. The exogenous (exo-siRNA pathway is now recognized as a major antiviral innate immune response of arthropods. More recent studies suggest that the piRNA and miRNA pathways might also have important roles in arbovirus-vector interactions. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of the exo-siRNA pathway as an arthropod vector antiviral response and on emerging research into vector piRNA and miRNA pathway modulation of arbovirus-vector interactions. Although it is assumed that arboviruses must evade the vector’s antiviral RNAi response in order to maintain their natural transmission cycles, the strategies by which this is accomplished are not well defined. RNAi is also an important tool for arthropod gene knock-down in functional genomics studies and in development of arbovirus-resistant mosquito populations. Possible arbovirus strategies for evasion of RNAi and applications of RNAi in functional genomics analysis and arbovirus transmission control will also be reviewed.

  13. Seroepidemiologic studies in Oaxaca, Mexico. II. Survey for arbovirus antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, R S; Zarate, M L; Cedeño-Ferreira, J; Antonio Paz, E

    1979-01-01

    A serologic survey was conducted in south-western Mexico to obtain information on human experience with arbovirus infections. Sera were collected from two semitropical areas along the Pacific coast of Oaxaca State, two mountain areas above 1,700 meters and the interior valley at 1,500 meters. Of the 610 sera tested for group A antibody, 4.9 per cent were positive in the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test to Venezuelan (VE), 11 per cent to Eastern, and none to Western encephalitis viruses. In neutralization tests the antibody was shown to be probably due to VE virus infections. When sera were screened for group B antibodies in the HI test, 32 per cent were positive with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), 19 per cent with Ilhéus, and 4 per cent with yellow fever viruses. The pattern of reactions suggested that SLE or an antigenically related virus was responsible for the antibody detected. An unusually high rate was found in a mountain area at 2,000 meters: 41 per cent of 113 persons tested were seropositive to SLE. Of 493 sera screened by complement-fixation test, 6 per cent were positive to Nepuyo, 4 per cent to Patois, and 3 per cent to Tlacotalpan viruses.

  14. Development of an algorithm for production of inactivated arbovirus antigens in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C H; Russell, B J; Velez, J O; Laven, J J; Nicholson, W L; Bagarozzi, D A; Moon, J L; Bedi, K; Johnson, B W

    2014-11-01

    Arboviruses are medically important pathogens that cause human disease ranging from a mild fever to encephalitis. Laboratory diagnosis is essential to differentiate arbovirus infections from other pathogens with similar clinical manifestations. The Arboviral Diseases Branch (ADB) reference laboratory at the CDC Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) produces reference antigens used in serological assays such as the virus-specific immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Antigen production in cell culture has largely replaced the use of suckling mice; however, the methods are not directly transferable. The development of a cell culture antigen production algorithm for nine arboviruses from the three main arbovirus families, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, is described here. Virus cell culture growth and harvest conditions were optimized, inactivation methods were evaluated, and concentration procedures were compared for each virus. Antigen performance was evaluated by the MAC-ELISA at each step of the procedure. The antigen production algorithm is a framework for standardization of methodology and quality control; however, a single antigen production protocol was not applicable to all arboviruses and needed to be optimized for each virus.

  15. Genome Sequences of Five Arboviruses in Field-Captured Mosquitoes in a Unique Rural Environment of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jun; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Yang, Yu; Jima, Dereje D; Richardson, Jason H; Jarman, Richard G

    2016-01-28

    Here, we present the genome sequences of one mesonivirus and four novel arboviruses observed in Culex bitaeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens, captured in and near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea. Results suggest the ubiquitous presence of mesoniviruses and the discovery of a potentially new species of arboviruses in field-captured mosquitoes.

  16. Large-scale recoding of an arbovirus genome to rebalance its insect versus mammalian preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sam H; Stauft, Charles B; Gorbatsevych, Oleksandr; Song, Yutong; Ward, Charles B; Yurovsky, Alisa; Mueller, Steffen; Futcher, Bruce; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-04-14

    The protein synthesis machineries of two distinct phyla of the Animal kingdom, insects of Arthropoda and mammals of Chordata, have different preferences for how to best encode proteins. Nevertheless, arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are capable of infecting both mammals and insects just like arboviruses that use insect vectors to infect plants. These organisms have evolved carefully balanced genomes that can efficiently use the translational machineries of different phyla, even if the phyla belong to different kingdoms. Using dengue virus as an example, we have undone the genome encoding balance and specifically shifted the encoding preference away from mammals. These mammalian-attenuated viruses grow to high titers in insect cells but low titers in mammalian cells, have dramatically increased LD50s in newborn mice, and induce high levels of protective antibodies. Recoded arboviruses with a bias toward phylum-specific expression could form the basis of a new generation of live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  17. Tick cell lines for study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A; Fazakerley, John K

    2012-09-01

    Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level.

  18. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection.

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    Edna R Caceda

    Full Text Available The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN, Yellow Fever (YF, Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE, West Nile (WN, Ilheus (ILH, Group C (GC, Oropouche (ORO, Mayaro (MAY and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH. MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO. For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera.

  19. Arbovirus vaccines: opportunities for the baculovirus-insect cell expression system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is a well-established technology for the production of heterologous viral (glyco)proteins in cultured cells, applicable for basic scientific research as well as for the development and production of vaccines and diagnostics. Arboviruses form an emerging

  20. Lesões pouco usuais na histopatologia experimental de arbovirus amazônicos

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    Leonidas Braga Dias

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritas as alterações histopatológicas observadas em camundongos infectados experimentalmente com os arbovirus Mucambo, EEE e Cocal. O virus Mucambo determinou lesões renais; o EEE demonstrou especial mesenquimotropismo; o virus Cocal lesões de topografia seletiva subependimária.

  1. Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, E A; Higgs, S

    2009-02-01

    While some skeptics remain unconvinced that global climate change is a reality, there is no doubt that during the past 50 years or so, patterns of emerging arbovirus diseases have changed significantly. Can this be attributed to climate change? Climate is a major factor in determining: (1) the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods; (2) characteristics of arthropod life cycles; (3) dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses; (4) the evolution of arboviruses; and (5) the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. Thus, under the influence of increasing temperatures and rainfall through warming of the oceans, and alteration of the natural cycles that stabilise climate, one is inevitably drawn to the conclusion that arboviruses will continue to emerge in new regions. For example, we cannot ignore the unexpected but successful establishment of chikungunya fever in northern Italy, the sudden appearance of West Nile virus in North America, the increasing frequency of Rift Valley fever epidemics in the Arabian Peninsula, and very recently, the emergence of Bluetongue virus in northern Europe. In this brief review we ask the question, are these diseases emerging because of climate change or do other factors play an equal or even more important role in their emergence?

  2. The Role of Interferon Antagonist, Non-Structural Proteins in the Pathogenesis and Emergence of Arboviruses

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    Samantha S. Soldan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of factors favor the emergence and re-emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, including migration, climate change, intensified livestock production, an increasing volume of international trade and transportation, and changes to ecosystems (e.g., deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Consequently, arboviruses are distributed worldwide and represent over 30% of all emerging infectious diseases identified in the past decade. Although some arboviral infections go undetected or are associated with mild, flu-like symptoms, many are important human and veterinary pathogens causing serious illnesses such as arthritis, gastroenteritis, encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever and devastating economic loss as a consequence of lost productivity and high mortality rates among livestock. One of the most consistent molecular features of emerging arboviruses, in addition to their near exclusive use of RNA genomes, is the inclusion of viral, non-structural proteins that act as interferon antagonists. In this review, we describe these interferon antagonists and common strategies that arboviruses use to counter the host innate immune response. In addition, we discuss the complex interplay between host factors and viral determinants that are associated with virus emergence and re-emergence, and identify potential targets for vaccine and anti-viral therapies.

  3. Understanding the Wolbachia-mediated inhibition of arboviruses in mosquitoes: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Stephanie M; Shah, Pranav; Kohl, Alain; Dietrich, Isabelle

    2014-03-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a considerable threat to human and animal health, yet effective control measures have proven difficult to implement, and novel means of controlling their replication in arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, are urgently required. One of the most exciting approaches to emerge from research on arthropods is the use of the endosymbiotic intracellular bacterium Wolbachia to control arbovirus transmission from mosquito to vertebrate. These α-proteobacteria propagate through insects, in part through modulation of host reproduction, thus ensuring spread through species and maintenance in nature. Since it was discovered that Wolbachia endosymbiosis inhibits insect virus replication in Drosophila species, these bacteria have also been shown to inhibit arbovirus replication and spread in mosquitoes. Importantly, it is not clear how these antiviral effects are mediated. This review will summarize recent work and discuss determinants of antiviral effectiveness that may differ between individual Wolbachia/vector/arbovirus interactions. We will also discuss the application of this approach to field settings and the associated risks.

  4. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Joy; Rainey, Stephanie M; McFarlane, Melanie; Donald, Claire L; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie

    2015-03-23

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence.

  5. Arbovirus-derived piRNAs exhibit a ping-pong signature in mosquito cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodovar, N.; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Cleef, K.W.R. van; Miesen, P.; Blanc, H.; Rij, R.P. van; Saleh, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The siRNA pathway is an essential antiviral mechanism in insects. Whether other RNA interference pathways are involved in antiviral defense remains unclear. Here, we report in cells derived from the two main vectors for arboviruses, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the production of viral small R

  6. Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011–2013

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    Maite Aubry

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

  7. The spread of Zika and the potential for global arbovirus syndemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2017-01-01

    It is estimated that over a million people die each year from infectious diseases of zoonotic origin and hundreds of millions suffer from these pervasive threats to human well-being. In light of the emergent global concern over the Zika virus, evidence that it has not one but two competent mosquito vector species in the Aedes family, and that both can be co-infected with other pathogens including dengue and chikungunya, this paper examines research suggesting the prospect of significant twenty-first-century outbreaks of arbovirus syndemics. Uniting the concepts 'synergy' with 'epidemic', a syndemics approach recognises that diseases in a population occur neither independent of social and ecological conditions, nor in isolation from other diseases. Assessment of the potential for arbovirus syndemics entails a review of the human role in the global spread of Aedes mosquitoes, the socio-environmental conditions of Aedes diffusion, the increasing likelihood of co-transmission of arbovirus diseases, evidence of co-infection and concern about the adverse health effects of arbovirus syndemic interaction, and the need for an appropriate environment-sensitive framework for effective public health responses. Called Planetary Health, this emergent framework confronts conceptual, knowledge, and governance challenges created by the dramatic shifts in environments, climates, people, vectors, and pathogens in the world.

  8. Sources of error in the estimation of mosquito infection rates used to assess risk of arbovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Dulce M; Lord, Cynthia C

    2010-06-01

    Infection rate is an estimate of the prevalence of arbovirus infection in a mosquito population. It is assumed that when infection rate increases, the risk of arbovirus transmission to humans and animals also increases. We examined some of the factors that can invalidate this assumption. First, we used a model to illustrate how the proportion of mosquitoes capable of virus transmission, or infectious, is not a constant fraction of the number of infected mosquitoes. Thus, infection rate is not always a straightforward indicator of risk. Second, we used a model that simulated the process of mosquito sampling, pooling, and virus testing and found that mosquito infection rates commonly underestimate the prevalence of arbovirus infection in a mosquito population. Infection rate should always be used in conjunction with other surveillance indicators (mosquito population size, age structure, weather) and historical baseline data when assessing the risk of arbovirus transmission.

  9. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution. PMID:27688704

  10. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution.

  11. [Serological survey for arboviruses in Juruti, Pará State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Prazeres, Assis do Socorro Correa dos; Gama, Eliana Colares; Lima, Maxwell Furtado de; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro Silva; Casseb, Lívia Medeiros Neves; Nunes Neto, Joaquim Pinto; Martins, Lívia Carício; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of antibodies to arboviruses in the area affected by the Juruti Project before local mining operations. A total of 1,597 human and 85 wild animal sera were examined, using the hemagglutination inhibition test against 19 antigens from the most prevalent arboviruses in the Brazilian Amazon and IgM-ELISA for dengue and yellow fever. Positive sera for Mayaro and Oropouche viruses were also tested by IgM-ELISA. Prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and orthobunyaviruses in humans was 28.7%, while for wild animals it was 8.2% for flaviviruses. Recent infections based on presence of IgM was confirmed for Mayaro (n = 5), Oropouche (n = 23), and dengue (n = 20). The results showed active circulation of the dengue, Mayaro, and Oropouche viruses in Juruti, as well as flaviviruses in wild animals, suggesting the circulation of these viruses in the Municipality of Juruti.

  12. Converting Mosquito Surveillance to Arbovirus Surveillance with Honey-Baited Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies, Emily J; Toi, Cheryl; Weinstein, Philip; Doggett, Stephen L; Williams, Craig R

    2015-07-01

    Spatially and temporally accurate information about infectious mosquito distribution allows for pre-emptive public health interventions that can reduce the burden of mosquito-borne infections on human populations. However, the labile nature of arboviruses, the low prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, the expensive labor costs for mosquito identification and sorting, and the specialized equipment required for arbovirus testing can obstruct arbovirus surveillance efforts. The recently developed techniques of testing mosquito expectorate using honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards or sugar bait stations allows a sensitive method of testing for infectious, rather than infected, mosquito vectors. Here we report the results from the first large-scale incorporation of honey-baited cards into an existing mosquito surveillance program. During 4 months of the peak virus season (January-April, 2014) for a total of 577 trap nights, we set CO2-baited encephalitis vector survey (EVS) light traps at 88 locations in South Australia. The collection container for the EVS trap was modified to allow for the placement of a honey-baited nucleic acid preservation card (FTA™ card) inside. After collection, mosquitoes were maintained in a humid environment and allowed access to the cards for 1 week. Cards were then analyzed for common endemic Australian arboviruses using a nested RT-PCR. Eighteen virus detections, including 11 Ross River virus, four Barmah Forest virus, and three Stratford virus (not previously reported from South Australia) were obtained. Our findings suggest that adding FTA cards to an existing mosquito surveillance program is a rapid and efficient way of detecting infectious mosquitoes with high spatial resolution.

  13. Estimating the magnitude and direction of altered arbovirus transmission due to viral phenotype.

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    Rebecca C Christofferson

    Full Text Available Vectorial capacity is a measure of the transmission potential of a vector borne pathogen within a susceptible population. Vector competence, a component of the vectorial capacity equation, is the ability of an arthropod to transmit an infectious agent following exposure to that agent. Comparisons of arbovirus strain-specific vector competence estimates have been used to support observed or hypothesized differences in transmission capability. Typically, such comparisons are made at a single time point during the extrinsic incubation period, the time in days it takes for the virus to replicate and disseminate to the salivary glands. However, vectorial capacity includes crucial parameters needed to effectively evaluate transmission capability, though often this is based on the discrete vector competence values. Utilization of the rate of change of vector competence over a range of days gives a more accurate measurement of the transmission potential. Accordingly, we investigated the rate of change in vector competence of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the resulting vectorial capacity curves. The areas under the curves represent the effective vector competence and the cumulative transmission potentials of arboviruses within a population of mosquitoes. We used the calculated area under the curve for each virus strain and the corresponding variance estimates to test for differences in cumulative transmission potentials between strains of dengue virus based on our dynamic model. To further characterize differences between dengue strains, we devised a displacement index interpreted as the capability of a newly introduced strain to displace the established, dominant circulating strain. The displacement index can be used to better understand the transmission dynamics in systems where multiple strains/serotypes circulate or even multiple arbovirus species. The use of a rate of a rate of change based model of vectorial capacity and the

  14. [Serological evidence of the circulation of the Rocio arbovirus (Flaviviridae) in Bahia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatmann, A; Santos-Torres, S; Vasconcelos, P F; da Rosa, A P; Rodrigues, S G; Tavares-Neto, J

    1997-01-01

    Eight antibody anti-Rocio cases, from four distinct cities in the state of Bahia, are described; six of them being carriers of the antibody IgG (HI and NT) and two IgM (ELISA and NT). The authors comment on the circulation of these arboviruses in the state of Bahia and on the possibility of cross reactions with other antigenically related viruses.

  15. [Recent occurrence of human infection by Rocio arbovirus in the Valley of Ribeira region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversson, L B; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Rosa, M D

    1989-01-01

    The presence of IgM antibodies to Rocio in sera of two children from rural area of Ribeira Valley, Brazil, was detected by MAC-ELISA. This new arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family was responsible for an extensive encephalitis epidemic that occurred in the region in 1975-1977. Since 1980 no human disease caused by this virus has been diagnosed. An improvement on surveillance of Rocio infections and on the researches for virus identification in suspected vectors and reservoirs is necessary.

  16. Possible Future Monoclonal Antibody (mAb-Based Therapy against Arbovirus Infections

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    Giuseppe Sautto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 150 arboviruses belonging to different families are known to infect humans, causing endemic infections as well as epidemic outbreaks. Effective vaccines to limit the occurrence of some of these infections have been licensed, while for the others several new immunogens are under development mostly for their improvements concerning safety and effectiveness profiles. On the other hand, specific and effective antiviral drugs are not yet available, posing an urgent medical need in particular for emergency cases. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of several infectious diseases as well as in preliminary in vitro and in vivo models of arbovirus-related infections. Given their specific antiviral activity as well-tolerated molecules with limited side effects, mAbs could represent a new therapeutic approach for the development of an effective treatment, as well as useful tools in the study of the host-virus interplay and in the development of more effective immunogens. However, before their use as candidate therapeutics, possible hurdles (e.g., Ab-dependent enhancement of infection, occurrence of viral escape variants must be carefully evaluated. In this review are described the main arboviruses infecting humans and candidate mAbs to be possibly used in a future passive immunotherapy.

  17. Applications of a sugar-based surveillance system to track arboviruses in wild mosquito populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Townsend, Michael; Kurucz, Nina; Edwards, Jim; Ehlers, Gerhard; Rodwell, Chris; Moore, Frederick A; McMahon, Jamie L; Northill, Judith A; Simmons, Russell J; Cortis, Giles; Melville, Lorna; Whelan, Peter I; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Effective arbovirus surveillance is essential to ensure the implementation of control strategies, such as mosquito suppression, vaccination, or dissemination of public warnings. Traditional strategies employed for arbovirus surveillance, such as detection of virus or virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animals, or detection of virus in hematophagous arthropods, have limitations as an early-warning system. A system was recently developed that involves collecting mosquitoes in CO2-baited traps, where the insects expectorate virus on sugar-baited nucleic acid preservation cards. The cards are then submitted for virus detection using molecular assays. We report the application of this system for detecting flaviviruses and alphaviruses in wild mosquito populations in northern Australia. This study was the first to employ nonpowered passive box traps (PBTs) that were designed to house cards baited with honey as the sugar source. Overall, 20/144 (13.9%) of PBTs from different weeks contained at least one virus-positive card. West Nile virus Kunjin subtype (WNVKUN), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) were detected, being identified in 13/20, 5/20, and 2/20 of positive PBTs, respectively. Importantly, sentinel chickens deployed to detect flavivirus activity did not seroconvert at two Northern Territory sites where four PBTs yielded WNVKUN. Sufficient WNVKUN and RRV RNA was expectorated onto some of the honey-soaked cards to provide a template for gene sequencing, enhancing the utility of the sugar-bait surveillance system for investigating the ecology, emergence, and movement of arboviruses.

  18. Genome Investigations of Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti to Inform Novel Arbovirus Disease Control Approaches

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    David W. Severson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue (DENV, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The “vectorial capacity” of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus. This intrinsic ability is known as “vector competence”. Based on whole transcriptome analysis, several genes and pathways have been predicated to have an association with a susceptible or refractory response in A. aegypti to DENV infection. However, the functional genomics of vector competence of A. aegypti is not well understood, primarily due to lack of integrative approaches in genomic or transcriptomic studies. In this review, we focus on the present status of genomics studies of DENV vector competence in A. aegypti as limited information is available relative to the other arboviruses. We propose future areas of research needed to facilitate the integration of vector and virus genomics and environmental factors to work towards better understanding of vector competence and vectorial capacity in natural conditions.

  19. Genome Investigations of Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti to Inform Novel Arbovirus Disease Control Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, David W; Behura, Susanta K

    2016-10-30

    Dengue (DENV), yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The "vectorial capacity" of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus. This intrinsic ability is known as "vector competence". Based on whole transcriptome analysis, several genes and pathways have been predicated to have an association with a susceptible or refractory response in A. aegypti to DENV infection. However, the functional genomics of vector competence of A. aegypti is not well understood, primarily due to lack of integrative approaches in genomic or transcriptomic studies. In this review, we focus on the present status of genomics studies of DENV vector competence in A. aegypti as limited information is available relative to the other arboviruses. We propose future areas of research needed to facilitate the integration of vector and virus genomics and environmental factors to work towards better understanding of vector competence and vectorial capacity in natural conditions.

  20. Selective factors associated with the evolution of codon usage in natural populations of arboviruses and their practical application to infer possible hosts for emerging viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) have life cycles that include both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts with substantial differences in vector and host specificity between different viruses. Most arboviruses utilize RNA for their genetic material and are completely dependent on host tRNAs for the...

  1. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Pedro F. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  2. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  3. Detection of arboviruses and other micro-organisms in experimentally infected mosquitoes using massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Allcock, Richard; Kresoje, Nina; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Warrilow, David

    2013-01-01

    Human disease incidence attributed to arbovirus infection is increasing throughout the world, with effective control interventions limited by issues of sustainability, insecticide resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. Several promising control strategies are currently under development, such as the release of mosquitoes trans-infected with virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria. Implementation of any control program is dependent on effective virus surveillance and a thorough understanding of virus-vector interactions. Massively parallel sequencing has enormous potential for providing comprehensive genomic information that can be used to assess many aspects of arbovirus ecology, as well as to evaluate novel control strategies. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we analyzed Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus experimentally infected with dengue, yellow fever or chikungunya viruses. Random amplification was used to prepare sufficient template for sequencing on the Personal Genome Machine. Viral sequences were present in all infected mosquitoes. In addition, in most cases, we were also able to identify the mosquito species and mosquito micro-organisms, including the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Importantly, naturally occurring Wolbachia strains could be differentiated from strains that had been trans-infected into the mosquito. The method allowed us to assemble near full-length viral genomes and detect other micro-organisms without prior sequence knowledge, in a single reaction. This is a step toward the application of massively parallel sequencing as an arbovirus surveillance tool. It has the potential to provide insight into virus transmission dynamics, and has applicability to the post-release monitoring of Wolbachia in mosquito populations.

  4. A simple micro-culture method for the study of group B arboviruses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Madrid, Ana Teresa; Porterfield, James S.

    1969-01-01

    Thirty-nine group B arboviruses have been titrated by a simple micro-culture method. The technique uses a stable line of pig kidney cells (PS cells) in which plaques develop when cells are first infected in suspension in the wells of haemagglutination trays and are then incubated for from 3 to 10 days under an overlay containing carboxymethyl-cellulose. This method can be adapted to measure neutralizing antibodies, and the principle underlying the test is applicable to other cells and other viruses. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4183812

  5. Recent occurence of human infection by Rocio arbovirus in Ribeira Valley, Brazil

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    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of IgM antibodies to Rocio in sera of two children from rural area of Ribeira Valley, Brazil, was detected by MAC-ELISA. This new arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family was responsible for an extensive encephalitis epidemic that occurred in the region in 1975-1977. Since 1980 no human disease caused by this virus has been diagnosed. An improvement on surveillance of Rocio infections and on the researches for virus identification in suspected vectors and reservoirs is necessary.

  6. [原著]Seroepidemiological study of arbovirus infections in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Vongxay, Phonsavanh; Makino, Yoshihiro; Kanemura, Kazumi; Saito, Mika; Fukunaga, Toshihiko; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Vientiane, Lao PDR; Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus; Research Center of Comprehensive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

    1995-01-01

    Seroepidemiological survey of three arbovirus infections were conducted at Khammouane Province, Lao P.D.R. A total of 141 human sera were collected at the laboratory of Khammouane provincial hospital and examined for the antibodies to dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya (CHIK) viruses by neutralization test. Positive rates of antibodies to DEN-1,2 and 3 were high in the age groups older than 11-15 years old, while that of antibody to DEN-4 increased rather slowly with age...

  7. Simultaneous Detection of Three Arboviruses Using a Triplex RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Dong; Shi-hong Fu; Li-hua Wang; Zhi Lv; Tai-yuan Li; Guo-dong Liang

    2012-01-01

    Arboviruses represent a serious problem to public health and agriculture worldwide.Fast,accurate identification of the viral agents of arbovirus-associated disease is essential for epidemiological surveillance and laboratory investigation.We developed a cost-effective,rapid,and highly sensitive one-step "triplex RT-PCR enzyme hybridization"assay for simultaneous detections of Japanese Encephallitis virus (JEV,Flaviviridae)Getah virus (GETV,Togaviridae),and Tahyna virus (TAHV,Bunyaviridae) using three pairs of primers to amplify three target sequences in one RT-PCR reaction.The analytical sensitivity of this assay was 1 PFU/mL for JEV,10PFU/mL for GETV,and 10 PFU/mL for TAHV.This assay is significantly more rapid and less expensive than the traditional serological detection and single RT-PCR reaction methods.When “triplex RT-PCR enzyme hybridization” was applied to 29 cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)samples that were JEV-positive by normal RT-PCR assay,all samples were strongly positive for JEV,but negative for GETV and TAHV,demonstrating a good sensitivity,specificity,and performance at CSF specimen detection.

  8. Microscopic Visualisation of Zoonotic Arbovirus Replication in Tick Cell and Organ Cultures Using Semliki Forest Virus Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Bell-Sakyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation and study of arboviruses, both tick-borne and insect-borne, enabling elucidation of virus-tick cell interaction and yielding insight into the mechanisms behind vector competence and reservoir potential for different arbovirus species. The mosquito-borne zoonotic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV, which replicates well in tick cells, has been isolated from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Amblyomma spp. ticks removed from mammalian hosts in East Africa; however nothing is known about any possible role of ticks in SFV epidemiology. Here we present a light and electron microscopic study of SFV infecting cell lines and organ cultures derived from African Rhipicephalus spp. ticks. As well as demonstrating the applicability of these culture systems for studying virus-vector interactions, we provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that SFV is not normally transmitted by ticks because the virus does not infect midgut cells.

  9. Arbovirus-derived piRNAs exhibit a ping-pong signature in mosquito cells.

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    Nicolas Vodovar

    Full Text Available The siRNA pathway is an essential antiviral mechanism in insects. Whether other RNA interference pathways are involved in antiviral defense remains unclear. Here, we report in cells derived from the two main vectors for arboviruses, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the production of viral small RNAs that exhibit the hallmarks of ping-pong derived piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs after infection with positive or negative sense RNA viruses. Furthermore, these cells produce endogenous piRNAs that mapped to transposable elements. Our results show that these mosquito cells can initiate de novo piRNA production and recapitulate the ping-pong dependent piRNA pathway upon viral infection. The mechanism of viral-piRNA production is discussed.

  10. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S; Petersen, Lyle R; Hughes, James M; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

  11. Diagnosis and Prognosis of the Arbovirus-Dengue using Intelligent Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, G. Wiselin; Lakshmi, V. Selva; Lakshmi, K. Vathsala; Priya, S. Shunmuga

    2016-06-01

    Dengue is the most common and widespread arthropod-borne viral infection in the world. It was carried by mosquitoes and this disease used to be called break-bone fever. Dengue is a quite dangerous febrile disease transmitted by aedus aegypti mosquito that can even cause death. In this paper, we proposed new fusion architecture to support the diagnosis of Arbovirus-Dengue. The architecture combines features of platelets and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) technology together to facilitate medical diagnosis. Along with these features and platelet count, CBR is incorporated which contains symptoms of the disease and platelet count. Experiments on a set of 10 images yielded a balanced accuracy of 86.95 %. This was a superior diagnosis performance in comparison with the state-of-the-art works.

  12. Genetic evidence for a worldwide chaotic dispersion pattern of the arbovirus vector, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Mosè; Guglielmino, Carmela R.; Scolari, Francesca; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Somboon, Pradya; Lisa, Antonella; Savini, Grazia; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Invasive species represent a global concern for their rapid spread and the possibility of infectious disease transmission. This is the case of the global invader Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. This species is a vector of medically important arboviruses, notably chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV). The reconstruction of the complex colonization pattern of this mosquito has great potential for mitigating its spread and, consequently, disease risks. Methodology/Principal findings Classical population genetics analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approaches were combined to disentangle the demographic history of Aedes albopictus populations from representative countries in the Southeast Asian native range and in the recent and more recently colonized areas. In Southeast Asia, the low differentiation and the high co-ancestry values identified among China, Thailand and Japan indicate that, in the native range, these populations maintain high genetic connectivity, revealing their ancestral common origin. China appears to be the oldest population. Outside Southeast Asia, the invasion process in La Réunion, America and the Mediterranean Basin is primarily supported by a chaotic propagule distribution, which cooperates in maintaining a relatively high genetic diversity within the adventive populations. Conclusions/Significance From our data, it appears that independent and also trans-continental introductions of Ae. albopictus may have facilitated the rapid establishment of adventive populations through admixture of unrelated genomes. As a consequence, a great amount of intra-population variability has been detected, and it is likely that this variability may extend to the genetic mechanisms controlling vector competence. Thus, in the context of the invasion process of this mosquito, it is possible that both population ancestry and admixture contribute to create the conditions for the efficient transmission of

  13. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential vector of endemic and exotic arboviruses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; van den Hurk, A F

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, established populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were discovered in the Torres Strait, the region that separates Papua New Guinea from northern Australia. This increased the potential for this species to be introduced to mainland Australia. Because it is an arbovirus vector elsewhere, we undertook laboratory-based infection and transmission experiments to determine the potential for Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait to become infected with and transmit the four major Australian endemic arboviruses--Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus Kunjin strain (WNV(KUN)), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus--as well as the exotic Japanese encephalitis virus. Ae. albopictus is susceptible to infection with all viruses, with infection rates ranging between 8% for WNV(KUN) and 71% for RRV. Transmission rates of approximately 25% were observed for RRV and Barmah Forest virus, but these were < 17% for Murray Valley encephalitis virus, WNV(KUN), and Japanese encephalitis virus. Given its relative vector competence for alphaviruses, we also examined the replication kinetics and extrinsic incubation periods required for transmission of RRV and chikungunya virus. Despite lower body titers, more mosquitoes reared and maintained at 28 degrees C became infected with and transmitted the virus than those reared and maintained at 22 degrees C. The minimum time between Ae. albopictus consuming an infected bloodmeal and transmitting chikungunya virus was 2 d at 28 degrees C and 4 d at 22 degrees C, and for RRV, it was 4 d, irrespective of the temperature. Given its opportunistic feeding habits and aggressive biting behavior, the establishment of Ae. albopictus on the Australian mainland could have a considerable impact on alphavirus transmission.

  14. Seroprevalence of five arboviruses in sentinel cattle as part of nationwide surveillance in South Korea, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Eun-Yong; Lee, Koung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Park, Se Chang

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in South Korea, nationwide surveillance of five arbovirues was conducted in sentinel calves during 2009-2012. We used serum neutralization tests to investigate the presence of antibodies for the Aino virus, Akabane virus, bovine ephemeral fever virus, Chuzan virus and Ibaraki virus. In 2009, 2011 and 2012, the seropositive rates for these five arboviruses were all less than 14.1%. In 2010, however, the seropositive rates for Aino virus and Akabane virus were 33.2% and 40.2%, respectively. High seropositive rates were also associated with a large-scale outbreak of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle in southern Korea in 2010. Continued seroprevalence surveillance will be useful for monitoring natural arboviral diseases.

  15. Enzootic Arbovirus Surveillance in Forest Habitat and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel Isolates of Gamboa Virus in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Gillian; Loaiza, Jose R; Pongsiri, Montira J; Sanjur, Oris I; Pecor, James E; Auguste, Albert J; Kramer, Laura D

    2016-04-01

    Landscape changes occurring in Panama, a country whose geographic location and climate have historically supported arbovirus transmission, prompted the hypothesis that arbovirus prevalence increases with degradation of tropical forest habitats. Investigations at four variably degraded sites revealed a diverse array of potential mosquito vectors, several of which are known vectors of arbovirus pathogens. Overall, 675 pools consisting of 25,787 mosquitoes and representing 29 species from nine genera (collected at ground and canopy height across all habitats) were screened for cytopathic viruses on Vero cells. We detected four isolates of Gamboa virus (family:Bunyaviridae; genus:Orthobunyavirus) from pools of Aedeomyia squamipennis captured at canopy level in November 2012. Phylogenetic characterization of complete genome sequences shows the new isolates to be closely related to each other with strong evidence of reassortment among the M segment of Panamanian Gamboa isolates and several other viruses of this group. At the site yielding viruses, Soberanía National Park in central Panama, 18 mosquito species were identified, and the predominant taxa included A. squamipennis,Coquillettidia nigricans, and Mansonia titillans.

  16. Vector population manipulation for control of arboviruses--a novel prospect for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan Reddy, Bp; Gupta, Bhavna; Rao, B Prasad

    2014-04-01

    India, the seventh largest country in the world, has diverse geographical and climatic regions with vast rural and peri-urban areas. Many are experiencing an escalation in the spread and intensity of numerous human diseases transmitted by insects. Classically, the management of these vector-borne diseases is underpinned by either chemical insecticides and/or environmental management targeted at the vector. However, these methods or their present implementation do not offer acceptable levels of control, and more effective and sustainable options are now available. Genetic strategies for the prevention of arbovirus transmission are most advanced for dengue and chikungunya, targeting their primary vector, Aedes aegypti. The national burden in terms of morbidity and mortality as a direct consequence of dengue virus in India is considered to be the largest worldwide, over 4 times that of any other country. Presently, new genetic technologies are undergoing field evaluation of their biosafety and efficacy in several countries. This paper discusses the merits of these approaches and argues for fair and transparent appraisal in India as a matter of urgency. Identification of any associated risks and their appropriate mitigation are fundamental to that process.

  17. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide.

  18. Diversity of Culex torrentium Martini, 1925 - a potential vector of arboviruses and filaria in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werblow, Antje; Bolius, Sarah; Dorresteijn, Adriaan W C; Melaun, Christian; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-07-01

    Culex torrentium is one of the most common mosquito species in Germany. Due to its sympatric occurrence as well as its similar morphological and ecological characteristics, it has often been confused with another common species, Culex pipiens. Both species are known to be potential vectors for different arboviruses (not only in Germany) with C. torrentium being a possible vector for Sindbis or Ockelbo virus. In our study, we analyzed the genetic variability in a 658 bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (coxI) of C. torrentium, from nine localities in the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. The results of our genetic survey indicate a higher genetic diversity in this gene region for C. torrentium than for the morphologically similar C. pipiens. Our findings may explain the difficulties in the past to find morphological characteristics that apply to all populations of C. torrentium, when attempting to separate them clearly from C. pipiens, by any other criteria than male genitalia. Being ornithophilic, possible hybrids between C. torrentium and the humanophilic C. pipiens biotype molestus, could potentially serve as important vectors for zoonotic diseases. Therefore, we recommend that greater emphasis is placed on the ecological characteristics, population structure, and the taxonomy of this often neglected species, in the future.

  19. The arbovirus vector Culex torrentium is more prevalent than Culex pipiens in northern and central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, J C; Rettich, F; Merdić, E; Vignjević, G; Ostman, O; Schäfer, M; Schaffner, F; Foussadier, R; Besnard, G; Medlock, J; Scholte, E-J; Lundström, J O

    2014-06-01

    Two species of arbovirus vector, Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), occur in several European countries, but difficulties in their accurate identification and discrimination have hampered both detailed and large-scale distribution and abundance studies. Using a molecular identification method, we identified to species 2559 larvae of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected from 138 sites in 13 European countries ranging from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean coast. In addition, samples of 1712 males of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected at several sites in the Czech Republic were identified to species based on the morphology of their hypopygia. We found that the two species occur together in large areas of Europe, and that Cx. torrentium dominates in northern Europe and Cx. pipiens dominates south of the Alps. The transition in dominance occurs in central Europe, where both species are roughly equally common. There was a strong correlation between the length of the growing season at different sites and occurrences of the two species. As the growing season increases, the proportion and detection of Cx. torrentium decrease, whereas those of Cx. pipiens increase. The present findings have important consequences for the interpretation of the results of studies on major enzootic and link-vectors of mosquito-borne bird-associated viruses (i.e. Sindbis, West Nile and Usutu viruses), especially in central Europe and Scandinavia.

  20. Mosquitoes used to draw blood for arbovirus viremia determinations in small vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, Rebekah C; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Young, Ginger; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Serial samples from the same individuals may be required for certain virological studies, however, some small animals cannot easily be blood-sampled. Therefore, we evaluated the use of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes as "biological syringes" to draw blood for virus titer determinations in small vertebrates. Groups of chicks (Gallus gallus), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were experimentally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) or Highlands J virus (HJV). In general, good correlation was seen between mosquito- and syringe-derived blood samples at titers ≥5.0 log10 pfu/mL serum as compared with titers 105 pfu/mL serum had mosquito- and syringe-derived titers within one log of each other. Sparrow viremia profiles generated from single mosquito blood meals and syringe were not significantly different (p>0.05). This technique is valuable for assessing the roles of small vertebrates in the ecologies of arboviruses, and could be used in applications beyond virology and infectious diseases, when <10 µL of whole blood is required.

  1. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan: an arbovirus attachment factor integral to mosquito salivary gland ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciano, Kristen A; Saredy, Jason J; Bowers, Doria F

    2014-12-22

    Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito.

  2. Serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A A; McLean, R G; Cook, R S; Quan, T J

    1992-07-01

    During 1988 and 1989, a serologic survey of wildlife was conducted in northeastern Mexico to determine the presence, prevalence, and distribution of arboviruses and other selected disease agents. Eighty mammal specimens were tested. Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Rio Grande virus, and vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey were detected predominantly in small mammals. Deer and mouflon (Ovis musimon) had antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease. Two species had serologic evidence of recent exposure to Francisella tularensis. A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) had antibodies to Anaplasma marginale. All specimens tested for antibodies against Yersinia pestis and Brucella abortus were negative. Sera from 315 birds were tested for antibody against five equine encephalitis viruses and six avian pathogens. During 1988, antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-TC83, St. Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and western equine encephalitis were detected in birds of several species. Antibodies to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus were also detected. Birds from five species presented antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis. Specimens tested for M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and Chlamydia psittaci were negative. To the best of our knowledge, this survey represents the first serologic evidence of bluetongue, Cache Valley virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, Jamestown Canyon virus, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, Rio Grande virus, and tularemia reported among wildlife in Mexico.

  3. Dengue and Zika viruses: lessons learned from the similarities between these Aedes mosquito-vectored arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmanee, San; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2017-02-01

    The currently spreading arbovirus epidemic is having a severe impact on human health worldwide. The two most common flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are transmitted through the same viral vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Since the discovery of DENV in 1943, this virus has been reported to cause around 390 million human infections per year, approximately 500,000 of which require hospitalization and over 20,000 of which are lethal. The present DENV epidemic is primarily concentrated in Southeast Asia. ZIKV, which was discovered in 1952, is another important arthropod-borne flavivirus. The neurotropic role of ZIKV has been reported in infected newborns with microcephaly and in adults with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Despite DENV and ZIKV sharing the same viral vector, their complex pathogenic natures are poorly understood, and the infections they cause do not have specific treatments or effective vaccines. Therefore, this review will describe what is currently known about the clinical characteristics, pathogenesis mechanisms, and transmission of these two viruses. Better understanding of the interrelationships between DENV and ZIKV will provide a useful perspective for developing an effective strategy for controlling both viruses in the future.

  4. Seroepidemiological monitoring in sentinel animals and vectors as part of arbovirus surveillance in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mira Batista

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: From February-September 2010, seroepidemiological surveys were conducted on non-human primates and transmitter vector capture was used to investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in the municipalities of Bonito, Campo Grande, and Jardim, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 65 primates from the wild and captivity were used, and potential vectors were captured using Castro and dip nets. Serum samples were tested at the Instituto Evandro Chagas, State of Pará, using the hemagglutination inhibition test to detect total antibodies against 19 different arboviruses. Virus isolation was attempted from serum samples and arthropod suspensions using newborn mice and the C6/36 cell line clone. In addition, identification of the vector species was conducted. RESULTS: From the 19 serum samples from Campo Grande, 1 sample had a 1:20 titer for Flavivirus. From the 35 samples collected in Bonito, 17 samples had antibodies to arboviruses, 4 (11.4% were positive for Alphavirus, and 5 (14.2% were positive for Flavivirus. Monotypic reactions were observed for the Mayaro (n = 10 and Oropouche (n = 5 viruses, and 6 (17.1% samples had titers for >1 virus. We captured 120 Culicidae individuals that were potential arbovirus transmitters in Jardim; however, all the samples were negative for the viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Mato Grosso do Sul has a variety of vertebrate hosts and transmission vectors, thereby providing ideal conditions for the emergence or reemergence of arboviruses, including some pathogenic to human beings.

  5. Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Brendan T; Moreira, Fernando R; Carlson, Tim W; Bernard, Kristen A

    2017-02-01

    Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. The insect cell-derived particles differ in the glycosylation of virus structural proteins and the lipid content of the envelope, as well as their induction of cytokines. Thus, in order to accurately mimic the inoculum delivered by arthropods, arboviruses should be derived from arthropod cells. Previous studies have packaged replicon genome in mammalian cells to produce replicon particles, which undergo only one round of infection, but no studies exist packaging replicon particles in mosquito cells. Here we optimized the packaging of West Nile virus replicon genome in mosquito cells and produced replicon particles at high concentration, allowing us to mimic mosquito cell-derived viral inoculum. These particles were mature with similar genome equivalents-to-infectious units as full-length West Nile virus. We then compared the mosquito cell-derived particles to mammalian cell-derived particles in mice. Both replicon particles infected skin at the inoculation site and the draining lymph node by 3 hours post-inoculation. The mammalian cell-derived replicon particles spread from the site of inoculation to the spleen and contralateral lymph nodes significantly more than the particles derived from mosquito cells. This in vivo difference in spread of West Nile replicons in the inoculum demonstrates the importance of using arthropod cell-derived particles to model early events in arboviral infection and highlights the value of these novel arthropod cell-derived replicon particles for studying the earliest virus-host interactions for arboviruses.

  6. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Van Roey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the

  7. Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Brendan T.; Moreira, Fernando R.; Carlson, Tim W.

    2017-01-01

    Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. The insect cell-derived particles differ in the glycosylation of virus structural proteins and the lipid content of the envelope, as well as their induction of cytokines. Thus, in order to accurately mimic the inoculum delivered by arthropods, arboviruses should be derived from arthropod cells. Previous studies have packaged replicon genome in mammalian cells to produce replicon particles, which undergo only one round of infection, but no studies exist packaging replicon particles in mosquito cells. Here we optimized the packaging of West Nile virus replicon genome in mosquito cells and produced replicon particles at high concentration, allowing us to mimic mosquito cell-derived viral inoculum. These particles were mature with similar genome equivalents-to-infectious units as full-length West Nile virus. We then compared the mosquito cell-derived particles to mammalian cell-derived particles in mice. Both replicon particles infected skin at the inoculation site and the draining lymph node by 3 hours post-inoculation. The mammalian cell-derived replicon particles spread from the site of inoculation to the spleen and contralateral lymph nodes significantly more than the particles derived from mosquito cells. This in vivo difference in spread of West Nile replicons in the inoculum demonstrates the importance of using arthropod cell-derived particles to model early events in arboviral infection and highlights the value of these novel arthropod cell-derived replicon particles for studying the earliest virus-host interactions for arboviruses. PMID:28187142

  8. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to arbovirus and hepatitis B virus in the Vale do Ribeira region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Sérgio Pannuti

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available 280 students, between 6 and 14 years old, residents in the Iguape county, southern coast of the State of São Paulo, were studied in order to identify the existence of a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus and the exposure to haematophagous mosquitoes, evaluated indirectly through the prevalence of antibodies to 17 arboviruses isolated in Brazil. The children were from 4 areas with different topographical characteristics: 89 of the children were from the urban zone of the town of Iguape, 89 were from the periurban zone, 30 were from the rural area with extensive banana plantations, and 72 were from the jungle zone. Previous studies had shown significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to different arboviruses in the cultivated zone and the jungle zone, when compared to the urban and periurban zones of Iguape. The detection of antibodies to the HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag was done through the radioimmunoassay (Ausab, Abbott Laboratory. The cases considered positive were confirmed through the presence of anti-core HBV antibodies (anti-HBc-EIA Roche. A significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBV antibodies was observed in children from the jungle zone (26/72 = 36,1% when compared to those from the urban zone (5/89 = 5,6%, peri-urban (6/89 = 6,7% or from the cultivated zone (0/30 = 0%. The result suggest the existence of a common factor in the dissemination of the arboviruses and the hepatitis B virus, supporting the hypothesis that mosquitoes may play an important role in the HBV transmission in tropical forested region.

  9. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2014-12-01

    Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological

  10. Arbovirus detection in insect vectors by rapid, high-throughput pyrosequencing.

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    Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the global threat caused by arthropod-borne viruses, there is not an efficient method for screening vector populations to detect novel viral sequences. Current viral detection and surveillance methods based on culture can be costly and time consuming and are predicated on prior knowledge of the etiologic agent, as they rely on specific oligonucleotide primers or antibodies. Therefore, these techniques may be unsuitable for situations when the causative agent of an outbreak is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we explored the use of high-throughput pyrosequencing for surveillance of arthropod-borne RNA viruses. Dengue virus, a member of the positive strand RNA Flavivirus family that is transmitted by several members of the Aedes genus of mosquitoes, was used as a model. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes experimentally infected with dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1 were pooled with noninfected mosquitoes to simulate samples derived from ongoing arbovirus surveillance programs. Using random-primed methods, total RNA was reverse-transcribed and resulting cDNA subjected to 454 pyrosequencing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In two types of samples, one with 5 adult mosquitoes infected with DENV-1- and the other with 1 DENV-1 infected mosquito and 4 noninfected mosquitoes, we identified DENV-1 DNA sequences. DENV-1 sequences were not detected in an uninfected control pool of 5 adult mosquitoes. We calculated the proportion of the Ae. aegypti metagenome contributed by each infecting Dengue virus genome (p(IP, which ranged from 2.75×10(-8 to 1.08×10(-7. DENV-1 RNA was sufficiently concentrated in the mosquito that its detection was feasible using current high-throughput sequencing instrumentation. We also identified some of the components of the mosquito microflora on the basis of the sequence of expressed RNA. This included members of the bacterial genera Pirellula and Asaia, various fungi, and a potentially uncharacterized

  11. Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific.

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    Elodie Calvez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific region is an area unique in the world, composed of thousands of islands with differing climates and environments. The spreading and establishment of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in these islands might be linked to human migration. Ae. aegypti is the major vector of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses in the region. The intense circulation of these viruses in the Pacific during the last decade led to an increase of vector control measures by local health authorities. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations in this region.We studied the genetic variability and population genetics of 270 Ae. aegypti, sampled from 9 locations in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia by analyzing nine microsatellites and two mitochondrial DNA regions (CO1 and ND4. Microsatellite markers revealed heterogeneity in the genetic structure between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries. The microsatellite markers indicate a statistically moderate differentiation (FST = 0.136; P < = 0.001 in relation to island isolation. A high degree of mixed ancestry can be observed in the most important towns (e.g. Noumea, Suva and Papeete compared with the most isolated islands (e.g. Ouvea and Vaitahu. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of samples are related to Asian and American specimens.Our results suggest a link between human migrations in the Pacific region and the origin of Ae. aegypti populations. The genetic pattern observed might be linked to the island isolation and to the different environmental conditions or ecosystems.

  12. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  13. Comparative study on the effectiveness of different mosquito traps in arbovirus surveillance with a focus on WNV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzin, Alex; Sy, Victoria; Puggioli, Arianna; Veronesi, Rodolfo; Carrieri, Marco; Maccagnani, Bettina; Bellini, Romeo

    2016-01-01

    The selection of the ideal trap for arbovirus surveillance is an issue of primary importance to increase the sensitivity of virus detection and the cost-effectiveness of the entomological surveillance. During the summer 2011, the effectiveness of five types of mosquito traps (CDC gravid trap, CO2(-)baited trap, BG-Sentinel™ and two experimental prototypes) to attract females potentially infected with West Nile virus were assessed. The study was carried out in three natural wetland sites located in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy), using a Latin square scheme. Single night collections of adult females were performed and determination of species and physiological state (gravid, nulliparous or parous) was made upon return to the laboratory. The species most frequently collected in the gravid trap was Culex pipiens sl. L., being gravid females the large majority of the individuals. Species diversity was much higher in CO2(-)baited traps, which may therefore enable a more comprehensive description of the vector species composition and their role in arboviruses circulation. Our findings indicate that gravid traps can be a valid tool and should be integrated in the West Nile virus surveillance system in the Emilia-Romagna region, mainly based on collections made with CO2-baited traps.

  14. Vector competence of Culicoides for arboviruses: three major periods of research, their influence on current studies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, S; Veronesi, E; Mullens, B; Venter, G

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular and unprecedented outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) that have occurred in Europe since 1998 have led to increased interest in those factors that determine competence of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for arboviruses. In this review the authors critically examine three major periods of research into the biological transmission by Culicoides of two economically important arboviruses ofthefamily Reoviridae: African horse sicknessvirus (AHSV) and BTV. First they examine early studies, largely conducted in southern Africa, that played a key role in initially implicating Culicoides as agents of AHSV and BTV transmission. Then they examine advances in understanding made following the establishment of colonies of the BTV vector species Culicoides sonorensis, which have largely shaped our current understanding of BTV and AHSV transmission. They then consider attempts in recent years to implicate vectors of BTV in the European Union during what has become the most economically damaging series of outbreaks in recorded history. In some cases the origin of these outbreaks was uncertain and unexpected, particularly in northern Europe, where BTV had not previously occurred. Limitations imposed on studies of vector competence by the biology of Culicoides are then discussed, along with advances in the technologies now available and the logistics of working upon agents requiring biosecure containment outside their endemic range. Finally, the authors suggest areas that have either been poorly addressed to date or entirely ignored and ways in which studies could be conducted to provide standardised data for comparison worldwide.

  15. Detection of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living New World primates (Sapajus spp.; Alouatta caraya captured in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Mira Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A sero-epidemiological survey was undertaken to detect the circulation of arboviruses in free-living non-human primates. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 16 non-human primates (13 Sapajus spp. and three Alouatta caraya that were captured using terrestrial traps and anesthetic darts in woodland regions in the municipalities of Campo Grande, Aquidauana, Jardim, Miranda and Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The samples were sent to the Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC in Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil, to detect antibodies against 19 species of arboviruses using a hemagglutination inhibition test (HI. Results Of the 16 primates investigated in the present study, five (31.2% were serologically positive for an arbovirus. Of these five, two (12.5% exhibited antibodies to the Flavivirus genus, one (6.2% exhibited a monotypic reaction to Cacipacoré virus, one (6.2% was associated with Mayaro virus, and one (6.2% was positive for Oropouche virus. Conclusions Based on the positive serology observed in the present study, it was possible to conclude that arboviruses circulate among free-living primates. The viruses in the areas studied might have been introduced by infected humans or by primates from endemic or enzootic areas. Studies of this nature, as well as efficient and continuous surveillance programs, are needed to monitor viral activities in endemic and enzootic regions.

  16. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods for the production of arbovirus antigens inactivated by binary ethylenimine

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    Chuan Teck F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods have been developed and standardised for the safe and reproducible production of inactivated arbovirus antigens which are appropriate for use in diagnostic serological applications. Methods To optimise the maximum titre of growth during the propagation of arboviruses, the multiplicity of infection and choice of cell line were investigated using stocks of Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus grown in both mosquito and mammalian cell lines. To standardise and improve the efficacy of the inactivation of arboviral suspensions, stocks of Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Alfuy virus were chemically inactivated using binary ethylenimine at a final concentration of 3 mM. Aliquots were then taken at hourly intervals and crude inactivation rates were determined for each virus using a plaque assay. To ensure complete inactivation, the same aliquots were each passaged 3 times in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells and the presence of viral growth was detected using an immunofluorescent assay. For larger quantities of viral suspensions, centrifugation on an isopycnic sucrose density gradient or cross-flow filtration was used to produce concentrated, pure antigens or partially concentrated, semi-purified antigens respectively. Results The results of the propagation experiments suggested that the maximum viral titres obtained for both Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus were affected by the incubation period and choice of cell line, rather than the use of different multiplicity of infection values. Results of the binary ethylenimine inactivation trial suggested that standardised periods of 5 or 8 hours would be suitable to ensure effective and complete inactivation for a number of different arboviral antigens. Conclusion Two methods used to prepare inactivated arbovirus antigens have been

  17. 中国虫媒病毒与虫媒病毒病的监测与防控任务%Surveillance, prevention and control of arbovirus and arbovirus disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国栋

    2010-01-01

    @@ 虫媒病毒(Arbovirus)是指由吸血昆虫传播的病毒,昆虫通过叮咬将病毒传播给人、畜而引起疾病.1992年在国际虫媒病毒中心登记的虫媒病毒已经达到535种,新的虫媒病毒仍在不断发现.目前已发现100余种虫媒病毒可引起人畜共患病.在人类历史上虫媒病毒病曾经是世界范围的公共卫生问题,使成千上万人患病或死亡,牲畜的患病或死亡也造成巨大的经济损失[1,2].

  18. Reabilitação psicológica de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus Psychological rehabilitation of patients with sequelae due to encephalitis caused by arbovirus

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    Anency Giannotti Hallage

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o possível comprometimento psíquico de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus, do litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, com a finalidade de definir o papel do psicólogo, em um programa de reabilitação física e psicossocial. A presença das seqüelas era encarada de forma depreciativa e observou-se que essa percepção comprometeu fundamentalmente a identidade do paciente como ser humano, trazendo uma série de respostas emocionais desadaptadas e impossibibilitando a convivência satisfatória consigo e com o próximo. Os resultados analisados, em seu aspecto psicossociológico, revelaram que as dificuldades psíquicas observadas eram originárias da maneira como a deficiência física é encarada no meio social.The possibility of psychological damage in patients with sequelae from encephalitis caused by arbovirus in the southern section of the coastal area of the State of S. Paulo (Brazil was investigated for the purpose of defining the role of the psychologist in a programme of physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. The presence of the sequelae was regarded depreciatively by the patients and this attitude affected their self-regard as human beings. The result was a series of emotional maladjustments which made it impossible for the patients to live with themselves or maintain a satisfactory relationship with others. The results analyzed from a psychosocial standpoint revealed that the psychological problems observed arose from the way in which the physical deficiency is regarded within the social context.

  19. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Sarah K; Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N

    2012-11-01

    A degree-day (DD) model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates "compound risk" maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  20. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  1. Insect-specific viruses detected in laboratory mosquito colonies and their potential implications for experiments evaluating arbovirus vector competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bethany G; Vasilakis, Nikos; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod L; Thangamani, Saravanan; Tesh, Robert B

    2015-02-01

    Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in the detection and characterization of insect-specific viruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Evidence suggests that these viruses are ubiquitous in nature and that many are maintained by vertical transmission in mosquito populations. Some studies suggest that the presence of insect-specific viruses may inhibit replication of a super-infecting arbovirus, thus altering vector competence of the mosquito host. Accordingly, we screened our laboratory mosquito colonies for insect-specific viruses. Pools of colony mosquitoes were homogenized and inoculated into cultures of Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The infected cells were examined by electron microscopy and deep sequencing was performed on RNA extracts. Electron micrograph images indicated the presence of three different viruses in three of our laboratory mosquito colonies. Potential implications of these findings for vector competence studies are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp. in Brazil

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    Tatiana Carneiro da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44 were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. RESULTS: All of the samples were negative for the Flavivirus genome following the 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These negative results indicate that the analyzed animals were not infected with arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus and did not represent a risk for viral transmission through vectors during the period in which the samples were collected.

  3. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

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    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  4. Suppression of the Arboviruses Dengue and Chikungunya Using a Dual-Acting Group-I Intron Coupled with Conditional Expression of the Bax C-Terminal Domain.

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    James R Carter

    Full Text Available In portions of South Asia, vectors and patients co-infected with dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV are on the rise, with the potential for this occurrence in other regions of the world, for example the United States. Therefore, we engineered an antiviral approach that suppresses the replication of both arboviruses in mosquito cells using a single antiviral group I intron. We devised unique configurations of internal, external, and guide sequences that permit homologous recognition and splicing with conserved target sequences in the genomes of both viruses using a single trans-splicing Group I intron, and examined their effectiveness to suppress infections of DENV and CHIKV in mosquito cells when coupled with a proapoptotic 3' exon, ΔN Bax. RT-PCR demonstrated the utility of these introns in trans-splicing the ΔN Bax sequence downstream of either the DENV or CHIKV target site in transformed Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells, independent of the order in which the virus specific targeting sequences were inserted into the construct. This trans-splicing reaction forms DENV or CHIKV ΔN Bax RNA fusions that led to apoptotic cell death as evidenced by annexin V staining, caspase, and DNA fragmentation assays. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate effective suppression of DENV and CHIKV infections by our anti-arbovirus group I intron approach. This represents the first report of a dual-acting Group I intron, and demonstrates that we can target DENV and CHIKV RNAs in a sequence specific manner with a single, uniquely configured CHIKV/DENV dual targeting group I intron, leading to replication suppression of both arboviruses, and thus providing a promising single antiviral for the transgenic suppression of multiple arboviruses.

  5. Seroepidemiological monitoring in sentinel animals and vectors as part of arbovirus surveillance in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: From February-September 2010, seroepidemiological surveys were conducted on non-human primates and transmitter vector capture was used to investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in the municipalities of Bonito, Campo Grande, and Jardim, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 65 primates from the wild and captivity were used, and potential vectors were captured using Castro and dip nets. Serum samples were tested at the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Stat...

  6. Detection of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living New World primates (Sapajus spp.; Alouatta caraya) captured in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A sero-epidemiological survey was undertaken to detect the circulation of arboviruses in free-living non-human primates. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 16 non-human primates (13 Sapajus spp. and three Alouatta caraya) that were captured using terrestrial traps and anesthetic darts in woodland regions in the municipalities of Campo Grande, Aquidauana, Jardim, Miranda and Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The samples were sent to the Instituto Eva...

  7. Detection of Herpesvirus, Enterovirus, and Arbovirus infection in patients with suspected central nervous system viral infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Michele S; Lessa, Natália; Naveca, Felipe G; Monte, Rossicléia L; Braga, Wornei S; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Mourão, Maria Paula G

    2014-09-01

    Acute infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can be caused by various pathogens. In this study, the presence of herpesviruses (HHV), enteroviruses (EVs), and arboviruses were investigated in CSF samples from 165 patients with suspected CNS viral infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genomes of one or more viral agents were detected in 29.7% (49/165) of the CSF samples. EVs were predominant (16/49; 32.6%) followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (22.4%), Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) (20.4%), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (18.4%), herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) (4.1%), (HSV-2) (4.1%), and the arboviruses (14.3%). Four of the arboviruses were of dengue virus (DENV) and three of oropouche virus (OROV). The detection of different viruses in the CNS of patients with meningitis or encephalitis highlight the importance of maintaining an active laboratory monitoring diagnostics with rapid methodology of high sensitivity in areas of viral hyperendemicity that may assist in clinical decisions and in the choice of antiviral therapy.

  8. Barcoding Turkish Culex mosquitoes to facilitate arbovirus vector incrimination studies reveals hidden diversity and new potential vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Filiz; Alten, Bulent; Simsek, Fatih; Aldemir, Adnan; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    As a precursor to planned arboviral vector incrimination studies, an integrated systematics approach was adopted using morphology and DNA barcoding to examine the Culex fauna present in Turkey. The mitochondrial COI gene (658bp) were sequenced from 185 specimens collected across 11 Turkish provinces, as well as from colony material. Although by morphology only 9 species were recognised, DNA barcoding recovered 13 distinct species including: Cx. (Barraudius) modestus, Cx. (Culex) laticinctus, Cx. (Cux.) mimeticus, Cx. (Cux.) perexiguus, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens form molestus, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) theileri, Cx. (Cux.) torrentium, Cx. (Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. (Maillotia) hortensis. The taxon formerly identified as Cx. (Neoculex) territans was shown to comprise two distinct species, neither of which correspond to Cx. territans s.s. These include Cx. (Neo.) impudicus and another uncertain species, which may be Cx. (Neo.) europaeus or Cx. (Neo.) martinii (herein=Cx. (Neo.) sp. 1). Detailed examination of the Pipiens Group revealed Cx. pipiens, Cx. pipiens f. molestus and the widespread presence of the highly efficient West Nile virus vector Cx. quinquefasciatus for the first time. Four new country records are reported, increasing the Culex of Turkey to 15 recognised species and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. A new taxonomic checklist is provided, annotated with respective vector competencies for transmission of arboviruses.

  9. Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2011-12: annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knope, Katrina E; Doggett, Stephen L; Kurucz, Nina; Johansen, Cheryl A; Nicholson, Jay; Feldman, Rebecca; Sly, Angus; Hobby, Michaela; El Saadi, Debra; Muller, Mike; Jansen, Cassie C; Muzari, Odwell M

    2014-06-30

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received notifications for 7,875 cases of disease transmitted by mosquitoes during the 2011-12 season (1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012). The alphaviruses Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus accounted for 6,036 (77%) of these. There were 18 notifications of dengue virus infection acquired in Australia and 1,390 cases that were acquired overseas, while for 38 cases, the place of acquisition was unknown. Imported cases of dengue in Australia were most frequently acquired in Indonesia. There were 20 imported cases of chikungunya virus. There were no notifications of locally-acquired malaria in Australia during the 2011-12 season. There were 314 notifications of overseas-acquired malaria and 41 notifications where the place of acquisition was unknown. Sentinel chicken, mosquito surveillance, viral detection in mosquitoes and climate modelling are used to provide early warning of arboviral disease activity in Australia. In 2011-12, sentinel chicken programs for the detection of flavivirus activity were conducted in most states with the risk of arboviral transmission. Other surveillance activities to detect the presence of arboviruses in mosquitoes or mosquito saliva or for surveying mosquito abundance included honey-baited trap surveillance, surveys of household containers that may provide suitable habitat for the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, and carbon dioxide baited traps. Surveillance for exotic mosquitoes at the border continues to be a vital part of preventing the spread of mosquito-borne diseases to new areas of Australia.

  10. Occurrence of exotic carriers arbovirus fevers – new insufficiently estimated biological threat to southern regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Sergiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of originators of infectious and parasitic illnesses on new territories can pass by means of mosquitoes which in modern conditions extend quickly. Getting on new territories they take roots and provide transfer of this or that originator. Or they provide initial case rate, and then viruses start to circulate among mosquitoes – natural representatives of local fauna. As it was with virus Denge delivered to Greece with mosquitoes Aedes aegypti. This kind of a mosquito by 1950 has been destroyed at the Black Sea coast of Caucasus. In the beginning of 21 centuries this kind again began to be found out in earlier free territories. Occurrence after 50-years absence of an effective carrier in the south of Russia is serious biological threat to epidemic well-being of the country in case of delivery of originators arbovirus infections.

  11. Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Omondi

    Full Text Available The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya's Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies.

  12. 海南省虫媒病毒调查研究状况%Review on arbovirus studies in Hainan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅匀; 王志玉; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    North to Torrid Zone, Hainan province has favorable natural conditions to arthropod reproduction and the spread of arboviruses, as evidenced by several outbreaks of dengue fever and endemic Japanese encephalitis (JE). Arboviruses, including four alphaviruses (Chikungunya virus, Mayaro virus, Getah virus, Ross River virus), two flaviviruses (JE virus and Dengue virus) and one seadornavirus, have been isolated from various vectors and host animals in this province. This article reviews current studies on arboviruses and arboviral infections to humans and livestocks, in order to inform prevention and control both locally and nationwide.%海南省地处热带北缘,自然条件适合节肢动物繁殖及虫媒病毒传播,曾发生过多次登革热大流行,也是流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)地方性流行区.以往从海南省多种媒介和宿主动物中分离到4种甲病毒(基孔肯雅、马雅罗、盖塔和罗斯河病毒)、2种黄病毒(乙脑和登革热病毒)和1种Seadornavirus.现对海南省新分离虫媒病毒及其人畜感染状况进行回顾整理,为当地以及我国虫媒病毒病的预防控制提供依据.

  13. Isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in Ijara District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne.

  14. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants.

  15. Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Fielding, Burtram C; Njoroge, Laban; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2015-01-01

    The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b) or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM) analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya's Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus) in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats) and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents) informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies.

  16. Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K.; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Fielding, Burtram C.; Njoroge, Laban; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2015-01-01

    The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b) or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM) analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya’s Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus) in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats) and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents) informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies. PMID:26230507

  17. Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila B Ogoma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases. METHODOLOGY: The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control. FINDINGS: 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929 were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50 An. funestus, 10.2% (2359 Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664 Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01; Mansonia africana (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; P<0.001 and Mansonia uniformis (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.56; P<0.001 but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant. SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria.

  18. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland.

  19. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp.) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs) living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44) were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% ...

  20. High-throughput multiplexed xMAP Luminex array panel for detection of twenty two medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses based on innovations in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M; Alto, Barry W; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a "single tube" setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a "self-avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an "artificially expanded genetic information system" (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex "liquid microarrays" are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6-10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito.

  1. Distribution and abundance of key vectors of Rift Valley fever and other arboviruses in two ecologically distinct counties in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Rosemary; Arum, Samwel; Chepkorir, Edith; Mosomtai, Gladys; Tigoi, Caroline; Sigei, Faith; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Landmann, Tobias; Affognon, Hippolyte; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    ,290), was totally absent in all Isiolo sites. Fourteen virus isolates including Sindbis, Bunyamwera, and West Nile fever viruses were isolated mostly from Ae. mcintoshi sampled in Tana-River. RVFV was not detected in any of the mosquitoes. Conclusion This study presents the geographic distribution and abundance of arbovirus vectors in two Kenyan counties, which may assist with risk assessment for mosquito borne diseases. PMID:28212379

  2. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  3. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  4. Newly isolated arboviruses and their vectors in mainland China%我国新分离虫媒病毒及其传播媒介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国栋

    2010-01-01

    @@ 虫媒病毒(Arbovirus)是指由吸血昆虫传播的病毒,其特点是病毒可在昆虫体内繁殖,但昆虫本身不发病,昆虫通过叮咬将病毒传播给人、畜引起疾病,因此虫媒病毒可以引起人畜共患传染病.在人类历史上虫媒病毒曾经是世界范围的公共卫生问题,虫媒病毒引起的严重传染病,使成千上万人患病或死亡,牲畜的患病或死亡造成巨大的经济损失.

  5. Evaluation of a field-portable DNA microarray platform and nucleic acid amplification strategies for the detection of arboviruses, arthropods, and bloodmeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubaugh, Nathan D; Petz, Lawrence N; Melanson, Vanessa R; McMenamy, Scott S; Turell, Michael J; Long, Lewis S; Pisarcik, Sarah E; Kengluecha, Ampornpan; Jaichapor, Boonsong; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S

    2013-02-01

    Highly multiplexed assays, such as microarrays, can benefit arbovirus surveillance by allowing researchers to screen for hundreds of targets at once. We evaluated amplification strategies and the practicality of a portable DNA microarray platform to analyze virus-infected mosquitoes. The prototype microarray design used here targeted the non-structural protein 5, ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome b genes for the detection of flaviviruses, mosquitoes, and bloodmeals, respectively. We identified 13 of 14 flaviviruses from virus inoculated mosquitoes and cultured cells. Additionally, we differentiated between four mosquito genera and eight whole blood samples. The microarray platform was field evaluated in Thailand and successfully identified flaviviruses (Culex flavivirus, dengue-3, and Japanese encephalitis viruses), differentiated between mosquito genera (Aedes, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia), and detected mammalian bloodmeals (human and dog). We showed that the microarray platform and amplification strategies described here can be used to discern specific information on a wide variety of viruses and their vectors.

  6. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen and arbovirus in fishermen from the Ribeira Valley, Brazil Relação entre as prevalências de anticorpos para hepatite B (anti-HBc e arbovirus em pescadores da região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 299 fishermen 16 to 80 years old, residents in Cananeia and Iguape counties, southern cost of São Paulo State, Brazil, were studied in order to identify a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus (HBV and exposure to haematophagus mosquitoes evaluated by the prevalence of arbovirus antibodies. This professional group presented the highest prevalence of arbovirus antibodies (54.1% in past investigations carried out in this heavily forested region. Detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc in the sera was done by enzyme immunoassay (Roche. Prevalence of anti-HBc antibodies in this group was 31.4% (94/299 which is very high compared with 7.2% to 15.0% for different groups of healthy adults in State of São Paulo. No significant difference is observed between the prevalences of HBV antibodies in Iguape and Cananeia. Prevalence of anti-HBc and anti-arbovirus antibodies increases with age. There is a concordance in the distribution according to age groups of the frequency of anti-HBc and anti-arbovirus positive sera. Ag HBs was detected in 4% of the studied sera. These results support the hypothesis that the transmission of the hepatitis B virus and the arboviruses may be due to the same factor, one of the possibilities would be by anthropophilic mosquitoes.Soros de 299 pescadores de 18 a 80 anos de idade, residentes nos municípios de Iguape e Cananéia, região sul do Estado de São Paulo, foram estudados com o objetivo de identificar uma possível associação entre a prevalência de anticorpos específicos para a hepatite B e a exposição a mosquitos hematófagos, avaliada indiretamente pela prevalência de anticorpos de arbovírus. Esse grupo profissional apresentou, em pesquisas anteriores nessa área extensamente coberta por mata, a mais alta prevalência de anticorpos de arbovírus (54,1%. Utilizou-se teste imunoenzimático para detecção de anti-HBc e HBs Ag. Em

  7. Aspectos da epidemia de encefalite por arbovirus na região do Vale do Ribeira, S. Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1975 a 1978 Aspects of the encephalitis epidemic caused by arbovirus in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo, Brazil, during 1975-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo epidemiológico da encefalite por arbovirus na região do Vale do Ribeira, S. Paulo, Brasil. Uma epidemia da moléstia ocorreu em 1975, 1976 e 1977, com picos nas épocas de maior temperatura e pluviosidade. A partir de 1978 a moléstia manteve-se em níveis baixos numa presumível ende-micidade. A epidemia se deslocou em onda em direção leste-oeste e leste-sudoeste para a região litorânea vizinha. A cadeia montanhosa situada ao norte e noroeste atuou como barreira à propagação da moléstia. Considerou-se a hipótese que o agente etiológico, arbovirus Rocio, deva ter começado a infectar a população humana recentemente, tendo sido veiculado ao homem de reservatórios silvestres, aves e pequenos mamíferos, por culicídeos silvestres. Discutiu-se também prováveis formas de transmissão domiciliar. Verificou-se que os grupos populacionais que apresentaram as formas mais graves foram os de idades extremas e os que apresentavam piores condições de vida. Considerou-se que a perspectiva epidemiológica desta arbovirose é que ela persista na região, uma vez que a mesma apresenta condições ótimas para o desenvolvimento do agente etiológico, dos reservatórios e dos vetores biológicos, além de receber um contínuo afluxo de população suscetível, migrantes ou turistas.In 1975, 1976, and 1977, arbovirus caused an encephalitis epidemic in the Ribeira Valley in the state of S. Paulo. The epidemic would peak when the temperature and pluvial levels were higher. From 1978 on the disease maintained low levels within a presumed endemic zone. The epidemic had swept from east to west and from east to southwest in a wave toward the neighboring coastal region. The mountain chain to the north and northwest acted as a barrier. It was only logical natural that the hypothesis that the etiological agent, arbovirus Rocio may have recently infected the human population be considered. Mosquitos must have transmitted the infection

  8. Sero-prevalence and cross-reactivity of chikungunya virus specific anti-E2EP3 antibodies in arbovirus-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu-Wing Kam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and clinically-related arboviruses cause large epidemics with serious economic and social impact. As clinical symptoms of CHIKV infections are similar to several flavivirus infections, good detection methods to identify CHIKV infection are desired for improved treatment and clinical management. The strength of anti-E2EP3 antibody responses was explored in a longitudinal study on 38 CHIKV-infected patients. We compared their anti-E2EP3 responses with those of patients infected with non-CHIKV alphaviruses, or flaviviruses. E2EP3 cross-reactive samples from patients infected with non-CHIKV viruses were further analyzed with an in vitro CHIKV neutralization assay. CHIKV-specific anti-E2EP3 antibody responses were detected in 72% to 100% of patients. Serum samples from patients infected with other non-CHIKV alphaviruses were cross-reactive to E2EP3. Interestingly, some of these antibodies demonstrated clearly in vitro CHIKV neutralizing activity. Contrastingly, serum samples from flaviviruses-infected patients showed a low level of cross-reactivity against E2EP3. Using CHIKV E2EP3 as a serology marker not only allows early detection of CHIKV specific antibodies, but would also allow the differentiation between CHIKV infections and flavivirus infections with 93% accuracy, thereby allowing precise acute febrile diagnosis and improving clinical management in regions newly suffering from CHIKV outbreaks including the Americas.

  9. Advance on Viral Hemorrhagic Fever with Relational Arboviruses%虫媒病毒相关出血热研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杜鹃; 张海林; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever is a group of natural focus infection diseases caused by different viruaes featured of pyrexia, haemorrhagia, shock and high case-fatality. Some of the diseases are related to arbovirus, including Rift valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Yellow fever, Dengue fever, Kyasanur forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Chikungunya fever. The present paper made a review of the diseases listed above on their epidemic characteristic, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.%病毒性出血热是由不同病毒引起的以发热、出血、休克、高病死率为特征的一组自然疫源性疾病,其中与虫媒病毒有关的出血热主要有立夫特山谷热、克里米亚刚果出血热、肾综合征出血热、黄热病、登革热、科萨努尔森林病、鄂木斯克出血热、基孔肯雅热等,本文从流行特征、病原学、诊断、治疗及预防等方面对上述疾病作一综述.

  10. 2007年山西省部分地区虫媒病毒调查%Arbovirus investigation in some regions of Shanxi province in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭华; 孟维珊; 付士红; 程景侠; 赵俊英; 孔祥盛; 代培芳; 梁国栋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate arbeviruses in some regions of Shanxi province, isolation and identification for arbovirus activity from mosquitoes was conducted. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from these area in 2007 and then used for virus isolation by cell culture. The virus isolates were identified by molecular biology and the sequences were analyzed by bioinformaties. Results Ten Banns virus (strains SX0765, SX0766, SX0767 ,SX0771, SX0789, SX0790, SX0793, SX0794, SX0795, SX0796) were iselated, and two Liaoning virus were also isolated from isolates SX0771, SX0794. Phylogenetic tree of the Banns virus isolates showed that ten strains are located in a distinct branch from all of the other Chinese Banns virus isolates. The homology is between 89.7 % and 94.1%. Conclusion Ten Banna virus and two Lianning virus were isolated during this arbovirus investigation in Shanxi province. New Banns virus isolates showed a distinct phylogenetic relationship with the other Chinese Banns virus strains.%目的 调查山西省部分地区的虫媒病毒,在当地采集蚊虫标本进行病毒的分离与鉴定.方法 2007年7月和8月在当地采集蚊虫标本,通过组织细胞培养进行病毒分离,利用分子生物学和生物信息学技术对病毒分离物进行鉴定与分析.结果 分离到10株病毒分离物,鉴定结果显示分离株SX0765、SX0766、SX0767、SX0771、SX0789、SX0790、SX0793、SX0794、SX0795、SX0796均为版纳病毒;此外,分离株SX0771和SX0794还同时存在辽宁病毒基因.进一步分析显示版纳病毒新分离株与此前在北京、云南和辽宁分离到的病毒株之间存在明显差异,同源性在89.7%~94.1%之间.结论 在山西省分离到10株版纳病毒和两株辽宁病毒,版纳病毒与我国其他地区分离株有明显差异,在进化上相对独立.

  11. 6种虫媒病毒PCR-Mass检测方法的建立%Establishment of PCR-Mass Assay for the Detection of Six Arboviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴静子; 王晓宏; 陈唯军; 杨银辉; 姜永强; 曹远银

    2012-01-01

    建立了一种可快速、同时检测流行性乙型脑炎病毒(JEV)、东方马脑炎病毒(EEEV)、西方马脑炎病毒(WEEV)、西尼罗病毒(WNV)、森林脑炎病毒(TBEV)和圣路易脑炎病毒(StLEV)等6种虫媒病毒的PCR-Mass检测方法.根据GenBank登录的上述6种病毒的序列信息,经过分析比对,设计6组扩增引物和延伸探针,初步建立针对上述6种病毒的PCR-Mass检测体系.采用上述6种虫媒病毒和其他常见致病性病毒为检测对象,确定PCR-Mass体系的特异性;通过对重组质粒的定量检测,确定该体系的检测灵敏度;并利用该体系对12份TBE阳性和10份JEV阳性脑脊液样本进行检测,评价检测方法的实用性和临床应用价值.结果表明:PCR-Mass检测方法可同时检测上述6种虫媒病毒,而对其他病毒检测均为阴性,无交叉反应现象;6种虫媒病毒的最低检出浓度均为102copies·mL-1;对22份阳性样本的检测结果均呈阳性.本研究建立的PCR-Mass检测方法可实现对6种虫媒病毒的快速、同时检测,具有良好的特异性和较高的灵敏度.%A novel PCR-Mass assay was developed for simultaneous detection of six arboviruses, namely, Encephalitis B vims (JEV), Forest encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St Louis encephalitis virus (StLEV). Multiplex primers and extension probes were designed from conserved regions obtained from the GenBank database. Viral isolates and standard samples were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-Mass assay. Clinical performance was assessed with a total of 22 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from culture-positive patients. The limit of detection for the novel assay was 102 copies "mL"1. The identification of specific viruses and clinical specimens showed that the PCR 桵ass is a useful method for simultaneous detection up to six distinct arboviruses.

  12. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Thomas; Williams, David T; Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia.

  13. Field evaluation of selected traps and lures for monitoring the filarial and arbovirus vector, Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae), in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapairai, Limb K; Joseph, Hayley; Sang, Michel A Cheong; Melrose, Wayne; Ritchie, Scott A; Burkot, Thomas R; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

    2013-07-01

    The efficacy of the BG-Sentinel (BGS) and the BG-Mosquitito (BGM) mosquito traps for sampling populations of the important filariasis and dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis (Marks) was evaluated in French Polynesia against human bait collections (HBC) using a modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention backpack aspirator. Traps were baited with BG-Lure (a combination of lactic acid, ammonia, and caproic acid) or carbon dioxide plus octenol (1-octen-3-ol) known as attractants to aedine mosquitoes. Mosquito sampling was conducted on two typical islands of French Polynesia: the high, volcanic island of Moorea, and the low, coral island (atoll) of Tetiaroa Sampling efficacy was measured in a randomized Latin Square design. Production of carbon dioxide from yeast-sugar fermentation was used as an alternative source of CO2 because supply via dry ice, gas cylinders, or propane combustion in remote tropical islands is costly and challenging. Although the BGS trap captured the greatest number ofAe. polynesiensis in both island settings, catch rates of BGS or BGM baited with either lure were not significantly different from that of HBC. On Moorea, the number of collected aedes species in the BGS trap baited with either lure was significantly greater than the BGM with BG-lure. On Tetiaroa, BGM trapping was severely hampered by damage from rats, and the traps were removed from the study. Our study confirms the efficiency, comparability, and convenience of the BGS trap, a robust and safe alternative to HBC for sampling Aedes mosquitoes in research and surveillance efforts against filariasis and arboviruses in the South Pacific.

  14. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Garreffa, Rita; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Industrial plant-borne by-products can be sources of low-cost chemicals, potentially useful to build eco-friendly control strategies against mosquitoes. Neem cake is a cheap by-product of neem oil extraction obtained by pressing the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Neem products are widely used as insecticides since rarely induce resistance because their multiple mode of action against insect pests and low-toxicity rates have been detected against vertebrates. In this research, we used field bioassays to assess the effective oviposition repellence of neem cake fractions of increasing polarity [n-hexane (A), methanol (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), and aqueous (E) fraction] against Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. These fractions, already characterized for low nortriterpenoids contents by HPLC analyses, were analyzed for their total content by HPTLC, highlighting striking differences in their chemical composition. Field results showed that B, A, and C tested at 100 ppm exerted higher effective repellence over the control (71.33, 88.59, and 73.49% of ER, respectively), while E and D did not significantly deter A. albopictus oviposition (17.06 and 22.72% of ER, respectively). The highest oviposition activity index was achieved by A (-0.82), followed by C (-0.63), and B (-0.62). Lower OAIs were achieved by D (-0.14) and E (-0.09). On the basis of our results, we believe that A, B, and C are very promising as oviposition deterrents against the arbovirus vector A. albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses.

  15. Situação atual do conhecimento eco-epidemiológico sobre arbovírus patogênicos para o homem na região da Mata Atlântica do Estado de São Paulo Current eco-epidemiologic knowledge on pathogenic arbovirus to humans in the Atlantic forest region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available O autor analisa as informações eco-epidemiológicas disponíveis sobre arbovírus patogênicos para o homem na região da Mata Atlântica do Estado de São Paulo, propondo, a partir das mesmas, os presumíveis ciclos de transmissão desses agentes.The available eco-epidemiologic information on pathogenic arbovirus to humans in the Atlantic Forest region of the State of São Paulo were analysed. According to this information arbovirus transmission cycles are proposed.

  16. Species Distribution of Mosquitoes Relevant to Vectors of Animal Arbovirus in China%传播动物虫媒病的蚊种分类及其在我国的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建利; 花群俊; 杨云庆; 杨俊兴; 祝贺; 唐金明

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of a number of animal arboviruses. With the development of globalization and climate warming,the distribution range of the mosquitoes expands,and the ability of communicating arbovirus to animals is increasing. Arthropod-borne infection diseases have caused significant economic losses in livestock farm-ing. The species and geographical distribution of mosquitoes in China were described in this study. The results will pro-vide scientific basis and measures for further researching,controlling and preventing arthropod-borne infection diseases due to mosquitoes.%蚊类是传播多种动物虫媒病毒的重要生物媒介。随着全球一体化和气候变暧,蚊类分布范围扩大,传播动物虫媒病毒的能力增加。动物虫媒病严重影响家畜养殖业的发展,造成巨大的经济损失。本文介绍了中国蚊科的区系分布和种类,分析了传播动物虫媒病病毒的蚊种类及其我国的分布情况。为进一步研究和防治重要动物虫媒病提供科学依据。

  17. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Washington, DC, 1979. Bia, F.J., Thornton, G.F., Main, A.J., Fong, C.K.Y. and Hsiung, G.D. Western equine encephalitis mimicking herpes simplex...Shope, R.E. and Woodall, J.P. Ecological interaction of wildlife, man and a virus of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex in a tropical...J.J. and Wallis, R.C. Infection and transmission of eastern equine 9 7 encephalomyelitis virus with colonized Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). Am. J

  18. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    viruses from many parts of the world. 7 %, 1.1%vl ’ e- "., Distribution of reagents. The reference center distributed 970 ampoules of reference sera...eight pools of Culiseta melanura collected during 1984 as part of a field study on Lyme disease and other zoonoses in Connecticut. A ninth strain was...dense amorphous masses, were present also in the cytoplasm. Smooth-surfaced reticula occurred in the cytoplasm and contained viral particles in

  19. World Reference Center for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-07

    Cache Valley virus induces congenital malformations in sheep . Vet. Microbiol. 21:297-307, 1990. Comer, J.A., and Tesh, R.B. Phlebotomine sand flies as...Gonzalez, J.P., Cornet, J.P., and Camicas, J.L. Transmission of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus from experimentally infected sheep to Hyaloseea

  20. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Chaco Kammavanpettai Rabies Ken T 83 Chagres Kannamangalam Reovirus Tettnang Chandipura Karimabad Rio Bravo EgArT 1147 -32- Table 26 (continued...the rural area of Sangre Grande. Nine more were from persons vaccinated in 1976 and one in 1973. Several lots of vaccine from different countries-of...The single non-reactor was from Sangre Grande and was said to have received vaccine manufactured in Brazil. Overall, 99.6% of vaccines had antibody

  1. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Greece. Monoclonal antibodies for Rift Valley fever were generally specific, all IgG, reacted the same in HI and neutralization when directed to...demonstrate transmission by nectar, failed to show any marked effects of colonization through 6 generations on susceptibility to infection, and failed...were referred for testing by the Centro Nacional de Microbiologia , Madrid. The sera were tested and found negative by HI with dengue and Rift Valley

  2. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-29

    February 1993 - 8 December 1993 Reauestor/Recipient Item shiDned Date Dr. Jorge Boshell 1 dengue 3 virus 11/30/93 Grupo de Virologia 1 CER cells Instituto...1 Rocio virus,SP H 34675, 12/14/92 Diretora do Servico de Virologia pass 5 Instituto Adolfo Lutz 1 Rocio MAF,V585-701-562 Av. Dr. Arnaldo 355 CEP

  3. World Reference Center for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-08

    to identify a putative alphavirus contaminating a culture of feline leukemia virus. The vaccine virus is normally non-cytopathogenic, however the... stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype: Growth in and transmission by Lutzomyia shannoni (Dipterat Psychodidae). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 42:483-490, 1990

  4. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-31

    two ecosystems (Witless Bay and Mono Lake) makes them ideal for study. The existence of multiple genotypes of closely related viruses in one ecosystem...Kannamangalam Punto Toro Oripouche (TR 9760) KFD Duvenhage BeAn 109303 Pongola (SA Ar 1) Mucambo (BeAn 8) Nkolbisson (YM 31) BeAr 41067 BeAn 174214 Aura Naple...Phlebovirus *SLE (BeAr 23379) 5/1/84 Candiru (BeH22511) 11/19/65 yellow fever (F2015) 9/4/67 Chagres 8/8/68 *Powassan 7/1/75 Punto Toro 11/7/69 Tyuleniy

  5. 2009年辽宁省虫媒病毒分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of arboviruses in Liaoning province, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志; 丁俊; 付士红; 高晓艳; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查辽宁省部分地区虫媒病毒的种类.方法 2009年8月,在辽宁省鞍山市、朝阳市、葫芦岛市和锦州北镇市采集蚊虫标本.蚊虫经分组研磨后接种C6/36和BHK-21细胞,连续3代观察细胞病变情况;对细胞病变阳性的分离物,进行抗原性检测及分子生物学鉴定.结果 在辽宁省上述4个城市共采集蚊虫3600只,主要为中华按蚊(47.2%)、淡色库蚊(26.4%)、刺扰伊蚊(18.1%)及三带喙库蚊(6.9%)等.蚊虫标本分72组进行研磨,通过组织细胞培养法,共获得2株阳性分离物,经抗原性检测及核酸序列测定证实为Ⅰ型流行性乙型脑炎病毒.结论 2009年,从辽宁省鞍山地区的淡色库蚊及朝阳地区的刺扰伊蚊标本中分离到Ⅰ型流行性乙型脑炎病毒.%Objective To investigate the distribution of arboviruses in part of Liaomng province. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from Chaoyang, Anshan, Jinzhou and Huludao cities in Liaoning province in 2009. The mosquitoes were divided into pools and the homogenates were inoculated onto C6/36 and BHK-21cells. The new isolates were identified by antigenic test and molecular biological methods. The sequences were analyzed by bioinformatics.Results Totally 3600 mosquitoes were collected from the 4 cities, including Anopheles sinensis (47. 2% ), Culex pipiens pallens (26. 4% ), Aedes vexans ( 18. 1% ) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (6. 9% ). The isolates produced CPE on BHK-21 cell line. Two isolate (LN0905 and LN0923 ) were identified as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 2 JEV stains were clustered into genotype I. Conclusion Genotype I JEV was isolated from the mosquitoes collected in Aanshan and Chaoyang in Liaoning province. The sequence of the new isolates had close phylogenetic relationship with JEV strains isolated in Shanghai in 2001.

  6. Epidemiologia das encefalites por arbovírus na amazônia brasileira Epidemiology of encephalitis by arboviruses in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1991-12-01

    outbreaks of human diseases caused by arboviruses had been detected. These viruses are widespread in all Amazonia, and at least four of them, EEE, WEE, SLE and MUC are pathogenic to man. EEE and WEE infections were detected by serology, while SLE and MUC by either serology and virus isolation. The PIX virus has the lowest prevalence and, it was isolated in only a few cases, one being from a laboratory infection. Wild birds are the main hosts for all these viruses, except MUC, whose major hosts are rodents. The symptoms presented by infected people were generally a mild febrile illness. Although, jaundice was observed in two individuals from whom SLE was isolated. A comparison of the clinical symptoms presented by the patients in the Amazon Region and other areas of America, especially in the USA is made. In Brazilian Amazon region epidemics have not been detected although, at least, one EEE epizootic was recorded in Bragança, Para State, in 1960. At that time, of 500 horses that were examined 61% were positive to EEE by HI and of mem 8.2% died On the other hand. SLE has caused four epizootics in a forest near Belem. Wild birds and sentinel monkeys were infected, but no human cases were reported.

  7. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eloy Pereira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.OBJECTIVE: To report the first Ilheus arboviruses isolated from wild birds and analyze its public health impact. METHODS: Wild birds and mammals were captured using mist nets and Tomahawk traps, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from these animals and inoculated intracerebrally in Swiss suckling mice found in the Parque Ecológico do Tietê, Brazil. The isolates were

  8. Inquérito soroepidemiológico para pesquisa de infecções por arbovírus em moradores de reserva ecológica Serological survey on arbovirus infection in residents of ecological reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolina S Romano-Lieber

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Inquéritos sorológicos têm evidenciado ampla circulação de arbovírus causadores de doença humana na Região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil. Com o propósito de estabelecer a prevalência de infecções por esses agentes em reserva ecológica, localizada naquela área, pesquisou-se a presença de anticorpos, bem como suas possíveis associações com características individuais e familiares dos investigados. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se anticorpos para os antígenos dos vírus Rocio (ROC, Ilhéus (ILH, encefalite de St. Louis (SLE, encefalites eqüinas do leste (EEE, oeste (WEE e venezuelana (VEE, em 182 pessoas pertencentes a 58 famílias residentes na Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins, utilizando-se testes de inibição de hemaglutinação e neutralização com redução de placas. Usou-se Mac-Elisa para pesquisar anticorpos IgM para os vírus ROC, ILH e EEE. RESULTADOS: Foi observada a presença de anticorpos para todos os arbovírus testados, com exceção do vírus WEE. A prevalência total de anticorpos foi 26,9% (21,4% para alfavírus e 12,6% para flavivírus. Não foram encontrados anticorpos IgM. Entre as várias características pesquisadas dos indivíduos e de suas famílias, a idade, a ocupação, a naturalidade e o hábito de entrar na mata mostraram-se estatisticamente associados a infecções por arbovírus (pOBJECTIVE: Serological inquires conducted in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil, showed an intense circulation of pathogenic arboviruses in the region. The goal was to verify the prevalence of arboviral infections in people living at the local ecological, and its potential association with these population' individual and familiar characteristics. METHODS: The study was carried out among 182 persons of 58 families to identify the presence of antibodies to the following viruses: Rocio (ROC, Ilheus (ILH, Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE, Western equine encephalitis virus (WEE, Venezuelan

  9. Broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 and specific detection of Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses by newly developed multiple TaqMan assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Yazaki, Ryu; Shuto, Yozo; Yanase, Tohru; Kato, Tomoko; Ishikura, Youji; Sakaguchi, Zenjiro; Suzuki, Moemi; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    TaqMan assays were developed for the broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 in the genus Orthobunyavirus and also for the specific detection of three viruses in the lineage, Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses (AKAV, AINOV and PEAV, respectively). A primer and probe set was designed for the broad-range detection of Simbu serogroup lineage 1 (Pan-Simbu1 set) mainly targeting AKAV, AINOV, PEAV, Sathuperi and Shamonda viruses (SATV and SHAV), and the forward and reverse primers of the Pan-Simbu1 set were also used for the specific detection of AKAV with another probe (AKAV-specific set). In addition, two more primer and probe sets were designed for AINOV- and PEAV-specific detection, respectively (AINOV- and PEAV-specific sets). All of the four primer and probe sets successfully detected targeted viruses, and thus broad-range and specific detection of all the targeted viruses can be achieved by using two multiplex assays and a single assay in a dual (two-color) assay format when another primer and probe set for a bovine β-actin control is also used. The assays had an analytical sensitivity of 10 copies/tube for AKAV, at least 100 copies/tube for AINOV, 100 copies/tube for PEAV, one copy/tube for SATV and at least 10 copies/tube for SHAV, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity of the assays was tested with field-collected bovine samples, and the results suggested that the sensitivity was higher than that of a conventional RT-PCR. These data indicate that the newly developed TaqMan assays will be useful tools for the diagnosis and screening of field-collected samples for infections of AKAV and several other arboviruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup lineage 1.

  10. Eco-friendly control of malaria and arbovirus vectors using the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and ultra-low dosages of Mimusops elengi-synthesized silver nanoparticles: towards an integrative approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. Their impact against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. We synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Mimusops elengi as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of AgNP was studied using different biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, TEM, XRD, EDX and FTIR. Low doses of AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus. AgNP LC50 against A. stephensi ranged from 12.53 (I instar larvae) to 23.55 ppm (pupae); LC50 against A. albopictus ranged from 11.72 ppm (I) to 21.46 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of M. elengi extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. In adulticidal experiments, AgNP showed LC50 of 13.7 ppm for A. stephensi and 14.7 ppm for A. albopictus. The predation efficiency of Gambusia affinis against A. stephensi and A. albopictus III instar larvae was 86.2 and 81.7 %, respectively. In AgNP-contaminated environments, predation was 93.7 and 88.6 %, respectively. This research demonstrates that M. elengi-synthesized AgNP may be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria and arbovirus vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies, such as larvivorous fishes.

  11. 我国新分离虫媒病毒的初步鉴定%Identification of Arboviruses Recently Isolated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕新军; 付士红; 杨益良; 何海怀; 张桂筠; 陈向伟; 梁国栋; 金奇; 侯云德

    2001-01-01

    1990~1994年,从新疆地区的蚊、蜱和病人血清分离了多株病毒,为了明确这些病毒的分类地位,对其中的20株病毒进行了组织培养细胞感染实验和血清学检验,对部分毒株做了动物接种实验和理化性质鉴定。结果显示:20株病毒均可使BHK-21细胞病变(1~3天),主要表现为细胞圆缩,聚集,融合,破碎,脱落等;致Vero细胞病变为2~4天;15株病毒致C6/36细胞病变(2~4天),5株病毒对C6/36细胞连续观察7天未见细胞病变。11株病毒对乳鼠2~4天致死,对成年鼠2~5天致死。选取6株病毒进行理化性质鉴定,4株病毒(90260、91002、91004和91028)对5-氟脱氧尿苷耐受,对乙醚和酸敏感,提示为有膜RNA病毒;一株病毒(90265)对5-氟脱氧尿苷、乙醚和酸均敏感,提示为有膜DNA病毒;另一株病毒(9059)对5-氟脱氧尿苷耐受,对乙醚和酸也耐受,提示可能为无膜RNA肠道病毒。20株病毒中,17株病毒与甲病毒、乙型脑炎病毒和布尼亚病毒的特异性免疫腹水不反应,提示这些病毒中可能不存在甲病毒、黄病毒和布尼亚病毒;3株病毒(90260、91002和91004)只与甲病毒的特异性免疫腹水反应,与乙型脑炎病毒和布尼亚病毒的不反应,提示这三株病毒为甲病毒。%During the period of 1990 to 1994,twenty strains of unknownarboviruses were isolated from anoppheles,ixodes,sera of patients in Xinjiang Province of China.All of these arboviruses produced cytopathic effect(CPE)on BHK-21 and Vero cells.Fifteen strains could produce CPE on C6/36 cell,but the other five strains could not.Eleven strains had morbidity and mortality effects on neonatal and mature mice when inoculated intracerebrally.Six strains were identified with physical and chemical characteristics showing one strain(90265)was sensitive to 5-FudR,acid and ether,indicating it was DNA virus with

  12. Development of antibody-array for detection of six arboviruses%6种虫媒病毒蛋白芯片检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林方; 康晓平; 李裕昌; 朱晓磊; 范丽; 魏婧靖; 杨银辉; 祝庆余

    2011-01-01

    ).Methods Recombined antigens were spotted on array as capture antigens.Specific antibodies were detected by using a sandwich ELISA format.Rabbit antiserum was employed to select and confirm the specificity of antigens and to optimize the conditions of the assay.The detection efficiency of the system was validated by 40 clinical suspected serum samples and compared with the relative ELISA assays.Results Eleven recombined antigens were selected as diagnostic antigens with high specificity.Better detection could be achieved when scale of antigen concentrations were within 0.125-0.900 mg/ml and the serum dilutions were 1:100-1:1000.When detecting the 26 clinical suspected TBE serum samples,20 were IgG positive (76.9%),and 17 were IgM positive (65.3%) which was 96.1% and 84.6% consistent with the relevant ELLSA tests,the 8 clinical suspected JEV serum samples,4 were IgG positive (50.0%),and 5 were IgM positive (62.0%),which was 86.3% and 90.1% consistent with the relevant ELLSA tests.As for the 22 DEN serum samples,13 were IgG positive (60%) and 15 were IgM positive (68%) which was 85% and 93% consistent with ELISA.The specificity of the assay was 100% and the sensitivity was higher than the relative ELISAs.Conclusion The developed antibody-array is highly specific and reliable,which could be used for the detection of antibodies against the 6 arboviruses.

  13. Luminex液相芯片技术检测6种虫媒病毒方法的建立%Establishment of Luminex liquid chip technology for detection of six arboviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽; 李裕昌; 康晓平; 林方; 魏婧靖; 杨银辉; 熊正英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish and evaluate liquid chip technique to detect six species of arbovirus including Tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Dengue fever virus (DENV). Methods Specific monoclonal antibodies for all of the six species of arbovirus were prepared and purified. The detecting antibodies were labeled with biotin and the capture antibodies were coupled to fluorescence coded microspheres. Then Luminex liquid chip technology was developed in a double antibody sandwich format. The singleplex and multiplex assay were conducted by measuring the virus cultures through Luminex 200 systems. Results A cutoff value twice higher than that of the background fluorescence was judged as positive reaction. The results of singleplex and multiplex assay for the virus cultures demonstrated specific positive signals, without cross reaction. Repeatability assays were also conducted and consentaneous results were gained, the coefficient of variability was less than 7% from inter and intra assay, implying that both the repeatability and stability of the array were good. The results demonstrated that using the developed Luminex liquid chip technology, the above arbovirus could be effectively identified and distinguished in single or in mixed. By applying series diluted virus cultures to this system, the detecting sensitivities for the six species of arbovirus were determined, which could reached 25pfu/ ml for TBEV, 781.2Spfu/ml for WNV, 781.25pfu/ml for JEV, 390.63pfu/ml for SINV, 781.2Spfu/ml for EEEV and 1562.5pfu/ml for DENV reached 781.2S, respectively. By comparing with the conventional ELISA, the liquid chip technique showed the advantages of higher sensitivity and repeatability, sample and time saving, and possessed the same specificity as ELISA. Conclusion A multiplex liquid chip for simultaneously detecting and serotyping six species of important

  14. 山西省运城市2012年蚊媒病毒的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of mosquito-borne arboviruses in Yuncheng city, Shanxi province, 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅匀; 曹玉玺; 付士红; 程璟侠; 赵俊英; 代培芳; 孔祥盛; 梁国栋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species and distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in Yuncheng city of Shanxi province,China.Methods Mosquito samples were collected in 19 collection sites from Linyi county and Yongji city in Yuncheng city,in August,2012.After identification and classification,all the specimens were homogenized and centrifuged to acquire supernatant before being inoculated to both C6/36 and BHK21 cells for viral isolation.Positive isolates were identified with arbovirus species-specific primers under RT-PCR,for further sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.Results A total of 10 455 mosquitoes of 7 species in 4 genuese were collected.The predominant mosquito species in Linyi county was Culex pipens pallens (91.96%,3 911/4 253),but the one in Yongji city was Culex tritaeniorhynchus (72.85%,4 518/6 202).A total of 23 strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools.15 strains from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex pipens pallens were identified as genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).Four strains from Culex pipens pallens were identified as Culex flavivirus (CxFV).Three strains from Culex pipens pallens were identified as Culex pipiens pallens densovirus (CppDNV).One strain from Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes albopictus was identified as Getah virus (GETV).Conclusion Four kinds of arboviruses were isolated from the mosquito pools,including GETV and CxFV,which were isolated and documented in Shanxi province for the first time.In the city of Yuncheng,Culex tritaeniorhynchus had been the predominant species and major vector for transmitting JEV.Genotype I JEV remained the major JEV circulating in the local natural environment.%目的 了解山西省运城市蚊虫及蚊媒病毒的种类和分布.方法 2012年8月在山西省运城市临猗县和永济市采集蚊虫标本,经鉴定分类和分批研磨后,利用细胞(C6/36和BHK21)培养方法分离病毒,对阳性分离物使用蚊媒病毒种属特异引

  15. Seroepidemiological study on arbovirus infection of human being in Tengchong, Yunnan Province%云南腾冲地区人群虫媒传染病的血清流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰; 国文; 浮飞翔; 龚正达

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence rate of arbovirus antibodies in human being,and to understand the epidemic situation of arbovirus in Tengchong,Yunnan Province.Methods Serum antibodies in 72 cases with fever and 37 healthy people as control were detected by immunofluorescence assay.Results The positive rates of antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV),West nile virus(WNV),Chikungunya virus(CHK),Sindbis virus(SIN),Western equine encephalomyelitis virus(WEE) in these patients were 41.67%,50.00%,2.78%,1.39% and 0.00%,respectively.The positive rates of antibodies against JEV and WNV in healthy people were 18.92% and 32.43%,respectively.The geometric mean reciprocal titers(GMRT) in21 co-positives of JEV and WNV were 1:28 and 1:31,respectively.Conclusions The result shows that there are Flavivirus,Alphavirus and other Arbovirtus infection in Tengchong,Yunnan Province.%目的 调查云南腾冲地区人群中虫媒病毒抗体,以了解当地虫媒病毒流行情况.方法 应用间接免疫荧光试验(IFA)对72例不明发热患者血清中虫媒病毒抗体进行测定,同时选取37名健康体检者作为对照组.结果 发热患者血清中乙型脑炎病毒(JEV)、西尼罗病毒(WNV)、基孔肯雅病毒(CHK)、辛德毕斯病毒(SIN)和西部马脑炎病毒(WEE) IgG抗体阳性率依次为41.67%、50.00%、2.78%、1.39%、0.00%;正常人群血清JEV、WNV抗体阳性率分别为18.92%、32.43%,CHK、SIN、WEE IgG抗体均未检出.21例JEV、WNV抗体均为阳性样本的几何平均滴度(GMRT)分别为1:28和1:31.结论 该地区存在着黄病毒和甲病毒感染,还可能存在着其他虫媒病毒感染.

  16. Vigilância sorológica para arbovírus em Juruti, Pará, Brasil Serological survey for arboviruses in Juruti, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Ribeiro Cruz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a prevalência de anticorpos para arbovírus na área de influência do Projeto Juruti antes da exploração mineral local. Foram examinados 1.597 soros humanos e 85 de animais silvestres. A pesquisa de anticorpos foi realizada pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação contra antígenos dos arbovírus mais prevalentes na Amazônia brasileira e IgM-ELISA para dengue e febre amarela. Soros humanos inibidores da hemaglutinação positivos para Mayaro e Oropouche foram também testados por IgM-ELISA. Anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação para alfavírus, orthobunyavirus e/ou flavivírus foram detectados, sendo 28,7% reações monotípicas. Infecções recentes para Oropouche (n = 23, Mayaro (n = 5, e dengue (n = 20 foram confirmadas por IgM-ELISA. A prevalência de anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação em soros de animais silvestres foi de 8,2% para flavivírus. Os resultados obtidos mostram que houve circulação ativa dos vírus Mayaro, Oropouche e dengue no período do estudo em humanos em Juruti, Pará, Brasil, e de diversos arbovírus em animais silvestres, indicando presença desses vírus em áreas do Município de Juruti.This study aimed to measure the prevalence of antibodies to arboviruses in the area affected by the Juruti Project before local mining operations. A total of 1,597 human and 85 wild animal sera were examined, using the hemagglutination inhibition test against 19 antigens from the most prevalent arboviruses in the Brazilian Amazon and IgM-ELISA for dengue and yellow fever. Positive sera for Mayaro and Oropouche viruses were also tested by IgM-ELISA. Prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and orthobunyaviruses in humans was 28.7%, while for wild animals it was 8.2% for flaviviruses. Recent infections based on presence of IgM was confirmed for Mayaro (n = 5, Oropouche (n = 23, and dengue (n = 20. The results showed active circulation of the dengue

  17. Eco-epidemiologia dos arbovírus na área de influência da rodovia Cuiabá-Santarém (BR 163, Estado do Pará, Brasil Arbovirus eco-epidemiology in the area affected by the Cuiabá-Santarém Highway (BR-163, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo descreve os aspectos eco-epidemiológicos sobre arbovírus nos Municípios de Novo Progresso e Trairão, Estado do Pará, Brasil, na área de influência da BR 163. Anticorpos IH foram detectados para diferentes arbovírus, com reações monotípicas para os VMAY e VORO, dois importantes arbovírus associados a epidemias na Amazônia. Anticorpos IgM para o VORO e VMAY foram detectados em soros humanos, sugerindo infecção recente por esses arbovírus. Duas cepas do VDEN-3 foram isoladas de pacientes febris residentes em Novo Progresso e identificadas como genótipo III. Em termos gerais, os dados obtidos sugerem uma área propícia para a circulação e manutenção de arbovírus e uma população pouco imunizada. Portanto, é importante um monitoramento dinâmico das populações locais e de imigrantes e de animais silvestres quanto à presença de anticorpos e isolamentos de arbovírus, o que permitirá um efetivo controle das infecções por esses agentes virais em residentes da área da rodovia dentro do território paraense.The current study describes the eco-epidemiological aspects of arbovirus diseases in the municipalities (counties of Novo Progresso and Trairão, Para State, Brazil, in the area affected by highway BR-163. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies to different arboviruses were detected, with monotypic reactions to MAYV and OROV, two important arboviruses associated with epidemics in the Amazon. IgM antibodies to OROV and MAYV were found in human sera, suggesting recent infections by these viruses. Two DENV-3 strains were isolated from febrile patients in Novo Progresso and identified as genotype III strains. In general, the data suggest that the area displays ideal conditions for maintenance and circulation of arboviruses, plus a population with low immunization levels. Dynamic surveillance of local immigrants and wild animals is thus important, focusing on antibody prevalence and isolation of

  18. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission Investigação preliminar das espécies de culicídeos do Pantanal Sul brasileiro e sua potencial importância na transmissão de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.Regiões como o Pantanal brasileiro, que apresentam fatores como riqueza de fauna silvestre incluindo circulação de aves migratórias e condições ambientais e climáticas favoráveis à proliferação de artrópodes estão potencialmente sujeitas à circulação de arbovírus. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos foram realizados acerca da presença de arbovírus em potenciais vetores no Pantanal. Neste sentido o principal objetivo deste trabalho foi conduzir uma investigação preliminar para presença de arbovírus em amostragens de culicídeos capturados na Sub-região da Nhecolândia no Pantanal

  19. Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale.

  20. 6种虫媒病毒微孔膜芯片检测方法的研制与应用%Development and application of microwell membrane array for detection of six species of arboviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑夔; 丁国允; 李小波; 师永霞; 苏锦坤; 黄吉城

    2012-01-01

    目的 研制能同时检测6种口岸重要虫媒病毒的微孔膜芯片.方法 针对包括1~4型登革病毒、乙型脑炎病毒、西尼罗病毒、黄热病毒、基孔肯雅病毒和裂谷热病毒等6种虫媒病毒,选择合适的保守基因,设计特异性的PCR引物(5'端标记生物素)和检测探针,通过参数优化建立单管多重RT-PCR扩增体系;然后按每个阵列5×5的格式,并确保点样区域为96孔板的微孔大小,将探针喷点到处理后的尼龙膜上,通过条件优化建立稳定的PCR产物与固化探针的杂交体系;采用碱性磷酸酯酶标记链亲和素和化学显色底物NBT/BCIP来检测特异性的PCR杂交产物.选取2012年1-6月份从口岸输入的疑似登革热发热病例的临床血清标本,提取RNA后,直接采用本研究建立的微孔膜芯片进行未知虫媒病毒的快速检测.结果 用1~4型登革病毒、乙型脑炎病毒、西尼罗病毒和基孔肯雅病毒等7种毒株、1种黄热病毒疫苗株和1种裂谷热病毒核酸体外转录的RNA模板验证已建立的微孔膜芯片,获得比较特异和稳定的实验结果.应用该研究建立的方法,从3份疑似登革热发热病例的临床血清标本中检出了1例登革1型病毒和2例登革2型病毒,与实时荧光PCR检测结果相符.结论 该研究建立的6种虫媒病毒微孔膜芯片检测方法,具有快速、准确、自动化和高通量等特点,为快速应对口岸输入性发热病例提供了非常有价值的检测手段,也为进一步开发更多指标的病原体检测方法提供良好的示范作用.%Objective To develop a microwell membrane array for simultaneous detection of six species of important arboviruses at frontier port. Methods Specific PCR primers labeled with biotin and ol-igonucleotide probes were designed based on the sequence of conservative genes of six arboviruses specises, including four serotypes of dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Yellow Fever

  1. 河南省新安县和息县2012年蚊传虫媒病毒调查%Surveillance on mosquito-borne arboviruses in Xixian county and Xin’an county, Henan province, 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅匀; 付士红; 唐晓燕; 李幸乐; 尚思远; 徐超; 梁国栋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the species, distribution and genotype of mosquito⁃borne arboviruses in some regions of Henan province. Methods Mosquito samples were collected from Xixian county and Xin’an county in Henan province from May to August, 2012. After species identification, mosquitoes were inter⁃cells cross cultured for viral isolation. RT⁃PCR using specific primer for common arboviruses was used to identify the positive isolates. Molecular biological analysis were conducted by using software of Clustal X2.1, MegAlign, Genedoc 3.2 and Mega v5.1, and genotype for the virus was identified. Results A total of 7149 mosquitoes which belong to 5 species in 4 genera were collected. The predominant mosquito specie in Xin’an county was Armigeres subalbatus (2055, 51.36%), but the mainly species in Xixian county was Culex pipens pallens (2964, 94.16%). Five strains from Cx. pipens pallens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were identified as genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which caused slightly cytopathic effect (CPE) in C6/36 cells, and no CPE in BHK-21. But severe CPE was observed in BHK-21 when 3 days after inoculating the C6/36 culture of the viruses onto BHK-21 cells. Conclusion In Xixian county and Xin’an county of Henan province, both JEV and its primary vectors exist, and GenotypeⅠJEV is still the mainly JEV circulating in local natural environment.%目的:了解河南省部分地区蚊传虫媒病毒的种类分布及基因型别。方法于2012年5-8月在河南省洛阳市新安县和信阳市息县的居民住房、猪圈、牛棚及树林中采集蚊虫。使用细胞培养法分离病毒,通过反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT⁃PCR)方法进行种属特异扩增鉴定,并用Clustal X2.1、MegAlign、Genedoc 3.2和Mega v5.1生物信息学软件完成病毒核酸序列的分子生物学分析并进行基因分型。结果共采集蚊虫4属5种7149只,其中新安县以骚扰阿蚊居多(2055只,51.36%

  2. Investigation on arboviruses at Sino-Vietnam border areas in Wenshan of Yunnan province%云南省文山中越边境地区虫媒病毒调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛; 张海林; 李铭华; 王静林; 付士红; 冯云; 梁国栋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate arboviruses in Wenshan and Hekou county which are the Sino-Vietnam frontier regions of Wenshan, Yunnan province, China. Methods In September 2007,6091 culicines, 1334 anophelines, 848 aedes vexans and 53 armigeres obturbans were collected from 5 field sites. Mosquitoes were collected and stored in liquid nitrogen after classification. The mosquito pools were homogenized,and centrifuged,then the supernatant was inoculated onto C6/ 36 and BHK-21 cells,and the viral. isolates were identified by serological. and molecular biological. methods. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis on the viral. isolates were carried out using Clustal. X 1. 85,GENEDOC and MEGA4 software. Results A total. of 4 pairs of virus isolated with C6/36 cells cytopathic effect were observed,and other mosquito species have not cytopathic effect Strain WS0704-2 was Banna virus which identified by antibody response and PCR. Strain WS0704-1, WS0708-1, WS0708-2 were culex pipens pallens densovirus (CppDNV) which identified by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis the 12th segment showed significant difference between the new banna virus and other strains isolated in China. Conclusion There are many mosquito vectors in frontier regions (China and Vietnam) of Wenshan in Yunnan province of China,and mosquito-borne arbovirus,such as BAV were isolated here.%目的 对云南省文山县、河口县等中越边境地区开展虫媒病毒调查,以期了解当地蚊虫携带虫媒病毒情况.方法 2007年9月在当地5个采集点共采集蚊虫8326只,包括库蚊6091只,中华按蚊1334只,刺扰伊蚊848只,阿蚊53只,并保存于液氮.经消毒、研磨、离心等处理后进行组织培养细胞接种,分离病毒和对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定,以软件进行病毒的核苷酸序列比对和系统发生分析.结果 从库蚊分离到4株对C6/36细胞致病变的病毒分离物,其他蚊种没有分离到病毒分离

  3. 云南省西双版纳地区2011年蚊虫及虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province, China in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承军; 朱进; 王宇; 陶伽伶; 李丽华; 白卫荣; 查冰; 王丕玉; 梁国栋; 付士红; 张海林; 范建华; 杨卫红; 章域震; 吕志; 李园园; 李鸿斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解云南省西双版纳地区蚊虫媒介的分布特点及当地虫媒病毒情况,为虫媒病毒病防治提供科学依据.方法 在云南省西双版纳州采集蚊虫标本,用细胞培养法分离病毒,并用RT-PCR法检测常见虫媒病毒核酸;在西双版纳州采集发热患者血清及脑脊液标本,并用ELISA法检测常见病毒性脑炎IgM抗体.结果 共采获蚊虫5属29种13 337只,其中三带喙库蚊、中华按蚊、带足按蚊分别占蚊虫标本总数的79.98%( 10 667/13 337)、7.95%( 1060/13 337)和7.38%(984/13 337),三带喙库蚊为当地优势蚊种.采用流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)病毒、版纳病毒、甲病毒属、环状病毒等多种虫媒病毒引物对214批蚊虫标本进行PCR检测,结果均为阴性;采用多种细胞对蚊虫标本进行病毒分离,结果也为阴性.用相关脑炎病毒试剂盒对采集到的52份急性期血清标本及54份脑脊液标本进行ELISA检测,发现乙脑病毒IgM阳性16例,单纯疱疹病毒IgM抗体阳性4例,腮腺炎病毒IgM抗体阳性13例,埃可病毒IgM抗体阳性3例,登革热病毒IgM抗体阳性1例.结论 2011年西双版纳地区采集到的蚊虫标本中未检测到乙脑、版纳及环状病毒等虫媒病毒,但血清学检测结果表明当地发热患者存在乙脑等多种病毒性脑炎感染.%Objective To investigate the distribution profiles of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province, China, and to provide evidence for prevention and control of arbovirus diseases. Methods Mosquito samples were collected in Xishuangbanna and then used for virus isolation by cell culture. RT-PCR was used to identify arbovirus. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from fever patients, and the common encephalitis virus IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results A total of 13 337 mosquitoes, belonging to 29 species and 5 genera, were collected. The main mosquitoes were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (79.98%, 10 667

  4. Characterized Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Their Relation with Arbovirus in Yunnan Province%云南白纹伊蚊分布特点及与虫媒病毒的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海林; 自登云; 米竹青; 龚正达; 施华芳; 张云智; 侯宗柳; 杨兰萍

    2001-01-01

    目的:阐明白纹伊蚊分布特点,掌握其自然感染虫媒病毒情况。方法:白天在居民点周围和野外竹林区捕蚊,用细胞法和乳鼠法分离病毒。结果:采获成年雌性蚊虫8属45种24885只,其中白纹伊蚊7622只,占30.62%。从该蚊中分离到登革4型病毒4株,登革3型病毒1株,流行性乙型脑炎病毒2株,基孔肯雅病毒2株,甲病毒2株。结论:白纹伊蚊在云南广泛分布,属竹林区优势蚊种,是云南登革热和基孔肯雅病的主要传播媒介及流行性乙型脑炎的传播媒介。%Objective: To study the characterized distribution of Aedesalbopictus and it's natural infection of arboviruses in Yunnan province. Methods: Collecting mosquitoes from the outdoor bamboo forests in the daytime.Using C6/36 or BHK21 cells and suckling mice to isolate viruses. Result: 24 885 adult female mosquitoes belonging 45 species of 8 genera were captured.The component rate of Ae.albopictus was 30.62%(7 622/24 885). Four strains of dengue(DEN) type 4 virus,a strain of DEN type 3 virus,two strains of Japanese encephalitis(JE) virus,two strains of chikungunya(CHIK) virus and two strains of Alphavirus were isolated from Ae.albopictus. Conclusions: Ae.albopictus is widely distributed in Yunnan province,which belong to the dominant species of mosquitoes in bamboo forests. Ae.albopictus might be the main transmitting vector of DEN and CHIK viruses in Yunnan,while it is also considered to be transmitting vector of JE virus.

  5. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses Gestão imprópria do ecossistema natural na Amazônia brasileira resulta na emergência e reemergência de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.Um total de 187 diferentes espécies de arbovírus, além de outros vírus de vertebrados, foram identificados pelo Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC no período de 1954 a 1998, entre as mais de 10.000 cepas de vírus isoladas de seres humanos, insetos hematófagos e vertebrados-sentinela e silvestres. Apesar dos estudos intensivos realizados na Amazônia brasileira, sobretudo no Estado do Pará, pouco se sabe a respeito da maioria desses vírus, com exceção de dados a respeito de data, hora, fonte e método de isolamento, assim como a capacidade de infectar animais laboratoriais. Os autores fazem uma revisão dos dados ecológicos e epidemiológicos e procuram associar o impacto, sobre os diversos vírus, das mudanças populacionais dos vetores e hospedeiros induzidas por profundas alterações no meio ambiente. O desmatamento, o uso do subsolo, a construção de represas e de rodovias, a colonização humana e a urbanização foram as principais modificações ambientais

  6. World Reference Center for Arboviruses and Retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    spot slides of VSV Indiana strains grown in a pig kidney line (Instituto Biologico Rim Suino-2). The monoclonal antibodies were designed to be specific...Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogota, Colombia to receive materials from AIDS patients and to receive HIV isolates for confirmation of identity and for...the request for strains. Virus specimens submitted were subsequently passaged in C6/36 or Vero cells. This material was used to prepare virus stocks

  7. Vector Competence of Mosquitoes for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-30

    ml) on the titers of three alphaviruses , Sindbis(A), western equine encephalomyelitis (B), Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (C), and the...population have been delineated and discussed with reference to the mosquito, Culex tarsalis, and the alphavirus , western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE...mechanism that appears to control WEE viral replication (Hardy et al., 1983; Kramer et al., 1989; Ann. Prog. Rpt., 1988). The ability of a mosquito to

  8. World Reference Center for Arboviruses and Retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Thai flaviviruses with tembusu, Japanese encephalitis, Zika , and Sepik antibodies . . . 14 7. Results of plaque reduction neutralization with 8...the same vector species, implying that reasortment between these isolates could occur either in the mosquito vector or vertebrate host. Similarly...migratory birds in the dispersal 10 of the virus over vast distances. e. ixodes Persulcatus ticks vector the Siberian isolates and Ixo.-es rTcinus the

  9. 湖北省部分地区2009年蚊传虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of mosquito-borne arboviruses in some regions of Hubei province, China in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓艳; 付士红; 邹文菁; 胡乐群; 刘红; 占发先; 霍细香; 梁国栋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species and distribution patterns of mosquito - borne arboviruses in some regions of Hubei province, China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected in Wuxue county of Huanggang city and Tongcheng county of Xianning city in the summer of 2009. Viruses were isolated from the samples by tissue culture, and the obtained virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the isolated viruses using bioinformatics software. Results A total of 9424 mosquitoes, belonging to 5 species and 3 genera, were collected. Four virus strains (HBTC0913, HBTC0917, HBTC0919, and HBTC0921) were isolated and identified as Banna virus (BAV). According to the phylogenetic analysis of the 12th segment of BAV, the four strains were in the same subgroup as the isolates from Beijing, Yunnan, and Inner Mongolia, China as well as Vietnam, and but in a different subgroup from the isolates from Indonesia. Compared with previous isolates, the BAV strains showed nucleotide and amino acid homologies of 87.2%-89.8% and 86.1%-90.9%, respectively, according to the homology analysis of the coding region of the 12th segment. Conclusion BAV strains were first isolated in Hubei province, China. They have a close phylogenetic association with YN6 strain isolated in Yunnan, China.%目的 调查湖北省部分地区蚊传虫媒病毒种类和分布状况.方法 2009年夏季在湖北省黄冈市武穴市和咸宁市通城县采集蚊虫标本,用组织培养法分离病毒,用血清学和分子生物学方法对阳性病毒分离物进行鉴定,利用生物信息学软件对新分离病毒进行序列同源性和系统进化分析.结果 采集到3属5种9424只蚊虫标本,阳性4株(HBTC0913、HBTC0917、HBTC0919和HBTC0921),经血清学和分子生物学鉴定均为版纳病毒;版纳病毒第12节段分子进化分析显示,4株新分离版纳病毒与中国北京、云南和内蒙古地

  10. 贵州省不同地区2008年虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of arboviruses in different regions of Guizhou province,China in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭华; 付士红; 冯云; 叶绪芳; 赵苏晔; 刘淳婷; 梁国栋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution profiles of arboviruses in different regions of Guizhou province, China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected using mosquito lamps in Qianxi county, Dejiang county, Rongjiang county, and Congjiang county, Guizhou province in July 2008 and then used for virus isolation by tissue culture. The obtained virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods. Homology and phylogenetic analysis were performed on viral sequences by bioinformatics. Results A total of 9160 mosquitoes (4 species, 3 genera) were collected. Out of the 9 virus strains isolated from the mosquitoes, 8 were identified as Getah virus (GETV), and 1 was identified as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Compared with the prototype strain, the GETV strains had a nucleotide homology of 94.5%-94.9% and an amino acid homology of 97.4%-97.6% . The newly isolated JEV belonged to genotype I , according to the homology and phylogenetic analysis. Conclusion GETV and genotype I JEV were first isolated from mosquitoes collected in Guizhou province, China. The GETV strains in Guizhou province have a close phylogenetic association with the strains isolated from other provinces in China, and the JEV strain in Guizhou province has a close phylogenetic association with the strains isolated from Sichuan province, China.%目的 调查贵州省不同地区虫媒病毒分布状况,对采集的蚊虫标本进行病毒分离与鉴定.方法 2008年7月在贵州省黔西、德江、榕江和从江县的4个标本采集点使用诱蚊灯采集蚊虫标本,通过组织培养法分离病毒,并对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定;利用生物信息学技术对新分离病毒的序列进行分析,完成同源性和系统发生分析.结果 采集到3属4种共计9160只蚊虫标本,从中分离到9株病毒,鉴定结果显示8株为盖塔病毒,1株为流行性乙型脑炎病毒(JEV);贵州省新分离盖塔病毒与原型株

  11. Isolation and identification of arboviruses from mosquito pools in some regions of Liaoning province,China%辽宁省部分地区2006年虫媒病毒分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟维珊; 丁俊; 褚发俊; 李志; 张立田; 赵玉军; 梁国栋; 张稷博; 孙肖红; 刘起男; 陈哲; 翟友刚; 付士红; 曹玉玺; 王环宇

    2009-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify arboviruses from mosquito pools in some regions of Liaoning province.Methods Mosquitoes were collected from Shenyang,Yingkou,Panjin,Jinzhou and Dandong cities of Liaoning province in 2006.Viruses were isolated by inoculating the specimens onto C6/ 36 and BHK-21cells.The new isolates were identified using serological and molecular biological methods.Results 5410 mosquitoes were collected from the five cities in total.Three isolates produced CPE in C6/ 36 cell and five isolates produced CPE in both C6/36 and BI-IK-21 cell.Three isolates (LN0684,LN0688 and LN0689) were identified as Banna virus and one isolate (LN0636) was identified as Getah virus.Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three Banna virus strains were clustered into the same evolution branch as the other Chinese isolates.The identity of nucleotide sequence was between 91.2% and 94.7%,compared with other Banna virus strains.The new isolated Getah virus was clustered into the same branch with the strain of South Korea (swine).The identity of nucleotide sequence was 99.2%,when comparing with the strain of South Korea and was 95% to 99% with the strains fi'om Russia,mainland of China and Taiwan region.Conehmion Eight virus isolates,including three Banna virus,one Getah virus and four unknown virus strains were isolated from mosquitoes in Liaoning province.Banna virus and Getah virus were reported for the first time in Liaoning province,while Getah virus showed the highest nucleotide homology with the South Korea strains.%目的 调查辽宁省虫媒病毒的种类及分布.方法 2006年8月在辽宁省沈阳市、营口市、盘锦市、锦州市和丹东市采集蚊虫标本,利用组织细胞培养分离病毒,对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定.结果 5个市共采集蚊虫标本5410只,分离到8株阳性分离物,经鉴定其中3株(LN0684、LN0688、LN0689)为版纳病毒,1株(LN0636)为甲病毒属盖塔病毒,另外4株尚在鉴定.新分离

  12. Isolation and identification of arboviruses at riverside of Yalu River in Dandong, Liaoning province, China in 2007%辽宁省丹东市鸭绿江沿岸2007年虫媒病毒分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟维珊; 李铭华; 付士红; 张稷博; 张立田; 陈哲; 丁俊; 梁国栋

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解辽宁省丹东市鸭绿江沿岸虫媒病毒的种类和分布情况.方法 使用诱蚊灯捕蚊,通过组织培养法分离病毒,并对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定.结果 2007年7月在辽宁省丹东市鸭绿江沿岸6个采集点采集到3属3种共3359只蚊虫标本,从中分离到11株病毒分离物,鉴定结果显示有5株为版纳病毒,3株为环状病毒样病毒,其余3株分离物有待进一步鉴定;版纳病毒新分离株序列分析结果显示,5株版纳病毒之间第12片段序列高度同源,核苷酸同源性为92.1%~99.8%;氨基酸同源性为92.8% ~99.5%;并且与北京分离株和云南分离株同源性较高,核苷酸同源性为91.3%~98.7%;氨基酸同源性为90.8%~100%;系统进化分析提示,版纳病毒新分离株与北京、云南分离株位于同一个进化分支中.结论 在辽宁省丹东市鸭绿江沿岸首次分离到版纳病毒和环状病毒样病毒,新分离版纳病毒与北京、云南分离株进化关系较近.%Objective To investigate the types and distribution profiles of arboviruses at the riverside of Yalu River in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected with mosquito lamps and then used for virus isolation by tissue culture. The obtained virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods. Results A total of 3359 mosquitoes (3 species, 3 genera) were collected from 6 sites at the riverside of Yalu River in July 2007. Eleven virus strains were isolated from the mosquito samples. Of the 11 strains, 5 were identified as Banna Virus (BAV), 3 were identified as Orbivirus, and 3 needed further identification. Based on the results of sequence analysis, the 5 BAV strains shared high homology in terms of the 12th segment, with nucleotide and amino acid homologies of 92.1%-99.8% and 92.8%-99.5%, respectively, and were highly homologous with those from Beijing and Yunnan province

  13. 辽宁省部分地区2008年虫媒病毒分离鉴定%Arboviruses isolated from mosquitoes in Liaoning province in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉玺; 付士红; 张稷博; 孟维珊; 王焕琴; 何英; 王环宇; 郭军巧; 梁国栋

    2012-01-01

    目的 在辽宁省采集蚊虫标本进行病毒分离,了解虫媒病毒分布情况.方法 2008年夏季在辽宁省丹东和锦州市采集蚊虫标本,利用C6/36和BHK-21等细胞分离病毒;对新分离病毒利用血清学、分子生物学和生物信息学方法进行鉴定.结果 在辽宁省丹东和锦州市共采集蚊虫标本3属5种9296只,包括库蚊属的三带喙库蚊、淡色库蚊,伊蚊属的刺扰伊蚊、背点伊蚊和按蚊属的中华按蚊.从蚊虫标本中共得到4株病毒分离物,其中1株为乙型脑炎(乙脑)病毒(丹东市的三带喙库蚊),2株为版纳病毒(锦州市的中华按蚊),1株为辽宁病毒和版纳病毒混合(锦州市的中华按蚊).新分离乙脑病毒属于基因Ⅰ型乙脑病毒,E基因编码病毒毒力和抗原表位的位点未发生改变.结论 在辽宁省再次分离到乙脑病毒,并首次证明辽宁省存在辽宁病毒.%Objective To learn the distribution of arboviruses in mosquitoes in Liaoning province. Methods The samples were collected in Dandong and Jinzhou of Liaoning province in 2008. The isolation of viruses was conducted by way of C6/36 and BHK-21 cell culture, with identification of viruses done by serological, molecular and bioinformatics methods. Results A total of 9296 mosquitoes consisting of 5 species from the Culex, Aedes and Anopheles genera were trapped. Four virus isolates were obtained from pooled mosquitoes and were identified as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (from Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus), Banna virus (2 isolate from An. Sinensis) and the mixture of Liaoning virus and Banna virus (from An. Sinensis). Genotype of JEV isolate belonged to genotype I and no mutation of amino acid sequence coding conformational epitope occurred in Envelop protein. Conclusion Genotype I JEV was isolated again in Liaoning province and Liaoning virus was documented in this area for the first time.

  14. 湖北省部分地区2010年蚊传虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of arbovirus in some areas of Hubei province, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓艳; 付士红; 邹文菁; 彭延; 刘红; 曹玉玺; 江永忠; 梁国栋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To continue the investigation on the distribution of mosquito⁃borne arbovirus in some areas of Hubei province. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from Enshi state, Shennongjia forest region, Jiangling county and Suizhou city in the summer of 2010. Virus was isolated from these mosquitoes by cell culture. The virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted on virus genome sequences. Results 12 845 mosquitoes were collected. 38 virus strains were isolated from mosquitoes. Through serological and molecular biological identification, 32 strains were identified as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), 5 were Getah virus (GETV), 1 was mixed strain of JEV and GETV. Phylogenetic analysis on E sequence of JEV showed all JEV strains belonged to genotypeⅠ JEV, and analysis on NS2 sequence of GETV showed new strains that were homogenous with strains isolated from Hebei and South Korea, but heterogeneous with strain from Russia. Conclusion GETV was firstly isolated from Hubei province, and genotypeⅠJEV was re⁃confirmed from Hubei province.%目的:继续调查湖北省蚊媒和病毒种类及其分布状况。方法2010年夏季在湖北省恩施州、神农架林区、江陵县和随州市采集蚊虫标本,用组织培养法分离病毒,用血清学和分子生物学方法对阳性病毒分离物进行鉴定,利用生物信息学软件对新分离病毒进行序列同源性和系统进化分析。结果采集到3属4种12845只蚊虫标本,共分离到38株阳性分离物,经血清学和分子生物学鉴定,32株阳性分离物为流行性乙型脑炎病毒(JEV),5株阳性分离物为盖塔病毒,1株为JEV和盖塔病毒感染混合株。JEV E基因序列进化分析显示新分离JEV均为基因Ⅰ型JEV。盖塔病毒NS2基因序列进化分析显示新分离病毒与中国河北省和韩国毒株同源性最高,与俄罗斯分离株进化关系较远。结论

  15. 广州从化无规定马属动物疫病区和缓冲区病媒生物本底调查%A survey on the arbovirus vectors in Conghua specific equine epizootic disease-free zone and its buffer zone in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯云玲; 田伟金; 彭聪; 杨悦屏; 彭南秀; 庄天勇; 梁卓粤; 黄柏顺; 胡永辉; 陈宇鹏

    2012-01-01

    为掌握广州从化无规定马属动物疫病区和缓冲区病媒生物的种类和分布,确保广州亚运马术比赛的顺利进行及从化无规定马属动物疫病区作为国内唯一获国际认可的“无疫区”在今后的正常运作和可持续发展,作者对该区域病媒生物进行了本底调查.本次调查共采集到吸血蚊类2698头,隶属1科4属5种;蝇类12788头,隶属4科17属28种;虻类161头,隶属1科3属6种;蠓类71头,隶属1科1属3种;蜱类743头,隶属1科1属1种.为控制这些病媒生物传播疾病的发生,应根据广州从化无规定马属动物疫病区和缓冲区病媒生物的分布特点和消长规律,定期开展病媒生物监测,及时掌握各种病媒生物的种群变化情况,并适时开展防虫除虫和控制检疫传染病的工作.%In order to get insight into the species composition and distribution of the arbovirus vectors in the area, and to provide a scientific base for the success of equestrian competition event of Guangzhou A-sian Games as well as the sustainable development of the only specific equine epizootic disease - free zone in China which has been recognized internationally, the authors investigated the arbovirus vectors in Conghua specific equine epizootic disease - free zone and its buffer zone. In this survey, 2698 blood - sucking mosquitoes were captured, belonging to 1 family 4 genera 5 species; 12788 flies were captured, belonging to 4 families 17 genera 28 species; 161 tabanid flies were captured, belonging to 1 family 3 genera 6species; 71 biting midges were captured, belonging to 1 family 1 genus 3 species; 743 ticks were captured, belonging to 1 family 1 genus 1 species. In order to control the diseases carried by insects, surveys should be carried out periodically according to the distribution and the occurrence regularity of the arbovirus vectors in Conghua specific equine epizootic disease - free zone and its buffer zone. Population dynamics of the arbovirus

  16. Níveis de anticorpos para arbovírus em indivíduos da região de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil Arbovirus antibody levels in the population of the Ribeirão Preto area, S.Paulo State (Brazil

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    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer os níveis de anticorpos para arbovírus, foram estudados 302 indivíduos da região de Ribeirão Preto (Brasil, moradores em 3 tipos de locais com distintas formas de organização do espaço: próximos à área de paisagem natural; com paisagem modificada para a agropecuária; comunidades urbanas. Foram efetuados testes sorológicos de inibição da hemaglutinação, neutralização e fixação do complemento para 21 arbovírus. Os resultados mostraram que 19,9% dos indivíduos investigados apresentaram anticorpos, sugerindo infecções pregressas por vários arbovírus. A maior percentagem de habitantes que se infectaram por estes agentes foi observada em locais próximos à área de paisagem natural, 38,5%. O vesiculovírus Piry foi o agente para o qual se encontrou o maior número de soros reagentes, 12,5%. A maior ocorrência de portadores de anticorpos para o vírus Piry foi observada nos indivíduos: do sexo masculino; com idade superior a 40 anos; guardas-florestais, lavradores e profissionais com atividades ligadas ao rio.The area of Ribeirão Preto is located in the north of S.Paulo State - Brazil. The population is 611,742. The climate is sub-tropical warm and humid. The area of Ribeirão Preto is almost completely deforested and covered by extensive plantations of sugar cane and coffee and pasture. With the purpose of discovering the arbovirus antibody levels, a serologic survey was carried out among people of the Ribeirão Preto area living in different geographical environments. Fifty two inhabitants located close to natural landscap, 38 in places with landscape modified by agriculture and cattle raising, and 93 in urban communities were studied. Serologic tests for hemagglutination inhibition by 20 Togaviridae and Bunyaviridae arbovirus, and neutralization and complement fixation tests on Piry Rhabdoviridae were carried out. It was discovered that 19.9% of the sample population presented antibodies

  17. Investigation of Arboviruses Carried by Mosquitoes at Ports in Five Provinces of South China%南方五省口岸蚊类携带虫媒病毒调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑夔; 黄吉城; 李小波; 洪烨; 师永霞; 幸芦琴; 相大鹏; 郭波旋; 胡龙飞

    2009-01-01

    Objective To know about the background data of mosquito-borne viruses at ports of South China in order to provide evidence for the prevention and control of mosquitoes transmitted diseases. Method An automatic method of Mosquito Magnet apparatus and handwork method of electronic mosquito capture device were selected to collect mosquito samples in South China. And the mosquitoes were sent to the laboratory in a ultra-low temperature. After grinding the mosquitoes, several important mosquito-berne viruses including dengue virus, Japancses encephalitis virua, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus were detected by real-time PCR assay. A further study of PCR amplification and sequence analysis to the positive samples were performed. At the same time, a cell of C6/36 was used for Arbovirus isolation from the mosquito grinding samples. The cell samples with eytopathie effect were then subjected to RT-PCR assay to detect the flavivirus and alphavirus by using the universal primers specific to Flaviviridae flavivirus and Togaviridae alphavirus, respectively. The unknown virus that couldn' t be identified by the universal primers mentioned above was amplified by random PCR amplification, then the PCR products wer subjected to TA cloning, sequencing and Blast searching in Genbank. Result 12 575 mosquitoes were collected from the ports in five Provinces of South China. The mosquitoes were divided into 254 groups after identification. Detecting by real-time PCR assay. All the virus including Dengue virus, yellow fever virus West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus showed negative results except for 2 positive results with Japanese encephalitis virus nucleic acid detecting. The 2 Japanese encephalitis virus positive samples were sourced from Culex tritacniorhynchus collected from Fujian Province. The genotype of Japanese encephalitis v/rus was confirmed as G Ⅰ by PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the E gene. Virus isolate assay showed that cytopathic

  18. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: II - inquérito em pacientes do Hospital Regional de Pariquera-Açú, 1980 A serological study for research of arbovirus antibodies in human population of the Ribeira Valley Region: II - a survey of patients in the Pariquera-Açú Regional Hospital, 1980

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    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinaçãc de arbovírus em 516 moradores das zonas urbana e rural da região do Vale do Ribeira, Brasil, área extensamente coberta de florestas onde ocorreu recentemente uma epidemia de encefalite atribuída ao Flavivirus Rocio. Verificou-se que 24,2% destas pessoas tinham anticorpos IH para um ou mais arbovírus (11,2% para Alphavirus; 13,2% para Flavivirus; 4,6% para o Bunyavirus Caraparu e 0,8% para outros arbovírus. Alguns dos investigados, sem antecedente de vacinação contra febre amarela, apresentaram anticorpos neutralizantes para o vírus da encefalite equina do Leste, St. Louis e da febre amarela, os dois últimos ainda não isolados na região. A análise das características dos indivíduos com sorologia positiva sugeria que a transmissão de arboviroses não era fato recente e estava se fazendo em pelo menos 9 municípios da área, não só no ambiente silvestre como fora do mesmo. Os indivíduos de sexo masculino e entre estes os que trabalham em pesca, em geral no período vespertino e noturno, apresentaram maior risco à infecções arbovíricas.A serological survey for hemagglutination - inhibition antibodies to arbovirus was carried out on 516 residents of the rural and urban zones of the Ribeira Valley, Brazil, a largely forested area where there recently occurred an encephalitis epidemic attributed to Flavivirus Rocio. It was discovered that 24.2% of the sample population presented HI antibodies (11.2% against Alphavirus, 13.2% against Flavivirus, 4.6% against the Caraparu virus and 0.8% against other arboviruses. Neutralizing antibodies for Eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and yellow fever virus were detected in some of the people, not vaccinated against yellow fever, who have always lived in the region. These last two viruses have never before been isolated in the area. The characteristics of people who presented

  19. Development of a GeXP Based Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Arboviruses Related to Encephalitis%8种脑炎相关虫媒病毒GeXP检测方法的初步建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玢; 王环宇; 张晨; 王淼; 秦萌; 王克霞; 马学军

    2012-01-01

    利用GeXP多重基因表达遗传分析系统,建立一种多重逆转录-聚合酶链反应( mRT-PCR)方法,同时检测与病毒性脑炎相关的乙型脑炎病毒(Japanese encephalitis virus,JEV)等8种虫媒病毒.优化多重反应体系及反应条件,分别以病毒分离培养物和阳性标本来验证多重反应体系的特异性,以克隆质粒体外转录的RNA梯度稀释液来检测多重检测体系的灵敏度.结果表明,优化后的多重检测体系,可扩增出各病毒对应的特异片段,并可在102拷贝/μL水平同时并特异地检测出8种(共13个特异片段)脑炎相关病毒RNA.该方法具有高通量、灵敏度高、特异性强且快速等优点,对病毒性脑炎的分子诊断及流行病学调查具有重要意义.%Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) is currently available in virus detection and defined as the simultaneous amplification of two or more DNA/RNA targets in a single reaction vessel. In this study, we attempted to modify the conventional mRT-PCR technique on a basis of GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXP). Initially, we optimized the analytical validation of the GeXP analyzer and its design of workflow and simultaneously detected eight arboviruses that related to epidemic encephalitis by verifying the specificity of mRT-PCR with Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV) cell cultures and positive strains identified previously and determining the sensitivity with in vitro-transcribed RNA of serial dilutions. The GeXP system after optimization could amplify the specific fragments related to the viruses and exposed specifically a total of 13 target genes out of eight types of arboviruses at the level of 102 copies/μL, and the findings suggest that the novel protocol we developed can be high-throughput and highly specific and sensitive as well as quickness in screening of the encephalitis viruses, and is promising in detection of encephalitis-associated viruses for molecular

  20. Pesquisa de anticorpos para arbovírus no soro de residentes no povoado de Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia Research of antibodies to arbovirus in the serum of residentes of the village of Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares-Neto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sorológico para verificação da presença de anticorpos para arbovírus em 288 indivíduos, residentes no povoado de Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia. Foram observados anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação e neutralizantes em 3.8% da amostra com a seguinte distribuição para flavivírus: Ilhéus (6, St. Louis (2, febre amarela (3, Rocio (1. Em um indivíduo, com residência anterior na Região Norte foram detectados anticorpos para Mayaro. Em 75 indivíduos testados aleatoriamente não foram observados anticorpos neutralizantes para o vesiculovírus Piry. Em outros 28 indivíduos, também selecionados ao acaso, anticorpos fixadores de complemento não foram detectados para os vírus dos grupos Changuinola, Phlebotomus e não grupados BE AR 408005 e BE AR 421710. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de estudos complementares para esclarecer a transmissão do vírus na área.A serological survey for research on antibodies to arbovirus was carried out on 288 residents to the rural zone of the village of Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia. It was observed that 3.8% of the sample population presented HI and N antibodies against Flaviviruses (Ilhéus 6. St, Louis 2, Yellow fever 3 and Rocio 1. One person, who had previously lived in the Amazon region, had antibodies to Mayaro. The authors were unable to detect either N antibodies for Piry virus in a random sample of 75 persons or CF antibodies against viruses of the Changuinola and Phlebotomus groups and ungrouped BE AR 408005 and BE AR 421710 in another random sample of 28 individuals. Complementary studies should be conducted in order to define the transmission of the different viruses in the area.

  1. 甘肃省河西走廊地区2011年蚊虫种类及虫媒病毒调查研究%Investigation of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Hexi Corridor of Gansu province, China in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查冰; 赵海; 梁国栋; 于德山; 付士红; 李国太; 吕志; 蒋建祥; 唐承军; 贾玉新; 董茂星

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查甘肃省河西走廊地区蚊虫种类及所携带虫媒病毒分布状况.方法 使用诱蚊灯于18:00至次日06:00进行蚊虫标本采集,分类鉴定后液氮保存并运送至实验室备检;通过组织培养法分离病毒,并对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定;利用生物信息学技术对新分离病毒的序列进行分析,完成同源性和系统发生分析.结果 2011年8月在甘肃省河西走廊地区7个县(市)共采集到蚊虫标本3属6种24 028只,其中刺扰伊蚊最多,占采集总数的32.80%(7880/24 028),淡色库蚊占30.26% (7272/24 028);通过细胞培养分离到1株可以引起两种细胞(BHK-21和C6/36细胞)病变的病毒分离株(GS11-155);此外在32批蚊虫标本中检测到病毒(库蚊黄病毒、盖塔病毒、辽宁病毒)基因阳性,对其中11批核苷酸序列测定和分析发现,1批为蚊传黄病毒,3批为盖塔病毒,7批为辽宁病毒.结论 甘肃省河西走廊地区优势蚊种为刺扰伊蚊,且蚊虫携带多种虫媒病毒,包括蚊传黄病毒、盖塔病毒和辽宁病毒.%Objective To investigate the species of mosquitoes and the distribution of arboviruses carried by the mosquitoes in Hexi Corridor of Gansu province, China in 2011. Methods Mosquito samples were collected from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. in the next day with UV lamps. After being identified, the samples were preserved in liquid nitrogen and then transported to a laboratory for examination. Viruses were isolated from the samples by tissue culture, and the virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods. Homology and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the nucleotide sequences of isolated viruses by bioinformatics. Results A total of 24 028 mosquitoes, belonging to 6 species and 3 genera, were collected in seven counties or cities along Hexi Corridor in August 2011. Among the collected mosquitoes, Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, accounting for 32

  2. Application of Modified Shell Vial Culture Procedure for Arbovirus Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-17

    Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE) viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC) protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC) protocol. First the...GA, Langer JM, Woods GL, Procter M, Hillyard DR (2004) Evaluation of the ELVIS plate method for the detection and typing of herpes simplex virus in

  3. Characterisation and Next-generation Sequencing Analysis of Unknown Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    on the development of real- time PCR detection assays for Vibrio cholerae , a water-borne bacterium responsible for severe enteric disease. From...rhabdoviruses and cholera . ____________________ ________________________________________________ UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR-2744 Contents

  4. Production of Antigens and Antibodies for Diagnosis of Arbovirus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-20

    ISS Phl-3 Vlsm2 7 314 VS-Indiana Indiana Lab sm9 5 271 VS-New Jersey Hazelhurst CEl8V4sml 4 364 Zika prototype smlSi 11 501 5 Additionally, 8 viruses...A no- cost extension was negotiated and another Associate in Research has been recruited to start in the next contract period. Emphasis will be on

  5. Rapid Diagnosis of Arbovirus and Arenavirus Infections by Immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-31

    gSEOSURYVY M RilT VALLEY FEMR, B OLA , MRB LASSA, AND c C O I4RRGIC FE A serological survey of human sera collected in Senegal by a YARU team headed by... bola antigen were present in the population of Ethiopia 13 or 14 years before the disease was first recognized. Ethiopian survey results by region on

  6. Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease, Bluetongue, and likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burden worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the diff...

  7. Zika virus: history of a newly emerging arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikan, Nitwara; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus was originally identified in a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947. The virus is a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. The first report of Zika virus outside Africa and Asia was in 2007 when the virus was associated with a small outbreak in Yap State, part of the Federated States of Micronesia. Since then, Zika virus infections have been reported around the world, including in southeast Asia; French Polynesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean; and parts of South, Central, and North America. Symptomatic infection in human beings normally results in a mild and self-limiting febrile disease, although recent reports have suggested a possible association with more serious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, and microcephaly in newborn infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. In this Review, we summarise the history of Zika virus from its first detection to its current worldwide distribution.

  8. Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Salazar, Lucrecia; Wootton, Susan H.; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June–October). WNV testing was ordered for 281 (37%) of the 751; results indicated acute infection for 32 (11%). Characteristics associated with WNV testing were acute focal neurologic deficits; older age; magnetic resonance imaging; empirically prescribed antiviral therapy; worse clinical outcomes: and concomitant testing for mycobacterial, fungal, or other viral infections. Testing for WNV is underutilized, and testing of patients with more severe disease raises the possibility of diagnostic bias in epidemiologic studies. PMID:27537988

  9. Emergence and transmission of arbovirus evolutionary intermediates with epidemic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, Kenneth A; Coffey, Lark L; Lay, Sreyrath; Bordería, Antonio V; Duong, Veasna; Isakov, Ofer; Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Blanc, Hervé; Beaucourt, Stéphanie; Haliloğlu, Türkan; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Ben-Tal, Nir; Shomron, Noam; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Buchy, Philippe; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2014-06-11

    The high replication and mutation rates of RNA viruses can result in the emergence of new epidemic variants. Thus, the ability to follow host-specific evolutionary trajectories of viruses is essential to predict and prevent epidemics. By studying the spatial and temporal evolution of chikungunya virus during natural transmission between mosquitoes and mammals, we have identified viral evolutionary intermediates prior to emergence. Analysis of virus populations at anatomical barriers revealed that the mosquito midgut and salivary gland pose population bottlenecks. By focusing on virus subpopulations in the saliva of multiple mosquito strains, we recapitulated the emergence of a recent epidemic strain of chikungunya and identified E1 glycoprotein mutations with potential to emerge in the future. These mutations confer fitness advantages in mosquito and mammalian hosts by altering virion stability and fusogenic activity. Thus, virus evolutionary trajectories can be predicted and studied in the short term before new variants displace currently circulating strains.

  10. Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M K; Nayduch, D; Michel, K

    2015-02-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bluetongue and most likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burdens worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the difficulty of consistent culturing of certain species and the absence of molecular techniques such as RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report the establishment of RNAi as a research tool for the adult midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Based on previous research and transcriptome analysis, which revealed putative small interfering RNA pathway member orthologues, we hypothesized that adult C. sonorensis midges have the molecular machinery needed to perform RNA silencing. Injection of control double-stranded RNA targeting green fluorescent protein (dsGFP), into the haemocoel of 2-3-day-old adult female midges resulted in survival curves that support virus transmission. dsRNA injection targeting the newly identified C. sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (CsIAP1) orthologue resulted in a 40% decrease of transcript levels and 73% shorter median survivals as compared with dsGFP-injected controls. These results reveal the conserved function of IAP1. Importantly, they also demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi by dsRNA injection in adult midges, which will greatly facilitate studies of the underlying mechanisms of vector competence in C. sonorensis.

  11. Overcoming tumor immune evasion with an unique arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyday, Bruce; Chen, Tony; Kesari, Santosh; Minev, Boris

    2015-01-16

    Combining dendritic cell vaccination with the adjuvant effect of a strain of dengue virus may be a way to overcome known tumor immune evasion mechanisms. Dengue is unique among viruses as primary infections carry lower mortality than the common cold, but secondary infections carry significant risk of hypovolemic shock. While current immuno-therapies rely on a single axis of attack, this approach combines physiological (hyperthermic reduction of tumor perfusion), immunological (activation of effector cells of the adaptive and innate immune system), and apoptosis-inducing pathways (sTRAIL) to destroy tumor cells. The premise of using multiple mechanisms of action in synergy with a decline in the ability of the tumor cells to employ resistance methods suggests the potential of this combination approach in cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Thule AB, Greenland, Mosquito Survey and Arbovirus Surveillance, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Public Health and Preventive ...July 2012. One species of mosquitoes, Aedes impiger, was collected and more than 3000 were processed for virus testing. Active mosquito breeding...of mosquitoes, Aedes impiger, was collected and more than 3000 were processed for virus testing. Active mosquito breeding sites were located

  13. Rapid Diagnosis of Arbovirus and Arenavirus Infections by Immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    diagnosis is of the utmost importance since it determines whether or not certain measures such as vector or reservoir control, isolation or...Edge Hill 1:16+ Tembusu 0 Ilheus 1:16+ Wesselsbron 0 KFD 1:16+ West Nile 1:16+ MVE 1:16+ Yellow fever 1:16+ Omsk HF 1:16+ Zika 1:16+ 0 reaction was

  14. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: IV - inquérito em escolares residentes no município de Iguape, SP (Brasil A serological study for research into arbovirus antibodies in the human population in the Ribeira Valley: IV - survey among school-children in Iguape County (S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se os resultados de inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos de 17 arbovírus em 337 escolares de 6 a 14 anos de idade, residentes em quatro áreas, com diferentes características ecológicas, situadas no município de Iguape, Vale do Ribeira, do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil: 1 - zona urbana da cidade de Iguape; 2 - Rocio, bairro periférico com características rurais; 3 - zona de cultura extensiva de banana, na planície litorânea; 4 - zona de mata primitiva na região pré-serrana. Observou-se, em 8,31% dos investigados, a presença de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação de arbovírus dos grupos antigênicos A, B, C, Bunyamwera, Simbu e Anopheles A. Evidenciou-se diferença significante na proporção dos soros positivos entre escolares residentes nas zonas de bananal e de mata (19,05% e 16,67% e moradores na zona urbana e no bairro do Rocio (1,89% e 3,81%. Crianças sempre residentes na zona urbana de Iguape, sem hábito de freqüência a ambiente silvestre, apresentaram anticorpos neutralizantes para os vírus Caraparu e Rocio, sugerindo transmissão urbana desses agentes. Não há indícios sorológicos de infecções recentes causadas pelo flavivírus Rocio.A serological survey for research on antibodies of 17 arbovirus was carried out among 337 school-children from 6 to 14 years old, living in four ecologically different areas of Iguape County, Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil: 1 - urban zone of Iguape; 2 - Rocio, a peripheric city district of rural characteristics; 3 - zone of extensive banana plantation on the coastal plain; 4 - forested area close to the northern mountain range. It was observed that 8.31% of the children presented HI antibodies to arbovirus of groups A, B, C, Bunyamwera, Simbu or Anopheles A. There was a significant difference between the proportion of positive sera in banana plantation and forest dwellers (19.05% and 16.67% and those from the central urban zone and Rocio district (1

  15. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: III - inquérito em coabitantes com casos de encefalite por Flavivirus Rocio Serological studies for research of arbovirus antibodies in human population of the Ribeira Valley: III - survey among persons cohabiting with encephalitis cases by Flavivirus Rocio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos de 17 arbovírus existentes no país, em coabitantes com doentes de encefalite por Rocio, residentes em zona urbana da região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo (Brasil, onde ocorreu recentemente uma extensa epidemia dessa moléstia. Não se verificou maior prevalência de anticorpos IH para vírus Rocio nessas pessoas quando comparadas com indivíduos que não coabitavam com doentes de encefalite. Foram observados e discutidos alguns aspectos já verificados em outros grupos populacionais estudados anteriormente: maior prevalência de anticorpos IH de arbovírus em homens, particularmente pescadores; aumento dessa prevalência com a idade e presença de pessoa com antecedente de encefalite que apresentou, exclusivamente anticorpos neutralizantes para o Alphavirus EEL, o qual até agora não tem sido responsabilizado por moléstia na região. Encontrou-se baixa proporção de indivíduos com anticorpos para Rocio e Flavivirus em geral, fato este estranhável considerando a recente epidemia.A serological survey for hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies to 17 arbovirus was carried out in households with cases of Rocio encephalitis, in the urban zone of four cities of the Ribeira Valley, Brazil, where an epidemic of Rocio encephalitis occurred recently. Among those households the prevalence of Rocio antibodies was not higher than in households without cases of encephalitis. Some facts, which were reported before, were again observed: a large prevalence of antibodies in men, particulary fishermen, an increase of antibodies with age and the presence of one past case of encephalitis that presented only neutralizing antibodies against EEE. That Alphavirus has never been responsible for human disease in the area. There is also a very small proportion of people with Rocio and Flavivirus antibodies which, in view of the recent epidemic, was surprising.

  16. Identification of hitherto unrecognized arboviruses from Ecuador: members of serogroups B, C, Bunyamwera, Patois, and Minatitlan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, C H; Gutierrez, E; Francy, D B; Alava, A; Muth, D J; Lazuick, J S

    1983-07-01

    Three hundred seventy-nine virus isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected and sentinel hamsters exposed in coastal Ecuador from 1974 to 1978. These included four alphaviruses [Venezuelan equine encephalitis 1B (1), Venezuelan equine encephalitis 1D (35), western equine encephalitis (1) and eastern equine encephalitis (4)]; two flaviviruses [St. Louis encephalitis (3) and Naranjal (6)]; 11 bunyaviruses [Maguari (243), Playas (3), Vinces (33), Turlock (2), Abras (5), Babahoyo (3), Acara (2), Guajara (3), San Juan (6), Pueblo Viejo (3), 18 unspecified Gamboa serogroup viruses, Palestina (7)]; and one vesiculovirus (vesicular stomatitis New Jersey). All but Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus were new to Ecuador, and Naranjal (serogroup B), Playas (Bunyamwera serogroup), Vinces (serogroup C), Abras and Babahoyo (Patois serogroup), San Juan and Pueblo Viejo (Gamboa serogroup) and Palestina (Minatitlan serogroup) are newly recognized viruses. These isolates have enabled us to 1) expand our knowledge of the geographic distribution of recognized viruses, 2) expand our knowledge of the members of certain serogroups and 3) establish two new serogroups (Gamboa and Minatitlan).

  17. Structural Differences Observed in Arboviruses of the Alphavirus and Flavivirus Genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod borne viruses have developed a complex life cycle adapted to alternate between insect and vertebrate hosts. These arthropod-borne viruses belong mainly to the families Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. This group of viruses contains many pathogens that cause febrile, hemorrhagic, and encephalitic disease or arthritic symptoms which can be persistent. It has been appreciated for many years that these viruses were evolutionarily adapted to function in the highly divergent cellular environments of both insect and mammalian phyla. These viruses are hybrid in nature, containing viral-encoded RNA and proteins which are glycosylated by the host and encapsulate viral nucleocapsids in the context of a host-derived membrane. From a structural perspective, these virus particles are macromolecular machines adapted in design to assemble into a packaging and delivery system for the virus genome and, only when associated with the conditions appropriate for a productive infection, to disassemble and deliver the RNA cargo. It was initially assumed that the structures of the virus from both hosts were equivalent. New evidence that alphaviruses and flaviviruses can exist in more than one conformation postenvelopment will be discussed in this review. The data are limited but should refocus the field of structural biology on the metastable nature of these viruses.

  18. [Serologic study of arbovirus in 2 localities of the Juventud island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Ramudo, S; Guzmán Tirado, M G; Monteagudo Borges, R

    1989-01-01

    A serologic study is made in two population groups in the Isle of Youth. A total 268 blood samples in blotting paper are subjected to the hemagglutination inhibition technique, using the Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, and dengue 2 viruses; 16% positivity to flavivirus was found. A second serum sample was taken in people positive by the hemagglutination inhibition technique in order to carry out the techniques of complement fixation and plate reduction neutralization. Nine cases showed complement-fixating antibodies, which is indicative of recent infection and in 29 cases neutralizing antibodies to SLE virus were found.

  19. Updated Distribution of Aedes albopictus in Oklahoma, and Implications in Arbovirus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Bruce H; Coburn, Lisa; Wright, Russell; Bradley, Kristy

    2015-03-01

    A series of statewide surveys were conducted in Oklahoma in the summers between 1991 and 2004 to identify the distribution of Aedes albopictus. Adult mosquitoes were identified in 63 counties, bringing the currently known distribution of Ae. albopictus in the state to 69 of 77 counties. The widespread presence of Ae. albopictus in Oklahoma has important current and future public and veterinary health implications for surveillance and control efforts.

  20. Bibliometric analysis of Oropouche research: impact on the surveillance of emerging arboviruses in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culquichicón, Carlos; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A.; Patiño-Barbosa, Andrés M.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.

    2017-01-01

    Given the emergence and reemergence of viral diseases, particularly in Latin America, we would like to provide an analysis of the patterns of research and publication on Oropouche virus (OROV). We also discuss the implications of recent epidemics in certain areas of South America, and how more clinical and epidemiological information regarding OROV is urgently needed. PMID:28357048

  1. [Mayaro: a re-emerging Arbovirus in Venezuela and Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Navarro, Juan Carlos

    2012-06-01

    Mayaro virus produces nonspecific, sublethal disease symptoms, often confused with dengue, but with symptoms of arthalgias that can cause incapacitating disability. Outbreaks have been localized and sporadic in the Pan-Amazonia forest since its first isolation in 1954 (Trinidad and Tobago). The literature available is scarce, diverse and dispersed. Mayaro virus is an alphavirus, phylogenetically related to the Semliki forest antigenic complex. UNA and Mayaro viruses are the only viruses of this complex that have been isolated in the New World. Mayaro consists of single-stranded RNA of positive charge, length of 12 kb, subdivided into genomic and subgenomic regions, which encode nonstructural and structural proteins respectively. Mayaro shows a great plasticity in vertebrate host infection, whereas high specificity in the family Culicidae (mosquitoes). Risk factors of infection are associated with forest areas of northern South America and the rainy season. Two genotypes of MAYV have been identified, L (Belterra, Brazil) and D (widely distributed in the Pan-Amazonia). The enzootic cycle is similar to the jungle cycle of yellow fever, which involves Haemagogus mosquitoes and monkeys as reservoirs. However, the involvement of other secondary vectors and other hosts may be important in spread of the virus. Humans may have high levels of viremia, and efficient experimental transmission has been demonstrated in Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Aedes scapularis, suggesting a significant risk to public health in urban, rural and peridomestic locations close to enzootic foci of Mayaro virus.

  2. Associations of Arbovirus Vectors with Gallery Forests and Domestic Environments in Southeastern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Nevertheless. viruses other than YF are maintained in the neotropics via monkey- mosquito-monkey cycles. (e.g.. Mayaro virus is maintained by Hg...LeDuc. and F. P. Pinheiro. An outbreak of Mayaro virus disease in Belterra. Brazil: III. Entomological and ecological studies_ Am J Trap Med Hyg 30...outbreak is perhaps greater, because that virus is present in a forest cycle throughout much of Bolivia (I, 4). while dengue is not known to exist in

  3. Arbovirus Isolations from Mosquitoes Collected During 1988 in the Senegal River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    susvensions in Tris-buffered saline . pH 9.0 or CPE in liquid-overlayed cells. Passage of either inlected Vero cell culture supernatant fluid.’ infected cell...Acknowledgments: We express our sincere gratitude to negalese Sahel : 1980-1984. Remotie S4,ns M. L, Wilson. M. Guillaud. and the staffof the Institut

  4. The specifics of vector transmission of arboviruses of vertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Stéphane; Gutiérrez, Serafín

    2015-12-01

    Blood-feeding or sap-feeding arthropods, principally in the taxa Acarina and Insecta are major vectors of viruses of plants and vertebrates. The enormous associated literature suggests that the virus-vector interaction can be of distinct types, some adopted specifically by plant viruses and others by vertebrate viruses. Based on emblematic examples of poxviruses and orthomyxoviruses of vertebrates and of luteovirus, geminivirus, and nanovirus of plants, we here discuss the possibility that the current restriction of certain transmission modes to a given host type may simply reflect limited knowledge. Particularly, we question the absence of a specific relationship in some cases of 'mechanical' transmission of viruses of vertebrates and challenge the so-called 'circulative non-propagative' transmission as a discrete concept specific to plant viruses.

  5. Modeling of the putative distribution of the arbovirus vector Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaun, Christian; Werblow, Antje; Cunze, Sarah; Zotzmann, Sina; Koch, Lisa K; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Dörge, Dorian D; Huber, Katrin; Tackenberg, Oliver; Klimpel, Sven

    2015-03-01

    Today, international travel and global freight transportation are increasing and have a direct influence on the introduction and establishment of non-native mosquito species as well as on the spread of arthropod (mosquito)-borne diseases inside Europe. One of the mosquito species that has become invasive in many areas is the Asian rock pool or bush mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (synonyms: Aedes japonicus japonicus or Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica). This species was detected in Germany in 2008 for the first time. Until today, three different Oc. j. japonicus populations have been documented. Laboratory studies have shown that Oc. j. japonicus can act as a vector for a variety of disease agents. Thus, the knowledge on its current distribution is essential for different measurements. In the present study, ecological niche models were used to estimate the potential distribution of Oc. j. japonicus in Germany. The aim was to detect areas within Germany that could potentially function as habitats for this species. According to our model, areas in western, southern, and central Germany offer suitable conditions for the mosquito and may therefore be at risk for an invasion of the species. We strongly suggest that those areas should be monitored more intensively in the future. For this purpose, it would also be essential to search for possible dispersal routes as well as for natural barriers.

  6. Climate-population analysis of potential mosquito vectors of emerging arbovirus disease threats to the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic viral disease with substantial negative impacts on public and animal health in its endemic range of sub-Saharan Africa. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) could enter the United States and lead to widespread morbidity and mortality in ...

  7. Annual Anastasia Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Control Workshops: Summary of the Past 11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realizing the needs of local mosquito control workers for advance training and education the Anastasia Mosquito Control District (AMCD) and the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary entomology (CMAVE) developed a regional workshop to address these needs. Since 2004 the AMCD and CM...

  8. [Preliminary study on the presence of arbovirus in the populations of Corrientes and Misiones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodara, V L; Jozan, M; Martínez, H; Work, T H; Juan, N J; Weissenbacher, M

    1991-01-01

    Human seroprevalence of Flavivirus was determined by hemagglutination inhibition tests on 479 sera from Misiones and 49 from Corrientes provinces. Paraná and Uruguay river bank communities from Argentina and neighbouring countries carry out frequent traffic across the rivers. With the aim of searching for a possible introduction of Dengue virus from Brasil or/and Paraguay, reactivity among people from Paraná and Uruguay river communities was compared with those from mountain communities. Two sera from Ituzaingó (Corrientes Province) were positive for Dengue 2. In Misiones, 3 sera from Oberá and 2 from Montecarlo were reactive for Dengue 2 and 1 serum from Puerto Iguazú was reactive for Dengue 1. Seroprevalence among the river population was significatively higher than among the mountain population. Likewise, populations on Paraná river showed more positive sera than those on Uruguay river; 54% of the samples possessed titers for SLE virus higher than for Dengue or Yellow fever. Anti-alphavirus (EEE and WEE) antibodies tested in sera from Misiones people showed a complementary distribution pattern to flavivirus. Seroprevalence of anti-alphavirus antibodies was higher in the mountain than in the river populations.

  9. Development and Application of Nucleic Acid Hybridization Techniques to Arbovirus Surveillance and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-04

    The pVV9 and pWV7 probes were more specific for dengue-2 RNA, but-o ::e cross reaction with other dengue serotypes was noted. ,PdUc1biLity Codes S...contained dengue specific inserts that strongly hybridized to dengue-2 RMA and to the RNA of other dengue serotypes to varying degrees (Figure 6). The pVVl

  10. Arbovirus Detection in Insect Vectors by Rapid, High-Throughput Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology . Fifth ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. pp 1101–1152. 2. Gubler DJ, Kuno G, Markoff L (2007...Flaviviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology . Fifth ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. pp 1153–1252. 3. Service MW (2000

  11. Application of satellite precipitation data to analyse and model arbovirus activity in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corner Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus which is closely related to Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus. MVEV is enzootic in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea and epizootic in other parts of Australia. Activity of MVEV in Western Australia (WA is monitored by detection of seroconversions in flocks of sentinel chickens at selected sample sites throughout WA. Rainfall is a major environmental factor influencing MVEV activity. Utilising data on rainfall and seroconversions, statistical relationships between MVEV occurrence and rainfall can be determined. These relationships can be used to predict MVEV activity which, in turn, provides the general public with important information about disease transmission risk. Since ground measurements of rainfall are sparse and irregularly distributed, especially in north WA where rainfall is spatially and temporally highly variable, alternative data sources such as remote sensing (RS data represent an attractive alternative to ground measurements. However, a number of competing alternatives are available and careful evaluation is essential to determine the most appropriate product for a given problem. Results The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42 product was chosen from a range of RS rainfall products to develop rainfall-based predictor variables and build logistic regression models for the prediction of MVEV activity in the Kimberley and Pilbara regions of WA. Two models employing monthly time-lagged rainfall variables showed the strongest discriminatory ability of 0.74 and 0.80 as measured by the Receiver Operating Characteristics area under the curve (ROC AUC. Conclusions TMPA data provide a state-of-the-art data source for the development of rainfall-based predictive models for Flavivirus activity in tropical WA. Compared to ground measurements these data have the advantage of being collected spatially regularly, irrespective of remoteness. We found that increases in monthly rainfall and monthly number of days above average rainfall increased the risk of MVEV activity in the Pilbara at a time-lag of two months. Increases in monthly rainfall and monthly number of days above average rainfall increased the risk of MVEV activity in the Kimberley at a lag of three months.

  12. Surveillance of arbovirus infections in the atlantic forest region, State of São Paulo, Brazil: I. detection of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in wild birds between 1978 and 1990 Vigilância de infecções por arbovírus na Região da Mata Atlântica, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.: I. Detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação em aves silvestres entre 1978 e 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivani B. Ferreira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We report data related to arbovirus antibodies detected in wild birds periodically captured from January 1978 to December 1990 in the counties of Salesópolis (Casa Grande Station, Itapetininga and Ribeira Valley, considering the different capture environments. Plasmas were examined using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI tests. Only monotypic reactions were considered, except for two heterotypic reactions in which a significant difference in titer was observed for a determined virus of the same antigenic group. Among a total of 39,911 birds, 269 birds (0.7% belonging to 66 species and 22 families were found to have a monotypic reaction for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE, Western equine encephalitis (WEE, Ilheus (ILH, Rocio (ROC, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE, SP An 71686, or Caraparu (CAR viruses. Analysis of the data provided information of epidemiologic interest with respect to these agents. Birds with positive serology were distributed among different habitats, with a predominance of unforested habitats. The greatest diversity of positive reactions was observed among species which concentrate in culture fields.Apresentam-se os resultados referentes a anticorpos para arbovírus em aves silvestres capturadas, periodicamente, de janeiro de 1978 a dezembro de 1990, nos municípios de Salesópolis (Estação de Casa Grande; Itapetininga e municípios do Vale do Ribeira, considerando-se os diferentes ambientes de captura. Plasmas foram examinados, por testes de Inibição de Hemaglutinação (IH. Considerou-se apenas as reações monotípicas, com exceção de duas reações heterotípicas, onde ocorreu uma diferença de título significativa para um determinado vírus de um mesmo grupo antigênico. Em um total de 39.911 aves, foram encontradas 269 aves pertencentes a 66 espécies e 22 famílias, com reação monotípica para os vírus Encefalite Equina do Leste (EEE, Encefalite Equina Venezuelana (VEE

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF TWO 14-3-3 PROTEINS IN THE MOSQUITO Aedes aegypti, AN IMPORTANT ARBOVIRUSES VECTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Ocampo, Abel; Cázares-Raga, Febe Elena; Celestino-Montes, Antonio; Cortés-Martínez, Leticia; Rodríguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz

    2016-11-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are evolutionarily conserved acidic proteins that form a family with several isoforms in many cell types of plants and animals. In invertebrates, including dipteran and lepidopteran insects, only two isoforms have been reported. 14-3-3 proteins are scaffold molecules that form homo- or heterodimeric complexes, acting as molecular adaptors mediating phosphorylation-dependent interactions with signaling molecules involved in immunity, cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. Here, we describe the presence of two isoforms of 14-3-3 in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika viruses. Both isoforms have the conserved characteristics of the family: two protein signatures (PS1 and PS2), an annexin domain, three serine residues, targets for phosphorylation (positions 58, 184, and 233), necessary for their function, and nine alpha helix-forming segments. By sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, we found that the molecules correspond to Ɛ and ζ isoforms (Aeae14-3-3ε and Aeae14-3-3ζ). The messengers and protein products were present in all stages of the mosquito life cycle and all the tissues analyzed, with a small predominance of Aeae14-3-3ζ except in the midgut and ovaries of adult females. The 14-3-3 proteins in female midgut epithelial cells were located in the cytoplasm. Our results may provide insights to further investigate the functions of these proteins in mosquitoes.

  14. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, D P; Da Costa, C P; Duarte, D P

    2001-01-01

    This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variation. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  15. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variation. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  16. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae, in Madagascar

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    Raharimalala Fara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML method with the gene time reversible (GTR model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p -16 and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13, that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern Malagasy populations. The experimental oral infection method showed that six Ae. albopictus populations exhibited high dissemination infection rates for chikungunya virus ranging from 98 to 100%. Conclusion In Madagascar, Ae. albopictus has extended its geographical distribution whereas, Ae. aegypti has become rare, contrasting with what was previously observed. Changes are predominantly driven by human activities and the rainfall regime that provide suitable breeding sites for the highly anthropophilic mosquito Ae. albopictus. Moreover, these populations were found to be highly susceptible to chikungunya virus. In the light of this study, Ae. albopictus may have been involved in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue epidemics in Madagascar, and consequently, control measures should be promoted to limit its current expansion.

  17. Distinct sets of PIWI proteins produce arbovirus and transposon-derived piRNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Pascal; Girardi, Erika; van Rij, Ronald P

    2015-07-27

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for transposon silencing in many model organisms. Its remarkable efficiency relies on a sophisticated amplification mechanism known as the ping-pong loop. In Alphavirus-infected Aedes mosquitoes, piRNAs with sequence features that suggest ping-pong-dependent biogenesis are produced from viral RNA. The PIWI family in Aedes mosquitoes is expanded when compared to other model organisms, raising the possibility that individual PIWI proteins have functionally diversified in these insects. Here, we show that Piwi5 and Ago3, but none of the other PIWI family members, are essential for piRNA biogenesis from Sindbis virus RNA in infected Aedes aegypti cells. In contrast, the production of piRNAs from transposons relies on a more versatile set of PIWI proteins, some of which do not contribute to viral piRNA biogenesis. These results indicate that functional specialization allows distinct mosquito PIWI proteins to process RNA from different endogenous and exogenous sources.

  18. 五种虫媒病毒生物学性状的研究%Biological characters of five Arboviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文明; 李晓萸; 黄如统

    2002-01-01

    目的对引进的5种虫媒病毒:马雅罗病毒(MAY),西门利克病毒(SFV),墨累谷脑炎病毒(MVE),伊利乌斯病毒(ILH)和布尼安姆韦拉病毒(BUN)进行生物学性状的研究.方法乳鼠脑内接种传代及致病性观察;制作电镜标本进行病毒的形态学观察;病毒的理化试验(核酸型、耐乙醚、耐酸试验);进行病毒的空斑试验和血凝试验;采用5种虫媒病毒(MAY,SFV,MVE,ILH,BUN)及CHIK,WN,JBE病毒抗血清与5种虫媒病毒血凝素进行交叉血凝抑制试验;结果与结论发现5种病毒具有典型虫媒病毒的生物学特征.脑内接种后,乳鼠死亡时间及症状不同.病毒均为有包膜的球形RNA病毒,在细胞浆内增殖,对酸和乙醚敏感.5种病毒形成不同大小的空斑和具有不同的血凝特性,同组内的病毒可以发生交叉血凝抑制反应.

  19. Distinct sets of PIWI proteins produce arbovirus and transposon-derived piRNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Pascal; Girardi, Erika; van Rij, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for transposon silencing in many model organisms. Its remarkable efficiency relies on a sophisticated amplification mechanism known as the ping-pong loop. In Alphavirus-infected Aedes mosquitoes, piRNAs with sequence features that suggest ping-pong-dependent biogenesis are produced from viral RNA. The PIWI family in Aedes mosquitoes is expanded when compared to other model organisms, raising the possibility that individual PIWI proteins have functionally diversified in these insects. Here, we show that Piwi5 and Ago3, but none of the other PIWI family members, are essential for piRNA biogenesis from Sindbis virus RNA in infected Aedes aegypti cells. In contrast, the production of piRNAs from transposons relies on a more versatile set of PIWI proteins, some of which do not contribute to viral piRNA biogenesis. These results indicate that functional specialization allows distinct mosquito PIWI proteins to process RNA from different endogenous and exogenous sources. PMID:26068474

  20. Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubaugh, Nathan D; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Murrieta, Reyes A; Fauver, Joseph R; Garcia-Luna, Selene M; Prasad, Abhishek N; Black, William C; Ebel, Gregory D

    2016-04-13

    The emergence of mosquito-borne RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), is facilitated by genetically complex virus populations within hosts. Here, we determine whether WNV enzootic (Culex tarsalis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. pipiens) and bridge vectors (Aedes aegypti) have differential impacts on viral mutational diversity and fitness. During systemic mosquito infection, WNV faced stochastic reductions in genetic diversity that rapidly was recovered during intra-tissue population expansions. Interestingly, this intrahost selection and diversification was mosquito species dependent with Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus exhibiting greater WNV divergence. However, recovered viral populations contained a preponderance of potentially deleterious mutations (i.e., high mutational load) and had lower relative fitness in avian cells compared to input virus. These findings demonstrate that the adaptive potential associated with mosquito transmission varies depending on the mosquito species and carries a significant fitness cost in vertebrates.

  1. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Talavera

    Full Text Available The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn. A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding would support the hypothesis that wild ruminants could act as reservoirs for such pathogens, and subsequently be involved in the reintroduction of disease to livestock on neighbouring farms.

  2. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Sandra; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Durán, Mauricio; Verdún, Marta; Soler-Membrives, Anna; Oleaga, Álvaro; Arenas, Antonio; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Pagès, Nitu

    2015-01-01

    The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV) and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn). A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding would support the hypothesis that wild ruminants could act as reservoirs for such pathogens, and subsequently be involved in the reintroduction of disease to livestock on neighbouring farms.

  3. Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana B R Correa Soares

    Full Text Available Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

  4. Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B R Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

  5. Bibliometric analysis of Oropouche research: impact on the surveillance of emerging arboviruses in Latin America [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Culquichicón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the emergence and reemergence of viral diseases, particularly in Latin America, we would like to provide an analysis of the patterns of research and publication on Oropouche virus (OROV. We also discuss the implications of recent epidemics in certain areas of South America, and how more clinical and epidemiological information regarding OROV is urgently needed.

  6. Emergence of a new arbovirus disease in Brazil. III. Isolation of Rocio virus from Psorophora Ferox (Humboldt, 1819).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Lopes, O; de Abreu Sacchetta, L; Francy, D B; Jakob, W L; Calisher, C H

    1981-02-01

    A newly described flavivirus was responsible for a large encephalitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil. The etiologic agent, Rocio virus, was isolated from human patients and sentinel mice. The natural history of the virus is unknown although presumed to be arthropod-borne. Rocio virus was isolated from a single pool containing 19 Psorophora ferox of 47 pools (283 specimens) of this species tested. The positive pool contained 16 deplete, 2 gravid, and 2 engorged mosquitoes. No isolations were made from 2183 pools of other species. The positive pool was collected during the year of the epidemic at the same approximate time and place where vertebrate isolations were made.

  7. Emergence of a new arbovirus disease in Brazil. I. Isolation and characterization of the etiologic agent, Rocio virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Lopes, O; Coimbra, T L; de Abreu Sacchetta, L; Calisher, C H

    1978-05-01

    In April, 1975, an epidemic of human encephalitis was detected in several counties in the State of São Paulo, Brazil; the epidemic continued into 1976. A virus was isolated from central nervous system (CNS) tissues of a 39-year-old male who died on December 8, 1975; the virus was found to be a new flavivirus for which the name Rocio virus is proposed. Nine further isolations of Rocio virus were obtained from CNS tissues of 17 patients who died with clinical symptoms of encephalitis. Isolations of virus and serologic evidence of Rocio virus infection in a significant proportion of the encephalitis patients suggested that Rocio virus was the etiologic agent of the epidemic. Rocio virus was isolated only from patients who died within 5 days of onset of illness. The virus was isolated from two sentinel mice exposed in the epidemic zone and from a rufous collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) collected in the area.

  8. Whole transcriptome responses among females of the filariasis and arbovirus vector mosquito Culex pipiens implicate TGF-β signaling and chromatin modification as key drivers of diapause induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickner, Paul V; Mori, Akio; Zeng, Erliang; Tan, John C; Severson, David W

    2015-07-01

    Culex pipiens mosquitoes are important disease vectors inhabiting temperate zones, worldwide. The seasonal reduction in temperature and photoperiod accompanying late summer and early fall prompts female mosquitoes to enter diapause, a stage of developmental arrest and physiological conditioning that enhances survival during the winter months. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying diapause induction, we used custom whole transcriptome microarrays to identify differences in gene expression following exposure to nondiapause (long days, 25 °C) and diapause-inducing (short days, 18 °C) environmental conditions. Using a two-way ANOVA, we identified 1130 genes that were differentially expressed. We used the expression of these genes across three time points to construct a gene co-expression network comprising five modules. Genes in modules 1, 2, and 3 were largely up-regulated, while genes in modules 4 and 5 were down-regulated when compared to nondiapause conditions. Pathway enrichment analysis of the network modules revealed some potential regulatory mechanisms driving diapause induction. Module 1 was enriched for genes in the TGF-ß and Wnt signaling pathways; module 2 was enriched for genes involved in insect hormone biosynthesis, specifically, ecdysone synthesis; module 3 was enriched for genes involved in chromatin modification; and module 5 was enriched for genes in the circadian rhythm pathway. Our results suggest that TGF-β signaling and chromatin modification are key drivers for the integration of environmental signals into the diapause induction phase in C. pipiens mosquitoes.

  9. Functional and immunohistochemical characterization of CCEae3a, a carboxylesterase associated with temephos resistance in the major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoraki, Linda; Balabanidou, Vassileia; Meristoudis, Christos; Miridakis, Antonis; Ranson, Hilary; Swevers, Luc; Vontas, John

    2016-07-01

    Temephos is a major organophosphate (OP) larvicide that has been used extensively for the control of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the major vectors for viral diseases, such as dengue fever, zika and chikungunya. Resistance to temephos has been recently detected and associated with the upregulation of carboxylesterases (CCEs) through gene amplification, in both species. Here, we expressed the CCEae3a genes which showed the most striking up-regulation in resistant Aedes strains, using the baculovirus system. All CCEae3a variants encoded functional enzymes, with high activity and preference for p-nitrophenyl butyrate, a substrate that was shown capable to differentiate temephos resistant from susceptible Aedes larvae. Enzyme kinetic studies showed that CCEae3as from both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (CCEae3a_aeg and CCEae3a_alb, respectively) strongly interact with temephos oxon and slowly released the OP molecule, indicating a sequestration resistance mechanism. No difference was detected between resistant and susceptible CCEae3a_aeg variants (CCEae3a_aegR and CCEae3a_aegS, respectively), indicating that previously reported polymorphism is unlikely to play a role in temephos resistance. HPLC/MS showed that CCEae3as were able to metabolize temephos oxon to the temephos monoester [(4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfanyl] phenyl O,O-dimethylphosphorothioate. Western blot and immunolocalization studies, based on a specific antibody raised against the CCEae3a_alb showed that the enzyme is expressed at higher levels in resistant insects, primarily in malpighian tubules (MT) and nerve tissues.

  10. Larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from wild and cultivated Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), an arbovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa; Profeti, Raffaele; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Benelli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Rutaceae are widely recognized for their toxic and repellent activity exerted against mosquitoes. In our research, the essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of wild and cultivated plants of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. In this research, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the essential oils from wild and cultivated plants showed only quantitative differences, in particular relatively to the amounts of ketone derivatives, while the qualitative profile evidenced a similar chemical composition. Both essential oils from wild and cultivated R. chalepensis plants were able to exert a very good toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae (wild plants, LC(50) = 35.66 ppm; cultivated plants, LC(50) = 33.18 ppm), and mortality was dosage dependent. These data are the first evidence of the toxicity of R. chalepensis against mosquitoes. Furthermore, the R. chalepensis essential oil from wild plants was an effective repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.000215 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.007613 μL/cm(2). Our results clearly evidenced that the larvicidal and repellent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil could be used for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  11. Studies of arboviruses in Southwestern Venezuela: I. Isolations of Venezuelan and Eastern Equine Encephalitis viruses from sentinel hamsters in the Catatumbo region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, R; Suárez, O M

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe isolations of Venezuelan (VEE) and Eastern (EEE) Equine Encephalitis virus made in the lowland moist tropical forest of the Catatumbo region on the southwestern part of the State of Zulia, Venezuela. We have isolated four strains of EEEV from sentinel hamsters exposed at Caño Mocho and Madre Vieja sites in 1973 and 1974, and three strains of EEEV in Hacienda (Hda.) Las Nubes in 1975. Both viruses were recovered during silent interepidemic periods and we believe these viruses are maintained in this region in sylvatic conditions. The recovered virus strains were detected within 24 to 48 hours, both in SMB and Vero Cell monolayer cultures and the sentinel hamsters yielded virus infectivities up to 10(4) PFU ml. Our VEEV isolate (IVIC PAn 23645-47), recovered during the silent interepizodemic period had an elution profile on the hydroxylapatite column corresponding to that of a I-D (VEEV-3880) or a I-E (VEEV-63A216) 'enzootic' subtype. However, considering other in vitro criteria (KHI; HA pH 5.8-6.0; small plaque size in Vero monolayers with suitable overlay media), this later and other previous isolates had some very distinct properties of the 'epizootic' strains. Thus, the evidence suggests that in Venezuela the VEEV cycle in nature is maintained either by the so called 'enzootic' and/or 'epizootic' virus types, or the virus population of the isolates have particular in vitro properties which do not correlate to the virulence markers in vivo. We consider this important question must be further clarified, and in addition, the isolation of three strains of EEEV are reported; this is the first report of the presence of this virus in Venezuela. Although the EEEV isolates may be of the South American type, they must be considered as potentially dangerous in the case of outbreaks.

  12. Isolation and identification of arboviruses from mosquito pools in Yunnan Province%云南省虫媒病毒的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙肖红; 韩瑞红; 梁国栋; 付士红; 张海林; 王环宇; 何英; 刘卫滨; 杨卫红; 冯云; 闽继光

    2005-01-01

    目的了解云南省部分地区虫媒病毒的存在及流行情况.方法2002年和2004年从云南省5个县市采集蚊虫,经研磨、细胞接种分离病毒,通过实时荧光PCR、免疫荧光试验等方法进行鉴定,并对病毒的分子生物学特性进行分析.结果采集到4810只蚊虫,分离到12株致BHK细胞病变的病毒,经实时荧光PCR、免疫荧光试验等鉴定为乙脑病毒.新分离病毒DL-0437属于基因Ⅲ型乙脑病毒.结论2002年和2004年在云南5个县市采集4810只蚊虫中分离到12株乙脑病毒,是近年来在云南省首次分离到基因Ⅲ型乙脑病毒.

  13. 3种重要虫媒病毒的RT-PCR检测%Detection of three important arbovirus strains by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于曼; 秦鄂德; 邓永强; 赵月峨; 范宝昌; 彭文明; 杨保安; 司炳银; 祝庆余

    2003-01-01

    目的:建立快速、敏感、特异的虫媒病毒RT-PCR检测方法.方法:采用改进的核酸制备方法,分别从感染的乳鼠脑和细胞培养上清液中提取病毒RNA,再用RT-PCR和套式PCR方法进行检测.结果:通过对RT-PCR反应条件的优化,用3种虫媒病毒的特异引物均可从不同稀释度的感染小鼠脑和细胞上清中提取的病毒RNA扩增出特异的目的基因片段.甲病毒属的东部马脑炎病毒和西部马脑炎病毒之间,及与黄病毒属的黄热病毒均无交叉反应,表明建立的RT-PCR检测方法特异性强.套式PCR与RT-PCR比较可提高检测敏感性10~10 000倍.结论:建立的RT-PCR和套式PCR法可用于3种虫媒病毒的快速检测.

  14. Newly arbovirus isolated from arthropod in China%我国从节肢动物中新分离的虫媒病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云; 张海林; 梁国栋

    2009-01-01

    20世纪80年代以来在我国不同地区先后分离到14种虫媒病毒,其中甲病毒6种(辛德毕斯、基孔肯雅、盖塔、西方马脑炎、东方马脑炎和罗斯河病毒)、黄病毒3种(流行性乙型脑炎、登革热和蜱传脑炎病毒)、布尼安病毒3种(克里米亚一刚果出血热、巴泰和阿卡斑病毒)和呼肠孤病毒2种(东南亚十二节段RNA病毒和环状病毒),并有数十株病毒未确定种类.现就我国近几年新分离的虫媒病毒及其分布、媒介等方面的研究进展进行综述.

  15. CELL SENSITIVITY OBSERVATION OF FIVE ARBOVIRUSES%五种虫媒病毒的细胞敏感性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文明; 黄如统

    2002-01-01

    对新引进 5 种虫媒病毒:马雅罗病毒(MAY),西门利克病毒(SFV),墨累谷脑炎病毒(MVE),伊利乌斯病毒(ILH)和布尼安姆韦拉病毒(BUN)采取乳鼠脑内接种的方法传出;选择BHK21、LLC-MK2、A549和C6/36传代细胞,进行这 5 种病毒的敏感性试验,观察病毒在细胞上的CPE出现时间、特点以及滴度.实验表明,BHK21细胞对 5 种病毒CPE 特征明显,出现时间较早,滴度较高,适用于 5 种病毒的组织培养.

  16. 我国南方人鼠虫媒病毒血清流行病学调查*%The Seroepidemiolgical Investigation of Arbovirus in Humans and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春生; 白志军; 彭翼飞; 赵文忠; 陈翠华; 方美玉; 田小东; 蒋廉华; 陈唯军; 刘建伟; 林立辉

    2001-01-01

    目的调查我国南方地区虫媒病毒的感染分布情况.方法应用间接免疫荧光技术,对我国南方11个地区3077份人血清标本和401份鼠血清标本进行了14种虫媒病毒血清流行病学调查.结果人血清中甲病毒(SIN,CHIK,SF,MAY,RR,SAG和GET)抗体的阳性率分别是0.64%,1.13%,0.64%,0.04%,0.94%,0.11%和0.18%;黄病毒(JE和DEN1-4)抗体的阳性率分别是2.70%和8.60%;布尼安病毒抗体(XHF和SSH),在海南人群中的阳性率分别是2.66%和5.33%.在海南三亚、琼中和琼海3个地区的鼠中,甲病毒(SIN,CHIK,RR和SF)抗体的阳性率分别是1.80%,6.31%,4.50%和6.31%;黄病毒(JE和DEN1-4)抗体的阳性率分别是3.69%和8.11%;布尼安病毒(XHF和SSH)抗体的阳性率分别是3.10%和3.79%.结论在我国南方一些地区生活的人群和鼠类不同程度的感染了甲病毒、黄病毒和布尼安病毒.

  17. Investigation of mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses in Haikou, China%海口地区蚊种分布及病毒鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庭祥; 王君; 王晓花

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解海南省海口地区蚊虫种类分布及其病毒携带情况,为相关蚊媒疾病防制提供科学依据.方法 2010年6-11月选择海口市区及4个区不同生境作为蚊虫监测点,利用电动吸蚊器法对不同生境进行蚊虫采集,将捕捉蚊虫带回实验室进行分类和病毒分离鉴定.结果 共捕获蚊虫8425只,其中三带喙库蚊占捕获蚊虫总数的68.87%,致倦库蚊占20.21%,中华按蚊占6.64%,骚扰阿蚊占4.28%;分离鉴定出盖塔病毒和版纳病毒各1株.结论 依据海口地区蚊虫的生态学特点做好防蚊、灭蚊工作,为防制相关虫媒传染病的发生做好有效预防.

  18. 输入性蚊类携带虫媒病毒监测研究%Surveillance on Arboviruses Carried by Introduced Mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊成; 付士红; 聂维忠; 孙肖红; 李德昕; 梁国栋; 王海军; 汪仁杰; 刘恩东

    2007-01-01

    [目的]研究输入性蚊类携带虫媒病毒情况.[方法]在检疫锚地采集入境国际航行船舶携带的输入性蚊类进行虫媒病毒培养分离鉴定.[结果]2004~2005年共检测7 706只输入性蚊类.在来自亚洲、北美洲、南美洲及大洋洲的6个国家的15艘次入境国际航行船舶携带的935只输入性蚊类体内分离出13株虫媒病毒,其中乙脑病毒8株;甲病毒属病毒5株,平均病毒检出率为1.39%(13株/935只)(自最高1株/19只至最低1株/135只).此次研究结果为我国首次发现.[结论]结果证明输入性蚊类可携带虫媒病毒的事实和风险,应予高度重视.

  19. Research in arbovirus should be strengthened in China%虫媒病毒是我国亟待加强的研究领域

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国栋

    2005-01-01

    虫媒病毒不仅种类繁多而且可以引起多种人畜共患的急性传染病,因此备受关注。我国虫媒病毒研究与国外存在较大差距,亟待加强。本刊汇集了近20篇研究论文以专辑出版。本期首先发表10篇,其他文章将陆续发表。本专辑的发表必将对我国虫媒病毒研究起到极大的推动作用。

  20. 黑龙江省部分地区虫媒病毒调查%Arbovirus survey in some regions in Heilongjiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王环宇; 唐青; 梁国栋; 付士红; 王俊文; 何英; 蔡增林; 韩瑞红; 刘国平; 孙肖红; 张强

    2005-01-01

    目的对黑龙江省部分地区的虫媒病毒进行调查,从吸血蚊虫中分离病毒,并对其进行鉴定.方法2002年在黑龙江省采集蚊虫标本,用BHK细胞分离病毒,并进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定.应用Clustal X(1.8)软件做碱基配对及进化分析,GENEDOS(3.2)软件完成氨基酸位点分析.结果4株病毒引起BHK细胞规律病变,病变时间为72 h,乳鼠脑内接种病毒后72 h死亡.与标准乙型脑炎病毒抗体呈阳性反应.扩增病毒PrM、E区段并进行基因分型分析,4株病毒属于基因Ⅲ型乙型脑炎病毒.以减毒活疫苗株SA14-14-2为标准,采用以往黑龙江省分离的乙脑毒株(47、Ha-3株)为参照对4株病毒的E基因区段进行分析,4株病毒之间核苷酸同源性在99.9%以上,氨基酸同源性在99.8%以上;新分离4株乙脑病毒与SA14-14-2的核苷酸同源性为97.3%,氨基酸同源性在96.8%~97.0%,共存在7个位点的共同差异.结论在黑龙江省新分离到4株乙型脑炎病毒.在决定病毒毒力的8个重要位点上有6处差异.

  1. 新疆地区蚊种分布及虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of mosquito species distribution and arbovirus in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜振国; 马合木提; 邓红; 张建; 刘同中; 李新兰; 张本忠

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解新疆地区蚊虫种类、分布特点及虫媒病毒携带情况.方法 使用灯诱法和挥网法捕捉蚊虫,分类鉴定后冷藏于液氮罐中,利用分子生物学方法检测蚊虫携带病毒情况.结果 2014年7-10月共捕获蚊虫3 550只,包括4属7种,其中尖音库蚊占捕获总数的54.28%;其次为里海伊蚊,占29.38%;其他种类占比较小.捕获蚊虫中均未检测到黄病毒属、甲病毒属、布尼亚病毒属、流行性乙型脑炎病毒、辽宁病毒、Tahyna病毒、蜱传脑炎及西尼罗病毒.结论 新疆维吾尔自治区境内优势蚊种为尖音库蚊,未发现蚊类携带虫媒病毒,但仍需密切关注.

  2. 5种虫媒病毒的细胞培养及空斑试验%Cell culture and plaque forming test of five arboviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文明; 司炳银; 黄如统

    2002-01-01

    目的:选择一株对5种虫媒病毒:马雅罗病毒(MAY)、西门利克病毒(SFV)、墨累谷脑炎病毒(MVE)、伊利乌斯病毒(ILH)和布尼安姆韦拉病毒(BUN)敏感的细胞用于这5种病毒生物学性状的研究.方法:将不同稀释度的乳鼠脑病毒悬液接种到BHK21,LLC_MK2,A549和C6/36传代细胞上,进行这5种病毒的敏感性试验,选出一株对5种病毒较敏感的细胞株;对敏感细胞株进行三因素三水平正交试验,探索细胞的最佳培养条件;进行5种病毒的空斑试验.结果:BHK21细胞对5种病毒细胞病变特征明显,出现时间较早,滴度较高,适用于5种病毒的培养.在合适条件下,BHK21细胞单层可以维持7d以上,5种虫媒病毒在BHK21细胞上出现了大小、形态都不相同的空斑.结论:BHK21细胞在60% DMEM培养液、30%的0.5%水解乳蛋白、10%小牛血清、常量青、链霉素和50*!μg/ml卡那霉素,保持pH 7.2条件下生长最好,能够满足5种虫媒病毒生物学性状研究的需要.

  3. Single-step biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Zornia diphylla leaves: A potent eco-friendly tool against malaria and arbovirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Khater, Hanem F; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. The application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools of mosquito vectors are a priority. Here single-step fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap aqueous leaf extract of Zornia diphylla as reducing and capping agent pf Ag(+) ions has been carried out. Biosynthesized AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of Z. diphylla leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the Z. diphylla leaf extract and Ag NP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 12.53, 13.42 and 14.61μg/ml, respectively. Biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Chironomus circumdatus, Anisops bouvieri and Gambusia affinis, with the respective LC50 values ranging from 613.11 to 6903.93μg/ml, if compared to target mosquitoes. Overall, our results highlight that Z. diphylla-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against larval populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance, with negligible toxicity against other non-target organisms.

  4. Mosquito-Disseminated Insecticide for Citywide Vector Control and Its Potential to Block Arbovirus Epidemics: Entomological Observations and Modeling Results from Amazonian Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne viruses threaten public health worldwide. When the ratio of competent vectors to susceptible humans is low enough, the virus’s basic reproductive number (R0) falls below 1.0 (each case generating, on average, <1.0 additional case) and the infection fades out from the population. Conventional mosquito control tactics, however, seldom yield R0 < 1.0. A promising alternative uses mosquitoes to disseminate a potent growth-regulator larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), to aquatic larval habitats; this kills most mosquito juveniles and substantially reduces adult mosquito emergence. We tested mosquito-disseminated PPF in Manacapuru, a 60,000-inhabitant city (~650 ha) in Amazonian Brazil. Methods and Findings We sampled juvenile mosquitoes monthly in 100 dwellings over four periods in February 2014–January 2016: 12 baseline months, 5 mo of citywide PPF dissemination, 3 mo of focal PPF dissemination around Aedes-infested dwellings, and 3 mo after dissemination ended. We caught 19,434 juvenile mosquitoes (66% Aedes albopictus, 28% Ae. aegypti) in 8,271 trap-months. Using generalized linear mixed models, we estimated intervention effects on juvenile catch and adult emergence while adjusting for dwelling-level clustering, unequal sampling effort, and weather-related confounders. Following PPF dissemination, Aedes juvenile catch decreased by 79%–92% and juvenile mortality increased from 2%–7% to 80%–90%. Mean adult Aedes emergence fell from 1,077 per month (range 653–1,635) at baseline to 50.4 per month during PPF dissemination (range 2–117). Female Aedes emergence dropped by 96%–98%, such that the number of females emerging per person decreased to 0.06 females per person-month (range 0.002–0.129). Deterministic models predict, under plausible biological-epidemiological scenarios, that the R0 of typical Aedes-borne viruses would fall from 3–45 at baseline to 0.004–0.06 during PPF dissemination. The main limitations of our study were that it was a before–after trial lacking truly independent replicates and that we did not measure mosquito-borne virus transmission empirically. Conclusions Mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to block mosquito-borne virus transmission citywide, even under adverse scenarios. Our results signal new avenues for mosquito-borne disease prevention, likely including the effective control of Aedes-borne dengue, Zika, and chikungunya epidemics. Cluster-randomized controlled trials will help determine whether mosquito-disseminated PPF can, as our findings suggest, develop into a major tool for improving global public health. PMID:28095414

  5. Status on arbovirus investigation in Xinjiang, China%新疆地区虫媒病毒调查研究状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇春; 段晓梅; 张渝疆; 孙素荣

    2016-01-01

    近年来新疆陆续发现的一些新的虫媒病毒与虫媒病毒病对当地人畜健康造成一定危害.新疆地理生态环境的复杂多样性为多种虫媒病毒的传播提供了有利条件,虫媒病毒在新疆分布广泛,存在地域差异性.随着分子流行病学的发展,基于核酸分子和细胞培养检测技术方法从新疆的多种昆虫媒介和宿主动物中鉴定并分离得到分属于黄病毒科、披膜病毒科、呼肠孤病毒科和布尼亚病毒科的多种病毒,部分病毒属在新疆系首次发现.本文对新疆多个地区近年来已报道的虫媒病毒在宿主中的检测和感染人畜引起的疾病的情况进行了汇总整理,有利于对新疆各地虫媒病毒的流行病学进行深入的调查与研究.

  6. Evaluation of a Field-Portable DNA Microarray Platform and Nucleic Acid Amplification Strategies for the Detection of Arboviruses, Arthropods, and Bloodmeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    successfully identified flaviviruses (Culex flavivirus, dengue-3, and Japanese encephalitis viruses), differen- tiated between mosquito genera ( Aedes , Armigeres...detection and confirmation of arthropod- borne pathogens by surveillance programs or preventive med- icine units, ruggedized and miniaturized equipment...Mosquito-derived virus Detected† Mosquito species Detected† CYV (ROK144) + NT NT DENV-1 (HAW) + NT NT DENV-2 (S16803) + NT NT DENV-3 (Thai87) + Aedes

  7. Syndromic Approach to Arboviral Diagnostics for Global Travelers as a Basis for Infectious Disease Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.B. Cleton (Natalie); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); J.F.P. Wagenaar (Jiri); E.E. van der Vaart (Elske E.); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Arboviruses have overlapping geographical distributions and can cause symptoms that coincide with more common infections. Therefore, arbovirus infections are often neglected by travel diagnostics. Here, we assessed the potential of syndrome-based approaches for diagnosis and

  8. Potential for Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus j. japonicus to Change the Field Ecology of Arboviruses of Human Health Importance in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    transovarial transmission (Watts et al. 1974) and may be amplified by venereal transmission between infected males and uninfected female mosquitoes...Failloux AB. 1999. Aedes aegypti in Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam): susceptibility to dengue 2 virus and genetic differentiation . Trans R Soc Trop Med...triseriatus triseriatus female male Venereal Human Figure 4. La Crosse virus cycle. 38 Table 2. Vector competence

  9. Investigation on arboviruses in Tianshui and Longnan regions of Gansu province%甘肃省天水及陇南部分地区虫媒病毒调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟友刚; 王焕琴; 许海魁; 孟维珊; 曹玉玺; 付士红; 梁国栋

    2008-01-01

    目的 对甘肃省天水陇南部分地区的吸血蚊虫进行病毒分离与鉴定.方法 2006年8月在当地采集蚊虫标本,分离病毒和对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定,以软件进行病毒的核苷酸序列比对和系统发生分析.结果 分离到19株病毒,鉴定结果 显示分离株GS10-2为盖塔病毒,GS42-2为版纳病毒,其余分离株为一种基因组约8 000核苷酸的未知RNA病毒.盖塔病毒分离株3'UTR中具有与已往中国分离株相同的缺失序列和3个特异核苷酸位点.版纳病毒分离株基因组第12片段的进化关系同其它中国分离株有明显差异,位于一条独立的进化枝中.结论 在该地区分离到1株盖塔病毒、1株版纳病毒和17株未知RNA病毒;盖塔病毒与以往我国分离株的遗传关系密切,版纳病毒与我国其它地区分离株有明显差异,在进化上相对独立.

  10. PREVALENCE OF HUMAN ANTIBODY TO ARBOVIRUS IN GUANGDONG AND HAINAN PROVINCES%广东、海南两省人血清12种虫媒病毒抗体调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白志军; 彭翼飞; 林立辉; 田小东; 陈翠华; 方美玉; 徐春华; 蒋廉华; 陈唯军

    2000-01-01

    目的为了解南方地区虫媒病毒的感染分布情况。方法本文应用间接免疫荧光法(IFA)对广东省、海南省两地共2456份人血清检测12种虫媒病毒抗体。结果甲病毒抗体阳性率为1.47%(36/2456),其中海南省人血清甲病毒阳性占总阳性数的1.22%,广东省人血清甲病毒阳性占总阳性数的0.24%。罗斯河病毒(RR)、基孔肯亚病毒(CHIK)、盖塔病毒(GET)阳性率分别为0.49%、0.37%、0.20%。黄病毒抗体阳性率为9.85%,登革Ⅰ-Ⅳ型(DEN1-4)和乙脑(JEV)阳性率分别为3.54%和2.04%、0.73%、1.06%、2.00%。结论从这次在广东,海南两地调查均能检测出甲病毒抗体,表明两地人群除存在黄病毒中DEN1-4,JEV感染外,还存在甲病毒的感染,特别是RR、CHIK病毒的感染。

  11. Serologic survey of mosquito-borne arboviruses in population with fever in Hekou port%河口口岸发热人群蚊媒病毒感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小东; 孙肖红; 张琼华; 陈俊利; 白红岩; 林二妹; 张建春; 张丽芝; 黄英

    2014-01-01

    目的 掌握河口口岸地区发热人群蚊媒病毒感染情况.方法 检测河口口岸地区发热人群血清乙脑病毒、登革病毒和基孔肯雅病毒IgM抗体.结果 共检测河口口岸地区四个乡镇卫生院363份发热人群血清,74份阳性,总阳性率为20.39%(74/363),阳性率最高的是登革病毒,51份阳性,阳性率为14.05%,乙脑病毒和基孔肯雅病毒的IgM抗体阳性率分别是2.20%(8/363)和4.13%(15/363).10岁以下人群总IgM抗体阳性率最高,为57.14%(4/7).乙脑病毒和登革病毒均以儿童最高,中老年人群的感染情况也不容忽视.结论 应加强河口口岸地区蚊媒监测,降低当地蚊媒病毒感染率.

  12. 黔南及黔东南虫媒病毒人群血清流行病学调查%Seroepidemiological survey of arbovirus among people in southern and southeastern Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小兵; 唐旭东; 牛文忠; 张天鉴; 张富强; 郑钧丰; 邱薇; 张雪莲; 范泉水

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解黔南及黔东南部分虫媒病毒人群血清抗体阳性分布.方法 2012年8月,选取在当地连续居住1年以上、年龄18~40岁的自愿健康人群,用间接免疫荧光试验法,调查马亚罗(MAY)、辛德比斯(SIN)、基孔肯雅(CHIK)、盖他(GET)、流行性乙型脑炎(JE)、登革热Ⅲ型(DEN-3)、流行性出血热(EHF)和森林脑炎(TBE)病毒在黔南及黔东南人群中的阳性分布.结果 共检测血清标本502份,111份至少有1种病毒抗体阳性,抗体阳性检出率最高的是JE,阳性率为12.15%;其次为MAY,阳性率为10.28%;TBE未检出抗体阳性血清.居住时间、居住地性质和地区分布对抗体的阳性分布影响较为显著.结论 黔南和黔东南可能是多种虫媒病毒病的自然疫源地.

  13. Hemagglutination activity and cross hemagglutination inhibition test of five arboviruses%5种虫媒病毒的血凝活性及血凝交叉抑制试验的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文明; 黄如统

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究新引进的5种虫媒病毒:马雅罗病毒(MAY)、西门利克病毒(SFV)、墨累谷脑炎病毒(MVE)、伊利乌斯病毒(ILH)和布尼安姆韦拉病毒(BUN)的血凝及血凝交叉抑制活性,了解这5种虫媒病毒的血清学关系.方法:对5种虫媒病毒进行血凝试验;制备5种病毒的抗血清,采用MAY,SFV,MVE,ILH,BUN,基孔肯雅病毒(CHIK),西尼罗病毒(WN),流行性乙型脑炎病毒(JBE)抗血清与5种虫媒病毒进行血凝交叉抑制试验.结果:5种病毒在合适的条件下具有使鹅红细胞凝集的能力,MAY,SFV,MVE,ILH,BUN的血凝最适pH分别为6.4,6.4,7.0,6.6,6.4;在披膜病毒科和黄病毒科中同一科内的病毒具有明显的血凝交叉抑制反应.结论:MAY,SFV与CHIK血清学关系密切;MVE,ILH和JBE,WN的血清学关系密切;BUN与试验的披膜病毒和黄病毒科病毒血清学关系较远.

  14. Part nucleotide sequence determination and homology analysis of five arbovirus genomes%5种虫媒病毒基因组部分核苷酸序列的测定及同源性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文明; 黄如统

    2002-01-01

    目的: 从分子水平对引进的5种虫媒病毒:马雅罗病毒(MAY)、西门利克病毒(SFV)、墨累谷脑炎病毒(MVE)、伊利乌斯病毒(ILH)和布尼安姆韦拉病毒(BUN)进行鉴定.方法:提取病毒基因组RNA,用逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)进行5种虫媒病毒目的片段的cDNA扩增,将获得的片段分别克隆于pGEM-T-Easy载体,进行测序和同源性分析.结果:测得的病毒基因组核苷酸序列与相应病毒的序列同源性最高,分别为MAY 97%,SFV 99%,MVE 99%,ILH 99%和BUN 98%.结论:通过对5种病毒基因组部分核苷酸序列的测定及同源性比较,最终将这5种虫媒病毒鉴定到种.

  15. Investigation on the Distribution of Arbovirus in the South of China by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reactions%RT-PCR技术在南方虫媒病毒流行病学调查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方美玉; 蒋廉华; 陈翠华; 白志军; 林立辉; 刘建伟; 赵文忠; 陈唯军

    2000-01-01

    目的:调查南方地区虫媒病毒感染情况.方法:应用虫媒病毒的通用引物逆转录-聚合酶链反应技术(RT-PCR).结果:检测110组骚扰阿蚊、90组白纹伊蚊和18组致倦库蚊标本,分别检出15组、9组和2组阳性标本,阳性率分别为13.63%、10%、11.11%;168份发烧病人待查标本中,28份疑似登革热血标本、11份疑似乙型脑炎血标本和3份"不明热"血标本,均扩增出413bp的特异带,证实为虫媒病毒感染.结论:①我国南方地区存在除登革病毒和乙型脑炎病毒外的其它黄病毒感染;②3种蚊虫标本检测出的阳性率表明,还可能存在新虫媒病毒疫源地.

  16. Investigation of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in Gansu Province, China%2014年甘肃省部分地区蚊虫及蚊媒病毒调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于德山; 崔世恒; 付士红; 曹蕾; 曹玉玺; 陈生邦; 李国太; 蒋建祥; 梁国栋

    2016-01-01

    为调查甘肃省部分地区蚊虫及蚊媒病毒的种类及分布,本课题组2014年在甘肃省酒泉市和陇南市地区共采集蚊虫4 412只.酒泉市共采集蚊虫2属3种2 833只,其中背点伊蚊(Aedes dorsalis)2 665只(94.1%)、刺扰伊蚊(Aedes vexans)150只(5.3%)、淡色库蚊(Culex pipiens pallens)18只(0.6%);陇南市共采集2属2种1 579只蚊虫,其中淡色库蚊1 451只(91.9%)、中华按蚊(Anopheles sinensis)128只(8.1%).经实验室常规处理后,将蚊虫标本分为96批,接种于C6/36、BHK和Vero细胞,进行病毒分离和多种病毒基因特异性扩增检测.结果显示,96批蚊虫标本在3种细胞中均未出现细胞病变效应(cytopathic effect,CPE),在18批蚊虫标本研磨液中检测到辽宁病毒(Liaoning virus,LNV)基因阳性.病毒核苷酸序列的遗传进化分析显示,在甘肃省检测到的辽宁病毒与此前在我国新疆维吾尔自治区发现的辽宁病毒亲缘关系最近.

  17. 4种动物虫媒病病毒多重RT-PCR检测方法的建立%Simultaneous Detection of 4 Group Arboviruses Using a Single-tube Multiplex Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮周曦; 花群义; 杨俊兴; 曾少灵; 曹琛福; 秦智锋; 吕建强; 林庆燕; 周晓黎

    2010-01-01

    分别设计和合成4对特异性引物,通过对反应条件的优化,初步建立了鉴别蓝舌病病毒(BTV)、鹿流行性出血病病毒(EHDV)、水疱性口炎病毒(VSV)和赤羽病病毒(AKV)的多重RT-PCR检测方法,并对其特异性和敏感性进行了检测.结果表明,所设计的4对引物可对同一样品中的VSV、BTV、EHDV和AKV进行特异性扩增,所扩增的目的片段的长度分别为301、351、537、250 bp.建立的四重RT-PCR检测方法能够检测出10-7稀释的细胞培养病毒液,4种病毒之间没有发生交叉反应,说明该检测方法特异性强,敏感性较高.所建立的多重RT-PCR方法可用于上述4种动物虫媒病病毒的快速鉴别诊断,在动物检疫、临床诊断和流行病学调查方面具有较好的应用前景.

  18. THE SEROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ARBOVIRUSES IN HAINAN PROVINCE%海南人群及驻地官兵虫媒病毒血清流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春华; 彭翼飞; 白志军; 田小东; 林立辉; 陈翠华; 方美玉; 蒋廉华

    2000-01-01

    目的:调查了解海南省人群及驻地官兵虫媒病毒感染情况.方法:应用间接免疫荧光法(IFA)对海南省驻地部队和三个地区共607份人血清检测了12种虫媒病毒抗体.结果:驻地部队385份人血清中,黄病毒抗体阳性率为5.7%,甲病毒抗体阳性率为0.52%;海南省当地222份人血清中,黄病毒抗体阳性率为10.4%,甲病毒抗体阳性率为4.9%.结论:海南省驻地部队及当地人群存在虫媒病毒感染.

  19. 4株蚊媒病毒多重RT-PCR快速检测方法的建立%Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Methods for Detection of Arboviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军军; 李歆; 任瑞文

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立登革1、2型病毒、黄热病毒及流行性乙型脑炎病毒的多重RT-PCR快速检测方法.方法 参照病毒核酸序列设计多重RT-PCR引物,并检索GenBank国际基因序列数据库初步验证其特异性,随后对Mg2+,dNTP及引物浓度,RT-PCR反应条件进行优化,建立稳定、特异的多重RT-PCR快速检测4株病毒方法,并以同属于黄病毒科的登革3型病毒、登革4型病毒及甲病毒属基孔肯亚病毒、辛德毕斯病毒为对照,验证其特异性.结果 应用多重RT-PCR反应体系,对引物的相关性实验结果表明引物之间不会因相互干扰而出现假阳性结果;采用多重RT-PCR引物对登革1、2型病毒、黄热病毒及流行性乙型脑炎病毒进行扩增,分别获得574、251、879、422 bp片段,与设计相符,而对照病毒组均无非特异性扩增条带.结论 实验证明,所建立的多重RT-PCR方法能够快速地检测登革1、2型病毒、黄热病毒及流行性乙型脑炎病毒,为其检测提供了一种方便易行的方法.

  20. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ARBOVIRUSES FROM SERA OF PATIENTS WITH UNKOWN FEVER IN HAINAN PROVINCE%海南岛不明发热病人血虫媒病毒分离鉴定及抗体检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方美玉; 刘建伟; 洪文燕; 任瑞文; 程刚锋; 白志军; 田小东; 林立辉

    2006-01-01

    目的从海南岛不明发热病人血中分离和鉴定虫媒病毒,并在当地人群进行抗体检测,以了解南方地区虫媒病毒的感染情况. 方法采用微量法细胞培养对205份发热原因不明患者血标本进行病毒分离,应用生物学性状检测、间接免疫荧光试验(IFA)和血凝抑制试验(HI)等技术对分离病毒进行鉴定.采用IFA检测从当地人群血清中分离出的病毒的抗体水平.结果从发热早期患者血标本中分离出2株病毒,鉴定为甲病毒,命名为HF 7和HC 6.这2株病毒与8种甲病毒免疫腹水中的SIN的免疫腹水呈现最高的血凝抑制滴度(分别为1∶160和1∶320),与SIN免疫腹水的交叉荧光效价最高(分别为1∶320和1∶640),但HF 7和HC 6病毒的免疫腹水与8种甲病毒的血凝抑制试验和交叉免疫荧光试验无反应,表明HF 7和HC 6病毒虽与SIN病毒的免疫腹水血抑效价及荧光效价高,但HF 7和HC 6的免疫腹水与SIN病毒无抑制效价和免疫荧光效价.当地人群对这两株病毒感染的抗体阳性率分别为3.3%(15/451)和8.4%(38/451).结论 HF7和HC6为甲病毒的一个新种.海南岛人群存在甲病毒感染.

  1. 云南省耿马县孟定镇蚊虫及虫媒病毒调查%Investigation on the Mosquito and Arbovirus in the Meng Ding Town,Geng Ma County,Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚鹤琴; 张海林; 施华芳; 张云智; 龚正达; 米竹青

    2000-01-01

    目的:调查蚊虫种类及其带病毒情况.方法:用吸蚊管和人诱法捕蚊,用C6/36细胞和乳鼠分离病毒,用血清学方法检测人血清中病毒抗体.结果:1985年7~8月捕获雌性成蚊6属32种9 410只,三带喙库蚊、棕头库蚊、中华按蚊、迷走按蚊是农村畜厩主要蚊种,白纹伊蚊是竹林区优势蚊种.从阿萨姆伊蚊中分离出1株乙脑病毒.当地人血清中乙脑、登革、基孔肯雅和肾综合征出血热(HFRS)病毒抗体阳性率依次为39.68%(77/194)、13.73%(14/102)、20.10%(39/194)和0.57%(1/94).结论:云南耿马县孟定镇存在乙脑和其它虫媒病毒病.

  2. 2009年河南信阳地区虫媒病毒分离鉴定初报%Isolation and identification of arboviruses from mosquito pools of Xinyang city of Henan province in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幸乐; 黄学勇; 唐晓燕; 许汴利

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查河南省信阳市虫媒病毒的种类.方法 2009年8月在河南省信阳市息县采集蚊虫标本,利用BHK-21细胞培养分离虫媒病毒,对能够引起稳定的细胞病变的分离株利用虫媒病毒特异引物进行RT-PCR鉴定,RT-PCR结果阳性者进行序列测定.结果 共采集蚊虫标本3050只(36批),3批标本(XY0901、XY0904和XY0927)在BHK-21细胞中出现显著的、稳定的病变;2株病毒(XY0901/China HN株和XY0904/China HN株)以甲病毒属特异引物进行RT-PCR检测,结果为阳性,XY0927/China HN株以流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)病毒特异引物、各虫媒病毒属特异引物进行RT-PCR检测,结果均为阴性;XY0901/China HN株和XY0904/China HN株测序结果比对与盖塔病毒核苷酸同源性为98.0%~99.1%.结论 2009年在河南省分离到2株盖塔病毒和1株未知虫媒病毒.盖塔病毒为河南省首次分离.

  3. Prevalência de anticorpos neutralizantes para o arbovirus Piry em individuos da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de um inquérito sorológico pesquisando anticorpos para arbovírus, em habitantes da região de Ribeirão Preto, 202 soros foram testados por neutralização em camundongos, para o vírus Piry. Trata-se de um vesículo-vírus (Rhabdoviridae isolado em Belém do Pará, das vísceras de um marsupial e do sangue de um caso humano. O Piry é causa de doença humana aguda febril. Desconhece-se seus reservatórios animais, vetores e seu ciclo biológico. Os 202 soros testados foram obtidos por venopunção, de moradores adultos em áreas rurais e urbana da cidade de Ribeirão Preto. Os resultados mostraram prevalência de 14,3% de anticorpos neutralizantes para o vírus Piry. Conclui-se que infecções pelo Piry, ou outro agente antigenicamente relacionado, ocorram endemicamente nesta região.

  4. Establishment of DNA microarray for the detection of 13 species of arbovirus%13种虫媒病毒基因芯片检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓光; 杨银辉; 康晓平; 刘洪; 胡玉洋; 曾海攀; 祝庆余

    2007-01-01

    目的 建立能对虫媒病毒进行属水平筛查及种水平鉴定的基因芯片技术,为虫媒病毒提供一种高通量的检测与鉴定技术.方法 从GenBank获得13种虫媒病毒的全部基因组序列,利用Clustal X和BLAST等比对软件,设计针对这些虫媒病毒所在的3个属的通用寡核苷酸探针,用于病毒的属水平筛查.然后设计针对每种病毒的特异性寡核苷酸探针,用于每种病毒的检测鉴定.寡核苷酸探针长度均为70mer,将设计好的探针与GenBank上所有病毒基因组序列进行比对,验证其种属特异性,然后进行探针合成和基因芯片制备.所有病毒在BSL-3和BSL-2实验室进行培养,待检病毒核酸通过锚定随机PCR进行扩增,经荧光染料标记后与基因芯片杂交,利用激光共聚焦扫描仪扫描后进行结果分析.结果 所检测的13种虫媒病毒均可获得种特异性及所在属的属特异性杂交信号,非特异性杂交信号不明显.分别用两种不同的病毒混合后,进行模拟混合病毒感染,也得到了相应的特异杂交信号.结论 初步建立了13种虫媒病毒的基因芯片检测技术,可用于这些病毒的属水平筛查及种水平鉴定,并且可以进行混合感染标本的检测,为虫媒病毒的检测与鉴定提供了一种新的手段.

  5. 云南省西双版纳发热病人血清虫媒病毒抗体调查%Investigation on Arboviruses Antibodies of Patients with Fever in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文丽; 张海林; 侯宗柳; 米竹青; 自登云

    2001-01-01

    用11种蚊媒病毒抗原并采用间接ELISA法对云南西双版纳地区采集的120份发热病人血清进行检测,结果乙型脑炎、登革3型、登革4型、基孔肯雅、辛德毕斯、贝巴鲁(Bebaru)、雪鞋野兔(Snowshoe hare)和巴泰(Batai)病毒抗体的阳性率依次为7.50%、5.00%、1.67%、3.33%、2.50%、1.67%、5.00%和4.17%,未查到寨卡(Zika)、登革1型和登革2型病毒抗体,表明该地不仅存在乙型脑炎、登革热3型和4型、辛德毕斯、基孔肯雅病毒,还可能存在甲病毒属的贝巴鲁病毒,布尼安病毒科的雪鞋野兔和巴泰病毒.

  6. [Ecology of indigenious arbovirus in Alsace. Tick Central European Encephalitis. I.--Complex Ixodes ricinus--bank voles. II.--Study of bank voles population immunity. III.--Virologic results in bank voles population (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, J; Hannoun, C; Rodhain, F; Chatelain, J; Hannoun, C; Salmon, A M; Ardoin, P; Chatelain, J; Hannoun, C; Sureau, P

    1979-01-01

    I.--After showing that bank voles are parasited only by Ixodes ricinus larvae, the authors attempt to found different factors (demographic, biometric, and sexual) who favor individual parasitism. The authors conclude to absent of anti tick immunity for this rodent specie. II.--The search for anti-central european encephalitis antibodies (I.H.A.) are shown that 2 p. cent animals were immuns. Yearly and monthly chronologies of antibodies apparition are shown, factors favoring the growth of specific Central european encephalitis antibodies are discussed. III.--The Central european encephalitis tick viral infection of bank vole is studied according to the number of viral strains isolated from different viscera. The monthly chronology of this infection is shown.

  7. Structural mutants of dengue virus 2 transmembrane domains exhibit host-range phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There are over 700 known arboviruses and at least 80 immunologically distinct types that cause disease in humans. Arboviruses are transmitted among vertebrates by biting insects, chiefly mosquitoes and ticks. These viruses are widely distributed throughout the world, depending on the presence of appropriate hosts (birds, horses, domestic animals, humans) and vectors. Mosquito-borne arboviruses present some of the most important examples of emerging and resurgent diseases o...

  8. 76 FR 52328 - Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for the Gorgas Memorial Institute of Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Control and Prevention (CDC) to coordinate the provision of technical expertise needed for GMI to become a..., arbovirus febrile illness, viral encephalitidies, influenza, dengue, hantavirus cardiopulmonary...

  9. Induction and suppression of tick cell antiviral RNAi responses by tick-borne flaviviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnettler, E.; Tykalova, H.; Watson, M.; Sharma, M.; Sterken, M.G.; Obbard, D.J.; Lewis, S.H.; McFarlane, M.; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Barry, G.; Weisheit, S.; Best, S.M.; Kuhn, R.J.; Pijlman, G.P.; Chase-Topping, M.E.; Gould, E.A.; Grubhoffer, L.; Fazakerley, J.K.; Kohl, A.

    2014-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by distantly related arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes (class Insecta) and ticks (class Arachnida). RNA interference (RNAi) is the major antiviral mechanism in arthropods against arboviruses. Unlike in mosquitoes, tick antiviral RNAi is not understood, although this in

  10. The tortoise or the hare? Impacts of within-host dynamics on transmission success of arthropod-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Benjamin M; Hanley, Kathryn A

    2015-08-19

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are maintained in a cycle of alternating transmission between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Arboviruses possess RNA genomes capable of rapid diversification and adaptation, and the between-host trade-offs inherent to host alternation impose well-documented constraints on arbovirus evolution. Here, we investigate the less well-studied within-host trade-offs that shape arbovirus replication dynamics and transmission. Arboviruses generally establish lifelong infection in vectors but transient infection of variable magnitude (i.e. peak virus concentration) and duration in vertebrate hosts. In the majority of experimental infections of vertebrate hosts, both the magnitude and duration of arbovirus replication depended upon the dose of virus administered, with increasing dose resulting in greater magnitude but shorter duration of viraemia. This pattern suggests that the vertebrate immune response imposes a trade-off between the height and breadth of the virus replication curve. To investigate the impact of this trade-off on transmission, we used a simple modelling approach to contrast the effect of 'tortoise' (low magnitude, long duration viraemia) and 'hare' (high magnitude, short duration viraemia) arbovirus replication strategies on transmission. This model revealed that, counter to previous theory, arboviruses that adopt a tortoise strategy have higher rates of persistence in both host and vector populations.

  11. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  12. Utility of Antibody Avidity for Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Potency and Immunogenicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in sub-Saharan Afr...

  13. Detection of Mayaro virus infections during a dengue outbreak in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa; Silva, David José Ferreira da; Barreto, Eriana Serpa; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo Hassegawa; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Ozanic, Katia; Schmidt, Diane Johnson; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Mondini, Adriano; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Morais

    2015-07-01

    Arboviruses are common agents of human febrile illness worldwide. In dengue-endemic areas illness due to other arboviruses have been misdiagnosed as dengue based only on clinical-epidemiological data. In this study we investigated the presence of Brazilian arboviruses in sera of 200 patients presenting acute febrile illness, during a dengue outbreak in Sinop, MT, Brazil. The results showed that 38 samples were positive to Dengue virus (DENV) type 1, two samples to DENV type 4, and six to Mayaro virus. These results indicate that arboviruses others than DENV are circulating in Sinop and the surrounding region, which are going undiagnosed. In addition, molecular and evolutionary analyses indicate that two MAYV genotypes are co-circulating in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Thus, a strong surveillance program must be implemented to evaluate and monitor the distribution and the true importance of non-dengue arboviruses in the etiology of acute febrile illnesses.

  14. Mosquito-transmitted viruses - the great Brazilian challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arboviruses pose a serious threat to public health worldwide, overloading the healthcare system and causing economic losses. These viruses form a very diverse group, and in Brazil, arboviruses belonging to the families Flaviviridae and Togaviridae are predominant. Unfortunately, the number of arboviruses increases in proportion with factors such as deforestation, poor sanitation, climate changes, and introduction of new viruses like Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. In Brazil, dengue is endemic, along with the presence of other arboviruses. The situation is complicated by the scarcity of diagnostic infrastructure and the absence of approved vaccines for these diseases. Disease control, thus, relies solely on vector control. Therefore, enhanced clinical knowledge and improved general awareness about these arboviruses are indispensable to tackle diagnostic inadequacies.

  15. Detection of Saint Louis encephalitis virus in dengue-suspected cases during a dengue 3 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Mondini, Adriano; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Moraes; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Ferro, Bianca Piovezan; Cabrera, Eliana Márcia Sotello; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu Moraes; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2011-03-01

    Arboviruses are frequently associated with outbreaks in humans and represent a serious public health problem. Among the Brazilian arboviruses, Mayaro virus, Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow Fever virus, Rocio virus, Saint Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Oropouche virus are responsible for most of human cases. All these arboviruses usually produce undistinguishable acute febrile illness, especially in the acute phase of infection. In this study we investigated the presence of arboviruses in sera of 519 patients presenting acute febrile illness, during a dengue outbreak in São José do Rio Preto City (São Paulo, Brazil). A multiplex-nested RT-polymerase chain reaction assay was applied to detect and identify the main Brazilian arboviruses (Flavivirus, Alphavirus, and Orthobunyavirus genera). The molecular analysis showed that 365 samples were positive to DENV-3, 5 to DENV-2, and 8 to SLEV. Among the positive samples, one coinfection was detected between DENV-2 and DENV-3. The phylogenetic analysis of the SLEV envelope gene indicated that the virus circulating in city is related to lineage V strains. These results indicated that during that large DENV-3 outbreak in 2006, different arboviruses cocirculated causing human disease. Thus, it is necessary to have an efficient surveillance system to control the dissemination of these arboviruses in the population.

  16. Restriction of Rift Valley Fever Virus Virulence in Mosquito Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja R. Gerrard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses are maintained in a natural cycle that requires blood-sucking arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses are believed to persistently infect their arthropod host without overt pathology and cause acute infection with viremia in their vertebrate host. We have focused on elucidating how a specific arbovirus, Rift Valley fever (RVF virus, causes cytopathic effect in cells derived from vertebrates and non-cytopathic infection in cells derived from arthropods. We demonstrate that the vertebrate virulence factor, NSs, is functional in arthropod cells but is expressed at significantly lower levels in infected arthropod versus infected vertebrate cells.

  17. The Role of Innate Immunity in Conditioning Mosquito Susceptibility to West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek N. Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses represent an emerging threat to human and livestock health globally. In particular, those transmitted by mosquitoes present the greatest challenges to disease control efforts. An understanding of the molecular basis for mosquito innate immunity to arbovirus infection is therefore critical to investigations regarding arbovirus evolution, virus-vector ecology, and mosquito vector competence. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding regarding mosquito innate immunity to West Nile virus. We draw from the literature with respect to other virus-vector pairings to attempt to draw inferences to gaps in our knowledge about West Nile virus and relevant vectors.

  18. Establishment and application of a method with liquid protein chip for multi-detection of 5 arboviruses%5种重要虫媒病毒液相蛋白芯片多重检测方法的建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石莹; 田绿波; 樊学军; 陈肖潇; 常晓松; 杨雨

    2015-01-01

    目的 建立森林脑炎、乙型脑炎、登革热、基孔肯雅和刚果-克里米亚出血热5种虫媒病毒的液相蛋白芯片检测方法,为虫媒病毒的筛查检测提供一种新方法.方法 将病毒抗原包被微球,采用间接法原理,利用病毒抗体和阳性血清建立并优化5种虫媒病毒液相蛋白芯片检测方法.对临床样本进行检测,评价液相蛋白芯片方法的敏感性、准确性.结果 以病毒抗体和阳性血清建立的5种虫媒病毒液相蛋白芯片检测方法,病毒抗体及生物素标记二抗的孵育时间均为lh,生物素标记羊抗兔/鼠/人IgG的最佳稀释度为1:100,能对5种虫媒病毒进行准确检测.该方法具有高通量、快速、敏感、特异等特点.结论 本研究所建立的5种虫媒病毒液相蛋白芯片检测方法,可用于这5种虫媒病毒的同时筛查检测,适用于国境口岸对虫媒病毒进行筛查检测,能提高检测的效率,满足口岸检疫中快速检验的要求.

  19. Investigation on the Antibodies Against Arboviruses in Sera of Human being and Animal in the Lower Reaches Area of Lancang River in Yunnan Province%云南省澜沧江下游地区人及动物血清虫媒病毒抗体调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海林; 张云智; 杨卫红; 章域震; 米竹青; 黄文丽; 袁庆虹; 王静林

    2004-01-01

    目的:对澜沧江下游地区的思茅和西双版纳两地州进行虫媒病毒抗体调查,了解当地虫媒病毒的流行情况.方法:采集人及动物血清,用ELISA和血凝抑制试验检测抗体.结果:发热病人血清中,乙型脑炎(JE)、登革3型(DEN3)、DEN4、基孔肯雅(CHIK)、辛德毕斯(SIN)、贝巴鲁(BEB)、雪鞋野兔(SSH)和巴泰(BAT)病毒抗体的阳性率依次为7.50%、5.00%、1.67%、3.33%、2.50%、1.67%、5.00%和4.17%;未查到DEN1、DEN2和寨卡(Zika)病毒抗体.正常人血清JE、墨累山谷脑炎(MVE)、库京(KUN)、DEN、圣路易脑炎(SLE)、科萨努尔森林病(KFD)、森林脑炎(RSSE)、兰加特(LAG)、波瓦生(POW)、马雅罗(MAY)、CHIK、SIN、委内瑞拉马脑炎(VEE)、西门利克森林病(SFD)和格塔(GET)病毒抗体阳性率依次为34.88%、、35.03%、20.81%、9.25%、1.78%、12.46%、4.76%、2.85%、2.49%、21.71%、11.03%、1.93%、2.49%、2.49%、3.20%.从恒河猴血清中检出DEN、KUN、RSSE、KFD、POW、LAG、CHIK和GET病毒抗体,阳性率以DEN4、KUN和RSSE为高.棕果蝠血清中查到JE、DEN4、RSSE、POW和LAG病毒抗体,JE的阳性率最高.猪血清中查到JE、DEN和CHIK抗体.黄胸鼠血清检出JE、KFD、CHIK和SIN病毒抗体,JE的阳性率较高.结论:证实该地区不仅广泛存在着JE、DEN、CHIK、SIN和BAT病毒,还可能存在有其它甲病毒、蚊媒和蜱媒黄病毒以及布尼安病毒.

  20. Preliminary Report #3 on Deer Sera Collected in 1972 Hunting Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The present report concerns the arboviruses of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) , Western equine encephalitis (WEE), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), and St....

  1. Virus-derived DNA drives mosquito vector tolerance to arboviral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Bertsy; Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Frangeul, Lionel; Doucet, Aurélien J.; Gausson, Valérie; Blanc, Hervé; Schemmel-Jofre, Nidia; Cristofari, Gael; Lambrechts, Louis; Vignuzzi, Marco; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes develop long-lasting viral infections without substantial deleterious effects, despite high viral loads. This makes mosquitoes efficient vectors for emerging viral diseases with enormous burden on public health. How mosquitoes resist and/or tolerate these viruses is poorly understood. Here we show that two species of Aedes mosquitoes infected with two arboviruses from distinct families (dengue or chikungunya) generate a viral-derived DNA (vDNA) that is essential for mosquito survival and viral tolerance. Inhibition of vDNA formation leads to extreme susceptibility to viral infections, reduction of viral small RNAs due to an impaired immune response, and loss of viral tolerance. Our results highlight an essential role of vDNA in viral tolerance that allows mosquito survival and thus may be important for arbovirus dissemination and transmission. Elucidating the mechanisms of mosquito tolerance to arbovirus infection paves the way to conceptualize new antivectorial strategies to selectively eliminate arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. PMID:27580708

  2. Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Geiss Brian J; Phillips Aaron T; Scott Jaclyn C; Cirimotich Chris M; Olson Ken E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a pr...

  3. Spread of Zika virus: The key role of mosquito vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chiku...

  4. Targeted genome editing in Aedes aegypti using TALENs

    OpenAIRE

    Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.

    2014-01-01

    The Culicine mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is both a major vector of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and a genetic model organism for arbovirus transmission. TALE nucleases (TALENs), a group of artificial enzymes capable of generating site-specific DNA lesions, consist of a non-specific FokI endonuclease cleavage domain fused to an engineered DNA binding domain specific to a target site. While TALENs have become an important tool for targeted gene disruption in a variety of organisms, applic...

  5. Enhancement of Aedes albopictus collections by ovitrap and sticky adult trap

    OpenAIRE

    Velo, Enkelejda; Kadriaj, Perparim; Mersini, Kujtim; Shukullari, Ada; Manxhari, Blerta; Simaku, Artan; Hoxha, Adrian; Caputo, Beniamino; Bolzoni, Luca; Rosà, Roberto; Bino, Silvia; Reiter, Paul; della Torre, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Background In the last decades, Aedes albopictus has become an increasing public health threat in tropical as well as in more recently invaded temperate areas due to its capacity to transmit several human arboviruses, among which Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika. Enhancing the efficiency of currently used collection approaches, such as ovitraps and sticky traps, is desirable for optimal monitoring of the species abundance, for assessment of the risk of arbovirus transmission and for the optimisat...

  6. Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to Europe from Brazil, March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, L; Tappe, D; Fortuna, C; Remoli, M E; Günther, S; Venturi, G; Bartoloni, A; Schmidt-Chanasit, J

    2015-06-11

    We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

  7. Olympic Games Rio 2016 and the uninvited viruses: Potential consequences for Europe and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Latin American tropics, we have witnessed the emergence of several pathogenic arboviruses in the last decade. These include Yellow Fever, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Mayaro, Oropouche, Ilheus, and most recently, Chikungunya and Zika. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS, microcephaly and all the encephalitides, have been of concern to public health officials in Latin America since the arrival of emerging arboviruses. ¡Don‘t forget about dengue!

  8. Beware: It’s Mosquito Season (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-27

    West Nile virus and other arboviruses are transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected mosquito or tick. These viruses cause thousands of people to get sick each summer. In 2012, there was a substantial increase in the number of West Nile virus cases reported in the U.S. In this podcast, Jennifer Lehman discusses ways to avoid being infected with an arbovirus.  Created: 6/27/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/27/2013.

  9. Olympic Games Rio 2016 and the uninvited viruses: Potential consequences for Europe and North America

    OpenAIRE

    Salim Mattar; Marco González T.

    2016-01-01

    In the Latin American tropics, we have witnessed the emergence of several pathogenic arboviruses in the last decade. These include Yellow Fever, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Mayaro, Oropouche, Ilheus, and most recently, Chikungunya and Zika. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), microcephaly and all the encephalitides, have been of concern to public health officials in Latin America since the arrival of emerging arboviruses. ¡Don‘t forget about dengue! Bet...

  10. Eilat virus, a unique alphavirus with host range restricted to insects by RNA replication

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Most alphaviruses and many other arboviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. Consequently, they can be propagated in most vertebrate and insect cell cultures. This ability of arboviruses to infect arthropods and vertebrates is usually essential for their maintenance in nature. However, several flaviviruses have recently been described that infect mosquitoes but not vertebra...

  11. Medical Entomology Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    placed on examples from the Africanus Subgroup as they are important vectors of Yellow Fever, Rift Valley Fever, Chickungunya and Zika viruses. Currently...Mosquitoes Neo tropical Malaria Anophe lea Culicidae Asia Arbovirus diseases Culex Vectors Africa Biosystematics Aedes 2 ABSTRACT AmA ME iMW0 6 N 0meormp...performing biosystematic studies on important groups of vectors such as anopheline vectors of malaria parasites and culicine vectors of arboviruses

  12. SEROSURVEY OF SELECTED ARBOVIRAL PATHOGENS IN FREE-RANGING, TWO-TOED SLOTHS (CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) AND THREE-TOED SLOTHS (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) IN COSTA RICA, 2005–07

    OpenAIRE

    Medlin, Scott; Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Hanley, Christopher S.; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Siudak-Campfield, Asia; Dallwig, Rebecca; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Robert B Tesh; Pia Martin, Maria; Scott C. Weaver; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Sladky, Kurt K.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, P...

  13. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  14. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Costa, Eliane Veiga da; Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano; Murta, Michele; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Nogueira, Márcia Furlan; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-09-01

    As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV). No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  15. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

  16. Phenoloxidase activity acts as a mosquito innate immune response against infection with Semliki Forest virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rodriguez-Andres

    Full Text Available Several components of the mosquito immune system including the RNA interference (RNAi, JAK/STAT, Toll and IMD pathways have previously been implicated in controlling arbovirus infections. In contrast, the role of the phenoloxidase (PO cascade in mosquito antiviral immunity is unknown. Here we show that conditioned medium from the Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 cell line contains a functional PO cascade, which is activated by the bacterium Escherichia coli and the arbovirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV (Togaviridae; Alphavirus. Production of recombinant SFV expressing the PO cascade inhibitor Egf1.0 blocked PO activity in U4.4 cell- conditioned medium, which resulted in enhanced spread of SFV. Infection of adult female Aedes aegypti by feeding mosquitoes a bloodmeal containing Egf1.0-expressing SFV increased virus replication and mosquito mortality. Collectively, these results suggest the PO cascade of mosquitoes plays an important role in immune defence against arboviruses.

  17. [The species composition of mosquitoes and ticks in Armenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukian, D V; Oganesian, A S; Shakhnazarian, S A; Aleksanian, Iu T

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive epidemiological, entomological, virological, and parasitological studies were conducted to examine the species composition and size of bloodsucking arthropoda (mosquitoes and ticks). A total of 64,567 mosquitoes and 45,180 Ixodes ticks were collected. Among the mosquitoes, Anopheles maculipennis was a prevalent species (81.6%). In all climatic zones, Dermacentor marginatus was the largest in number and most abundant during flag collections from cattle and plants (62.5% and 95.5%, respectively). Virological studies of the collected field material identified 125 strains of arboviruses belonging to 10 viruses: Tyaginya, Sindbis, Batai, Dkhori, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile fever, Tamdy, KGL, Geta, and Bkhandzha. The identified arboviruses are environmentally associated with both mosquitoes and ticks. The larger number and diversity of bloodsucking artropoda present a potential risk of outbursts of arbovirus infections on the territory of the republic.

  18. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saidi

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sera from children 1 - 6 years of age, representative of a large serum collection, were tested for the prevalence of antibodies against different viruses. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibodies were found in 68% for measles; 61 % for rubella; 75'% for influenza A2/Hong Kong/68, 16% for influenza B/Md./59, 0% for group A arboviruses, 10% for group B arboviruses, 3% for phlebotomus fever group and 4% for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (C-CHF group of arboviruses Poliomyelitis-neutralizing antibodies for type 1, 2 and 3 were 90%; 85% and 84%~ respectively. Antibody to EH virus was detected in 84% of the sera by immuno-fluorescence. None of the sera were positive for hepatitis-B antigen or antibody by immuno-precipitation test. The prevalence of some viral antibodies found in this survey are compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  19. Mayaro and Chikungunya; two alphaviruses with clinical and epidemiological similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1780, Philadelphia suffered an unusual outbreak of hemorrhagic fever, which years later was identified as dengue (1. One hundred years later, in Memphis, 1500 people died from yellow fever, which caused residents to abandoned the city (2. Even though these stories may seem anecdotes, they show how dramatic hemorrhagic arbovirus outbreaks can be. The tropic host arboviruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV, Dengue, and Zika (ZIKV; but there are others, such as Mayaro, Oropuche, and Bussuquara, among others, which have still not been studied in depth by the public health systems of our countries.

  20. Mayaro fever in an HIV-infected patient suspected of having Chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Góngora, Delzi Vinha Nunes de; Maia, Irineu Luiz; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses impose a serious threat to public health services. We report a case of a patient returning from a work trip to the Amazon basin with myalgia, arthralgia, fever, and headache. During this travel, the patient visited riverside communities. Both dengue and Chikungunya fevers were first suspected, tested for, and excluded. Mayaro fever was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction. The increased awareness of physicians and consequent detection of Mayaro virus in this case was only possible due a previous surveillance program with specific health personnel training about these neglected arboviruses.

  1. Mayaro fever in an HIV-infected patient suspected of having Chikungunya fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Fernanda Estofolete

    Full Text Available Abstract Arboviruses impose a serious threat to public health services. We report a case of a patient returning from a work trip to the Amazon basin with myalgia, arthralgia, fever, and headache. During this travel, the patient visited riverside communities. Both dengue and Chikungunya fevers were first suspected, tested for, and excluded. Mayaro fever was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction. The increased awareness of physicians and consequent detection of Mayaro virus in this case was only possible due a previous surveillance program with specific health personnel training about these neglected arboviruses.

  2. Arboviral etiologies of acute febrile illnesses in Western South America, 2000-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Forshey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%. Dengue viruses (Flavivirus were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV] and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of

  3. Arboviral Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illnesses in Western South America, 2000–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshey, Brett M.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Cespedes, Manuel; Vargas, Jorge; Gianella, Alberto; Vallejo, Efrain; Madrid, César; Aguayo, Nicolas; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Suarez, Victor; Morales, Ana Maria; Beingolea, Luis; Reyes, Nora; Perez, Juan; Negrete, Monica; Rocha, Claudio; Morrison, Amy C.; Russell, Kevin L.; J. Blair, Patrick; Olson, James G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. Methodology/Findings A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%). Dengue viruses (Flavivirus) were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV]) and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus) infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban) clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of arboviruses in South

  4. Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Eri; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Katanami, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous circulation of multiple arboviruses presents diagnostic challenges. In May 2016, chikungunya fever was diagnosed in a traveler from Angola to Japan. Travel history, incubation period, and phylogenetic analysis indicated probable infection acquisition in Angola, where a yellow fever outbreak is ongoing. Thus, local transmission of chikungunya virus probably also occurs in Angola. PMID:27983938

  5. Hepatic disorder in Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. This arbovirus infection can cause acute ilness and affect fetus in utero. However, there can be other additional clinical manifestation including to the hepatic disorder. In this short commentary article, the author brielfy discusses on the liver problem due to Zika virus infection.

  6. Discovery of Diurnal Resting Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in a Village in Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    e.g., Leishmania spp., Bartonella bacilliformis, and several arboviruses. Management of phleboto- mine populations has been difficult because little is...Hanafi HA, Beavers GM, Dykstra EA. 2001. New record of Phlebotomus sergenti, the vector of Leish- mania tropica , in the southern Nile valley of Egypt. J

  7. Papyracillic acid and its derivatives as biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae): structure–activity relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. Papyracillic acid, the main phytotoxin produced by Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, was evaluated in a preliminary screening together with other fungal phytotoxins, cyclo...

  8. Aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijf, de H.A.M.

    1972-01-01

    For about two years (1967—1968) investigations were conducted on the ecology of mosquitoes in relation to the transmission of arboviruses in Surinam (DE KRUIJF 1970). Part of this study dealing with the daily activity of biting mosquitoes is presented here. Daily activity of biting anopheline female

  9. A systematic review of the literature to identify and quantify host and vector competence and abundance of Japanese Encephalitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus that causes endemic and epidemic encephalitis in Eastern and Southeastern Asia. Swine and wading birds serve as reservoirs for the virus, which can be transmitted to humans via mosquitos. Currently, there is no specific treatment availa...

  10. SURVAI VECTOR DAN RESERVOIR PENYAKIT ZOONOTIK YANG DITULARKAN OLEH ARTHROPODA DI DESA BASI, KECAMATAN DONDO KABUPATEN BUOL — TOLITOLI, SULAWESI TENGAH, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti R. Hadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ecological survey was conducted in Central Sulawesi to obtain information on the distri­bution of reservoir hosts and vectors of arthropod-borne zoonotic diseases. Serological test were done from human sera collected in the area against arboviral and rickettsial antigens. Three species of Culex mosquitoes known as potential vectors of arbovirosis: Cx. bitaeni-orhynchus, Cx. gelidus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, were found in the area surveyed. A known vector of scrub typhus, Leptotrombidium (L. deliensis, was also found in that area. Suspected reservoirs of arthropod-borne zoonosis in the area surveyed were chickens, ducks, cows, horses, monkeys and rats. The prevalence of antibodies against arbovirus group A antigens ( Chikungunya, Getah and Sindbis was 34,06%, 28,5% and 4,39%, against arbovirus group B antigen (Japanese Encepha­litis was 93,4% and none against Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhy antigens, out of 91 human sera examined. Antibodies were found in animal sera examined against arbovirus group A and arbovirus group B antigens in a variation of 11,8% — 100%. The prevalence of antibodies against R. tsutsugamushi antigen was 22,7% out of 22 rat sera examined.

  11. Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Saho; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Nakayama, Eri; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Katanami, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous circulation of multiple arboviruses presents diagnostic challenges. In May 2016, chikungunya fever was diagnosed in a traveler from Angola to Japan. Travel history, incubation period, and phylogenetic analysis indicated probable infection acquisition in Angola, where a yellow fever outbreak is ongoing. Thus, local transmission of chikungunya virus probably also occurs in Angola.

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Chikungunya Viruses Isolated in the Central African Republic in the 1970s and 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desdouits, Marion; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Gessain, Antoine; Kazanji, Mirdad; Berthet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some arboviruses threaten human global health with potentially explosive emergence. Analysis of whole-genome sequences of decades-old isolates might contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamics which drive their circulation and emergence. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of two Chikungunya viruses isolated in the Central African Republic in the 1970s and 1980s. PMID:28254965

  13. Disease: H00380 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iruses. It is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and is also important in the Far East an...seases caused by arboviruses closely related to yellow fever, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile v

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-11-25

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  15. Viral RNA silencing suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant-and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmissio

  16. DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System -- Partnering in the Fight Against Emerging Infections, Fiscal Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    and environmental layers such as temperature , precipitation, bioclimatic, and hydrologic, preliminary ecologic niche models were prepared to predict the...diversity, evolutionary trends, and spatial distribution of arboviruses circulating in Kenya, and evaluating the role of mosquito, sandfly , and tick...derived climate data such as sea surface temperature , outgoing lo gwave radiation, and normalized difference vege- tation index (NDVI) are used to forecast

  17. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Bluetongue virus serotype 2 strains isolated in the Americas including a novel strain from the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue is caused by an arbovirus which produces widespread edema and tissue necrosis in domestic and wild ruminants that can be fatal. Bluetongue virus serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 are typically found throughout the United States (US), while serotype 2 was previously only detected in the southea...

  18. Virus and host factors affecting the clinical outcome of Bluetongue Virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caporale, M.; Gialleonorado, L.; Janowicz, A.; Wilkie, G.; Shaw, A.; Savini, G.; Rijn, van P.A.; Mertens, P.; Ventura, M.; Palmarini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host species

  19. Chapter 30. Other Bunyavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  20. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  1. Turnover rate of NS3 proteins modulates bluetongue virus replication kinetics in a host-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ftaich, Najate; Ciancia, Claire; Viarouge, Cyril; Barry, Gerald; Ratinier, Maxime; Rijn, van P.A.; Breard, Emmanuel; Vitour, Damien; Zientara, Stephan; Palmarini, Massimo; Terzian, Christophe; Arnaud, Frédérick

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus transmitted to livestock by midges of the Culicoides family and is the etiological agent of a hemorrhagic disease in sheep and other ruminants. In mammalian cells, BTV particles are released primarily by virus-induced cell lysis, while in insect cells they b

  2. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different do

  3. Beware: It’s Mosquito Season (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-27

    West Nile and other arboviruses viruses cause thousands of people to get sick each summer. This podcast discusses ways to reduce your chances of becoming infected, including use of insect repellant.  Created: 6/27/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/27/2013.

  4. Potential for Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora ciliata mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Rift Valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to pose a threat to much of the world. Unlike many arboviruses, numerous mosquito species have been associated with RVFV in nature, and many species have been demonstrated as competent vectors in the laboratory. In this study, we evaluated two field-collect...

  5. Emerging mosquito-borne viruses: transmission and modulation of host defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two highly pathogenic arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses, West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), recently (re-)emerged in both Europe and the Americas. This resulted in large-scale epidemics of severe encephalitic and arthritogenic human disease, respectively. Both

  6. Towards the PCR-based identification of Palaearctic Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): results from an international ring trial targeting fourspecies of the subgenus Avaritia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garros, C.; Balenghien, T.; Carpenter, S.; Delécolle, J.C.; Meiswinkel, R.; Pédarrieu, A.; Rakotoarivony, I.; Gardès, L.; Golding, N.; Barber, J.; Miranda, M.; Borràs Borràs, D.; Goffredo, M.; Monaco, F.; Pagès, N.; Sghaier, S.; Hammami, S.; Calvo, J.H.; Lucientes, J.; Geysen, D.; Deken, de G.; Sarto i Monteys, V.; Schwenkenbecher, J.; Kampen, H.; Hoffmann, B.; Lehman, K.; Werner, D.; Baldet, T.; Lancelot, R.; Cêtre-Sossah, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses. To understand the role of Culicoides in the transmission of these viruses, it is essential to correctly identify the species involved. Within the western Palae

  7. Glucan-Induced Enhancement of Host Resistance to Selected Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    nonhuman primates , precise mechanisms are not entirely understood. Since glucan has been shown by others to induce Most studies demonstrating glucan...most easily explained by 11. Early, E., P. H. Peralta, and M. . Johnson. 1967. A plaque neutralization method for arboviruse Proc. Soc. glucan

  8. Aedes (Stegomyia) Corneti, A New Species of the Africanus Subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-14

    monkey to man in Bwamba County (Haddow, 1945; Haddow et al., 1947; Lumsden, 195 1; Haddow, 1968). In eastern Africa, at least four arboviruses have...subgroup are involved in the enzootic-epizootic cycles of yellow fever in primates in West and Central Africa (Germain, Sureau et al., 1976; Comet in

  9. Pathogenesis of Dengue Vaccine Viruses in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    blood was also titrated on days 2, 4, and 6. One final alternate source investigated was the use of viremic suckling mice. Many arboviruses , including...in Table 5; and those obtained with mechanically- defibrinated and/or Alsever’s-treated samples, the primate blood seemed to be the most efficient in

  10. The Need for Creation of the International Center in Novosibirsk, Russia for Combating Infectious Diseases and Bioterrorism Threat in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    including primates that are used in trials ’on therapeutic and diagnostic preparations being developed at VECTOR. Facilities for the performance of...be arboviruses , including tick-borne encephalitis virus which is endemic in Russia; HFRS virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus - both also endemic in

  11. Assessing the impacts of truck based ultra-low volume applications of mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito control reduces populations of mosquitoes to minimize the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. As part of an integrated approach to mosquito control, application of adulticides can be effective in rapidly reducing mosquito populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impact...

  12. Probable non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Brian D; Kobylinski, Kevin C; Chilson Foy, Joy L; Blitvich, Bradley J; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Haddow, Andrew D; Lanciotti, Robert S; Tesh, Robert B

    2011-05-01

    Clinical and serologic evidence indicate that 2 American scientists contracted Zika virus infections while working in Senegal in 2008. One of the scientists transmitted this arbovirus to his wife after his return home. Direct contact is implicated as the transmission route, most likely as a sexually transmitted infection.

  13. Overview of current situation of dengue and dengue vector control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue is the most important arbovirus of humans in the world. It is caused by one of four closely related virus serotypes whose primary vector is Aedes aegypti and secondarily by Ae. albopictus. A global dengue pandemic began in Southeast Asia after World War II and has intensified during the las...

  14. A perspective on targeting non-structural proteins to combat neglected tropical diseases: Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakat, Soumendranath; Karubiu, Wilson; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-11-24

    Neglected tropical diseases are major causes of fatality in poverty stricken regions across Africa, Asia and some part of America. The combined potential health risk associated with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses); Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile Virus (WNV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is immense. These arboviruses are either emerging or re-emerging in many regions with recent documented outbreaks in the United States. Despite several recent evidences of emergence, currently there are no approved drugs or vaccines available to counter these diseases. Non-structural proteins encoded by these RNA viruses are essential for their replication and maturation and thus may offer ideal targets for developing antiviral drugs. In recent years, several protease inhibitors have been sourced from plant extract, synthesis, computer aided drug design and high throughput screening as well as through drug reposition based approaches to target the non-structural proteins. The protease inhibitors have shown different levels of inhibition and may thus provide template to develop selective and potent drugs against these devastating arboviruses. This review seeks to shed light on the design and development of antiviral drugs against DENV, WNV and CHIKV to date. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides the first comprehensive update on the development of protease inhibitors targeting non-structural proteins of three most devastating arboviruses, DENV, WNV and CHIKV.

  15. INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISKS IN THE TRANSMIGRATION AREA, WAY ABUNG III, LAMPUNG PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gandahusada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pemeriksaan secara laboratoris terhadap kesehatan transmigran yang berasal dari Jawa sebelum (1976 dan kurang lebih 2 tahun (1978 sesudah mereka menempati daerah transmigrasi Way Abung III, Lampung. Tujuan pemeriksaan ini adalah untuk mengetahui penyakit-penyakit yang mengancam mereka di daerah barunya. Pemeriksaan telah dilakukan terhadap sediaan darah yaitu untuk mengetahui adanya parasit malaria dan mikrofilaria, sedangkan pemeriksaan serologis untuk mengetahui adanya infeksi arbovirus, scrub dan murine typhus. Pemeriksaan tinja dilakukan hanya pada tahun 1976 untuk mengetahui adanya parasit usus. Dari hasil pemeriksaan tadi ditemukan bahwa prevalensi malaria meningkat dari 0,2% (1976 menjadi 10% (1978, sedangkan mikrofilaria rate sebelum dan sesudah pemindahan tetap 0. Hasil pemeriksaan tinja terhadap transmigran sebelum tiba di Lampung menunjukkan prevalensi Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang berturut-turut sebesar 46%,, 28%, dan 80%. Serologis hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody positive terhadap Japanese encephalitis (JE virus naik dari 43,3%, menjadi 74,2%, sedangkan prevalensi HI antibody positive terhadap chikungunya (CHIK virus tetap sama yaitu 3,5% sebelum dan 2,9% sesudah pemindahan. Prevalensi positif fluores-cent antibody test(FAT terhadap scrub dan murine typhus juga tidak ada perubahan yaitu 4,0% sebelum dan 3,4% sesudah pemindahan untuk scrub typhus dan 13,7%, sebelum dan 13,8% sesudah pemindahan untuk murine typhus. Dari hewan-hewan yang terdapat di Way Abung IH, serologis positif HI antibody kambing mempunyai prevalensi tertinggi (3% terhadap arbovirus Group A (alpha virus dan sapi ter­tinggi (35% terhadap arbovirus Group B (flavivirus. Vektor-vektor potensial malaria, filariasis, scrub dan murine typhus, dan arbovirus infeksi dapat dijumpai di daerah transmigrasi Way Abung III, Lam­pung. Kecuali malaria ditarik kesimpulan bahwa diperlukan paired data untuk prevalensi cacing

  16. OUTBREAK OF ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Tsankova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus from Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Like most of the viruses which belong to the Flavivirus genus, it replicates in and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Unlike other arbovirus infections including dengue and chikungunya, Zika virus causes a relatively mild disease. The most common symptoms of ZIKV are mild fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, asthenia, abdominal pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and cutaneous maculopapular rash, which last for several days to a week. Although 80% of the cases with ZIKV are asymptomatic, severe complications such as microcephalia and GBS may be observed. This explains why ZIKV is more dangerous that it was thought to be and why it rapidly evolves in unexpected challenge for the international and national public health authorities.

  17. A Role for RNA Viruses in the Pathogenesis of Burkitt's Lymphoma: The Need for Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corry van den Bosch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain infectious agents are associated with lymphomas, but the strength of the association varies geographically, suggesting that local environmental factors make important contributions to lymphomagenesis. Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma has well-defined environmental requirements making it particularly suitable for research into local environmental factors. The Epstein-Barr virus and holoendemic Malaria are recognized as important cofactors in endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma and their contributions are discussed. Additionally, infection with Chikungunya Fever, a potentially oncogenic arbovirus, was associated with the onset of endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma in one study and also with space-time case clusters of the lymphoma. Chikungunya Virus has several characteristics typical of oncogenic viruses. The Flavivirus, Hepatitis C, a Class 1 Human Carcinogen, closely related to the arboviruses, Yellow Fever, and Dengue, is also more distantly related to Chikungunya Virus. The mechanisms of oncogenesis believed to operate in Hepatitis C lymphomagenesis are discussed, as is their potential applicability to Chikungunya Virus.

  18. Targeted genome editing in Aedes aegypti using TALENs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

    2014-08-15

    The Culicine mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is both a major vector of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and a genetic model organism for arbovirus transmission. TALE nucleases (TALENs), a group of artificial enzymes capable of generating site-specific DNA lesions, consist of a non-specific FokI endonuclease cleavage domain fused to an engineered DNA binding domain specific to a target site. While TALENs have become an important tool for targeted gene disruption in a variety of organisms, application to the mosquito genome is a new approach. We recently described the use of TALENs to perform heritable genetic disruptions in A. aegypti. Here, we provide detailed methods that will allow other research laboratories to capitalize on the potential of this technology for understanding mosquito gene function. We describe target site selection, transient embryo-based assays to rapidly assess TALEN activity, embryonic microinjection and downstream screening steps to identify target site mutations.

  19. Isolation of EEE virus from Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culiseta melanura in coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Diana I; Wozniak, Arthur; Tolson, Marsha W; Turner, Pearl E; Vaughan, David R

    2003-03-01

    A 1-year arbovirus study was conducted at The Wedge Plantation located in coastal South Carolina to determine the occurrence and level of arbovirus activity in mosquito species inhabiting the site. Mosquito species composition and temporal abundance were also determined. A total of 45,051 mosquitoes representing 27 species in 9 genera was collected and identified during 130 trap-nights between August, 1997, and July, 1998. The most abundant species was Culex salinarius (n = 20,954) followed by Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (n = 12,185). Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) was isolated from 2 pools collected in August, 1997; one pool of Oc. taeniorhynchus (minimum infection rate [MIR] = 0.6/1,000) and a second of Culiseta melanura (MIR = 3.8/1,000). This report represents the first record of an EEE isolation from Oc. taeniorhynchus and Cs. melanura in South Carolina.

  20. The wMel strain of Wolbachia Reduces Transmission of Zika virus by Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliota, Matthew T.; Peinado, Stephen A.; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an explosive outbreak of febrile disease in the Americas. There are no effective antiviral therapies or licensed vaccines for this virus, and mosquito control strategies have not been adequate to contain the virus. A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV) transmission; however, evidence suggests Wolbachia infections confer protection for Ae. aegypti against other arboviruses. At present, it is unknown whether or not ZIKV can infect, disseminate, and be transmitted by Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. Using Ae. aegypti infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia that are being released in Medellin, Colombia, we report that these mosquitoes have reduced vector competence for ZIKV. These results support the use of Wolbachia biocontrol as a multivalent strategy against Ae. aegypti-transmitted viruses. PMID:27364935

  1. Aedes aegypti D7 Saliva Protein Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael J.; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Watson, Alan M.; Klimstra, William B.; Fikrig, Erol; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of several medically relevant arboviruses including dengue virus (DENV) types 1–4. Ae. aegypti transmits DENV by inoculating virus-infected saliva into host skin during probing and feeding. Ae. aegypti saliva contains over one hundred unique proteins and these proteins have diverse functions, including facilitating blood feeding. Previously, we showed that Ae. aegypti salivary gland extracts (SGEs) enhanced dissemination of DENV to draining lymph nodes. In contrast, HPLC-fractionation revealed that some SGE components inhibited infection. Here, we show that D7 proteins are enriched in HPLC fractions that are inhibitory to DENV infection, and that recombinant D7 protein can inhibit DENV infection in vitro and in vivo. Further, binding assays indicate that D7 protein can directly interact with DENV virions and recombinant DENV envelope protein. These data reveal a novel role for D7 proteins, which inhibits arbovirus transmission to vertebrates through a direct interaction with virions. PMID:27632170

  2. Decreased Flight Activity in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Naturally Infected With Culex flavivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christina M; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-01-01

    Insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs) commonly infect vectors of mosquito-borne arboviruses. To investigate whether infection with an ISFV might affect mosquito flight behavior, we quantified flight behavior in Culex pipiens L. naturally infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV). We observed a significant reduction in the scotophase (dark hours) flight activity of CxFV-positive mosquitoes relative to CxFV-negative mosquitoes, but only a marginal reduction in photophase (light hours) flight activity, and no change in the circadian pattern of flight activity. These results suggest that CxFV infection alters the flight activity of naturally infected Cx. pipiens most dramatically when these vectors are likely to be host seeking and may therefore affect the transmission of medically important arboviruses.

  3. Wolbachia Do Not Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Immune Pathway Activation in Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Molloy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

  4. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  5. [Zika virus outbreak in Latin America: what are the challenges for French Guiana in April 2016?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, L; Douine, M; Carles, G; Villemant, N; Nacher, M; Rousset, D; Djossou, F; Mosnier, E

    2016-05-01

    Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries.

  6. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  7. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Brisola Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  8. West Nile virus adaptation to ixodid tick cells is associated with phenotypic trade-offs in primary hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Payne, Anne F; Kramer, Laura D

    2015-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is the most geographically widespread arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the world and is found in multiple ecologically distinct settings. Despite the likelihood of frequent exposure to novel hosts, studies evaluating the capacity and correlates of host range expansions or shifts of WNV and other arboviruses are generally lacking. We utilized experimental evolution of WNV in an Amblyomma americanum tick cell line to model an invertebrate host shift and evaluate the adaptive potential of WNV outside of its primary transmission cycle. Our results demonstrate that highly significant gains in replicative ability in ixodid tick cells are attainable for WNV but are also associated with widespread genetic change and significant phenotypic costs in vitro. Decreased fitness in primary hosts could represent a barrier to frequent exploitation of hard ticks by WNV in nature.

  9. The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karyn N

    2015-11-04

    Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

  10. Zika Virus Emergence and Expansion: Lessons Learned from Dengue and Chikungunya May Not Provide All the Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Rebecca C

    2016-07-06

    Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

  11. The wMel strain of Wolbachia Reduces Transmission of Zika virus by Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew T Aliota; Stephen A. Peinado; Ivan Dario Velez; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an explosive outbreak of febrile disease in the Americas. There are no effective antiviral therapies or licensed vaccines for this virus, and mosquito control strategies have not been adequate to contain the virus. A promising candidate for arbovirus control and prevention relies on the introduction of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This primarily has been proposed as a tool to control dengue virus (DENV) transmission; however...

  12. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  13. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  14. Zika virus and Zika fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Peigang; An, Jing

    2016-04-01

    An emerging mosquito-borne arbovirus named Zika virus (ZIKV), of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus, is becoming a global health threat. ZIKV infection was long neglected due to its sporadic nature and mild symptoms. However, recently, with its rapid spread from Asia to the Americas, affecting more than 30 countries, accumulating evidences have demonstrated a close association between infant microcephaly and Zika infection in pregnant women. Here, we reviewed the virological, epidemiological, and clinical essentials of ZIKV infection.

  15. Studies of the Biology of Phleboviruses in Sandflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-31

    sandfly vectors. All of the viruses that were tested, replicated in sandflies after inoculation; but these insects were more difficult to infect orally...tested. The viruses examined included representatives of the genera Vesiculovirus, Orbivirus, Flavivirus, Alphavirus , Bunyavirus and Phlebovirus. These...not replicate . Of the arboviruses which did grow in the LL-5 cells, only Changuinola virus, a sandfly-associated orbivirus, produced moderate

  16. DoD Global Emerging Infections System Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MacArthur JR, Barat LM, Oblitas FE, Arrunategui M, Garavito G, Chafloque ML, Pardavé B, Gutierrez S, Arrospide N, Carrillo C, Cabezas C, Ruebush TK...arbovirus dissemination conduits from the mosquito midgut. J Med Entomol. (In press) 2003. 70. Russell KL, Montiel Gonzales MA, Watts DM, Lagos-Figueroa...RC, Chauca G, Ore M, Gonzales JE, Moron C, Tesh RB, Vinetz JM. An outbreak of leptospirosis among Peruvian military recruits. Am J Trop Med Hygiene

  17. Viral Strain Dependent Differences in Experimental Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (Junin Virus) Infection of Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Nacional de Estudios Sobre Virosis Hemorragicas, Pergamino, Province de Buenos Aires, S Argentina Key Words. Argentine hemorrhagic fever virus • Junin...Gonzalez, P.H.: Maiztegui. J. I.: plaques. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 130:1013 1019 Laguens, R.P.: Estudio morfologico de la medula (1969). osea humana en... casos de fiebre hemorra- Atlanta 1976). gica Argentina. Pensa med. Argentina 56.605 614 14 The Subcommittee on Arbovirus Laborator (1969). Safety of

  18. Recent rapid rise of a permethrin knock down resistance allele in Aedes aegypti in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ponce García; FLORES, ADRIANA E.; Ildefonso Fernández-Salas; Karla Saavedra-Rodríguez; Guadalupe Reyes-Solis; Saul Lozano-Fuentes; J Guillermo Bond; Mauricio Casas-Martínez; Ramsey, Janine M.; Julián García-Rejón; Marco Domínguez-Galera; Hilary Ranson; Janet Hemingway; Lars Eisen; William C Black Iv

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti, the 'yellow fever mosquito', is the primary vector to humans of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses (DENV, YFV), and is a known vector of the chikungunya alphavirus (CV). Because vaccines are not yet available for DENV or CV or are inadequately distributed in developing countries (YFV), management of Ae. aegypti remains the primary option to prevent and control outbreaks of the diseases caused by these arboviruses. Permethrin is one of the most widely used active i...

  19. Detection of All Species of the Genus Alphavirus by Reverse Transcription-PCR with Diagnostic Sensitivity▿

    OpenAIRE

    Grywna, K.; Kupfer, B.; Panning, M.; Drexler, J. F.; Emmerich, P.; Drosten, C.; Kummerer, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical arbovirus screening requires exclusion of a broad range of viruses with as few assays as possible. We present a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for the detection of all species of the genus Alphavirus qualified for exclusion screening (limit of detection [LOD], 5 to 100 RNA copies per reaction across all Alphavirus species; detection of viremia down to ca. 10,000 copies per ml).

  20. Determination of natural versus laboratory human infection with Mayaro virus by molecular analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Junt, Tobias; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Lelarge, J.; Labeau, B.; Talarmin, Antoine

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory worker developed clinical signs of infection with Mayaro virus (Togaviridae), an arbovirus of South and Central America, 6 days after preparation of Mayaro viral antigen and 10 days after a trip to a rain forest. There was no evidence of skin lesions during the antigen preparation, and level 3 containment safety measures were followed. Therefore, molecular characterization of the virus was undertaken to identify the source of infection. RT-PCR and DNA sequence comparisons proved ...

  1. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Captured in the Iquitos Area of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    1991 at three sylvan sites near tl ing arboviruses have been reported: Mayaro , quitos, Department of Loreto, Peru. Situatu on Oropouche, Guama... virus isolation was begun in 1988. within Iquitos. This report deals specifically with the capture Mosquito Collections. In total, eight different...Lima for virus isolation. Mos- groups of mosquitoes not identifiable to the spe- quitoes were identified to species using several cies level because of

  2. Zika Virus: Diagnostics for an Emerging Pandemic Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is anAedesmosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This minireview details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

  3. Zika Virus: Diagnostics for an Emerging Pandemic Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This minireview details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

  4. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  5. Imported West Nile virus encephalitis in an Israeli tourist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin A; Hueston, Linda; Ratnam, Irani

    2009-08-17

    West Nile virus is an arbovirus that has caused large outbreaks of febrile illness, meningitis and encephalitis in Europe, North America and the Middle East. We describe the first laboratory-confirmed human case of West Nile virus infection in Australia, in a 58-year-old tourist who was almost certainly infected in Israel. The case is a reminder of the need to consider exotic pathogens in travellers and of the risk of introducing new pathogens into Australia.

  6. Demographics of natural oral infection of mosquitos by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Serafín; Thébaud, Gaël; Smith, Darci R; Kenney, Joan L; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    The within-host diversity of virus populations can be drastically limited during between-host transmission, with primary infection of hosts representing a major constraint to diversity maintenance. However, there is an extreme paucity of quantitative data on the demographic changes experienced by virus populations during primary infection. Here, the multiplicity of cellular infection (MOI) and population bottlenecks were quantified during primary mosquito infection by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, an arbovirus causing neurological disease in humans and equids.

  7. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A. R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R. J. M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expa...

  8. Comparison of BG-Sentinel Trap and Oviposition Cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    COMPARISON OF BG-SENTINELH TRAP AND OVIPOSITION CUPS FOR AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS SURVEILLANCE IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, USA JENNIFER A...tropical and subtropical areas around the world (WHO 2009, Bhatt et al. 2013). In the USA , the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), has been...virus is well known, the importance of Ae. albopictus in the transmission of arboviruses in the USA , including dengue, is not clear. Specifically, Cache

  9. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zé-Zé; M.B. Prata; Teixeira, T; Marques, N.; Mondragão, A.; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J.; Alves, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Orga...

  10. [Characteristics of clinical features of tick-borne encephalitis in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, M A; Markeshin, S Ia; Riazanova, N Ia; Degtiareva, A A; Zakharova, T F; Bychkova, M V

    1989-12-01

    The analysis of data collected from the clinical epidemiological and virological surveys in 1985-1988 on the incidence of arbovirus infection in population provided evidence for circulation of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in the Crimea. Etiological relevance of TBE virus in the onset of the diseases was revealed. Clinical picture of TBE in the Crimea is characterized by severe forms and diphasic fever with the relapse running more grave and protracted course.

  11. The Characterization of the Phlebotomus papatasi Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Noriega , Wells 1999, Pitaluga et al. 2009, Telleria et al. 2010, Vizioli et al. 2001). Serine proteases are also involved in many other key processes...M, Vlaskova M, Noriega FG, Walker VK, Jacobs- Lorena M. Characterization of a carboxypeptidase A gene from the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Insect...Aedes aegypti, a major arbovirus vector. Science. 2007; 316, no. 5832:1718. [PubMed: 17510324] Noriega FG, Wells MA. A molecular view of trypsin

  12. Field and semi-field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis versus Temephos® in Aedes aegypti control
    Avaliação de campo e simulado de campo de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis versus Temephos® no controle de Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Bento Pereira Lima; Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas; Cynara de Melo Rodovalho; Ima Aparecida Braga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aedes aegypti  is a vector of the important arboviruses worldwide. Vector control continues to rely mainly on fighting immature stages. Resistance to the larvicide Temephos® was detected in many regions of Brazil since 2000 what led control programs to search for alternative products, such as Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti). Caicó municipality (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil) was one of the first cities to use Bti. However, after some time, Bti low persistence w...

  13. Adjuvant Activity of a Novel Metabolizable Lipid Emulsion with Inactivated Viral Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    hamsters, sheep, and two species of nonhuman 0 primates which demonstrate the adjuvant activity of a new metabolizable lipid emulsion with marginally...mice, hamsters, sheep, and two species of nonhuman primates . This adjuvant has several 10.000 advantages over other known adjuvant com-cpounds. It is...plaque neutralization method for arboviruses . Proc. Soc. granulomatous reaction was not observed. We Exp. Biol. Med. 125:741-747. closely observed the

  14. Protection of Hamsters by Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Candidate Vaccine V3526 Against Lethal Challenge by Mosquito Bite and Intraperitoneal Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the furin cleavage site in PE2 as well as a suppressor mutation in E1, was shown to protect mice, hamsters, and nonhuman primates challenged either by...previously to protect mice, hamsters, and nonhuman primates , there was concern that virus intro- duced by an infected mosquito might be more pathogenic than...and Rift Valley fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32: 1154–1163. 12. Karabatsos N, ed., 1985. International Catalogue of Arboviruses including Certain

  15. Detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus in non-human primates in Goiânia City, Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Arboviruses are associated with human disease, and non-human primates (NHPs) are important primary hosts. This study shows the detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus (OROV) in NHPs either living in urban parks or acclimatized at the Wild Animal Screening Center, Goiânia city. METHODS: Fifty blood samples were analyzed by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization assays. RESULTS: Two monkeys (Alouatta caraya) had antibodies to OROV by both techniques. CONCL...

  16. Diagnosis and Chemotherapy of Human Trypanosomiasis and Vector Ecology of Rift Valley and Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-27

    development and refinement of both chemotherapeutic and diagnostic skills were remarkably facilitated by using this nonhuman primate model. Five...Kenya. Additionally, 400 Hyalomma ticks have been collected from potential CCHF areas in kenya and screened for arboviruses . No CCHF viruses have been...nonhuman primate models of human sleeping KETRI Final Report DAMD17-89-Z-0005 sickness. More recently this has been extended to include a trypanosome

  17. IGG Subclass and Isotype Specific Immunoglobulin Responses to Lassa Fever and Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis: Natural Infection and Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-30

    VEE virus to invade the central nervous system via the cribriform plate has been documented for nonhuman primates (7,11), and in hamsters VEE virus has...method for arboviruses . PROC SOC EXP BIOL MED 1967; 125:741-747. 11. Danes L, Rychterova V, Kufner J, Hruskova J: The role of the olfactory route on...viruses that generate an initial antibody response with natural infection that does not provide effective immunity. At the same time, in the primate

  18. Utility, Limitations, and Future of Non-Human Primates for Dengue Research and Vaccine Development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is considered the most important emerging, human arboviruses, with worldwide distribution in the tropics. Unfortunately, there are no licensed dengue vaccines available or specific anti-viral drugs. The development of a dengue vaccine faces unique challenges. The four serotypes co-circulate in endemic areas, and pre-existing immunity to one serotype does not protect against infection with other serotypes, and actually may enhance severity of disease. One foremost constraint to test the...

  19. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 1. The Africanus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 26, Number 1, 1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    vector of urban yellow fever in African and American tropics. The significance of members of the subgenus Stegomyia in transmitting arboviruses in Africa...cannot be overemphasized. African species of Stegomyia have been implicated as natural hosts, vectors , and/or reservoirs of 8 viruses, 6 of which...cause human illness: Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley Fever, yellow fever and Zika . Chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever are the most

  20. Culicoides Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Culicoides are vectors of viral diseases in do- mestic animals and humans. Isolation of half of the known Simbu group arboviruses has been made from...53 (male, femalej. Holotype: 0, Zika Forest, Uganda, C. Khamala, light trap, 17-V-66 (BMNH). Paratypes: 1 0, 1 6, Kakamega Forest, Kenya, C... vector potential than imicola and others. Precipitin tests of seven blood-engorged females gave one positive for sheep. They isolated bluetongue-l

  1. The Aedes (Stegomyia) Pseudonigeria Group with Emphasis on the Species from the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    implicated as natural hosts/ vectors / reservoirs of eight viruses, six of which cause human illness (Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley...Fever, yellow fever and Zika ). Chikun- gunya, dengue and yellow fever are the most important arboviruses associated with Stegomyia. Despite their...are known to bite man. MEDICAL IMPORTANCE. Nothing is known of the role of these species as vectors of pathogens. As females of all African

  2. Dengue infection in the nervous system: lessons learned for Zika and Chikungunya

    OpenAIRE

    Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia; Roveroni,Natalia; Rosadas, Carolina; Ferry,Fernando; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp), which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. The increased number of infected...

  3. Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and Transfusion Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Marano, Giuseppe; Pupella, Simonetta; Vaglio, Stefania; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention stra...

  4. Zika Virus: Diagnostics for an Emerging Pandemic Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This minireview details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection. PMID:26888897

  5. Dengue Fever/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever : Case Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmannitya, Suchitra

    1995-01-01

    Dengue infections caused by the four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes (dengue virus 1, dengue virus 2, dengue virus 3, dengue virus 4) of the family Flavivindae, are the most important arbovirus disease in man, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. The infection is transmitted from man to man by Aedes mosquitoes. Since 1956, dengue virus infection has resulted in more than 3 million hospital admissions and more than 50,000 deaths in Southeast Asia, Western Pacific countries, ...

  6. Serosurveillance of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Amphibians and Reptiles from Alabama, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Sean P.; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; Chapman, Taryn; White, Gregory; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is among the most medically important arboviruses in North America, and studies suggest a role for amphibians and reptiles in its transmission cycle. Serum samples collected from 351 amphibians and reptiles (27 species) from Alabama, USA, were tested for the presence of antibodies against EEEV. Frogs, turtles, and lizards showed little or no seropositivity, and snakes had high seropositivity rates. Most seropositive species were preferred or abundant h...

  7. Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    organisms to produce death or disease in humans, animals, or plants (1)). In many ways, the 2001 episode in Hawaii can serve as an interesting...classified as an arbovirus . The A. aegypti mosquito is an urban mosquito that thrives in pools of standing water. Peak transmission is associated with...brochures and mosquito repellent from a tourist information site set up on the road to Hana. Three other roads into the area were closed because of high

  8. Emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses have become significant public health problems, with the emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases nearly worldwide. The most populated Southeast Asia region is particularly vulnerable. The arboviral diseases such as dengue (DEN, Japanese encephalitis (JE, West Nile virus (WNV, chikungunya fever (CHIK, hemorrhagic fevers such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic (CCHF fever, Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV, etc. are on the rise and have spread unprecedentedly, causing considerable burden of disease. The emergence/re-emergence of these diseases is associated with complex factors, such as viral recombination and mutation, leading to more virulent and adaptive strains, urbanization and human activities creating more permissive environment for vector-host interaction, and increased air travel and commerce. Climate is a major factor in determining the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods, the characteristics of arthropod life cycles, the consequent dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses, the evolution of arboviruses; and the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. The present and future arboviral threats must be mitigated by priority actions such as improving surveillance and outbreak response, establishing collaboration and communication intersectorally, and strengthening the prevention and control programmes along with improving biosafety aspects with regards to highly infectious nature of these arboviral diseases. Evidence from research needs to be generated and priority areas for research defined.

  9. Spread of Zika virus:The key role of mosquito vector control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and ani-mals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemi-sphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above, it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nano-particles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation (i.e. the“lure and kill”approach), pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular, detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  10. Spread of Zika virus:The key role of mosquito vector control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes(Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens,including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean,represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above,it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nanoparticles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation(i.e. the "lure and kill"approach), pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular,detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  11. Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit Chikungunya virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie McFarlane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi, has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways.

  12. Discovery of flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements in Anopheles mosquito genomes supports the existence of Anopheles-associated insect-specific flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens. Whether such observations reflect occasional spillover or laboratory contamination or whether Anopheles mosquitoes are natural hosts of flaviviruses is unknown. Here, we provide in silico and in vivo evidence of transcriptionally active, flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis. Such non-retroviral endogenization of RNA viruses is consistent with a shared evolutionary history between flaviviruses and Anopheles mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analyses of the two newly described EVEs support the existence of a distinct clade of Anopheles-associated ISFs.

  13. Molecular detection of Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus in mosquitoes from La Pintada (Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoyos L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The detection of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses in mosquitoes from urban and rural areas, is fundamental for predict possible epidemic outbreaks in human populations. The Municipality of La Pintada (Antioquia, is characterized by the presence of dry tropical forest relicts, fishing, tourism, farms and mining. An entomological research was performed for explore the possible circulation of arboviruses of public health importance. Materials and methods. Mosquitoes were captured in urban and rural sites in February-April of 2012. The specimens were stored in liquid nitrogens tanks and were grouped using taxonomic keys for genera. RNA extraction from pools and generic/nested RT-PCR was performed for Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus (Group Bunyamwera and Phlebovirus. Results. 1274 mosquitoes were collected, mainly belonging to Culex and Aedes genera. RNA extracts of 64 pools were tested by RT-PCR and one pool was positive for Alphavirus. Sequencing of the RT-PCR product and the analysis with sequences storage in GenBank designate the presence of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV. Conclusions. This is the first record of natural infection from EEEV in mosquitoes from La Pintada (Antioquia, an area with ecological elements that favor the emergence of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses of medical and veterinarian importance.

  14. Longitudinal Analysis of Natural Killer Cells in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients in Comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue Virus-Infected Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Petitdemange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America and Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development and outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy.We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV and DENV-2 infected patients.We observed that both activation and differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, and DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV.Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV and DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.

  15. ERK signaling couples nutrient status to antiviral defense in the insect gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Hopkins, Kaycie; Sabin, Leah; Yasunaga, Ari; Subramanian, Harry; Lamborn, Ian; Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Cherry, Sara

    2013-09-10

    A unique facet of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infection is that the pathogens are orally acquired by an insect vector during the taking of a blood meal, which directly links nutrient acquisition and pathogen challenge. We show that the nutrient responsive ERK pathway is both induced by and restricts disparate arboviruses in Drosophila intestines, providing insight into the molecular determinants of the antiviral "midgut barrier." Wild-type flies are refractory to oral infection by arboviruses, including Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, but this innate restriction can be overcome chemically by oral administration of an ERK pathway inhibitor or genetically via the specific loss of ERK in Drosophila intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, we found that vertebrate insulin, which activates ERK in the mosquito gut during a blood meal, restricts viral infection in Drosophila cells and against viral invasion of the insect gut epithelium. We find that ERK's antiviral signaling activity is likely conserved in Aedes mosquitoes, because genetic or pharmacologic manipulation of the ERK pathway affects viral infection of mosquito cells. These studies demonstrate that ERK signaling has a broadly antiviral role in insects and suggest that insects take advantage of cross-species signals in the meal to trigger antiviral immunity.

  16. The role of environmental, virological and vector interactions in dictating biological transmission of arthropod-borne viruses by mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Joan L; Brault, Aaron C

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. An inherently complex interaction among virus, vector, and the environment determines successful transmission of the virus. Once believed to be "flying syringes," recent advances in the field have demonstrated that mosquito genetics, microbiota, salivary components, and mosquito innate immune responses all play important roles in modulating arbovirus transmissibility. The literature on the interaction among virus, mosquito, and environment has expanded dramatically in the preceding decade and the utilization of next-generation sequencing and transgenic vector methodologies assuredly will increase the pace of knowledge acquisition in this field. This chapter outlines the interplay among the three factors in both direct physical and biochemical manners as well as indirectly through superinfection barriers and altered induction of innate immune responses in mosquito vectors. The culmination of the aforementioned interactions and the arms race between the mosquito innate immune response and the capacity of arboviruses to antagonize such a response ultimately results in the subjugation of mosquito cells for viral replication and subsequent transmission.

  17. SOROPREVALÊNCIA DE ANTICORPOS “ANTI-ARBOVÍRUS” DE IMPORTÂNCIA EM SAÚDE PÚBLICA EM AVES SELVAGENS, BRASIL – 2007 E 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Anilton Alves Araujo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against arboviruses in wild birds in two serological surveys conducted in Salinopólis/Para State. A total of 544 birds of 17 species were captured, being nine resident and eight migratory. Blood was collected from 350 birds for virus isolation, but no virus was isolated. Of the 95 sera in which the hemagglutination inhibition test was performed, 14.7% were reactive to alphavirus, 9.5% to flavivirus and 7.4% to bunyavirus. Of the positive reactions, 84.9% occurred in migratory birds and 15.1% i resident birds. The proportions of positive reactions to the test among migratory and resident birds were 31.5% and 18.2%, respectively, which was not statistically different (p> 0.05. For alphaviruses, the species Pluvialis squatarola showed 28.6% positivity, followed by 11.8% in Arenaria interpres. For flaviviruses, only the species Sterna superciliares and Calidris pusilla were reactive to the hemagglutination inhibition test. Regarding the bunyavírus, the Arenaria interpres was 5.9% positive for the Oropouche virus. Migratory birds have proved to be important amplifiers of the arboviruses surveyed, although no viruses were isolated. Some bird species have greater amplification capacity of certain arboviruses than others. Virus isolation in wild birds is difficult, in view of the need of blood sampling in animals within the viremic period.

  18. Epidemia de encefalite por arbovírus na região sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1975 e 1976: aspectos da distribuição cronológica e geográfica dos casos Encephalitis outbreak in the southern region of the State of S. Paulo in 1975 and 1976: aspects concerning chronological and geographical distribution of the cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a evolução de uma epidemia de encefalite por arbovirus do grupo B (flavivirus em 20 municípios da região sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, durante os anos de 1975 e 1976. Verificou-se que a moléstia se propagou em forma de onda epidêmica na direção leste-oeste e leste-sudoeste. A cadeia de montanhas situada ao norte e noroeste da região parece ter-se constituido em barreira à doença. Foi observada também variação estacional, com maior morbidade nos meses de verão e início do outono.The evolution of an encephalitis outbreak due to group B arbovirus was studied in 20 districts in the southern region of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1975 and 1976. It was noticed that the disease spread in an epidemic wave in the east west and east southwest directions. The mountains located in the north and north west zones seem to have acted as a barrier to the spread of the arboviruses. A seasonal incidence with most of the cases occurring during late Summer and early Fall was also noticed.

  19. New hosts for the mite Ornithonyssus bursa in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, M Á; Grande, J M; Liébana, M S; Martínez, P; Díaz, L A; Bragagnolo, L A; Solaro, C; Galmes, M A; Sarasola, J H

    2015-12-01

    The mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) is considered a poultry pest causing important infestations in chickens and it is considered a potential vector of arbovirus. Despite being considered a common parasite in wild birds, there is scarce published information about its potential hosts and effects on them. Here we present new bird hosts for O. bursa, assess the presence of Alphavirus, Flavivirus and Bunyavirus in mites from three host species, and discuss its potential impact on wild bird populations. We found O. bursa infecting five raptor and six passerine wild bird species. For nine of these species, this is the first record of infection by O. bursa. Although all analysed mites were negative for the examined arboviruses, the small sample size of mites does not allow further conclusions at the present moment. Because of the general nature of this ectoparasite, its presence in migratory long dispersal and endangered bird species, and the seropositivity for arboviruses in some of the species studied here, we consider it critical to assess the role of O. bursa and other ectoparasites as vectors and reservoirs of pathogens and as potential deleterious agents in wild bird populations.

  20. Spread of Zika virus: The key role of mosquito vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above, it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nanoparticles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation (i.e. the “lure and kill” approach, pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular, detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  1. The RNA interference pathway affects midgut infection- and escape barriers for Sindbis virus in Aedes aegypti

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    Olson Ken E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RNA interference (RNAi pathway acts as an innate antiviral immune response in Aedes aegypti, modulating arbovirus infection of mosquitoes. Sindbis virus (SINV; family: Togaviridae, genus: Alphavirus is an arbovirus that infects Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. SINV strain TR339 encounters a midgut escape barrier (MEB during infection of Ae. aegypti. The nature of this barrier is not well understood. To investigate the role of the midgut as the central organ determining vector competence for arboviruses, we generated transgenic mosquitoes in which the RNAi pathway was impaired in midgut tissue of bloodfed females. We used these mosquitoes to reveal effects of RNAi impairment in the midgut on SINV replication, midgut infection and dissemination efficiencies, and mosquito longevity. Results As a novel tool for studying arbovirus-mosquito interactions, we engineered a transgenic mosquito line with an impaired RNAi pathway in the midgut of bloodfed females by silencing expression of the Aa-dcr2 gene. In midgut tissue of the transgenic Carb/dcr16 line, Aa-dcr2 expression was reduced ~50% between 1-7 days post-bloodmeal (pbm when compared to the recipient mosquito strain. After infection with SINV-TR339EGFP, Aa-dcr2 expression levels were enhanced in both mosquito strains. In the RNAi pathway impaired mosquito strain SINV titers and midgut infection rates were significantly higher at 7 days pbm. There was also a strong tendency for increased virus dissemination rates among the transgenic mosquitoes. Between 7-14 days pbm, SINV was diminished in midgut tissue of the transgenic mosquitoes. Transgenic impairment of the RNAi pathway and/or SINV infection did not affect longevity of the mosquitoes. Conclusions We showed that RNAi impaired transgenic mosquitoes are a useful tool for studying arbovirus-mosquito interactions at the molecular level. Following ingestion by Ae. aegypti, the recombinant SINV-TR339EGFP was confronted with both

  2. Present and future arboviral threats.

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    Weaver, Scott C; Reisen, William K

    2010-02-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human disease nearly worldwide. All arboviruses circulate among wild animals, and many cause disease after spillover transmission to humans and agriculturally important domestic animals that are incidental or dead-end hosts. Viruses such as dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) that have lost the requirement for enzootic amplification now produce extensive epidemics in tropical urban centers. Many arboviruses recently have increased in importance as human and veterinary pathogens using a variety of mechanisms. Beginning in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) underwent a dramatic geographic expansion into the Americas. High amplification associated with avian virulence coupled with adaptation for replication at higher temperatures in mosquito vectors, has caused the largest epidemic of arboviral encephalitis ever reported in the Americas. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the most frequent arboviral cause of encephalitis worldwide, has spread throughout most of Asia and as far south as Australia from its putative origin in Indonesia and Malaysia. JEV has caused major epidemics as it invaded new areas, often enabled by rice culture and amplification in domesticated swine. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), another arbovirus that infects humans after amplification in domesticated animals, undergoes epizootic transmission during wet years following droughts. Warming of the Indian Ocean, linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific, leads to heavy rainfall in east Africa inundating surface pools and vertically infected mosquito eggs laid during previous seasons. Like WNV, JEV and RVFV could become epizootic and epidemic in the Americas if introduced unintentionally via commerce or intentionally for nefarious purposes. Climate warming also could facilitate the expansion of the distributions of many arboviruses, as documented for bluetongue viruses (BTV), major pathogens of ruminants. BTV, especially BTV-8

  3. Group size and nest spacing affect Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus infection in nestling house sparrows.

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    Valerie A O'Brien

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasites and pathogens among vertebrates often depends on host population size, host species diversity, and the extent of crowding among potential hosts, but little is known about how these variables apply to most vector-borne pathogens such as the arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus is an RNA arbovirus transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius to the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus that has recently invaded swallow nesting colonies. The virus has little impact on cliff swallows, but house sparrows are seriously affected by BCRV. For house sparrows occupying swallow nesting colonies in western Nebraska, USA, the prevalence of BCRV in nestling sparrows increased with sparrow colony size at a site but decreased with the number of cliff swallows present. If one nestling in a nest was infected with the virus, there was a greater likelihood that one or more of its nest-mates would also be infected than nestlings chosen at random. The closer a nest was to another nest containing infected nestlings, the greater the likelihood that some of the nestlings in the focal nest would be BCRV-positive. These results illustrate that BCRV represents a cost of coloniality for a vertebrate host (the house sparrow, perhaps the first such demonstration for an arbovirus, and that virus infection is spatially clustered within nests and within colonies. The decreased incidence of BCRV in sparrows as cliff swallows at a site increased reflects the "dilution effect," in which virus transmission is reduced when a vector switches to feeding on a less competent vertebrate host.

  4. Group size and nest spacing affect Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) infection in nestling house sparrows.

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    O'Brien, Valerie A; Brown, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of parasites and pathogens among vertebrates often depends on host population size, host species diversity, and the extent of crowding among potential hosts, but little is known about how these variables apply to most vector-borne pathogens such as the arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses). Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus) is an RNA arbovirus transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has recently invaded swallow nesting colonies. The virus has little impact on cliff swallows, but house sparrows are seriously affected by BCRV. For house sparrows occupying swallow nesting colonies in western Nebraska, USA, the prevalence of BCRV in nestling sparrows increased with sparrow colony size at a site but decreased with the number of cliff swallows present. If one nestling in a nest was infected with the virus, there was a greater likelihood that one or more of its nest-mates would also be infected than nestlings chosen at random. The closer a nest was to another nest containing infected nestlings, the greater the likelihood that some of the nestlings in the focal nest would be BCRV-positive. These results illustrate that BCRV represents a cost of coloniality for a vertebrate host (the house sparrow), perhaps the first such demonstration for an arbovirus, and that virus infection is spatially clustered within nests and within colonies. The decreased incidence of BCRV in sparrows as cliff swallows at a site increased reflects the "dilution effect," in which virus transmission is reduced when a vector switches to feeding on a less competent vertebrate host.

  5. Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse: a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore.

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    Pei-Sze Jeslyn Wong

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi. Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose50 assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore.

  6. Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

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    Geiss Brian J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus, a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. Results B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/3'2J inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3'2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3'2J/B2 compared to TE/3'2J and TE/3'2J virus expressing GFP. TE/3'2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. Following infectious oral bloodmeal, significantly more mosquitoes died when TE/3'2J/B2 was ingested. The virus was 100% lethal following intrathoracic inoculation of multiple mosquito species and lethality was dose-dependent in Ae. aegypti. Conclusion We show that RNAi is active in Ae. aegypti cell culture and that B2 protein inhibits RNAi in mosquito cells when expressed by a recombinant SINV. Also, SINV more efficiently replicates in mosquito cells when RNAi is inhibited. Finally, TE/3'2J/B2 kills mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner independent of infection route and mosquito species.

  7. Alphavirus mutator variants present host-specific defects and attenuation in mammalian and insect models.

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    Kathryn Rozen-Gagnon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses cycle through both vertebrates and invertebrates, which requires them to adapt to disparate hosts while maintaining genetic integrity during genome replication. To study the genetic mechanisms and determinants of these processes, we use chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging human pathogen transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. We previously isolated a high fidelity (or antimutator polymerase variant, C483Y, which had decreased fitness in both mammalian and mosquito hosts, suggesting this residue may be a key molecular determinant. To further investigate effects of position 483 on RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp fidelity, we substituted every amino acid at this position. We isolated novel mutators with decreased replication fidelity and higher mutation frequencies, allowing us to examine the fitness of error-prone arbovirus variants. Although CHIKV mutators displayed no major replication defects in mammalian cell culture, they had reduced specific infectivity and were attenuated in vivo. Unexpectedly, mutator phenotypes were suppressed in mosquito cells and the variants exhibited significant defects in RNA synthesis. Consequently, these replication defects resulted in strong selection for reversion during infection of mosquitoes. Since residue 483 is conserved among alphaviruses, we examined the analogous mutations in Sindbis virus (SINV, which also reduced polymerase fidelity and generated replication defects in mosquito cells. However, replication defects were mosquito cell-specific and were not observed in Drosophila S2 cells, allowing us to evaluate the potential attenuation of mutators in insect models where pressure for reversion was absent. Indeed, the SINV mutator variant was attenuated in fruit flies. These findings confirm that residue 483 is a determinant regulating alphavirus polymerase fidelity and demonstrate proof of principle that arboviruses can be attenuated in mammalian and insect hosts by reducing fidelity.

  8. Alphavirus mutator variants present host-specific defects and attenuation in mammalian and insect models.

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    Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Mongelli, Vanesa; Blanc, Hervé; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Saleh, Maria-Carla; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Arboviruses cycle through both vertebrates and invertebrates, which requires them to adapt to disparate hosts while maintaining genetic integrity during genome replication. To study the genetic mechanisms and determinants of these processes, we use chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging human pathogen transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. We previously isolated a high fidelity (or antimutator) polymerase variant, C483Y, which had decreased fitness in both mammalian and mosquito hosts, suggesting this residue may be a key molecular determinant. To further investigate effects of position 483 on RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) fidelity, we substituted every amino acid at this position. We isolated novel mutators with decreased replication fidelity and higher mutation frequencies, allowing us to examine the fitness of error-prone arbovirus variants. Although CHIKV mutators displayed no major replication defects in mammalian cell culture, they had reduced specific infectivity and were attenuated in vivo. Unexpectedly, mutator phenotypes were suppressed in mosquito cells and the variants exhibited significant defects in RNA synthesis. Consequently, these replication defects resulted in strong selection for reversion during infection of mosquitoes. Since residue 483 is conserved among alphaviruses, we examined the analogous mutations in Sindbis virus (SINV), which also reduced polymerase fidelity and generated replication defects in mosquito cells. However, replication defects were mosquito cell-specific and were not observed in Drosophila S2 cells, allowing us to evaluate the potential attenuation of mutators in insect models where pressure for reversion was absent. Indeed, the SINV mutator variant was attenuated in fruit flies. These findings confirm that residue 483 is a determinant regulating alphavirus polymerase fidelity and demonstrate proof of principle that arboviruses can be attenuated in mammalian and insect hosts by reducing fidelity.

  9. Identification of hotspots in the European union for the introduction of four zoonotic arboviroses by live animal trade.

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    Benoit Durand

    Full Text Available Live animal trade is considered a major mode of introduction of viruses from enzootic foci into disease-free areas. Due to societal and behavioural changes, some wild animal species may nowadays be considered as pet species. The species diversity of animals involved in international trade is thus increasing. This could benefit pathogens that have a broad host range such as arboviruses. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk posed by live animal imports for the introduction, in the European Union (EU, of four arboviruses that affect human and horses: Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Importation data for a five-years period (2005-2009, extracted from the EU TRACES database, environmental data (used as a proxy for the presence of vectors and horses and human population density data (impacting the occurrence of clinical cases were combined to derive spatially explicit risk indicators for virus introduction and for the potential consequences of such introductions. Results showed the existence of hotspots where the introduction risk was the highest in Belgium, in the Netherlands and in the north of Italy. This risk was higher for Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE than for the three other diseases. It was mainly attributed to exotic pet species such as rodents, reptiles or cage birds, imported in small-sized containments from a wide variety of geographic origins. The increasing species and origin diversity of these animals may have in the future a strong impact on the risk of introduction of arboviruses in the EU.

  10. SEROSURVEY OF SELECTED ARBOVIRAL PATHOGENS IN FREE-RANGING, TWO-TOED SLOTHS (CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) AND THREE-TOED SLOTHS (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) IN COSTA RICA, 2005-07.

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    Medlin, Scott; Deardorff, Eleanor R; Hanley, Christopher S; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Siudak-Campfield, Asia; Dallwig, Rebecca; da Rosa, Amelia Travassos; Tesh, Robert B; Martin, Maria Pia; Weaver, Scott C; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Sladky, Kurt K; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-10-01

    We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman's two-toed sloths (HTSs; Choloepus hoffmanni ) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; Bradypus variegatus ) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80% of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67% had antibodies to ILHV, 32% to Punta Toro virus, 30% to Changuinola virus, 15% to WNV, 14% to VSV, 11% to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10% to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths.

  11. SEROSURVEY OF SELECTED ARBOVIRAL PATHOGENS IN FREE-RANGING, TWO-TOED SLOTHS (CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) AND THREE-TOED SLOTHS (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) IN COSTA RICA, 2005–07

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    Medlin, Scott; Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Hanley, Christopher S.; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Siudak-Campfield, Asia; Dallwig, Rebecca; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B.; Pia Martin, Maria; Weaver, Scott C.; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Sladky, Kurt K.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman’s two-toed sloths (HTSs; CHOLOEPUS HOFFMANNI) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses). Overall, 80% of sloths had detectable antibodies to SLEV, 67% had antibodies to ILHV, 32% to Punta Toro virus, 30% to Changuinola virus, 15% to WNV, 14% to VSV, 11% to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and 10% to Rio Grande virus. No samples had detectable antibodies to the remaining eight viruses. We found a significant increase in prevalence of antibody to VSV in HTSs between 2005 and 2007, and for WNV antibody between 2005 and 2006. We found no significant differences in the prevalences of antibodies to the sampled viruses between the two locations. Antibody prevalences were significantly higher in HTSs than in BTSs for SLEV in 2005. Antibody-positive results for ILHV were likely due to cross-reaction with SLEV. The novel finding of antibodies to Rio Grande virus in sloths could be due to cross-reaction with another phlebovirus. These findings might have implications for land management and domestic animal health. Due to the nature of the study, we could not determine whether sloths could represent amplification hosts for these viruses, or whether they were only exposed and could be used as sentinel species. Further studies are needed to fully characterize arboviral exposure in sloths. PMID:27479900

  12. Seroprevalence of Infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya Viruses in Kenya, 2007.

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    Caroline Ochieng

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007 to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV.The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2% were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive, followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively. For DENV and RVFV, the participant's province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01 with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01. These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV.

  13. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

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    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They

  14. Comparison of dengue virus type 2-specific small RNAs from RNA interference-competent and -incompetent mosquito cells.

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    Jaclyn C Scott

    Full Text Available The exogenous RNA interference (RNAi pathway is an important antiviral defense against arboviruses in mosquitoes, and virus-specific small interfering (siRNAs are key components of this pathway. Understanding the biogenesis of siRNAs in mosquitoes could have important ramifications in using RNAi to control arbovirus transmission. Using deep sequencing technology, we characterized dengue virus type 2 (DENV2-specific small RNAs produced during infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and A. aegypti Aag2 cell cultures and compared them to those produced in the C6/36 Aedes albopictus cell line. We show that the size and mixed polarity of virus-specific small RNAs from DENV-infected A. aegypti cells indicate that they are products of Dicer-2 (Dcr2 cleavage of long dsRNA, whereas C6/36 cells generate DENV2-specific small RNAs that are longer and predominantly positive polarity, suggesting that they originate from a different small RNA pathway. Examination of virus-specific small RNAs after infection of the two mosquito cell lines with the insect-only flavivirus cell fusing agent virus (CFAV corroborated these findings. An in vitro assay also showed that Aag2 A. aegypti cells are capable of siRNA production, while C6/36 A. albopictus cells exhibit inefficient Dcr2 cleavage of long dsRNA. Defective expression or function of Dcr2, the key initiator of the RNAi pathway, might explain the comparatively robust growth of arthropod-borne viruses in the C6/36 cell line, which has been used frequently as a surrogate for studying molecular interactions between arboviruses and cells of their mosquito hosts.

  15. Uso de células de Aedes albopictus C6/36 na propagação e classificação de arbovírus das famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae

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    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Colônias de células de mosquito Aedes albopictus C6/36 foram infectadas com 23 arbovirus, sendo 19 destes existentes no Brasil, pertencentes às famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae. A Replicação virai foi detectada por imunofluorescência indireta com todos os vírus estudados enquanto que o efeito citopático foi observado durante a infecção por alguns destes. No teste de imunofluorescência indireta utilizou-se fluidos ascíticos imunes de camundongos, específicos para os vírus estudados. A replicação virai caracterizada por grande produção de antígeno recomenda a utilização de células C6/36 na propagação e em tentativas de isolamento desses arbovirus. A técnica de imunofluorescência ofereceu importantes subsídios na classificação e identificação de vírus que replicam nestas células.C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells were infected w ith Brazilian arbovirus from the families Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae. Replication was obtained with all the studied viruses and cytopathic effect was observed with some. Viral antigen was assayed in C6/36 cell cultures for antigen was assayed in C6/36 cells by an indirect immunofluorescence test using specific mouse immune ascitic fluid. Antigen production was detected in C6/36 cells infected with all the studied viruses. The author recommends the inoculation of C6/36 cell cultures for isolation of virus from the four studied families. The immunofluorescence technique is an important tool for classification and identification of virus growing in C6/36 cells.

  16. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas.

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    Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de; Gimaque, João Bosco de Lima; Alves, Valquíria do Carmo Rodrigues; Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Figueiredo, Mário Luis Garcia; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-01-01

    The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon), is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF) were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42) were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  17. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex in South-Eastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of adult behaviour of Culex (Culex species was carried out from August 1992 through December 1993 in a human modified (anthropic environment in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil. Culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. Nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. So it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. Nonetheless, Cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially St. Louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.São relatados os resultados obtidos mediante coletas regulares de adultos de Culex (Culex em ambientes antrópico do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1992 a dezembro de 1993. Pôde-se evidenciar a dominancia de Culex nigripalpus nas várias coletas efetuadas. Revelou-se claramente a preferência por parte desse mosquito em aumentar sua densidade no ambiente antrópico. Todavia, sua freqüência ao domicílio mostrou-se baixa, revelando fraco grau de sinantropia. Assim sendo, seu papel vetor de arbovirus parece restringir-se à participação no ciclo natural desses agentes infecciosos. Contudo, pode-se considerá-lo como vetor potencial no meio extradomiciliar. Nesse particular, seu papel pode não ser negligenciável, especialmente no que tange à possibilidade de transmissão de encefalite de S.Luís, cujo agente já foi assinalado na região.

  18. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD, located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon, is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42 were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  19. Structural mutants of dengue virus 2 transmembrane domains exhibit host-range phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gwynneth S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are over 700 known arboviruses and at least 80 immunologically distinct types that cause disease in humans. Arboviruses are transmitted among vertebrates by biting insects, chiefly mosquitoes and ticks. These viruses are widely distributed throughout the world, depending on the presence of appropriate hosts (birds, horses, domestic animals, humans and vectors. Mosquito-borne arboviruses present some of the most important examples of emerging and resurgent diseases of global significance. Methods A strategy has been developed by which host-range mutants of Dengue virus can be constructed by generating deletions in the transmembrane domain (TMD of the E glycoprotein. The host-range mutants produced and selected favored growth in the insect hosts. Mouse trials were conducted to determine if these mutants could initiate an immune response in an in vivo system. Results The DV2 E protein TMD defined as amino acids 452SWTMKILIGVIITWIG467 was found to contain specific residues which were required for the production of this host-range phenotype. Deletion mutants were found to be stable in vitro for 4 sequential passages in both host cell lines. The host-range mutants elicited neutralizing antibody above that seen for wild-type virus in mice and warrant further testing in primates as potential vaccine candidates. Conclusions Novel host-range mutants of DV2 were created that have preferential growth in insect cells and impaired infectivity in mammalian cells. This method for creating live, attenuated viral mutants that generate safe and effective immunity may be applied to many other insect-borne viral diseases for which no current effective therapies exist.

  20. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness.

  1. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Mahendra; Saxena, Ashish; Kolhe, Yuvraj; Karande, Snehal K; Singh, Narendra; Venkatesh, P; Meena, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50-100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy.

  2. Species-specific impact of the autophagy machinery on Chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith, Delphine; Mostowy, Serge; Bourai, Mehdi; Gangneux, Nicolas; Lelek, Mickaël; Lucas-Hourani, Marianne; Cayet, Nadège; Jacob, Yves; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Pierre, Philippe; Tangy, Frédéric; Zimmer, Christophe; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Couderc, Thérèse; Lecuit, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a recently re-emerged arbovirus that triggers autophagy. Here, we show that CHIKV interacts with components of the autophagy machinery during its replication cycle, inducing a cytoprotective effect. The autophagy receptor p62 protects cells from death by binding ubiquitinated capsid and targeting it to autophagolysosomes. By contrast, the human autophagy receptor NDP52--but not its mouse orthologue--interacts with the non-structural protein nsP2, thereby promoting viral replication. These results highlight the distinct roles of p62 and NDP52 in viral infection, and identify NDP52 as a cellular factor that accounts for CHIKV species specificity.

  3. How great is the threat of chikungunya virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade, chikungunya virus has emerged from an obscure arbovirus that caused limited outbreaks of disease in Africa and Asia to the cause of a pandemic affecting millions of people and spanning five continents. Two separate chikungunya virus genotypes have been responsible for outbreaks during this period, including strains adapted to transmission in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Further spread of this virus into new regions of the Western Hemisphere is predicted during the present rainy season in the tropics, and recurrent viral introductions and disease outbreaks, as occurred in Réunion in 2010, should be expected. Chikungunya virus no longer simply threatens; it has arrived as a significant, global pathogen.

  4. [Zika virus: a public health overview on epidemiology, clinical practice and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Ciabattini, Marco; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus mainly transmitted by mosquitoes bites. During the last months, the attention of Public Health Institutions has been drawn by a significant increase of microcephaly cases in Brasil and analyses highlighted a connection between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and fetal microcephaly. Since 2015, many Zika virus outbreaks have been identified in South America and there is concern about the spread of the virus in areas where competent vectors are present. Nowadays, vaccination is not available and prevention is based on individual measures and on vectors control. This review of the most recent studies give an overview on the Zika problem.

  5. Zika Virus: Critical Information for Emergency Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Siri; Koenig, Kristi L; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. It is primarily a minimally symptomatic mosquito-borne infection. However, with Zika's 2015 to 2016 introduction into the Western Hemisphere and its dramatic and rapid spread, it has become a public health concern, in large part due to congenital abnormalities associated with infection in pregnant women. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared the microcephaly and other neurologic conditions associated with Zika virus infection a public health emergency of international concern. This article discusses the current epidemiologic and clinical understanding of Zika virus, focusing on critical information needed by emergency providers.

  6. Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Strains Isolated from the Blood of Patients in Thailand (2014) and Philippines (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    Complete genome sequences of Zika Virus strains isolated from the blood of patients in 1 Thailand (2014) and Philippines (2012). 2 Ellison,D.W.1...Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 20 21 Running Head: Zika Virus Genomes 22 23 ABSTRACT 24 ZIKV is an arbovirus and member of the family...genome sequences of two Zika Virus (ZIKV) strains, Zika virus/H.sapiens-27 tc/THA/2014/SV0127-14 and Zika virus/H.sapiens-tc/PHL/2012/CPC-0740, isolated

  7. First Case of Zika Virus Infection in a HIV+ Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the flavivirus genre. As with arbovirus, it is transmitted by arthropods (mosquitoes), both Aedes aegypti (urban) and albopictus (rural). Zika virus was first isolated in 1947 from monkeys in Uganda. The first human cases were reported in 1952 in East Africa. Outbreaks were reported in Micronesia (2007), Polynesia (2013), and Chile (2014). Both diagnostic procedures and therapeutics are poorly developed. Serological tests cross-react with dengue and there are neither specific antivirals nor vaccines.

  8. Presence of Autoimmune Antibody in Chikungunya Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Maek-a-nantawat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya infection has recently re-emerged as an important arthropod-borne disease in Thailand. Recently, Southern Thailand was identified as a potentially endemic area for the chikungunya virus. Here, we report a case of severe musculoskeletal complication, presenting with muscle weakness and swelling of the limbs. During the investigation to exclude autoimmune muscular inflammation, high titers of antinuclear antibody were detected. This is the report of autoimmunity detection associated with an arbovirus infection. The symptoms can mimic autoimmune polymyositis disease, and the condition requires close monitoring before deciding to embark upon prolonged specific treatment with immunomodulators.

  9. Infección por chikunguña materno-fetal asociada con miocarditis neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales Martínez, Silvia Catalina; Facultad de Salud, Universidad Surcolombiana-Hospital Universitario Hernando Moncaliano, Neiva, Colombia.; Fonseca, Carlos; Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal-Hospital Universitario Hernando Moncaliano, Neiva, Colombia; Salgado, Doris; Departamento Infectología Pediátrica, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Surcolombiana-Hospital Universitario Hernando Moncaliano, Neiva, Colombia.

    2016-01-01

     El virus de chikunguña es un arbovirus de la familia Togaviridae y fue aislado por primera vez en Tanzania y Uganda, en 1953. Esta infección se ha desarrollado de manera endémica y es transmitida por el mosquito del género Aedes. El mecanismo exacto de la transmisión de madre a hijo aún no se tiene claro, pero se han identificado potenciales complicaciones de la transmisión vertical, como malformaciones congénitas, mortinatos, restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y partos pretérmino. En ...

  10. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovekesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50–100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy.

  11. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Mahendra; Saxena, Ashish; Kolhe, Yuvraj; Karande, Snehal K.; Singh, Narendra; Venkatesh, P.; Meena, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50–100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy. PMID:26167314

  12. DENGUE: ¿DÓNDE NOS ENCONTRAMOS EN EL DESARROLLO DE UNA VACUNA EFICAZ?

    OpenAIRE

    Galán Herrera, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    El dengue es una enfermedad causada por uno de los cuatros serotipos del virus dengue. La infección por dengue supone una carga socioeconómica y enfermedad grave en muchas regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo. Actualmente es considerada actualmente como la enfermedad por arbovirus más importante a nivel internacional. La disponibilidad de una vacuna tetravalente segura y eficaz que induzca la producción equilibrada, robusta y sostenida de anticuerpos protectores contra todos los viru...

  13. New report on the bionomics of Coquillettidia venezuelensis in temporary breeding sites (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Findings of immature forms of Coquillettidia venezuelensis in temporary breeding sites, without the presence of aquatic plants or other submerged plant tissue are reported. METHODS: A systematic scooping technique to collect specimens was used at the breeding site. RESULTS: Immature forms of Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Anopheles rangeli, An. evansae and Culex sp. were collected from areas of the hydroelectric power station of São Salvador, State of Goiás. CONCLUSIONS This is a novel finding relating to the bioecology of Cq. venezuelensis, a species of medical interest that has been found naturally infected with arboviruses, including Oropouche and West Nile virus.

  14. Transverse Myelitis as an Unusual Complication of Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira; Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Zini, Nathalia; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Gongora, Delzi Vinha Nunes; Maia, Irineu Luiz; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2017-02-08

    Dengue fever is the most common arbovirus disease, and presents with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic disease through to the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever. These extreme cases can lead to dengue shock syndrome, and sometimes death. Spinal cord involvement in dengue virus (DENV) infections is rare. Here, we report a case in which the patient developed acute transverse myelitis (TM) without paraparesis following a DENV infection. This case highlights the importance of physicians' awareness of the possible link between DENV and TM in endemic areas.

  15. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mosquito-Borne Viruses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen; Huang, Yan-Jang S

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive species that continues to expand its geographic distribution both in the United States and in countries on other continents. Studies have demonstrated its susceptibility to infection with at least 32 viruses, including 13 that are present in the United States. Despite this susceptibility, its role as a significant competent vector in natural transmission cycles of arboviruses, has been limited. However, with the recent introductions of chikungunya and Zika viruses into the Americas, for which Ae. albopictus is a recognized vector, it is possible that the species may contribute to the transmission of these viruses to humans and perhaps other susceptible vertebrates.

  16. Zika Virus: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Maggi, Fabrizio; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-07-15

    The World Health Organization has declared the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. Lack of vaccines and reliable diagnostic tests, broad geographical distribution of mosquito species that can transmit the virus, and absence of population immunity in newly affected countries are causes for concern. Although most infected persons are asymptomatic, ZIKV has been associated with a rise in cases of neurological complications and fetal central nervous system malformations. This defines such an arbovirus as something whose transmission should be prevented. This review summarizes the current understanding of ZIKV biology and epidemiology, as well as possible interventions to prevent contagion and transmission.

  17. Determination of natural versus laboratory human infection with Mayaro virus by molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junt, T; Heraud, J M; Lelarge, J; Labeau, B; Talarmin, A

    1999-12-01

    A laboratory worker developed clinical signs of infection with Mayaro virus (Togaviridae), an arbovirus of South and Central America, 6 days after preparation of Mayaro viral antigen and 10 days after a trip to a rain forest. There was no evidence of skin lesions during the antigen preparation, and level 3 containment safety measures were followed. Therefore, molecular characterization of the virus was undertaken to identify the source of infection. RT-PCR and DNA sequence comparisons proved the infection was with the laboratory strain. Airborne Mayaro virus contamination is thus a hazard to laboratory personnel.

  18. A case of Mayaro virus infection imported from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llagonne-Barets, Marion; Icard, Vinca; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Prat, Christine; Perpoint, Thomas; André, Patrice; Ramière, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Emergence of arboviruses is a rising problem in several areas in the world. Here we report a case of Mayaro virus infection that was diagnosed in a French citizen presenting a dengue-like syndrome with prolonged arthralgia following a travel in French Guiana. Diagnosis was based on serological testing, a newly developed specific RT-PCR and sequencing. The real incidence of this viral infection among travelers is poorly known but this case is the first reported in a European area where Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are established, which underscores the necessity to determine the vector competence of the European strain of this mosquito species for Mayaro virus.

  19. 全球重要虫媒病毒流行状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 张海林; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    @@ 虫媒病毒(arbovirus)是指一些通过吸血的节肢动物叮咬敏感的脊椎动物而引起的自然疫源性疾病及人兽共患病的一群病毒.作为虫媒病毒,必须能在节肢动物体内繁殖,经过一定的外潜伏期,通过叮咬吸血又将病毒传给新的宿主.

  20. 蜱媒脑炎自然疫源探究%A study on natural source of tick-borne cephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国仕

    2004-01-01

    蜱媒脑炎包含森林脑炎(远东亚型)、西方蜱媒脑炎(中欧亚型)及双波脑膜脑炎。它们是虫媒病毒(Arboviruses)中黄病毒科(Flaviviridae)黄病毒属(Flavivirus)蜱媒脑炎群(tickborne encephalitis complex)中抗原上极其近似的森林脑炎病毒(Encephalophilus silvestris Zil’ber,1937年)、西方蜱媒脑炎病毒(Encephalophilus occidentalis Zil’ber,1945年)及双波脑膜

  1. Molecular detection of flaviviruses and alphaviruses in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from coastal ecosystems in the Colombian Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-López, Richard; Suaza-Vasco, Juan; Rúa-Uribe, Guillermo; Uribe, Sandra; Gallego-Gómez, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses belonging to the genera Flavivirus and Alphavirus were detected in mosquitoes in a rural area of San Bernardo del Viento (Córdoba, Colombia). A total of 22,180 mosquitoes were collected, sorted into 2,102 pools, and tested by generic/nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, and Culex flavivirus were detected and identified by sequencing. The detection of arboviral pathogens in this zone represents possible circulation and indicates a human health risk, demonstrating the importance of virological surveillance activities. PMID:27706377

  2. Aedes aegypti susceptibility to insecticide from Abidjan City, Cote D'ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Lucien Yao; Coulibaly, Ibrahima Zanakoungo; Kone, Blaise Atioumounan; Ziogba, Jean-Claude Tokou; Diallo, Adama; Ekra, Daniel Kouadio; Traoré, Karim Sory; Doannio, Marie Christian Julien; Paul, Odehouri-Koudou

    2012-04-01

    The susceptibility of Aedes aegypti adults of three places in Abidjan city selected for an entomological surveillance of potential arbovirus vectors to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and propoxur was determined using WHO standard procedures. The wild populations of A. aegypti were susceptible to permethrin, deltamethirn, and lambdacyhalothin. Resistance to propoxur was detected in strains collected at the Autonomous Port of Abidjan and at Koumassi (mortality rate: 77%) but possibly resistance to this insecticide at the national zoological park (mortality rate: 90.8%). Populations of the national zoological park were possibly resistant to propoxur whereas those of the Autonomous port of Abidjan and of Koumassi were resistant.

  3. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junglen, Sandra; Korries, Marvin; Grasse, Wolfgang; Wieseler, Janett; Kopp, Anne; Hermanns, Kyra; León-Juárez, Moises; Drosten, Christian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence. Here we isolated a novel flavivirus, termed Niénokoué virus (NIEV), from mosquitoes sampled in Côte d’Ivoire. NIEV groups with insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) in phylogeny and grows in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. We generated an infectious NIEV cDNA clone and a NIEV reporter replicon to study growth restrictions of NIEV in comparison to yellow fever virus (YFV), for which the same tools are available. Efficient RNA replication of the NIEV reporter replicon was observed in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. Initial translation of the input replicon RNA in vertebrate cells was functional, but RNA replication did not occur. Chimeric YFV carrying the envelope proteins of NIEV was recovered via electroporation in C6/36 insect cells but did not infect vertebrate cells, indicating a block at the level of entry. Since the YF/NIEV chimera readily produced infectious particles in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells despite efficient RNA replication, restriction is also determined at the level of assembly/release. Taking the results together, the ability of ISF to infect vertebrates is blocked at several levels, including attachment/entry and RNA replication as well as assembly/release. IMPORTANCE Most viruses of the genus Flavivirus, e.g., YFV and dengue virus, are mosquito borne and transmitted to vertebrates during blood feeding of mosquitoes. Within the last decade, an

  4. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  5. Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Giuseppe; Pupella, Simonetta; Vaglio, Stefania; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-03-01

    In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.

  6. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hercules Sakkas; Vangelis Economou; Chrissanthy Papadopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymp...

  7. Preliminary study of dengue virus infection in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman

    2012-01-01

    referred to the Arboviruses and Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute of Iran and tested negative for Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) between 2000 and 2012. Serum samples from these patients were tested for the presence of specific IgG and IgM and viral nucleic acid in blood...... abroad. Of these, six cases were from the Sistan and Baluchistan province in southeast Iran and neighbouring Pakistan. Travellers play a key role in the epidemiology of dengue infection in Iran and it is recommended that travellers to endemic areas take precautionary measures to avoid mosquito bites....

  8. Altered behavioral responses of Sindbis virus-infected Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to DEET and non-DEET based insect repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-de; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-06-01

    Changes in the time to first bite (TFB) and the bloodfeeding behavior of adult female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes following dissemination of Sindbis virus (SINV) were observed after exposure to repellents with the active ingredients (AI) DEET, picaridin, 2-undecanone (2-U), and oil of lemon eucalyptus. Dissemination of SINV significantly decreased (Prepellents compared to uninfected mosquitoes. Taken together, a decrease in TFB and time to complete the four bloodfeeding stages will lessen the prey-status, and enhance both the chances of mosquito survival and arbovirus transmission.

  9. Arbovirosis y operación ATALANTA: riesgo para viajeros y medidas de prevención y control

    OpenAIRE

    JF. Plaza Torres; R. Navarro Suay

    2014-01-01

    El término arbovirosis se utiliza para definir a un grupo de enfermedades producidas por virus, que tiene en común la utilización de artrópodos como vectores para su transmisión. Se han reconocido más de 500 arbovirus pertenecientes en su mayoría a 5 familias: Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Reoviridae y Rhabdoviridae. Pese a su naturaleza mayoritariamente zoonótica, al menos un 25% de ellas afectan al hombre, siendo responsables de enfermedades como la fiebre amarilla, dengue o la f...

  10. Evaluation of the human IgG antibody response to Aedes albopictus saliva as a new specific biomarker of exposure to vector bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Doucoure

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88% and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a "salivary" biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies.

  11. Evaluation of the Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Saliva as a New Specific Biomarker of Exposure to Vector Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Rutee, Abdul Hamid; Roca, Yelin; Walter, Annie; Hervé, Jean Pierre; Misse, Dorothée; Favier, François; Gasque, Philippe; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE) in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88%) and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. Conclusion/Significance Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a “salivary” biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies. PMID:22363823

  12. Eilat virus, a unique alphavirus with host range restricted to insects by RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Farooq; Palacios, Gustavo; Gorchakov, Rodion V; Guzman, Hilda; Da Rosa, Amelia P Travassos; Savji, Nazir; Popov, Vsevolod L; Sherman, Michael B; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2012-09-04

    Most alphaviruses and many other arboviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. Consequently, they can be propagated in most vertebrate and insect cell cultures. This ability of arboviruses to infect arthropods and vertebrates is usually essential for their maintenance in nature. However, several flaviviruses have recently been described that infect mosquitoes but not vertebrates, although the mechanism of their host restriction has not been determined. Here we describe a unique alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani mosquitoes from the Negev desert of Israel. Phylogenetic analyses placed EILV as a sister to the Western equine encephalitis antigenic complex within the main clade of mosquito-borne alphaviruses. Electron microscopy revealed that, like other alphaviruses, EILV virions were spherical, 70 nm in diameter, and budded from the plasma membrane of mosquito cells in culture. EILV readily infected a variety of insect cells with little overt cytopathic effect. However, in contrast to typical mosquito-borne alphaviruses, EILV could not infect mammalian or avian cell lines, and viral as well as RNA replication could not be detected at 37 °C or 28 °C. Evolutionarily, these findings suggest that EILV lost its ability to infect vertebrate cells. Thus, EILV seems to be mosquito-specific and represents a previously undescribed complex within the genus Alphavirus. Reverse genetic studies of EILV may facilitate the discovery of determinants of alphavirus host range that mediate disease emergence.

  13. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  14. Identification and initial characterization of matrix metalloproteinases in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, A M; Dong, S; Held, N L; Ishimwe, E; Passarelli, A L; Clem, R J; Franz, A W E

    2017-02-01

    Aedes aegypti is a major vector for arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. During acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal, an arbovirus infects mosquito midgut cells before disseminating to secondary tissues, including the salivary glands. Once virus is released into the salivary ducts it can be transmitted to another vertebrate host. The midgut is surrounded by a basal lamina (BL) in the extracellular matrix, consisting of a proteinaceous mesh composed of collagen IV and laminin. BL pore size exclusion limit prevents virions from passing through. Thus, the BL probably requires remodelling via enzymatic activity to enable efficient virus dissemination. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular endopeptidases that are involved in remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Here, we describe and characterize the nine Ae. aegypti encoded MMPs, AeMMPs 1-9, which share common features with other invertebrate and vertebrate MMPs. Expression profiling in Ae. aegypti revealed that Aemmp4 and Aemmp6 were upregulated during metamorphosis, whereas expression of Aemmp1 and Aemmp2 increased during bloodmeal digestion. Aemmp1 expression was also upregulated in the presence of a bloodmeal containing chikungunya virus. Using polyclonal antibodies, AeMMP1 and AeMMP2 were specifically detected in tissues associated with the mosquito midgut.

  15. Easy and inexpensive molecular detection of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Eliana P; Sánchez-Quete, Fernando; Durán, Sandra; Sandoval, Isabel; Castellanos, Jaime E

    2016-11-01

    Dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and zika (ZIKV) are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) sharing a common vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. At initial stages, patients infected with these viruses have similar clinical manifestations, however, the outcomes and clinical management of these diseases are different, for this reason early and accurate identification of the causative virus is necessary. This paper reports the development of a rapid and specific nested-PCR for detection of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV infection in the same sample. A set of six outer primers targeting the C-preM, E1, and E gene respectively was used in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay, followed by the second round of amplification with specific inner primers for each virus. The specificity of the present assay was validated with positive and negative serum samples for viruses and supernatants of infected cells. The assay was tested using clinical samples from febrile patients. In these samples, we detected mono and dual infections and a case of triple co-infection DENV-CHIKV-ZIKV. This assay might be a useful and an inexpensive tool for detection of these infections in regions where these arboviruses co-circulate.

  16. Imported Chikungunya fever case in Greece in June 2014 and public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Pervanidou, Danai; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Kavatha, Dimitra; Baka, Agoritsa; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Michaelakis, Antonios; Gavana, Elpida; Patsoula, Eleni; Tsimpos, Ioannis; Gioksari, Thalia; Kyriazopoulou, Evdoxia; Vakali, Annita; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Papa, Anna

    2016-03-01

    We report about the first imported case of Chikungunya fever in Greece in a Greek traveler returning from the Dominican Republic and the associated public health response. We investigated the case and performed focused epidemiological and entomological investigation in all areas the patient visited during the infectious period, to identify the targeted interventions needed. Entomological investigation revealed the occurrence of the competent vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the environment surrounding the hospital where the patient was admitted and in her workplace. All captured mosquitoes tested negative for Chikungunya virus. We further conducted clinical and laboratory examination of the patient's co-travelers, gave advice on appropriate personal preventive measures against mosquito bites to the patient and co-travelers and on vector control, and raised awareness among health professionals throughout Greece. The risk of introduction and local transmission of Chikungunya and other arboviruses in Greece and other European countries is present, as the competent vector exists in many parts of Europe. Public health professionals, travel medicine specialists and clinicians should maintain awareness regarding this possibility of importation of arbovirus cases in order to provide the appropriate advice, seek the prompt diagnosis, and implement appropriate interventions. Mobilization of various stakeholders will lead to enhanced epidemiological and entomological surveillance that will allow for improved risk assessment in each area.

  17. Mayaro virus: imported cases of human infection in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Terezinha Lisieux M; Santos, Cecília L S; Suzuki, Akemi; Petrella, Selma M C; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagamori, Adélia H; Marti, Antonia T; Santos, Raimundo N; Fialho, Danya M; Lavigne, Shirlene; Buzzar, Marcia R; Rocco, Iray M

    2007-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an arbovirus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) enzootic in tropical South America and maintained in a sylvan cycle involving wild vertebrates and Haemagogus mosquitoes. MAYV cases occur sporadically in persons with a history of recent activities inside or around forests. This paper reports three cases of MAYV fever detected in men infected in Camapuã, MS, Brazil. Serum samples collected at four days and two months after the onset of the symptoms and examined by hemagglutination inhibition test, revealed monotypic seroconversion to MAYV. Isolation of the virus was obtained from one of the samples by inoculation of the first blood samples into newborn mice. A suspension of the infected mouse brain was inoculated into C6/36 cells culture and the virus was identified by indirect immunofluorescent assay with alphavirus polyclonal antibodies. RT-PCR, performed with RNA extracted from the supernatant of C6/36 infected cells in the presence of alphavirus generic primers as well as specific MAYV primers, confirmed these results. The reported cases illustrate the importance of laboratory confirmation in establishing a correct diagnosis. Clinical symptoms are not always indicative of a disease caused by an arbovirus. Also MAYV causes febrile illness, which may be mistaken for dengue.

  18. West Nile virus genetic diversity is maintained during transmission by Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug E Brackney

    Full Text Available Due to error-prone replication, RNA viruses exist within hosts as a heterogeneous population of non-identical, but related viral variants. These populations may undergo bottlenecks during transmission that stochastically reduce variability leading to fitness declines. Such bottlenecks have been documented for several single-host RNA viruses, but their role in the population biology of obligate two-host viruses such as arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses in vivo is unclear, but of central importance in understanding arbovirus persistence and emergence. Therefore, we tracked the composition of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus populations during infection of the vector mosquito, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to determine whether WNV populations undergo bottlenecks during transmission by this host. Quantitative, qualitative and phylogenetic analyses of WNV sequences in mosquito midguts, hemolymph and saliva failed to document reductions in genetic diversity during mosquito infection. Further, migration analysis of individual viral variants revealed that while there was some evidence of compartmentalization, anatomical barriers do not impose genetic bottlenecks on WNV populations. Together, these data suggest that the complexity of WNV populations are not significantly diminished during the extrinsic incubation period of mosquitoes.

  19. Sequence-Specific Fidelity Alterations Associated with West Nile Virus Attenuation in Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta A Van Slyke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High rates of error-prone replication result in the rapid accumulation of genetic diversity of RNA viruses. Recent studies suggest that mutation rates are selected for optimal viral fitness and that modest variations in replicase fidelity may be associated with viral attenuation. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses are unique in their requirement for host cycling and may necessitate substantial genetic and phenotypic plasticity. In order to more thoroughly investigate the correlates, mechanisms and consequences of arbovirus fidelity, we selected fidelity variants of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus utilizing selection in the presence of a mutagen. We identified two mutations in the WNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with increased fidelity, V793I and G806R, and a single mutation in the WNV methyltransferase, T248I, associated with decreased fidelity. Both deep-sequencing and in vitro biochemical assays confirmed strain-specific differences in both fidelity and mutational bias. WNV fidelity variants demonstrated host-specific alterations to replicative fitness in vitro, with modest attenuation in mosquito but not vertebrate cell culture. Experimental infections of colonized and field populations of Cx. quinquefaciatus demonstrated that WNV fidelity alterations are associated with a significantly impaired capacity to establish viable infections in mosquitoes. Taken together, these studies (i demonstrate the importance of allosteric interactions in regulating mutation rates, (ii establish that mutational spectra can be both sequence and strain-dependent, and (iii display the profound phenotypic consequences associated with altered replication complex function of flaviviruses.

  20. Antiviral immunity of Anopheles gambiae is highly compartmentalized, with distinct roles for RNA interference and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissimo, Guillaume; Pondeville, Emilie; McFarlane, Melanie; Dietrich, Isabelle; Mitri, Christian; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Bourgouin, Catherine; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Kohl, Alain; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2015-01-13

    Arboviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and other arthropods to humans and animals. The risk associated with these viruses is increasing worldwide, including new emergence in Europe and the Americas. Anopheline mosquitoes are vectors of human malaria but are believed to transmit one known arbovirus, o'nyong-nyong virus, whereas Aedes mosquitoes transmit many. Anopheles interactions with viruses have been little studied, and the initial antiviral response in the midgut has not been examined. Here, we determine the antiviral immune pathways of the Anopheles gambiae midgut, the initial site of viral infection after an infective blood meal. We compare them with the responses of the post-midgut systemic compartment, which is the site of the subsequent disseminated viral infection. Normal viral infection of the midgut requires bacterial flora and is inhibited by the activities of immune deficiency (Imd), JAK/STAT, and Leu-rich repeat immune factors. We show that the exogenous siRNA pathway, thought of as the canonical mosquito antiviral pathway, plays no detectable role in antiviral defense in the midgut but only protects later in the systemic compartment. These results alter the prevailing antiviral paradigm by describing distinct protective mechanisms in different body compartments and infection stages. Importantly, the presence of the midgut bacterial flora is required for full viral infectivity to Anopheles, in contrast to malaria infection, where the presence of the midgut bacterial flora is required for protection against infection. Thus, the enteric flora controls a reciprocal protection tradeoff in the vector for resistance to different human pathogens.

  1. Uso de células de Aedes albopictus C6/36 na propagação e classificação de arbovírus das famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae

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    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Colônias de células de mosquito Aedes albopictus C6/36 foram infectadas com 23 arbovirus, sendo 19 destes existentes no Brasil, pertencentes às famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae. A Replicação virai foi detectada por imunofluorescência indireta com todos os vírus estudados enquanto que o efeito citopático foi observado durante a infecção por alguns destes. No teste de imunofluorescência indireta utilizou-se fluidos ascíticos imunes de camundongos, específicos para os vírus estudados. A replicação virai caracterizada por grande produção de antígeno recomenda a utilização de células C6/36 na propagação e em tentativas de isolamento desses arbovirus. A técnica de imunofluorescência ofereceu importantes subsídios na classificação e identificação de vírus que replicam nestas células.

  2. Seasonal drivers of the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemma L Geoghegan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses are a major cause of emerging disease with significant public health and economic impacts. However, the factors that determine their activity and seasonality are not well understood. In Australia, a network of sentinel cattle herds is used to monitor the distribution of several such viruses and to define virus-free regions. Herein, we utilize these serological data to describe the seasonality, and its drivers, of three economically important animal arboviruses: bluetongue virus, Akabane virus and bovine ephemeral fever virus. Through epidemiological time-series analyses of sero-surveillance data of 180 sentinel herds between 2004-2012, we compared seasonal parameters across latitudes, ranging from the tropical north (-10°S to the more temperate south (-40°S. This analysis revealed marked differences in seasonality between distinct geographic regions and climates: seasonality was most pronounced in southern regions and gradually decreased as latitude decreased toward the Equator. Further, we show that both the timing of epidemics and the average number of seroconversions have a strong geographical component, which likely reflect patterns of vector abundance through co-varying climatic factors, especially temperature and rainfall. Notably, despite their differences in biology, including insect vector species, all three viruses exhibited very similar seasonality. By revealing the factors that shape spatial and temporal distributions, our study provides a more complete understanding of arbovirus seasonality that will enable better risk predictions.

  3. Temporal and spatial alterations in mutant swarm size of St. Louis encephalitis virus in mosquito hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Koch, Evan M; Willsey, Graham G; Davis, Lauren J; Jerzak, Greta V S; Ehrbar, Dylan J; Wilke, Claus O; Kramer, Laura D

    2011-03-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex and a close relative of West Nile virus (WNV). Although SLEV remains endemic to the US, both levels of activity and geographical dispersal are relatively constrained when compared to the widespread distribution of WNV. In recent years, WNV appears to have displaced SLEV in California, yet both viruses currently coexist in Texas and several other states. It has become clear that viral swarm characterization is required if we are to fully evaluate the relationship between viral genomes, viral evolution, and epidemiology. Mutant swarm size and composition may be particularly important for arboviruses, which require replication not only in diverse tissues but also divergent hosts. In order to evaluate temporal, spatial, and host-specific patterns in the SLEV mutant swarm, we determined the size, composition, and phylogeny of the intrahost swarm within primary mosquito isolates from both Texas and California. Results indicate a general trend of decreasing intrahost diversity over time in both locations, with recent isolates being highly genetically homogeneous. Additionally, phylogenic analyses provide detailed information on the relatedness of minority variants both within and among strains and demonstrate how both geographic isolation and seasonal maintenance have shaped the viral swarm. Overall, these data generally provide insight into how time, space, and unique transmission cycles influence the SLEV mutant swarm and how understanding these processes can ultimately lead to a better understanding of arbovirus evolution and epidemiology.

  4. Zika virus: a new pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed Ali; Nazir, Nyla; Al-Anazi, Mashael R; Rubino, Salvatore; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2016-03-31

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family and is related to dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. ZIKV was first discovered in Uganda in 1947. Different species of mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly A. aegypti and A. albopictus are the vectors responsible for ZIKV infection in humans. It is also reported that ZIKV is transmitted congenitally, sexually, and through blood donation. Until recently, ZIKV outbreaks were sporadic and self-limiting. The first large epidemic was reported from Yap Island in 2007 followed by an outbreak of Zika fever in French Polynesia in 2013. Brazil is the epicenter of the current ZIKV epidemic which is rapidly spreading across the Americas. ZIKV infection remained relatively less studied in view of its low case numbers, and low clinical impact relative to other arboviruses. However, all this is set to change with its rapid spread in the Western hemisphere and suspected complications particularly microcephaly in newborn babies with ZIKV infected mothers. ZIKV is expected to substantially add to both short-term and long-term economic burden of the effected countries. Due to the large number of people travelling across the borders and some reported cases of transmission of ZIKV via contaminated blood, screening and identification of asymptomatic infected individuals are important.

  5. Effect of isodillapiole on the expression of the insecticide resistance genes GSTE7 and CYP6N12 in Aedes aegypti from central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, V S; Pinto, A C; Rafael, M S

    2015-12-11

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of dengue arbovirus and other arboviruses. Dengue prevention measures for the control of A. aegypti involve mainly the use of synthetic insecticides. The constant use of insecticides has caused resistance in this mosquito. Alternative studies on plant extracts and their products have been conducted with the aim of controlling the spread of the mosquito. Dillapiole is a compound found in essential oils of the plant Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) which has been effective as a biopesticide against A. aegypti. Isodillapiole is a semisynthetic substance obtained by the isomerization of dillapiole. In the present study, isodillapiole was evaluated for its potential to induce differential expression of insecticide resistance genes (GSTE7 and CYP6N12) in 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti. These larvae were exposed to this compound at two concentrations (20 and 40 μg/mL) for 4 h during four generations (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of GSTE7 and CYP6N12 genes. GSTE7 and CYP6N12 relative expression levels were higher at 20 than at 40 μg/mL and varied among generations. The decrease in GSTE7 and CYP6N12 expression levels at the highest isodillapiole concentration suggests that larvae may have suffered from metabolic stress, revealing a potential alternative product in the control of A. aegypti.

  6. Genomics-enabled sensor platform for rapid detection of viruses related to disease outbreak.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozik, Susan M; Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Edwards, Thayne L.; Anderson, John Moses; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Branch, Darren W.; Wheeler, David Roger; Polsky, Ronen; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Prasad, Abhishek N.; Brozik, James A.; Rudolph, Angela R.; Wong, Lillian P.

    2013-09-01

    Bioweapons and emerging infectious diseases pose growing threats to our national security. Both natural disease outbreak and outbreaks due to a bioterrorist attack are a challenge to detect, taking days after the outbreak to identify since most outbreaks are only recognized through reportable diseases by health departments and reports of unusual diseases by clinicians. In recent decades, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have emerged as some of the most significant threats to human health. They emerge, often unexpectedly, from cryptic transmission foci causing localized outbreaks that can rapidly spread to multiple continents due to increased human travel and trade. Currently, diagnosis of acute infections requires amplification of viral nucleic acids, which can be costly, highly specific, technically challenging and time consuming. No diagnostic devices suitable for use at the bedside or in an outbreak setting currently exist. The original goals of this project were to 1) develop two highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays for detecting RNA from a wide range of arboviruses; one based on an electrochemical approach and the other a fluorescent based assay and 2) develop prototype microfluidic diagnostic platforms for preclinical and field testing that utilize the assays developed in goal 1. We generated and characterized suitable primers for West Nile Virus RNA detection. Both optical and electrochemical transduction technologies were developed for DNA-RNA hybridization detection and were implemented in microfluidic diagnostic sensing platforms that were developed in this project.

  7. Aedes hensilli as a potential vector of Chikungunya and Zika viruses.

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    Jeremy P Ledermann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s. Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses.

  8. Aedes hensilli as a potential vector of Chikungunya and Zika viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Guillaumot, Laurent; Yug, Lawrence; Saweyog, Steven C; Tided, Mary; Machieng, Paul; Pretrick, Moses; Marfel, Maria; Griggs, Anne; Bel, Martin; Duffy, Mark R; Hancock, W Thane; Ho-Chen, Tai; Powers, Ann M

    2014-10-01

    An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses.

  9. [Zika Virus: A Review to Clinicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Junior, Vitor Laerte; Luz, Kleber; Parreira, Ricardo; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70's in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a 'dengue-like' syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

  10. Aedes-Borne Virus-Mosquito Interactions: Mass Spectrometry Strategies and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando-Robles, Victoria; Batista, Cesar V

    2017-02-13

    Aedes-borne viruses are responsible for high-impact neglected tropical diseases and unpredictable outbreaks such as the ongoing Zika epidemics. Aedes mosquitoes spread different arboviruses such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus, among others, and are responsible for the continuous emergence and reemergence of these pathogens. These viruses have complex transmission cycles that include two hosts, namely the Aedes mosquito as a vector and susceptible vertebrate hosts. Human infection with arboviruses causes diseases that range from subclinical or mild to febrile diseases, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Infected mosquitoes do not show detectable signs of disease, even though the virus maintains a lifelong persistent infection. The infection of the Aedes mosquito by viruses involves a molecular crosstalk between cell and viral proteins. An understanding of how mosquito vectors and viruses interact is of fundamental interest, and it also offers novel perspectives for disease control. In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies in combination with bioinformatics have been successfully applied to identify and quantify global changes in cellular proteins, lipids, peptides, and metabolites in response to viral infection. Although the information about proteomics in the Aedes mosquito is limited, the information that has been reported can set up the basis for future studies. This review reflects how MS-based approaches have extended our understanding of Aedes mosquito biology and the development of DENV and CHIKV infection in the vector. Finally, this review discusses future challenges in the field.

  11. Repertoire of virus-derived small RNAs produced by mosquito and mammalian cells in response to dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirtzinger, Erin E; Andrade, Christy C; Devitt, Nicholas; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Jacobi, Jennifer L; Schilkey, Faye; Hanley, Kathryn A

    2015-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the major defense of many arthropods against arthropod-borne RNA viruses (arboviruses), but the role of RNAi in vertebrate immunity to arboviruses is not clear. RNA viruses can trigger RNAi in vertebrate cells, but the vertebrate interferon response may obscure this interaction. We quantified virus-derived small RNAs (vRNAs) generated by mosquito (U4.4) cells and interferon-deficient (Vero) and interferon-competent (HuH-7) mammalian cells infected with a single isolate of mosquito-borne dengue virus. Mosquito cells produced significantly more vRNAs than mammalian cells, and mosquito cell vRNAs were derived from both the positive- and negative-sense dengue genomes whereas mammalian cell vRNAs were derived primarily from positive-sense genome. Mosquito cell vRNAs were predominantly 21 nucleotides in length whereas mammalian cell vRNAs were between 12 and 36 nucleotides with a modest peak at 24 nucleotides. Hot-spots, regions of the virus genome that generated a disproportionate number of vRNAs, overlapped among the cell lines.

  12. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  13. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Mark David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Franson, J Christian [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; Mostl, Erich [UNIV OF VIENNA; Porter, Warren P [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Hofmeister, Erik K [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  14. Limitaciones para el serodiagnóstico del virus del oeste del Nilo en zonas endémicas con co-circulación de Flavivirus en el Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Máttar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Esta es la primera aproximación sero-epidemiológica que se hace en Colombia sobre el virus del Oeste del Nilo (VON. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue el de establecer la presencia de anticuerpos IgG contra el VON en una población de la costa atlántica utilizando dos pruebas comerciales y establecer su utilidad. Materiales y método: Se analizaron de forma aleatoria 52 muestras de sueros de personas que trabajaban en labores agrícolas desde hacia más de 15 años en el departamento de Sucre. Se utilizó la técnica West Nile Virus IgG ELISA (Focus Technologies. También se utilizó la prueba de inmunofluorescencia (PANBIO Columbia. Arbovirus IgG-IFA slides, donde se evaluó la detección de anticuerpos contra cinco antígenos diferentes de arbovirus (encefalitis equina venezolana, encefalitis japonesa, fiebre amarilla y dengue. Resultados: Con la prueba de ELISA, de 52 sueros estudiados para la detección de anticuerpos contra VON, 38 (73% resultaron positivos, los 14 (27% restantes resultaron negativos. Con la prueba de IFA, 6 sueros (11.5% resultaron seropositivos débiles para VON, 46 (88.5% resultaron negativos para la detección de anticuerpos contra el VON. Utilizando IFA se presentaron reacciones cruzadas contra otros arbovirus como dengue, encefalitis venezolana y japonesa y fiebre amarilla. El estudio demostró la complejidad del serodiagnóstico de Flavivirus en las zonas endémicas como la del Caribe colombiano. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio demuestran que las pruebas de ELISA e IFA para humanos son de poca utilidad diagnóstica contra el VON en las zonas colombianas donde se presentan circulación de otros Flavivirus como dengue, fiebre amarilla o encefalitis equina.

  15. Limitaciones para el serodiagnóstico del virus del oeste del Nilo en zonas endémicas con co-circulación de Flavivirus en el Caribe colombiano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Máttar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Esta es la primera aproximación sero-epidemiológica que se hace en Colombia sobre el virus del Oeste del Nilo (VON. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue el de establecer la presencia de anticuerpos IgG contra el VON en una población de la costa atlántica utilizando dos pruebas comerciales y establecer su utilidad. Materiales y método: Se analizaron de forma aleatoria 52 muestras de sueros de personas que trabajaban en labores agrícolas desde hacia más de 15 años en el departamento de Sucre. Se utilizó la técnica West Nile Virus IgG ELISA (Focus Technologies. También se utilizó la prueba de inmunofluorescencia (PANBIO Columbia. Arbovirus IgG-IFA slides, donde se evaluó la detección de anticuerpos contra cinco antígenos diferentes de arbovirus (encefalitis equina venezolana, encefalitis japonesa, fiebre amarilla y dengue. Resultados: Con la prueba de ELISA, de 52 sueros estudiados para la detección de anticuerpos contra VON, 38 (73% resultaron positivos, los 14 (27% restantes resultaron negativos. Con la prueba de IFA, 6 sueros (11.5% resultaron seropositivos débiles para VON, 46 (88.5% resultaron negativos para la detección de anticuerpos contra el VON. Utilizando IFA se presentaron reacciones cruzadas contra otros arbovirus como dengue, encefalitis venezolana y japonesa y fiebre amarilla. El estudio demostró la complejidad del serodiagnóstico de Flavivirus en las zonas endémicas como la del Caribe colombiano. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio demuestran que las pruebas de ELISA e IFA para humanos son de poca utilidad diagnóstica contra el VON en las zonas colombianas donde se presentan circulación de otros Flavivirus como dengue, fiebre amarilla o encefalitis equina.

  16. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya [Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2016-01-15

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. (orig.)

  17. Dengue infection in the nervous system: lessons learned for Zika and Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Puccioni-Sohler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp, which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. The increased number of infected individuals has contributed to the rise of neurological manifestations including encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital malformations such as microcephaly. In this narrative review, we characterize the impact of the geographic expansion of the vector on the appearance of neurological complications, and highlight the lack of highly accurate laboratory tests for nervous system infections. This represents a challenge for public health in the world, considering the high number of travelers and people living in endemic areas.

  18. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings.

  19. Diagnostic Options and Challenges for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey K. Mardekian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV are arboviruses that share the same Aedes mosquito vectors and thus overlap in their endemic areas. These two viruses also cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection, with neither virus possessing any specific distinguishing clinical features. Because the outcomes and management strategies for these two viruses are vastly different, early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Diagnosis is also important for surveillance, outbreak control, and research related to vaccine and drug development. Available diagnostic tests are aimed at detection of the virus, its antigenic components, or the host immune antibody response. In this review, we describe the recent progress and continued challenges related to the diagnosis of DENV and CHIKV infections.

  20. Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Caillouët

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV. Monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local WNV amplification. To test this hypothesis we monitored WNV infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily Eastern bluebirds; Sialia sialis, Turdidae across Henrico County, Virginia, USA, from May to August 2012. Observed host-seeking rates were temporally variable and associated with absolute vector and host abundances. Despite substantial effort to monitor WNV among nestlings and mosquitoes, we did not detect the presence of WNV in these populations. Generally low vector-nestling host contact rates combined with the negative WNV infection data suggest that monitoring transmission parameters among nestling Eastern bluebirds in Henrico County, Virginia, USA may not be a sensitive indicator of WNV activity.