WorldWideScience

Sample records for arboviruses including bluetongue

  1. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Bluetongue virus serotype 2 strains isolated in the Americas including a novel strain from the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue is caused by an arbovirus which produces widespread edema and tissue necrosis in domestic and wild ruminants that can be fatal. Bluetongue virus serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 are typically found throughout the United States (US), while serotype 2 was previously only detected in the southea...

  2. PCR identification of culicoid biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae of the Obsoletus complex including putative vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Kathrin

    2012-09-01

    band for each species, could be realized with high specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion To elucidate the biological characteristics of potential vectors of disease agents, such as ecology, behaviour and vector competence, and the role of these haematophagous arthropods in the epidemiology of the diseases, simple, cost-effective and, most importantly, reliable identification techniques are necessary. The PCR assay presented will help to identify culicoid vector species and therefore add to bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease research including vector control and monitoring.

  3. RNA interference targets arbovirus replication in Culicoides cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Esther; Ratinier, Maxime; Watson, Mick; Shaw, Andrew E; McFarlane, Melanie; Varela, Mariana; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study, we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses, including those with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes, such as BTV. Using reporter gene-based assays, we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses.

  4. Virus and host factors affecting the clinical outcome of Bluetongue Virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caporale, M.; Gialleonorado, L.; Janowicz, A.; Wilkie, G.; Shaw, A.; Savini, G.; Rijn, van P.A.; Mertens, P.; Ventura, M.; Palmarini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host species

  5. Whole genome sequence analysis of circulating Bluetongue virus serotype 11 strains from the United States including two domestic canine isolates.

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    Gaudreault, Natasha N; Jasperson, Dane C; Dubovi, Edward J; Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; Wilson, William C

    2015-07-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-transmitted pathogen that typically infects and causes disease in domestic and wild ruminants. BTV is also known to infect domestic canines as discovered when dogs were vaccinated with a BTV-contaminated vaccine. Canine BTV infections have been documented through serological surveys, and natural infection by the Culicoides vector has been suggested. The report of isolation of BTV serotype 11 (BTV-11) from 2 separate domestic canine abortion cases in the states of Texas in 2011 and Kansas in 2012, were apparently unrelated to BTV-contaminated vaccination or consumption of BTV-contaminated raw meat as had been previously speculated. To elucidate the origin and relationship of these 2 domestic canine BTV-11 isolates, whole genome sequencing was performed. Six additional BTV-11 field isolates from Texas, Florida, and Washington, submitted for diagnostic investigation during 2011 and 2013, were also fully sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the BTV-11 domestic canine isolates are virtually identical, and both share high identity with 2 BTV-11 isolates identified from white-tailed deer in Texas in 2011. The results of the current study further support the hypothesis that a BTV-11 strain circulating in the Midwestern states could have been transmitted to the dogs by the infected Culicoides vector. Our study also expands the short list of available BTV-11 sequences, which may aid BTV surveillance and epidemiology.

  6. [Emerging arboviruses].

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    Schaller, Amandine; Moulin, Estelle; Cherpillod, Pascal; Kaiser, Laurent; De Vallière, Serge; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie

    2016-05-01

    Many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) underwent a dramatic geographic expansion over the last few years, following the spread of their vectors. It is the case for dengue, currently endemic in most tropical regions, for chikungunya and Zika viruses, which propagated rapidly over a considerable territory. West Nile is one of the most broadly distributed arboviruses in the world. The clinical presentation of these viral infections is non-specific (fever, arthralgia, headache, rash). For travelers presenting with fever within 15 days after returning from an endemic area, laboratory tests can distinguish them. The management is essentially supportive but a specific diagnosis might be important in anticipating possible complications and in decreasing the number of laboratory tests often offered in the case of fever of unknown origin.

  7. Turnover rate of NS3 proteins modulates bluetongue virus replication kinetics in a host-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ftaich, Najate; Ciancia, Claire; Viarouge, Cyril; Barry, Gerald; Ratinier, Maxime; Rijn, van P.A.; Breard, Emmanuel; Vitour, Damien; Zientara, Stephan; Palmarini, Massimo; Terzian, Christophe; Arnaud, Frédérick

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus transmitted to livestock by midges of the Culicoides family and is the etiological agent of a hemorrhagic disease in sheep and other ruminants. In mammalian cells, BTV particles are released primarily by virus-induced cell lysis, while in insect cells they b

  8. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Bluetongue virus serotype 2 strains isolated in the Americas including a novel strain from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Natasha N; Mayo, Christie E; Jasperson, Dane C; Crossley, Beate M; Breitmeyer, Richard E; Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; MacLachlan, N James; Wilson, William C

    2014-07-01

    Bluetongue is a potentially fatal arboviral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is characterized by widespread edema and tissue necrosis. Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 occur throughout much of the United States, whereas serotype 2 (BTV-2) was previously only detected in the southeastern United States. Since 1998, 10 other BTV serotypes have also been isolated from ruminants in the southeastern United States. In 2010, BTV-2 was identified in California for the first time, and preliminary sequence analysis indicated that the virus isolate was closely related to BTV strains circulating in the southeastern United States. In the current study, the whole genome sequence of the California strain of BTV-2 was compared with those of other BTV-2 strains in the Americas. The results of the analysis suggest co-circulation of genetically distinct viruses in the southeastern United States, and further suggest that the 2010 western isolate is closely related to southeastern strains of BTV. Although it remains uncertain as to how this novel virus was translocated to California, the findings of the current study underscore the need for ongoing surveillance of this economically important livestock disease.

  9. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

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    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  10. European bluetongue serotype 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drolet, Barbara S.; Reister-Hendricks, Lindsey M.; Podell, Brendan K.; Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Mcvey, D.S.; Rijn, van Piet A.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an orbivirus transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) that can result in moderate to high morbidity and mortality primarily in sheep and white-tailed deer. Although only 5 serotypes of BTV are considered endemic to the United States, as many as 11 incursive serotyp

  11. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses.

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    Briese, Thomas; Williams, David T; Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia.

  12. Encephalitic Arboviruses: Emergence, Clinical Presentation, and Neuropathogenesis.

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    Salimi, Hamid; Cain, Matthew D; Klein, Robyn S

    2016-07-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that exhibit worldwide distribution, contributing to systemic and neurologic infections in a variety of geographical locations. Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebral hosts during blood feedings by mosquitoes, ticks, biting flies, mites, and nits. While the majority of arboviral infections do not lead to neuroinvasive forms of disease, they are among the most severe infectious risks to the health of the human central nervous system. The neurologic diseases caused by arboviruses include meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, encephalomyelitis, neuritis, and myositis in which virus- and immune-mediated injury may lead to severe, persisting neurologic deficits or death. Here we will review the major families of emerging arboviruses that cause neurologic infections, their neuropathogenesis and host neuroimmunologic responses, and current strategies for treatment and prevention of neurologic infections they cause.

  13. Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe.

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    Carpenter, Simon; Groschup, Martin H; Garros, Claire; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Purse, Bethan V

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of multiple strains of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recent discovery of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe have highlighted the fact that exotic Culicoides-borne arboviruses from remote geographic areas can enter and spread rapidly in this region. This review considers the potential for this phenomenon to impact on human health in Europe, by examining evidence of the role of Culicoides biting midges in the zoonotic transmission and person-to-person spread of arboviruses worldwide. To date, the only arbovirus identified as being primarily transmitted by Culicoides to and between humans is Oropouche virus (OROV). This member of the genus Orthobunyavirus causes major epidemics of febrile illness in human populations of South and Central America and the Caribbean. We examine factors promoting sustained outbreaks of OROV in Brazil from an entomological perspective and assess aspects of the epidemiology of this arbovirus that are currently poorly understood, but may influence the risk of incursion into Europe. We then review the secondary and rarely reported role of Culicoides in the transmission of high-profile zoonotic infections, while critically reviewing evidence of this phenomenon in endemic transmission and place this in context with the presence of other potential vector groups in Europe. Scenarios for the incursions of Culicoides-borne human-to-human transmitted and zoonotic arboviruses are then discussed, along with control measures that could be employed to reduce their impact. These measures are placed in the context of legislative measures used during current and ongoing outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in Europe, involving both veterinary and public health sectors.

  14. [Entomological factors of arboviruses emergences].

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    Jourdain, F; Roiz, D; Perrin, Y; Grucker, K; Simard, F; Paupy, C

    2015-08-01

    Arboviruses - viruses transmitted by haematophagous arthropods - are responsible for febrile syndromes, which sometimes include haemorrhagic or neurological symptoms. Human activities have facilitated the emergence of these originally zoonotic viruses and the domestication and spread throughout the world of their major vectors. The last decade has seen significant changes in the epidemiology of arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, particularly in relation to the intercontinental spread of Aedes albopictus. Here, we address the epidemiological consequences of the invasion by this species into Central Africa and Europe in a context of viral globalization. The risk of transmission in these areas is influenced by virus-vector adaptation phenomena as well as environmental phenomena including climate. Faced with these new risks, it is essential to develop competences in entomological and virological surveillance, risk assessment and forecasting of epidemic risk in order to develop strategies for the prevention and control of epidemics.

  15. Mosquito immunity against arboviruses.

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    Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-19

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector.

  16. 9 CFR 113.303 - Bluetongue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bluetongue Vaccine. 113.303 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.303 Bluetongue Vaccine. Bluetongue Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing the seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  17. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals.

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    Hubálek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man. Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus). They are transmitted to animals by five groups of hematophagous arthropods of the subphyllum Chelicerata (order Acarina, families Ixodidae and Argasidae-ticks) or members of the class Insecta: mosquitoes (family Culicidae); biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae); sandflies (subfamily Phlebotominae); and cimicid bugs (family Cimicidae). Arboviral diseases in endotherm animals may therefore be classified as: tick

  18. Sylvatic transmission of arboviruses among Bornean orangutans.

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    Wolfe, N D; Kilbourn, A M; Karesh, W B; Rahman, H A; Bosi, E J; Cropp, B C; Andau, M; Spielman, A; Gubler, D J

    2001-01-01

    Wild populations of nonhuman primates live in regions of sylvatic arbovirus transmission. To assess the status of arbovirus transmission in Bornean forests and the susceptibility of wild orangutans to arboviral infection, blood samples of wild orangutans, semi-captive orangutans, and humans were examined. Samples were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test for antibodies to viruses representing three families (Flaviviridae, Alphaviridae, and Bunyaviridae), including dengue-2, Japanese encephalitis, Zika, Langat, Tembusu, Sindbis, Chikungunya, and Batai viruses. Both wild and semi-captive orangutan groups as well as local human populations showed serologic evidence of arbovirus infection. The presence of neutralizing antibodies among wild orangutans strongly suggests the existence of sylvatic cycles for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and sindbis viruses in North Borneo. The present study demonstrates that orangutans are susceptible to arboviralinfections in the wild, although the impact of arboviral infections on this endangered ape remain unknown.

  19. Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany G. Bolling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. Over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has provided new insights about viral diversity and evolution, including that of arboviruses. It has also raised questions about what effects the mosquito virome has on arbovirus transmission. Additionally, the discovery of these new viruses has generated interest in their potential use as biological control agents as well as novel vaccine platforms. The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching.

  20. Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community.

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    Bolling, Bethany G; Weaver, Scott C; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-09-10

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. Over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has provided new insights about viral diversity and evolution, including that of arboviruses. It has also raised questions about what effects the mosquito virome has on arbovirus transmission. Additionally, the discovery of these new viruses has generated interest in their potential use as biological control agents as well as novel vaccine platforms. The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching.

  1. Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis

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    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease, Bluetongue, and likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burden worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the diff...

  2. Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases.

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    Gould, E A; Higgs, S

    2009-02-01

    While some skeptics remain unconvinced that global climate change is a reality, there is no doubt that during the past 50 years or so, patterns of emerging arbovirus diseases have changed significantly. Can this be attributed to climate change? Climate is a major factor in determining: (1) the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods; (2) characteristics of arthropod life cycles; (3) dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses; (4) the evolution of arboviruses; and (5) the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. Thus, under the influence of increasing temperatures and rainfall through warming of the oceans, and alteration of the natural cycles that stabilise climate, one is inevitably drawn to the conclusion that arboviruses will continue to emerge in new regions. For example, we cannot ignore the unexpected but successful establishment of chikungunya fever in northern Italy, the sudden appearance of West Nile virus in North America, the increasing frequency of Rift Valley fever epidemics in the Arabian Peninsula, and very recently, the emergence of Bluetongue virus in northern Europe. In this brief review we ask the question, are these diseases emerging because of climate change or do other factors play an equal or even more important role in their emergence?

  3. Arbovirus-mosquito interactions: RNAi pathway.

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    Olson, Ken E; Blair, Carol D

    2015-12-01

    Arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses infect hematophagous arthropods (vectors) to maintain virus transmission between vertebrate hosts. The mosquito vector actively controls arbovirus infection to minimize its fitness costs. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is the major antiviral response vectors use to restrict arbovirus infections. We know this because depleting RNAi gene products profoundly impacts arbovirus replication, the antiviral RNAi pathway genes undergo positive, diversifying selection and arboviruses have evolved strategies to evade the vector's RNAi responses. The vector's RNAi defense and arbovirus countermeasures lead to an arms race that prevents potential virus-induced fitness costs yet maintains arbovirus infections needed for transmission. This review will discuss the latest findings in RNAi-arbovirus interactions in the model insect (Drosophila melanogaster) and in specific mosquito vectors.

  4. Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya: Emerging Arboviruses in the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Patterson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The arboviruses that cause dengue, chikungunya, and Zika illnesses have rapidly expanded across the globe in recent years, with large-scale outbreaks occurring in Western Hemisphere territories in close proximity to the United States (U.S.. In March 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC expanded its vector surveillance maps for A. aegypti and A. albopictus, the mosquito vectors for these arboviruses. They have now been shown to inhabit a larger portion of the U.S., including the heavily populated northeast corridor. Emergency physicians need to further familiarize themselves with these diseases, which have classically been considered only in returning travelers but may soon be encountered in the U.S. even in the absence of travel. In this paper, we discuss the presentation and treatment of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya, as well as special challenges presented to the emergency physician in evaluating a patient with a suspected arbovirus infection.

  5. Molecular detection technologies for arboviruses

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    Arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) cause significant livestock and economic losses to world agriculture. This paper discusses the current and potential impact of these viruses, as well as the current and developing molecular diagnostic tools for these emerging and re-emerging insect transm...

  6. The molecular biology of Bluetongue virus replication.

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    Patel, Avnish; Roy, Polly

    2014-03-01

    The members of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family are arthropod-borne viruses which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) which causes disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle) has been in the forefront of molecular studies for the last three decades and now represents the best understood orbivirus at a molecular and structural level. The complex nature of the virion structure has been well characterised at high resolution along with the definition of the virus encoded enzymes required for RNA replication; the ordered assembly of the capsid shell as well as the protein and genome sequestration required for it; and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. More recent developments of Reverse Genetics and Cell-Free Assembly systems have allowed integration of the accumulated structural and molecular knowledge to be tested at meticulous level, yielding higher insight into basic molecular virology, from which the rational design of safe efficacious vaccines has been possible. This article is centred on the molecular dissection of BTV with a view to understanding the role of each protein in the virus replication cycle. These areas are important in themselves for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that related viruses, which includes viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, might also use providing an informed starting point for intervention or prevention.

  7. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

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    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  8. Selective Factors Associated with the Evolution of Codon Usage in Natural Populations of Arboviruses

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    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Zarate, Selene; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pereira Lobo, Francisco; Gladue, Douglas P.; Arzt, Jonathan; Novella, Isabel S.; Rodriguez, Luis L.

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) have life cycles that include both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts with substantial differences in vector and host specificity between different viruses. Most arboviruses utilize RNA for their genetic material and are completely dependent on host tRNAs for their translation, suggesting that virus codon usage could be a target for selection. In the current study we analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) patterns of 26 arboviruses together with 25 vectors and hosts, including 8 vertebrates and 17 invertebrates. We used hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify trends in codon usage. HCA demonstrated that the RSCU of arboviruses reflects that of their natural hosts, but not that of dead-end hosts. Of the two major components identified by PCA, the first accounted for 62.1% of the total variance, and among the 59 codons analyzed in this study, the leucine codon CTG had the highest correlation with the first principal component, however isoleucine had the highest correlation during amino acid analysis. Nucleotide and dinucleotide composition were the variables that explained most of the total codon usage variance. The results suggest that the main factors driving the evolution of codon usage in arboviruses is based on the nucleotide and dinucleotide composition present in the host. Comparing codon usage of arboviruses and potential vector hosts can help identifying potential vectors for emerging arboviruses. PMID:27455096

  9. Selective Factors Associated with the Evolution of Codon Usage in Natural Populations of Arboviruses.

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    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Zarate, Selene; Eschbaumer, Michael; Pereira Lobo, Francisco; Gladue, Douglas P; Arzt, Jonathan; Novella, Isabel S; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) have life cycles that include both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts with substantial differences in vector and host specificity between different viruses. Most arboviruses utilize RNA for their genetic material and are completely dependent on host tRNAs for their translation, suggesting that virus codon usage could be a target for selection. In the current study we analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) patterns of 26 arboviruses together with 25 vectors and hosts, including 8 vertebrates and 17 invertebrates. We used hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify trends in codon usage. HCA demonstrated that the RSCU of arboviruses reflects that of their natural hosts, but not that of dead-end hosts. Of the two major components identified by PCA, the first accounted for 62.1% of the total variance, and among the 59 codons analyzed in this study, the leucine codon CTG had the highest correlation with the first principal component, however isoleucine had the highest correlation during amino acid analysis. Nucleotide and dinucleotide composition were the variables that explained most of the total codon usage variance. The results suggest that the main factors driving the evolution of codon usage in arboviruses is based on the nucleotide and dinucleotide composition present in the host. Comparing codon usage of arboviruses and potential vector hosts can help identifying potential vectors for emerging arboviruses.

  10. Factors responsible for the emergence of arboviruses; strategies, challenges and limitations for their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guodong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Gould, Ernest A

    2015-03-01

    Slave trading of Africans to the Americas, during the 16th to the 19th century was responsible for the first recorded emergence in the New World of two arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), yellow fever virus and dengue virus. Many other arboviruses have since emerged from their sylvatic reservoirs and dispersed globally due to evolving factors that include anthropological behaviour, commercial transportation and land-remediation. Here, we outline some characteristics of these highly divergent arboviruses, including the variety of life cycles they have developed and the mechanisms by which they have adapted to evolving changes in habitat and host availability. We cite recent examples of virus emergence that exemplify how arboviruses have exploited the consequences of the modern human lifestyle. Using our current understanding of these viruses, we also attempt to demonstrate some of the limitations encountered in developing control strategies to reduce the impact of future emerging arbovirus diseases. Finally, we present recommendations for development by an international panel of experts reporting directly to World Health Organization, with the intention of providing internationally acceptable guidelines for improving emerging arbovirus disease control strategies. Success in these aims should alleviate the suffering and costs encountered during recent decades when arboviruses have emerged from their sylvatic environment.

  11. Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J S C; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J

    2015-03-10

    Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors.

  12. Serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A A; McLean, R G; Cook, R S; Quan, T J

    1992-07-01

    During 1988 and 1989, a serologic survey of wildlife was conducted in northeastern Mexico to determine the presence, prevalence, and distribution of arboviruses and other selected disease agents. Eighty mammal specimens were tested. Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Rio Grande virus, and vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey were detected predominantly in small mammals. Deer and mouflon (Ovis musimon) had antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease. Two species had serologic evidence of recent exposure to Francisella tularensis. A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) had antibodies to Anaplasma marginale. All specimens tested for antibodies against Yersinia pestis and Brucella abortus were negative. Sera from 315 birds were tested for antibody against five equine encephalitis viruses and six avian pathogens. During 1988, antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-TC83, St. Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and western equine encephalitis were detected in birds of several species. Antibodies to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus were also detected. Birds from five species presented antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis. Specimens tested for M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and Chlamydia psittaci were negative. To the best of our knowledge, this survey represents the first serologic evidence of bluetongue, Cache Valley virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, Jamestown Canyon virus, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, Rio Grande virus, and tularemia reported among wildlife in Mexico.

  13. Tissue Barriers to Arbovirus Infection in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Alexander W E; Kantor, Asher M; Passarelli, A Lorena; Clem, Rollie J

    2015-07-08

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the arbovirus disease cycle requires replication in the cellular environment of the arthropod vector. Once the vector has become systemically and persistently infected, the vector is able to transmit the virus to an uninfected vertebrate host. In order to systemically infect the vector, the virus must cope with innate immune responses and overcome several tissue barriers associated with the midgut and the salivary glands. In this review we describe, in detail, the typical arbovirus infection route in competent mosquito vectors. Based on what is known from the literature, we explain the nature of the tissue barriers that arboviruses are confronted with in a mosquito vector and how arboviruses might surmount these barriers. We also point out controversial findings to highlight particular areas that are not well understood and require further research efforts.

  14. Involvement of the skin during bluetongue virus infection and replication in the ruminant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darpel, Karin E; Monaghan, Paul; Simpson, Jennifer; Anthony, Simon J; Veronesi, Eva; Brooks, Harriet W; Elliott, Heather; Brownlie, Joe; Takamatsu, Haru-Hisa; Mellor, Philip S; Mertens, Peter Pc

    2012-04-30

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a double stranded (ds) RNA virus (genus Orbivirus; family Reoviridae), which is considered capable of infecting all species of domestic and wild ruminants, although clinical signs are seen mostly in sheep. BTV is arthropod-borne ("arbovirus") and able to productively infect and replicate in many different cell types of both insects and mammalian hosts. Although the organ and cellular tropism of BTV in ruminants has been the subject of several studies, many aspects of its pathogenesis are still poorly understood, partly because of inherent problems in distinguishing between "virus replication" and "virus presence".BTV replication and organ tropism were studied in a wide range of infected sheep tissues, by immuno-fluorescence-labeling of non-structural or structural proteins (NS2 or VP7 and core proteins, respectively) using confocal microscopy to distinguish between virus presence and replication. These results are compared to gross and microscopic pathological findings in selected organs from infected sheep. Replication was demonstrated in two major cell types: vascular endothelial cells, and agranular leukocytes which morphologically resemble lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and/or dendritic cells. Two organs (the skin and tonsils) were shown to support relatively high levels of BTV replication, although they have not previously been proposed as important replication sites during BTV infection. The high level of BTV replication in the skin is thought to be of major significance for the pathogenesis and transmission of BTV (via biting insects) and a refinement of our current model of BTV pathogenesis is discussed.

  15. Bluetongue: control, surveillance and safe movement of animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The performance of different bluetongue control measures related to both vaccination and protection from bluetongue virus (BTV) vectors was assessed. By means of a mathematical model, it was concluded that when vaccination is applied on 95% of animals even for 3 years, bluetongue cannot...... it was highlighted that under the current surveillance policy bluetongue circulation might occur undetected. For the safe movement of animals, newborn ruminants from vaccinated mothers with neutralising antibodies can be considered protected against infection, although a protective titre threshold cannot...... be identified. The presence of colostral antibodies interferes with the vaccine immunisation in the newborn for more than 3 months after birth, whereas the minimum time after vaccination of animal to be considered immune can be up to 48 days. The knowledge about vectors ecology, mechanisms of over...

  16. Presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen in acute infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fan; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Lin, Chun-Ming; Wang, Fun-In

    2011-08-26

    Bluetongue virus, a member of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae, is the causative agent of bluetongue, which is a non-contagious Culicoides mediated blood-borne disease. The present study characterizes the pathogenicity of a Taiwan prototype BTV2/KM/2003 in Corriedale sheep inoculated subcutaneously into the ear pinna. Histologically, multifocal petechiated hemorrhage, with mild to moderate inflammation and edema, were present in the contralateral ear pinna, tongue, and facial skin, without remarkable lesions in lymphoid organs. By days post-infection (DPI) 7, viral VP7 antigen, detected by immunohistochemistry, presented in the spleen, chiefly located in the outer rim of macrophages bordering the marginal zone and red pulp, and T lymphocytes of the red pulp. By DPI 11, viral signals shifted from the marginal zone to macrophages and small lymphocytes within follicles of the spleen. In situ hybridization with VP7 gene probe detected strong signals in the spleen, chiefly spanning the whole width of 5-10 cell thickness of the marginal zone, including the marginal zone macrophages and marginal zone B cells, as well as macrophages of sheathed capillaries in the red pulp. This study demonstrates molecular as well as morphologic evidence of the presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen, most likely associated with viremia in acute infection, as previously demonstrated by the authors.

  17. Bluetongue: a historical and epidemiological perspective with the emphasis on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coetzee Peter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetongue (BT is a non-contagious, infectious, arthropod transmitted viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV, the prototype member of the Orbivirus genus in the family Reoviridae. Bluetongue was first described in South Africa, where it has probably been endemic in wild ruminants since antiquity. Since its discovery BT has had a major impact on sheep breeders in the country and has therefore been a key focus of research at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute in Pretoria, South Africa. Several key discoveries were made at this Institute, including the demonstration that the aetiological agent of BT was a dsRNA virus that is transmitted by Culicoides midges and that multiple BTV serotypes circulate in nature. It is currently recognized that BT is endemic throughout most of South Africa and 22 of the 26 known serotypes have been detected in the region. Multiple serotypes circulate each vector season with the occurrence of different serotypes depending largely on herd-immunity. Indigenous sheep breeds, cattle and wild ruminants are frequently infected but rarely demonstrate clinical signs, whereas improved European sheep breeds are most susceptible. The immunization of susceptible sheep remains the most effective and practical control measure against BT. In order to protect sheep against multiple circulating serotypes, three pentavalent attenuated vaccines have been developed. Despite the proven efficacy of these vaccines in protecting sheep against the disease, several disadvantages are associated with their use in the field.

  18. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

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    Sebastian Lequime

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission (VT and horizontal transmission (HT of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  19. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequime, Sebastian; Paul, Richard E; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Vertical transmission (VT) and horizontal transmission (HT) of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  20. Selective factors associated with the evolution of codon usage in natural populations of arboviruses and their practical application to infer possible hosts for emerging viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) have life cycles that include both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts with substantial differences in vector and host specificity between different viruses. Most arboviruses utilize RNA for their genetic material and are completely dependent on host tRNAs for the...

  1. Vector competence of Culicoides for arboviruses: three major periods of research, their influence on current studies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, S; Veronesi, E; Mullens, B; Venter, G

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular and unprecedented outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) that have occurred in Europe since 1998 have led to increased interest in those factors that determine competence of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for arboviruses. In this review the authors critically examine three major periods of research into the biological transmission by Culicoides of two economically important arboviruses ofthefamily Reoviridae: African horse sicknessvirus (AHSV) and BTV. First they examine early studies, largely conducted in southern Africa, that played a key role in initially implicating Culicoides as agents of AHSV and BTV transmission. Then they examine advances in understanding made following the establishment of colonies of the BTV vector species Culicoides sonorensis, which have largely shaped our current understanding of BTV and AHSV transmission. They then consider attempts in recent years to implicate vectors of BTV in the European Union during what has become the most economically damaging series of outbreaks in recorded history. In some cases the origin of these outbreaks was uncertain and unexpected, particularly in northern Europe, where BTV had not previously occurred. Limitations imposed on studies of vector competence by the biology of Culicoides are then discussed, along with advances in the technologies now available and the logistics of working upon agents requiring biosecure containment outside their endemic range. Finally, the authors suggest areas that have either been poorly addressed to date or entirely ignored and ways in which studies could be conducted to provide standardised data for comparison worldwide.

  2. World Reference Center and Arbovirus Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-10

    76: 211- 213. Kapikian, A. and Shope, R.E. Reoviruses in " Medical Microbiology : Principles and Concepts", Baron, S. (ed.), ppv 1250-1264, Addison...Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Brazilian Academy of Sciences Rio de Janeiro, pp. 105-116, 1982. Shope, R.E. Bunyaviruses in " Medical Microbiology : Principles

  3. Host-seeking activity of bluetongue virus vectors: endo/exophagy and circadian rhythm of Culicoides in Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Viennet

    Full Text Available Feeding success of free-living hematophagous insects depends on their ability to be active when hosts are available and to reach places where hosts are accessible. When the hematophagous insect is a vector of pathogens, determining the components of host-seeking behavior is of primary interest for the assessment of transmission risk. Our aim was to describe endo/exophagy and circadian host-seeking activity of Palaearctic Culicoides species, which are major biting pests and arbovirus vectors, using drop traps and suction traps baited with four sheep, as bluetongue virus hosts. Collections were carried out in the field, a largely-open stable and an enclosed stable during six collection periods of 24 hours in April/May, in late June and in September/October 2010 in western France. A total of 986 Culicoides belonging to 13 species, mainly C. brunnicans and C. obsoletus, was collected on animal baits. Culicoides brunnicans was clearly exophagic, whereas C. obsoletus was able to enter stables. Culicoides brunnicans exhibited a bimodal pattern of host-seeking activity with peaks just after sunrise and sunset. Culicoides obsoletus was active before sunset in spring and autumn and after sunset in summer, thus illustrating influence of other parameters than light, especially temperature. Description of host-seeking behaviors allowed us to discuss control strategies for transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens, such as bluetongue virus. However, practical vector-control recommendations are difficult to provide because of the variation in the degree of endophagy and time of host-seeking activity.

  4. Emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Gerhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arboviruses are transmitted in nature exclusively or to a major extend by arthropods. They belong to the most important viruses invading new areas in the world and their occurrence is strongly influenced by climatic changes due to the life cycle of the transmitting vectors. Several arboviruses have emerged in new regions of the world during the last years, like West Nile virus (WNV in the Americas, Usutu virus (USUV in Central Europe, or Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV in the Arabian Peninsula. In most instances the ways of introduction of arboviruses into new regions are not known. Infections acquired during stays in the tropics and subtropics are diagnosed with increasing frequency in travellers returning from tropical countries, but interestingly no attention is paid on accompanying pet animals or the hematophagous ectoparasites that may still be attached to them. Here we outline the known ecology of the mosquito-borne equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV, WNV, USUV, RVFV, and Japanese Encephalitis virus, as well as Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus and its North American counterpart Powassan virus, and will discuss the most likely mode that these viruses could expand their respective geographical range. All these viruses have a different epidemiology as different vector species, reservoir hosts and virus types have adapted to promiscuous and robust or rather very fine-balanced transmission cycles. Consequently, these viruses will behave differently with regard to the requirements needed to establish new endemic foci outside their original geographical ranges. Hence, emphasis is given on animal trade and suitable ecologic conditions, including competent vectors and vertebrate hosts.

  5. Did vaccination slow the spread of bluetongue in France?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Pioz

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the most efficient ways to control the spread of infectious diseases. Simulations are now widely used to assess how vaccination can limit disease spread as well as mitigate morbidity or mortality in susceptible populations. However, field studies investigating how much vaccines decrease the velocity of epizootic wave-fronts during outbreaks are rare. This study aimed at investigating the effect of vaccination on the propagation of bluetongue, a vector-borne disease of ruminants. We used data from the 2008 bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1 epizootic of southwest France. As the virus was newly introduced in this area, natural immunity of livestock was absent. This allowed determination of the role of vaccination in changing the velocity of bluetongue spread while accounting for environmental factors that possibly influenced it. The average estimated velocity across the country despite restriction on animal movements was 5.4 km/day, which is very similar to the velocity of spread of the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic in France also estimated in a context of restrictions on animal movements. Vaccination significantly reduced the propagation velocity of BTV-1. In comparison to municipalities with no vaccine coverage, the velocity of BTV-1 spread decreased by 1.7 km/day in municipalities with immunized animals. For the first time, the effect of vaccination has been quantified using data from a real epizootic whilst accounting for environmental factors known to modify the velocity of bluetongue spread. Our findings emphasize the importance of vaccination in limiting disease spread across natural landscape. Finally, environmental factors, specifically those related to vector abundance and activity, were found to be good predictors of the velocity of BTV-1 spread, indicating that these variables need to be adequately accounted for when evaluating the role of vaccination on bluetongue spread.

  6. Did vaccination slow the spread of bluetongue in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioz, Maryline; Guis, Hélène; Pleydell, David; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier; Durand, Benoît; Ducrot, Christian; Lancelot, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most efficient ways to control the spread of infectious diseases. Simulations are now widely used to assess how vaccination can limit disease spread as well as mitigate morbidity or mortality in susceptible populations. However, field studies investigating how much vaccines decrease the velocity of epizootic wave-fronts during outbreaks are rare. This study aimed at investigating the effect of vaccination on the propagation of bluetongue, a vector-borne disease of ruminants. We used data from the 2008 bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) epizootic of southwest France. As the virus was newly introduced in this area, natural immunity of livestock was absent. This allowed determination of the role of vaccination in changing the velocity of bluetongue spread while accounting for environmental factors that possibly influenced it. The average estimated velocity across the country despite restriction on animal movements was 5.4 km/day, which is very similar to the velocity of spread of the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic in France also estimated in a context of restrictions on animal movements. Vaccination significantly reduced the propagation velocity of BTV-1. In comparison to municipalities with no vaccine coverage, the velocity of BTV-1 spread decreased by 1.7 km/day in municipalities with immunized animals. For the first time, the effect of vaccination has been quantified using data from a real epizootic whilst accounting for environmental factors known to modify the velocity of bluetongue spread. Our findings emphasize the importance of vaccination in limiting disease spread across natural landscape. Finally, environmental factors, specifically those related to vector abundance and activity, were found to be good predictors of the velocity of BTV-1 spread, indicating that these variables need to be adequately accounted for when evaluating the role of vaccination on bluetongue spread.

  7. Seroprevalence of bluetongue in ruminants of Jharkhand

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    Pinky Tigga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to assess the presence of anti-bluetongue (BT antibodies in sheep, goat and cattle of different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from apparently healthy as well as suspected sheep, goat and cattle from different districts of Jharkhand covering different agro-climatic zones. Serum samples were screened by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA for detecting anti-BT antibodies. Results: Out of a total of 480 animal serum samples (sheep-190, goats-210 and cattle-80 screened, 83 (43.68% of sheep, 91 (43.33% of goat and 46 (57.50% of cattle sera were found positive. The % positivity ranged between 41% and 51% in different agro-climatic zones. The results showed slight higher seroprevalence, although not significantly, in cattle than sheep and goats in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. Conclusions: The above data indicate widespread prevalence of BT virus antibodies in studied areas. The incidence of BT is not detected officially, so far. The present seroprevalence status of BT in Jharkhand indicates presence of BT infection in the state for the first time.

  8. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

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    Arkendu Halder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005 samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum, rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent.

  9. Arbovirus en Latinoamérica

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    JL Arredondo-García

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades producidas por arbovirus son un problema muy grave a nivel mundial, debido a que su vigilancia y prevención implica también la vigilancia de sus vectores, lo que hace difícil su control y casi imposible evitar su expansión a cualquier país tropical o subtropical, e incluso algunas regiones templadas. A nivel mundial, el  dengue es la enfermedad por arbovirus más común con 40% de la población mundial viviendo en zonas de transmisión del virus del dengue. De las 390 millones de infecciones estimadas y 100 millones de casos anuales, una proporción pequeña de estos casos progresa a dengue grave. Aproximadamente uno de cada 2,000 casos de dengue causan la muerte; sin embargo, la tasa de letalidad de los pacientes con dengue grave se puede reducir de casi 10% a menos del 0.1% si se actúa rápidamente y con calidad en la atención clínica que reciben los pacientes. Esto, aunado a la reciente y rápida propagación del virus chikungunya y el brote de virus zika en países latinoamericanos, como México, hace necesaria la actualización médica y revisión de bibliografía respecto a la prevención, control y gestión de las infecciones causadas por arbovirus. Por lo tanto, presentamos una revisión de lo más reciente sobre enfermedades por arbovirus en América Latina.

  10. Viral emergence and consequences for reproductive performance in ruminants: two recent examples (bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientara, Stéphan; Ponsart, Claire

    2014-12-01

    Viruses can emerge unexpectedly in different regions of the world and may have negative effects on reproductive performance. This paper describes the consequences for reproductive performance that have been reported after the introduction to Europe of two emerging viruses, namely the bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SBV) viruses. Following the extensive spread of BTV in northern Europe, large numbers of pregnant cows were infected with BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) during the breeding season of 2007. Initial reports of some cases of abortion and hydranencephaly in cattle in late 2007 were followed by quite exhaustive investigations in the field that showed that 10%-35% of healthy calves were infected with BTV-8 before birth. Transplacental transmission and fetal abnormalities in cattle and sheep had been previously observed only with strains of the virus that were propagated in embryonated eggs and/or cell culture, such as vaccine strains or vaccine candidate strains. After the unexpected emergence of BTV-8 in northern Europe in 2006, another arbovirus, namely SBV, emerged in Europe in 2011, causing a new economically important disease in ruminants. This new virus, belonging to the Orthobunyavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, was first detected in Germany, in The Netherlands and in Belgium in 2011 and soon after in the UK, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Denmark and Switzerland. Adult animals show no or only mild clinical symptoms, whereas infection during a critical period of gestation can lead to abortion, stillbirth or the birth of severely malformed offspring. The impact of the disease is usually greater in sheep than in cattle. The consequences of SBV infection in domestic ruminants and more precisely the secondary effects on off-springs will be described.

  11. Prediction of Bluetongue virus seropositivity on pastoral properties in northern Australia using remotely sensed bioclimatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingseisen, Bernhard; Stevenson, Mark; Corner, Robert

    2013-06-01

    To monitor Bluetongue virus (BTV) activity in northern and eastern Australia the National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) collects data from a network of sentinel herds. Groups of young cattle, previously unexposed to infection, are regularly tested to detect evidence of seroconversion. While this approach has been successful in fulfilling international surveillance requirements, it is labour and cost intensive and operationally challenging in the remote area of the northern Australian rangelands. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of remotely sensed data as a means for predicting the distribution of BTV seroprevalence. For the period 2000-2009, bioclimatic variables were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products for the entire Northern Territory. A generalised linear model, based on the seasonal Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and minimum land surface temperature, was developed to predict BTV seropositivity. The odds of seropositivity in locations with NDVI estimates >0.45 was 3.90 (95% CI 1.11 to 13.7) times that of locations where NDVI estimates were between 0 and 0.45. Unit increases in minimum night land surface temperature in the previous winter increased the odds of seropositivity by a factor of 1.40 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.91). The area under a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve generated on the basis of the model predictions was 0.8. Uncertainty in the model's predictions was attributed to the spatio-temporal inconsistency in the precision of the available serosurveillance data. The discriminatory ability of models of this type could be improved by ensuring that exact location details and date of NAMP BTV test events are consistently recorded.

  12. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

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    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  13. Potential role of ticks as vectors of bluetongue virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwknegt, C.; Rijn, van P.A.; Schipper, J.M.J.; Holzel, D.R.; Boonstra, J.; Nijhof, A.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Jongejan, F.

    2010-01-01

    When the first outbreak of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV8) was recorded in North-West Europe in August 2006 and renewed outbreaks occurred in the summer of 2007 and again in 2008, the question was raised how the virus survived the winter. Since most adult Culicoides vector midges are assumed not

  14. The Role of Interferon Antagonist, Non-Structural Proteins in the Pathogenesis and Emergence of Arboviruses

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    Samantha S. Soldan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of factors favor the emergence and re-emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, including migration, climate change, intensified livestock production, an increasing volume of international trade and transportation, and changes to ecosystems (e.g., deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Consequently, arboviruses are distributed worldwide and represent over 30% of all emerging infectious diseases identified in the past decade. Although some arboviral infections go undetected or are associated with mild, flu-like symptoms, many are important human and veterinary pathogens causing serious illnesses such as arthritis, gastroenteritis, encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever and devastating economic loss as a consequence of lost productivity and high mortality rates among livestock. One of the most consistent molecular features of emerging arboviruses, in addition to their near exclusive use of RNA genomes, is the inclusion of viral, non-structural proteins that act as interferon antagonists. In this review, we describe these interferon antagonists and common strategies that arboviruses use to counter the host innate immune response. In addition, we discuss the complex interplay between host factors and viral determinants that are associated with virus emergence and re-emergence, and identify potential targets for vaccine and anti-viral therapies.

  15. The spread of Zika and the potential for global arbovirus syndemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2017-01-01

    It is estimated that over a million people die each year from infectious diseases of zoonotic origin and hundreds of millions suffer from these pervasive threats to human well-being. In light of the emergent global concern over the Zika virus, evidence that it has not one but two competent mosquito vector species in the Aedes family, and that both can be co-infected with other pathogens including dengue and chikungunya, this paper examines research suggesting the prospect of significant twenty-first-century outbreaks of arbovirus syndemics. Uniting the concepts 'synergy' with 'epidemic', a syndemics approach recognises that diseases in a population occur neither independent of social and ecological conditions, nor in isolation from other diseases. Assessment of the potential for arbovirus syndemics entails a review of the human role in the global spread of Aedes mosquitoes, the socio-environmental conditions of Aedes diffusion, the increasing likelihood of co-transmission of arbovirus diseases, evidence of co-infection and concern about the adverse health effects of arbovirus syndemic interaction, and the need for an appropriate environment-sensitive framework for effective public health responses. Called Planetary Health, this emergent framework confronts conceptual, knowledge, and governance challenges created by the dramatic shifts in environments, climates, people, vectors, and pathogens in the world.

  16. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic arboviruse

  17. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  18. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

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    Vasconcelos Pedro F. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  19. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  20. Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M K; Nayduch, D; Michel, K

    2015-02-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bluetongue and most likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burdens worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the difficulty of consistent culturing of certain species and the absence of molecular techniques such as RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report the establishment of RNAi as a research tool for the adult midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Based on previous research and transcriptome analysis, which revealed putative small interfering RNA pathway member orthologues, we hypothesized that adult C. sonorensis midges have the molecular machinery needed to perform RNA silencing. Injection of control double-stranded RNA targeting green fluorescent protein (dsGFP), into the haemocoel of 2-3-day-old adult female midges resulted in survival curves that support virus transmission. dsRNA injection targeting the newly identified C. sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (CsIAP1) orthologue resulted in a 40% decrease of transcript levels and 73% shorter median survivals as compared with dsGFP-injected controls. These results reveal the conserved function of IAP1. Importantly, they also demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi by dsRNA injection in adult midges, which will greatly facilitate studies of the underlying mechanisms of vector competence in C. sonorensis.

  1. The insect microbiome modulates vector competence for arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-11

    Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control.

  2. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue disease in small ruminants of north-east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Najarnezhad

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that the majority of animals in the north-east of Iran are infected with bluetongue virus. High correlation between abortion history and seroposivity emphasize the economical importance of bluetongue virus in the sheep herds of the region.

  3. Deployable Molecular Detection of Arboviruses in the Australian Outback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Bradbury, Richard S; McInnes, Russell L; Frances, Stephen P; Merritt, Adam J; Levy, Avram; Nicholson, Jay; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael; Smith, David W

    2016-09-01

    The most common causes of human infection from the arboviruses that are endemic in Australia are the arthritogenic alphaviruses: Ross River virus (RRV) and Barmah Forest virus (BFV). The most serious infections are caused by the neurotropic flaviviruses, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and the Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus. The greatest individual risk of arbovirus infection occurs in tropical/subtropical northern Australia because of the warm, wet summer conditions from December to June, where conventional arbovirus surveillance is difficult due to a combination of low population density, large distances between population centers, poor roads, and seasonal flooding. Furthermore, virus detection requires samples to be sent to Perth up to 2,000 km away for definitive analysis, causing delays of days to weeks before test results are available and public health interventions can be started. We deployed a portable molecular biology laboratory for remote field detection of endemic arboviruses in northern Queensland, then in tropical Western Australia and detected BFV, MVEV, and RRV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of extracts from mosquitoes trapped in Queensland. We then used a field-portable compact real-time thermocycler for the samples collected in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Real-time field PCR assays enabled concurrent endemic arbovirus distribution mapping in outback Queensland and Western Australia. Our deployable laboratory method provides a concept of operations for future remote area arbovirus surveillance.

  4. Replication-Deficient Particles: New Insights into the Next Generation of Bluetongue Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celma, Cristina C.; Stewart, Meredith; Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Gonzalez-Molleda, Lorenzo; Breard, Emmanuel; Schulz, Claudia; Hoffmann, Bernd; Haegeman, Andy; De Clercq, Kris; Zientara, Stephan; van Rijn, Piet A.; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bluetongue virus (BTV) is endemic in many parts of the world, often causing severe hemorrhagic disease in livestock. To date, at least 27 different serotypes have been recognized. Vaccination against all serotypes is necessary to protect susceptible animals and to prevent onward spread of the virus by insect vectors. In our previous studies, we generated replication-deficient (disabled infectious single-cycle [DISC]) virus strains for a number of serotypes and reported preliminary data on their protective efficacy in animals. In this report, to advance the DISC vaccines to the marketplace, we investigated different parameters of these DISC vaccines. First, we demonstrated the genetic stabilities of these vaccine strains and also the complementing cell line. Subsequently, the optimal storage conditions of vaccines, including additives, temperature, and desiccation, were determined and their protective efficacies in animals confirmed. Furthermore, to test if mixtures of different vaccine strains could be tolerated, we tested cocktails of DISC vaccines in combinations of three or six different serotypes in sheep and cattle, the two natural hosts of BTV. Groups of sheep vaccinated with a cocktail of six different vaccines were completely protected from challenge with individual virulent serotypes, both in early challenge and after 5 months of challenge without any clinical disease. There was no interference in protection between the different vaccines. Protection was also achieved in cattle with a mixture of three vaccine strains, albeit at a lesser level than in sheep. Our data support and validate the suitability of these virus strains as the next-generation vaccines for BTV. IMPORTANCE Bluetongue (BT) is a debilitating and in many cases lethal disease that affects ruminants of economic importance. Classical vaccines that afford protection against bluetongue virus, the etiological agent, are not free from secondary and undesirable effects. A surge in new

  5. Converting Mosquito Surveillance to Arbovirus Surveillance with Honey-Baited Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies, Emily J; Toi, Cheryl; Weinstein, Philip; Doggett, Stephen L; Williams, Craig R

    2015-07-01

    Spatially and temporally accurate information about infectious mosquito distribution allows for pre-emptive public health interventions that can reduce the burden of mosquito-borne infections on human populations. However, the labile nature of arboviruses, the low prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, the expensive labor costs for mosquito identification and sorting, and the specialized equipment required for arbovirus testing can obstruct arbovirus surveillance efforts. The recently developed techniques of testing mosquito expectorate using honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards or sugar bait stations allows a sensitive method of testing for infectious, rather than infected, mosquito vectors. Here we report the results from the first large-scale incorporation of honey-baited cards into an existing mosquito surveillance program. During 4 months of the peak virus season (January-April, 2014) for a total of 577 trap nights, we set CO2-baited encephalitis vector survey (EVS) light traps at 88 locations in South Australia. The collection container for the EVS trap was modified to allow for the placement of a honey-baited nucleic acid preservation card (FTA™ card) inside. After collection, mosquitoes were maintained in a humid environment and allowed access to the cards for 1 week. Cards were then analyzed for common endemic Australian arboviruses using a nested RT-PCR. Eighteen virus detections, including 11 Ross River virus, four Barmah Forest virus, and three Stratford virus (not previously reported from South Australia) were obtained. Our findings suggest that adding FTA cards to an existing mosquito surveillance program is a rapid and efficient way of detecting infectious mosquitoes with high spatial resolution.

  6. Estimating the magnitude and direction of altered arbovirus transmission due to viral phenotype.

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    Rebecca C Christofferson

    Full Text Available Vectorial capacity is a measure of the transmission potential of a vector borne pathogen within a susceptible population. Vector competence, a component of the vectorial capacity equation, is the ability of an arthropod to transmit an infectious agent following exposure to that agent. Comparisons of arbovirus strain-specific vector competence estimates have been used to support observed or hypothesized differences in transmission capability. Typically, such comparisons are made at a single time point during the extrinsic incubation period, the time in days it takes for the virus to replicate and disseminate to the salivary glands. However, vectorial capacity includes crucial parameters needed to effectively evaluate transmission capability, though often this is based on the discrete vector competence values. Utilization of the rate of change of vector competence over a range of days gives a more accurate measurement of the transmission potential. Accordingly, we investigated the rate of change in vector competence of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the resulting vectorial capacity curves. The areas under the curves represent the effective vector competence and the cumulative transmission potentials of arboviruses within a population of mosquitoes. We used the calculated area under the curve for each virus strain and the corresponding variance estimates to test for differences in cumulative transmission potentials between strains of dengue virus based on our dynamic model. To further characterize differences between dengue strains, we devised a displacement index interpreted as the capability of a newly introduced strain to displace the established, dominant circulating strain. The displacement index can be used to better understand the transmission dynamics in systems where multiple strains/serotypes circulate or even multiple arbovirus species. The use of a rate of a rate of change based model of vectorial capacity and the

  7. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F; Main, Andy J; Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Ferrandino, Francis J

    2015-02-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003-2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively.

  8. Occurrence of Bluetongue in ruminants in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Krishnamohan; Brindha, K; Ganesan, P I; Srinivas, K; Reddy, G S; Minakshi, P

    2016-09-30

    Tamil Nadu is located in the South-Eastern part of Indian peninsula, between 8.087° and 13.09°N and 76.50° and 80.27°E. Bluetongue (BT) was first reported in this region in sheep during 1982 with regular occurrence thereafter. In 1989-1990, 1997-1998 and 2005-2006, there was wide spread occurrence of BT resulting in huge mortality of sheep. The present study had the goal of isolating the BTV from outbreaks in sheep occurred in Tamil Naadu between 2003-2011 and comparing the VP2 gene sequences of the BTV isolates involved in such outbreaks. Serotypes 1, 2, 16, and 23 of the Bluetongue virus (BTV) have been isolated from sheep during BT outbreaks. BTV-16 has also been isolated in goats and cattle in the region; BTV-2 isolated in Tamil Nadu has homology with BTV-2 isolated in Africa; whereas the BTV-23 isolated in this area has homology with BTV-23 from South East Asia, indicating that both Eastern and Western topotypes of BTV are circulating in ruminant population in Tamil Nadu.

  9. Subclinical bluetongue virus infection in domestic ruminants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fan; Ting, Lu-Jen; Jong, Ming-Hwa; Chang, Wei-Ming; Wang, Fun-In

    2010-05-19

    Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants. Taiwan, with the Tropic of Cancer crossing through it, was considered free of bluetongue virus (BTV) before 2001. The goals of this study are to identify the serotype and phylogeny of Taiwan BTV isolates and to understand the serological status and chronology of BTV infection. Analysis of the S10 gene segment revealed that Taiwan BTV isolates are closely related to Chinese strains. Seropositive results were found in 32.7% of the cattle and 8.2% of the goats by head, and 90.7% of the cattle herds and 28.9% of the goat flocks. Anti-BTV antibodies have existed in goat sera since 1989 and in bovine sera since 1993, and over the years, the seropositive rates in rapidly urbanized districts have decreased, most likely due to the loss of vector habitats. Seropositive rates for sheep were variable, due to a small sample size and a small sheep population. Thus far, all natural BTV infections have been subclinical, consistent with experimental sheep inoculation, revealing that the Taiwan isolate is of low virulence.

  10. A Rapid Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Sensitive and Specific Detection of Bluetongue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambagala, A; Pahari, S; Fisher, M; Lee, P-Y A; Pasick, J; Ostlund, E N; Johnson, D J; Lung, O

    2017-04-01

    Bluetongue is a non-contagious, haemorrhagic, Culicoides-borne disease of ruminants. The causative agent, bluetongue virus (BTV), is a member of the Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family. So far, 26 BTV serotypes have been identified worldwide. The global distribution of bluetongue has been expanding, and rapid detection of BTV, preferably in the field, is critical for timely implementation of animal movement restrictions and vector control measures. To date, many laboratory-based, molecular assays for detection of BTV have been developed. These methods require the samples to be shipped to a central laboratory with sophisticated instruments and highly skilled technicians to perform the assays, conduct analyses and interpret the results. Here, we report the development and evaluation of a rapid, portable, user-friendly, pan-BTV reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) assay that can potentially be used in low-resource field conditions. The total length of the assay was <60 min, and at the end of the assay, the results were automatically displayed as '+' or '-' without the need for data interpretation. The RT-iiPCR assay detected 36 BTV isolates and two in vitro transcribed RNA samples representing all 26 BTV serotypes. The assay did not cross-react with other animal viruses tested, including two closely related orbiviruses. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was as low as nine copies of in vitro transcribed double-stranded BTV RNA. Analysis of BTV-infected whole blood samples showed that the BTV RT-iiPCR assay was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR. The assay can potentially be used for rapid screening of animals for BTV in routine diagnostics and for monitoring bluetongue outbreaks both in ruminants and in Culicoides vectors in the field and in the laboratory.

  11. Vector competence of New Zealand mosquitoes for selected arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Laura D; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Mackereth, Graham

    2011-07-01

    New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission.

  12. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. PMID:27355468

  13. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Nunes Lima-Camara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country.

  14. The Insect Microbiome Modulates Vector Competence for Arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natapong Jupatanakul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control.

  15. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue disease in small ruminants of north-east of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Najarnezhad; Mahin Rajae

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of bluetongue virus antibody in sheep and goats in 25 townships of Khorasan Razavi. Bluetongue is an infectious, non-contagious, arthropod born viral disease of ruminants and has been reported from most of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Methods: A total number of 1 034 serum samples from sheep and goats were collected and transmitted to Serological Laboratory of Veterinary Council of Khorasan Razavi. Serums were scr...

  16. Seroepidemiological monitoring in sentinel animals and vectors as part of arbovirus surveillance in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Mira Batista

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: From February-September 2010, seroepidemiological surveys were conducted on non-human primates and transmitter vector capture was used to investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in the municipalities of Bonito, Campo Grande, and Jardim, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 65 primates from the wild and captivity were used, and potential vectors were captured using Castro and dip nets. Serum samples were tested at the Instituto Evandro Chagas, State of Pará, using the hemagglutination inhibition test to detect total antibodies against 19 different arboviruses. Virus isolation was attempted from serum samples and arthropod suspensions using newborn mice and the C6/36 cell line clone. In addition, identification of the vector species was conducted. RESULTS: From the 19 serum samples from Campo Grande, 1 sample had a 1:20 titer for Flavivirus. From the 35 samples collected in Bonito, 17 samples had antibodies to arboviruses, 4 (11.4% were positive for Alphavirus, and 5 (14.2% were positive for Flavivirus. Monotypic reactions were observed for the Mayaro (n = 10 and Oropouche (n = 5 viruses, and 6 (17.1% samples had titers for >1 virus. We captured 120 Culicidae individuals that were potential arbovirus transmitters in Jardim; however, all the samples were negative for the viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Mato Grosso do Sul has a variety of vertebrate hosts and transmission vectors, thereby providing ideal conditions for the emergence or reemergence of arboviruses, including some pathogenic to human beings.

  17. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil Arboviroses emergentes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Tadeu de Moraes Figueiredo

    2007-01-01

    Brazil is a large tropical country (8,514,215km²) with 185,360,000 inhabitants. More than one third of its territory is covered by tropical forests or other natural ecosystems. These provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses, which are maintained in a large variety of zoonotic cycles. The risk that new arboviruses might emerge in Brazil is related to the existence of large, densely populated cities that are infested by mosquitoes such as Culex and the highly anthropophili...

  18. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue disease in small ruminants of north-east of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vahid Najarnezhad; Mahin Rajae

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and distribution of bluetongue virus antibody in sheep and goats in 25 townships of Khorasan Razavi. Bluetongue is an infectious, non-contagious, arthropod born viral disease of ruminants and has been reported from most of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Methods: A total number of 1 034 serum samples from sheep and goats were collected and transmitted to Serological Laboratory of Veterinary Council of Khorasan Razavi. Serums were screened for the presence of group-specific bluetongue virus antibody using competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (c-ELISA). Results: The seropositivity of sheep and goats for bluetongue was found to be 89.2%. The highest prevalence rate was seen in Taybad, Khalil-abad and Torbat-jam (100%) and the least prevalence rate was seen in Jovein (55%). Conclusions: The results showed that the majority of animals in the north-east of Iran are infected with bluetongue virus. High correlation between abortion history and seroposivity emphasize the economical importance of bluetongue virus in the sheep herds of the region.

  19. DNA vaccine prime and recombinant FPV vaccine boost: an important candidate immunization strategy to control bluetongue virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junping; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Feng, Yufei; Lv, Shuang; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Haixiu; Wu, Donglai

    2015-10-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), an important sheep disease that caused great economic loss to the sheep industry. There are 26 BTV serotypes based on the outer protein VP2. However, the serotypes BTV-1 and BTV-16 are the two most prevalent serotypes in China. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing viral infections. Therefore, the need for an effective vaccine against BTV is urgent. In this study, DNA vaccines and recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) vaccines expressing VP2 alone or VP2 in combination with VP5 or co-expressing the VP2 and VP5 proteins of BTV-1 were evaluated in both mice and sheep. Several strategies were tested in mice, including DNA vaccine prime and boost, rFPV vaccine prime and boost, and DNA vaccine prime and rFPV vaccine boost. We then determined the best vaccine strategy in sheep. Our results indicated that a strategy combining a DNA vaccine prime (co-expressing VP2 and VP5) followed by an rFPV vaccine boost (co-expressing VP2 and VP5) induced a high titer of neutralizing antibodies in sheep. Therefore, our data suggest that a DNA vaccine consisting of a pCAG-(VP2+VP5) prime and an rFPV-(VP2+VP5) boost is an important candidate for the design of a novel vaccine against BTV-1.

  20. Collection & Processing of Medically Important Arthropods for Arbovirus Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; Chamberlain, Roy W.

    The methods given for collecting, preserving, and processing mosquitoes and other archropods for isolation of arboviruses are those used by the National Communicable Disease Center. Techniques of collecting mosquitoes as they bite, using light or bait traps, and from their daytime resting sites are described and illustrated. Details of subsequent…

  1. Detection of arboviruses and other micro-organisms in experimentally infected mosquitoes using massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Allcock, Richard; Kresoje, Nina; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Warrilow, David

    2013-01-01

    Human disease incidence attributed to arbovirus infection is increasing throughout the world, with effective control interventions limited by issues of sustainability, insecticide resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. Several promising control strategies are currently under development, such as the release of mosquitoes trans-infected with virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria. Implementation of any control program is dependent on effective virus surveillance and a thorough understanding of virus-vector interactions. Massively parallel sequencing has enormous potential for providing comprehensive genomic information that can be used to assess many aspects of arbovirus ecology, as well as to evaluate novel control strategies. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we analyzed Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus experimentally infected with dengue, yellow fever or chikungunya viruses. Random amplification was used to prepare sufficient template for sequencing on the Personal Genome Machine. Viral sequences were present in all infected mosquitoes. In addition, in most cases, we were also able to identify the mosquito species and mosquito micro-organisms, including the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Importantly, naturally occurring Wolbachia strains could be differentiated from strains that had been trans-infected into the mosquito. The method allowed us to assemble near full-length viral genomes and detect other micro-organisms without prior sequence knowledge, in a single reaction. This is a step toward the application of massively parallel sequencing as an arbovirus surveillance tool. It has the potential to provide insight into virus transmission dynamics, and has applicability to the post-release monitoring of Wolbachia in mosquito populations.

  2. Bluetongue virus serotype 6 in Europe in 2008 - Emergence and disappearance of an unexpected non-virulent BTV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van P.A.; Geurts, Y.; Spek, van der A.N.; Veldman, D.; Gennip, van H.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue viruses (BTVs) could invade N-W Europe similar to BTV serotype 8 (BTV8/net06), since the source and route of introduction of this virus has not been solved. Therefore, the Dutch survey for Bluetongue by PCR testing was extended by further analysis of PCR positives to identify the involved

  3. Vector monitoring at Belgian outbreak sites during the bluetongue epidemic of 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deken, G; Madder, M; Deblauwe, I; De Clercq, K; Fassotte, C; Losson, B; Haubruge, E; De Deken, R

    2008-10-15

    In response to the first bluetongue outbreak in Belgium a monitoring programme was started at the end of August 2006 to identify possible vectors transmitting the disease. Black light traps were deployed at 36 outbreak sites and captured 1959 Culicoides specimens belonging to 16 different species. Eighty four percent of the biting midges captured belonged to the C. obsoletus complex, among them C. obsoletus s.s., C. dewulfi and C. scoticus, three suspected bluetongue vectors. The Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre detected viral RNA in pools of individuals belonging to this complex. Culicoides pulicaris, a potential bluetongue vector in Italy, should yet not be excluded as a possible vector in Belgium as this species was frequently found around outbreak sites, notwithstanding this species is not easily captured with the trapping techniques used during this survey.

  4. Enzootic Arbovirus Surveillance in Forest Habitat and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel Isolates of Gamboa Virus in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Gillian; Loaiza, Jose R; Pongsiri, Montira J; Sanjur, Oris I; Pecor, James E; Auguste, Albert J; Kramer, Laura D

    2016-04-01

    Landscape changes occurring in Panama, a country whose geographic location and climate have historically supported arbovirus transmission, prompted the hypothesis that arbovirus prevalence increases with degradation of tropical forest habitats. Investigations at four variably degraded sites revealed a diverse array of potential mosquito vectors, several of which are known vectors of arbovirus pathogens. Overall, 675 pools consisting of 25,787 mosquitoes and representing 29 species from nine genera (collected at ground and canopy height across all habitats) were screened for cytopathic viruses on Vero cells. We detected four isolates of Gamboa virus (family:Bunyaviridae; genus:Orthobunyavirus) from pools of Aedeomyia squamipennis captured at canopy level in November 2012. Phylogenetic characterization of complete genome sequences shows the new isolates to be closely related to each other with strong evidence of reassortment among the M segment of Panamanian Gamboa isolates and several other viruses of this group. At the site yielding viruses, Soberanía National Park in central Panama, 18 mosquito species were identified, and the predominant taxa included A. squamipennis,Coquillettidia nigricans, and Mansonia titillans.

  5. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue disease and risk factors in small ruminants of Shiraz suburb, Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Tanzifi, P; Nemati, Y

    2012-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus in the family Reoviridae which is transmitted by insects and could cause considerable damages in sheep and goat flocks, such as mortality, decreased production and fertility, medical costs and commercial limits for flocks and their biologic production. As no study has been conducted on small ruminants about this disease in Fars province of Iran, the present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of the disease and some risk factors that might be related to it. A total of 200 serum samples were collected from 13 flocks including nomadic animals (70%) and resident flocks (30%) using a cluster random sampling method with an equal proportion of sheep and goats during the last three months of 2010. Some risk factors such as age, breed and abortion, exposure to other flocks, density and female replacement origin were reported in a question sheet. Totally, 73.5% of the samples were positive for presence of BTV antibody.The results showed that age and contact with other herds are influential risk factors on seroprevalence of the disease.

  6. Transient Bluetongue virus serotype 8 capsid protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertha R. van Zyl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV causes severe disease in domestic and wild ruminants, and has recently caused several outbreaks in Europe. Current vaccines include live-attenuated and inactivated viruses; while these are effective, there is risk of reversion to virulence by mutation or reassortment with wild type viruses. Subunit or virus-like particle (VLP vaccines are safer options: VLP vaccines produced in insect cells by expression of the four BTV capsid proteins are protective against challenge; however, this is a costly production method. We investigated production of BTV VLPs in plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, an inexpensive production system very well suited to developing country use. Leaves infiltrated with recombinant pEAQ-HT vectors separately encoding the four BTV-8 capsid proteins produced more proteins than recombinant pTRA vectors. Plant expression using the pEAQ-HT vector resulted in both BTV-8 core-like particles (CLPs and VLPs; differentially controlling the concentration of infiltrated bacteria significantly influenced yield of the VLPs. In situ localisation of assembled particles was investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and it was shown that a mixed population of core-like particles (CLPs, consisting of VP3 and VP7 and VLPs were present as paracrystalline arrays in the cytoplasm of plant cells co-expressing all four capsid proteins.

  7. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

  8. Activation of TLR3/interferon signaling pathway by bluetongue virus results in HIV inhibition in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ming; Wang, Xu; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Sang, Ming; Liu, Jin-Biao; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus, is a potent inducer of type Ι interferons in multiple cell systems. In this study, we report that BTV16 treatment of primary human macrophages induced both type I and III IFN expression, resulting in the production of multiple antiviral factors, including myxovirus resistance protein A, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, and the IFN-stimulated gene 56. Additionally, BTV-treated macrophages expressed increased HIV restriction factors (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 G/F/H) and CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-β, regulated on activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted), the ligands for HIV entry coreceptor CC chemokine receptor type 5. BTV16 also induced the expression of tetherin, which restricts HIV release from infected cells. Furthermore, TLR3 signaling of macrophages by BTV16 resulted in the induction of several anti-HIV microRNAs (miRNA-28, -29a, -125b, -150, -223, and -382). More importantly, the induction of antiviral responses by BTV resulted in significant suppression of HIV in macrophages. These findings demonstrate the potential of BTV-mediated TLR3 activation in macrophage innate immunity against HIV.

  9. Multiserotype protection elicited by a combinatorial prime-boost vaccination strategy against bluetongue virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Calvo-Pinilla

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV belongs to the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The development of vector-based vaccines expressing conserved protective antigens results in increased immune activation and could reduce the number of multiserotype vaccinations required, therefore providing a cost-effective product. Recent recombinant DNA technology has allowed the development of novel strategies to develop marker and safe vaccines against BTV. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA expressing VP2, VP7 and NS1 proteins from BTV-4. IFNAR((-/- mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7-NS1 in an heterologous prime boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of antibodies specific of VP2, VP7, and NS1, including those with neutralizing activity against BTV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific CD8(+ T cell responses against these three BTV proteins. Importantly, the vaccine combination expressing NS1, VP2 and VP7 proteins of BTV-4, elicited sterile protection against a lethal dose of homologous BTV-4 infection. Remarkably, the vaccine induced cross-protection against lethal doses of heterologous BTV-8 and BTV-1 suggesting that the DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7,-NS1 marker vaccine is a promising multiserotype vaccine against BTV.

  10. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature and environmental (nurture factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  11. Nature, nurture and evolution of intra-species variation in mosquito arbovirus transmission competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2013-01-11

    Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  12. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-05-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses. In this short review, I highlight the successes and challenges in eVLP production for members of the three major arbovirus families: Flaviviridae (e.g., dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis); Bunyaviridae (e.g., Rift Valley fever); and Togaviridae (e.g., chikungunya). The results from pre-clinical testing will be discussed as well as specific constraints to the large-scale manufacture and purification of eVLPs, which are complex assemblies of membranes and viral glycoproteins. Insect cells emerge as ideal substrates for correct arboviral glycoprotein folding and posttranslational modification to yield high quality eVLPs. Furthermore, baculovirus expression in insect cell culture is scalable and has a proven safety record in industrial human and veterinary vaccine manufacturing. In conclusion, eVLPs produced in insect cells using modern biotechnology have a realistic potential to be used in novel vaccines against arboviral diseases.

  13. Vertical transmission of arboviruses in mosquitoes: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2014-12-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are mainly transmitted horizontally among vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding invertebrate vectors, but can also be transmitted vertically in the vector from an infected female to its offspring. Vertical transmission (VT) is considered a possible mechanism for the persistence of arboviruses during periods unfavorable for horizontal transmission, but the extent and epidemiological significance of this phenomenon have remained controversial. To help resolve this question, we reviewed over a century of published literature on VT to analyze historical trends of scientific investigations on experimental and natural occurrence of VT in mosquitoes. Our synthesis highlights the influence of major events of public health significance in arbovirology on the number of VT publications. Epidemiological landmarks such as emergence events have significantly stimulated VT research. Our analysis also reveals the association between the evolution of virological assays and the probability of VT detection. Increased sensitivity and higher-throughput of modern laboratory assays resulted in enhanced VT detection. In general, VT contribution to arbovirus persistence is likely modest because vertically infected mosquitoes are rarely observed in nature. Taken together, however, our results call for caution when interpreting VT studies because their conclusions are context- and method-dependent.

  14. How does increasing immunity change spread kernel parameters in subsequent outbreaks? – A simulation study on Bluetongue Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Bødker, Rene; Enøe, Claes;

    Modelling the spatial spread of vector borne diseases, one may choose methods ranging from statistic to process oriented. One often used statistic tool is the empirical spread kernel. An empiric spread kernel fitted to outbreak data provides hints on the spread mechanisms, and may provide a good...... of such changes are: vaccinations, acquired immunity, vector density and control, meteorological variations, wind pattern, and so on. Including more and more variables leads to a more process oriented model. A full process oriented approach simulates the movement of virus between vectors and host, describing...... detailed simulation spread model. And by using empirical spread kernels from past outbreaks we have fitted some of the more uncertain parameters for this case study. A stochastic simulation model was developed for the spread of bluetongue virus. In the model hosts (cattle) and vectors (Culicoides...

  15. Structural constraints in the packaging of bluetongue virus genomic segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Christiane; Sung, Po-Yu; Celma, Cristina C; Roy, Polly

    2014-10-01

    The mechanism used by bluetongue virus (BTV) to ensure the sorting and packaging of its 10 genomic segments is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the packaging constraints for two BTV genomic segments from two different serotypes. Segment 4 (S4) of BTV serotype 9 was mutated sequentially and packaging of mutant ssRNAs was investigated by two newly developed RNA packaging assay systems, one in vivo and the other in vitro. Modelling of the mutated ssRNA followed by biochemical data analysis suggested that a conformational motif formed by interaction of the 5' and 3' ends of the molecule was necessary and sufficient for packaging. A similar structural signal was also identified in S8 of BTV serotype 1. Furthermore, the same conformational analysis of secondary structures for positive-sense ssRNAs was used to generate a chimeric segment that maintained the putative packaging motif but contained unrelated internal sequences. This chimeric segment was packaged successfully, confirming that the motif identified directs the correct packaging of the segment.

  16. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Bluetongue Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veerakyathappa Bhanuprakash; Madhusudhan Hosamani; Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan; Pradeep Narayan Gandhale; Gnanavel Venkatesan; Raj Kumar Singh

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 24 Mabs were produced against bluetongue virus (BTV) by polyethyleneglycol (PEG) mediated fusion method using sensitized lymphocytes and myeloma cells. All these clones were characterized for their reactivity to whole virus and recombinant BTV-VP7 protein, titres, isotypes and their reactivity with 24 BTV-serotype specific sera in cELISA. Out of 24 clones, a majority of them (n = 18)belong to various IgG subclasses and the remaining (n = 6) to the IgM class. A panel of eight clones reactive to both whole BTV and purified rVP7 protein were identified based on their reactivity in iELISA. For competitive ELISA, the clone designated as 4A10 showed better inhibition to hyperimmune serum of BTV serotype 23. However, this clone showed a variable percent of inhibition ranging from 16.6% with BTV 12 serotype to 78.9% with BTV16 serotype using 24 serotype specific sera of BTV originating from guinea pig at their lowest dilutions. From the available panel of clones, only 4A 10 was found to have a possible diagnostic application.

  17. The first survey for antibody against Bluetongue virus in sheep flocks in Southeast of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Asghar Mozaffari; Mohammad Khalili

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Bluetongue virus is an arthropod-borne Orbivirus in the family Reoviridae which infects both domestic and wild ruminants. Bluetongue disease is a "List A" disease of the Office of International Epizootics. To the best of our knowledge, no report has been published on bluetongue disease of sheep flocks of Southeast of Iran. The objective of this study was to describe the seroprevalence rates of BTV in sheep flocks in southeast of Iran. Methods: The blood samples were collected randomly from herds of Southeast of Iran. A total of 188 sera samples (94 male, 94 female) collected between 2009 and 2010, were available. Antibodies to BTV in sera were detected by using a commercial competitive ELISA (Institute Pourquier, Montpellier, France) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Results: The seroprevalence rates were 6.57 %for sheep herds. Within a herd, prevalence of BTV seropositive animals ranged from 0% to 42.85%. 33.3% sheep flocks were positive to BTV antibodies. Sex didn't affect the rate of seropositivity, but the rate of seropositivity was significantly changed in different age groups. Conclusion: This study describes the seroprevalence rates of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep flocks in southeast of Iran for the first time.

  18. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue serotype 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Oura, Chris; Saegerman, Claude

    To answer a question from the European Commission on the potential special characteristics of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 (BTV-8) compared to other serotypes and their possible impact on the epidemiology of the disease, a systematic literature review was carried out by a working group...

  19. Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Bødker, Rene; Enøe, Claes;

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue is a disease of ruminants which reached Denmark in 2007. We present a process-based stochastic simulation model of vector-borne diseases, where host animals are not confined to a central geographic farm coordinate, but can be distributed onto pasture areas. Furthermore vectors fly freely...

  20. Seroprevalence of bluetongue disease in sheep in west and northwest provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khezri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the seroprevalence rates of bluetongue virus (BTV in sheep in west and northwest provinces of Iran. Bluetongue virus, an economically important orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, causes a hemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and some species of deer. Bluetongue virus is transmitted between its mammalian hosts by certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp. and it can infect all ruminant species. Overall, 26 serotypes have been reported around the world. Due to its economic impact, bluetongue (BT is an Office of International des Epizooties (OIE-listed disease. A total of 756 sera samples collected during 2007-2008, were available. Sera were tested with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA. The seroprevalence rate in sheep was 40.87%. The rate of positivity in sheep in west and northwest was 46.10% and 33.75%, respectively. The highest prevalence of antibodies in serum was in West Azerbaijan (64.86%, and lower was in Ardabil (23.77%.

  1. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  2. Genetic modification of Bluetongue virus by uptake of "synthetic" genome segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, van H.G.P.; Veldman, D.; Water, van de S.G.P.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1998, several serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV) have invaded several southern European countries. In 2006, the unknown BTV serotype 8 (BTV8/net06) unexpectedly invaded North-West Europe and has resulted in the largest BT-outbreak ever recorded. More recently, in 2008 BTV serotype 6 was repor

  3. Genome Sequence of Bluetongue virus Serotype 17 Isolated in Brazil in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Rosa, Júlio César Câmara; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Guimarães, Lorena Lima Barbosa; Costa, Érica Azevedo; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Driemeier, David; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement

    2016-10-27

    The complete genome sequence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17 strain 17/BRA/2014/73, isolated from a sheep in Brazil in 2014, is reported here. All segments clustered with western topotype strains and indicated reassortment events with other BTV from the Americas. The strain 17/BRA/2014/73 represents a novel reference strain for BTV-17 from South America.

  4. Financial consequences of the Dutch bluetongue serotype 8 epidemics of 2006 and 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study calculates the financial consequences of the bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV8) epidemics of 2006 and 2007 in the Netherlands. We constructed a deterministic economic model that is compatible with the Dutch livestock production systems for cattle, sheep and goats. Two hundred cattle farms and 2

  5. Economic consequences of the Dutch bluetongue serotype 8 epidemic in 2006 and 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the economic consequences of the bluetongue (BT) epidemic of 2006 and 2007 in the Netherlands were calculated. A deterministic economic model was constructed, reflecting the Dutch livestock production systems for cattle, sheep and goats. The net costs of the BT epidemic in 2006 (BT2006

  6. Come Fly With Me : Integration of travel medicine and arbovirus surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.B. Cleton (Natalie)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe goal of this thesis was to study how existing medical information and health structures can be used for arbovirus surveillance in the Netherlands. To achieve this, we combined and analysed all routine diagnostic data for Dutch travellers for suitability in arbovirus surveillance.

  7. Come fly with me: review of clinically important arboviruses for global travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Reimerink, Johan; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Reusken, Chantal

    2012-11-01

    Western tourists are increasingly traveling to exotic locations often located in tropical or subtropical regions of the world. The magnitude of international travel and the constantly changing dynamics of arbovirus diseases across the globe demand up-to-date information about arbovirus threats to travelers and the countries they visit. In this review, the current knowledge on arbovirus threats to global travelers is summarized and prioritized per region. Based on most common clinical syndromes, currently known arboviruses can be grouped to develop diagnostic algorithms to support decision-making in diagnostics. This review systematically combines and structures the current knowledge on medically important travel-related arboviruses and illustrates the necessity of a detailed patient history (travel history, symptoms experienced, vaccination history, engaged activities, tick or mosquito bite and use of repellent and onset of symptoms), to guide the diagnosis.

  8. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil Arboviroses emergentes no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a large tropical country (8,514,215km² with 185,360,000 inhabitants. More than one third of its territory is covered by tropical forests or other natural ecosystems. These provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses, which are maintained in a large variety of zoonotic cycles. The risk that new arboviruses might emerge in Brazil is related to the existence of large, densely populated cities that are infested by mosquitoes such as Culex and the highly anthropophilic Aedes aegypti. Infected humans or animals may come into these cities from ecological-epidemiological settings where arbovirus zoonoses occur. This study analyzes the risk of emergence of the alphaviruses Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis and Chikungunya; the flaviviruses yellow fever, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile; and the orthobunyavirus Oropouche.O Brasil é país tropical de grande extensão territorial (8.514.215km² e com 185.360.000 habitantes. Mais de 1/3 deste território é recoberto por florestas tropicais ou outros ecossistemas naturais com condições ideais para a ocorrência de diversas arboviroses as quais são mantidas em uma grande variedade de ciclos zoonóticos. O risco para a emergência de novos arbovirus no Brasil relaciona-se à existência de cidades grandes, populosas e infestadas por mosquitos Culex bem como o altamente antropofílico Aedes aegypti. Nas cidades poderiam ser introduzidos seres humanos ou animais infectados oriundos de sítios eco-epidemiológicos onde existem zoonoses arbovíricas. Neste trabalho, analisa-se o risco de emergência dos alphavirus Mayaro, da encefalite eqüina venezuelana, da encefalite eqüina do leste e Chikungunya, dos flavivirus, da febre amarela, Rocio, da encefalite de Saint Louis e do Nilo Ocidental, e do orthobunyavirus Oropouche.

  9. Experimental infections of Oryzomys couesi with sympatric arboviruses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R; Forrester, Naomi L; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P; Estrada-Franco, Jose G; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2010-02-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature.

  10. Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016

  11. Segment 2 based characterization of a novel Indian Bluetongue virus isolate

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    Gaya Prasad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to characterize and serotype the novel isolate of bluetongue virus (BTV isolated from India. Materials and Methods: The BTV isolate was propagated in BHK-21 cell line. Nucleic acid (dsRNA was extracted using Trizol method and cDNA was prepared using a process called reverse transcription. The cDNA was subjected to group specific PCR using ns1 gene specific primer to confirm the isolate as BTV. The type specific PCR was conducted to confirm the serotype of the virus using vp2 gene specific primers for all the BTV serotype including BTV10. The vp2 gene specific PCR amplicon was sequenced and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Results: Group specific PCR using ns1 gene specific primers showed a single 274bp amplicon in agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed the sample as BTV. The type specific PCR using BTV10 vp2 gene specific primer showed a single amplicon of 647bp. Remaining BTV serotype specific primers didn't show any amplification. The vp2 gene PCR amplicon was sequenced. The in-silico restriction enzyme analysis of vp2 gene of Indian BTV10 isolate along with other isolates from GenBank database using HindIII, XhoII and ApoI showed a common pattern between Indian and USA isolates. Similarly, phylogenetic analyses using vp2 gene nucleotide as well as deduced amino acid sequence of Indian BTV10 isolate and global isolates showed that Indian and most of the USA isolates placed in a single clad. Conclusion: A novel BTV isolate was isolated and confirmed as BTV serotype 10. Upon molecular analysis Indian BTV10 isolate was found closer to that of USA isolates than other global isolates. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 244-248

  12. A spatial simulation model for the dispersal of the bluetongue vector Culicoides brevitarsis in Australia.

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    Joel K Kelso

    Full Text Available The spread of Bluetongue virus (BTV among ruminants is caused by movement of infected host animals or by movement of infected Culicoides midges, the vector of BTV. Biologically plausible models of Culicoides dispersal are necessary for predicting the spread of BTV and are important for planning control and eradication strategies.A spatially-explicit simulation model which captures the two underlying population mechanisms, population dynamics and movement, was developed using extensive data from a trapping program for C. brevitarsis on the east coast of Australia. A realistic midge flight sub-model was developed and the annual incursion and population establishment of C. brevitarsis was simulated. Data from the literature was used to parameterise the model.The model was shown to reproduce the spread of C. brevitarsis southwards along the east Australian coastline in spring, from an endemic population to the north. Such incursions were shown to be reliant on wind-dispersal; Culicoides midge active flight on its own was not capable of achieving known rates of southern spread, nor was re-emergence of southern populations due to overwintering larvae. Data from midge trapping programmes were used to qualitatively validate the resulting simulation model.The model described in this paper is intended to form the vector component of an extended model that will also include BTV transmission. A model of midge movement and population dynamics has been developed in sufficient detail such that the extended model may be used to evaluate the timing and extent of BTV outbreaks. This extended model could then be used as a platform for addressing the effectiveness of spatially targeted vaccination strategies or animal movement bans as BTV spread mitigation measures, or the impact of climate change on the risk and extent of outbreaks. These questions involving incursive Culicoides spread cannot be simply addressed with non-spatial models.

  13. Variation in Bluetongue virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay results in blood samples of sheep, cattle, and alpaca.

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    Brito, Barbara P; Gardner, Ian A; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M

    2011-07-01

    Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to detect Bluetongue virus (BTV); however, the impact of biologic differences between New World camelids and domestic ruminant samples on PCR efficiency, for which the BTV real-time qRT-PCR was initially validated are unknown. New world camelids are known to have important biologic differences in whole blood composition, including hemoglobin concentration, which can alter PCR performance. In the present study, sheep, cattle, and alpaca blood were spiked with BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 and analyzed in 10-fold dilutions by real-time qRT-PCR to determine if species affected nucleic acid recovery and assay performance. A separate experiment was performed using spiked alpaca blood subsequently diluted in 10-fold series in sheep blood to assess the influence of alpaca blood on performance efficiency of the BTV real-time qRT-PCR assay. Results showed that BTV-specific nucleic acid detection from alpaca blood was consistently 1-2 logs lower than from sheep and cattle blood, and results were similar for each of the 4 BTV serotypes analyzed.

  14. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil.

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    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-06-27

    Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. RESUMO A modificação do ambiente por ações antrópicas, o crescimento urbano desordenado, o processo de globalização do intercâmbio internacional e as mudanças climáticas são alguns fatores que vêm facilitando a emergência e disseminação de doenças infecciosas humanas transmitidas por vetores. Este comentário aborda a recente entrada de três arbovírus no Brasil, Chikungunya (CHIKV), West Nile (WNV) e Zika (ZIKV), com enfoque nos desafios para a Saúde Pública do País. Transmitidos por mosquitos vetores amplamente distribuídos no território nacional e associados ao homem, a população brasileira encontra-se exposta à infecção por esses três arbovírus. Na ausência de vacina eficaz e tratamento específico, são importantes a manutenção e integração de uma vigilância entomológica e epidemiológica contínua, a fim de direcionarmos métodos de controle e prevenção contra essas arboviroses no País.

  15. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

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    Karel Van Roey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the

  16. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2014-12-01

    Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological

  17. Does the Bluetongue virus circulates in cattle population of Mat district, Albania?

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    KLODIAN DEDOLLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue is a viral, infectious, non-contiguous, vector transmitted disease of ruminants animals, caused by an Orbivurus. Despite the disease is not zoonoses, it is with high economic importance and as other OIE listed disease, significantly interfere with animal health and trade. Clinically, most affected species are sheep, however cattle serve as reservoir of infection and play major role on epidemiology of disease. Presence of Blue tongue disease proved only when it is based on laboratory tests.

  18. Role of microRNAs in arbovirus/vector interactions.

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    Asgari, Sassan

    2014-09-23

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs in regulation of gene expression has been recognized. They appear to be involved in regulation of a wide range of cellular pathways that affect several biological processes such as development, the immune system, survival, metabolism and host-pathogen interactions. Arthropod-borne viruses impose great economic and health risks around the world. Recent advances in miRNA biology have shed some light on the role of these small RNAs in vector-virus interactions. In this review, I will reflect on our current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in arbovirus-vector interactions and the potential avenues for their utilization in limiting virus replication and/or transmission.

  19. Early interactions during the encounter of plants, aphids and arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Aurélie; Martinière, Alexandre; Blanc, Stéphane; Drucker, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Aphids infest many plants and cause damage by depriving them of nutrients and by transmitting many viral diseases. Aphid infestation and arbovirus transmission are controlled by establishment (or not) of a compatible reaction between the insects and the plants. This reaction is the result of defense reactions of the plant and counter-defense reactions of the parasite. Contrarily to plant-bacteria, plant-fungi and plant-herbivorous insects pathosystems, the plant-aphid pathosystem is understudied, although recent advances have begun to uncover some of its details. Especially the very early steps in plant-aphid interactions are hardly known. We here resume the present knowledge of these interactions. We discuss further how an aphid-transmitted plant virus that is transmitted during the first moments of the plant-aphid encounter, might help to study the very early plant aphid interactions.

  20. Evaluation of cross-protection of bluetongue virus serotype 4 with other serotypes in sheep

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    Gcwalisile B. Zulu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT is a non-contagious disease of sheep and other domestic and wild ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV. Currently 26 serotypes of the virus have been identified. In South Africa, 22 serotypes have been identified and BT is controlled mainly by annual vaccinations using a freeze-dried live attenuated polyvalent BTV vaccine. The vaccine is constituted of 15 BTV serotypes divided into three separate bottles and the aim is to develop a vaccine using fewer serotypes without compromising the immunity against the disease. This study is based on previously reported cross-neutralisation of specific BTV serotypes in in vitro studies. Bluetongue virus serotype 4 was selected for this trial and was tested for cross-protection against serotype 4 (control, 1 (unrelated serotype, 9, 10 and 11 in sheep using the serum neutralisation test. The purpose of the study was to determine possible cross-protection of different serotypes in sheep. Of those vaccinated with BTV-4 and challenged with BTV-1, which is not directly related to BTV-4, 20% were completely protected and 80% showed clinical signs, but the reaction was not as severe as amongst the unvaccinated animals. In the group challenged with BTV-10, some showed good protection and some became very sick. Those challenged with BTV-9 and BTV-11 had good protection. The results showed that BTV-4 does not only elicit a specific immune response but can also protect against other serotypes.

  1. Apoptosis, autophagy and unfolded protein response pathways in Arbovirus replication and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Mahmoud; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Yazdi, Mina; Ande, Sudharsana R; Alizadeh, Javad; Wiechec, Emilia; Lindsay, Robbin; Drebot, Michael; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saeid

    2016-01-19

    Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses. In this review, we focus on the importance of these pathways in the arbovirus replication and infection processes. We provide a brief introduction on how apoptosis, autophagy and the UPR are initiated and regulated, and then discuss the involvement of these pathways in regulation of arbovirus pathogenesis.

  2. Validation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) specific antibodies in individual milk samples of Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramps, J.A.; Maanen, van K.; Mars, M.H.; Popma, J.K.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2008-01-01

    recently developed indirect ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV)-specific antibodies in bovine milk samples was compared to that of the routinely used competitive ELISA on serum samples. During the bluetongue outbreak in the Netherlands in 2006, caused by BTV serotype 8, coupled serum a

  3. Mosquito-borne Arbovirus Surveillance at Selected Sites in Diverse Ecological Zones of Kenya 2007 -- 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Med Hyg 2008, 102(8):817–822. 5. Gould EA, Higgs S: Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases. Trans R Soc Trop...streptomycin and 1 µl/ml of Fungizone). Cells were incubated at 37°C and observed daily for cytopathic changes . Cell culture supernatants were...reference and research on arboviruses and haemorrhagic fever viruses. Dakar, Senegal : Institut Pasteur de Dakar; 2000. 8. Kalunda M, Lwanga-Ssozi C

  4. Bluetongue virus detection: a safer reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for prediction of viremia in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, G; Wilson, W C; Mecham, J O; Evermann, J F

    1997-04-01

    A reversible target capture viral RNA extraction procedure was combined with a reverse-transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to develop a capture PCR assay providing a rapid and safe prediction method for circulating bluetongue virus in infected ruminants. This new assay was compared with virus isolation and a recently developed antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of bluetongue virus. Eight Warhill crossbred sheep were inoculated subcutaneously with bluetongue virus serotype 10, and blood samples were taken sequentially over a period of 28 days. The capture PCR detected the peak of viremia, as determined by virus isolation and antigen-capture ELISA, from day 5 to day 14 after challenge. The results indicate that the rapid-capture bluetongue virus PCR provides a rapid indicator of samples in which virus can be isolated. In addition, this capture bluetongue virus PCR procedure does not require a lengthy phenol extraction or the use of the highly toxic methyl mercury hydroxide denaturant.

  5. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

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    Martínez-de la Puente Josué

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD, Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST. Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST showed that both

  6. The role of RNA interference (RNAi) in arbovirus-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Carol D; Olson, Ken E

    2015-02-17

    RNA interference (RNAi) was shown over 18 years ago to be a mechanism by which arbovirus replication and transmission could be controlled in arthropod vectors. During the intervening period, research on RNAi has defined many of the components and mechanisms of this antiviral pathway in arthropods, yet a number of unexplored questions remain. RNAi refers to RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression. Originally, the term described silencing of endogenous genes by introduction of exogenous double-stranded (ds)RNA with the same sequence as the gene to be silenced. Further research has shown that RNAi comprises three gene regulation pathways that are mediated by small RNAs: the small interfering (si)RNA, micro (mi)RNA, and Piwi-interacting (pi)RNA pathways. The exogenous (exo-)siRNA pathway is now recognized as a major antiviral innate immune response of arthropods. More recent studies suggest that the piRNA and miRNA pathways might also have important roles in arbovirus-vector interactions. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of the exo-siRNA pathway as an arthropod vector antiviral response and on emerging research into vector piRNA and miRNA pathway modulation of arbovirus-vector interactions. Although it is assumed that arboviruses must evade the vector's antiviral RNAi response in order to maintain their natural transmission cycles, the strategies by which this is accomplished are not well defined. RNAi is also an important tool for arthropod gene knock-down in functional genomics studies and in development of arbovirus-resistant mosquito populations. Possible arbovirus strategies for evasion of RNAi and applications of RNAi in functional genomics analysis and arbovirus transmission control will also be reviewed.

  7. The Role of RNA Interference (RNAi in Arbovirus-Vector Interactions

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    Carol D. Blair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi was shown over 18 years ago to be a mechanism by which arbovirus replication and transmission could be controlled in arthropod vectors. During the intervening period, research on RNAi has defined many of the components and mechanisms of this antiviral pathway in arthropods, yet a number of unexplored questions remain. RNAi refers to RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression. Originally, the term described silencing of endogenous genes by introduction of exogenous double-stranded (dsRNA with the same sequence as the gene to be silenced. Further research has shown that RNAi comprises three gene regulation pathways that are mediated by small RNAs: the small interfering (siRNA, micro (miRNA, and Piwi-interacting (piRNA pathways. The exogenous (exo-siRNA pathway is now recognized as a major antiviral innate immune response of arthropods. More recent studies suggest that the piRNA and miRNA pathways might also have important roles in arbovirus-vector interactions. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of the exo-siRNA pathway as an arthropod vector antiviral response and on emerging research into vector piRNA and miRNA pathway modulation of arbovirus-vector interactions. Although it is assumed that arboviruses must evade the vector’s antiviral RNAi response in order to maintain their natural transmission cycles, the strategies by which this is accomplished are not well defined. RNAi is also an important tool for arthropod gene knock-down in functional genomics studies and in development of arbovirus-resistant mosquito populations. Possible arbovirus strategies for evasion of RNAi and applications of RNAi in functional genomics analysis and arbovirus transmission control will also be reviewed.

  8. Bluetongue virus detection by real-time RT-PCR in Culicoides captured during the 2006 epizootic in Belgium and development of an internal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbinst, T; Vandenbussche, F; Vandemeulebroucke, E; De Leeuw, I; Deblauwe, I; De Deken, G; Madder, M; Haubruge, E; Losson, B; De Clercq, K

    2009-06-01

    After the emergence of bluetongue (BT) in Belgium in 2006, two types of entomological surveys were initiated, the one to identify the local vector species, and the other to study their population dynamics. In the vector study, Culicoides were captured near farms with recently infected cattle or sheep; in the population study Culicoides were captured in two meadows situated in the BT-affected region. A total of 130 pools of parous, non-blood engorged female midges (with a mean of 7.5 midges per pool) were analysed with real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting bluetongue virus (BTV) segment 5. To ensure the RNA integrity of the samples, all pools were also tested in a second RT-qPCR targeting Culicoides 18S rRNA, which served as an internal control. Seventeen pools with negative results for both 18S and BTV were excluded, most of which originated from the population survey. In the vector survey near outbreak sites, female midges of the obsoletus complex, including C. obsoletus, C. scoticus, C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus, dominated the black-light trap collections with 19 of 89 pools being BTV-positive. Moreover, all the collections from the vector survey included at least one positive pool of the obsoletus complex compared with only 20% collections (C. obsoletus/C. scoticus) in the population survey. The current study also revealed the presence of BTV RNA in one of five pools of C. pulicaris females captured near recent BT outbreaks, suggesting that this species might have played a role in transmission. Finally, the use of RT-qPCR for the recognition of new potential BTV vector species and the impact of an appropriate monitoring method and internal control are discussed.

  9. Seroepidemiologic studies in Oaxaca, Mexico. II. Survey for arbovirus antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, R S; Zarate, M L; Cedeño-Ferreira, J; Antonio Paz, E

    1979-01-01

    A serologic survey was conducted in south-western Mexico to obtain information on human experience with arbovirus infections. Sera were collected from two semitropical areas along the Pacific coast of Oaxaca State, two mountain areas above 1,700 meters and the interior valley at 1,500 meters. Of the 610 sera tested for group A antibody, 4.9 per cent were positive in the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test to Venezuelan (VE), 11 per cent to Eastern, and none to Western encephalitis viruses. In neutralization tests the antibody was shown to be probably due to VE virus infections. When sera were screened for group B antibodies in the HI test, 32 per cent were positive with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), 19 per cent with Ilhéus, and 4 per cent with yellow fever viruses. The pattern of reactions suggested that SLE or an antigenically related virus was responsible for the antibody detected. An unusually high rate was found in a mountain area at 2,000 meters: 41 per cent of 113 persons tested were seropositive to SLE. Of 493 sera screened by complement-fixation test, 6 per cent were positive to Nepuyo, 4 per cent to Patois, and 3 per cent to Tlacotalpan viruses.

  10. Pathological Characterization Of IFNAR(-/-) Mice Infected With Bluetongue Virus Serotype 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-López, Alejandro; Bermúdez, Roberto; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Moreno, Sandra; Brun, Alejandro; Ortego, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) replicates in lymphoid tissues where infected mononuclear leukocytes secrete proinflammatory and vasoactive mediators that can contribute to bluetongue (BT) pathogenesis. Using the well-characterized IFNAR(-/-) mice animal model, we have now studied the histopathology and dynamics of leukocyte populations in different target tissues (spleen, thymus, and lung) during BTV-4 infection by histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The spleen and thymus of BTV-4 infected mice showed severe lymphoid depletion on H&E stained sections. This finding was confirmed by IHC, showing moderate decreased immunopositivity against CD3 in the thymus, and scarce immunoreactivity against CD3 and CD79 in the rest of the white pulp in the spleen, together with an increase in MAC387 immunostaining. BTV-4 infection also induced the expression of active caspase-3 in the spleen, where apoptotic debris was observed by H&E. A dramatic increase in iNOS immunoreactivity associated to necrotic areas of the white pulp was observed, being less noticeable in the thymus and the lung. The induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in tissues where BTV replicates was evaluated by measuring transcript levels by RT-qPCR. BTV-4 infection led to enhance transcription of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, IL-12-p40, and IL-1β mRNA in the thymus, spleen and lung, correlating with the level of virus replication in these tissues. Disease progression and pathogenesis in IFNAR(-/-) mice closely mimics hallmarks of bluetongue disease in ruminants. IFNAR(-/-) mice are a good choice to facilitate a faster advance in the field of orbiviruses. PMID:27994510

  11. Development of an algorithm for production of inactivated arbovirus antigens in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C H; Russell, B J; Velez, J O; Laven, J J; Nicholson, W L; Bagarozzi, D A; Moon, J L; Bedi, K; Johnson, B W

    2014-11-01

    Arboviruses are medically important pathogens that cause human disease ranging from a mild fever to encephalitis. Laboratory diagnosis is essential to differentiate arbovirus infections from other pathogens with similar clinical manifestations. The Arboviral Diseases Branch (ADB) reference laboratory at the CDC Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) produces reference antigens used in serological assays such as the virus-specific immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Antigen production in cell culture has largely replaced the use of suckling mice; however, the methods are not directly transferable. The development of a cell culture antigen production algorithm for nine arboviruses from the three main arbovirus families, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, is described here. Virus cell culture growth and harvest conditions were optimized, inactivation methods were evaluated, and concentration procedures were compared for each virus. Antigen performance was evaluated by the MAC-ELISA at each step of the procedure. The antigen production algorithm is a framework for standardization of methodology and quality control; however, a single antigen production protocol was not applicable to all arboviruses and needed to be optimized for each virus.

  12. Purification, stability, and immunogenicity analyses of five bluetongue virus proteins for use in development of a subunit vaccine that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenna; Bréard, Emmanuel; Lövgren Bengtsson, Karin; Grönvik, Kjell-Olov; Zientara, Stéphan; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Hägglund, Sara

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes bluetongue disease, a vector-borne disease of ruminants. The recent northerly spread of BTV serotype 8 in Europe resulted in outbreaks characterized by clinical signs in cattle, including unusual teratogenic effects. Vaccination has been shown to be crucial for controlling the spread of vector-borne diseases such as BTV. With the aim of developing a novel subunit vaccine targeting BTV-8 that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, five His-tagged recombinant proteins, VP2 and VP5 of BTV-8 and NS1, NS2, and NS3 of BTV-2, were expressed in baculovirus or Escherichia coli expression systems for further study. Optimized purification protocols were determined for VP2, NS1, NS2, and NS3, which remained stable for detection for at least 560 to 610 days of storage at +4°C or -80°C, and Western blotting using sera from vaccinated or experimentally infected cattle indicated that VP2 and NS2 were recognized by BTV-specific antibodies. To characterize murine immune responses to the four proteins, mice were subcutaneously immunized twice at a 4-week interval with one of three protein combinations plus immunostimulating complex ISCOM-Matrix adjuvant or with ISCOM-Matrix alone (n = 6 per group). Significantly higher serum IgG antibody titers specific for VP2 and NS2 were detected in immunized mice than were detected in controls. VP2, NS1, and NS2 but not NS3 induced specific lymphocyte proliferative responses upon restimulation of spleen cells from immunized mice. The data suggest that these recombinant purified proteins, VP2, NS1, and NS2, could be an important part of a novel vaccine design against BTV-8.

  13. Genome Sequences of Five Arboviruses in Field-Captured Mosquitoes in a Unique Rural Environment of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jun; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Yang, Yu; Jima, Dereje D; Richardson, Jason H; Jarman, Richard G

    2016-01-28

    Here, we present the genome sequences of one mesonivirus and four novel arboviruses observed in Culex bitaeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens, captured in and near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea. Results suggest the ubiquitous presence of mesoniviruses and the discovery of a potentially new species of arboviruses in field-captured mosquitoes.

  14. Large-scale recoding of an arbovirus genome to rebalance its insect versus mammalian preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sam H; Stauft, Charles B; Gorbatsevych, Oleksandr; Song, Yutong; Ward, Charles B; Yurovsky, Alisa; Mueller, Steffen; Futcher, Bruce; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-04-14

    The protein synthesis machineries of two distinct phyla of the Animal kingdom, insects of Arthropoda and mammals of Chordata, have different preferences for how to best encode proteins. Nevertheless, arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are capable of infecting both mammals and insects just like arboviruses that use insect vectors to infect plants. These organisms have evolved carefully balanced genomes that can efficiently use the translational machineries of different phyla, even if the phyla belong to different kingdoms. Using dengue virus as an example, we have undone the genome encoding balance and specifically shifted the encoding preference away from mammals. These mammalian-attenuated viruses grow to high titers in insect cells but low titers in mammalian cells, have dramatically increased LD50s in newborn mice, and induce high levels of protective antibodies. Recoded arboviruses with a bias toward phylum-specific expression could form the basis of a new generation of live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  15. Tick cell lines for study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A; Fazakerley, John K

    2012-09-01

    Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level.

  16. Transplacental and oral transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle after experimental infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, A.; Heutink, C.G.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential vertical transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in cattle was explored in this experiment. We demonstrated transplacental transmission of wild-type BTV-8 in one calf and oral infection with BTV-8 in another calf. Following the experimental BTV-8 infection of seven ou

  17. Non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is required for propagation of bluetongue virus in Culicoides sonorensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Femke; Drolet, B.S.; Boonstra, Jan; Rijn, Van P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes non-contagious haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV encodes four non-structural proteins of which NS3/NS3a is functional in virus release. NS3/NS3a is not essential for in vitro virus replication. Howe

  18. Mapping the basic reproduction number (Ro) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.; Purse, B.V.; Meiswinkel, R.; Brown, H.E.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Boender, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool f

  19. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

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    Sandra Talavera

    Full Text Available The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn. A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding

  20. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Sandra; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Durán, Mauricio; Verdún, Marta; Soler-Membrives, Anna; Oleaga, Álvaro; Arenas, Antonio; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Pagès, Nitu

    2015-01-01

    The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV) and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn). A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding would support the

  1. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection.

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    Edna R Caceda

    Full Text Available The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN, Yellow Fever (YF, Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE, West Nile (WN, Ilheus (ILH, Group C (GC, Oropouche (ORO, Mayaro (MAY and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH. MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO. For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera.

  2. Myxomavirus as a vector for the immunisation of sheep: protection study against challenge with bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Sokunthea; Foucras, Gilles; Deplanche, Martine; Rives, Germain; Calvalido, Jérôme; Comtet, Loic; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Meyer, Gilles

    2012-02-21

    Recombinant poxviruses are well suited for the development of new vaccine vectors. Our previous data supported the idea that Myxomavirus (MYXV) is efficient at priming antibody responses in sheep. To provide definitive evidence on the potential of MYXV for vaccination against infectious diseases in ruminants, we investigated the immune protection provided by recombinant MYXV against bluetongue, a devastating disease in sheep. To test this concept, sheep were injected twice with an MYXV expressing the immunodominant VP2 protein (SG33-VP2). The SG33-VP2 vector promoted the production of neutralising antibodies and partially protected sheep against disease after challenge with a highly virulent strain of serotype-8 bluetongue virus (BTV-8). In contrast, an MYXV expressing both VP2 and VP5 proteins (SG33-VP2/5) elicited very little protection. The expression levels of the VP2 and VP5 proteins suggested that, greater than the co-expression of the VP5 protein which was previously thought to favour anti-VP2 antibody response, the high expression of VP2 may be critical in the MYXV context to stimulate a protective response in sheep. This highlights the requirement for a careful examination of antigen expression before any conclusion can be drawn on the respective role of the protective antigens. As a proof of principle, our study shows that an MYXV vaccine vector is possible in ruminants.

  3. Circulation of bluetongue virus in goats in the Karamoja region of Uganda

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    Elijah N. Mulabbi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV in indigenous goats from the Karamoja region of northern Uganda was investigated. A total of 300 goats were sampled (serum and whole blood from five districts within the Karamoja region. The samples were analysed for the presence of bluetongue (BT antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and for the presence of BTV viral RNA by real-time Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, because BTV is an RNA virus. Of the 300 goats tested, 269 (90% were positive for BTV antibodies, indicating high levels of BTV circulation within the region. Out of the 150 whole blood samples tested for the presence of the virus by real-time RT-PCR, 84 (56% were positive for BTV RNA. This study, which is the first of its kind in Uganda, showed a high seroprevalence of BT antibodies and active circulation of BTV in a high proportion of goats in the Karamoja region.

  4. Circulation of bluetongue virus in goats in the Karamoja region of Uganda

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    Carrie A. Batten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV in indigenous goats from the Karamoja region of northern Uganda was investigated. A total of 300 goats were sampled (serum and whole blood from five districts within the Karamoja region. The samples were analysed for the presence of bluetongue (BT antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and for the presence of BTV viral RNA by real-time Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, because BTV is an RNA virus. Of the 300 goats tested, 269 (90% were positive for BTV antibodies, indicating high levels of BTV circulation within the region. Out of the 150 whole blood samples tested for the presence of the virus by real-time RT-PCR, 84 (56% were positive for BTV RNA. This study, which is the first of its kind in Uganda, showed a high seroprevalence of BT antibodies and active circulation of BTV in a high proportion of goats in the Karamoja region.

  5. Short communication. Bluetongue virus serotype-1 in goats in the Pithoragarh area of Uttarakahand, India

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    Bimalendu Mondal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This short communication reports the results of a bluetongue sero-surveillance conducted in the Pithoragarh hills of Uttarakhand in India during the autumn of 2011. Unclotted blood and serum samples were collected from 51 goats for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV antigen and antibodies. Of the 51 collected samples, 18 (35% were positive to an indirect ELISA and 33 (64% resulted positive to a BTV ELISA antigen. From a strong antigen-positive blood sample, a BTV was isolated (named as PTG-13 on cell culture and was subsequently confirmed as BTV‑1 by RT‑PCR and partial sequencing of genome segment-2. The goat serum samples were found to contain high titer of neutralising antibodies against BTV-23, nonetheless the virus could not be isolated. Interestingly, no neutralizing antibodies were detected against PTG-13 or other BTV-1 isolate, which suggests that sampling was probably done before the development of neutralizing antibodies against PTG-13 virus in the host. Isolation of BTV-1 (PTG-13 and presence of BTV-23 neutralizing antibodies in serum samples indicate that goats were probably infected with BTV-1 and 23 in different periods.

  6. Quantitative assessment of the probability of bluetongue virus overwintering by horizontal transmission: application to Germany

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    Napp Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though bluetongue virus (BTV transmission is apparently interrupted during winter, bluetongue outbreaks often reappear in the next season (overwintering. Several mechanisms for BTV overwintering have been proposed, but to date, their relative importance remain unclear. In order to assess the probability of BTV overwintering by persistence in adult vectors, ruminants (through prolonged viraemia or a combination of both, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. Furthermore, the model allowed the role played by the residual number of vectors present during winter to be examined, and the effect of a proportion of Culicoides living inside buildings (endophilic behaviour to be explored. The model was then applied to a real scenario: overwintering in Germany between 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the limited number of vectors active during winter seemed to allow the transmission of BTV during this period, and that while transmission was favoured by the endophilic behaviour of some Culicoides, its effect was limited. Even though transmission was possible, the likelihood of BTV overwintering by the mechanisms studied seemed too low to explain the observed re-emergence of the disease. Therefore, other overwintering mechanisms not considered in the model are likely to have played a significant role in BTV overwintering in Germany between 2006 and 2007.

  7. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Sarah K; Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N

    2012-11-01

    A degree-day (DD) model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates "compound risk" maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  8. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  9. Estimating the temporal and spatial risk of bluetongue related to the incursion of infected vectors into Switzerland

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    Griot C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of veterinary and public health surveillance systems has been improved by the ability to combine Geographical Information Systems (GIS, mathematical models and up to date epidemiological knowledge. In Switzerland, an early warning system was developed for detecting the incursion of the bluetongue disease virus (BT and to monitor the frequency of its vectors. Based on data generated by this surveillance system, GIS and transmission models were used in order to determine suitable seasonal vector habitat locations and risk periods for a larger and more targeted surveillance program. Results Combined thematic maps of temperature, humidity and altitude were created to visualize the association with Culicoides vector habitat locations. Additional monthly maps of estimated basic reproduction number transmission rates (R0 were created in order to highlight areas of Switzerland prone to higher BT outbreaks in relation to both vector activity and transmission levels. The maps revealed several foci of higher risk areas, especially in northern parts of Switzerland, suitable for both vector presence and vector activity for 2006. Results showed a variation of R0 values comparing 2005 and 2006 yet suggested that Switzerland was at risk of an outbreak of BT, especially if the incursion arrived in a suitable vector activity period. Since the time of conducting these analyses, this suitability has proved to be the case with the recent outbreaks of BT in northern Switzerland. Conclusion Our results stress the importance of environmental factors and their effect on the dynamics of a vector-borne disease. In this case, results of this model were used as input parameters for creating a national targeted surveillance program tailored to both the spatial and the temporal aspect of the disease and its vectors. In this manner, financial and logistic resources can be used in an optimal way through seasonally and geographically adjusted

  10. Arbovirus vaccines: opportunities for the baculovirus-insect cell expression system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is a well-established technology for the production of heterologous viral (glyco)proteins in cultured cells, applicable for basic scientific research as well as for the development and production of vaccines and diagnostics. Arboviruses form an emerging

  11. Lesões pouco usuais na histopatologia experimental de arbovirus amazônicos

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    Leonidas Braga Dias

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritas as alterações histopatológicas observadas em camundongos infectados experimentalmente com os arbovirus Mucambo, EEE e Cocal. O virus Mucambo determinou lesões renais; o EEE demonstrou especial mesenquimotropismo; o virus Cocal lesões de topografia seletiva subependimária.

  12. Understanding the Wolbachia-mediated inhibition of arboviruses in mosquitoes: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Stephanie M; Shah, Pranav; Kohl, Alain; Dietrich, Isabelle

    2014-03-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a considerable threat to human and animal health, yet effective control measures have proven difficult to implement, and novel means of controlling their replication in arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, are urgently required. One of the most exciting approaches to emerge from research on arthropods is the use of the endosymbiotic intracellular bacterium Wolbachia to control arbovirus transmission from mosquito to vertebrate. These α-proteobacteria propagate through insects, in part through modulation of host reproduction, thus ensuring spread through species and maintenance in nature. Since it was discovered that Wolbachia endosymbiosis inhibits insect virus replication in Drosophila species, these bacteria have also been shown to inhibit arbovirus replication and spread in mosquitoes. Importantly, it is not clear how these antiviral effects are mediated. This review will summarize recent work and discuss determinants of antiviral effectiveness that may differ between individual Wolbachia/vector/arbovirus interactions. We will also discuss the application of this approach to field settings and the associated risks.

  13. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Joy; Rainey, Stephanie M; McFarlane, Melanie; Donald, Claire L; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie

    2015-03-23

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence.

  14. Arbovirus-derived piRNAs exhibit a ping-pong signature in mosquito cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodovar, N.; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Cleef, K.W.R. van; Miesen, P.; Blanc, H.; Rij, R.P. van; Saleh, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The siRNA pathway is an essential antiviral mechanism in insects. Whether other RNA interference pathways are involved in antiviral defense remains unclear. Here, we report in cells derived from the two main vectors for arboviruses, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the production of viral small R

  15. Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011–2013

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    Maite Aubry

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

  16. Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface.

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    David Omondi

    Full Text Available The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya's Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies.

  17. Isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in Ijara District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne.

  18. Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Fielding, Burtram C; Njoroge, Laban; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2015-01-01

    The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b) or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM) analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya's Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus) in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats) and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents) informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies.

  19. Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K.; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Fielding, Burtram C.; Njoroge, Laban; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2015-01-01

    The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b) or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM) analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya’s Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus) in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats) and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents) informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies. PMID:26230507

  20. Why did bluetongue spread the way it did? Environmental factors influencing the velocity of bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic wave in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioz, Maryline; Guis, Hélène; Crespin, Laurent; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier; Durand, Benoît; Abrial, David; Ducrot, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding where and how fast an infectious disease will spread during an epidemic is critical for its control. However, the task is a challenging one as numerous factors may interact and drive the spread of a disease, specifically when vector-borne diseases are involved. We advocate the use of simultaneous autoregressive models to identify environmental features that significantly impact the velocity of disease spread. We illustrate this approach by exploring several environmental factors influencing the velocity of bluetongue (BT) spread in France during the 2007-2008 epizootic wave to determine which ones were the most important drivers. We used velocities of BT spread estimated in 4,495 municipalities and tested sixteen covariates defining five thematic groups of related variables: elevation, meteorological-related variables, landscape-related variables, host availability, and vaccination. We found that ecological factors associated with vector abundance and activity (elevation and meteorological-related variables), as well as with host availability, were important drivers of the spread of the disease. Specifically, the disease spread more slowly in areas with high elevation and when heavy rainfall associated with extreme temperature events occurred one or two months prior to the first clinical case. Moreover, the density of dairy cattle was correlated negatively with the velocity of BT spread. These findings add substantially to our understanding of BT spread in a temperate climate. Finally, the approach presented in this paper can be used with other infectious diseases, and provides a powerful tool to identify environmental features driving the velocity of disease spread.

  1. 海南省虫媒病毒调查研究状况%Review on arbovirus studies in Hainan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅匀; 王志玉; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    North to Torrid Zone, Hainan province has favorable natural conditions to arthropod reproduction and the spread of arboviruses, as evidenced by several outbreaks of dengue fever and endemic Japanese encephalitis (JE). Arboviruses, including four alphaviruses (Chikungunya virus, Mayaro virus, Getah virus, Ross River virus), two flaviviruses (JE virus and Dengue virus) and one seadornavirus, have been isolated from various vectors and host animals in this province. This article reviews current studies on arboviruses and arboviral infections to humans and livestocks, in order to inform prevention and control both locally and nationwide.%海南省地处热带北缘,自然条件适合节肢动物繁殖及虫媒病毒传播,曾发生过多次登革热大流行,也是流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)地方性流行区.以往从海南省多种媒介和宿主动物中分离到4种甲病毒(基孔肯雅、马雅罗、盖塔和罗斯河病毒)、2种黄病毒(乙脑和登革热病毒)和1种Seadornavirus.现对海南省新分离虫媒病毒及其人畜感染状况进行回顾整理,为当地以及我国虫媒病毒病的预防控制提供依据.

  2. Arbovirus detection in insect vectors by rapid, high-throughput pyrosequencing.

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    Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the global threat caused by arthropod-borne viruses, there is not an efficient method for screening vector populations to detect novel viral sequences. Current viral detection and surveillance methods based on culture can be costly and time consuming and are predicated on prior knowledge of the etiologic agent, as they rely on specific oligonucleotide primers or antibodies. Therefore, these techniques may be unsuitable for situations when the causative agent of an outbreak is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we explored the use of high-throughput pyrosequencing for surveillance of arthropod-borne RNA viruses. Dengue virus, a member of the positive strand RNA Flavivirus family that is transmitted by several members of the Aedes genus of mosquitoes, was used as a model. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes experimentally infected with dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1 were pooled with noninfected mosquitoes to simulate samples derived from ongoing arbovirus surveillance programs. Using random-primed methods, total RNA was reverse-transcribed and resulting cDNA subjected to 454 pyrosequencing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In two types of samples, one with 5 adult mosquitoes infected with DENV-1- and the other with 1 DENV-1 infected mosquito and 4 noninfected mosquitoes, we identified DENV-1 DNA sequences. DENV-1 sequences were not detected in an uninfected control pool of 5 adult mosquitoes. We calculated the proportion of the Ae. aegypti metagenome contributed by each infecting Dengue virus genome (p(IP, which ranged from 2.75×10(-8 to 1.08×10(-7. DENV-1 RNA was sufficiently concentrated in the mosquito that its detection was feasible using current high-throughput sequencing instrumentation. We also identified some of the components of the mosquito microflora on the basis of the sequence of expressed RNA. This included members of the bacterial genera Pirellula and Asaia, various fungi, and a potentially uncharacterized

  3. Animal viral diseases and global change: Bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms

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    Miguel Angel eJimenez-Clavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue and West Nile fever/encephalitis, have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. Bluetongue, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. West Nile fever/encephalitis affects wildlife (birds, domestic animals (equines and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife and livestock. In Europe, West Nile virus is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the XXth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world?

  4. Estimating front-wave velocity of infectious diseases: a simple, efficient method applied to bluetongue

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    Pioz Maryline

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding the spatial dynamics of an infectious disease is critical when attempting to predict where and how fast the disease will spread. We illustrate an approach using a trend-surface analysis (TSA model combined with a spatial error simultaneous autoregressive model (SARerr model to estimate the speed of diffusion of bluetongue (BT, an infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV and transmitted by Culicoides. In a first step to gain further insight into the spatial transmission characteristics of BTV serotype 8, we used 2007-2008 clinical case reports in France and TSA modelling to identify the major directions and speed of disease diffusion. We accounted for spatial autocorrelation by combining TSA with a SARerr model, which led to a trend SARerr model. Overall, BT spread from north-eastern to south-western France. The average trend SARerr-estimated velocity across the country was 5.6 km/day. However, velocities differed between areas and time periods, varying between 2.1 and 9.3 km/day. For more than 83% of the contaminated municipalities, the trend SARerr-estimated velocity was less than 7 km/day. Our study was a first step in describing the diffusion process for BT in France. To our knowledge, it is the first to show that BT spread in France was primarily local and consistent with the active flight of Culicoides and local movements of farm animals. Models such as the trend SARerr models are powerful tools to provide information on direction and speed of disease diffusion when the only data available are date and location of cases.

  5. Estimating front-wave velocity of infectious diseases: a simple, efficient method applied to bluetongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioz, Maryline; Guis, Hélène; Calavas, Didier; Durand, Benoît; Abrial, David; Ducrot, Christian

    2011-04-20

    Understanding the spatial dynamics of an infectious disease is critical when attempting to predict where and how fast the disease will spread. We illustrate an approach using a trend-surface analysis (TSA) model combined with a spatial error simultaneous autoregressive model (SAR(err) model) to estimate the speed of diffusion of bluetongue (BT), an infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides. In a first step to gain further insight into the spatial transmission characteristics of BTV serotype 8, we used 2007-2008 clinical case reports in France and TSA modelling to identify the major directions and speed of disease diffusion. We accounted for spatial autocorrelation by combining TSA with a SAR(err) model, which led to a trend SAR(err) model. Overall, BT spread from north-eastern to south-western France. The average trend SAR(err)-estimated velocity across the country was 5.6 km/day. However, velocities differed between areas and time periods, varying between 2.1 and 9.3 km/day. For more than 83% of the contaminated municipalities, the trend SAR(err)-estimated velocity was less than 7 km/day. Our study was a first step in describing the diffusion process for BT in France. To our knowledge, it is the first to show that BT spread in France was primarily local and consistent with the active flight of Culicoides and local movements of farm animals. Models such as the trend SAR(err) models are powerful tools to provide information on direction and speed of disease diffusion when the only data available are date and location of cases.

  6. An investigation into the possibility of bluetongue virus transmission by transfer of infected ovine embryos

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    Estelle H. Venter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, a disease that affects mainly sheep, causes economic losses owing to not only its deleterious effects on animals but also its associated impact on the restriction of movement of livestock and livestock germplasm. The causative agent, bluetongue virus (BTV, can occur in the semen of rams and bulls at the time of peak viraemia and be transferred to a developing foetus. The risk of the transmission of BTV by bovine embryos is negligible if the embryos are washed according to the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS protocol. Two experiments were undertaken to determine whether this holds for ovine embryos that had been exposed to BTV. Firstly, the oestrus cycles of 12 ewes were synchronised and the 59 embryos that were obtained were exposed in vitro to BTV-2 and BTV-4 at a dilution of 1 x 102.88 and 1 x 103.5 respectively. In the second experiment, embryos were recovered from sheep at the peak of viraemia. A total of 96 embryos were collected from BTV-infected sheep 21 days after infection. In both experiments half the embryos were washed and treated with trypsin according to the IETS protocol while the remaining embryos were neither washed nor treated. All were tested for the presence of BTV using cell culture techniques. The virus was detected after three passages in BHK-21 cells only in one wash bath in the first experiment and two unwashed embryos exposed to BTV-4 at a titre of 1 x 103.5. No embryos or uterine flush fluids obtained from viraemic donors used in the second experiment were positive for BTV after the standard washing procedure had been followed. The washing procedure of the IETS protocol can thus clear sheep embryos infected with BTV either in vitro or in vivo.

  7. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, B; Brugger, K; Köfer, J; Schwermer, H; Stockreiter, S; Loitsch, A; Rubel, F

    2015-05-02

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006-2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used.

  8. Sources of error in the estimation of mosquito infection rates used to assess risk of arbovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Dulce M; Lord, Cynthia C

    2010-06-01

    Infection rate is an estimate of the prevalence of arbovirus infection in a mosquito population. It is assumed that when infection rate increases, the risk of arbovirus transmission to humans and animals also increases. We examined some of the factors that can invalidate this assumption. First, we used a model to illustrate how the proportion of mosquitoes capable of virus transmission, or infectious, is not a constant fraction of the number of infected mosquitoes. Thus, infection rate is not always a straightforward indicator of risk. Second, we used a model that simulated the process of mosquito sampling, pooling, and virus testing and found that mosquito infection rates commonly underestimate the prevalence of arbovirus infection in a mosquito population. Infection rate should always be used in conjunction with other surveillance indicators (mosquito population size, age structure, weather) and historical baseline data when assessing the risk of arbovirus transmission.

  9. Cross-sectional serosurvey and associated factors of bluetongue virus antibodies presence in small ruminants of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Gaire, Tara Nath; Karki, Surendra; DHAKAL, Ishwari Prasad; Khanal, Doj Raj; Joshi, Nanda Prakash; Sharma, Bishwas; Richard A Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Background Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, insect-borne viral disease primarily affecting sheep and occasionally cattle and goats. In Nepal, BT is an emerging disease of economic importance. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of BT virus (BTV) in small ruminants of two eco-zones of Nepal, Hills and Terai, and to identify the factors associated with virus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey from March 2012 through February 2013 by sampling 318 smal...

  10. Studies of the Antigenic relationships between Bluetongue virus serotypes 2, 9 AND 15 isolated in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Sreenivasulu Daggupati

    Full Text Available The presence of multiple serotypes of the midge-borne bluetongue virus and lack of effective vaccine are the major impediments in controlling bluetongue in sheep. Attempts are being made to develop a vaccine employing the available serotypes to control the disease in the state. Hence, it is essential to identify the antigenic relationships among the serotypes to identify the candidate strains to be incorporated in the preparation of vaccine. To understand the antigenic relationships between Bluetongue virus -2, 9 and 15 serotypes, the viruses were propagated in BHK21 cell lines, purified using PEG precipitation method and purified virus used to raise hyper immune serum in rabbits. Neutralizing antibodies for the BTV serotypes were detected by day 21 PI. Reciprocal cross neutralization test was employed to determine the R% values between BTV-2, 9 and 15 which indicated the extent of antigenic relationships among the serotypes. R% value between BTV-2 and BTV-9 was recorded as 2.8. R% value of 3.53 and 2.8 were observed between BTV-2 & 15 and BTV-9 & 15 respectively. The R% values recorded in the present study revealed a weak antigenic relationship between the BTV serotypes,indicating that the serotypes are highly divergent. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 444-448

  11. Anticorpos contra o vírus da língua azul em bovinos do sertão da Paraíba Antibodies to bluetongue virus in bovines of Paraíba State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.B. Melo; Oliveira, A. M. de; Azevedo,E.O.; Z.I.P. Lobato; R.C. Leite

    2000-01-01

    In June of 1997 the prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus was between 3.94 and 4.82% in 137 bovine serum samples from 12 herds in Paraiba State, Brazil. This is the first report of antibodies to bluetongue virus in Paraiba State herds.

  12. Why did bluetongue spread the way it did? Environmental factors influencing the velocity of bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic wave in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Pioz

    Full Text Available Understanding where and how fast an infectious disease will spread during an epidemic is critical for its control. However, the task is a challenging one as numerous factors may interact and drive the spread of a disease, specifically when vector-borne diseases are involved. We advocate the use of simultaneous autoregressive models to identify environmental features that significantly impact the velocity of disease spread. We illustrate this approach by exploring several environmental factors influencing the velocity of bluetongue (BT spread in France during the 2007-2008 epizootic wave to determine which ones were the most important drivers. We used velocities of BT spread estimated in 4,495 municipalities and tested sixteen covariates defining five thematic groups of related variables: elevation, meteorological-related variables, landscape-related variables, host availability, and vaccination. We found that ecological factors associated with vector abundance and activity (elevation and meteorological-related variables, as well as with host availability, were important drivers of the spread of the disease. Specifically, the disease spread more slowly in areas with high elevation and when heavy rainfall associated with extreme temperature events occurred one or two months prior to the first clinical case. Moreover, the density of dairy cattle was correlated negatively with the velocity of BT spread. These findings add substantially to our understanding of BT spread in a temperate climate. Finally, the approach presented in this paper can be used with other infectious diseases, and provides a powerful tool to identify environmental features driving the velocity of disease spread.

  13. Why Did Bluetongue Spread the Way It Did? Environmental Factors Influencing the Velocity of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Epizootic Wave in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioz, Maryline; Guis, Hélène; Crespin, Laurent; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier; Durand, Benoît; Abrial, David; Ducrot, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding where and how fast an infectious disease will spread during an epidemic is critical for its control. However, the task is a challenging one as numerous factors may interact and drive the spread of a disease, specifically when vector-borne diseases are involved. We advocate the use of simultaneous autoregressive models to identify environmental features that significantly impact the velocity of disease spread. We illustrate this approach by exploring several environmental factors influencing the velocity of bluetongue (BT) spread in France during the 2007–2008 epizootic wave to determine which ones were the most important drivers. We used velocities of BT spread estimated in 4,495 municipalities and tested sixteen covariates defining five thematic groups of related variables: elevation, meteorological-related variables, landscape-related variables, host availability, and vaccination. We found that ecological factors associated with vector abundance and activity (elevation and meteorological-related variables), as well as with host availability, were important drivers of the spread of the disease. Specifically, the disease spread more slowly in areas with high elevation and when heavy rainfall associated with extreme temperature events occurred one or two months prior to the first clinical case. Moreover, the density of dairy cattle was correlated negatively with the velocity of BT spread. These findings add substantially to our understanding of BT spread in a temperate climate. Finally, the approach presented in this paper can be used with other infectious diseases, and provides a powerful tool to identify environmental features driving the velocity of disease spread. PMID:22916249

  14. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution. PMID:27688704

  15. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution.

  16. [Serological survey for arboviruses in Juruti, Pará State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Prazeres, Assis do Socorro Correa dos; Gama, Eliana Colares; Lima, Maxwell Furtado de; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro Silva; Casseb, Lívia Medeiros Neves; Nunes Neto, Joaquim Pinto; Martins, Lívia Carício; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of antibodies to arboviruses in the area affected by the Juruti Project before local mining operations. A total of 1,597 human and 85 wild animal sera were examined, using the hemagglutination inhibition test against 19 antigens from the most prevalent arboviruses in the Brazilian Amazon and IgM-ELISA for dengue and yellow fever. Positive sera for Mayaro and Oropouche viruses were also tested by IgM-ELISA. Prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and orthobunyaviruses in humans was 28.7%, while for wild animals it was 8.2% for flaviviruses. Recent infections based on presence of IgM was confirmed for Mayaro (n = 5), Oropouche (n = 23), and dengue (n = 20). The results showed active circulation of the dengue, Mayaro, and Oropouche viruses in Juruti, as well as flaviviruses in wild animals, suggesting the circulation of these viruses in the Municipality of Juruti.

  17. [Serological evidence of the circulation of the Rocio arbovirus (Flaviviridae) in Bahia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatmann, A; Santos-Torres, S; Vasconcelos, P F; da Rosa, A P; Rodrigues, S G; Tavares-Neto, J

    1997-01-01

    Eight antibody anti-Rocio cases, from four distinct cities in the state of Bahia, are described; six of them being carriers of the antibody IgG (HI and NT) and two IgM (ELISA and NT). The authors comment on the circulation of these arboviruses in the state of Bahia and on the possibility of cross reactions with other antigenically related viruses.

  18. [Recent occurrence of human infection by Rocio arbovirus in the Valley of Ribeira region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversson, L B; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Rosa, M D

    1989-01-01

    The presence of IgM antibodies to Rocio in sera of two children from rural area of Ribeira Valley, Brazil, was detected by MAC-ELISA. This new arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family was responsible for an extensive encephalitis epidemic that occurred in the region in 1975-1977. Since 1980 no human disease caused by this virus has been diagnosed. An improvement on surveillance of Rocio infections and on the researches for virus identification in suspected vectors and reservoirs is necessary.

  19. Possible Future Monoclonal Antibody (mAb-Based Therapy against Arbovirus Infections

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    Giuseppe Sautto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 150 arboviruses belonging to different families are known to infect humans, causing endemic infections as well as epidemic outbreaks. Effective vaccines to limit the occurrence of some of these infections have been licensed, while for the others several new immunogens are under development mostly for their improvements concerning safety and effectiveness profiles. On the other hand, specific and effective antiviral drugs are not yet available, posing an urgent medical need in particular for emergency cases. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of several infectious diseases as well as in preliminary in vitro and in vivo models of arbovirus-related infections. Given their specific antiviral activity as well-tolerated molecules with limited side effects, mAbs could represent a new therapeutic approach for the development of an effective treatment, as well as useful tools in the study of the host-virus interplay and in the development of more effective immunogens. However, before their use as candidate therapeutics, possible hurdles (e.g., Ab-dependent enhancement of infection, occurrence of viral escape variants must be carefully evaluated. In this review are described the main arboviruses infecting humans and candidate mAbs to be possibly used in a future passive immunotherapy.

  20. Applications of a sugar-based surveillance system to track arboviruses in wild mosquito populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Townsend, Michael; Kurucz, Nina; Edwards, Jim; Ehlers, Gerhard; Rodwell, Chris; Moore, Frederick A; McMahon, Jamie L; Northill, Judith A; Simmons, Russell J; Cortis, Giles; Melville, Lorna; Whelan, Peter I; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Effective arbovirus surveillance is essential to ensure the implementation of control strategies, such as mosquito suppression, vaccination, or dissemination of public warnings. Traditional strategies employed for arbovirus surveillance, such as detection of virus or virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animals, or detection of virus in hematophagous arthropods, have limitations as an early-warning system. A system was recently developed that involves collecting mosquitoes in CO2-baited traps, where the insects expectorate virus on sugar-baited nucleic acid preservation cards. The cards are then submitted for virus detection using molecular assays. We report the application of this system for detecting flaviviruses and alphaviruses in wild mosquito populations in northern Australia. This study was the first to employ nonpowered passive box traps (PBTs) that were designed to house cards baited with honey as the sugar source. Overall, 20/144 (13.9%) of PBTs from different weeks contained at least one virus-positive card. West Nile virus Kunjin subtype (WNVKUN), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) were detected, being identified in 13/20, 5/20, and 2/20 of positive PBTs, respectively. Importantly, sentinel chickens deployed to detect flavivirus activity did not seroconvert at two Northern Territory sites where four PBTs yielded WNVKUN. Sufficient WNVKUN and RRV RNA was expectorated onto some of the honey-soaked cards to provide a template for gene sequencing, enhancing the utility of the sugar-bait surveillance system for investigating the ecology, emergence, and movement of arboviruses.

  1. Genome Investigations of Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti to Inform Novel Arbovirus Disease Control Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Severson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue (DENV, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The “vectorial capacity” of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus. This intrinsic ability is known as “vector competence”. Based on whole transcriptome analysis, several genes and pathways have been predicated to have an association with a susceptible or refractory response in A. aegypti to DENV infection. However, the functional genomics of vector competence of A. aegypti is not well understood, primarily due to lack of integrative approaches in genomic or transcriptomic studies. In this review, we focus on the present status of genomics studies of DENV vector competence in A. aegypti as limited information is available relative to the other arboviruses. We propose future areas of research needed to facilitate the integration of vector and virus genomics and environmental factors to work towards better understanding of vector competence and vectorial capacity in natural conditions.

  2. Genome Investigations of Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti to Inform Novel Arbovirus Disease Control Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, David W; Behura, Susanta K

    2016-10-30

    Dengue (DENV), yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The "vectorial capacity" of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus. This intrinsic ability is known as "vector competence". Based on whole transcriptome analysis, several genes and pathways have been predicated to have an association with a susceptible or refractory response in A. aegypti to DENV infection. However, the functional genomics of vector competence of A. aegypti is not well understood, primarily due to lack of integrative approaches in genomic or transcriptomic studies. In this review, we focus on the present status of genomics studies of DENV vector competence in A. aegypti as limited information is available relative to the other arboviruses. We propose future areas of research needed to facilitate the integration of vector and virus genomics and environmental factors to work towards better understanding of vector competence and vectorial capacity in natural conditions.

  3. Barcoding Turkish Culex mosquitoes to facilitate arbovirus vector incrimination studies reveals hidden diversity and new potential vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Filiz; Alten, Bulent; Simsek, Fatih; Aldemir, Adnan; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    As a precursor to planned arboviral vector incrimination studies, an integrated systematics approach was adopted using morphology and DNA barcoding to examine the Culex fauna present in Turkey. The mitochondrial COI gene (658bp) were sequenced from 185 specimens collected across 11 Turkish provinces, as well as from colony material. Although by morphology only 9 species were recognised, DNA barcoding recovered 13 distinct species including: Cx. (Barraudius) modestus, Cx. (Culex) laticinctus, Cx. (Cux.) mimeticus, Cx. (Cux.) perexiguus, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens form molestus, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) theileri, Cx. (Cux.) torrentium, Cx. (Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. (Maillotia) hortensis. The taxon formerly identified as Cx. (Neoculex) territans was shown to comprise two distinct species, neither of which correspond to Cx. territans s.s. These include Cx. (Neo.) impudicus and another uncertain species, which may be Cx. (Neo.) europaeus or Cx. (Neo.) martinii (herein=Cx. (Neo.) sp. 1). Detailed examination of the Pipiens Group revealed Cx. pipiens, Cx. pipiens f. molestus and the widespread presence of the highly efficient West Nile virus vector Cx. quinquefasciatus for the first time. Four new country records are reported, increasing the Culex of Turkey to 15 recognised species and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. A new taxonomic checklist is provided, annotated with respective vector competencies for transmission of arboviruses.

  4. Seroprevalence of Q fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR. PMID:27430548

  5. Coloration affects heating and cooling in three color morphs of the Australian bluetongue lizard, Tiliqua scincoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geen, Michael R S; Johnston, Gregory R

    2014-07-01

    The color-mediated thermoregulation hypothesis predicts that dark body color (low reflectance) allows organisms to gain heat more efficiently than does pale coloration (high reflectance). This prediction is intuitive and widely assumed to be true, but has poor empirical support. We used rare, captive-bred, mutant melanistic, albino and wild-type Australian bluetongue lizards, Tiliqua scincoides to measure the effects of skin reflectance on the heating and cooling rates. We measured heating under an artificial radiant heat source and cooling rates in an ice-cooled box using live lizards in a room with still air. The effect of skin reflectance on heat transfer was clear, despite the substantial influence of body size. Melanistic T. scincoides showed low reflectance and gained heat faster than highly reflective albinos. Melanistic lizards also lost heat faster than albinos. Wild-type lizards were intermediate in reflectance, gained heat at rates indistinguishable from melanistic lizards, and lost heat at rates indistinguishable from albino lizards. This study system allowed us to control for variables that were confounded in other studies and may explain the inconsistent support for the color-mediated thermoregulation hypothesis. Our results provide clear evidence that skin reflectance influences the rate of heating and cooling in ectotherms.

  6. Molecular evolution of American field strains of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Jasperson, Dane C; Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; Chase, Christopher L; Ruder, Mark G; Stallknecht, David E

    2015-01-01

    Recent Orbivirus occurrences in the Americas have been investigated using whole genome amplification and sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. The bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) whole genomes were amplified without prior sequence knowledge and deep sequenced. This technology was applied to evaluate BTV‑3 isolates spanning 4 decades from Florida, Arkansas, Mississippi, South Dakota, Central America, and the Caribbean basin. The results of the dataset analysis are consistent with the hypothesis that these viruses were introduced into the United States from Central America and the Caribbean basin. A similar analysis has been performed on a recent BTV‑2 isolate from California. It indicates that the BTV‑2 strain was likely introduced into Florida and then moved South to the Caribbean and West to California. A historical (1955‑2012) molecular characterisation of EHDV strains was also completed, and subsequently used as reference sequence for comparison of genomes from recent 2012 cattle isolates associated with clinical disease. Finally, this analysis was performed on BTV‑11 isolated from 2 canine cases and demonstrated that the genome sequences of the virus isolates from these cases were almost identical. These studies indicate the value of this technology in understanding virus epidemiology and ecology.

  7. Development of a novel protein chip for the detection of bluetongue virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q Y; Sun, E C; Feng, Y F; Li, J P; Lv, S; Zhang, Q; Wang, H X; Zhang, J K; Wu, D L

    2016-08-01

    Bluetongue (BT), which is caused by the BT virus (BTV), is an important disease in ruminants that leads to significant economic losses in the husbandry industry. To detect BTV-specific antibodies in serum, a protein chip detection method based on a novel solid supporting material known as polymer-coated initiator-integrated poly (dimethyl siloxane) (iPDMS) was developed. With a threshold of 25% (signal-to-noise percentage), the sensitivity and specificity of the protein chip were 98.6% and 94.8%, respectively. Furthermore, spot serum samples obtained from six provinces of China were tested with the protein chip and a commercially available BTV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (IDEXX). Of 615 samples, BTV-specific antibodies were detected in 200 (32.52%) by the protein chip and in 176 (28.62%) by the IDEXX BTV ELISA kit. Comparison of the protein chip with the commercial IDEXX BTV ELISA kit yielded the following spot serum detection results: a total coincidence, a negative coincidence and a positive coincidence of 95.12%, 99.28% and 86.5%, respectively. With the protein chip, the BTV-specific serum antibody was detected in samples from all six provinces, and the positive rates ranged from 4.12 to 74.4%. These results indicate that this protein chip detection method based on iPDMS is useful for the serological diagnosis of BTV infection and for epidemiological investigation.

  8. Prevalence of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in cattle in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira, Adriana; De Stefano, Eliana; de Souza Nunes Martins, Maira; Okuda, Liria Hiromi; Dos Santos Lima, Michele; da Silva Garcia, Thais; Heinz Hellwig, Otto; Alves de Lima, José Eduardo; Savini, Giovanni; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2016-09-30

    Bluetongue (BT) is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. The State of Sao Paulo was divided into 7 cattle production regions (circuits) according the different systems of breeding, operational and logistical capacity of the state veterinary service. At least 1 animal from each property (a total of 1,716 farms) was tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of antibodies against BTV. Sero‑positive sera were subsequently also tested by virus neutralization tests (VNT) using serial dilutions from 1:10 (cutoff) up to 1:640 (in MEM). BTV‑4 neutralizing antibodies were detected in 86% (1,483/1,716) of the animals tested. These results show that BTV‑4 is endemic and widespread in the State of San Paulo and indirectly confirm that in the State there are favourable conditions for the multiplication of competent vectors. However, as no clinical signs have ever been reported in cattle in the region, BTV‑4 infection is likely to occur silently in the State of Sao Paulo.

  9. The lingual dorsal surface of the blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua scincoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, F; Latella, G; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Germanà, G P; Levanti, M B

    2009-10-01

    The blue-tongue lizard (Tiliqua scincoides) is a variety of large skink common throughout Australia. There are seven species of Tiliqua and all of them have long bodies, short limbs and short and robust tails. T. scincoides occurs in a wide range of habitats; its diet is omnivorous. When threatened, it opens the mouth and protrudes its characteristic large fleshy cobalt blue tongue. It is currently found as a popular species and also as a pet animal in the European countries. No data are available in literature about the morphology of the tongue of T. scincoides; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate by means of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, the anatomy of the dorsal lingual surface. Our results demonstrate the presence of a tongue tip with a smooth surface without papillae. The foretongue was characterized by a stratified epithelium with foliate-like papillae and deep inter-papillar spaces in the middle part and cylindrical papillae with a flat surface in the lateral parts. All the posterior area of the tongue was characterized by more compacted papillae and the inter-papillar spaces were very narrow. Light microscopy showed the presence of melanin throughout the tongue. No taste buds were recognized on the lingual dorsal surface. Therefore, the papillae probably have a mechanical function showing an important role in the swallowing phase. The morphology of the tongue surface can be correlated to the diet and, different roles, as in other examined species, can be hypothesized for different areas.

  10. Autophagy Activated by Bluetongue Virus Infection Plays a Positive Role in Its Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Lv

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants. Despite extensive study in recent decades, the interplay between BTV and host cells is not clearly understood. Autophagy as a cellular adaptive response plays a part in many viral infections. In our study, we found that BTV1 infection triggers the complete autophagic process in host cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious double-membrane autophagosome-like vesicles, GFP-LC3 dots accumulation, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and increased levels of autophagic flux in BSR cells (baby hamster kidney cell clones and primary lamb lingual epithelial cells upon BTV1 infection. Moreover, the results of a UV-inactivated BTV1 infection assay suggested that the induction of autophagy was dependent on BTV1 replication. Therefore, we investigated the role of autophagy in BTV1 replication. The inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors (3-MA, CQ and RNA interference (siBeclin1 significantly decreased viral protein synthesis and virus yields. In contrast, treating BSR cells with rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, promoted viral protein expression and the production of infectious BTV1. These findings lead us to conclude that autophagy is activated by BTV1 and contributes to its replication, and provide novel insights into BTV-host interactions.

  11. Autophagy Activated by Bluetongue Virus Infection Plays a Positive Role in Its Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shuang; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Yang, Tao; Li, Junping; Feng, Yufei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Haixiu; Zhang, Jikai; Wu, Donglai

    2015-08-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an important pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants. Despite extensive study in recent decades, the interplay between BTV and host cells is not clearly understood. Autophagy as a cellular adaptive response plays a part in many viral infections. In our study, we found that BTV1 infection triggers the complete autophagic process in host cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious double-membrane autophagosome-like vesicles, GFP-LC3 dots accumulation, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and increased levels of autophagic flux in BSR cells (baby hamster kidney cell clones) and primary lamb lingual epithelial cells upon BTV1 infection. Moreover, the results of a UV-inactivated BTV1 infection assay suggested that the induction of autophagy was dependent on BTV1 replication. Therefore, we investigated the role of autophagy in BTV1 replication. The inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors (3-MA, CQ) and RNA interference (siBeclin1) significantly decreased viral protein synthesis and virus yields. In contrast, treating BSR cells with rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, promoted viral protein expression and the production of infectious BTV1. These findings lead us to conclude that autophagy is activated by BTV1 and contributes to its replication, and provide novel insights into BTV-host interactions.

  12. Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2011-12: annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knope, Katrina E; Doggett, Stephen L; Kurucz, Nina; Johansen, Cheryl A; Nicholson, Jay; Feldman, Rebecca; Sly, Angus; Hobby, Michaela; El Saadi, Debra; Muller, Mike; Jansen, Cassie C; Muzari, Odwell M

    2014-06-30

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received notifications for 7,875 cases of disease transmitted by mosquitoes during the 2011-12 season (1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012). The alphaviruses Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus accounted for 6,036 (77%) of these. There were 18 notifications of dengue virus infection acquired in Australia and 1,390 cases that were acquired overseas, while for 38 cases, the place of acquisition was unknown. Imported cases of dengue in Australia were most frequently acquired in Indonesia. There were 20 imported cases of chikungunya virus. There were no notifications of locally-acquired malaria in Australia during the 2011-12 season. There were 314 notifications of overseas-acquired malaria and 41 notifications where the place of acquisition was unknown. Sentinel chicken, mosquito surveillance, viral detection in mosquitoes and climate modelling are used to provide early warning of arboviral disease activity in Australia. In 2011-12, sentinel chicken programs for the detection of flavivirus activity were conducted in most states with the risk of arboviral transmission. Other surveillance activities to detect the presence of arboviruses in mosquitoes or mosquito saliva or for surveying mosquito abundance included honey-baited trap surveillance, surveys of household containers that may provide suitable habitat for the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, and carbon dioxide baited traps. Surveillance for exotic mosquitoes at the border continues to be a vital part of preventing the spread of mosquito-borne diseases to new areas of Australia.

  13. A simple micro-culture method for the study of group B arboviruses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Madrid, Ana Teresa; Porterfield, James S.

    1969-01-01

    Thirty-nine group B arboviruses have been titrated by a simple micro-culture method. The technique uses a stable line of pig kidney cells (PS cells) in which plaques develop when cells are first infected in suspension in the wells of haemagglutination trays and are then incubated for from 3 to 10 days under an overlay containing carboxymethyl-cellulose. This method can be adapted to measure neutralizing antibodies, and the principle underlying the test is applicable to other cells and other viruses. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4183812

  14. Recent occurence of human infection by Rocio arbovirus in Ribeira Valley, Brazil

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    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of IgM antibodies to Rocio in sera of two children from rural area of Ribeira Valley, Brazil, was detected by MAC-ELISA. This new arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family was responsible for an extensive encephalitis epidemic that occurred in the region in 1975-1977. Since 1980 no human disease caused by this virus has been diagnosed. An improvement on surveillance of Rocio infections and on the researches for virus identification in suspected vectors and reservoirs is necessary.

  15. [原著]Seroepidemiological study of arbovirus infections in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Vongxay, Phonsavanh; Makino, Yoshihiro; Kanemura, Kazumi; Saito, Mika; Fukunaga, Toshihiko; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Vientiane, Lao PDR; Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus; Research Center of Comprehensive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

    1995-01-01

    Seroepidemiological survey of three arbovirus infections were conducted at Khammouane Province, Lao P.D.R. A total of 141 human sera were collected at the laboratory of Khammouane provincial hospital and examined for the antibodies to dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya (CHIK) viruses by neutralization test. Positive rates of antibodies to DEN-1,2 and 3 were high in the age groups older than 11-15 years old, while that of antibody to DEN-4 increased rather slowly with age...

  16. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay based on primer-probe energy transfer for the detection of all serotypes of bluetongue virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leblanc, N; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Fernandez, J

    2010-01-01

    A real-time RT-PCR assay based on the primer–probe energy transfer (PriProET) was developed to detect all 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV causes serious disease, primarily in sheep, but in other ruminants as well. A distinguishing characteristic of the assay is its tolerance toward mu...

  17. Epidemiologic characteristics of bluetongue virus serotype 8 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks in The Netherlands in 2007 and a comparison with the situation in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Spek, van der A.N.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2009-01-01

    A major epidemic of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) occurred in Western Europe in 2006. During 2007 it became evident that BTV-8 had survived the winter and a re-emerging epidemic quickly developed. The objective of this study was to describe the severity and clinical impact of the BTV-8 epidemi

  18. Possible routes of introduction of bluetongue serotype 8 virus into the epicentre of the 2006 epidemic in north-western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mintiens, K.; Meroc, E.; Mellor, P.S.; Staubach, C.; Gerbier, G.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Hendrickx, G.; Clercq, K.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2006, bluetongue (BT) was notified in The Netherlands on several animal holdings. This was the onset of a rapidly spreading BT-epidemic in north-western Europe (latitude >51°N) that affected cattle and sheep holdings in The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France and Luxembourg. The outbr

  19. Full-Genome Sequencing as a Basis for Molecular Epidemiology Studies of Bluetongue Virus in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Maan

    Full Text Available Since 1998 there have been significant changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV. Ten previously exotic BTV serotypes have been detected in Europe, causing severe disease outbreaks in naïve ruminant populations. Previously exotic BTV serotypes were also identified in the USA, Israel, Australia and India. BTV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and changes in the distribution of vector species, climate change, increased international travel and trade are thought to have contributed to these events. Thirteen BTV serotypes have been isolated in India since first reports of the disease in the country during 1964. Efficient methods for preparation of viral dsRNA and cDNA synthesis, have facilitated full-genome sequencing of BTV strains from the region. These studies introduce a new approach for BTV characterization, based on full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, facilitating the identification of BTV serotype, topotype and reassortant strains. Phylogenetic analyses show that most of the equivalent genome-segments of Indian BTV strains are closely related, clustering within a major eastern BTV 'topotype'. However, genome-segment 5 (Seg-5 encoding NS1, from multiple post 1982 Indian isolates, originated from a western BTV topotype. All ten genome-segments of BTV-2 isolates (IND2003/01, IND2003/02 and IND2003/03 are closely related (>99% identity to a South African BTV-2 vaccine-strain (western topotype. Similarly BTV-10 isolates (IND2003/06; IND2005/04 show >99% identity in all genome segments, to the prototype BTV-10 (CA-8 strain from the USA. These data suggest repeated introductions of western BTV field and/or vaccine-strains into India, potentially linked to animal or vector-insect movements, or unauthorised use of 'live' South African or American BTV-vaccines in the country. The data presented will help improve nucleic acid based diagnostics for Indian serotypes/topotypes, as part of control strategies.

  20. Seroprevalence and S7 gene characterization of bluetongue virus in the West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khezri

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and S7 gene characterization of BTV of sheep in the West of Iran, during 2007-2008. Materials and Methods: A total 372 sheep blood samples were collected from known seropositive regions in the West of Iran. Anti-BTV antibodies were detected in the serum samples by group specific, c-ELISA. Extractions of the dsRNA from whole blood samples were carried out. The One-step RT-PCR kit was used for the detection of S7 BTV gene in the blood samples. PCR products of the first amplification (RT-PCR were used; template in the nested PCR. Products were separated by 1.2% Agarose gel electrophoresis. Nested PCR products of S7 segment from positive samples and the reference strain; BTV1 (RSA vvvv/01 were prepared for sequencing. All sequences were subjected to multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis. Results: The results showed widespread presence of the anti-BTV antibodies in the province's sheep population, where 46.77% of the tested sera were positive on ELISA. Bluetongue viruses were diagnosed in some animals by RT-PCR and nested PCR, by targeting S7 segment. This genome segment was sequenced and analyzed in four samples as a conserved gene in BTV serogroup. This group was very similar to the West BTV strains from US, Africa and Europe. This clustered was categorized with BTV4 from Turkey. Conclusion: Increases in epidemic disease may constitute a serious problem for Iran's rural economy in future, and the situation is likely to worsen in the next few years as the proportion of unvaccinated livestock increases. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 549-555

  1. Widespread Reassortment Shapes the Evolution and Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus following European Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Nomikou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment 'reassortment' represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV, a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This points to selective constraints possibly caused by functional relationships between individual proteins or genome segments and genome-wide epistatic interactions. Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. We show that the live attenuated vaccines recently used in Europe have repeatedly reassorted with field strains, contributing to their genotypic, and potentially phenotypic, variability. The high degree of plasticity seen in the BTV genome in terms of segment origin suggests that current classification schemes that are based primarily on serotype, which is determined by only a single genome segment, are inadequate. Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses.

  2. Evidence for transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 through direct contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Batten

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms of transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 (BTV-26 in goats. A previous study, which investigated the pathogenicity and infection kinetics of BTV-26 in goats, unexpectedly revealed that one control goat may have been infected through a direct contact transmission route. To investigate the transmission mechanisms of BTV-26 in more detail an experimental infection study was carried out in which three goats were infected with BTV-26, three goats were kept uninfected, but were housed in direct contact with the infected goats, and an additional four goats were kept in indirect contact separated from infected goats by metal gates. This barrier allowed the goats to have occasional face-to-face contact in the same airspace, but feeding, watering, sampling and environmental cleaning was carried out separately. The three experimentally infected goats did not show clinical signs of BTV, however high levels of viral RNA were detected and virus was isolated from their blood. At 21 dpi viral RNA was detected in, and virus was isolated from the blood of the three direct contact goats, which also seroconverted. The four indirect barrier contact goats remained uninfected throughout the duration of the experiment. In order to assess replication in a laboratory model species of Culicoides biting midge, more than 300 Culicoides sonorensis were fed a BTV-26 spiked blood meal and incubated for 7 days. The dissemination of BTV-26 in individual C. sonorensis was inferred from the quantity of virus RNA and indicated that none of the insects processed at day 7 possessed transmissible infections. This study shows that BTV-26 is easily transmitted through direct contact transmission between goats, and the strain does not seem to replicate in C. sonorensis midges using standard incubation conditions.

  3. Spatial analysis of bluetongue cases and vaccination of Swiss cattle in 2008 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina J. E. Willgert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne viral disease of ruminants. The infection is widespread globally with major implications for international animal trade and production. In 2006, BT virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 was encountered in Europe for the first time, causing extensive production losses and death in susceptible livestock. Following the appearance of BTV- 8 in Switzerland in 2007, a compulsory vaccination programme was launched in the subsequent year. Due to social factors and difficulties to reach animals on high pasture, the regional vaccination coverage varied across the country in both 2008 and 2009. In this study, the effect of vaccination on the spatial occurrence of BTV-8 and the associated relative disease risk in Switzerland in 2008 and 2009 were investigated by a spatial Bayesian hierarchical approach. Bayesian posterior distributions were obtained by integrated nested Laplace approximations, a promising alternative to commonly used Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The number of observed BTV-8 outbreaks in Switzerland decreased notably from 2008 to 2009. However, only a non-significant association between vaccination coverage and the probability of a spatial unit being infected with BTV-8 was identified using the model developed for this study. The relative disease risk varied significantly across the country, with a higher relative risk of BTV-8 infection in western and north-western Switzerland where environmental conditions are more suitable for vector presence and viral transmission. Examination of the spatial correlation between disease occurrence, control measures and associated ecological factors can be valuable in the evaluation and development of disease control programmes, allowing prioritisation of areas with a high relative risk of disease.

  4. Establishment of a bluetongue virus infection model in mice that are deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor.

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    Eva Calvo-Pinilla

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT is a noncontagious, insect-transmitted disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV. A laboratory animal model would greatly facilitate the studies of pathogenesis, immune response and vaccination against BTV. Herein, we show that adult mice deficient in type I IFN receptor (IFNAR((-/- are highly susceptible to BTV-4 and BTV-8 infection when the virus is administered intravenously. Disease was characterized by ocular discharges and apathy, starting at 48 hours post-infection and quickly leading to animal death within 60 hours of inoculation. Infectious virus was recovered from the spleen, lung, thymus, and lymph nodes indicating a systemic infection. In addition, a lymphoid depletion in spleen, and severe pneumonia were observed in the infected mice. Furthermore, IFNAR((-/- adult mice immunized with a BTV-4 inactivated vaccine showed the induction of neutralizing antibodies against BTV-4 and complete protection against challenge with a lethal dose of this virus. The data indicate that this mouse model may facilitate the study of BTV pathogenesis, and the development of new effective vaccines for BTV.

  5. Simultaneous Detection of Three Arboviruses Using a Triplex RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Dong; Shi-hong Fu; Li-hua Wang; Zhi Lv; Tai-yuan Li; Guo-dong Liang

    2012-01-01

    Arboviruses represent a serious problem to public health and agriculture worldwide.Fast,accurate identification of the viral agents of arbovirus-associated disease is essential for epidemiological surveillance and laboratory investigation.We developed a cost-effective,rapid,and highly sensitive one-step "triplex RT-PCR enzyme hybridization"assay for simultaneous detections of Japanese Encephallitis virus (JEV,Flaviviridae)Getah virus (GETV,Togaviridae),and Tahyna virus (TAHV,Bunyaviridae) using three pairs of primers to amplify three target sequences in one RT-PCR reaction.The analytical sensitivity of this assay was 1 PFU/mL for JEV,10PFU/mL for GETV,and 10 PFU/mL for TAHV.This assay is significantly more rapid and less expensive than the traditional serological detection and single RT-PCR reaction methods.When “triplex RT-PCR enzyme hybridization” was applied to 29 cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)samples that were JEV-positive by normal RT-PCR assay,all samples were strongly positive for JEV,but negative for GETV and TAHV,demonstrating a good sensitivity,specificity,and performance at CSF specimen detection.

  6. Microscopic Visualisation of Zoonotic Arbovirus Replication in Tick Cell and Organ Cultures Using Semliki Forest Virus Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Bell-Sakyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation and study of arboviruses, both tick-borne and insect-borne, enabling elucidation of virus-tick cell interaction and yielding insight into the mechanisms behind vector competence and reservoir potential for different arbovirus species. The mosquito-borne zoonotic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV, which replicates well in tick cells, has been isolated from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Amblyomma spp. ticks removed from mammalian hosts in East Africa; however nothing is known about any possible role of ticks in SFV epidemiology. Here we present a light and electron microscopic study of SFV infecting cell lines and organ cultures derived from African Rhipicephalus spp. ticks. As well as demonstrating the applicability of these culture systems for studying virus-vector interactions, we provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that SFV is not normally transmitted by ticks because the virus does not infect midgut cells.

  7. Zika virus: history of a newly emerging arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikan, Nitwara; Smith, Duncan R

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus was originally identified in a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947. The virus is a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. The first report of Zika virus outside Africa and Asia was in 2007 when the virus was associated with a small outbreak in Yap State, part of the Federated States of Micronesia. Since then, Zika virus infections have been reported around the world, including in southeast Asia; French Polynesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean; and parts of South, Central, and North America. Symptomatic infection in human beings normally results in a mild and self-limiting febrile disease, although recent reports have suggested a possible association with more serious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, and microcephaly in newborn infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. In this Review, we summarise the history of Zika virus from its first detection to its current worldwide distribution.

  8. Longitudinal study of the detection of Bluetongue virus in bull semen and comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xingnian; Davis, Rodney J; Walsh, Susan J; Melville, Lorna F; Kirkland, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a significant impediment to the global movement of bovine semen. Repeat testing of blood from donor animals is specified in the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Manual for the export of semen from regions where BTV may be present. Screening of blood or semen samples has usually been carried out by virus isolation (VI) either by inoculation of chicken embryos followed by passage onto insect and mammalian cell cultures or in vivo inoculation of sheep followed by serology to detect seroconversion. Direct testing of semen for BTV would enable earlier release of semen samples and avoid repeat testing of the donor, as well as provide an option for releasing batches of semen that were collected without certification of the donor. Quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays overcome most of the limitations of other methods and have the potential to provide higher sensitivity. The present study compared 5 qRT-PCR assays, including 2 commercially available kits, for the detection of BTV in semen serially collected from 8 bulls over a period of 90 days after experimental infection. The results of the study show that at least one of the qRT-PCR assays is extremely reproducible and has both very high sensitivity and specificity to reliably detect all available serotypes. The preferred qRT-PCR gave consistently superior results to VI, sheep inoculation, and conventional RT-PCR. Therefore, the assay can be recommended for the screening of bovine semen for freedom from BTV.

  9. Bluetongue virus serotype 1 outbreak in the Basque Country (Northern Spain 2007-2008. Data support a primary vector windborne transport.

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    Rodrigo García-Lastra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease of ruminants that has expanded its traditional global distribution in the last decade. Recently, BTV-1 emerged in Southern Spain and caused several outbreaks in livestock reaching the north of the country. The aim of this paper was to review the emergence of BTV-1 in the Basque Country (Northern Spain during 2007 and 2008 analyzing the possibility that infected Culicoides were introduced into Basque Country by winds from the infected areas of Southern Spain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use a complex HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model to draw wind roses and backward wind trajectories. The analysis of winds showed September 28 to October 2 as the only period for the introduction of infected midges in the Basque Country. These wind trajectories crossed through the areas affected by serotype 1 on those dates in the South of the Iberian Peninsula. Additionally meteorological data, including wind speed and humidity, and altitude along the trajectories showed suitable conditions for Culicoides survival and dispersion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An active infection in medium-long distance regions, wind with suitable speed, altitude and trajectory, and appropriate weather can lead to outbreaks of BTV-1 by transport of Culicoides imicola, not only over the sea (as reported previously but also over the land. This shows that an additional factor has to be taken into account for the control of the disease which is currently essentially based on the assumption that midges will only spread the virus in a series of short hops. Moreover, the epidemiological and serological data cannot rule out the involvement of other Culicoides species in the spread of the infection, especially at a local level.

  10. Interaction between Bluetongue virus outer capsid protein VP2 and vimentin is necessary for virus egress

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    Roy Polly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The VP2 outer capsid protein Bluetongue Virus (BTV is responsible for receptor binding, haemagglutination and eliciting host-specific immunity. However, the assembly of this outer capsid protein on the transcriptionally active viral core would block transcription of the virus. Thus assembly of the outer capsid on the core particle must be a tightly controlled process during virus maturation. Earlier studies have detected mature virus particles associated with intermediate filaments in virus infected cells but the viral determinant for this association and the effect of disrupting intermediate filaments on virus assembly and release are unknown. Results In this study it is demonstrated that BTV VP2 associates with vimentin in both virus infected cells and in the absence of other viral proteins. Further, the determinants of vimentin localisation are mapped to the N-terminus of the protein and deletions of aminio acids between residues 65 and 114 are shown to disrupt VP2-vimentin association. Site directed mutation also reveals that amino acid residues Gly 70 and Val 72 are important in the VP2-vimentin association. Mutation of these amino acids resulted in a soluble VP2 capable of forming trimeric structures similar to unmodified protein that no longer associated with vimentin. Furthermore, pharmacological disruption of intermediate filaments, either directly or indirectly through the disruption of the microtubule network, inhibited virus release from BTV infected cells. Conclusion The principal findings of the research are that the association of mature BTV particles with intermediate filaments are driven by the interaction of VP2 with vimentin and that this interaction contributes to virus egress. Furthermore, i the N-terminal 118 amino acids of VP2 are sufficient to confer vimentin interaction. ii Deletion of amino acids 65–114 or mutation of amino acids 70–72 to DVD abrogates vimentin association. iii Finally

  11. Arbovirus-derived piRNAs exhibit a ping-pong signature in mosquito cells.

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    Nicolas Vodovar

    Full Text Available The siRNA pathway is an essential antiviral mechanism in insects. Whether other RNA interference pathways are involved in antiviral defense remains unclear. Here, we report in cells derived from the two main vectors for arboviruses, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the production of viral small RNAs that exhibit the hallmarks of ping-pong derived piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs after infection with positive or negative sense RNA viruses. Furthermore, these cells produce endogenous piRNAs that mapped to transposable elements. Our results show that these mosquito cells can initiate de novo piRNA production and recapitulate the ping-pong dependent piRNA pathway upon viral infection. The mechanism of viral-piRNA production is discussed.

  12. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S; Petersen, Lyle R; Hughes, James M; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

  13. Diagnosis and Prognosis of the Arbovirus-Dengue using Intelligent Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, G. Wiselin; Lakshmi, V. Selva; Lakshmi, K. Vathsala; Priya, S. Shunmuga

    2016-06-01

    Dengue is the most common and widespread arthropod-borne viral infection in the world. It was carried by mosquitoes and this disease used to be called break-bone fever. Dengue is a quite dangerous febrile disease transmitted by aedus aegypti mosquito that can even cause death. In this paper, we proposed new fusion architecture to support the diagnosis of Arbovirus-Dengue. The architecture combines features of platelets and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) technology together to facilitate medical diagnosis. Along with these features and platelet count, CBR is incorporated which contains symptoms of the disease and platelet count. Experiments on a set of 10 images yielded a balanced accuracy of 86.95 %. This was a superior diagnosis performance in comparison with the state-of-the-art works.

  14. Genetic evidence for a worldwide chaotic dispersion pattern of the arbovirus vector, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Mosè; Guglielmino, Carmela R.; Scolari, Francesca; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Somboon, Pradya; Lisa, Antonella; Savini, Grazia; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Invasive species represent a global concern for their rapid spread and the possibility of infectious disease transmission. This is the case of the global invader Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. This species is a vector of medically important arboviruses, notably chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV). The reconstruction of the complex colonization pattern of this mosquito has great potential for mitigating its spread and, consequently, disease risks. Methodology/Principal findings Classical population genetics analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approaches were combined to disentangle the demographic history of Aedes albopictus populations from representative countries in the Southeast Asian native range and in the recent and more recently colonized areas. In Southeast Asia, the low differentiation and the high co-ancestry values identified among China, Thailand and Japan indicate that, in the native range, these populations maintain high genetic connectivity, revealing their ancestral common origin. China appears to be the oldest population. Outside Southeast Asia, the invasion process in La Réunion, America and the Mediterranean Basin is primarily supported by a chaotic propagule distribution, which cooperates in maintaining a relatively high genetic diversity within the adventive populations. Conclusions/Significance From our data, it appears that independent and also trans-continental introductions of Ae. albopictus may have facilitated the rapid establishment of adventive populations through admixture of unrelated genomes. As a consequence, a great amount of intra-population variability has been detected, and it is likely that this variability may extend to the genetic mechanisms controlling vector competence. Thus, in the context of the invasion process of this mosquito, it is possible that both population ancestry and admixture contribute to create the conditions for the efficient transmission of

  15. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential vector of endemic and exotic arboviruses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; van den Hurk, A F

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, established populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were discovered in the Torres Strait, the region that separates Papua New Guinea from northern Australia. This increased the potential for this species to be introduced to mainland Australia. Because it is an arbovirus vector elsewhere, we undertook laboratory-based infection and transmission experiments to determine the potential for Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait to become infected with and transmit the four major Australian endemic arboviruses--Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus Kunjin strain (WNV(KUN)), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus--as well as the exotic Japanese encephalitis virus. Ae. albopictus is susceptible to infection with all viruses, with infection rates ranging between 8% for WNV(KUN) and 71% for RRV. Transmission rates of approximately 25% were observed for RRV and Barmah Forest virus, but these were < 17% for Murray Valley encephalitis virus, WNV(KUN), and Japanese encephalitis virus. Given its relative vector competence for alphaviruses, we also examined the replication kinetics and extrinsic incubation periods required for transmission of RRV and chikungunya virus. Despite lower body titers, more mosquitoes reared and maintained at 28 degrees C became infected with and transmitted the virus than those reared and maintained at 22 degrees C. The minimum time between Ae. albopictus consuming an infected bloodmeal and transmitting chikungunya virus was 2 d at 28 degrees C and 4 d at 22 degrees C, and for RRV, it was 4 d, irrespective of the temperature. Given its opportunistic feeding habits and aggressive biting behavior, the establishment of Ae. albopictus on the Australian mainland could have a considerable impact on alphavirus transmission.

  16. The role of wildlife in bluetongue virus maintenance in Europe: lessons learned after the natural infection in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Sánchez-Matamoros, Almudena; Gortázar, Christian; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a re-emergent vector-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of the genus Orbivirus. A complex multi-host, multi-vector and multi-pathogen (26 serotypes) transmission and maintenance network has recently emerged in Europe, and wild ruminants are regarded as an important node in this network. This review analyses the reservoir role of wild ruminants in Europe, identifying gaps in knowledge and proposing actions. Wild ruminant species are indicators of BTV circulation. Excepting the mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), European wild ungulates do not develop clinical disease. Diagnostic techniques used in wildlife do not differ from those used in domestic ruminants provided they are validated. Demographic, behavioural and physiological traits of wild hosts modulate their relationship with BTV vectors and with the virus itself. While BTV has been eradicated from central and northern Europe, it is still circulating in the Mediterranean Basin. We propose that currently two BTV cycles coexist in certain regions of the Mediterranean Basin, a wild one largely driven by deer of the subfamily Cervinae and a domestic one. These are probably linked through shared Culicoides vectors of several species. We suggest that wildlife might be contributing to this situation through vector maintenance and virus maintenance. Additionally, differences in temperature and other environmental factors add complexity to the Mediterranean habitats as compared to central and northern European ones. Intervention options in wildlife populations are limited. There is a need to know the role of wildlife in maintaining Culicoides populations, and to know which Culicoides species mediate the wildlife-livestock-BTV transmission events. There is also a clear need to study more in depth the links between Cervinae deer densities, environmental factors and BTV maintenance. Regarding disease control, we suggest that research efforts should be

  17. A Serological Investigation of Pestivirus, Bluetongue Virus and Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus in Small Ruminants in Samsun Province of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Albayrak, Harun; ÖZAN, Emre; BEYHAN, Yunus Emre; KURT, Mitat; KILIÇOĞLU, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-borne disease of ruminants disseminated in the tropic and sub-tropic zone of the world. All pestiviruses are important veterinary pathogens causing economic losses in cattle, sheep and pigs. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of the domestic and wild ruminants. In this study, blood samples randomly collected from 144 sheep and 50 goats were analysed for the presence of antibodies to pestiviruses, BTV and PPRV using an en...

  18. Seroprevalence of five arboviruses in sentinel cattle as part of nationwide surveillance in South Korea, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Eun-Yong; Lee, Koung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Park, Se Chang

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in South Korea, nationwide surveillance of five arbovirues was conducted in sentinel calves during 2009-2012. We used serum neutralization tests to investigate the presence of antibodies for the Aino virus, Akabane virus, bovine ephemeral fever virus, Chuzan virus and Ibaraki virus. In 2009, 2011 and 2012, the seropositive rates for these five arboviruses were all less than 14.1%. In 2010, however, the seropositive rates for Aino virus and Akabane virus were 33.2% and 40.2%, respectively. High seropositive rates were also associated with a large-scale outbreak of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle in southern Korea in 2010. Continued seroprevalence surveillance will be useful for monitoring natural arboviral diseases.

  19. Distribution and abundance of key vectors of Rift Valley fever and other arboviruses in two ecologically distinct counties in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Rosemary; Arum, Samwel; Chepkorir, Edith; Mosomtai, Gladys; Tigoi, Caroline; Sigei, Faith; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Landmann, Tobias; Affognon, Hippolyte; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    ,290), was totally absent in all Isiolo sites. Fourteen virus isolates including Sindbis, Bunyamwera, and West Nile fever viruses were isolated mostly from Ae. mcintoshi sampled in Tana-River. RVFV was not detected in any of the mosquitoes. Conclusion This study presents the geographic distribution and abundance of arbovirus vectors in two Kenyan counties, which may assist with risk assessment for mosquito borne diseases. PMID:28212379

  20. Vector population manipulation for control of arboviruses--a novel prospect for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan Reddy, Bp; Gupta, Bhavna; Rao, B Prasad

    2014-04-01

    India, the seventh largest country in the world, has diverse geographical and climatic regions with vast rural and peri-urban areas. Many are experiencing an escalation in the spread and intensity of numerous human diseases transmitted by insects. Classically, the management of these vector-borne diseases is underpinned by either chemical insecticides and/or environmental management targeted at the vector. However, these methods or their present implementation do not offer acceptable levels of control, and more effective and sustainable options are now available. Genetic strategies for the prevention of arbovirus transmission are most advanced for dengue and chikungunya, targeting their primary vector, Aedes aegypti. The national burden in terms of morbidity and mortality as a direct consequence of dengue virus in India is considered to be the largest worldwide, over 4 times that of any other country. Presently, new genetic technologies are undergoing field evaluation of their biosafety and efficacy in several countries. This paper discusses the merits of these approaches and argues for fair and transparent appraisal in India as a matter of urgency. Identification of any associated risks and their appropriate mitigation are fundamental to that process.

  1. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide.

  2. Diversity of Culex torrentium Martini, 1925 - a potential vector of arboviruses and filaria in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werblow, Antje; Bolius, Sarah; Dorresteijn, Adriaan W C; Melaun, Christian; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-07-01

    Culex torrentium is one of the most common mosquito species in Germany. Due to its sympatric occurrence as well as its similar morphological and ecological characteristics, it has often been confused with another common species, Culex pipiens. Both species are known to be potential vectors for different arboviruses (not only in Germany) with C. torrentium being a possible vector for Sindbis or Ockelbo virus. In our study, we analyzed the genetic variability in a 658 bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (coxI) of C. torrentium, from nine localities in the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. The results of our genetic survey indicate a higher genetic diversity in this gene region for C. torrentium than for the morphologically similar C. pipiens. Our findings may explain the difficulties in the past to find morphological characteristics that apply to all populations of C. torrentium, when attempting to separate them clearly from C. pipiens, by any other criteria than male genitalia. Being ornithophilic, possible hybrids between C. torrentium and the humanophilic C. pipiens biotype molestus, could potentially serve as important vectors for zoonotic diseases. Therefore, we recommend that greater emphasis is placed on the ecological characteristics, population structure, and the taxonomy of this often neglected species, in the future.

  3. The arbovirus vector Culex torrentium is more prevalent than Culex pipiens in northern and central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, J C; Rettich, F; Merdić, E; Vignjević, G; Ostman, O; Schäfer, M; Schaffner, F; Foussadier, R; Besnard, G; Medlock, J; Scholte, E-J; Lundström, J O

    2014-06-01

    Two species of arbovirus vector, Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), occur in several European countries, but difficulties in their accurate identification and discrimination have hampered both detailed and large-scale distribution and abundance studies. Using a molecular identification method, we identified to species 2559 larvae of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected from 138 sites in 13 European countries ranging from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean coast. In addition, samples of 1712 males of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected at several sites in the Czech Republic were identified to species based on the morphology of their hypopygia. We found that the two species occur together in large areas of Europe, and that Cx. torrentium dominates in northern Europe and Cx. pipiens dominates south of the Alps. The transition in dominance occurs in central Europe, where both species are roughly equally common. There was a strong correlation between the length of the growing season at different sites and occurrences of the two species. As the growing season increases, the proportion and detection of Cx. torrentium decrease, whereas those of Cx. pipiens increase. The present findings have important consequences for the interpretation of the results of studies on major enzootic and link-vectors of mosquito-borne bird-associated viruses (i.e. Sindbis, West Nile and Usutu viruses), especially in central Europe and Scandinavia.

  4. Mosquitoes used to draw blood for arbovirus viremia determinations in small vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, Rebekah C; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Young, Ginger; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Serial samples from the same individuals may be required for certain virological studies, however, some small animals cannot easily be blood-sampled. Therefore, we evaluated the use of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes as "biological syringes" to draw blood for virus titer determinations in small vertebrates. Groups of chicks (Gallus gallus), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were experimentally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) or Highlands J virus (HJV). In general, good correlation was seen between mosquito- and syringe-derived blood samples at titers ≥5.0 log10 pfu/mL serum as compared with titers 105 pfu/mL serum had mosquito- and syringe-derived titers within one log of each other. Sparrow viremia profiles generated from single mosquito blood meals and syringe were not significantly different (p>0.05). This technique is valuable for assessing the roles of small vertebrates in the ecologies of arboviruses, and could be used in applications beyond virology and infectious diseases, when <10 µL of whole blood is required.

  5. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan: an arbovirus attachment factor integral to mosquito salivary gland ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciano, Kristen A; Saredy, Jason J; Bowers, Doria F

    2014-12-22

    Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito.

  6. Dengue and Zika viruses: lessons learned from the similarities between these Aedes mosquito-vectored arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmanee, San; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2017-02-01

    The currently spreading arbovirus epidemic is having a severe impact on human health worldwide. The two most common flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are transmitted through the same viral vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Since the discovery of DENV in 1943, this virus has been reported to cause around 390 million human infections per year, approximately 500,000 of which require hospitalization and over 20,000 of which are lethal. The present DENV epidemic is primarily concentrated in Southeast Asia. ZIKV, which was discovered in 1952, is another important arthropod-borne flavivirus. The neurotropic role of ZIKV has been reported in infected newborns with microcephaly and in adults with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Despite DENV and ZIKV sharing the same viral vector, their complex pathogenic natures are poorly understood, and the infections they cause do not have specific treatments or effective vaccines. Therefore, this review will describe what is currently known about the clinical characteristics, pathogenesis mechanisms, and transmission of these two viruses. Better understanding of the interrelationships between DENV and ZIKV will provide a useful perspective for developing an effective strategy for controlling both viruses in the future.

  7. Range expansion of the Bluetongue vector, Culicoides imicola, in continental France likely due to rare wind-transport events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Stéphanie; Huber, Karine; Pagès, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Burgin, Laura E.; Carpenter, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Dicko, Ahmadou H.; Djerbal, Mouloud; Goffredo, Maria; Lhor, Youssef; Lucientes, Javier; Miranda-Chueca, Miguel A.; Pereira Da Fonseca, Isabel; Ramilo, David W.; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Bouyer, Jérémy; Chevillon, Christine; Balenghien, Thomas; Guis, Hélène; Garros, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The role of the northward expansion of Culicoides imicola Kieffer in recent and unprecedented outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in southern Europe has been a significant point of contention. We combined entomological surveys, movement simulations of air-borne particles, and population genetics to reconstruct the chain of events that led to a newly colonized French area nestled at the northern foot of the Pyrenees. Simulating the movement of air-borne particles evidenced frequent wind-transport events allowing, within at most 36 hours, the immigration of midges from north-eastern Spain and Balearic Islands, and, as rare events, their immigration from Corsica. Completing the puzzle, population genetic analyses discriminated Corsica as the origin of the new population and identified two successive colonization events within west-Mediterranean basin. Our findings are of considerable importance when trying to understand the invasion of new territories by expanding species. PMID:27263862

  8. Status of sheep sera to bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants and sheep pox in a few northern states of India

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    Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, peste des petits ruminants (PPR and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antibodies were found in 293 (56.8% animals, PPR virus antibodies in 215 (41.7% and sheep pox virus antibodies in 106 (68.3%. Of the serum samples tested, 25.2% were positive for antibodies against all three viruses. These findings clearly demonstrated not only the enzootic nature of disease, but also the co-existence of antibodies to more than one of these viruses which would indicate that concurrent infections were common. Therefore, control measures should focus in combating all three diseases simultaneously by exploring the possibility of a trivalent vaccine or the use of multiple genes expressing vectored vaccine.

  9. Colostral antibody protection and interference with immunity in lambs born from sheep vaccinated with an inactivated Bluetongue serotype 8 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, C A L; Wood, J L N; Floyd, T; Sanders, A J; Bin-Tarif, A; Henstock, M; Edwards, L; Simmons, H; Batten, C A

    2010-03-24

    Widespread vaccination programmes against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), using inactivated vaccines, are being carried out across many countries in northern, western and southern Europe. This study investigates the extent and length of colostral antibody protection, as well as the degree of colostral antibody induced interference of the immune response to BTV-8, in sheep. Significantly lower titres of neutralising antibodies were transferred in colostrum to lambs born from sheep vaccinated once as opposed those vaccinated twice (single vaccine in the first year and a booster vaccine in the second year). On BTV-8 challenge, lambs born from sheep vaccinated on two occasions, with the second booster vaccine given approximately 1 month prior to lambing, were protected from clinical disease for up to 14 weeks. BTV-8 was isolated from 5 of the 22 challenged lambs, although only one of these lambs showed a transient rise in body temperature with no other clinical signs. Lambs born from ewes given a second booster vaccine 1 month prior to lambing, are likely to be protected from clinical disease for at least 14 weeks, whereas lambs born from ewes vaccinated once are likely to be protected for a shorter time. Colostral antibodies present in the 13-14-week-old lambs appeared to interfere with the humoral response to challenge virus. These results suggest that colostral antibodies may interfere with vaccination in lambs up to at least 14 weeks of age.

  10. Protection of Spanish Ibex (Capra pyrenaica) against Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 8 in a Subclinical Experimental Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Pujols, Joan; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Granados, José Enrique; Solanes, David; Fandos, Paulino; Galindo, Iván; Domingo, Mariano; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Many wild ruminants such as Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica) are susceptible to Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection, which causes disease mainly in domestic sheep and cattle. Outbreaks involving either BTV serotypes 1 (BTV-1) and 8 (BTV-8) are currently challenging Europe. Inclusion of wildlife vaccination among BTV control measures should be considered in certain species. In the present study, four out of fifteen seronegative Spanish ibexes were immunized with a single dose of inactivated vaccine against BTV-1, four against BTV-8 and seven ibexes were non vaccinated controls. Seven ibexes (four vaccinated and three controls) were inoculated with each BTV serotype. Antibody and IFN-gamma responses were evaluated until 28 days after inoculation (dpi). The vaccinated ibexes showed significant (P<0.05) neutralizing antibody levels after vaccination compared to non vaccinated ibexes. The non vaccinated ibexes remained seronegative until challenge and showed neutralizing antibodies from 7 dpi. BTV RNA was detected in the blood of non vaccinated ibexes from 2 to the end of the study (28 dpi) and in target tissue samples obtained at necropsy (8 and 28 dpi). BTV-1 was successfully isolated on cell culture from blood and target tissues of non vaccinated ibexes. Clinical signs were unapparent and no gross lesions were found at necropsy. Our results show for the first time that Spanish ibex is susceptible and asymptomatic to BTV infection and also that a single dose of vaccine prevents viraemia against BTV-1 and BTV-8 replication. PMID:22666321

  11. Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Eiko [Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Animal Science, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe-City 657-8501 (Japan); Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leon, Esther; Matthews, Steve J. [Division of Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Structural Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Roy, Polly, E-mail: polly.roy@lshtm.ac.uk [Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • NMR analysis on BTV VP6 reveals two large loop regions. • The loss of a loop (aa 34–130) does not affect the overall fold of the protein. • A region of VP6 (aa 34–92) is not required for BTV replication. • A region of VP6 (aa 93–130) plays an essential role in the virus replication. - Abstract: Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. However, despite much study, the precise role of VP6 within the viral capsid and its structure remain unclear. To investigate the requirement of VP6 in BTV replication, we initiated a structural and biological study. Multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were assigned on his-tagged full-length VP6 (329 amino acid residues) as well as several truncated VP6 variants. The analysis revealed a large structured domain with two large loop regions that exhibit significant conformational exchange. One of the loops (amino acid position 34–130) could be removed without affecting the overall fold of the protein. Moreover, using a BTV reverse genetics system, it was possible to demonstrate that the VP6-truncated BTV was viable in BHK cells in the absence of any helper VP6 protein, suggesting that a large portion of this loop region is not absolutely required for BTV replication.

  12. Sero-prevalence and cross-reactivity of chikungunya virus specific anti-E2EP3 antibodies in arbovirus-infected patients.

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    Yiu-Wing Kam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and clinically-related arboviruses cause large epidemics with serious economic and social impact. As clinical symptoms of CHIKV infections are similar to several flavivirus infections, good detection methods to identify CHIKV infection are desired for improved treatment and clinical management. The strength of anti-E2EP3 antibody responses was explored in a longitudinal study on 38 CHIKV-infected patients. We compared their anti-E2EP3 responses with those of patients infected with non-CHIKV alphaviruses, or flaviviruses. E2EP3 cross-reactive samples from patients infected with non-CHIKV viruses were further analyzed with an in vitro CHIKV neutralization assay. CHIKV-specific anti-E2EP3 antibody responses were detected in 72% to 100% of patients. Serum samples from patients infected with other non-CHIKV alphaviruses were cross-reactive to E2EP3. Interestingly, some of these antibodies demonstrated clearly in vitro CHIKV neutralizing activity. Contrastingly, serum samples from flaviviruses-infected patients showed a low level of cross-reactivity against E2EP3. Using CHIKV E2EP3 as a serology marker not only allows early detection of CHIKV specific antibodies, but would also allow the differentiation between CHIKV infections and flavivirus infections with 93% accuracy, thereby allowing precise acute febrile diagnosis and improving clinical management in regions newly suffering from CHIKV outbreaks including the Americas.

  13. Advance on Viral Hemorrhagic Fever with Relational Arboviruses%虫媒病毒相关出血热研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杜鹃; 张海林; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever is a group of natural focus infection diseases caused by different viruaes featured of pyrexia, haemorrhagia, shock and high case-fatality. Some of the diseases are related to arbovirus, including Rift valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Yellow fever, Dengue fever, Kyasanur forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Chikungunya fever. The present paper made a review of the diseases listed above on their epidemic characteristic, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.%病毒性出血热是由不同病毒引起的以发热、出血、休克、高病死率为特征的一组自然疫源性疾病,其中与虫媒病毒有关的出血热主要有立夫特山谷热、克里米亚刚果出血热、肾综合征出血热、黄热病、登革热、科萨努尔森林病、鄂木斯克出血热、基孔肯雅热等,本文从流行特征、病原学、诊断、治疗及预防等方面对上述疾病作一综述.

  14. Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Brendan T; Moreira, Fernando R; Carlson, Tim W; Bernard, Kristen A

    2017-02-01

    Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. The insect cell-derived particles differ in the glycosylation of virus structural proteins and the lipid content of the envelope, as well as their induction of cytokines. Thus, in order to accurately mimic the inoculum delivered by arthropods, arboviruses should be derived from arthropod cells. Previous studies have packaged replicon genome in mammalian cells to produce replicon particles, which undergo only one round of infection, but no studies exist packaging replicon particles in mosquito cells. Here we optimized the packaging of West Nile virus replicon genome in mosquito cells and produced replicon particles at high concentration, allowing us to mimic mosquito cell-derived viral inoculum. These particles were mature with similar genome equivalents-to-infectious units as full-length West Nile virus. We then compared the mosquito cell-derived particles to mammalian cell-derived particles in mice. Both replicon particles infected skin at the inoculation site and the draining lymph node by 3 hours post-inoculation. The mammalian cell-derived replicon particles spread from the site of inoculation to the spleen and contralateral lymph nodes significantly more than the particles derived from mosquito cells. This in vivo difference in spread of West Nile replicons in the inoculum demonstrates the importance of using arthropod cell-derived particles to model early events in arboviral infection and highlights the value of these novel arthropod cell-derived replicon particles for studying the earliest virus-host interactions for arboviruses.

  15. Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Brendan T.; Moreira, Fernando R.; Carlson, Tim W.

    2017-01-01

    Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. The insect cell-derived particles differ in the glycosylation of virus structural proteins and the lipid content of the envelope, as well as their induction of cytokines. Thus, in order to accurately mimic the inoculum delivered by arthropods, arboviruses should be derived from arthropod cells. Previous studies have packaged replicon genome in mammalian cells to produce replicon particles, which undergo only one round of infection, but no studies exist packaging replicon particles in mosquito cells. Here we optimized the packaging of West Nile virus replicon genome in mosquito cells and produced replicon particles at high concentration, allowing us to mimic mosquito cell-derived viral inoculum. These particles were mature with similar genome equivalents-to-infectious units as full-length West Nile virus. We then compared the mosquito cell-derived particles to mammalian cell-derived particles in mice. Both replicon particles infected skin at the inoculation site and the draining lymph node by 3 hours post-inoculation. The mammalian cell-derived replicon particles spread from the site of inoculation to the spleen and contralateral lymph nodes significantly more than the particles derived from mosquito cells. This in vivo difference in spread of West Nile replicons in the inoculum demonstrates the importance of using arthropod cell-derived particles to model early events in arboviral infection and highlights the value of these novel arthropod cell-derived replicon particles for studying the earliest virus-host interactions for arboviruses. PMID:28187142

  16. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to arbovirus and hepatitis B virus in the Vale do Ribeira region, Brazil

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    Cláudio Sérgio Pannuti

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available 280 students, between 6 and 14 years old, residents in the Iguape county, southern coast of the State of São Paulo, were studied in order to identify the existence of a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus and the exposure to haematophagous mosquitoes, evaluated indirectly through the prevalence of antibodies to 17 arboviruses isolated in Brazil. The children were from 4 areas with different topographical characteristics: 89 of the children were from the urban zone of the town of Iguape, 89 were from the periurban zone, 30 were from the rural area with extensive banana plantations, and 72 were from the jungle zone. Previous studies had shown significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to different arboviruses in the cultivated zone and the jungle zone, when compared to the urban and periurban zones of Iguape. The detection of antibodies to the HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag was done through the radioimmunoassay (Ausab, Abbott Laboratory. The cases considered positive were confirmed through the presence of anti-core HBV antibodies (anti-HBc-EIA Roche. A significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBV antibodies was observed in children from the jungle zone (26/72 = 36,1% when compared to those from the urban zone (5/89 = 5,6%, peri-urban (6/89 = 6,7% or from the cultivated zone (0/30 = 0%. The result suggest the existence of a common factor in the dissemination of the arboviruses and the hepatitis B virus, supporting the hypothesis that mosquitoes may play an important role in the HBV transmission in tropical forested region.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific.

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    Elodie Calvez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific region is an area unique in the world, composed of thousands of islands with differing climates and environments. The spreading and establishment of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in these islands might be linked to human migration. Ae. aegypti is the major vector of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses in the region. The intense circulation of these viruses in the Pacific during the last decade led to an increase of vector control measures by local health authorities. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations in this region.We studied the genetic variability and population genetics of 270 Ae. aegypti, sampled from 9 locations in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia by analyzing nine microsatellites and two mitochondrial DNA regions (CO1 and ND4. Microsatellite markers revealed heterogeneity in the genetic structure between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries. The microsatellite markers indicate a statistically moderate differentiation (FST = 0.136; P < = 0.001 in relation to island isolation. A high degree of mixed ancestry can be observed in the most important towns (e.g. Noumea, Suva and Papeete compared with the most isolated islands (e.g. Ouvea and Vaitahu. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of samples are related to Asian and American specimens.Our results suggest a link between human migrations in the Pacific region and the origin of Ae. aegypti populations. The genetic pattern observed might be linked to the island isolation and to the different environmental conditions or ecosystems.

  18. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  19. Genetic diversity of the S10 RNA segment of field and vaccine strains of bluetongue virus from the P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifang; Du, Xiaogang; Li, Wengui; Li, Jinyao; Liu, Jianping; Zhu, Jianbo; Zhang, Nianzu

    2010-02-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection of ruminants is endemic throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the molecular epidemiology of BTV infection in China has not yet been reported. In this study, the S10 gene segments from 30 BTV isolates, one attenuated BTV strain, one vaccine BTV strain, and one South Africa BTV prototype strain, were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the S10 genes showed that Chinese BTV isolates could be classified into two phyletic subgroups, and the clustering of Chinese BTV viruses was dependent on their geographical origin and the number of generations for which they had been propagated, rather than their host species or year of isolation.

  20. Comparative study on the effectiveness of different mosquito traps in arbovirus surveillance with a focus on WNV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzin, Alex; Sy, Victoria; Puggioli, Arianna; Veronesi, Rodolfo; Carrieri, Marco; Maccagnani, Bettina; Bellini, Romeo

    2016-01-01

    The selection of the ideal trap for arbovirus surveillance is an issue of primary importance to increase the sensitivity of virus detection and the cost-effectiveness of the entomological surveillance. During the summer 2011, the effectiveness of five types of mosquito traps (CDC gravid trap, CO2(-)baited trap, BG-Sentinel™ and two experimental prototypes) to attract females potentially infected with West Nile virus were assessed. The study was carried out in three natural wetland sites located in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy), using a Latin square scheme. Single night collections of adult females were performed and determination of species and physiological state (gravid, nulliparous or parous) was made upon return to the laboratory. The species most frequently collected in the gravid trap was Culex pipiens sl. L., being gravid females the large majority of the individuals. Species diversity was much higher in CO2(-)baited traps, which may therefore enable a more comprehensive description of the vector species composition and their role in arboviruses circulation. Our findings indicate that gravid traps can be a valid tool and should be integrated in the West Nile virus surveillance system in the Emilia-Romagna region, mainly based on collections made with CO2-baited traps.

  1. Protective Efficacy in Sheep of Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccines against Bluetongue Virus Is Associated with Specific T Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Verónica; Pascual, Elena; Avia, Miguel; Peña, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Félix; Sevilla, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family that causes a hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. Its control has been achieved by inactivated-vaccines that have proven to protect against homologous BTV challenge although unable to induce long-term immunity. Therefore, a more efficient control strategy needs to be developed. Recombinant adenovirus vectors are lead vaccine candidates for protection of several diseases, mainly because of their potency to induce potent T cell immunity. Here we report the induction of humoral and T-cell mediated responses able to protect animals against BTV challenge by recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing either VP7, VP2 or NS3 BTV proteins. First we used the IFNAR(-/-) mouse model system to establish a proof of principle, and afterwards we assayed the protective efficacy in sheep, the natural host of BTV. Mice were completely protected against BTV challenge, developing humoral and BTV-specific CD8+- and CD4+-T cell responses by vaccination with the different rAd5. Sheep vaccinated with Ad5-BTV-VP2 and Ad5-BTV-VP7 or only with Ad5-BTV-VP7 and challenged with BTV showed mild disease symptoms and reduced viremia. This partial protection was achieved in the absence of neutralizing antibodies but strong BTV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in those sheep vaccinated with Ad5-BTV-VP7. These data indicate that rAd5 is a suitable vaccine vector to induce T cell immunity during BTV vaccination and provide new data regarding the relevance of T cell responses in protection during BTV infection. PMID:26619062

  2. Validation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV)-specific antibodies in individual milk samples of Dutch dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramps, Johannes A; van Maanen, Kees; Mars, Maria H; Popma, Johan K; van Rijn, Piet A

    2008-07-27

    A recently developed indirect ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV)-specific antibodies in bovine milk samples was compared to that of the routinely used competitive ELISA on serum samples. During the bluetongue outbreak in the Netherlands in 2006, caused by BTV serotype 8, coupled serum and milk samples were obtained from 470 individual cows from 10 BTV-infected farms with an average seroprevalence of 57%. In addition, bulk milk samples of the same farms, and historically BT-negative samples were tested. Compared to the ELISA for sera, the relative specificity and sensitivity of the ELISA for milk samples is 96.5% and 98.9%, respectively when using a S/P% cut-off value of 50% as advised by the manufacturer. The optimal cut-off value was found at S/P% of 90% revealing an optimal specificity (99.0%) combined with an optimal sensitivity (98.1%). Titres in positive individual milk samples ranged from 1 to 2048 with a peak titre of 128. Bulk milk samples contained antibodies with titres ranging from 64 to 512. The ELISA for milk samples was found to be a reliable and robust test. This diagnostic tool is very useful, and may replace the ELISA for serum samples as first choice in order to get insight into the status of lactating individual animals and therewith of the entire herd with respect to BTV infection.

  3. Isolation of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from Culicoides vector captured in livestock farms and sequence analysis of the viral genome segment-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadawala, A I; Biswas, S K; Rehman, W; Chand, K; De, A; Mathapati, B S; Kumar, P; Chauhan, H C; Chandel, B S; Mondal, B

    2012-08-01

    Bluetongue virus serotype-1 (BTV-1) was isolated from Culicoides oxystoma vectors captured on livestock farms in two places of Gujarat, India. The viruses were isolated on BHK-21 cells, which produced characteristic BTV-related cytopathic effects between 24 and 48 h post-infection. Virus antigen was demonstrated in infected cells at different passage by a BTV-specific sandwich ELISA. Further, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining of viral genomic RNA revealed ten double-stranded RNA segments characteristic of BTV. Serotype of the isolates was identified by virus neutralization and PCR coupled with sequencing. The isolates were designated as SKN-7 and SKN-8 and their genome segment-2 (VP2) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses revealed very close relationship between them although they are not identical. SKN-8 showed closer relationship with a recently isolated BTV-1 from goat. Bluetongue virus was earlier isolated from Culicoides in adjacent state more than 20 years ago, although the serotype of the virus was not determined.

  4. Detection of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living New World primates (Sapajus spp.; Alouatta caraya captured in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Mira Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A sero-epidemiological survey was undertaken to detect the circulation of arboviruses in free-living non-human primates. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 16 non-human primates (13 Sapajus spp. and three Alouatta caraya that were captured using terrestrial traps and anesthetic darts in woodland regions in the municipalities of Campo Grande, Aquidauana, Jardim, Miranda and Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The samples were sent to the Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC in Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil, to detect antibodies against 19 species of arboviruses using a hemagglutination inhibition test (HI. Results Of the 16 primates investigated in the present study, five (31.2% were serologically positive for an arbovirus. Of these five, two (12.5% exhibited antibodies to the Flavivirus genus, one (6.2% exhibited a monotypic reaction to Cacipacoré virus, one (6.2% was associated with Mayaro virus, and one (6.2% was positive for Oropouche virus. Conclusions Based on the positive serology observed in the present study, it was possible to conclude that arboviruses circulate among free-living primates. The viruses in the areas studied might have been introduced by infected humans or by primates from endemic or enzootic areas. Studies of this nature, as well as efficient and continuous surveillance programs, are needed to monitor viral activities in endemic and enzootic regions.

  5. Eco-friendly control of malaria and arbovirus vectors using the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and ultra-low dosages of Mimusops elengi-synthesized silver nanoparticles: towards an integrative approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. Their impact against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. We synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Mimusops elengi as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of AgNP was studied using different biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, TEM, XRD, EDX and FTIR. Low doses of AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus. AgNP LC50 against A. stephensi ranged from 12.53 (I instar larvae) to 23.55 ppm (pupae); LC50 against A. albopictus ranged from 11.72 ppm (I) to 21.46 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of M. elengi extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. In adulticidal experiments, AgNP showed LC50 of 13.7 ppm for A. stephensi and 14.7 ppm for A. albopictus. The predation efficiency of Gambusia affinis against A. stephensi and A. albopictus III instar larvae was 86.2 and 81.7 %, respectively. In AgNP-contaminated environments, predation was 93.7 and 88.6 %, respectively. This research demonstrates that M. elengi-synthesized AgNP may be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria and arbovirus vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies, such as larvivorous fishes.

  6. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods for the production of arbovirus antigens inactivated by binary ethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Teck F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods have been developed and standardised for the safe and reproducible production of inactivated arbovirus antigens which are appropriate for use in diagnostic serological applications. Methods To optimise the maximum titre of growth during the propagation of arboviruses, the multiplicity of infection and choice of cell line were investigated using stocks of Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus grown in both mosquito and mammalian cell lines. To standardise and improve the efficacy of the inactivation of arboviral suspensions, stocks of Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Alfuy virus were chemically inactivated using binary ethylenimine at a final concentration of 3 mM. Aliquots were then taken at hourly intervals and crude inactivation rates were determined for each virus using a plaque assay. To ensure complete inactivation, the same aliquots were each passaged 3 times in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells and the presence of viral growth was detected using an immunofluorescent assay. For larger quantities of viral suspensions, centrifugation on an isopycnic sucrose density gradient or cross-flow filtration was used to produce concentrated, pure antigens or partially concentrated, semi-purified antigens respectively. Results The results of the propagation experiments suggested that the maximum viral titres obtained for both Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus were affected by the incubation period and choice of cell line, rather than the use of different multiplicity of infection values. Results of the binary ethylenimine inactivation trial suggested that standardised periods of 5 or 8 hours would be suitable to ensure effective and complete inactivation for a number of different arboviral antigens. Conclusion Two methods used to prepare inactivated arbovirus antigens have been

  7. 中国虫媒病毒与虫媒病毒病的监测与防控任务%Surveillance, prevention and control of arbovirus and arbovirus disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国栋

    2010-01-01

    @@ 虫媒病毒(Arbovirus)是指由吸血昆虫传播的病毒,昆虫通过叮咬将病毒传播给人、畜而引起疾病.1992年在国际虫媒病毒中心登记的虫媒病毒已经达到535种,新的虫媒病毒仍在不断发现.目前已发现100余种虫媒病毒可引起人畜共患病.在人类历史上虫媒病毒病曾经是世界范围的公共卫生问题,使成千上万人患病或死亡,牲畜的患病或死亡也造成巨大的经济损失[1,2].

  8. Reabilitação psicológica de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus Psychological rehabilitation of patients with sequelae due to encephalitis caused by arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anency Giannotti Hallage

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o possível comprometimento psíquico de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus, do litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, com a finalidade de definir o papel do psicólogo, em um programa de reabilitação física e psicossocial. A presença das seqüelas era encarada de forma depreciativa e observou-se que essa percepção comprometeu fundamentalmente a identidade do paciente como ser humano, trazendo uma série de respostas emocionais desadaptadas e impossibibilitando a convivência satisfatória consigo e com o próximo. Os resultados analisados, em seu aspecto psicossociológico, revelaram que as dificuldades psíquicas observadas eram originárias da maneira como a deficiência física é encarada no meio social.The possibility of psychological damage in patients with sequelae from encephalitis caused by arbovirus in the southern section of the coastal area of the State of S. Paulo (Brazil was investigated for the purpose of defining the role of the psychologist in a programme of physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. The presence of the sequelae was regarded depreciatively by the patients and this attitude affected their self-regard as human beings. The result was a series of emotional maladjustments which made it impossible for the patients to live with themselves or maintain a satisfactory relationship with others. The results analyzed from a psychosocial standpoint revealed that the psychological problems observed arose from the way in which the physical deficiency is regarded within the social context.

  9. Insect-specific viruses detected in laboratory mosquito colonies and their potential implications for experiments evaluating arbovirus vector competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bethany G; Vasilakis, Nikos; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod L; Thangamani, Saravanan; Tesh, Robert B

    2015-02-01

    Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in the detection and characterization of insect-specific viruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Evidence suggests that these viruses are ubiquitous in nature and that many are maintained by vertical transmission in mosquito populations. Some studies suggest that the presence of insect-specific viruses may inhibit replication of a super-infecting arbovirus, thus altering vector competence of the mosquito host. Accordingly, we screened our laboratory mosquito colonies for insect-specific viruses. Pools of colony mosquitoes were homogenized and inoculated into cultures of Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The infected cells were examined by electron microscopy and deep sequencing was performed on RNA extracts. Electron micrograph images indicated the presence of three different viruses in three of our laboratory mosquito colonies. Potential implications of these findings for vector competence studies are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Culicoides brevitarsis Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), the principal vector of bluetongue virus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, A H; McCorkell, B

    2014-06-01

    Four isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were tested for their potential to control the biting midge Culicoides brevitarsis, the principal vector of bluetongue virus in Australia. Adult C. brevitarsis died three to eight days after walking on paper substrate treated with 0.7 g/m(2) conidia of any of the isolates, indicating that M. anisopliae has potential as a surface treatment or topical application control strategy. Incorporation of the fungus into freshly excreted cattle dung at rates of between 0.25 and 1 g conidia/kg reduced the emergence of adult midges by up to 98.5% compared to untreated dung indicating that M. anisopliae has the potential to control C. brevitarsis larvae in cattle dung. Three of the isolates produced similar mortality rates on adult and immature C. brevitarsis while the fourth isolate produced lower, but still significant, mortality rates on adult and immature stages.

  11. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp. in Brazil

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    Tatiana Carneiro da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44 were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. RESULTS: All of the samples were negative for the Flavivirus genome following the 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These negative results indicate that the analyzed animals were not infected with arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus and did not represent a risk for viral transmission through vectors during the period in which the samples were collected.

  12. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

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    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  13. Suppression of the Arboviruses Dengue and Chikungunya Using a Dual-Acting Group-I Intron Coupled with Conditional Expression of the Bax C-Terminal Domain.

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    James R Carter

    Full Text Available In portions of South Asia, vectors and patients co-infected with dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV are on the rise, with the potential for this occurrence in other regions of the world, for example the United States. Therefore, we engineered an antiviral approach that suppresses the replication of both arboviruses in mosquito cells using a single antiviral group I intron. We devised unique configurations of internal, external, and guide sequences that permit homologous recognition and splicing with conserved target sequences in the genomes of both viruses using a single trans-splicing Group I intron, and examined their effectiveness to suppress infections of DENV and CHIKV in mosquito cells when coupled with a proapoptotic 3' exon, ΔN Bax. RT-PCR demonstrated the utility of these introns in trans-splicing the ΔN Bax sequence downstream of either the DENV or CHIKV target site in transformed Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells, independent of the order in which the virus specific targeting sequences were inserted into the construct. This trans-splicing reaction forms DENV or CHIKV ΔN Bax RNA fusions that led to apoptotic cell death as evidenced by annexin V staining, caspase, and DNA fragmentation assays. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate effective suppression of DENV and CHIKV infections by our anti-arbovirus group I intron approach. This represents the first report of a dual-acting Group I intron, and demonstrates that we can target DENV and CHIKV RNAs in a sequence specific manner with a single, uniquely configured CHIKV/DENV dual targeting group I intron, leading to replication suppression of both arboviruses, and thus providing a promising single antiviral for the transgenic suppression of multiple arboviruses.

  14. Seroepidemiological monitoring in sentinel animals and vectors as part of arbovirus surveillance in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: From February-September 2010, seroepidemiological surveys were conducted on non-human primates and transmitter vector capture was used to investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in the municipalities of Bonito, Campo Grande, and Jardim, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 65 primates from the wild and captivity were used, and potential vectors were captured using Castro and dip nets. Serum samples were tested at the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Stat...

  15. Detection of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living New World primates (Sapajus spp.; Alouatta caraya) captured in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A sero-epidemiological survey was undertaken to detect the circulation of arboviruses in free-living non-human primates. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 16 non-human primates (13 Sapajus spp. and three Alouatta caraya) that were captured using terrestrial traps and anesthetic darts in woodland regions in the municipalities of Campo Grande, Aquidauana, Jardim, Miranda and Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The samples were sent to the Instituto Eva...

  16. Detection of Herpesvirus, Enterovirus, and Arbovirus infection in patients with suspected central nervous system viral infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Michele S; Lessa, Natália; Naveca, Felipe G; Monte, Rossicléia L; Braga, Wornei S; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Mourão, Maria Paula G

    2014-09-01

    Acute infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can be caused by various pathogens. In this study, the presence of herpesviruses (HHV), enteroviruses (EVs), and arboviruses were investigated in CSF samples from 165 patients with suspected CNS viral infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genomes of one or more viral agents were detected in 29.7% (49/165) of the CSF samples. EVs were predominant (16/49; 32.6%) followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (22.4%), Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) (20.4%), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (18.4%), herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) (4.1%), (HSV-2) (4.1%), and the arboviruses (14.3%). Four of the arboviruses were of dengue virus (DENV) and three of oropouche virus (OROV). The detection of different viruses in the CNS of patients with meningitis or encephalitis highlight the importance of maintaining an active laboratory monitoring diagnostics with rapid methodology of high sensitivity in areas of viral hyperendemicity that may assist in clinical decisions and in the choice of antiviral therapy.

  17. Luminex液相芯片技术检测6种虫媒病毒方法的建立%Establishment of Luminex liquid chip technology for detection of six arboviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽; 李裕昌; 康晓平; 林方; 魏婧靖; 杨银辉; 熊正英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish and evaluate liquid chip technique to detect six species of arbovirus including Tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Dengue fever virus (DENV). Methods Specific monoclonal antibodies for all of the six species of arbovirus were prepared and purified. The detecting antibodies were labeled with biotin and the capture antibodies were coupled to fluorescence coded microspheres. Then Luminex liquid chip technology was developed in a double antibody sandwich format. The singleplex and multiplex assay were conducted by measuring the virus cultures through Luminex 200 systems. Results A cutoff value twice higher than that of the background fluorescence was judged as positive reaction. The results of singleplex and multiplex assay for the virus cultures demonstrated specific positive signals, without cross reaction. Repeatability assays were also conducted and consentaneous results were gained, the coefficient of variability was less than 7% from inter and intra assay, implying that both the repeatability and stability of the array were good. The results demonstrated that using the developed Luminex liquid chip technology, the above arbovirus could be effectively identified and distinguished in single or in mixed. By applying series diluted virus cultures to this system, the detecting sensitivities for the six species of arbovirus were determined, which could reached 25pfu/ ml for TBEV, 781.2Spfu/ml for WNV, 781.25pfu/ml for JEV, 390.63pfu/ml for SINV, 781.2Spfu/ml for EEEV and 1562.5pfu/ml for DENV reached 781.2S, respectively. By comparing with the conventional ELISA, the liquid chip technique showed the advantages of higher sensitivity and repeatability, sample and time saving, and possessed the same specificity as ELISA. Conclusion A multiplex liquid chip for simultaneously detecting and serotyping six species of important

  18. 山西省运城市2012年蚊媒病毒的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of mosquito-borne arboviruses in Yuncheng city, Shanxi province, 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅匀; 曹玉玺; 付士红; 程璟侠; 赵俊英; 代培芳; 孔祥盛; 梁国栋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species and distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in Yuncheng city of Shanxi province,China.Methods Mosquito samples were collected in 19 collection sites from Linyi county and Yongji city in Yuncheng city,in August,2012.After identification and classification,all the specimens were homogenized and centrifuged to acquire supernatant before being inoculated to both C6/36 and BHK21 cells for viral isolation.Positive isolates were identified with arbovirus species-specific primers under RT-PCR,for further sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.Results A total of 10 455 mosquitoes of 7 species in 4 genuese were collected.The predominant mosquito species in Linyi county was Culex pipens pallens (91.96%,3 911/4 253),but the one in Yongji city was Culex tritaeniorhynchus (72.85%,4 518/6 202).A total of 23 strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools.15 strains from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex pipens pallens were identified as genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).Four strains from Culex pipens pallens were identified as Culex flavivirus (CxFV).Three strains from Culex pipens pallens were identified as Culex pipiens pallens densovirus (CppDNV).One strain from Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes albopictus was identified as Getah virus (GETV).Conclusion Four kinds of arboviruses were isolated from the mosquito pools,including GETV and CxFV,which were isolated and documented in Shanxi province for the first time.In the city of Yuncheng,Culex tritaeniorhynchus had been the predominant species and major vector for transmitting JEV.Genotype I JEV remained the major JEV circulating in the local natural environment.%目的 了解山西省运城市蚊虫及蚊媒病毒的种类和分布.方法 2012年8月在山西省运城市临猗县和永济市采集蚊虫标本,经鉴定分类和分批研磨后,利用细胞(C6/36和BHK21)培养方法分离病毒,对阳性分离物使用蚊媒病毒种属特异引

  19. Occurrence of exotic carriers arbovirus fevers – new insufficiently estimated biological threat to southern regions of Russia

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    V. P. Sergiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of originators of infectious and parasitic illnesses on new territories can pass by means of mosquitoes which in modern conditions extend quickly. Getting on new territories they take roots and provide transfer of this or that originator. Or they provide initial case rate, and then viruses start to circulate among mosquitoes – natural representatives of local fauna. As it was with virus Denge delivered to Greece with mosquitoes Aedes aegypti. This kind of a mosquito by 1950 has been destroyed at the Black Sea coast of Caucasus. In the beginning of 21 centuries this kind again began to be found out in earlier free territories. Occurrence after 50-years absence of an effective carrier in the south of Russia is serious biological threat to epidemic well-being of the country in case of delivery of originators arbovirus infections.

  20. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants.

  1. Application of syndromic surveillance on routinely collected cattle reproduction and milk production data for the early detection of outbreaks of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Anouk; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; Marceau, Alexis; Madouasse, Aurélien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine; Welby, Sarah; Wever, Paul; van Schaik, Gerdien

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of routinely collected reproductive and milk production data for the early detection of emerging vector-borne diseases in cattle in the Netherlands and the Flanders region of Belgium (i.e., the northern part of Belgium). Prospective space-time cluster analyses on residuals from a model on milk production were carried out to detect clusters of reduced milk yield. A CUSUM algorithm was used to detect temporal aberrations in model residuals of reproductive performance models on two indicators of gestation length. The Bluetongue serotype-8 (BTV-8) epidemics of 2006 and 2007 and the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) epidemic of 2011 were used as case studies to evaluate the sensitivity and timeliness of these methods. The methods investigated in this study did not result in a more timely detection of BTV-8 and SBV in the Netherlands and BTV-8 in Belgium given the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. This could be due to (i) the large geographical units used in the analyses (country, region and province level), and (ii) the high level of sensitivity of the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. Nevertheless, it might be worthwhile to use a syndromic surveillance system based on non-specific animal health data in real-time alongside regular surveillance, to increase the sense of urgency and to provide valuable quantitative information for decision makers in the initial phase of an emerging disease outbreak.

  2. Vesicular stomatitis virus replicon expressing the VP2 outer capsid protein of bluetongue virus serotype 8 induces complete protection of sheep against challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochinger, Stefanie; Renevey, Nathalie; Hofmann, Martin A; Zimmer, Gert

    2014-06-13

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that causes an often fatal, hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. Different BTV serotypes occur throughout many temperate and tropical regions of the world. In 2006, BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) emerged in Central and Northern Europe for the first time. Although this outbreak was eventually controlled using inactivated virus vaccines, the epidemic caused significant economic losses not only from the disease in livestock but also from trade restrictions. To date, BTV vaccines that allow simple serological discrimination of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) have not been approved for use in livestock. In this study, we generated recombinant RNA replicon particles based on single-cycle vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors. Immunization of sheep with infectious VSV replicon particles expressing the outer capsid VP2 protein of BTV-8 resulted in induction of BTV-8 serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies. After challenge with a virulent BTV-8 strain, the vaccinated animals neither developed signs of disease nor showed viremia. In contrast, immunization of sheep with recombinant VP5 - the second outer capsid protein of BTV - did not confer protection. Discrimination of infected from vaccinated animals was readily achieved using an ELISA for detection of antibodies against the VP7 antigen. These data indicate that VSV replicon particles potentially represent a safe and efficacious vaccine platform with which to control future outbreaks by BTV-8 or other serotypes, especially in previously non-endemic regions where discrimination between vaccinated and infected animals is crucial.

  3. Questionnaire survey about the motives of commercial livestock farmers and hobby holders to vaccinate their animals against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 in 2008-2009 in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R W; de Koeijer, A A; Scolamacchia, F; van Rijn, P A

    2010-03-16

    After a massive epidemic of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) among ruminants in 2006-2007 in the European Union (EU), the Netherlands started a voluntary emergency vaccination campaign in May 2008, subsidized by the EU. At the start of a new campaign in 2009, without subsidized vaccination, we investigated by mail survey the motives of farmers and hobby holders to vaccinate against BTV-8 in 2008 and 2009. Mean vaccine uptake in 2008 was: 73% in sheep, 71% in cattle, 43% in goat farms and 67% in hobby holdings. Top-5 motives pro-vaccination were: prevention of production loss; subsidized vaccination; recommendation by practitioner; welfare reasons; contribution to the eradication campaign. Top-5 motives against vaccination were: vaccination costs; absence of clinical BT-problems; presumed low infection risk; balance between vaccination costs and loss without vaccination; bad experience with earlier vaccination campaigns. Willingness to vaccinate was significantly lower in 2009: 42% in sheep, 58% in cattle, 19% in goat farms and 49% in hobby holdings. Measures to stimulate vaccination among those that did not want to vaccinate in 2009 were: subsidized vaccination; possibility to vaccinate their own animals; more information on efficacy/safety of vaccine and why animals had to be vaccinated again; availability of a BT vaccine combined with vaccine(s) against other diseases.

  4. Comparative efficacy of standard AGID, CCIE and competitive ELISA for detecting bluetongue virus antibodies in indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shringi, Smriti; Shringi, B N

    2005-03-01

    The sero-prevalence of antibodies against blue tongue virus (BTV) in 408 local breeds of sheep in Rajasthan state in India was investigated using standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Maximum seropositivities of 11.3% (13/115), 10.7% (13/121), 7.1% (11/155) and 5.9% (1/17) were recorded in the Chokla, Magra, Nali and Pugal breeds, respectively. Out of 107 goat serum samples, 6 (5.6%) were AGID positive. The performance of the standard AGID, counter current immuno-electrophoresis (CCIE) and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of serum antibody against BTV in indigenous breeds of sheep were compared. Out of 178 sheep serum samples tested, 17 (9.5%), 22 (12.3%) and 54 (30.3%) were positive for group-specific bluetongue antibodies by AGID, CCIE and cELISA, respectively. There was appreciable difference in the seroprevalence detected by AGID, CCIE and cELISA in clinically healthy and diseased sheep with regard to relative sensitivities and specificities of the tests with cELISA being highly sensitive and specific followed by CCIE and AGID test. It was concluded that these indigenous breeds of sheep may be a potential reservoir of BTV infection and cELISA should be routinely used for the detection of antibodies against BTV in these local breeds of sheep.

  5. Inter-laboratory evaluation of the performance parameters of a Lateral Flow Test device for the detection of Bluetongue virus-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Vandenberge, Valerie; Deruelle, Matthias; De Leeuw, Ilse; De Clercq, Kris; Van Borm, Steven; Koenen, Frank; Liu, Lihong; Hoffmann, Bernd; Batten, Carrie Anne; Zientara, Stéphan; Breard, Emmanuel; Van der Stede, Yves

    2016-02-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral vector-borne disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. In this study, a commercial rapid immuno-chromatographic method or Lateral Flow Test (LFT) device, for the detection of BT virus-specific antibodies in animal serum, was evaluated in an international inter-laboratory proficiency test. The evaluation was done with sera samples of variable background (ruminant species, serotype, field samples, experimental infections, vaccinated animals). The diagnostic sensitivity was 100% (95% C.I. [90.5-100]) and the diagnostic specificity was 95.2% (95% C.I. [76.2-99.9]). The repeatability (accordance) and reproducibility (concordance) were 100% for seropositive samples but were lower for two of the seronegative samples (45% and 89% respectively). The analytical sensitivity, evaluated by testing positive sera at increasing dilutions was better for the BT LFT compared to some commercial ELISAs. Seroconversion of an infected sheep was detected at 4 days post infection. Analytical specificity was impaired by cross-reactions observed with some of the samples seropositive for Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV). The agreement (Cohen's kappa) between the LFT and a commercial BT competitive ELISA was 0.79 (95% CI [0.62-0.95]). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the BT LFT device is a rapid and sensitive first-line serological test that can be used in the field, especially in areas endemic for the disease where there is a lack of diagnostic facilities.

  6. Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila B Ogoma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases. METHODOLOGY: The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control. FINDINGS: 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929 were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50 An. funestus, 10.2% (2359 Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664 Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01; Mansonia africana (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; P<0.001 and Mansonia uniformis (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.56; P<0.001 but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant. SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria.

  7. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland.

  8. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp.) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs) living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44) were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% ...

  9. 6种虫媒病毒微孔膜芯片检测方法的研制与应用%Development and application of microwell membrane array for detection of six species of arboviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑夔; 丁国允; 李小波; 师永霞; 苏锦坤; 黄吉城

    2012-01-01

    目的 研制能同时检测6种口岸重要虫媒病毒的微孔膜芯片.方法 针对包括1~4型登革病毒、乙型脑炎病毒、西尼罗病毒、黄热病毒、基孔肯雅病毒和裂谷热病毒等6种虫媒病毒,选择合适的保守基因,设计特异性的PCR引物(5'端标记生物素)和检测探针,通过参数优化建立单管多重RT-PCR扩增体系;然后按每个阵列5×5的格式,并确保点样区域为96孔板的微孔大小,将探针喷点到处理后的尼龙膜上,通过条件优化建立稳定的PCR产物与固化探针的杂交体系;采用碱性磷酸酯酶标记链亲和素和化学显色底物NBT/BCIP来检测特异性的PCR杂交产物.选取2012年1-6月份从口岸输入的疑似登革热发热病例的临床血清标本,提取RNA后,直接采用本研究建立的微孔膜芯片进行未知虫媒病毒的快速检测.结果 用1~4型登革病毒、乙型脑炎病毒、西尼罗病毒和基孔肯雅病毒等7种毒株、1种黄热病毒疫苗株和1种裂谷热病毒核酸体外转录的RNA模板验证已建立的微孔膜芯片,获得比较特异和稳定的实验结果.应用该研究建立的方法,从3份疑似登革热发热病例的临床血清标本中检出了1例登革1型病毒和2例登革2型病毒,与实时荧光PCR检测结果相符.结论 该研究建立的6种虫媒病毒微孔膜芯片检测方法,具有快速、准确、自动化和高通量等特点,为快速应对口岸输入性发热病例提供了非常有价值的检测手段,也为进一步开发更多指标的病原体检测方法提供良好的示范作用.%Objective To develop a microwell membrane array for simultaneous detection of six species of important arboviruses at frontier port. Methods Specific PCR primers labeled with biotin and ol-igonucleotide probes were designed based on the sequence of conservative genes of six arboviruses specises, including four serotypes of dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Yellow Fever

  10. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses Gestão imprópria do ecossistema natural na Amazônia brasileira resulta na emergência e reemergência de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.Um total de 187 diferentes espécies de arbovírus, além de outros vírus de vertebrados, foram identificados pelo Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC no período de 1954 a 1998, entre as mais de 10.000 cepas de vírus isoladas de seres humanos, insetos hematófagos e vertebrados-sentinela e silvestres. Apesar dos estudos intensivos realizados na Amazônia brasileira, sobretudo no Estado do Pará, pouco se sabe a respeito da maioria desses vírus, com exceção de dados a respeito de data, hora, fonte e método de isolamento, assim como a capacidade de infectar animais laboratoriais. Os autores fazem uma revisão dos dados ecológicos e epidemiológicos e procuram associar o impacto, sobre os diversos vírus, das mudanças populacionais dos vetores e hospedeiros induzidas por profundas alterações no meio ambiente. O desmatamento, o uso do subsolo, a construção de represas e de rodovias, a colonização humana e a urbanização foram as principais modificações ambientais

  11. High-throughput multiplexed xMAP Luminex array panel for detection of twenty two medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses based on innovations in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M; Alto, Barry W; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a "single tube" setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a "self-avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an "artificially expanded genetic information system" (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex "liquid microarrays" are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6-10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito.

  12. 2009年辽宁省虫媒病毒分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of arboviruses in Liaoning province, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志; 丁俊; 付士红; 高晓艳; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查辽宁省部分地区虫媒病毒的种类.方法 2009年8月,在辽宁省鞍山市、朝阳市、葫芦岛市和锦州北镇市采集蚊虫标本.蚊虫经分组研磨后接种C6/36和BHK-21细胞,连续3代观察细胞病变情况;对细胞病变阳性的分离物,进行抗原性检测及分子生物学鉴定.结果 在辽宁省上述4个城市共采集蚊虫3600只,主要为中华按蚊(47.2%)、淡色库蚊(26.4%)、刺扰伊蚊(18.1%)及三带喙库蚊(6.9%)等.蚊虫标本分72组进行研磨,通过组织细胞培养法,共获得2株阳性分离物,经抗原性检测及核酸序列测定证实为Ⅰ型流行性乙型脑炎病毒.结论 2009年,从辽宁省鞍山地区的淡色库蚊及朝阳地区的刺扰伊蚊标本中分离到Ⅰ型流行性乙型脑炎病毒.%Objective To investigate the distribution of arboviruses in part of Liaomng province. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from Chaoyang, Anshan, Jinzhou and Huludao cities in Liaoning province in 2009. The mosquitoes were divided into pools and the homogenates were inoculated onto C6/36 and BHK-21cells. The new isolates were identified by antigenic test and molecular biological methods. The sequences were analyzed by bioinformatics.Results Totally 3600 mosquitoes were collected from the 4 cities, including Anopheles sinensis (47. 2% ), Culex pipiens pallens (26. 4% ), Aedes vexans ( 18. 1% ) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (6. 9% ). The isolates produced CPE on BHK-21 cell line. Two isolate (LN0905 and LN0923 ) were identified as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 2 JEV stains were clustered into genotype I. Conclusion Genotype I JEV was isolated from the mosquitoes collected in Aanshan and Chaoyang in Liaoning province. The sequence of the new isolates had close phylogenetic relationship with JEV strains isolated in Shanghai in 2001.

  13. Development of a competitive ELISA for NS3 antibodies as DIVA test accompanying the novel Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine for Bluetongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacken, Mirriam G J; Daus, Franz J; Feenstra, Femke; van Gennip, René G P; van Rijn, Piet A

    2015-10-13

    Recently, we have developed a novel vaccine for Bluetongue named BT Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine. Due to the lack of non-essential NS3/NS3a protein, BT DISA vaccine is a replicating vaccine, but without the inherent risks of live-attenuated vaccines, such as residual virulence or reversion to virulence by mutations, reassortment with field virus, horizontal spread by vectors and vertical transmission. The immune response induced by BT DISA vaccines is rapidly induced, highly protective and serotype specific which is dependent on the immunodominant and serotype determining VP2 protein. The BT DISA vaccine platform provides the replacement of exclusively VP2 from different serotypes in order to safely formulate multivalent cocktail vaccines. The lack of NS3/NS3a directed antibodies by BT DISA vaccination enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). A highly conserved immunogenic site corresponding to the late domain was mapped in the N-terminal region of NS3. We here established an NS3-specific competitive ELISA (NS3 cELISA) as serological DIVA test accompanying BT DISA vaccines. To this end, NS3 protein missing putative transmembrane regions was produced in large amounts in bacteria and used as antigen in the NS3 cELISA which was investigated with a variety of sera. The NS3 cELISA displayed a high sensitivity and specificity similar to the commercially available VP7-specific cELISA. Results of previously performed vaccination-challenge trials with BT DISA vaccines clearly demonstrate the DIVA system based on the NS3 cELISA and BT vaccine free of NS3 protein.

  14. Combining dispersion modelling with synoptic patterns to understand the wind-borne transport into the UK of the bluetongue disease vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Laura; Ekström, Marie; Dessai, Suraje

    2017-01-01

    Bluetongue, an economically important animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of insect vectors (Culicoides biting midges) on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. A method is proposed that links wind-borne dispersion of the insects to synoptic circulation through the use of a dispersion model in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. We illustrate how to identify the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the European continent. A PCA was conducted on high-pass-filtered mean sea-level pressure data for a domain centred over north-west Europe from 2005 to 2007. A clustering algorithm applied to the PCA scores indicated the data should be divided into five classes for which averages were calculated, providing a classification of the main synoptic types present. Midge incursion events were found to mainly occur in two synoptic categories; 64.8% were associated with a pattern displaying a pressure gradient over the North Atlantic leading to moderate south-westerly flow over the UK and 17.9% of the events occurred when high pressure dominated the region leading to south-easterly or easterly winds. The winds indicated by the pressure maps generally compared well against observations from a surface station and analysis charts. This technique could be used to assess frequency and timings of incursions of virus into new areas on seasonal and decadal timescales, currently not possible with other dispersion or biological modelling methods.

  15. Expression of VP7, a Bluetongue virus group specific antigen by viral vectors: analysis of the induced immune responses and evaluation of protective potential in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Bouet-Cararo

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV is an economically important Orbivirus transmitted by biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. The need for new vaccines has been highlighted by the occurrence of repeated outbreaks caused by different BTV serotypes since 1998. The major group-reactive antigen of BTV, VP7, is conserved in the 26 serotypes described so far, and its role in the induction of protective immunity has been proposed. Viral-based vectors as antigen delivery systems display considerable promise as veterinary vaccine candidates. In this paper we have evaluated the capacity of the BTV-2 serotype VP7 core protein expressed by either a non-replicative canine adenovirus type 2 (Cav-VP7 R0 or a leporipoxvirus (SG33-VP7, to induce immune responses in sheep. Humoral responses were elicited against VP7 in almost all animals that received the recombinant vectors. Both Cav-VP7 R0 and SG33-VP7 stimulated an antigen-specific CD4+ response and Cav-VP7 R0 stimulated substantial proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Encouraged by the results obtained with the Cav-VP7 R0 vaccine vector, immunized animals were challenged with either the homologous BTV-2 or the heterologous BTV-8 serotype and viral burden in plasma was followed by real-time RT-PCR. The immune responses triggered by Cav-VP7 R0 were insufficient to afford protective immunity against BTV infection, despite partial protection obtained against homologous challenge. This work underscores the need to further characterize the role of BTV proteins in cross-protective immunity.

  16. Expression of VP7, a Bluetongue Virus Group Specific Antigen by Viral Vectors: Analysis of the Induced Immune Responses and Evaluation of Protective Potential in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Contreras, Vanessa; Caruso, Agathe; Top, Sokunthea; Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Relmy, Anthony; Guibert, Jean-Michel; Dubois, Eric; Thiery, Richard; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Richardson, Jennifer; Foucras, Gilles; Meyer, Gilles; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important Orbivirus transmitted by biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. The need for new vaccines has been highlighted by the occurrence of repeated outbreaks caused by different BTV serotypes since 1998. The major group-reactive antigen of BTV, VP7, is conserved in the 26 serotypes described so far, and its role in the induction of protective immunity has been proposed. Viral-based vectors as antigen delivery systems display considerable promise as veterinary vaccine candidates. In this paper we have evaluated the capacity of the BTV-2 serotype VP7 core protein expressed by either a non-replicative canine adenovirus type 2 (Cav-VP7 R0) or a leporipoxvirus (SG33-VP7), to induce immune responses in sheep. Humoral responses were elicited against VP7 in almost all animals that received the recombinant vectors. Both Cav-VP7 R0 and SG33-VP7 stimulated an antigen-specific CD4+ response and Cav-VP7 R0 stimulated substantial proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Encouraged by the results obtained with the Cav-VP7 R0 vaccine vector, immunized animals were challenged with either the homologous BTV-2 or the heterologous BTV-8 serotype and viral burden in plasma was followed by real-time RT-PCR. The immune responses triggered by Cav-VP7 R0 were insufficient to afford protective immunity against BTV infection, despite partial protection obtained against homologous challenge. This work underscores the need to further characterize the role of BTV proteins in cross-protective immunity. PMID:25364822

  17. Identification of hitherto unrecognized arboviruses from Ecuador: members of serogroups B, C, Bunyamwera, Patois, and Minatitlan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, C H; Gutierrez, E; Francy, D B; Alava, A; Muth, D J; Lazuick, J S

    1983-07-01

    Three hundred seventy-nine virus isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected and sentinel hamsters exposed in coastal Ecuador from 1974 to 1978. These included four alphaviruses [Venezuelan equine encephalitis 1B (1), Venezuelan equine encephalitis 1D (35), western equine encephalitis (1) and eastern equine encephalitis (4)]; two flaviviruses [St. Louis encephalitis (3) and Naranjal (6)]; 11 bunyaviruses [Maguari (243), Playas (3), Vinces (33), Turlock (2), Abras (5), Babahoyo (3), Acara (2), Guajara (3), San Juan (6), Pueblo Viejo (3), 18 unspecified Gamboa serogroup viruses, Palestina (7)]; and one vesiculovirus (vesicular stomatitis New Jersey). All but Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus were new to Ecuador, and Naranjal (serogroup B), Playas (Bunyamwera serogroup), Vinces (serogroup C), Abras and Babahoyo (Patois serogroup), San Juan and Pueblo Viejo (Gamboa serogroup) and Palestina (Minatitlan serogroup) are newly recognized viruses. These isolates have enabled us to 1) expand our knowledge of the geographic distribution of recognized viruses, 2) expand our knowledge of the members of certain serogroups and 3) establish two new serogroups (Gamboa and Minatitlan).

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  20. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  1. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  2. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  3. Newly isolated arboviruses and their vectors in mainland China%我国新分离虫媒病毒及其传播媒介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国栋

    2010-01-01

    @@ 虫媒病毒(Arbovirus)是指由吸血昆虫传播的病毒,其特点是病毒可在昆虫体内繁殖,但昆虫本身不发病,昆虫通过叮咬将病毒传播给人、畜引起疾病,因此虫媒病毒可以引起人畜共患传染病.在人类历史上虫媒病毒曾经是世界范围的公共卫生问题,虫媒病毒引起的严重传染病,使成千上万人患病或死亡,牲畜的患病或死亡造成巨大的经济损失.

  4. Evaluation of a field-portable DNA microarray platform and nucleic acid amplification strategies for the detection of arboviruses, arthropods, and bloodmeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubaugh, Nathan D; Petz, Lawrence N; Melanson, Vanessa R; McMenamy, Scott S; Turell, Michael J; Long, Lewis S; Pisarcik, Sarah E; Kengluecha, Ampornpan; Jaichapor, Boonsong; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S

    2013-02-01

    Highly multiplexed assays, such as microarrays, can benefit arbovirus surveillance by allowing researchers to screen for hundreds of targets at once. We evaluated amplification strategies and the practicality of a portable DNA microarray platform to analyze virus-infected mosquitoes. The prototype microarray design used here targeted the non-structural protein 5, ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome b genes for the detection of flaviviruses, mosquitoes, and bloodmeals, respectively. We identified 13 of 14 flaviviruses from virus inoculated mosquitoes and cultured cells. Additionally, we differentiated between four mosquito genera and eight whole blood samples. The microarray platform was field evaluated in Thailand and successfully identified flaviviruses (Culex flavivirus, dengue-3, and Japanese encephalitis viruses), differentiated between mosquito genera (Aedes, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia), and detected mammalian bloodmeals (human and dog). We showed that the microarray platform and amplification strategies described here can be used to discern specific information on a wide variety of viruses and their vectors.

  5. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...

  6. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen and arbovirus in fishermen from the Ribeira Valley, Brazil Relação entre as prevalências de anticorpos para hepatite B (anti-HBc e arbovirus em pescadores da região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 299 fishermen 16 to 80 years old, residents in Cananeia and Iguape counties, southern cost of São Paulo State, Brazil, were studied in order to identify a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus (HBV and exposure to haematophagus mosquitoes evaluated by the prevalence of arbovirus antibodies. This professional group presented the highest prevalence of arbovirus antibodies (54.1% in past investigations carried out in this heavily forested region. Detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc in the sera was done by enzyme immunoassay (Roche. Prevalence of anti-HBc antibodies in this group was 31.4% (94/299 which is very high compared with 7.2% to 15.0% for different groups of healthy adults in State of São Paulo. No significant difference is observed between the prevalences of HBV antibodies in Iguape and Cananeia. Prevalence of anti-HBc and anti-arbovirus antibodies increases with age. There is a concordance in the distribution according to age groups of the frequency of anti-HBc and anti-arbovirus positive sera. Ag HBs was detected in 4% of the studied sera. These results support the hypothesis that the transmission of the hepatitis B virus and the arboviruses may be due to the same factor, one of the possibilities would be by anthropophilic mosquitoes.Soros de 299 pescadores de 18 a 80 anos de idade, residentes nos municípios de Iguape e Cananéia, região sul do Estado de São Paulo, foram estudados com o objetivo de identificar uma possível associação entre a prevalência de anticorpos específicos para a hepatite B e a exposição a mosquitos hematófagos, avaliada indiretamente pela prevalência de anticorpos de arbovírus. Esse grupo profissional apresentou, em pesquisas anteriores nessa área extensamente coberta por mata, a mais alta prevalência de anticorpos de arbovírus (54,1%. Utilizou-se teste imunoenzimático para detecção de anti-HBc e HBs Ag. Em

  7. Regulatory issues surrounding the temporary authorisation of animal vaccination in emergency situations: the example of bluetongue in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Saegerman, Claude; Hubaux, M; Urbain, B; Lengele, L.; Berkvens, D

    2007-01-01

    A marketing authorisation for a veterinary vaccine is granted after the quality, safety and efficacy of the product have been assessed in accordance with legal standards. The assessment includes complete characterisation and identification of seed material and ingredients, laboratory and host animal safety and efficacy studies, stability studies, and post-licensing monitoring of field performance. This assessment may not be possible during the emergence of a new animal disease, but several me...

  8. Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability in the Reproduction Ratio of the Bluetongue (BTV-1) Epidemic in Southern Spain (Andalusia) in 2007 Using Epidemic Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, S.; Allepuz, A.; Purse, B. V.; Casal, J.; García-Bocanegra, I.; Burgin, L. E.; Searle, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Andalusia (Southern Spain) is considered one of the main routes of introduction of bluetongue virus (BTV) into Europe, evidenced by a devastating epidemic caused by BTV-1 in 2007. Understanding the pattern and the drivers of BTV-1 spread in Andalusia is critical for effective detection and control of future epidemics. A long-standing metric for quantifying the behaviour of infectious diseases is the case-reproduction ratio (Rt), defined as the average number of secondary cases arising from a single infected case at time t (for t>0). Here we apply a method using epidemic trees to estimate the between-herd case reproduction ratio directly from epidemic data allowing the spatial and temporal variability in transmission to be described. We then relate this variability to predictors describing the hosts, vectors and the environment to better understand why the epidemic spread more quickly in some regions or periods. The Rt value for the BTV-1 epidemic in Andalusia peaked in July at 4.6, at the start of the epidemic, then decreased to 2.2 by August, dropped below 1 by September (0.8), and by October it had decreased to 0.02. BTV spread was the consequence of both local transmission within established disease foci and BTV expansion to distant new areas (i.e. new foci), which resulted in a high variability in BTV transmission, not only among different areas, but particularly through time, which suggests that general control measures applied at broad spatial scales are unlikely to be effective. This high variability through time was probably due to the impact of temperature on BTV transmission, as evidenced by a reduction in the value of Rt by 0.0041 for every unit increase (day) in the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), which is itself directly dependent on temperature. Moreover, within the range of values at which BTV-1 transmission occurred in Andalusia (20.6°C to 29.5°C) there was a positive correlation between temperature and Rt values, although the relationship was

  9. Photodermatitis and photokeratoconjunctivitis in a ball python (Python regius) and a blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, David W; Baines, Frances M; Pandher, Karamjeet

    2009-12-01

    A male ball python (Python regius) and a female blue tongue skink (Tiliqua spp.) of unknown age were evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, excessive shedding, corneal opacity (python), and weight loss (skink) of approximately three weeks' duration. These animals represented the worst affected animals from a private herpetarium where many animals exhibited similar signs. At necropsy, the python had bilateral corneal opacity and scattered moderate dysecdysis. The skink had mild dysecdysis, poor body condition, moderate intestinal nematodiasis, and mild liver atrophy. Microscopic evaluation revealed epidermal erosion and ulceration, with severe epidermal basal cell degeneration and necrosis, and superficial dermatitis (python and skink). Severe bilateral ulcerative keratoconjunctivitis with bacterial colonization was noted in the ball python. Microscopic findings within the skin and eyes were suggestive of ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage or of photodermatitis and photokeratoconjunctivitis. Removal of the recently installed new lamps from the terrariums of the surviving reptiles resulted in resolution of clinical signs. Evaluation of a sample lamp of the type associated with these cases revealed an extremely high UV output, including very-short-wavelength UVB, neither found in natural sunlight nor emitted by several other UVB lamps unassociated with photokeratoconjunctivitis. Exposure to high-intensity and/or inappropriate wavelengths of UV radiation may be associated with significant morbidity, and even mortality, in reptiles. Veterinarians who are presented with reptiles with ocular and/or cutaneous disease of unapparent cause should fully evaluate the specifics of the vivarium light sources. Further research is needed to determine the characteristics of appropriate and of toxic UV light for reptiles kept in captivity.

  10. Aspectos da epidemia de encefalite por arbovirus na região do Vale do Ribeira, S. Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1975 a 1978 Aspects of the encephalitis epidemic caused by arbovirus in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo, Brazil, during 1975-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo epidemiológico da encefalite por arbovirus na região do Vale do Ribeira, S. Paulo, Brasil. Uma epidemia da moléstia ocorreu em 1975, 1976 e 1977, com picos nas épocas de maior temperatura e pluviosidade. A partir de 1978 a moléstia manteve-se em níveis baixos numa presumível ende-micidade. A epidemia se deslocou em onda em direção leste-oeste e leste-sudoeste para a região litorânea vizinha. A cadeia montanhosa situada ao norte e noroeste atuou como barreira à propagação da moléstia. Considerou-se a hipótese que o agente etiológico, arbovirus Rocio, deva ter começado a infectar a população humana recentemente, tendo sido veiculado ao homem de reservatórios silvestres, aves e pequenos mamíferos, por culicídeos silvestres. Discutiu-se também prováveis formas de transmissão domiciliar. Verificou-se que os grupos populacionais que apresentaram as formas mais graves foram os de idades extremas e os que apresentavam piores condições de vida. Considerou-se que a perspectiva epidemiológica desta arbovirose é que ela persista na região, uma vez que a mesma apresenta condições ótimas para o desenvolvimento do agente etiológico, dos reservatórios e dos vetores biológicos, além de receber um contínuo afluxo de população suscetível, migrantes ou turistas.In 1975, 1976, and 1977, arbovirus caused an encephalitis epidemic in the Ribeira Valley in the state of S. Paulo. The epidemic would peak when the temperature and pluvial levels were higher. From 1978 on the disease maintained low levels within a presumed endemic zone. The epidemic had swept from east to west and from east to southwest in a wave toward the neighboring coastal region. The mountain chain to the north and northwest acted as a barrier. It was only logical natural that the hypothesis that the etiological agent, arbovirus Rocio may have recently infected the human population be considered. Mosquitos must have transmitted the infection

  11. 云南省师宗县蓝舌病病毒的分离及鉴定%ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BLUETONGUE VIRUS IN 2012 IN SHIZONG COUNTY OF YUNNAN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖雷; 孟锦昕; 李楠; 高林; 何于雯; 杨恒; 胡骑; 李华春; 朱建波

    2014-01-01

    The sentinel herd of 10 cattle was established in 2012 to monitor epidemiology of Bluetongue virus in Shizong county of Yunnan Province. Blood samples were taken weekly from May to October and then monthly from November to December 2014 and tested for serological response in C-ELISA and for virus isolation. The sero-conversion was revealed in August in some animals and then in November in whole sentinel herd. The erythrocyte preparations from blood samples were inoculated into chicken embryo veins. Chicken liver tissues were harvested, homogenized in PBS and centrifuged. The supernatants were inoculated into C6/36 cells and passaged in BHK-21 three times. The cytopathic effect (CPE) was observed in cell monolayers. The resulting 86 virus isolates were characterized in RT-PCR and virus neutralization (VN). The VP7 gene of Bluetongue virus was amplified in conventional RT-PCR using two pairs of primers designed according to the sequences in GenBank. A 1156 bp fragment of VP7 gene was amplified in RT-PCR from 67 out of 86 isolates. The virus neutralization was performed using 24 reference bluetongue viruses and 24 positive sera. Again, the same 67 isolates were confirmed as Bluetongue virus. The VP2 gene of two isolates was sequenced. One isolate was determined to be BTV-1 as it shared 92%identity with the reference strain Y863 (KC879616) and another isolate was BTV-16 as it shared 99%identity with the reference strain AB686221. The VN results also had an agreement with VP2 sequencing. In conclusion, 67 isolates isolated from the sentinel herd belonged to Bluetongue virus, indicating the virus transmission among bovine herds.%为了解近年来云南省师宗县蓝舌病病毒流行情况,2012年在师宗县五龙乡建立了10头蓝舌病血清学阴性黄牛的监控动物群。从2012年5~10月,每周采血1次,11~12月,每月采血1次,采用C-ELISA进行血清学监测。8月开始动物血清学检测结果转阳性,至11月,监控动物全

  12. 2007年山西省部分地区虫媒病毒调查%Arbovirus investigation in some regions of Shanxi province in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭华; 孟维珊; 付士红; 程景侠; 赵俊英; 孔祥盛; 代培芳; 梁国栋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate arbeviruses in some regions of Shanxi province, isolation and identification for arbovirus activity from mosquitoes was conducted. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from these area in 2007 and then used for virus isolation by cell culture. The virus isolates were identified by molecular biology and the sequences were analyzed by bioinformaties. Results Ten Banns virus (strains SX0765, SX0766, SX0767 ,SX0771, SX0789, SX0790, SX0793, SX0794, SX0795, SX0796) were iselated, and two Liaoning virus were also isolated from isolates SX0771, SX0794. Phylogenetic tree of the Banns virus isolates showed that ten strains are located in a distinct branch from all of the other Chinese Banns virus isolates. The homology is between 89.7 % and 94.1%. Conclusion Ten Banna virus and two Lianning virus were isolated during this arbovirus investigation in Shanxi province. New Banns virus isolates showed a distinct phylogenetic relationship with the other Chinese Banns virus strains.%目的 调查山西省部分地区的虫媒病毒,在当地采集蚊虫标本进行病毒的分离与鉴定.方法 2007年7月和8月在当地采集蚊虫标本,通过组织细胞培养进行病毒分离,利用分子生物学和生物信息学技术对病毒分离物进行鉴定与分析.结果 分离到10株病毒分离物,鉴定结果显示分离株SX0765、SX0766、SX0767、SX0771、SX0789、SX0790、SX0793、SX0794、SX0795、SX0796均为版纳病毒;此外,分离株SX0771和SX0794还同时存在辽宁病毒基因.进一步分析显示版纳病毒新分离株与此前在北京、云南和辽宁分离到的病毒株之间存在明显差异,同源性在89.7%~94.1%之间.结论 在山西省分离到10株版纳病毒和两株辽宁病毒,版纳病毒与我国其他地区分离株有明显差异,在进化上相对独立.

  13. 6种虫媒病毒PCR-Mass检测方法的建立%Establishment of PCR-Mass Assay for the Detection of Six Arboviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴静子; 王晓宏; 陈唯军; 杨银辉; 姜永强; 曹远银

    2012-01-01

    建立了一种可快速、同时检测流行性乙型脑炎病毒(JEV)、东方马脑炎病毒(EEEV)、西方马脑炎病毒(WEEV)、西尼罗病毒(WNV)、森林脑炎病毒(TBEV)和圣路易脑炎病毒(StLEV)等6种虫媒病毒的PCR-Mass检测方法.根据GenBank登录的上述6种病毒的序列信息,经过分析比对,设计6组扩增引物和延伸探针,初步建立针对上述6种病毒的PCR-Mass检测体系.采用上述6种虫媒病毒和其他常见致病性病毒为检测对象,确定PCR-Mass体系的特异性;通过对重组质粒的定量检测,确定该体系的检测灵敏度;并利用该体系对12份TBE阳性和10份JEV阳性脑脊液样本进行检测,评价检测方法的实用性和临床应用价值.结果表明:PCR-Mass检测方法可同时检测上述6种虫媒病毒,而对其他病毒检测均为阴性,无交叉反应现象;6种虫媒病毒的最低检出浓度均为102copies·mL-1;对22份阳性样本的检测结果均呈阳性.本研究建立的PCR-Mass检测方法可实现对6种虫媒病毒的快速、同时检测,具有良好的特异性和较高的灵敏度.%A novel PCR-Mass assay was developed for simultaneous detection of six arboviruses, namely, Encephalitis B vims (JEV), Forest encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St Louis encephalitis virus (StLEV). Multiplex primers and extension probes were designed from conserved regions obtained from the GenBank database. Viral isolates and standard samples were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-Mass assay. Clinical performance was assessed with a total of 22 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from culture-positive patients. The limit of detection for the novel assay was 102 copies "mL"1. The identification of specific viruses and clinical specimens showed that the PCR 桵ass is a useful method for simultaneous detection up to six distinct arboviruses.

  14. Field evaluation of selected traps and lures for monitoring the filarial and arbovirus vector, Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae), in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapairai, Limb K; Joseph, Hayley; Sang, Michel A Cheong; Melrose, Wayne; Ritchie, Scott A; Burkot, Thomas R; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

    2013-07-01

    The efficacy of the BG-Sentinel (BGS) and the BG-Mosquitito (BGM) mosquito traps for sampling populations of the important filariasis and dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis (Marks) was evaluated in French Polynesia against human bait collections (HBC) using a modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention backpack aspirator. Traps were baited with BG-Lure (a combination of lactic acid, ammonia, and caproic acid) or carbon dioxide plus octenol (1-octen-3-ol) known as attractants to aedine mosquitoes. Mosquito sampling was conducted on two typical islands of French Polynesia: the high, volcanic island of Moorea, and the low, coral island (atoll) of Tetiaroa Sampling efficacy was measured in a randomized Latin Square design. Production of carbon dioxide from yeast-sugar fermentation was used as an alternative source of CO2 because supply via dry ice, gas cylinders, or propane combustion in remote tropical islands is costly and challenging. Although the BGS trap captured the greatest number ofAe. polynesiensis in both island settings, catch rates of BGS or BGM baited with either lure were not significantly different from that of HBC. On Moorea, the number of collected aedes species in the BGS trap baited with either lure was significantly greater than the BGM with BG-lure. On Tetiaroa, BGM trapping was severely hampered by damage from rats, and the traps were removed from the study. Our study confirms the efficiency, comparability, and convenience of the BGS trap, a robust and safe alternative to HBC for sampling Aedes mosquitoes in research and surveillance efforts against filariasis and arboviruses in the South Pacific.

  15. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Garreffa, Rita; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Industrial plant-borne by-products can be sources of low-cost chemicals, potentially useful to build eco-friendly control strategies against mosquitoes. Neem cake is a cheap by-product of neem oil extraction obtained by pressing the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Neem products are widely used as insecticides since rarely induce resistance because their multiple mode of action against insect pests and low-toxicity rates have been detected against vertebrates. In this research, we used field bioassays to assess the effective oviposition repellence of neem cake fractions of increasing polarity [n-hexane (A), methanol (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), and aqueous (E) fraction] against Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. These fractions, already characterized for low nortriterpenoids contents by HPLC analyses, were analyzed for their total content by HPTLC, highlighting striking differences in their chemical composition. Field results showed that B, A, and C tested at 100 ppm exerted higher effective repellence over the control (71.33, 88.59, and 73.49% of ER, respectively), while E and D did not significantly deter A. albopictus oviposition (17.06 and 22.72% of ER, respectively). The highest oviposition activity index was achieved by A (-0.82), followed by C (-0.63), and B (-0.62). Lower OAIs were achieved by D (-0.14) and E (-0.09). On the basis of our results, we believe that A, B, and C are very promising as oviposition deterrents against the arbovirus vector A. albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses.

  16. Situação atual do conhecimento eco-epidemiológico sobre arbovírus patogênicos para o homem na região da Mata Atlântica do Estado de São Paulo Current eco-epidemiologic knowledge on pathogenic arbovirus to humans in the Atlantic forest region, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available O autor analisa as informações eco-epidemiológicas disponíveis sobre arbovírus patogênicos para o homem na região da Mata Atlântica do Estado de São Paulo, propondo, a partir das mesmas, os presumíveis ciclos de transmissão desses agentes.The available eco-epidemiologic information on pathogenic arbovirus to humans in the Atlantic Forest region of the State of São Paulo were analysed. According to this information arbovirus transmission cycles are proposed.

  17. Species Distribution of Mosquitoes Relevant to Vectors of Animal Arbovirus in China%传播动物虫媒病的蚊种分类及其在我国的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建利; 花群俊; 杨云庆; 杨俊兴; 祝贺; 唐金明

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of a number of animal arboviruses. With the development of globalization and climate warming,the distribution range of the mosquitoes expands,and the ability of communicating arbovirus to animals is increasing. Arthropod-borne infection diseases have caused significant economic losses in livestock farm-ing. The species and geographical distribution of mosquitoes in China were described in this study. The results will pro-vide scientific basis and measures for further researching,controlling and preventing arthropod-borne infection diseases due to mosquitoes.%蚊类是传播多种动物虫媒病毒的重要生物媒介。随着全球一体化和气候变暧,蚊类分布范围扩大,传播动物虫媒病毒的能力增加。动物虫媒病严重影响家畜养殖业的发展,造成巨大的经济损失。本文介绍了中国蚊科的区系分布和种类,分析了传播动物虫媒病病毒的蚊种类及其我国的分布情况。为进一步研究和防治重要动物虫媒病提供科学依据。

  18. Isolation and identification of arboviruses from mosquito pools in some regions of Liaoning province,China%辽宁省部分地区2006年虫媒病毒分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟维珊; 丁俊; 褚发俊; 李志; 张立田; 赵玉军; 梁国栋; 张稷博; 孙肖红; 刘起男; 陈哲; 翟友刚; 付士红; 曹玉玺; 王环宇

    2009-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify arboviruses from mosquito pools in some regions of Liaoning province.Methods Mosquitoes were collected from Shenyang,Yingkou,Panjin,Jinzhou and Dandong cities of Liaoning province in 2006.Viruses were isolated by inoculating the specimens onto C6/ 36 and BHK-21cells.The new isolates were identified using serological and molecular biological methods.Results 5410 mosquitoes were collected from the five cities in total.Three isolates produced CPE in C6/ 36 cell and five isolates produced CPE in both C6/36 and BI-IK-21 cell.Three isolates (LN0684,LN0688 and LN0689) were identified as Banna virus and one isolate (LN0636) was identified as Getah virus.Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three Banna virus strains were clustered into the same evolution branch as the other Chinese isolates.The identity of nucleotide sequence was between 91.2% and 94.7%,compared with other Banna virus strains.The new isolated Getah virus was clustered into the same branch with the strain of South Korea (swine).The identity of nucleotide sequence was 99.2%,when comparing with the strain of South Korea and was 95% to 99% with the strains fi'om Russia,mainland of China and Taiwan region.Conehmion Eight virus isolates,including three Banna virus,one Getah virus and four unknown virus strains were isolated from mosquitoes in Liaoning province.Banna virus and Getah virus were reported for the first time in Liaoning province,while Getah virus showed the highest nucleotide homology with the South Korea strains.%目的 调查辽宁省虫媒病毒的种类及分布.方法 2006年8月在辽宁省沈阳市、营口市、盘锦市、锦州市和丹东市采集蚊虫标本,利用组织细胞培养分离病毒,对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定.结果 5个市共采集蚊虫标本5410只,分离到8株阳性分离物,经鉴定其中3株(LN0684、LN0688、LN0689)为版纳病毒,1株(LN0636)为甲病毒属盖塔病毒,另外4株尚在鉴定.新分离

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF TWO 14-3-3 PROTEINS IN THE MOSQUITO Aedes aegypti, AN IMPORTANT ARBOVIRUSES VECTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Ocampo, Abel; Cázares-Raga, Febe Elena; Celestino-Montes, Antonio; Cortés-Martínez, Leticia; Rodríguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz

    2016-11-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are evolutionarily conserved acidic proteins that form a family with several isoforms in many cell types of plants and animals. In invertebrates, including dipteran and lepidopteran insects, only two isoforms have been reported. 14-3-3 proteins are scaffold molecules that form homo- or heterodimeric complexes, acting as molecular adaptors mediating phosphorylation-dependent interactions with signaling molecules involved in immunity, cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. Here, we describe the presence of two isoforms of 14-3-3 in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika viruses. Both isoforms have the conserved characteristics of the family: two protein signatures (PS1 and PS2), an annexin domain, three serine residues, targets for phosphorylation (positions 58, 184, and 233), necessary for their function, and nine alpha helix-forming segments. By sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, we found that the molecules correspond to Ɛ and ζ isoforms (Aeae14-3-3ε and Aeae14-3-3ζ). The messengers and protein products were present in all stages of the mosquito life cycle and all the tissues analyzed, with a small predominance of Aeae14-3-3ζ except in the midgut and ovaries of adult females. The 14-3-3 proteins in female midgut epithelial cells were located in the cytoplasm. Our results may provide insights to further investigate the functions of these proteins in mosquitoes.

  20. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  1. Établissement d’un modèle de prédiction de la Bluetongue basé sur les données météorologiques et de télédétection, cas de la région Fès-Meknès

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef LHOR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT is an infectious, arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. BT is a notifiable disease of huge socio-economic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. However, no study has yet been carried out to propose a tool to anticipate the occurrence of the disease. The objective of this study is to perform a mathematical model for predicting suitable areas for the appearance of bluetongue disease. This model will allow the monitoring and management of this animal disease. The creation of this model is based on epidemiological data collected in the field. These are combined with two other types of data: Remote Sensing (vegetation index, altitude and climate (temperature, rainfall. The model performed is based on logistic regression. The assumption about its validity was examined by testing many combinations based on modeling and validation on data of 2006 and 2009 in Fès-Meknès region. The validation rates obtained are between 73% and 80%. This approach requires, in order to be effectively used as an early warning and risk management tool by animal health decision-makers, an efficient and real-time collection of epidemiological field data.

  2. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  3. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Washington, DC, 1979. Bia, F.J., Thornton, G.F., Main, A.J., Fong, C.K.Y. and Hsiung, G.D. Western equine encephalitis mimicking herpes simplex...Shope, R.E. and Woodall, J.P. Ecological interaction of wildlife, man and a virus of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex in a tropical...J.J. and Wallis, R.C. Infection and transmission of eastern equine 9 7 encephalomyelitis virus with colonized Culiseta melanura (Coquillett). Am. J

  4. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    viruses from many parts of the world. 7 %, 1.1%vl ’ e- "., Distribution of reagents. The reference center distributed 970 ampoules of reference sera...eight pools of Culiseta melanura collected during 1984 as part of a field study on Lyme disease and other zoonoses in Connecticut. A ninth strain was...dense amorphous masses, were present also in the cytoplasm. Smooth-surfaced reticula occurred in the cytoplasm and contained viral particles in

  5. World Reference Center for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-07

    Cache Valley virus induces congenital malformations in sheep . Vet. Microbiol. 21:297-307, 1990. Comer, J.A., and Tesh, R.B. Phlebotomine sand flies as...Gonzalez, J.P., Cornet, J.P., and Camicas, J.L. Transmission of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus from experimentally infected sheep to Hyaloseea

  6. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Chaco Kammavanpettai Rabies Ken T 83 Chagres Kannamangalam Reovirus Tettnang Chandipura Karimabad Rio Bravo EgArT 1147 -32- Table 26 (continued...the rural area of Sangre Grande. Nine more were from persons vaccinated in 1976 and one in 1973. Several lots of vaccine from different countries-of...The single non-reactor was from Sangre Grande and was said to have received vaccine manufactured in Brazil. Overall, 99.6% of vaccines had antibody

  7. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Greece. Monoclonal antibodies for Rift Valley fever were generally specific, all IgG, reacted the same in HI and neutralization when directed to...demonstrate transmission by nectar, failed to show any marked effects of colonization through 6 generations on susceptibility to infection, and failed...were referred for testing by the Centro Nacional de Microbiologia , Madrid. The sera were tested and found negative by HI with dengue and Rift Valley

  8. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-29

    February 1993 - 8 December 1993 Reauestor/Recipient Item shiDned Date Dr. Jorge Boshell 1 dengue 3 virus 11/30/93 Grupo de Virologia 1 CER cells Instituto...1 Rocio virus,SP H 34675, 12/14/92 Diretora do Servico de Virologia pass 5 Instituto Adolfo Lutz 1 Rocio MAF,V585-701-562 Av. Dr. Arnaldo 355 CEP

  9. World Reference Center for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-08

    to identify a putative alphavirus contaminating a culture of feline leukemia virus. The vaccine virus is normally non-cytopathogenic, however the... stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype: Growth in and transmission by Lutzomyia shannoni (Dipterat Psychodidae). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 42:483-490, 1990

  10. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-31

    two ecosystems (Witless Bay and Mono Lake) makes them ideal for study. The existence of multiple genotypes of closely related viruses in one ecosystem...Kannamangalam Punto Toro Oripouche (TR 9760) KFD Duvenhage BeAn 109303 Pongola (SA Ar 1) Mucambo (BeAn 8) Nkolbisson (YM 31) BeAr 41067 BeAn 174214 Aura Naple...Phlebovirus *SLE (BeAr 23379) 5/1/84 Candiru (BeH22511) 11/19/65 yellow fever (F2015) 9/4/67 Chagres 8/8/68 *Powassan 7/1/75 Punto Toro 11/7/69 Tyuleniy

  11. Epidemiologia das encefalites por arbovírus na amazônia brasileira Epidemiology of encephalitis by arboviruses in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1991-12-01

    outbreaks of human diseases caused by arboviruses had been detected. These viruses are widespread in all Amazonia, and at least four of them, EEE, WEE, SLE and MUC are pathogenic to man. EEE and WEE infections were detected by serology, while SLE and MUC by either serology and virus isolation. The PIX virus has the lowest prevalence and, it was isolated in only a few cases, one being from a laboratory infection. Wild birds are the main hosts for all these viruses, except MUC, whose major hosts are rodents. The symptoms presented by infected people were generally a mild febrile illness. Although, jaundice was observed in two individuals from whom SLE was isolated. A comparison of the clinical symptoms presented by the patients in the Amazon Region and other areas of America, especially in the USA is made. In Brazilian Amazon region epidemics have not been detected although, at least, one EEE epizootic was recorded in Bragança, Para State, in 1960. At that time, of 500 horses that were examined 61% were positive to EEE by HI and of mem 8.2% died On the other hand. SLE has caused four epizootics in a forest near Belem. Wild birds and sentinel monkeys were infected, but no human cases were reported.

  12. Arbovírus Ilheus em aves silvestres (Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis Ilheus arbovirus in wild birds (Sporophila caerulescens and Molothrus bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eloy Pereira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o isolamento do vírus Ilheus no Estado de São Paulo e avaliar o seu impacto para a saúde pública. MÉTODOS: O isolamento de vírus foi realizado em camundongos albinos Swiss, a partir de sangue de aves silvestres, capturadas com redes de espera tipo mist net, armadas no nível do solo, no Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo. A identificação das cepas isoladas foi feita pelos testes de inibição da hemaglutinação, fixação de complemento e neutralização em camundongos. Amostras de plasma de aves e de mamíferos silvestres foram submetidas à pesquisa sorológica para detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas duas cepas do vírus Ilheus em sangue de aves das espécies Sporophila caerulescens e Molothrus bonariensis e detectados anticorpos em aves das espécies Columbina talpacoti, Geopelia cuneata, Molothrus bonariensis e Sicalis flaveola, em sagüis das espécies Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata e no quati Nasua nasua. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento do vírus Ilheus e a detecção de anticorpos específicos em aves residentes, migratórias e de cativeiro, em sagüis e quatis, comprovam a presença desse agente no Parque Ecológico do Tietê. O comportamento migratório de aves silvestres pode determinar a introdução do vírus em outras regiões. Considerando-se a patogenicidade para o homem e a confirmação da circulação desse agente viral em área urbana, freqüentada para atividade de lazer e de educação, o risco de ocorrência de infecção na população humana não pode ser descartado.OBJECTIVE: To report the first Ilheus arboviruses isolated from wild birds and analyze its public health impact. METHODS: Wild birds and mammals were captured using mist nets and Tomahawk traps, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from these animals and inoculated intracerebrally in Swiss suckling mice found in the Parque Ecológico do Tietê, Brazil. The isolates were

  13. Inquérito soroepidemiológico para pesquisa de infecções por arbovírus em moradores de reserva ecológica Serological survey on arbovirus infection in residents of ecological reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolina S Romano-Lieber

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Inquéritos sorológicos têm evidenciado ampla circulação de arbovírus causadores de doença humana na Região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil. Com o propósito de estabelecer a prevalência de infecções por esses agentes em reserva ecológica, localizada naquela área, pesquisou-se a presença de anticorpos, bem como suas possíveis associações com características individuais e familiares dos investigados. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se anticorpos para os antígenos dos vírus Rocio (ROC, Ilhéus (ILH, encefalite de St. Louis (SLE, encefalites eqüinas do leste (EEE, oeste (WEE e venezuelana (VEE, em 182 pessoas pertencentes a 58 famílias residentes na Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins, utilizando-se testes de inibição de hemaglutinação e neutralização com redução de placas. Usou-se Mac-Elisa para pesquisar anticorpos IgM para os vírus ROC, ILH e EEE. RESULTADOS: Foi observada a presença de anticorpos para todos os arbovírus testados, com exceção do vírus WEE. A prevalência total de anticorpos foi 26,9% (21,4% para alfavírus e 12,6% para flavivírus. Não foram encontrados anticorpos IgM. Entre as várias características pesquisadas dos indivíduos e de suas famílias, a idade, a ocupação, a naturalidade e o hábito de entrar na mata mostraram-se estatisticamente associados a infecções por arbovírus (pOBJECTIVE: Serological inquires conducted in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil, showed an intense circulation of pathogenic arboviruses in the region. The goal was to verify the prevalence of arboviral infections in people living at the local ecological, and its potential association with these population' individual and familiar characteristics. METHODS: The study was carried out among 182 persons of 58 families to identify the presence of antibodies to the following viruses: Rocio (ROC, Ilheus (ILH, Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE, Western equine encephalitis virus (WEE, Venezuelan

  14. Broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 and specific detection of Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses by newly developed multiple TaqMan assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Yazaki, Ryu; Shuto, Yozo; Yanase, Tohru; Kato, Tomoko; Ishikura, Youji; Sakaguchi, Zenjiro; Suzuki, Moemi; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    TaqMan assays were developed for the broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 in the genus Orthobunyavirus and also for the specific detection of three viruses in the lineage, Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses (AKAV, AINOV and PEAV, respectively). A primer and probe set was designed for the broad-range detection of Simbu serogroup lineage 1 (Pan-Simbu1 set) mainly targeting AKAV, AINOV, PEAV, Sathuperi and Shamonda viruses (SATV and SHAV), and the forward and reverse primers of the Pan-Simbu1 set were also used for the specific detection of AKAV with another probe (AKAV-specific set). In addition, two more primer and probe sets were designed for AINOV- and PEAV-specific detection, respectively (AINOV- and PEAV-specific sets). All of the four primer and probe sets successfully detected targeted viruses, and thus broad-range and specific detection of all the targeted viruses can be achieved by using two multiplex assays and a single assay in a dual (two-color) assay format when another primer and probe set for a bovine β-actin control is also used. The assays had an analytical sensitivity of 10 copies/tube for AKAV, at least 100 copies/tube for AINOV, 100 copies/tube for PEAV, one copy/tube for SATV and at least 10 copies/tube for SHAV, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity of the assays was tested with field-collected bovine samples, and the results suggested that the sensitivity was higher than that of a conventional RT-PCR. These data indicate that the newly developed TaqMan assays will be useful tools for the diagnosis and screening of field-collected samples for infections of AKAV and several other arboviruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup lineage 1.

  15. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  16. 我国新分离虫媒病毒的初步鉴定%Identification of Arboviruses Recently Isolated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕新军; 付士红; 杨益良; 何海怀; 张桂筠; 陈向伟; 梁国栋; 金奇; 侯云德

    2001-01-01

    1990~1994年,从新疆地区的蚊、蜱和病人血清分离了多株病毒,为了明确这些病毒的分类地位,对其中的20株病毒进行了组织培养细胞感染实验和血清学检验,对部分毒株做了动物接种实验和理化性质鉴定。结果显示:20株病毒均可使BHK-21细胞病变(1~3天),主要表现为细胞圆缩,聚集,融合,破碎,脱落等;致Vero细胞病变为2~4天;15株病毒致C6/36细胞病变(2~4天),5株病毒对C6/36细胞连续观察7天未见细胞病变。11株病毒对乳鼠2~4天致死,对成年鼠2~5天致死。选取6株病毒进行理化性质鉴定,4株病毒(90260、91002、91004和91028)对5-氟脱氧尿苷耐受,对乙醚和酸敏感,提示为有膜RNA病毒;一株病毒(90265)对5-氟脱氧尿苷、乙醚和酸均敏感,提示为有膜DNA病毒;另一株病毒(9059)对5-氟脱氧尿苷耐受,对乙醚和酸也耐受,提示可能为无膜RNA肠道病毒。20株病毒中,17株病毒与甲病毒、乙型脑炎病毒和布尼亚病毒的特异性免疫腹水不反应,提示这些病毒中可能不存在甲病毒、黄病毒和布尼亚病毒;3株病毒(90260、91002和91004)只与甲病毒的特异性免疫腹水反应,与乙型脑炎病毒和布尼亚病毒的不反应,提示这三株病毒为甲病毒。%During the period of 1990 to 1994,twenty strains of unknownarboviruses were isolated from anoppheles,ixodes,sera of patients in Xinjiang Province of China.All of these arboviruses produced cytopathic effect(CPE)on BHK-21 and Vero cells.Fifteen strains could produce CPE on C6/36 cell,but the other five strains could not.Eleven strains had morbidity and mortality effects on neonatal and mature mice when inoculated intracerebrally.Six strains were identified with physical and chemical characteristics showing one strain(90265)was sensitive to 5-FudR,acid and ether,indicating it was DNA virus with

  17. Development of antibody-array for detection of six arboviruses%6种虫媒病毒蛋白芯片检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林方; 康晓平; 李裕昌; 朱晓磊; 范丽; 魏婧靖; 杨银辉; 祝庆余

    2011-01-01

    ).Methods Recombined antigens were spotted on array as capture antigens.Specific antibodies were detected by using a sandwich ELISA format.Rabbit antiserum was employed to select and confirm the specificity of antigens and to optimize the conditions of the assay.The detection efficiency of the system was validated by 40 clinical suspected serum samples and compared with the relative ELISA assays.Results Eleven recombined antigens were selected as diagnostic antigens with high specificity.Better detection could be achieved when scale of antigen concentrations were within 0.125-0.900 mg/ml and the serum dilutions were 1:100-1:1000.When detecting the 26 clinical suspected TBE serum samples,20 were IgG positive (76.9%),and 17 were IgM positive (65.3%) which was 96.1% and 84.6% consistent with the relevant ELLSA tests,the 8 clinical suspected JEV serum samples,4 were IgG positive (50.0%),and 5 were IgM positive (62.0%),which was 86.3% and 90.1% consistent with the relevant ELLSA tests.As for the 22 DEN serum samples,13 were IgG positive (60%) and 15 were IgM positive (68%) which was 85% and 93% consistent with ELISA.The specificity of the assay was 100% and the sensitivity was higher than the relative ELISAs.Conclusion The developed antibody-array is highly specific and reliable,which could be used for the detection of antibodies against the 6 arboviruses.

  18. Survey of Akabane virus and bluetongue virus infections in Guangxi province%广西牛羊赤羽病和蓝舌病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊; 覃绍敏; 白安斌; 曹颖颖; 饶桂波; 吴健敏

    2014-01-01

    为了解赤羽病病毒(AKAV)和蓝舌病病毒(BTV)2种虫媒病毒(Arbovirus)在广西的流行与分布情况,本研究对采集自2010年~2011年广西11市的706份牛、羊血清样品进行检测,共检测出AKAV抗体阳性样品382份,总阳性率为54.11%.其中山羊血清82份,阳性率为28.37%(82/289);牛血清300份,阳性率为71.94%(300/417).BTV抗体阳性样品279份,总阳性率为39.52%.其中山羊血清95份,阳性率为32.87%(95/289),牛血清样品184份,阳性率44.12%(184/417).同时检测出2种虫媒病毒抗体185份,占样品总数的26.20%.本研究结果表明2种虫媒病毒在广西广泛流行,并首次证明广西存在AKAV的感染.

  19. Seroepidemiological study on arbovirus infection of human being in Tengchong, Yunnan Province%云南腾冲地区人群虫媒传染病的血清流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰; 国文; 浮飞翔; 龚正达

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence rate of arbovirus antibodies in human being,and to understand the epidemic situation of arbovirus in Tengchong,Yunnan Province.Methods Serum antibodies in 72 cases with fever and 37 healthy people as control were detected by immunofluorescence assay.Results The positive rates of antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV),West nile virus(WNV),Chikungunya virus(CHK),Sindbis virus(SIN),Western equine encephalomyelitis virus(WEE) in these patients were 41.67%,50.00%,2.78%,1.39% and 0.00%,respectively.The positive rates of antibodies against JEV and WNV in healthy people were 18.92% and 32.43%,respectively.The geometric mean reciprocal titers(GMRT) in21 co-positives of JEV and WNV were 1:28 and 1:31,respectively.Conclusions The result shows that there are Flavivirus,Alphavirus and other Arbovirtus infection in Tengchong,Yunnan Province.%目的 调查云南腾冲地区人群中虫媒病毒抗体,以了解当地虫媒病毒流行情况.方法 应用间接免疫荧光试验(IFA)对72例不明发热患者血清中虫媒病毒抗体进行测定,同时选取37名健康体检者作为对照组.结果 发热患者血清中乙型脑炎病毒(JEV)、西尼罗病毒(WNV)、基孔肯雅病毒(CHK)、辛德毕斯病毒(SIN)和西部马脑炎病毒(WEE) IgG抗体阳性率依次为41.67%、50.00%、2.78%、1.39%、0.00%;正常人群血清JEV、WNV抗体阳性率分别为18.92%、32.43%,CHK、SIN、WEE IgG抗体均未检出.21例JEV、WNV抗体均为阳性样本的几何平均滴度(GMRT)分别为1:28和1:31.结论 该地区存在着黄病毒和甲病毒感染,还可能存在着其他虫媒病毒感染.

  20. Vigilância sorológica para arbovírus em Juruti, Pará, Brasil Serological survey for arboviruses in Juruti, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Ribeiro Cruz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a prevalência de anticorpos para arbovírus na área de influência do Projeto Juruti antes da exploração mineral local. Foram examinados 1.597 soros humanos e 85 de animais silvestres. A pesquisa de anticorpos foi realizada pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação contra antígenos dos arbovírus mais prevalentes na Amazônia brasileira e IgM-ELISA para dengue e febre amarela. Soros humanos inibidores da hemaglutinação positivos para Mayaro e Oropouche foram também testados por IgM-ELISA. Anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação para alfavírus, orthobunyavirus e/ou flavivírus foram detectados, sendo 28,7% reações monotípicas. Infecções recentes para Oropouche (n = 23, Mayaro (n = 5, e dengue (n = 20 foram confirmadas por IgM-ELISA. A prevalência de anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação em soros de animais silvestres foi de 8,2% para flavivírus. Os resultados obtidos mostram que houve circulação ativa dos vírus Mayaro, Oropouche e dengue no período do estudo em humanos em Juruti, Pará, Brasil, e de diversos arbovírus em animais silvestres, indicando presença desses vírus em áreas do Município de Juruti.This study aimed to measure the prevalence of antibodies to arboviruses in the area affected by the Juruti Project before local mining operations. A total of 1,597 human and 85 wild animal sera were examined, using the hemagglutination inhibition test against 19 antigens from the most prevalent arboviruses in the Brazilian Amazon and IgM-ELISA for dengue and yellow fever. Positive sera for Mayaro and Oropouche viruses were also tested by IgM-ELISA. Prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and orthobunyaviruses in humans was 28.7%, while for wild animals it was 8.2% for flaviviruses. Recent infections based on presence of IgM was confirmed for Mayaro (n = 5, Oropouche (n = 23, and dengue (n = 20. The results showed active circulation of the dengue

  1. Eco-epidemiologia dos arbovírus na área de influência da rodovia Cuiabá-Santarém (BR 163, Estado do Pará, Brasil Arbovirus eco-epidemiology in the area affected by the Cuiabá-Santarém Highway (BR-163, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo descreve os aspectos eco-epidemiológicos sobre arbovírus nos Municípios de Novo Progresso e Trairão, Estado do Pará, Brasil, na área de influência da BR 163. Anticorpos IH foram detectados para diferentes arbovírus, com reações monotípicas para os VMAY e VORO, dois importantes arbovírus associados a epidemias na Amazônia. Anticorpos IgM para o VORO e VMAY foram detectados em soros humanos, sugerindo infecção recente por esses arbovírus. Duas cepas do VDEN-3 foram isoladas de pacientes febris residentes em Novo Progresso e identificadas como genótipo III. Em termos gerais, os dados obtidos sugerem uma área propícia para a circulação e manutenção de arbovírus e uma população pouco imunizada. Portanto, é importante um monitoramento dinâmico das populações locais e de imigrantes e de animais silvestres quanto à presença de anticorpos e isolamentos de arbovírus, o que permitirá um efetivo controle das infecções por esses agentes virais em residentes da área da rodovia dentro do território paraense.The current study describes the eco-epidemiological aspects of arbovirus diseases in the municipalities (counties of Novo Progresso and Trairão, Para State, Brazil, in the area affected by highway BR-163. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies to different arboviruses were detected, with monotypic reactions to MAYV and OROV, two important arboviruses associated with epidemics in the Amazon. IgM antibodies to OROV and MAYV were found in human sera, suggesting recent infections by these viruses. Two DENV-3 strains were isolated from febrile patients in Novo Progresso and identified as genotype III strains. In general, the data suggest that the area displays ideal conditions for maintenance and circulation of arboviruses, plus a population with low immunization levels. Dynamic surveillance of local immigrants and wild animals is thus important, focusing on antibody prevalence and isolation of

  2. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission Investigação preliminar das espécies de culicídeos do Pantanal Sul brasileiro e sua potencial importância na transmissão de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.Regiões como o Pantanal brasileiro, que apresentam fatores como riqueza de fauna silvestre incluindo circulação de aves migratórias e condições ambientais e climáticas favoráveis à proliferação de artrópodes estão potencialmente sujeitas à circulação de arbovírus. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos foram realizados acerca da presença de arbovírus em potenciais vetores no Pantanal. Neste sentido o principal objetivo deste trabalho foi conduzir uma investigação preliminar para presença de arbovírus em amostragens de culicídeos capturados na Sub-região da Nhecolândia no Pantanal

  3. Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale.

  4. Investigation of Arboviruses Carried by Mosquitoes at Ports in Five Provinces of South China%南方五省口岸蚊类携带虫媒病毒调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑夔; 黄吉城; 李小波; 洪烨; 师永霞; 幸芦琴; 相大鹏; 郭波旋; 胡龙飞

    2009-01-01

    Objective To know about the background data of mosquito-borne viruses at ports of South China in order to provide evidence for the prevention and control of mosquitoes transmitted diseases. Method An automatic method of Mosquito Magnet apparatus and handwork method of electronic mosquito capture device were selected to collect mosquito samples in South China. And the mosquitoes were sent to the laboratory in a ultra-low temperature. After grinding the mosquitoes, several important mosquito-berne viruses including dengue virus, Japancses encephalitis virua, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus were detected by real-time PCR assay. A further study of PCR amplification and sequence analysis to the positive samples were performed. At the same time, a cell of C6/36 was used for Arbovirus isolation from the mosquito grinding samples. The cell samples with eytopathie effect were then subjected to RT-PCR assay to detect the flavivirus and alphavirus by using the universal primers specific to Flaviviridae flavivirus and Togaviridae alphavirus, respectively. The unknown virus that couldn' t be identified by the universal primers mentioned above was amplified by random PCR amplification, then the PCR products wer subjected to TA cloning, sequencing and Blast searching in Genbank. Result 12 575 mosquitoes were collected from the ports in five Provinces of South China. The mosquitoes were divided into 254 groups after identification. Detecting by real-time PCR assay. All the virus including Dengue virus, yellow fever virus West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus showed negative results except for 2 positive results with Japanese encephalitis virus nucleic acid detecting. The 2 Japanese encephalitis virus positive samples were sourced from Culex tritacniorhynchus collected from Fujian Province. The genotype of Japanese encephalitis v/rus was confirmed as G Ⅰ by PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the E gene. Virus isolate assay showed that cytopathic

  5. Seasonal drivers of the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemma L Geoghegan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses are a major cause of emerging disease with significant public health and economic impacts. However, the factors that determine their activity and seasonality are not well understood. In Australia, a network of sentinel cattle herds is used to monitor the distribution of several such viruses and to define virus-free regions. Herein, we utilize these serological data to describe the seasonality, and its drivers, of three economically important animal arboviruses: bluetongue virus, Akabane virus and bovine ephemeral fever virus. Through epidemiological time-series analyses of sero-surveillance data of 180 sentinel herds between 2004-2012, we compared seasonal parameters across latitudes, ranging from the tropical north (-10°S to the more temperate south (-40°S. This analysis revealed marked differences in seasonality between distinct geographic regions and climates: seasonality was most pronounced in southern regions and gradually decreased as latitude decreased toward the Equator. Further, we show that both the timing of epidemics and the average number of seroconversions have a strong geographical component, which likely reflect patterns of vector abundance through co-varying climatic factors, especially temperature and rainfall. Notably, despite their differences in biology, including insect vector species, all three viruses exhibited very similar seasonality. By revealing the factors that shape spatial and temporal distributions, our study provides a more complete understanding of arbovirus seasonality that will enable better risk predictions.

  6. BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES DETECTIONS IN SHEEP FROM ARAÇATUBA REGION –SAO PAULO, BRAZIL DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS CONTRA O VÍRUS DA LÍNGUA AZUL EM OVINOS NA REGIÃO DE ARAÇATUBA – SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Bluetongue (BT is an infectious, insect-born viral disease of ruminants. The causative agent of BT is bluetongue virus (BTV that belongs to the family Reoviridae genus Orbivirus. Insect vectors in the genus Culicoides transmit this virus. BT affects domestic and wild ruminants, however small ruminants are considered the most affected specie. The aim of the study was to detect antibodies against BTV in commercial sheep farms, of the Northeastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 1002 sera samples collected from adult sheep (above 1 year-old, comprising a total of 31 farms, were screened for the presence of BTV antibodies, by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID and ELISA-CFS (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay – competitive solid phase, both produced by Pan American Center of FMDV. From a total of 1002 samples, 651 (65% were positive by AGID and 742 (74.1%, were positive by ELISA-CFS. These results suggest that the BTV is widespread among farms, probably causing subclinical infections.

    KEY WORDS: AGID, bluetongue virus, ELISA-CFS, seroepidemiological survey.

    A língua azul é uma doença viral, cujo agente etiológico pertence à família Reoviridae, gênero Orbivirus, transmitida por um vetor (artrópode hematófago, do gênero Culicoides. Os animais acometidos são ruminantes domésticos e selvagens, porém os pequenos ruminantes são os mais afetados. O estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de anticorpos para língua azul em ovinos da região de Araçatuba, por possuir um rebanho expressivo e condições climáticas favoráveis à multiplicação de insetos. Foram analisadas 1.002 amostras de soros ovinos, provenientes de 31 cabanhas, pelas provas de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar (AGID e ELISA (Enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay de competição da fase sólida (ELISA CFS, provenientes do Centro Panamericano de Febre Aftosa. Desses soros, 651 (65% foram

  7. 河南省新安县和息县2012年蚊传虫媒病毒调查%Surveillance on mosquito-borne arboviruses in Xixian county and Xin’an county, Henan province, 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅匀; 付士红; 唐晓燕; 李幸乐; 尚思远; 徐超; 梁国栋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the species, distribution and genotype of mosquito⁃borne arboviruses in some regions of Henan province. Methods Mosquito samples were collected from Xixian county and Xin’an county in Henan province from May to August, 2012. After species identification, mosquitoes were inter⁃cells cross cultured for viral isolation. RT⁃PCR using specific primer for common arboviruses was used to identify the positive isolates. Molecular biological analysis were conducted by using software of Clustal X2.1, MegAlign, Genedoc 3.2 and Mega v5.1, and genotype for the virus was identified. Results A total of 7149 mosquitoes which belong to 5 species in 4 genera were collected. The predominant mosquito specie in Xin’an county was Armigeres subalbatus (2055, 51.36%), but the mainly species in Xixian county was Culex pipens pallens (2964, 94.16%). Five strains from Cx. pipens pallens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were identified as genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which caused slightly cytopathic effect (CPE) in C6/36 cells, and no CPE in BHK-21. But severe CPE was observed in BHK-21 when 3 days after inoculating the C6/36 culture of the viruses onto BHK-21 cells. Conclusion In Xixian county and Xin’an county of Henan province, both JEV and its primary vectors exist, and GenotypeⅠJEV is still the mainly JEV circulating in local natural environment.%目的:了解河南省部分地区蚊传虫媒病毒的种类分布及基因型别。方法于2012年5-8月在河南省洛阳市新安县和信阳市息县的居民住房、猪圈、牛棚及树林中采集蚊虫。使用细胞培养法分离病毒,通过反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT⁃PCR)方法进行种属特异扩增鉴定,并用Clustal X2.1、MegAlign、Genedoc 3.2和Mega v5.1生物信息学软件完成病毒核酸序列的分子生物学分析并进行基因分型。结果共采集蚊虫4属5种7149只,其中新安县以骚扰阿蚊居多(2055只,51.36%

  8. Investigation on arboviruses at Sino-Vietnam border areas in Wenshan of Yunnan province%云南省文山中越边境地区虫媒病毒调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛; 张海林; 李铭华; 王静林; 付士红; 冯云; 梁国栋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate arboviruses in Wenshan and Hekou county which are the Sino-Vietnam frontier regions of Wenshan, Yunnan province, China. Methods In September 2007,6091 culicines, 1334 anophelines, 848 aedes vexans and 53 armigeres obturbans were collected from 5 field sites. Mosquitoes were collected and stored in liquid nitrogen after classification. The mosquito pools were homogenized,and centrifuged,then the supernatant was inoculated onto C6/ 36 and BHK-21 cells,and the viral. isolates were identified by serological. and molecular biological. methods. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis on the viral. isolates were carried out using Clustal. X 1. 85,GENEDOC and MEGA4 software. Results A total. of 4 pairs of virus isolated with C6/36 cells cytopathic effect were observed,and other mosquito species have not cytopathic effect Strain WS0704-2 was Banna virus which identified by antibody response and PCR. Strain WS0704-1, WS0708-1, WS0708-2 were culex pipens pallens densovirus (CppDNV) which identified by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis the 12th segment showed significant difference between the new banna virus and other strains isolated in China. Conclusion There are many mosquito vectors in frontier regions (China and Vietnam) of Wenshan in Yunnan province of China,and mosquito-borne arbovirus,such as BAV were isolated here.%目的 对云南省文山县、河口县等中越边境地区开展虫媒病毒调查,以期了解当地蚊虫携带虫媒病毒情况.方法 2007年9月在当地5个采集点共采集蚊虫8326只,包括库蚊6091只,中华按蚊1334只,刺扰伊蚊848只,阿蚊53只,并保存于液氮.经消毒、研磨、离心等处理后进行组织培养细胞接种,分离病毒和对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定,以软件进行病毒的核苷酸序列比对和系统发生分析.结果 从库蚊分离到4株对C6/36细胞致病变的病毒分离物,其他蚊种没有分离到病毒分离

  9. Nematocera (Ceratopogonidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae and Culicidae) and control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y

    1994-12-01

    The biology, veterinary importance and control of certain Nematocera are described and discussed. Culicoides spp. (family Ceratopogonidae) transmit the arboviruses of bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and Akabane. Some other arboviruses have been isolated from these species, while fowl pox has been transmitted experimentally by Culicoides. These insects are vectors of the parasitic protozoans Leucocytozoon caulleryi and Haemoproteus nettionis, and the parasitic nematodes Onchocerca gutturosa, O. gibsoni and O. cervicalis. They also cause recurrent summer hypersensitivity in horses, ponies, donkeys, cattle and sheep. Farm animals can die as a result of mass attack by Simulium spp., which are also vectors of Leucocytozoon simondi, L. smithi and the filariae O. gutturosa, O. linealis and O. ochengi. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) have been isolated from simuliids, and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey strain has been replicated in Simulium vittatum. Simuliids are well known as vectors of O. volvulus, the cause of human onchocercosis (river blindness). The family Psychodidae includes the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia (subfamily Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania spp. in humans, dogs and other mammals. Vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana strain has been regularly isolated from phlebotomine sandflies. Mass attack by mosquitoes can also prove fatal to farm animals. Mosquitoes are vectors of the viruses of Akabane, BEF, RVF, Japanese encephalitis, VEE, western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis and west Nile meningoencephalitis, secondary vectors of AHS and suspected vectors of Israel turkey meningoencephalitis. The viruses of hog cholera, fowl pox and reticuloendotheliosis, the rickettsiae Eperythrozoon ovis and E. suis, and the bacterium Borrelia anserina are mechanically transmitted by mosquitoes. These insects also induce allergic dermatitis in horses. They

  10. 甘肃省河西走廊地区2011年蚊虫种类及虫媒病毒调查研究%Investigation of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Hexi Corridor of Gansu province, China in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查冰; 赵海; 梁国栋; 于德山; 付士红; 李国太; 吕志; 蒋建祥; 唐承军; 贾玉新; 董茂星

    2012-01-01

    .80% (7880/24 028), and Culex pipiens pallens accounted for 30.26% (7272/24 028). One virus strain (GS11-155) that could induce pathological changes of two types of cells (BHK-21 and C6/36 cells) was isolated by cell culture. Genes of Culex flavivirus (CxFV), Liaoning virus (LNV), and Getah virus (GETV) were detected in 32 batches of mosquito samples, and in 11 of the 32 batches, 1 had CxFV, 3 had GETV, and 7 had LNV, according to nucleotide sequencing. Conclusion Ae. vexans was the dominant species of mosquitoes in Hexi Corridor of Gansu province, China. The mosquitoes in Hexi Corridor carry several types of arboviruses, including the CxFV, GETV, and LNV.

  11. 云南省西双版纳地区2011年蚊虫及虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province, China in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承军; 朱进; 王宇; 陶伽伶; 李丽华; 白卫荣; 查冰; 王丕玉; 梁国栋; 付士红; 张海林; 范建华; 杨卫红; 章域震; 吕志; 李园园; 李鸿斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解云南省西双版纳地区蚊虫媒介的分布特点及当地虫媒病毒情况,为虫媒病毒病防治提供科学依据.方法 在云南省西双版纳州采集蚊虫标本,用细胞培养法分离病毒,并用RT-PCR法检测常见虫媒病毒核酸;在西双版纳州采集发热患者血清及脑脊液标本,并用ELISA法检测常见病毒性脑炎IgM抗体.结果 共采获蚊虫5属29种13 337只,其中三带喙库蚊、中华按蚊、带足按蚊分别占蚊虫标本总数的79.98%( 10 667/13 337)、7.95%( 1060/13 337)和7.38%(984/13 337),三带喙库蚊为当地优势蚊种.采用流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)病毒、版纳病毒、甲病毒属、环状病毒等多种虫媒病毒引物对214批蚊虫标本进行PCR检测,结果均为阴性;采用多种细胞对蚊虫标本进行病毒分离,结果也为阴性.用相关脑炎病毒试剂盒对采集到的52份急性期血清标本及54份脑脊液标本进行ELISA检测,发现乙脑病毒IgM阳性16例,单纯疱疹病毒IgM抗体阳性4例,腮腺炎病毒IgM抗体阳性13例,埃可病毒IgM抗体阳性3例,登革热病毒IgM抗体阳性1例.结论 2011年西双版纳地区采集到的蚊虫标本中未检测到乙脑、版纳及环状病毒等虫媒病毒,但血清学检测结果表明当地发热患者存在乙脑等多种病毒性脑炎感染.%Objective To investigate the distribution profiles of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province, China, and to provide evidence for prevention and control of arbovirus diseases. Methods Mosquito samples were collected in Xishuangbanna and then used for virus isolation by cell culture. RT-PCR was used to identify arbovirus. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from fever patients, and the common encephalitis virus IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results A total of 13 337 mosquitoes, belonging to 29 species and 5 genera, were collected. The main mosquitoes were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (79.98%, 10 667

  12. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  13. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  14. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two complementary analy

  15. Characterized Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Their Relation with Arbovirus in Yunnan Province%云南白纹伊蚊分布特点及与虫媒病毒的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海林; 自登云; 米竹青; 龚正达; 施华芳; 张云智; 侯宗柳; 杨兰萍

    2001-01-01

    目的:阐明白纹伊蚊分布特点,掌握其自然感染虫媒病毒情况。方法:白天在居民点周围和野外竹林区捕蚊,用细胞法和乳鼠法分离病毒。结果:采获成年雌性蚊虫8属45种24885只,其中白纹伊蚊7622只,占30.62%。从该蚊中分离到登革4型病毒4株,登革3型病毒1株,流行性乙型脑炎病毒2株,基孔肯雅病毒2株,甲病毒2株。结论:白纹伊蚊在云南广泛分布,属竹林区优势蚊种,是云南登革热和基孔肯雅病的主要传播媒介及流行性乙型脑炎的传播媒介。%Objective: To study the characterized distribution of Aedesalbopictus and it's natural infection of arboviruses in Yunnan province. Methods: Collecting mosquitoes from the outdoor bamboo forests in the daytime.Using C6/36 or BHK21 cells and suckling mice to isolate viruses. Result: 24 885 adult female mosquitoes belonging 45 species of 8 genera were captured.The component rate of Ae.albopictus was 30.62%(7 622/24 885). Four strains of dengue(DEN) type 4 virus,a strain of DEN type 3 virus,two strains of Japanese encephalitis(JE) virus,two strains of chikungunya(CHIK) virus and two strains of Alphavirus were isolated from Ae.albopictus. Conclusions: Ae.albopictus is widely distributed in Yunnan province,which belong to the dominant species of mosquitoes in bamboo forests. Ae.albopictus might be the main transmitting vector of DEN and CHIK viruses in Yunnan,while it is also considered to be transmitting vector of JE virus.

  16. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., drunkenness, vagrancy, disturbing the peace, curfew violation, loitering, false fire alarm, non-specific charges of suspicion or investigation, and traffic violations (except data will be included on arrests...

  17. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  18. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  19. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  20. Culicoides Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Culicoides are vectors of viral diseases in do- mestic animals and humans. Isolation of half of the known Simbu group arboviruses has been made from...53 (male, femalej. Holotype: 0, Zika Forest, Uganda, C. Khamala, light trap, 17-V-66 (BMNH). Paratypes: 1 0, 1 6, Kakamega Forest, Kenya, C... vector potential than imicola and others. Precipitin tests of seven blood-engorged females gave one positive for sheep. They isolated bluetongue-l

  1. Single-step biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Zornia diphylla leaves: A potent eco-friendly tool against malaria and arbovirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Khater, Hanem F; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. The application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools of mosquito vectors are a priority. Here single-step fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap aqueous leaf extract of Zornia diphylla as reducing and capping agent pf Ag(+) ions has been carried out. Biosynthesized AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of Z. diphylla leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the Z. diphylla leaf extract and Ag NP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 12.53, 13.42 and 14.61μg/ml, respectively. Biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Chironomus circumdatus, Anisops bouvieri and Gambusia affinis, with the respective LC50 values ranging from 613.11 to 6903.93μg/ml, if compared to target mosquitoes. Overall, our results highlight that Z. diphylla-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against larval populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance, with negligible toxicity against other non-target organisms.

  2. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  3. Mosquito-Disseminated Insecticide for Citywide Vector Control and Its Potential to Block Arbovirus Epidemics: Entomological Observations and Modeling Results from Amazonian Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2017-01-01

    that it was a before–after trial lacking truly independent replicates and that we did not measure mosquito-borne virus transmission empirically. Conclusions Mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to block mosquito-borne virus transmission citywide, even under adverse scenarios. Our results signal new avenues for mosquito-borne disease prevention, likely including the effective control of Aedes-borne dengue, Zika, and chikungunya epidemics. Cluster-randomized controlled trials will help determine whether mosquito-disseminated PPF can, as our findings suggest, develop into a major tool for improving global public health. PMID:28095414

  4. Including the Excluded: One School for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…

  5. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for...

  6. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  7. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  8. An acoustic finite element including viscothermal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.

    2007-01-01

    In acoustics it is generally assumed that viscous- en thermal boundary layer effects play a minor role in the propagation of sound waves. Hence, these effects are neglected in the basic set of equations describing the sound field. However, for geometries that include small confinements of air or thi

  9. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  10. [Biophysical Characterization of Biopharmaceuticals, Including Antibody Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals, including antibody drugs, are now popular because of their high specificity with low adverse effects, especially in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, because the active pharmaceutical ingredients of biopharmaceuticals are proteins, biophysical characterization of these therapeutic proteins should be required. In this manuscript, methods of chemical and physical characterization of therapeutic proteins are described. In terms of chemical characterization, analysis of chemical modifications of the constituent amino acids is explained. Physical characterization includes higher order structural analysis and assessment of protein aggregates. Quantification methods of aggregates with different sizes, recently encouraged by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are introduced. As for the stability of therapeutic proteins, the importance of chemical and physical stability is explained. Finally, the contribution of colloidal and structural stability to the production of an antibody drug less prone to aggregation is introduced.

  11. SKIRT: Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, Maarten; Dejonghe, Herwig; Davies, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    SKIRT is a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo technique. The name SKIRT, acronym for Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer, reflects the original motivation for its creation: it has been developed to study the effects of dust absorption and scattering on the observed kinematics of dusty galaxies. In a second stage, the SKIRT code was extended with a module to self-consistently calculate the dust emission spectrum under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. This LTE version of SKIRT has been used to model the dust extinction and emission of various types of galaxies, as well as circumstellar discs and clumpy tori around active galactic nuclei. A new, extended version of SKIRT code can perform efficient 3D radiative transfer calculations including a self-consistent calculation of the dust temperature distribution and the associated FIR/submm emission with a full incorporation of the emission of transiently heated grains and PAH molecules.

  12. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  13. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  14. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  15. Inlet Guide Vane Wakes Including Rotor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. T.; Fleeter, S.

    2001-02-01

    Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV row able to be indexed circumferentially, thereby allowing measurements to be made across several IGV wakes. With an IGV relative Mach number of 0.29, measurements include the IGV wake pressure and velocity fields for three IGV-rotor axial spacings. The decay characteristics of the IGV wakes are compared to the Majjigi and Gliebe empirical correlations. After Fourier decomposition, a vortical-potential gust splitting analysis is implemented to determine the vortical and potential harmonic wake gust forcing functions both upstream and downstream of the rotor. Higher harmonics of the vortical gust component of the IGV wakes are found to decay at a uniform rate due to viscous diffusion.

  16. Including supplementary elements in a compositional biplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunis-i-Estadella, J.; Thió-Henestrosa, S.; Mateu-Figueras, G.

    2011-05-01

    The biplot is a widely and powerful methodology used with multidimensional data sets to describe and display the relationships between observations and variables in an easy way. Compositional data are vectors with positive components, whose sum is constant because they represent a relative contribution of different parts to a whole; due to this property standard biplots cannot be performed with compositional data, instead of a previous transformation of the data is performed. In this paper, we extend the compositional biplot defined by Aitchison and Greenacre (2002), in order to include in the display supplementary elements which are not used in the definition of the compositional biplot. Different types of supplementary elements are considered: supplementary parts of the composition, supplementary continuous variables external to the composition, supplementary categorical variables and supplementary observations. The projection of supplementary parts of the composition is done by means of the equivalence of clr and lr biplots. The other supplementary projections are done by classical methodology. An application example with a real geological data is included.

  17. World Reference Center for Arboviruses and Retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    spot slides of VSV Indiana strains grown in a pig kidney line (Instituto Biologico Rim Suino-2). The monoclonal antibodies were designed to be specific...Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogota, Colombia to receive materials from AIDS patients and to receive HIV isolates for confirmation of identity and for...the request for strains. Virus specimens submitted were subsequently passaged in C6/36 or Vero cells. This material was used to prepare virus stocks

  18. Vector Competence of Mosquitoes for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-30

    ml) on the titers of three alphaviruses , Sindbis(A), western equine encephalomyelitis (B), Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (C), and the...population have been delineated and discussed with reference to the mosquito, Culex tarsalis, and the alphavirus , western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE...mechanism that appears to control WEE viral replication (Hardy et al., 1983; Kramer et al., 1989; Ann. Prog. Rpt., 1988). The ability of a mosquito to

  19. World Reference Center for Arboviruses and Retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Thai flaviviruses with tembusu, Japanese encephalitis, Zika , and Sepik antibodies . . . 14 7. Results of plaque reduction neutralization with 8...the same vector species, implying that reasortment between these isolates could occur either in the mosquito vector or vertebrate host. Similarly...migratory birds in the dispersal 10 of the virus over vast distances. e. ixodes Persulcatus ticks vector the Siberian isolates and Ixo.-es rTcinus the

  20. ACCREDITATION FOR TECHNICAL ABILITIES INCLUDING COMPUTER SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Hami OZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector Skills are defined by state-sponsored, employer-led organizations that cover specific economic sectors in the European Union and other countries in the world to reduce skills gaps and shortages, improve productivity, boost the skills of their sector workforces and improve learning supply. The accreditation and registration systems used by professional bodies raise the profile of the profession. In many countries including the European Union, professional associations are beginning to accept practice-based accreditation, generally as an alternative to their mainstream systems. Besides studying the certain agencies in the European Union for assessing/accreditating practical abilities , Accreditation for practical abilities of Information Communication Technology and Business Management/Language domains developed by Accreditation Council for Practical abilities are also studied in detail as an example to establish a similar agency in Turkey.

  1. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  2. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  3. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  5. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  6. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  7. Reconnection experiments including 3D magnetic nulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, A.; Egedal, J.; Vrublevskis, A.

    2010-11-01

    A rich collection of magnetic reconnection scenarios is possible in three dimensions depending on the topological and geometric structure of the magnetic field [1]. In recent experiments at the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) three-dimensional effects were essential even in nearly axisymmetric plasmas with a non-vanishing toroidal field [2]. To explore reconnection in 3D geometries including magnetic null points, a new adjustable set of coils will be installed in the vacuum chamber of VTF. The range of vacuum magnetic field topologies attainable in VTF will be explored numerically. Plasma reconnection experiments will be run in these configurations, and measurements will be presented if available. [4pt] [1] CE Parnell, et al., (2009) ``Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection, in Magnetic Coupling between the Interior and the Atmosphere of the Sun,'' eds. S.S. Hasan and R.J. Rutten, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin. [0ex] [2] Katz, N. et al., (2010) Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 255004.

  8. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  9. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  10. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasaro, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  11. 湖北省部分地区2009年蚊传虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of mosquito-borne arboviruses in some regions of Hubei province, China in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓艳; 付士红; 邹文菁; 胡乐群; 刘红; 占发先; 霍细香; 梁国栋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species and distribution patterns of mosquito - borne arboviruses in some regions of Hubei province, China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected in Wuxue county of Huanggang city and Tongcheng county of Xianning city in the summer of 2009. Viruses were isolated from the samples by tissue culture, and the obtained virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the isolated viruses using bioinformatics software. Results A total of 9424 mosquitoes, belonging to 5 species and 3 genera, were collected. Four virus strains (HBTC0913, HBTC0917, HBTC0919, and HBTC0921) were isolated and identified as Banna virus (BAV). According to the phylogenetic analysis of the 12th segment of BAV, the four strains were in the same subgroup as the isolates from Beijing, Yunnan, and Inner Mongolia, China as well as Vietnam, and but in a different subgroup from the isolates from Indonesia. Compared with previous isolates, the BAV strains showed nucleotide and amino acid homologies of 87.2%-89.8% and 86.1%-90.9%, respectively, according to the homology analysis of the coding region of the 12th segment. Conclusion BAV strains were first isolated in Hubei province, China. They have a close phylogenetic association with YN6 strain isolated in Yunnan, China.%目的 调查湖北省部分地区蚊传虫媒病毒种类和分布状况.方法 2009年夏季在湖北省黄冈市武穴市和咸宁市通城县采集蚊虫标本,用组织培养法分离病毒,用血清学和分子生物学方法对阳性病毒分离物进行鉴定,利用生物信息学软件对新分离病毒进行序列同源性和系统进化分析.结果 采集到3属5种9424只蚊虫标本,阳性4株(HBTC0913、HBTC0917、HBTC0919和HBTC0921),经血清学和分子生物学鉴定均为版纳病毒;版纳病毒第12节段分子进化分析显示,4株新分离版纳病毒与中国北京、云南和内蒙古地

  12. 贵州省不同地区2008年虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of arboviruses in different regions of Guizhou province,China in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭华; 付士红; 冯云; 叶绪芳; 赵苏晔; 刘淳婷; 梁国栋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution profiles of arboviruses in different regions of Guizhou province, China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected using mosquito lamps in Qianxi county, Dejiang county, Rongjiang county, and Congjiang county, Guizhou province in July 2008 and then used for virus isolation by tissue culture. The obtained virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods. Homology and phylogenetic analysis were performed on viral sequences by bioinformatics. Results A total of 9160 mosquitoes (4 species, 3 genera) were collected. Out of the 9 virus strains isolated from the mosquitoes, 8 were identified as Getah virus (GETV), and 1 was identified as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Compared with the prototype strain, the GETV strains had a nucleotide homology of 94.5%-94.9% and an amino acid homology of 97.4%-97.6% . The newly isolated JEV belonged to genotype I , according to the homology and phylogenetic analysis. Conclusion GETV and genotype I JEV were first isolated from mosquitoes collected in Guizhou province, China. The GETV strains in Guizhou province have a close phylogenetic association with the strains isolated from other provinces in China, and the JEV strain in Guizhou province has a close phylogenetic association with the strains isolated from Sichuan province, China.%目的 调查贵州省不同地区虫媒病毒分布状况,对采集的蚊虫标本进行病毒分离与鉴定.方法 2008年7月在贵州省黔西、德江、榕江和从江县的4个标本采集点使用诱蚊灯采集蚊虫标本,通过组织培养法分离病毒,并对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定;利用生物信息学技术对新分离病毒的序列进行分析,完成同源性和系统发生分析.结果 采集到3属4种共计9160只蚊虫标本,从中分离到9株病毒,鉴定结果显示8株为盖塔病毒,1株为流行性乙型脑炎病毒(JEV);贵州省新分离盖塔病毒与原型株

  13. Isolation and identification of arboviruses at riverside of Yalu River in Dandong, Liaoning province, China in 2007%辽宁省丹东市鸭绿江沿岸2007年虫媒病毒分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟维珊; 李铭华; 付士红; 张稷博; 张立田; 陈哲; 丁俊; 梁国栋

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解辽宁省丹东市鸭绿江沿岸虫媒病毒的种类和分布情况.方法 使用诱蚊灯捕蚊,通过组织培养法分离病毒,并对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定.结果 2007年7月在辽宁省丹东市鸭绿江沿岸6个采集点采集到3属3种共3359只蚊虫标本,从中分离到11株病毒分离物,鉴定结果显示有5株为版纳病毒,3株为环状病毒样病毒,其余3株分离物有待进一步鉴定;版纳病毒新分离株序列分析结果显示,5株版纳病毒之间第12片段序列高度同源,核苷酸同源性为92.1%~99.8%;氨基酸同源性为92.8% ~99.5%;并且与北京分离株和云南分离株同源性较高,核苷酸同源性为91.3%~98.7%;氨基酸同源性为90.8%~100%;系统进化分析提示,版纳病毒新分离株与北京、云南分离株位于同一个进化分支中.结论 在辽宁省丹东市鸭绿江沿岸首次分离到版纳病毒和环状病毒样病毒,新分离版纳病毒与北京、云南分离株进化关系较近.%Objective To investigate the types and distribution profiles of arboviruses at the riverside of Yalu River in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected with mosquito lamps and then used for virus isolation by tissue culture. The obtained virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods. Results A total of 3359 mosquitoes (3 species, 3 genera) were collected from 6 sites at the riverside of Yalu River in July 2007. Eleven virus strains were isolated from the mosquito samples. Of the 11 strains, 5 were identified as Banna Virus (BAV), 3 were identified as Orbivirus, and 3 needed further identification. Based on the results of sequence analysis, the 5 BAV strains shared high homology in terms of the 12th segment, with nucleotide and amino acid homologies of 92.1%-99.8% and 92.8%-99.5%, respectively, and were highly homologous with those from Beijing and Yunnan province

  14. 辽宁省部分地区2008年虫媒病毒分离鉴定%Arboviruses isolated from mosquitoes in Liaoning province in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉玺; 付士红; 张稷博; 孟维珊; 王焕琴; 何英; 王环宇; 郭军巧; 梁国栋

    2012-01-01

    目的 在辽宁省采集蚊虫标本进行病毒分离,了解虫媒病毒分布情况.方法 2008年夏季在辽宁省丹东和锦州市采集蚊虫标本,利用C6/36和BHK-21等细胞分离病毒;对新分离病毒利用血清学、分子生物学和生物信息学方法进行鉴定.结果 在辽宁省丹东和锦州市共采集蚊虫标本3属5种9296只,包括库蚊属的三带喙库蚊、淡色库蚊,伊蚊属的刺扰伊蚊、背点伊蚊和按蚊属的中华按蚊.从蚊虫标本中共得到4株病毒分离物,其中1株为乙型脑炎(乙脑)病毒(丹东市的三带喙库蚊),2株为版纳病毒(锦州市的中华按蚊),1株为辽宁病毒和版纳病毒混合(锦州市的中华按蚊).新分离乙脑病毒属于基因Ⅰ型乙脑病毒,E基因编码病毒毒力和抗原表位的位点未发生改变.结论 在辽宁省再次分离到乙脑病毒,并首次证明辽宁省存在辽宁病毒.%Objective To learn the distribution of arboviruses in mosquitoes in Liaoning province. Methods The samples were collected in Dandong and Jinzhou of Liaoning province in 2008. The isolation of viruses was conducted by way of C6/36 and BHK-21 cell culture, with identification of viruses done by serological, molecular and bioinformatics methods. Results A total of 9296 mosquitoes consisting of 5 species from the Culex, Aedes and Anopheles genera were trapped. Four virus isolates were obtained from pooled mosquitoes and were identified as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (from Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus), Banna virus (2 isolate from An. Sinensis) and the mixture of Liaoning virus and Banna virus (from An. Sinensis). Genotype of JEV isolate belonged to genotype I and no mutation of amino acid sequence coding conformational epitope occurred in Envelop protein. Conclusion Genotype I JEV was isolated again in Liaoning province and Liaoning virus was documented in this area for the first time.

  15. 湖北省部分地区2010年蚊传虫媒病毒调查%Investigation of arbovirus in some areas of Hubei province, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓艳; 付士红; 邹文菁; 彭延; 刘红; 曹玉玺; 江永忠; 梁国栋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To continue the investigation on the distribution of mosquito⁃borne arbovirus in some areas of Hubei province. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from Enshi state, Shennongjia forest region, Jiangling county and Suizhou city in the summer of 2010. Virus was isolated from these mosquitoes by cell culture. The virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted on virus genome sequences. Results 12 845 mosquitoes were collected. 38 virus strains were isolated from mosquitoes. Through serological and molecular biological identification, 32 strains were identified as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), 5 were Getah virus (GETV), 1 was mixed strain of JEV and GETV. Phylogenetic analysis on E sequence of JEV showed all JEV strains belonged to genotypeⅠ JEV, and analysis on NS2 sequence of GETV showed new strains that were homogenous with strains isolated from Hebei and South Korea, but heterogeneous with strain from Russia. Conclusion GETV was firstly isolated from Hubei province, and genotypeⅠJEV was re⁃confirmed from Hubei province.%目的:继续调查湖北省蚊媒和病毒种类及其分布状况。方法2010年夏季在湖北省恩施州、神农架林区、江陵县和随州市采集蚊虫标本,用组织培养法分离病毒,用血清学和分子生物学方法对阳性病毒分离物进行鉴定,利用生物信息学软件对新分离病毒进行序列同源性和系统进化分析。结果采集到3属4种12845只蚊虫标本,共分离到38株阳性分离物,经血清学和分子生物学鉴定,32株阳性分离物为流行性乙型脑炎病毒(JEV),5株阳性分离物为盖塔病毒,1株为JEV和盖塔病毒感染混合株。JEV E基因序列进化分析显示新分离JEV均为基因Ⅰ型JEV。盖塔病毒NS2基因序列进化分析显示新分离病毒与中国河北省和韩国毒株同源性最高,与俄罗斯分离株进化关系较远。结论

  16. 广州从化无规定马属动物疫病区和缓冲区病媒生物本底调查%A survey on the arbovirus vectors in Conghua specific equine epizootic disease-free zone and its buffer zone in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯云玲; 田伟金; 彭聪; 杨悦屏; 彭南秀; 庄天勇; 梁卓粤; 黄柏顺; 胡永辉; 陈宇鹏

    2012-01-01

    为掌握广州从化无规定马属动物疫病区和缓冲区病媒生物的种类和分布,确保广州亚运马术比赛的顺利进行及从化无规定马属动物疫病区作为国内唯一获国际认可的“无疫区”在今后的正常运作和可持续发展,作者对该区域病媒生物进行了本底调查.本次调查共采集到吸血蚊类2698头,隶属1科4属5种;蝇类12788头,隶属4科17属28种;虻类161头,隶属1科3属6种;蠓类71头,隶属1科1属3种;蜱类743头,隶属1科1属1种.为控制这些病媒生物传播疾病的发生,应根据广州从化无规定马属动物疫病区和缓冲区病媒生物的分布特点和消长规律,定期开展病媒生物监测,及时掌握各种病媒生物的种群变化情况,并适时开展防虫除虫和控制检疫传染病的工作.%In order to get insight into the species composition and distribution of the arbovirus vectors in the area, and to provide a scientific base for the success of equestrian competition event of Guangzhou A-sian Games as well as the sustainable development of the only specific equine epizootic disease - free zone in China which has been recognized internationally, the authors investigated the arbovirus vectors in Conghua specific equine epizootic disease - free zone and its buffer zone. In this survey, 2698 blood - sucking mosquitoes were captured, belonging to 1 family 4 genera 5 species; 12788 flies were captured, belonging to 4 families 17 genera 28 species; 161 tabanid flies were captured, belonging to 1 family 3 genera 6species; 71 biting midges were captured, belonging to 1 family 1 genus 3 species; 743 ticks were captured, belonging to 1 family 1 genus 1 species. In order to control the diseases carried by insects, surveys should be carried out periodically according to the distribution and the occurrence regularity of the arbovirus vectors in Conghua specific equine epizootic disease - free zone and its buffer zone. Population dynamics of the arbovirus

  17. Imaging of axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; Baraliakos, X

    2011-03-01

    New bone formation of the vertebral column is pathognomonic for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while acute and/or chronic changes in the sacroiliac joints are relevant for diagnosis. The 'gold standard' for assessment of structural changes in AS are conventional radiographs, while MRI is useful to assess inflammation. Recent MRI studies have shown that the lower half of the thoracic spine is most commonly affected in AS. Scoring tools for spinal inflammation such as the ASspiMRI-a have been proposed, successfully used in large clinical trials and compared in a multireader experiment; none was finally preferred by OMERACT. Quantification of structural spinal AS changes is performed by the modified Stokes AS Spine Score (mSASSS), which evaluates lateral cervical and lumbar radiographs. Two years was identified as the shortest possible follow-up time based on the reliability and sensitivity to change of the mSASSS. A potential disadvantage of the mSASSS is that the thoracic spine is not included. Recent data based on the mSASSS have suggested that tumour necrosis factor blockers do not inhibit radiographic progression in AS. Since the mean radiographic change is reported to be less than 1 syndesmophyte over 2 years, the sensitivity to change of the mSASSS has been questioned. However, in one study where continuous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use was compared with on-demand use, a difference between these two methods of drug intake was reported. The face and construct validity of the mSASSS has been criticised because a score of ´1´ contains a mixture of osteodestructive (erosions) and osteoproliferative changes (squaring and sclerosis). A new scoring system, the RASSS, which concentrates only on bone formation and which includes the lower part of the thoracic spine is currently being evaluated. The relationship between inflammation and new bone formation in AS has recently been investigated. Low sclerostin and DKK-1 serum levels, both inhibitors of bone

  18. Extending Newtonian Dynamics to Include Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A paper presents further results of continuing research reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most recent being Stochastic Representations of Chaos Using Terminal Attractors (NPO-41519), [Vol. 30, No. 5 (May 2006), page 57] and Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness (NPO-43822) [Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), page 56]. This research focuses upon a mathematical formalism for describing post-instability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence as a form of chaos). The formalism involves fictitious control forces that couple the equations of motion of the system with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These stabilizing forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in configuration space (ordinary three-dimensional space as commonly perceived) is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. As a result, the post-instability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable.

  19. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  20. Odontogenic fibroma, including amyloid and ossifying variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, Lewis R

    2011-12-01

    Sixty-five cases of odontogenic fibroma (OdonF) are herein presented having been segregated into peripheral, extra bony tumors (n = 40) and tumors arising in bone or centrally (n = 25). All cases were characterized microscopically by a fibrous proliferation that varied within and between cases in cellularity and collagen fibril diameter, with intermixed odontogenic epithelial islands and cords. All central lesions presented as well demarcated radiolucencies and resorption of contiguous tooth roots was a common finding. These intraosseous lesions were of the WHO type; the so-called nonWHO type was excluded as all lesions with this diagnosis were devoid of an epithelial component and could be reclassified as other soft tissue fibrogenic tumors. Neither the central tumors nor the peripheral lesions recurred following enucleation/curettage, with a mean follow-up of 4 and 3.4 years respectively. Three distinct microscopic variations were encountered in this series: (1) two cases of OdonF with giant cell reaction, (2) two instances of OdonF with ossifying fibroma; and (3) four instances of OdonF with odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM), an amyloid-like protein found deposited adjacent to epithelial cords plus CD1a+/S-100+ Langerhans dendritic cells entwined around the epithelial element. A single instance of the odontogenic fibroma-like hamartoma/enamel hypoplasia syndrome has been included in this series.

  1. Full Boltzmann equations for leptogenesis including scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn-Woernle, F; Wong, Y Y Y

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by means of the full classical Boltzmann equations, without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors. Beginning with the full mode equations we derive the usual equations of motion for the right-handed neutrino number density and integrated lepton asymmetry, and show explicitly the impact of each assumption on these quantities. For the first time, we investigate also the effects of scattering of the right-handed neutrino with the top quark to leading order in the Yukawa couplings by means of the full Boltzmann equations. We find that in our full Boltzmann treatment the final lepton asymmetry can be suppressed by as much as a factor of 1.5 in the weak wash-out regime (K1), the full Boltzmann treatment and the integrated approach give nearly identical final lepton asymmetries (within 10 % of each other at K>3). Finally, we show that the opposing effects of quantum statistics on decays/i...

  2. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  3. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  4. Correspondence between future-included and future-not-included theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    We briefly review the correspondence principle proposed in our previous paper, which claims that if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time $T_B$ and the past state at time $T_A$ as an expectation value in the complex action theory whose path runs over not only past but also future, the expectation value at the present time $t$ of a future-included theory for large $T_B-t$ and large $t-T_A$ corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large $t-T_A$. This correspondence principle suggests that the future-included theory is not excluded phenomenologically.

  5. Lethal Effect of Bluetongue Virus Strain HbC3 on Mouse Prostata Cancer RM-1 Cells%蓝舌病毒湖北株对小鼠前列腺癌RM-1细胞的杀伤效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王肖; 张杰; 杜贤进; 周晓光

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics and the mechanism of bluetongue virus strain HbC3(HCMV) infecting mouse prostate cancer RM-1 cells in vitro.Methods: BTV-HbC3 was used to infect RM-1 cells, the the cytopathic effect (CPE) was observed, and the inhibition activity of RM-1 cell infected with BTV-HbC3 was determined by MTT.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was adopted to study the changes of cell ultrastructure.DNA Ladder was taken to detect the apoptosis of RM-1 cells induced by BTV-HbC3.The apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry (FCM).Results: RM-1 cells were sensitive to BTV-HbC3 infection, CPE was found in BTV-HbC3 infected RM-1 cells, and lots of virus particles were found in cytoplasm by TEM.Apoptotic cells were detected by FCM.Conclusion: BTV-HbC3 could infect RM-1 cells and replicate efficiently, and induce apoptosis in tumor cells.%目的:体外研究蓝舌病毒湖北株3(BTV-HbC3)对小鼠前列腺癌细胞RM-1的感染性并探讨BTV-HbC3靶向性溶瘤的机制.方法:观察RM-1细胞感染BTV-HbC3的细胞病变效应;MTT法研究病毒致细胞病变率的特征;透射电镜观察感染病毒后细胞超微结构的变化;DNA Ladder分析病毒诱导细胞凋亡的情况;流式细胞仪测定病毒对RM-1细胞凋亡的影响.结果:BTV-HbC3感染RM-1细胞后有明显的细胞病变效应;DNA Ladder分析为阶梯状条带;透射电镜发现胞质内有大量病毒颗粒和典型细胞凋亡形态变化;流式细胞仪可见明显的细胞凋亡.结论:BTV-HbCs在体外能有效的感染RM-1细胞,并能诱导RM-1细胞凋亡.

  6. Níveis de anticorpos para arbovírus em indivíduos da região de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil Arbovirus antibody levels in the population of the Ribeirão Preto area, S.Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer os níveis de anticorpos para arbovírus, foram estudados 302 indivíduos da região de Ribeirão Preto (Brasil, moradores em 3 tipos de locais com distintas formas de organização do espaço: próximos à área de paisagem natural; com paisagem modificada para a agropecuária; comunidades urbanas. Foram efetuados testes sorológicos de inibição da hemaglutinação, neutralização e fixação do complemento para 21 arbovírus. Os resultados mostraram que 19,9% dos indivíduos investigados apresentaram anticorpos, sugerindo infecções pregressas por vários arbovírus. A maior percentagem de habitantes que se infectaram por estes agentes foi observada em locais próximos à área de paisagem natural, 38,5%. O vesiculovírus Piry foi o agente para o qual se encontrou o maior número de soros reagentes, 12,5%. A maior ocorrência de portadores de anticorpos para o vírus Piry foi observada nos indivíduos: do sexo masculino; com idade superior a 40 anos; guardas-florestais, lavradores e profissionais com atividades ligadas ao rio.The area of Ribeirão Preto is located in the north of S.Paulo State - Brazil. The population is 611,742. The climate is sub-tropical warm and humid. The area of Ribeirão Preto is almost completely deforested and covered by extensive plantations of sugar cane and coffee and pasture. With the purpose of discovering the arbovirus antibody levels, a serologic survey was carried out among people of the Ribeirão Preto area living in different geographical environments. Fifty two inhabitants located close to natural landscap, 38 in places with landscape modified by agriculture and cattle raising, and 93 in urban communities were studied. Serologic tests for hemagglutination inhibition by 20 Togaviridae and Bunyaviridae arbovirus, and neutralization and complement fixation tests on Piry Rhabdoviridae were carried out. It was discovered that 19.9% of the sample population presented antibodies

  7. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: II - inquérito em pacientes do Hospital Regional de Pariquera-Açú, 1980 A serological study for research of arbovirus antibodies in human population of the Ribeira Valley Region: II - a survey of patients in the Pariquera-Açú Regional Hospital, 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinaçãc de arbovírus em 516 moradores das zonas urbana e rural da região do Vale do Ribeira, Brasil, área extensamente coberta de florestas onde ocorreu recentemente uma epidemia de encefalite atribuída ao Flavivirus Rocio. Verificou-se que 24,2% destas pessoas tinham anticorpos IH para um ou mais arbovírus (11,2% para Alphavirus; 13,2% para Flavivirus; 4,6% para o Bunyavirus Caraparu e 0,8% para outros arbovírus. Alguns dos investigados, sem antecedente de vacinação contra febre amarela, apresentaram anticorpos neutralizantes para o vírus da encefalite equina do Leste, St. Louis e da febre amarela, os dois últimos ainda não isolados na região. A análise das características dos indivíduos com sorologia positiva sugeria que a transmissão de arboviroses não era fato recente e estava se fazendo em pelo menos 9 municípios da área, não só no ambiente silvestre como fora do mesmo. Os indivíduos de sexo masculino e entre estes os que trabalham em pesca, em geral no período vespertino e noturno, apresentaram maior risco à infecções arbovíricas.A serological survey for hemagglutination - inhibition antibodies to arbovirus was carried out on 516 residents of the rural and urban zones of the Ribeira Valley, Brazil, a largely forested area where there recently occurred an encephalitis epidemic attributed to Flavivirus Rocio. It was discovered that 24.2% of the sample population presented HI antibodies (11.2% against Alphavirus, 13.2% against Flavivirus, 4.6% against the Caraparu virus and 0.8% against other arboviruses. Neutralizing antibodies for Eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and yellow fever virus were detected in some of the people, not vaccinated against yellow fever, who have always lived in the region. These last two viruses have never before been isolated in the area. The characteristics of people who presented

  8. Development of a GeXP Based Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Arboviruses Related to Encephalitis%8种脑炎相关虫媒病毒GeXP检测方法的初步建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玢; 王环宇; 张晨; 王淼; 秦萌; 王克霞; 马学军

    2012-01-01

    利用GeXP多重基因表达遗传分析系统,建立一种多重逆转录-聚合酶链反应( mRT-PCR)方法,同时检测与病毒性脑炎相关的乙型脑炎病毒(Japanese encephalitis virus,JEV)等8种虫媒病毒.优化多重反应体系及反应条件,分别以病毒分离培养物和阳性标本来验证多重反应体系的特异性,以克隆质粒体外转录的RNA梯度稀释液来检测多重检测体系的灵敏度.结果表明,优化后的多重检测体系,可扩增出各病毒对应的特异片段,并可在102拷贝/μL水平同时并特异地检测出8种(共13个特异片段)脑炎相关病毒RNA.该方法具有高通量、灵敏度高、特异性强且快速等优点,对病毒性脑炎的分子诊断及流行病学调查具有重要意义.%Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) is currently available in virus detection and defined as the simultaneous amplification of two or more DNA/RNA targets in a single reaction vessel. In this study, we attempted to modify the conventional mRT-PCR technique on a basis of GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXP). Initially, we optimized the analytical validation of the GeXP analyzer and its design of workflow and simultaneously detected eight arboviruses that related to epidemic encephalitis by verifying the specificity of mRT-PCR with Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV) cell cultures and positive strains identified previously and determining the sensitivity with in vitro-transcribed RNA of serial dilutions. The GeXP system after optimization could amplify the specific fragments related to the viruses and exposed specifically a total of 13 target genes out of eight types of arboviruses at the level of 102 copies/μL, and the findings suggest that the novel protocol we developed can be high-throughput and highly specific and sensitive as well as quickness in screening of the encephalitis viruses, and is promising in detection of encephalitis-associated viruses for molecular

  9. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  10. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Compartir On this Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease is usually diagnosed with one ...

  11. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  12. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  13. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory...

  14. Making Way and Making Sense: Including Newcomers in Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet-Shore, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    In our everyday interactions as they unfold in real time, how do we do including? This article examines a specific set of interactional moments when the potential to be included (or not) recurs: when a newcomer arrives to some social scene where two or more already-present persons are actively engaged in some activity and that newcomer displays…

  15. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  16. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this...

  17. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to...

  18. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  19. Including All Children in Standards-Based Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn V.; Kasser, Susan L.; Nichols, Beverly A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of students with and without disabilities in physical education as the movement toward standards-based education progresses, examining whether standards should be applied to all students, obstacles to including all students, ways to include all students, and the importance of standards for teachers. An example of inclusive…

  20. 21 CFR 870.5300 - DC-defribrillator (including paddles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false DC-defribrillator (including paddles). 870.5300...-defribrillator (including paddles). (a) Low-energy DC-defibrillator—(1) Identification. A low-energy DC... electrocardiogram or may operate asynchronously. The device delivers the electrical shock through paddles...

  1. Including Students with Disabilities. ERIC Mini-Bib EB14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Barbara R., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 19 publications to help educators more effectively include students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The publications, including books, journal articles, videotapes, and reports, are dated from 1993 through 1999, and most are available through the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)…

  2. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. Designated fire zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3)...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1181 - Designated fire zones: regions included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones: regions included. 29... Protection § 29.1181 Designated fire zones: regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section of reciprocating engines; (2) The engine accessory section of reciprocating engines;...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 25... Protection § 25.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. (a) Designated fire zones are— (1) The engine power section; (2) The engine accessory section; (3) Except for reciprocating engines, any...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  6. High performance, durable polymers including poly(phenylene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Cy; Pratt, Harry; Anderson, Travis Mark

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to functionalized polymers including a poly(phenylene) structure. In some embodiments, the polymers and copolymers of the invention include a highly localized concentration of acidic moieties, which facilitate proton transport and conduction through networks formed from these polymers. In addition, the polymers can include functional moieties, such as electron-withdrawing moieties, to protect the polymeric backbone, thereby extending its durability. Such enhanced proton transport and durability can be beneficial for any high performance platform that employs proton exchange polymeric membranes, such as in fuel cells or flow batteries.

  7. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  8. Thermal swing reactor including a multi-flight auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2017-03-07

    A thermal swing reactor including a multi-flight auger and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. The reactor includes a multi-flight auger having different helix portions having different pitch. Embodiments of reactors include at least two distinct reactor portions between which there is at least a pressure differential. In embodiments, reactive particles are exchanged between portions during a reaction cycle to thermally reduce the particles at first conditions and oxidize the particles at second conditions to produce chemical work from heat.

  9. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  10. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  11. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Place Explore the past, the present and help build a promising future for the world’s polio survivors. ... Polio Health International (PHI) Including International Ventilator Users Network 4207 Lindell Blvd., #110, Saint Louis, MO 63108- ...

  12. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  13. Pesquisa de anticorpos para arbovírus no soro de residentes no povoado de Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia Research of antibodies to arbovirus in the serum of residentes of the village of Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares-Neto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sorológico para verificação da presença de anticorpos para arbovírus em 288 indivíduos, residentes no povoado de Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia. Foram observados anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação e neutralizantes em 3.8% da amostra com a seguinte distribuição para flavivírus: Ilhéus (6, St. Louis (2, febre amarela (3, Rocio (1. Em um indivíduo, com residência anterior na Região Norte foram detectados anticorpos para Mayaro. Em 75 indivíduos testados aleatoriamente não foram observados anticorpos neutralizantes para o vesiculovírus Piry. Em outros 28 indivíduos, também selecionados ao acaso, anticorpos fixadores de complemento não foram detectados para os vírus dos grupos Changuinola, Phlebotomus e não grupados BE AR 408005 e BE AR 421710. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de estudos complementares para esclarecer a transmissão do vírus na área.A serological survey for research on antibodies to arbovirus was carried out on 288 residents to the rural zone of the village of Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia. It was observed that 3.8% of the sample population presented HI and N antibodies against Flaviviruses (Ilhéus 6. St, Louis 2, Yellow fever 3 and Rocio 1. One person, who had previously lived in the Amazon region, had antibodies to Mayaro. The authors were unable to detect either N antibodies for Piry virus in a random sample of 75 persons or CF antibodies against viruses of the Changuinola and Phlebotomus groups and ungrouped BE AR 408005 and BE AR 421710 in another random sample of 28 individuals. Complementary studies should be conducted in order to define the transmission of the different viruses in the area.

  14. A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.

  15. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  16. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society.

  17. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  18. Pediatric deformity treatment update, including 3D correction concepts%Pediatric deformity treatment update,including 3D correction concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randal R. Betz; Patrick J. Cahill; Joshua M. Pahys; Amer F. Samdani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the new developments in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,including 3D correction of deformity,posterior and minimally invasive surgery,and fusionless strategies.

  19. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  20. Seismic Response of Wind Turbines: Time Domain Simulations Including SSI

    OpenAIRE

    Amdal, Åse Marit Wist

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a 5MW offshore wind turbine on a monopile foundation was created in order to calculate the dynamic response of the structure including soil-structure interaction. The main focus was to develop a reliable numerical model of the coupled system - including the tower, monopile foundation and the surrounding soil. The wind turbine was subjected to earthquake load in the time-domain. The global response of the wind turbine was compared for the two prevalent meth...

  1. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  3. The Future of Constitutionally Required Lesser Included Offenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Hoffheimer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For over a generation courts have recognized that failing to instruct juries on lesser included offenses results in wrongful convictions. In Beck v. Alabama, the Supreme Court held that in capital cases juries must be instructed on the option of returning convictions of non-capital lesser included offenses. The Court explained that this right prevents juries from being forced to make all-or-nothing choices between guilt and innocence in cases where serious crimes have been committed and pressures to convict of some crime are great.

  4. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... data (such as service area, geographical characteristics, customer mix, historical loads, projected... consumer. (iii) Considerations that may be used to develop potential options include cost, market potential... customer must make the load forecasting data available to Western upon request. (6) Measurement...

  5. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper...

  6. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  7. 30 CFR 250.211 - What must the EP include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the EP include? 250.211 Section 250.211 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND... exploration drilling, well test flaring, installing a well protection structure, and temporary...

  8. The Instructional Improvement Questionnaire [Including Supporting and Technical Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, John T.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    The Instructional Improvement Questionnaire (IIQ) is a student rating form designed to provide evaluative feedback to instructors about their teaching. The IIQ was first developed at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 1969 and revised in 1972. The documents included here describe the development of the IIQ and research associated with…

  9. 34 CFR 429.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 429.20 Section 429.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS, AND TECHNIQUES...

  10. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  11. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  12. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  13. Mixture including hydrogen and hydrocarbon having pressure-temperature stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of storing hydrogen that employs a mixture of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon that can both be used as fuel. In one embodiment, the method involves maintaining a mixture including hydrogen and a hydrocarbon in the solid state at ambient pressure and a temperature in excess of about 10 K.

  14. Should Listening and Speaking be included in a Language Test?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗文

    2013-01-01

      Language test is widely used in our daily life for various purposes, while a lot of language tests fail to include listening or speaking for one reason or another. The question that whether this type of test is still valid enough to serve test purposes and have a positive washback for English learning has come up.

  15. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological...

  16. Thick Plate Homogenization of Sandwich Panels Including Folded Cellular Cores

    OpenAIRE

    LEBEE, Arthur; Sab, Karam

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we provide the Bending-Gradient homogenization scheme and apply it to a sandwich panel including the chevron pattern. It turns out that the shear forces stiffness of the sandwich panel is strongly influenced by a skin distortion phenomenon which cannot be neglected in conventional design.

  17. The International Project 1992 Update Including "Microfilming Projects Abroad."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutimann, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Describes microfilming projects in 30 countries collected from questionnaire responses. Additional topics discussed include cooperative programs for preservation and access; an overview of national programs; mass deacidification; new technologies, such as digital preservation; microfilming projects abroad; and future priorities. (Contains 10…

  18. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  19. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  20. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a determination as to the intensity, persistence, or functionally limiting effects of the claimant's... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220.114 Section 220.114 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  1. Understanding heat transfer in 2D channel flows including recirculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Stigter, J.D.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Inviscid, irrotational two-dimensional flows can be modelled using the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral. Although bounded flows including boundary layer separation and recirculation are not irrotational, a model is presented that uses the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral to model these flows. The model sepa

  2. A Reactive Behavior Agent: Including Emotions into a Video Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Laureano-Cruces

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Why we have emotions and how they influence human behavior are two questions we constantly ask ourselves.According to researchers in the field, there are two kinds of information that the person receives to make a decision.This information is integrated to generate a whole. One comes from ourselves it is proprioceptive and refers toemotions; the other one is external, it comes from the environment. Thus, emotions are immersed in different areas ofa person’s life, including social, functional, and cognitive aspects. It has an important role in the decision-makingprocess. It is on this last point that this paper focuses its approach, which consists of including a cognitive structure ofemotions in a reactive behavior in order to enrich behavior, including the information generated through internalevaluation of the external physical stimuli. Our work is based on the OCC theory (named after the name of its authors:Ortony, Collins and Clore. This theory proposes that a decision-making process is affected through differentperspectives: a goals and events, b agents and their actions, and c objects and their capacity for attraction. Thecase study is situated within a scenario that represents an approach that seeks to include a module of emotions withinthe design of the architecture of a videogame.

  3. Synaptic channel model including effects of spike width variation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic Channel Model Including Effects of Spike Width Variation Hamideh Ramezani Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT An accu...

  4. 31 CFR 306.87 - Partnerships (including nominee partnerships).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partnerships (including nominee partnerships). 306.87 Section 306.87 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL...

  5. /facet: A Generic Facet Browser Including Temporal and Spatial Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.

    2007-01-01

    A generic facet browser including temporal and spatial visualization. The existing MultimediaN Eculture demo is updated in two ways: improved visualization of the semantic timeline and added a natural language sentence generator for cluster headers. Relation search interface is also implemente

  6. Computer aided design of reentrant coaxial filters including coaxial excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boria, V.; Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced EM based CAD tool is used for the detailed characterisation of a family of reentrant coaxial waveguide filters. The EM analysis includes the effects of tuning screws and of the input/output coaxial excitation. The software is essentially used as an efficient replacement for the tradition

  7. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Devices and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors provides material for a comprehensive upper-level-undergrauate and graduate course on the subject, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. For the interested reader some additional advanced topics are included, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors are included. Also supplied are explicit formulas for many results, to support better understanding. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from ...

  8. XFEL OSCILLATOR SIMULATION INCLUDING ANGLE-DEPENDENT CRYSTAL REFLECTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, William; Lindberg, Ryan; Kim, K-J; Shvyd' ko, Yuri

    2010-08-23

    The oscillator package within the GINGER FEL simulation code has now been extended to include angle-dependent reflectivity properties of Bragg crystals. Previously, the package was modified to include frequencydependent reflectivity in order to model x-ray FEL oscillators from start-up from shot noise through to saturation. We present a summary of the algorithms used for modeling the crystal reflectivity and radiation propagation outside the undulator, discussing various numerical issues relevant to the domain of high Fresnel number and efficient Hankel transforms. We give some sample XFEL-O simulation results obtained with the angle-dependent reflectivity model, with particular attention directed to the longitudinal and transverse coherence of the radiation output.

  9. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: richard.n.grugel@nasa.gov [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  10. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice......Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...

  11. Maximum-entropy closure of hydrodynamic moment hierarchies including correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene

    2012-06-07

    Generalized hydrodynamic moment hierarchies are derived which explicitly include nonequilibrium two-particle and higher-order correlations. The approach is adapted to strongly correlated media and nonequilibrium processes on short time scales which necessitate an explicit treatment of time-evolving correlations. Closure conditions for the extended moment hierarchies are formulated by a maximum-entropy approach, generalizing related closure procedures for kinetic equations. A self-consistent set of nonperturbative dynamical equations are thus obtained for a chosen set of single-particle and two-particle (and possibly higher-order) moments. Analytical results are derived for generalized Gaussian closures including the dynamic pair distribution function and a two-particle correction to the current density. The maximum-entropy closure conditions are found to involve the Kirkwood superposition approximation.

  12. Tissue-Specific Effects of Bariatric Surgery Including Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N. Dankel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the molecular links between obesity and disease is potentially of great benefit for society. In this paper we discuss proposed mechanisms whereby bariatric surgery improves metabolic health, including acute effects on glucose metabolism and long-term effects on metabolic tissues (adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and mitochondrial function. More short-term randomized controlled trials should be performed that include simultaneous measurement of metabolic parameters in different tissues, such as tissue gene expression, protein profile, and lipid content. By directly comparing different surgical procedures using a wider array of metabolic parameters, one may further unravel the mechanisms of aberrant metabolic regulation in obesity and related disorders.

  13. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  14. Tuneable photonic device including an array of metamaterial resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brener, Igal; Wanke, Michael; Benz, Alexander

    2017-03-14

    A photonic apparatus includes a metamaterial resonator array overlying and electromagnetically coupled to a vertically stacked plurality of quantum wells defined in a semiconductor body. An arrangement of electrical contact layers is provided for facilitating the application of a bias voltage across the quantum well stack. Those portions of the semiconductor body that lie between the electrical contact layers are conformed to provide an electrically conductive path between the contact layers and through the quantum well stack.

  15. An Axisymmetrical Acoustic BEM Formulation Including Visco-Thermal Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dimensions. However, this is not usually true for small devices such as microphones, hearing aids, couplers, MEMS devices, mobile phones, etc., and then the losses need to be modeled. In this paper a numerical implementation of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) which includes visco-thermal losses...... of the boundary into elements is adequate and the problem has a manageable size. The method can be extended to full three-dimensional BEM....

  16. Chiral-scale effective theory including a dilatonic meson

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan-Ling; Rho, Mannque

    2016-01-01

    A scale-invariant chiral effective Lagrangian is constructed for octet pions and a dilaton figuring as Nambu-Goldstone bosons with vector mesons incorporated as hidden gauge fields. The Lagrangian is built to the next-to-leading order in chiral-scale counting without baryon fields and then to leading order including baryons. The resulting theory is hidden scale-symmetric and local symmetric. We also discuss some possible applications of the present Lagrangian.

  17. Prenatal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by xenobiotic substances including vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, J M

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride for experimental animals when administered transplacentally is reviewed in comparison with known transplacental carcinogens, including those that, like vinyl chloride, are dependent on enzyme-mediated metabolic conversion to a reactive intermediate in maternal or fetal tissues. Vinyl chloride is converted by mixed-function oxidases to the reactive metabolite chlorooxirane, the carcinogenicity of which is also reviewed. Vinyl chloride is unequivocally a tr...

  18. Outcomes Among Pregnant Women Included in the Operation TOMODACHI Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    Table 1 shows the status of potentially-exposed pregnancies. Pregnancy outcomes include live delivery, spontaneous loss, and induced abortion ...birth defects, which are defined according to the Case Definition of the National Birth Defects Prevention Network.3 Additional uses for these data...pregnancy outcome in the electronic medical data/records. Overall, the live delivery rates are quite high and the spontaneous loss rates are quite

  19. Evaporative cooler including one or more rotating cooler louvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, David W

    2015-02-03

    An evaporative cooler may include an evaporative cooler housing with a duct extending therethrough, a plurality of cooler louvers with respective porous evaporative cooler pads, and a working fluid source conduit. The cooler louvers are arranged within the duct and rotatably connected to the cooler housing along respective louver axes. The source conduit provides an evaporative cooler working fluid to the cooler pads during at least one mode of operation.

  20. Circuit Modeling of a MEMS Varactor Including Dielectric Charging Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giounanlis, P.; Andrade-Miceli, D.; Gorreta, S.; Pons-Nin, J.; Dominguez-Pumar, M.; Blokhina, E.

    2016-10-01

    Electrical models for MEMS varactors including the effect of dielectric charging dynamics are not available in commercial circuit simulators. In this paper a circuit model using lumped ideal elements available in the Cadence libraries and a basic Verilog-A model, has been implemented. The model has been used to simulate the dielectric charging in function of time and its effects over the MEMS capacitance value.

  1. Rehabilitation of a triple amputee including a hip disarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J C; Park, C I; Kim, Y C; Jang, S H; Bang, I K; Shin, J S

    1998-12-01

    A multiple amputee more severe than a triple amputee is uncommon. There have been no reports on the rehabilitation outcome of a triple amputee, including hip disarticulation and transtibial amputation. The authors report the rehabilitation of a patient with left hip disarticulation, right trans-tibial amputation, and left trans-humeral amputation due to a train accident. He has successfully completed the rehabilitation programme and has become independent in prosthetic ambulation, activities of daily living, and driving.

  2. Transport Phenomena in Thin Rotating Liquid Films Including: Nucleate Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir

    2005-01-01

    In this grant, experimental, numerical and analytical studies of heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk have been conducted. Heat transfer coefficients were measured experimentally in a rotating disk heat transfer apparatus where the disk was heated from below with electrical resistance heaters. The heat transfer measurements were supplemented by experimental characterization of the liquid film thickness using a novel laser based technique. The heat transfer measurements show that the disk rotation plays an important role on enhancement of heat transfer primarily through the thinning of the liquid film. Experiments covered both momentum and rotation dominated regimes of the flow and heat transfer in this apparatus. Heat transfer measurements have been extended to include evaporation and nucleate boiling and these experiments are continuing in our laboratory. Empirical correlations have also been developed to provide useful information for design of compact high efficiency heat transfer devices. The experimental work has been supplemented by numerical and analytical analyses of the same problem. Both numerical and analytical results have been found to agree reasonably well with the experimental results on liquid film thickness and heat transfer Coefficients/Nusselt numbers. The numerical simulations include the free surface liquid film flow and heat transfer under disk rotation including the conjugate effects. The analytical analysis utilizes an integral boundary layer approach from which

  3. New chemical evolution analytical solutions including environment effects

    CERN Document Server

    Spitoni, E

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, more and more interest has been devoted to analytical solutions, including inflow and outflow, to study the metallicity enrichment in galaxies. In this framework, we assume a star formation rate which follows a linear Schmidt law, and we present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the metallicity (Z) in galaxies. In particular, we take into account environmental effects including primordial and enriched gas infall, outflow, different star formation efficiencies, and galactic fountains. The enriched infall is included to take into account galaxy-galaxy interactions. Our main results can be summarized as: i) when a linear Schmidt law of star formation is assumed, the resulting time evolution of the metallicity Z is the same either for a closed-box model or for an outflow model. ii) The mass-metallicity relation for galaxies which suffer a chemically enriched infall, originating from another evolved galaxy with no pre-enriched gas, is shifted down in parallel at lower Z values, if co...

  4. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  5. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  6. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Izacard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize t...

  7. Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma including correlation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, C; Filinov, A; Piel, A; Bonitz, M

    2007-01-01

    The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically using the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results are compared with the recently obtained mean-field (MF) density profile \\cite{henning.pre06}. While the MF results are more accurate for weak screening, LDA with correlations included yields the proper description for large screening. By comparison with first-principle simulations for three-dimensional spherical Yukawa crystals we demonstrate that both approximations complement each other. Together they accurately describe the density profile in the full range of screening parameters.

  8. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman;

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case......-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum...... concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at pdiscrimination was assessed using...

  9. Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, David; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2008-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on ERLs or FELs, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, the established 1-dimensional formalism is extended to work at lower energies, at shorter bunch lengths, and for an arbitrary configuration of multiple bends. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. This formalism has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code "Bmad" and its results are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code "elegant".

  10. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, M

    2014-01-01

    A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  11. Harmonic measure for percolation and ising clusters including rare events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David A; Sander, Leonard M; Ziff, Robert M

    2008-10-03

    We obtain the harmonic measure of the hulls of critical percolation clusters and Ising-model Fortuin-Kastelyn clusters using a biased random-walk sampling technique which allows us to measure probabilities as small as 10{-300}. We find the multifractal D(q) spectrum including regions of small and negative q. Our results for external hulls agree with Duplantier's theoretical predictions for D(q) and his exponent -23/24 for the harmonic measure probability distribution for percolation. For the complete hull, we find the probability decays with an exponent of -1 for both systems.

  12. APORTACIONES DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EUROPEA INCLUD-ED PARA LA REDUCCIÓN DEL ABANDONO ESCOLAR PREMATURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Padrós Cuxart

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of reducing early school leaving in Europe, with special pressure in Spain, leads to the need of evidence based educational policies and measures. This paper presents measures to prevend and reduce early school leaving that have been identified within the research Project INCLUD-ED. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion in Europe from education. This is the research Project with a higher level and resources developed  since now  in Europe regarding school education. The identified solutions are already being addressed in documents of the European Commission, such as the recent Communication to the European Parliament "Tackiling early school leaving: a key contribution to the Europe 2020 Agenda".

  13. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  14. A Mixed Mode Cochlear Amplifier Including Neural Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Matthew R.; Holmes, W. Harvey

    2011-11-01

    The mixed mode cochlear amplifier (MMCA) model is derived from the physiology of the cochlea. It is comprised of three main elements of the peripheral hearing system: the cochlear mechanics, hair cell motility, and neurophysiology. This model expresses both active compression wave and active traveling wave modes of operation. The inclusion of a neural loop with a time delay, and a new paradigm for the mechanical response of the outer hair cells, are believed to be unique features of the MMCA. These elements combine to form an active feedback loop to constitute the cochlear amplifier, whose input is a passive traveling wave vibration. The result is a cycle-by-cycle amplifier with nonlinear response. This system can assume an infinite number of different operating states. The stable state and the first few amplitude-limited unstable (Hopf-bifurcated) states are significant in describing the operation of the peripheral hearing system. A hierarchy of models can be constructed from this concept, depending on the amount of detail included. The simplest model of the MMCA is a nonlinear delay line resonator. It was found that even this simple MMCA version can explain a large number of hearing phenomena, at least qualitatively. This paper concentrates on explaining the fractional octave shift from the living to postmortem response in terms of the new model. Other mechanical, hair cell and neurological phenomena can also be accounted for by the MMCA, including two-tone suppression behavior, distortion product responses, otoacoustic emissions and neural spontaneous rates.

  15. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFotis, G. C.; Van Dongen, M. J.; Hampton, A. S.; Komatsu, C. H.; Trowell, K. T.; Havas, K. C.; Davis, C. M.; DeSanto, C. L.; Hays, K.; Wagner, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, Tmax and χmax, ordering temperatures Tc, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that Tmax of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD2O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser Tmax than do nH2O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr2·2D2O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr2·2H2O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these.

  16. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  17. Remote observations of reentering spacecraft including the space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Cagle, Melinda F.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Gibson, David M.

    Flight measurement is a critical phase in development, validation and certification processes of technologies destined for future civilian and military operational capabilities. This paper focuses on several recent NASA-sponsored remote observations that have provided unique engineering and scientific insights of reentry vehicle flight phenomenology and performance that could not necessarily be obtained with more traditional instrumentation methods such as onboard discrete surface sensors. The missions highlighted include multiple spatially-resolved infrared observations of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter during hypersonic reentry from 2009 to 2011, and emission spectroscopy of comparatively small-sized sample return capsules returning from exploration missions. Emphasis has been placed upon identifying the challenges associated with these remote sensing missions with focus on end-to-end aspects that include the initial science objective, selection of the appropriate imaging platform and instrumentation suite, target flight path analysis and acquisition strategy, pre-mission simulations to optimize sensor configuration, logistics and communications during the actual observation. Explored are collaborative opportunities and technology investments required to develop a next-generation quantitative imaging system (i.e., an intelligent sensor and platform) with greater capability, which could more affordably support cross cutting civilian and military flight test needs.

  18. Including International Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    Starting on January 1 st, 2012, the international aviation sector will be included into the already existing EU ETS. All air crafts departing and arriving within the European Union will be obliged to hold permits corresponding to their total emissions of CO{sub 2} for those routes. Since emissions from the international aviation sector are not included under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Commission has decided to introduce a trading barrier between the sectors in order not to jeopardize the Kyoto targets. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential loss in cost-effectiveness of introducing such a trading barrier between two sectors taking into account that damage from emissions is not necessarily uniform. A theoretical model is developed to address the question and it is found that, at least for the case with linking the international aviation sector to the stationary sources within the EU ETS, the trading barrier might be unwarranted as it might lead to higher damage from emissions as compared to alternative ways to link the trading sectors. However, it should be stressed that this finding is not general and caution should be taken in the future when linking emission trading schemes as, depending on the heterogeneity of emission damage, a trading barrier might very well be justified

  19. The Diversification Benefits of Including Carbon Assets in Financial Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinpeng Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon allowances traded in the EU-Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS were initially designed as an economic motivation for efficiently curbing greenhouse as emissions, but now it mimics quite a few characteristics of financial assets, and have now been used as a candidate product in building financial portfolios. In this study, we examine the time-varying correlations between carbon allowance prices with other financial indices, during the third phase of EU-ETS. The results show that, at the beginning of this period, carbon price was still strongly corrected with other financial indices. However, this connection was weakened over time. Given the relative independence of carbon assets from other financial assets, we argue for the diversification benefits of including carbon assets in financial portfolios, and building such portfolios, respectively, with the traditional global minimum variance (GMV strategy, the mean-variance-OGARCH (MV-OGARCH strategy, and the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC strategy. It is shown that the portfolio built with the MV-OGARCH strategy far out-performs the others and that including carbon assets in financial portfolios does help reduce investment risks.

  20. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a clinical review including Korean cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Only 5th decade ago, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was only recognized as disease group of presenting features like peripheral lymphocytosis, organomegaly including of splenomegaly. As understanding of disease biology and molecular diagnostic tools are getting improved gradually, characterization of variation in CLL’s clinical courses was facilitated, resulting in better risk stratification and targeted treatments. Consequently multiple new targeted agents have been used in treatment of CLL, it makes improved clinical outcome. Rituximab containing chemoimmunotherapy (combination of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide) have shown better overall response rate and progression-free survival on fit patients’ group in front-line setting, result in standard first-line therapeutic option for CLL. Furthermore, after introducing that the B-cell receptor is crucial for the evolution and progression of CLL, emerging treatments targeting highly activated surface antigens and oncogenic signaling pathways have been associated with several successes in recent decades. These include new anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (obinutuzumab), the bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (idelalisib), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 inhibitor (ABT-199 and ABT-263). So, we discuss not only general pathophysiology of CLL, but also rapidly advancing treatment strategies that are being studied or approved for treatment of CLL. PMID:27044858

  1. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Izacard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g., the INMDF [O. Izacard, Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504 (2016)]). One of the main dif...

  2. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  3. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  4. Kabuki syndrome: expanding the phenotype to include microphthalmia and anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Terri P; Banka, Siddharth; Reardon, William

    2015-10-01

    Kabuki syndrome is a rare genetic malformation syndrome that is characterized by distinct facies, structural defects and intellectual disability. Kabuki syndrome may be caused by mutations in one of two histone methyltransferase genes: KMT2D and KDM6A. We describe a male child of nonconsanguineous Irish parents presenting with multiple malformations, including bilateral extreme microphthalmia; cleft palate; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; duplex kidney; as well as facial features of Kabuki syndrome, including interrupted eyebrows and lower lid ectropion. A de-novo germline mutation in KMT2D was identified. Whole-exome sequencing failed to reveal mutations in any of the known microphthalmia/anopthalmia genes. We also identified four other patients with Kabuki syndrome and microphthalmia. We postulate that Kabuki syndrome may produce this type of ocular phenotype as a result of extensive interaction between KMT2D, WAR complex proteins and PAXIP1. Children presenting with microphthalmia/anophthalmia should be examined closely for other signs of Kabuki syndrome, especially at an age where the facial gestalt might be less readily appreciable.

  5. Evaluation of FEMA-440 for including soil-structure interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khoshnoudian F.; Behmanesh I.

    2010-01-01

    Replacing the entire soil-structure system with a fixed base oscillator to consider the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a common analysis method in seismic design. This technique has been included in design procedures such as NEHRP, ASCE, etc. By defining an equivalent fundamental period and damping ratio that can modify the response of the structure. However, recent studies indicate that the effects of SSI should be reconsidered when a structure undergoes a nonlinear displacement demand. In recent documents on Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs), FEMA-440 (2005), a modified damping ratio of the replacement oscillator was proposed by introducing the ductility of the soil-structure system obtained from pushover analysis. In this paper, the damping defined in FEMA-440 to include the soil-structure interaction effect is evaluated, and the accuracy of the Coefficiem Method given in FEMA-440 and the Equivalent Linearization Method is studied. Although the improvements for Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs) in FEMA-440 are achieved for a fixed base SDOF structure, the soil effects are not perfectly obtained. Furthermore, the damping definition of a soil-structure system is extended to structures to consider bilinear behavior.

  6. BLOOD-SUCKING MIDGES FROM THE GENUS Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) ACT AS FILED VECTORS OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DISEASES (review)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue and Shmallenberg diseases, the arboviral infections of ruminants, caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV) of Orbivirus genus (Reoviridae) and so-called Shmallenberg virus (SBV) preliminarily attributed as a member of Orthobunyavirus genus (Bunyaviridae), respectively, are mainly transmitted by blood-sucking midges from Culicoides genus. They are widely distributed, with a total of over 80 species documented in Russia (V.M. Glukhova, 1989), including the Far North territories. Of them, a t...

  7. Sea Surface Temperature from EUMETSAT Including Sentinel-3 SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Anne; Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Tomazic, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of sea surface temperature (SST) activities at EUMETSAT including information on SST planned from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). Operational oceanography activities within the Marine Applications group at EUMETSAT continue with a focus on SST, sea surface winds, sea-ice products, radiative fluxes, significant wave height and sea surface topography. These are achieved through the mandatory, optional and third-party programmes, and for some products with the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea-Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF). Progress towards products from sea-ice surface temperature, ocean colour products, turbidity and aerosol optical depth over water continue. Information on oceanography products from EUMETSAT can be found through the product navigator (http://navigator.eumetsat.int). EUMETSAT have been collaborating with ESA for a number of years on the development of SST for SLSTR.

  8. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  9. Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    A unique description of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is given at the classical gravity level, along with a complete set of homogeneous, isotropic, analytic solutions in scalar-tensor cosmology, with radiation and curvature. All solutions repeat cyclically; they have been obtained by using conformal gauge symmetry (Weyl symmetry) as a powerful tool in cosmology, and more generally in gravity. The significance of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is that it provides a model independent analytic resolution of the singularity, as an unambiguous and unavoidable solution of the equations at the classical gravitational physics level. It is controlled only by geometry (including anisotropy) and only very general features of matter coupled to gravity, such as kinetic energy of a scalar field, and radiation due to all forms of relativistic matter. This analytic resolution of the singularity is due to an attractor mechanism created by the leading terms in the cosmological equation. It is unique, and it is unavoid...

  10. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  11. Preferential Biases for Texts That Include Neuroscientific Jargon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Marco E; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    The results of an experiment of preferential biases for texts that include neuroscientific jargon are presented. Such preferential bias has been reported even when the presented jargon is meaningless. In a variation of the well-known Weisberg et al. experiment, a group of undergraduate students (N = 150; females 48%, males 52%, other 0%; M age = 22.4 year, SD = 2.6) chose between two possible explanations for a psychological phenomenon: a correct explanation or a circular restatement of facts. Unrelated neuroscientific terms were added to one of the explanations. Participants were asked to choose the correct explanation. There was a statistically significant preference for the explanation without neuroscientific terms. These findings differ from Weisberg et al.'s experiment and a number of others. The implications of this discrepancy are discussed.

  12. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Quartin, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10^(-3), due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  13. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartin, Miguel; Notari, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10-3, due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  14. Oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'Ien, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been performed for oscillatory burning of solid propellants including gas phase time lag. The gaseous flame is assumed to be premixed and laminar with a one-step overall chemical reaction. The propellant is assumed to decompose according to the Arrenhius Law, with no condensed phase reaction. With this model, strong gas phase resonance has been found in certain cases at the characteristic gas-phase frequencies, but the peaking of the acoustic admittance is in the direction favoring the damping of pressure waves. At still higher frequencies, moderate wave-amplifying ability was found. The limit of low frequency response obtained previously by Denison and Baum was recovered, and the limitations of the quasi-steady theory were investigated.

  15. CHIONANTHUS (OLEACEAE IN SULAWESI, INDONESIA, INCLUDING THREE NEW SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH KIEW

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KIEW, R. 2015. Chionanthus (Oleaceae in Sulawesi, Indonesia, including three new species. Reinwardtia 14(2: 287 ‒295. ― The genus Chionanthus (Oleaceae in Sulawesi is revised. Nine species are described of which C. kostermansiiKiew, C. sordidus Kiew and C. sulawesicus Kiew are new species. Four species are endemic, C. celebicus Koord., C.sordidus, C. stenurus (Merr. Kiew and C. sulawesicus. The geographic range of C. cordulatus Koord. extends to Borneoand Mollucas, while C. kostermansii also occurs in Sumbawa and Flores, and the range of C. rupicolus (Lingelsh.Kiew extends to Sumbawa, Mollucas, New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Chionanthus polygamus (Roxb.Kiew and C. ramiflorus Roxb. are both widespread species, the former from Sumatra to New Guinea and the latter fromcontinental Asia to the Solomon Islands. A key to identify the species is provided. Chionanthus gigantifolius Koord.remains incompletely known.

  16. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P.J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Method for constructing action principles for a diverse class of fluids with gyroscopic momentum transport is described. • General criteria for the conservation of momentum and angular momentum via Noether's theorem are obtained. • Fluids with intrinsic angular momentum are built as an illustration of the method. - Abstract: A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  17. OPAL Central Detector (Including vertex, jet and Z chambers)

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the different parts of the tracking system. (This piece includes the vertex, jet and Z chambers) In the picture above, the central detector is the piece being removed to the right.

  18. Global model including multistep ionizations in helium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-12-01

    Particle and power balance equations including stepwise ionizations are derived and solved in helium plasmas. In the balance equations, two metastable states (21S1 in singlet and 23S1 triplet) are considered and the followings are obtained. The plasma density linearly increases and the electron temperature is relatively in a constant value against the absorbed power. It is also found that the contribution to multi-step ionization with respect to the single-step ionization is in the range of 8%-23%, as the gas pressure increases from 10 mTorr to 100 mTorr. Compared to the results in the argon plasma, there is little variation in the collisional energy loss per electron-ion pair created (ɛc) with absorbed power and gas pressure due to the small collision cross section and higher inelastic collision threshold energy.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of coronaviruses including human SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic tree of coronaviruses (CoVs) including the human SARS-associated virus is reconstructed from complete genomes by using our newly developed K- string composition approach. The relation of the human SARS-CoV to other coronaviruses, i.e. the rooting of the tree is suggested by choosing an appropriate outgroup. SARS-CoV makes a separate group closer but still distant from G2 (CoVs in mammalian host). The relation between different isolates of the human SARS virus is inferred by first constructing an ultrametric distance matrix from counting sequence variations in the genomes. The resulting tree is consistent with clinic relations between the SARS-CoV isolates. In addition to a larger variety of coronavirus genomes these results provide phylogenetic knowledge based on independent novel methodology as compared to recent phylogenetic studies on SARS-CoV.

  20. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.