WorldWideScience

Sample records for arbitrary particle-channel interaction

  1. Cubic interaction vertices for fermionic and bosonic arbitrary spin fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    Using the light-cone gauge approach to relativistic field dynamics, we study arbitrary spin fermionic and bosonic fields propagating in flat space of dimension greater than or equal to four. Generating functions of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric and mixed-symmetry massive and massless fields are obtained. For the case of totally symmetric fields, we derive restrictions on the allowed values of spins and the number of derivatives. These restrictions provide a complete classification of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric fermionic and bosonic fields. As an example of application of the light-cone formalism, we obtain simple expressions for the Yang-Mills and gravitational interactions of massive arbitrary spin fermionic fields. For some particular cases, using our light-cone cubic vertices, we discuss the corresponding manifestly Lorentz invariant and on-shell gauge invariant cubic vertices.

  2. Interacting fields of arbitrary spin and N > 4 supersymmetric self-dual Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, Ch.; Ogievetsky, V.

    1996-06-01

    We show that the self-dual Yang-Mills equations afford supersymmetrization to systems of equations invariant under global N-extended super-Poincare transformations for arbitrary values of N, without the limitation (N ≤ 4) applicable to standard non-self-dual Yang-Mills theories. These systems of equations provide novel classically consistent interactions for vector supermultiplets containing fields of spin up to N-2/2. The equations of motion of the component fields of spin greater than 1/2 are interacting variants of the first-order Dirac-Fierz equations for zero rest-mass fields of arbitrary spin. The interactions are governed by conserved currents which are constructed by an iterative procedure. In (arbitrarily extended) chiral superspace, the equations of motion for the (arbitrarily large) self-dual supermultiplet are shown to be completely equivalent to the set of algebraic supercurvature defining the self-dual superconnection. (author). 25 refs

  3. Hubbard interaction in the arbitrary Chern number insulator: A mean-field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang, E-mail: wangyixiang@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Cao, Jie [College of Science, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2017-05-10

    The low-dimensional electron gas owing topological property has attracted many interests recently. In this work, we study the influence of the electron-electron interaction on the arbitrary Chern number insulator. Using the mean-field method, we approximately solve the Hubbard model in the half-filling case and obtain the phase diagrams in different parametric spaces. We further verify the results by calculating the entanglement spectrum, which contains C chiral modes and corresponds to a real space partitioning. - Highlights: • In this work, we made a mean-field study of the Hubbard interaction in the arbitrary Chern number insulator. • We point out that how the Zeeman splitting, the local magnetization and the Hubbard interaction are intimately related. • The mean-field phase diagrams are obtained in different parametric spaces. • The Chern number phase is demonstrated by calculating the entanglement spectrum.

  4. Theory of elastic interaction between arbitrary colloidal particles in confined nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, O M; Chernyshuk, S B; Lev, B I

    2012-12-01

    We develop the method proposed by Chernyshuk and Lev [Phys. Rev. E 81, 041701 (2010)] for theoretical investigation of elastic interactions between colloidal particles of arbitrary shape and chirality (polar as well as azimuthal anchoring) in the confined nematic liquid crystal (NLC). General expressions for six different types of multipole elastic interactions are obtained in the confined NLC: monopole-monopole (Coulomb type), monopole-dipole, monopole-quadrupole, dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole, and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. The obtained formulas remain valid in the presence of the external electric or magnetic fields. The exact equations are found for all multipole coefficients for the weak anchoring case. For the strong anchoring coupling, the connection between the symmetry of the shape or director and multipole coefficients is obtained, which enables us to predict which multipole coefficients vanish and which remain nonzero. The particles with azimuthal helicoid anchoring are considered as an example. Dipole-dipole interactions between helicoid cylinders and cones are found in the confined NLC. In addition, the banana-shaped particles in homeotropic and planar nematic cells are considered. It is found that the dipole-dipole interaction between banana-shaped particles differs greatly from the dipole-dipole interaction between the axially symmetrical particles in the nematic cell. There is a crossover from attraction to repulsion between banana particles along some directions in nematic cells. It is shown that monopoles do not "feel" the type of nematic cell: monopole-monopole interaction turns out to be the same in homeotropic and planar nematic cells and converges to the Coulomb law as thickness increases, L→∞.

  5. Functional contributions and interactions between the human hippocampus and subregions of the striatum during arbitrary associative learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus and striatum are thought to have different functional roles in learning and memory. It is unknown under what experimental conditions their contributions are dissimilar or converge, and the extent to which they interact over the course of learning. In order to evaluate both the functional contributions of as well as the interactions between the human hippocampus and striatum, the present study used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and variations of a conditional visuomotor associative learning task that either taxed arbitrary associative learning (Experiment 1) or stimulus-response learning (Experiment 2). In the first experiment we observed changes in activity in the hippocampus and anterior caudate that reflect differences between the two regions consistent with distinct computational principles. In the second experiment we observed activity in the putamen that reflected content specific representations during the learning of arbitrary conditional visuomotor associations. In both experiments the hippocampus and ventral striatum demonstrated dynamic functional coupling during the learning of new arbitrary associations, but not during retrieval of well-learned arbitrary associations using control variants of the tasks that did not preferentially tax one system versus the other. These findings suggest that both the hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum contribute uniquely to the learning of arbitrary associations while the hippocampus and ventral striatum interact over the course of learning. PMID:25560298

  6. Remote operations and interactions for systems of arbitrary-dimensional Hilbert space: State-operator approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, Benni; Groisman, Berry; Aharonov, Yakir

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic simple method for constructing deterministic remote operations on single and multiple systems of arbitrary discrete dimensionality. These operations include remote rotations, remote interactions, and measurements. The resources needed for an operation on a two-level system are one ebit and a bidirectional communication of two cbits, and for an n-level system, a pair of entangled n-level particles and two classical 'nits'. In the latter case, there are n-1 possible distinct operations per n-level entangled pair. Similar results apply for generating interaction between a pair of remote systems, while for remote measurements only one-directional classical communication is needed. We further consider remote operations on N spatially distributed systems, and show that the number of possible distinct operations increases here exponentially, with the available number of entangled pairs that are initially distributed between the systems. Our results follow from the properties of a hybrid state-operator object (stator), which describes quantum correlations between states and operations

  7. Modelling of water wave interaction with multiple cylinders of arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hao; Tao Longbin; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an efficient numerical model, namely scaled boundary finite-element method (SBFEM) for linear waves interaction with cylindrical structures of arbitrary shapes. The two-dimensional Helmholtz equation is firstly weakened in the circumferential direction, so that the governing partial differential equation is transformed to an ordinary matrix differential equation in radial direction, and is solved fully analytically. As a key element, a virtual porous circular cylinder surrounding the cylindrical structures is introduced so that the entire computational domain is partitioned along the virtual cylinder into an unbounded and several bounded sub-domains with common interfaces. The principle innovation is that, the present SBFEM model chooses Hankel function as a base solution for the unbounded sub-domain, while a power series is used for the internal bounded sub-domains. The approach discretises only the common interfaces of the sub-domains with surface finite-elements, and fewer elements are required to obtain very accurate results. Numerical simulations show that the new SBFEM model offers a considerable improvement by far in its numerical performance, as well as in the range of physical phenomena that is capable of simulating. The wave forces and run-ups are presented for a single and multiple cylindrical structures of different cross sectional shapes. Influences of the incident wave parameters and structural configurations on the hydrodynamics are examined.

  8. Evaluation of Lagrangian, Eulerian, and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian methods for fluid-structure interaction problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.; Chu, H.Y.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of fluid-structure interaction involves the calculation of both fluid transient and structure dynamics. In the structural analysis, Lagrangian meshes have been used exclusively, whereas for the fluid transient, Lagrangian, Eulerian, and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (quasi-Eulerian) meshes have been used. This paper performs an evaluation on these three types of meshes. The emphasis is placed on the applicability of the method in analyzing fluid-structure interaction problems in HCDA analysis

  9. On the Face of it: Exploring the Interaction Between Racial and Arbitrary Group Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Berlot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-race effect – enhanced recognition of racial ingroup faces – has been justified to exist in other categories, such as arbitrary groups. This study aimed to investigate the effect of crossing racial (black/white and arbitrary (blue/yellow categories, in addition to the role of facial expressions in this phenomenon. 120 Caucasian students (from the UK, Macedonia, and Portugal performed a discrimination task (judging faces as new vs. previously seen. Using a within-subjects design, reaction times and accuracy were measured. We hypothesized that (1 the arbitrary group membership of faces would moderate the cross-race effect and (2 the racial group membership of faces would moderate the usual recognition advantage for happy faces.

  10. Interaction between a punch and an arbitrary crack or inclusion in a transversely isotropic half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, I.; Karapetian, E.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the problem of an arbitrary shaped rigid punch pressed against the boundary of a transversely isotropic half-space and interacting with an arbitrary flat crack or inclusion, located in the plane parallel to the boundary. The set of governing integral equations is derived for the most general conditions, namely the presence of both normal and tangential stresses under the punch, as well as general loading of the crack faces. In order to verify correctness of the derivations, two different methods were used to obtain governing integral equations: generalized method of images and utilization of the reciprocal theorem. Both methods gave the same results. Axisymmetric coaxial case of interaction between a rigid inclusion and a flat circular punch both centered along the z-axis is considered as an illustrative example. Most of the final results are presented in terms of elementary functions.

  11. Hydrodynamic interactions between two forced objects of arbitrary shape. II. Relative translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Diamant, Haim; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally, such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry; for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant, and Witten, Phys. Fluids 27, 123303 (2015)], 10.1063/1.4936894. The interplay between the orientational interaction and the translational one, in most cases, leads over time to repulsion between the two objects. The repulsion is qualitatively different for self-aligning objects compared to the more symmetric case of uniform prolate spheroids. The separation between the two objects increases with time t as t1 /3 in the former case, and more strongly, as t , in the latter.

  12. Interaction trajectory of solitons in nonlinear media with an arbitrary degree of nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Zhiping; Yang, Zhenjun; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shumin; Pang, Zhaoguang

    2016-01-01

    The interaction trajectory of solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media is investigated. A simple differential equation describing the interaction trajectories is derived based on the light ray equation. Numerical calculations are carried out to illustrate the interaction trajectories with different parameters. The results show that the degree of nonlocality greatly affects the interaction of solitons. For a strongly nonlocal case, the interaction trajectory can be described by a cosine function. Analytical expressions describing the trajectory and the oscillation period are obtained. For generally and weakly nonlocal cases, the interaction trajectories still oscillate periodically, however it is no longer sinusoidal and the oscillation period increases with the nonlocal degree decreasing. In addition, the trajectory of two solitons launched with a relative angle at the entrance plane is investigated. It is found that there exists a critical angle. When the initial relative angle is larger than the critical angle, the two solitons do not collide on propagation. The influence of the degree of nonlocality on the critical angle is also discussed.

  13. Hydrodynamic interactions between two forced objects of arbitrary shape. I. Effect on alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Diamant, Haim; Witten, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    We study the properties and symmetries governing the hydrodynamic interaction between two identical, arbitrarily shaped objects, driven through a viscous fluid. We treat analytically the leading (dipolar) terms of the pair-mobility matrix, affecting the instantaneous relative linear and angular velocities of the two objects at large separation. We prove that the instantaneous hydrodynamic interaction linearly degrades the alignment of asymmetric objects by an external time-dependent drive [B. Moths and T. A. Witten, "Full alignment of colloidal objects by programed forcing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 028301 (2013)]. The time-dependent effects of hydrodynamic interactions are explicitly demonstrated through numerically calculated trajectories of model alignable objects composed of four stokeslets. In addition to the orientational effect, we find that the two objects usually repel each other. In this case, the mutual degradation weakens as the two objects move away from each other, and full alignment is restored at long times.

  14. Establishing arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Phillips

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available States have international obligations to ensure that all deprivations of an individual’s liberty are consistent with international human rights law. The majority of provisions in the international human rights law instruments that deal with such deprivations of liberty contain the term ‘arbitrary’, yet there is no clear definition of what this entails. Arbitrariness is defined differently by different supervisory bodies in different cases, and in different contexts; understanding it requires awareness of the different factors affecting how individual deprivations of liberty are examined and understood.A longer version of this article can be found at:http://tinyurl.com/HRD-arbitrary-August2013

  15. A numerical method for interaction problems between fluid and membranes with arbitrary permeability for fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Suguru; Takeuchi, Shintaro; Kajishima, Takeo

    2017-09-01

    We develop a numerical method for fluid-membrane interaction accounting for permeation of the fluid using a non-conforming mesh to the membrane shape. To represent the permeation flux correctly, the proposed finite element discretization incorporates the discontinuities in the velocity gradient and pressure on the membrane surface with specially selected base functions. The discontinuities are represented with independent variables and determined to satisfy the governing equations including the interfacial condition on the permeation. The motions of the fluid, membrane and permeation flux are coupled monolithically and time-advanced fully-implicitly. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by several two-dimensional fluid-membrane interaction problems of Stokes flows by comparing with the analytical models and numerical results obtained by other methods. The reproduced sharp discontinuities are found to be essential to suppress the non-physical permeation flux. Further, combined with the numerical treatment for the solute concentration across the membrane, the proposed method is applied to a fluid-structure interaction problem including the osmotic pressure difference.

  16. Role of single-particle and pair condensates in Bose systems with arbitrary intensity of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Peletminskii

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a superfluid Bose system with single-particle and pair condensates on the basis of a half-phenomenological theory of a Bose liquid not involving the weakness of interparticle interaction. The coupled equations describing the equilibrium state of such system are derived from the variational principle for entropy. These equations are analyzed at zero temperature both analytically and numerically. It is shown that the fraction of particles in the single-particle and pair condensates essentially depends on the total density of the system. At densities attainable in condensates of alkali-metal atoms, almost all particles are in the single-particle condensate. The pair condensate fraction grows with increasing total density and becomes dominant. It is shown that at density of liquid helium, the single-particle condensate fraction is less than 10% that agrees with experimental data on inelastic neutron scattering, Monte Carlo calculations and other theoretical predictions. The ground state energy, pressure, and compressibility are found for the system under consideration. The spectrum of single-particle excitations is also analyzed.

  17. Dynamical density functional theory for arbitrary-shape colloidal fluids including inertia and hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Goddard, Ben; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades the classical density-functional theory (DFT) and its dynamic extensions (DDFTs) have become a remarkably powerful tool in the study of colloidal fluids. Recently there has been extensive research to generalise all previous DDFTs finally yielding a general DDFT equation (for spherical particles) which takes into account both inertia and hydrodynamic interactions (HI) which strongly influence non-equilibrium properties. The present work will be devoted to a further generalisation of such a framework to systems of anisotropic particles. To this end, the kinetic equation for the Brownian particle distribution function is derived starting from the Liouville equation and making use of Zwanzig's projection-operator techniques. By averaging over all but one particle, a DDFT equation is finally obtained with some similarities to that for spherical colloids. However, there is now an inevitable translational-rotational coupling which affects the diffusivity of asymmetric particles. Lastly, in the overdamped (high friction) limit the theory is notably simplified leading to a DDFT equation which agrees with previous derivations. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  18. Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Brock Franklin

    2017-11-28

    High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.

  19. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    regime by a buried oxide layer / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- A positron source using channeling in crystals for linear colliders / X. Artru ... [et al.] -- Parametric channeling and collapse of charged particles beams in crystals / M. Vysotskyy and V. Vysotskii.The formation and usage of coherent correlated charged particles states in the physics of channeling in crystals / S. V. Adamenko, V. I. Vysotskii and M. V. Vysotskyy -- Surface channeling of magnetic-charged particles on multilayer surface / S. V. Adamenko and V. I. Vysotskii -- Coherent creation of anti-hydrogen atoms in a crystal by relativistic antiproton / Yu. P. Kunashenko -- Thermal equilibrium of light ions in heavy crystals / E. Tsyganov -- Photon emission of electrons in a crystalline undulator / H. Backe ... [et al.] -- Channeling radiation from relativistic electrons in a crystal target as complementary x-ray and gamma ray source at synchrotron light facilities / K. B. Korotchenko, Yu. L. Pivovarov and T. A. Tukhfatullin -- Diffracted channeling radiation and other compound radiation processes / H. Nitta -- Collective scattering on the atom planes under the condition of full transition / A. R. Mkrtchyan ... [et al.] -- The proposal of the experiment on the research of the diffracted channeling radiation / D. A. Baklanov ... [et al.] -- Positron channeling at the DaOne BTF Facility: the cup experiment / L. Quintieri ... [et al.] -- Radiation spectra of 200 MeV electrons in diamond and silicon crystals at axial and planar orientations / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Channeling experiments with electrons at the Mainz Microtron Mami / W. Lauth ... [et al.] -- Dechanneling of positrons by dislocations: effects of anharmonic interactions / J. George and A. P. Pathak -- Diffracted channeling radiation from axially channeled relativistic electrons / K. B. Korotchenko ... [et al.] -- Intensive quasi-monochromatic, directed x-ray radiation of planar channeled positron bunch / L. Gevorgian

  20. Equivalence between generalized phenomenological schemes for the interaction of cosmological fluids: applications to arbitrary linear barotropic fluids and vacuum decay

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, M. R. G.; Pires, N.; Gimenes, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cosmic fluids may appear in many cosmological scenarios that go far beyond the usually studied energy exchange in the dark sector. In the absence of known microscopic interaction mechanisms, phenomenological ansatzes are usually proposed in order to describe such models. In this paper, we derive a generalization of one of the most frequently used of such ansatzes:the one based on a initial proposal of Shapiro, Sol\\`a, Espa\\~na-Bonet and Ruiz-Lapuente who described a time-...

  1. A viscous-inviscid interactive procedure for rotational flow in cascades of two dimensional airfoils of arbitrary shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interactive calculation procedure is developed for application to flow in cascades of two-dimensional airfoils. This procedure has essentially three components. First, a numerical solution of the Eulers equations which can accommodate an arbitrarily specified cascade geometry of the cascade. A method of grid generation has been used which relics in part on a succession of conformal mappings. Second, a viscous solution for use in boundary layers and wake regions was programmed. Finally, an interactive scheme which takes the form of a source-sink distribution along the blade surface and wake centerline is employed. Results were obtained with this procedure for several cascade flow situations, and some comparisons with experiment are presented.

  2. 'AJUSTAR' a interactive processor for to Fit, by means of least squares, one variable polinomials (arbitrary degree) at experimental points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Miro, J.J.; Pena, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this repport is offered, to scientist and technical people, a numeric tool consisting in a FORTRAN program, of interactive use, with destination to make lineal 'least squares', fittings on any set of empirical observations. The method based in the orthogonal functions (for discrete case), instead of direct solving the equations system, is used. The procedure includes also the optionally facilities of: variable change, direct interpolation, correlation non linear factor, 'weights' of the points, confidence intervals (Scheffe, Miller, Student), and plotting results. (Author). 10 refs

  3. Ajustar: A interactive processor for to fit, by means of least squares, one variable polynomials (arbitrary degree) at experimental points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Miro, J. J.; Pena Gutierrez, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this report is offered, to scientist and technical people, a numeric tool consisting in a FORTRAN program, of interactive use, with destination to make lineal l east squares , fittings on any set of empirical observations. The method based in the orthogonal functions (for discrete case), instead of direct solving the equations system, is used. The procedure includes also the optionally facilities of: variable change, direct interpolation, correlation non linear factor, w eights o f the points, confidence intervals (Schelle, Miller, Student), and plotting results. (Author) 10 refs

  4. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  5. Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Prosthetic Aortic Valves: Comparison between Immersed Boundary and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Techniques for the Mesh Representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra M Bavo

    Full Text Available In recent years the role of FSI (fluid-structure interaction simulations in the analysis of the fluid-mechanics of heart valves is becoming more and more important, being able to capture the interaction between the blood and both the surrounding biological tissues and the valve itself. When setting up an FSI simulation, several choices have to be made to select the most suitable approach for the case of interest: in particular, to simulate flexible leaflet cardiac valves, the type of discretization of the fluid domain is crucial, which can be described with an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian or an Eulerian formulation. The majority of the reported 3D heart valve FSI simulations are performed with the Eulerian formulation, allowing for large deformations of the domains without compromising the quality of the fluid grid. Nevertheless, it is known that the ALE-FSI approach guarantees more accurate results at the interface between the solid and the fluid. The goal of this paper is to describe the same aortic valve model in the two cases, comparing the performances of an ALE-based FSI solution and an Eulerian-based FSI approach. After a first simplified 2D case, the aortic geometry was considered in a full 3D set-up. The model was kept as similar as possible in the two settings, to better compare the simulations' outcomes. Although for the 2D case the differences were unsubstantial, in our experience the performance of a full 3D ALE-FSI simulation was significantly limited by the technical problems and requirements inherent to the ALE formulation, mainly related to the mesh motion and deformation of the fluid domain. As a secondary outcome of this work, it is important to point out that the choice of the solver also influenced the reliability of the final results.

  6. Arbitrary Metrics Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the arbitrariness of a metric is distinct from the pursuit of validity, rational zero points, data transformations, standardization, and the types of statistical procedures one uses to analyze interval-level versus ordinal-level data. A variety of theoretical, methodological, and statistical tools can assist researchers who wish to make…

  7. Interaction of an acoustical 2D-beam with an elastic cylinder with arbitrary location in a non-viscous fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The classical Resonance Scattering Theory (RST) for plane waves in acoustics is generalized for the case of a 2D arbitrarily-shaped beam incident upon an elastic cylinder with arbitrary location that is immersed in a nonviscous fluid. The formulation is valid for an elastic (or viscoelastic) cylinder (or a cylindrical shell, a layered cylinder/shell, or a multilayered cylindrical shell, etc.) of any size and material. Partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) for the incident, internal and scattered fields are derived, and numerical examples illustrate the theory. The wave-fields are expressed using a generalized PWSE involving the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) and the scattering coefficients of the cylinder. When the beam is shifted off the center of the cylinder, the off-axial BSCs are evaluated by performing standard numerical integration. Acoustic resonance scattering directivity diagrams are calculated by subtracting an appropriate background from the expression of the scattered pressure field. The properties related to the arbitrary scattering of a zeroth-order quasi-Gaussian cylindrical beam (chosen as an example) by an elastic brass cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of the beam, and shifted off-axially are analyzed and discussed. Moreover, the total and resonance backscattering form function moduli are numerically computed, and the results discussed with emphasis on the contribution of the surface waves circumnavigating the cylinder circular surface to the resonance backscattering. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to derive general expressions for the axial and transverse acoustic radiation force functions for the cylinder in any 2D beam of arbitrary shape. Examples are provided for a zeroth-order quasi Gaussian cylindrical beam with different waist. Potential applications are in underwater and physical acoustics, however, ongoing research in biomedical ultrasound, non-destructive evaluation, imaging, manufacturing, instrumentation, and

  8. AI in arbitrary world

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2012-01-01

    In order to build AI we have to create a program which copes well in an arbitrary world. In this paper we will restrict our attention on one concrete world, which represents the game Tick-Tack-Toe. This world is a very simple one but it is sufficiently complicated for our task because most people cannot manage with it. The main difficulty in this world is that the player cannot see the entire internal state of the world so he has to build a model in order to understand the world. The model wh...

  9. How arbitrary is language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Shillcock, Richard C.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Kirby, Simon

    2014-01-01

    It is a long established convention that the relationship between sounds and meanings of words is essentially arbitrary—typically the sound of a word gives no hint of its meaning. However, there are numerous reported instances of systematic sound–meaning mappings in language, and this systematicity has been claimed to be important for early language development. In a large-scale corpus analysis of English, we show that sound–meaning mappings are more systematic than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, this systematicity is more pronounced for words involved in the early stages of language acquisition and reduces in later vocabulary development. We propose that the vocabulary is structured to enable systematicity in early language learning to promote language acquisition, while also incorporating arbitrariness for later language in order to facilitate communicative expressivity and efficiency. PMID:25092667

  10. Field equation for baryons with arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaklev, J.S.; Ivanov, M.I.; Nikolov, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Field equation for byryons with arbitrary spin, which is a generalization of the Dirac equation, is suggested on the basis of the group scheme. This group scheme provides good possibilities for investigation of the solutions of the equation suggested. Such an investigation is performed in detail in the spirit of the Dirac theory. The operation of the charge conjugation is generalized too. Here the free fields are considered only; a corresponding theory of the interacting fields will be a subject of forthcoming research

  11. Circular mats under arbitrary loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.; Jankov, Z.D.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of mats as in nuclear power plants may become difficult when the large number of features are intended to be accounted for. Circular mats and arbitrary loadings are only a few of these that are considered. If the subgrade reaction can be represented as the function of subgrade displacement as given by Winkler's, Boussinesq's, or two elastic characteristic approaches, the general numerical method is then possible. Boussinesq's approach was treated in more detail when applied on circular mat with arbitrary loadings. Full polar grid formation that must be used when liftoff occurs is compared to harmonic formulation. The possibility of taking into account the superstructure restraint is indicated

  12. Perturbation theory for arbitrary coupling strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Bimal P.; Pradhan, Noubihary

    2018-03-01

    We present a new formulation of perturbation theory for quantum systems, designated here as: “mean field perturbation theory” (MFPT), which is free from power-series-expansion in any physical parameter, including the coupling strength. Its application is thereby extended to deal with interactions of arbitrary strength and to compute system-properties having non-analytic dependence on the coupling, thus overcoming the primary limitations of the “standard formulation of perturbation theory” (SFPT). MFPT is defined by developing perturbation about a chosen input Hamiltonian, which is exactly solvable but which acquires the nonlinearity and the analytic structure (in the coupling strength) of the original interaction through a self-consistent, feedback mechanism. We demonstrate Borel-summability of MFPT for the case of the quartic- and sextic-anharmonic oscillators and the quartic double-well oscillator (QDWO) by obtaining uniformly accurate results for the ground state of the above systems for arbitrary physical values of the coupling strength. The results obtained for the QDWO may be of particular significance since “renormalon”-free, unambiguous results are achieved for its spectrum in contrast to the well-known failure of SFPT in this case.

  13. Arbitrary waveform generator biologically inspired

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Medina, R.; Jiménez-Ramírez, O.; Quiroz-Juárez, M.A.; Aragón, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A system biologically inspired that produces arbitrary analog signals is studied. • The proposed system is based in the BVAM biological model. • The system is analyzed with a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. • The operation regimes of the system are identified changing the control parameter. • The system functionality is shown by the simulations obtained from SIMULINK™. -- Abstract: This work shows and analyzes a system that produces arbitrary waveforms, which is a simplification, based on spatial discretization, of the BVAM model proposed by Barrio et al. in 1999 [1] to model the biological pattern formation. Since the analytical treatment of non-linear terms of this system is often prohibitive, its dynamic has been analyzed using a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. In this analysis, the bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov exponent are the tools used to identify the different operating regimes of the system and to provide evidence of the periodicity and randomness of the generated waveforms. Also, it is shown that the analyzed system presents the period doubling phenomenon, the values of its bifurcation points are related by the Feigenbaum constant and they converge to the onset of chaos. It is shown that, the analyzed system can be electronically implemented using operational amplifiers to produce arbitrary waveforms when varying a single control parameter. The functionality and behavior of the ideal electronic implementation of the analyzed system is shown by the simulations obtained from the MatLab–Simulink™ toolbox. Finally, some problems related to a real electronic implementation are discussed. This paper gives a brief overview of how ideas from biology can be used to design new systems that produce arbitrary waveforms

  14. Generation of arbitrary vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; López-Mariscal, Carlos; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C.

    2017-08-01

    Optical vector beams arise from point to point spatial variations of the electric component of an electromagnetic field over the transverse plane. In this work, we present a novel experimental technique to generate arbitrary vec- tor beams, and provide sufficient evidence to validate their state of polarization. This technique takes advantage of the capability of a Spatial Light Modulator to simultaneously generate two components of an electromagnetic field by halving the screen of the device and subsequently recombining them in a Sagnac interferometer. Our experimental results show the versatility and robustness of this technique for the generation of vector beams.

  15. Static compliance of foundations of arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazi, M.; Nemat-Nasser, S.

    1982-01-01

    The calculation of the compliance matric of foundations is an essential first step in the static or dynamics analysis of soil-foundation interaction problems. An effective numerical method is presented for accurate computation of the static compliance of rigid foundations with arbitrary shapes, which rest on an elastic half-space and are subjected to vertical and horizontal loads, as well as tilting and torsional moments. In this method the contacting area is subbivided into a finite number of 'equivalent' circular elements, which leads to solutions in a rather simple form that require minimal numerical computations. The results are illustrated by calculating the overall compliances of foundations of various geometries, and these are compared with results obtained by means of another, more elaborate, method. (orig.)

  16. Controlling arbitrary humidity without convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasnik, Priyanka S; N'guessan, Hartmann E; Tadmor, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we show a way that allows for the first time to induce arbitrary humidity of desired value for systems without convective flow. To enable this novelty we utilize a semi-closed environment in which evaporation is not completely suppressed. In this case, the evaporation rate is determined both by the outer (open) humidity and by the inner (semi-closed) geometry including the size/shape of the evaporating medium and the size/shape of the semi-closure. We show how such systems can be used to induce desired humidity conditions. We consider water droplet placed on a solid surface and study its evaporation when it is surrounded by other drops, hereon "satellite" drops and covered by a semi-closed hemisphere. The main drop's evaporation rate is proportional to its height, in agreement with theory. Surprisingly, however, the influence of the satellite drops on the main drop's evaporation suppression is not proportional to the sum of heights of the satellite drops. Instead, it shows proportionality close to the satellite drops' total surface area. The resultant humidity conditions in the semi-closed system can be effectively and accurately induced using different satellite drops combinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiplicative asset exchange with arbitrary return distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2011-08-01

    The conservative wealth exchange process derived from trade interactions is modeled as a multiplicative stochastic transference of value, where each interaction multiplies the wealth of the poorest of the two intervening agents by a random gain η = 1 + κ, with κ a random return. Analyzing the kinetic equation for the wealth distribution P(w, t), general properties are derived for arbitrary return distributions π(κ). If the geometrical average of the gain is larger than one, i.e. if langlnηrangπ > 0, in the long time limit a nontrivial equilibrium wealth distribution P(w) is attained. Whenever langlnηrangπ betting, and it turns out to be an exponential P(w) = e - w. We show, however, that our model is never reversible, no matter what π(κ) is. In the condensing phase, the wealth of an agent with relative rank x is found to be w(x, t) ~ extlanglnηrangπ for finite times t. The wealth distribution is consequently P(w) ~ 1/w for finite times, while all wealth ends up in the hands of the richest agent for large times. Numerical simulations are carried out and found to satisfactorily compare with the above-mentioned analytical results.

  18. Trace maps for arbitrary substitution sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of quasi-crystals and their 1-dimensional modeling have led to a deep mathematical study of Schroedinger operators with an arbitrary deterministic potential sequence. In this work we address this problem and find trace maps for an arbitrary substitution sequence. our trace maps have lower dimensionality than those of Kolar and Nori, which make them quite attractive for actual applications. (authors)

  19. Arbitrary-Region Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Jelle; Dekens, Tomas; Schrimpf, Waldemar; Lamb, Don C

    2016-10-18

    Combining imaging with correlation spectroscopy, as in raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), makes it possible to extract molecular translational diffusion constants and absolute concentrations, and determine intermolecular interactions from single-channel or multicolor confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) images. Region-specific RICS analysis remains very challenging because correlations are always calculated in a square region-of-interest (ROI). In this study, we describe a generalized image correlation spectroscopy algorithm that accepts arbitrarily shaped ROIs. We show that an image series can be cleaned up before arbitrary-region RICS (ARICS) analysis. We demonstrate the power of ARICS by simultaneously measuring molecular mobility in the cell membrane and the cytosol. Mobility near dynamic subcellular structures can be investigated with ARICS by generating a dynamic ROI. Finally, we derive diffusion and concentration pseudo-maps using the ARICS method. ARICS is a powerful expansion of image correlation spectroscopy with the potential of becoming the new standard for extracting biophysical parameters from confocal fluorescence images. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rotating hairy black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erices, Cristián; Martínez, Cristián

    2018-01-01

    A class of exact rotating black hole solutions of gravity nonminimally coupled to a self-interacting scalar field in arbitrary dimensions is presented. These spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter manifolds and have a Ricci-flat event horizon hiding a curvature singularity at the origin. The scalar field is real and regular everywhere, and its effective mass, coming from the nonminimal coupling with the scalar curvature, saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the corresponding spacetime dimension. The rotating black hole is obtained by applying an improper coordinate transformation to the static one. Although both spacetimes are locally equivalent, they are globally different, as it is confirmed by the nonvanishing angular momentum of the rotating black hole. It is found that the mass is bounded from below by the angular momentum, in agreement with the existence of an event horizon. The thermodynamical analysis is carried out in the grand canonical ensemble. The first law is satisfied, and a Smarr formula is exhibited. The thermodynamical local stability of the rotating hairy black holes is established from their Gibbs free energy. However, the global stability analysis establishes that the vacuum spacetime is always preferred over the hairy black hole. Thus, the hairy black hole is likely to decay into the vacuum one for any temperature.

  1. Arbitrary protein−protein docking targets biologically relevant interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Juliette

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein recognition is of fundamental importance in the vast majority of biological processes. However, it has already been demonstrated that it is very hard to distinguish true complexes from false complexes in so-called cross-docking experiments, where binary protein complexes are separated and the isolated proteins are all docked against each other and scored. Does this result, at least in part, reflect a physical reality? False complexes could reflect possible nonspecific or weak associations. Results In this paper, we investigate the twilight zone of protein-protein interactions, building on an interesting outcome of cross-docking experiments: false complexes seem to favor residues from the true interaction site, suggesting that randomly chosen partners dock in a non-random fashion on protein surfaces. Here, we carry out arbitrary docking of a non-redundant data set of 198 proteins, with more than 300 randomly chosen "probe" proteins. We investigate the tendency of arbitrary partners to aggregate at localized regions of the protein surfaces, the shape and compositional bias of the generated interfaces, and the potential of this property to predict biologically relevant binding sites. We show that the non-random localization of arbitrary partners after protein-protein docking is a generic feature of protein structures. The interfaces generated in this way are not systematically planar or curved, but tend to be closer than average to the center of the proteins. These results can be used to predict biological interfaces with an AUC value up to 0.69 alone, and 0.72 when used in combination with evolutionary information. An appropriate choice of random partners and number of docking models make this method computationally practical. It is also noted that nonspecific interfaces can point to alternate interaction sites in the case of proteins with multiple interfaces. We illustrate the usefulness of arbitrary docking

  2. Arbitrary protein−protein docking targets biologically relevant interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Juliette; Lavery, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein recognition is of fundamental importance in the vast majority of biological processes. However, it has already been demonstrated that it is very hard to distinguish true complexes from false complexes in so-called cross-docking experiments, where binary protein complexes are separated and the isolated proteins are all docked against each other and scored. Does this result, at least in part, reflect a physical reality? False complexes could reflect possible nonspecific or weak associations. In this paper, we investigate the twilight zone of protein-protein interactions, building on an interesting outcome of cross-docking experiments: false complexes seem to favor residues from the true interaction site, suggesting that randomly chosen partners dock in a non-random fashion on protein surfaces. Here, we carry out arbitrary docking of a non-redundant data set of 198 proteins, with more than 300 randomly chosen "probe" proteins. We investigate the tendency of arbitrary partners to aggregate at localized regions of the protein surfaces, the shape and compositional bias of the generated interfaces, and the potential of this property to predict biologically relevant binding sites. We show that the non-random localization of arbitrary partners after protein-protein docking is a generic feature of protein structures. The interfaces generated in this way are not systematically planar or curved, but tend to be closer than average to the center of the proteins. These results can be used to predict biological interfaces with an AUC value up to 0.69 alone, and 0.72 when used in combination with evolutionary information. An appropriate choice of random partners and number of docking models make this method computationally practical. It is also noted that nonspecific interfaces can point to alternate interaction sites in the case of proteins with multiple interfaces. We illustrate the usefulness of arbitrary docking using PEBP (Phosphatidylethanolamine binding

  3. Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B

    2016-09-02

    Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.

  4. Accelerating flight: Edge with arbitrary acceleration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study concludes the possession of a theoretical framework for arbitrary manoeuvre which allows us to keep an eye on transformations. In the theory, relative frame equations are useful in guiding us in what to look for. The code...

  5. Hydrogen equation in spaces of arbitrary dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya

    2015-01-01

    We note that presenting Hydrogen atom Schrodinger equation in the case of arbitrary dimensions require simultaneous modification of the Coulomb potential that only in three dimensions has the form Z / r. This was not done in a number of relatively recent papers (see [1] and references therein). Therefore, some results obtained in [1] seem to be doubtful. Several required considerations in the area are mentioned. (paper)

  6. Clausius entropy for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Jacobson’s thermodynamic derivation of the Einstein equations was originally applied only to local Rindler horizons. But at least some parts of that construction can usefully be extended to give meaningful results for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces. As presaged in Jacobson’s original article, this more general construction sharply brings into focus the questions: is entropy objectively ‘real’? Or is entropy in some sense subjective and observer-dependent? These innocent questions open a Pandora’s box of often inconclusive debate. A consensus opinion, though certainly not universally held, seems to be that Clausius entropy (thermodynamic entropy, defined via a Clausius relation dS=đQ/T) should be objectively real, but that the ontological status of statistical entropy (Shannon or von Neumann entropy) is much more ambiguous, and much more likely to be observer-dependent. This question is particularly pressing when it comes to understanding Bekenstein entropy (black hole entropy). To perhaps further add to the confusion, we shall argue that even the Clausius entropy can often be observer-dependent. In the current article we shall conclusively demonstrate that one can meaningfully assign a notion of Clausius entropy to arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces—effectively defining a ‘virtual Clausius entropy’ for arbitrary ‘virtual (local) causal horizons’. As an application, we see that we can implement a version of the generalized second law (GSL) for this virtual Clausius entropy. This version of GSL can be related to certain (nonstandard) integral variants of the null energy condition. Because the concepts involved are rather subtle, we take some effort in being careful and explicit in developing our framework. In future work we will apply this construction to generalize Jacobson’s derivation of the Einstein equations. (paper)

  7. Path integrals for arbitrary canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.A.R. de.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics are studied. This formalism is generalized to arbitrary canonical transformations, by means of an association between path integral probalility amplitudes and classical generators of transformations, analogous to the usual Hamiltonian time development phase space expression. Such association turns out to be equivalent to the Weyl quantization rule, and it is also shown that this formalism furnishes a path integral representation for a Lie algebra of a given set of classical generators. Some physical considerations about the path integral quantization procedure and about the relationship between classical and quantum dynamical structures are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  8. Fabrication of longitudinally arbitrary shaped fiber tapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, J.; Plötner, M.; Böhme, S.; Sattler, B.; deVries, O.; Schreiber, T.; Eberhardt, R.; Tünnermann, A.

    2018-02-01

    We present our current results on the fabrication of arbitrary shaped fiber tapers on our tapering rig using a CO2-laser as heat source. Single mode excitation of multimode fibers as well as changing the fiber geometry in an LPG-like fashion is presented. It is shown that this setup allows for reproducible fabrication of single-mode excitation tapers to extract the fundamental mode (M2 < 1.1) from a 30 μm core having an NA of 0.09.

  9. Blur invariants constructed from arbitrary moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Jaroslav; Flusser, Jan

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with moment invariants with respect to image blurring. It is mainly a reaction to the works of Zhang and Chen , recently published in these Transactions. We present a general method on how to construct blur invariants from arbitrary moments and show that it is no longer necessary to separately derive the invariants for each polynomial basis. We show how to discard dependent terms in blur invariants definition and discuss a proper implementation of the invariants in orthogonal bases using recurrent relations. An example for Legendre moments is given. © 2011 IEEE

  10. Microwave power divider with arbitrary distribution ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengda; Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Syratchev, I.

    2004-01-01

    As is well known, the EM field of TE11 mode at the wall of the circular waveguide changes as sine (or cosine) function azimuthally. So when we attach two perpendicular waveguides to the wall of the circular waveguide and rotate them around the axis of the waveguide, authors can distribute the input power between the two waveguides with arbitrary distribution proportion. The authors have designed a new power divider following this idea. The 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS is used in the design. And a new type circular TE11 mode launcher is developed. (author)

  11. Deriving Field Theories for Particles of Arbitrary Spin With and Without Supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Sudarshan

    We review the derivation of light-cone interaction vertices for fermionic and bosonic fields of arbitrary spin. The resulting amplitudes and their factorization properties are discussed. We then show how this symmetry-based approach works for theories with extended supersymmetry like 𝒩 = 4 Yang-Mills theory and 𝒩 = 8 supergravity.

  12. Multipole expansion of acoustical Bessel beams with arbitrary order and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhixiong; Marston, Philip L; Li, Wei; Chai, Yingbin

    2017-06-01

    An exact solution of expansion coefficients for a T-matrix method interacting with acoustic scattering of arbitrary order Bessel beams from an obstacle of arbitrary location is derived analytically. Because of the failure of the addition theorem for spherical harmonics for expansion coefficients of helicoidal Bessel beams, an addition theorem for cylindrical Bessel functions is introduced. Meanwhile, an analytical expression for the integral of products including Bessel and associated Legendre functions is applied to eliminate the integration over the polar angle. Note that this multipole expansion may also benefit other scattering methods and expansions of incident waves, for instance, partial-wave series solutions.

  13. Gyrokinetic theory for arbitrary wavelength electromagnetic modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-01-01

    A linear gyrokinetic system for arbitrary wavelength electromagnetic modes is developed. A wide range of modes in inhomogeneous plasmas, such as the internal kink modes, the toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) modes, and the drift modes, can be recovered from this system. The inclusion of most of the interesting physical factors into a single framework enables one to look at many familiar modes simultaneously and thus to study the modifications of and the interactions between them in a systematic way. Especially, the authors are able to investigate self-consistently the kinetic MHD phenomena entirely from the kinetic side. Phase space Lagrangian Lie perturbation methods and a newly developed computer algebra package for vector analysis in general coordinate system are utilized in the analytical derivation. In tokamak geometries, a 2D finite element code has been developed and tested. In this paper, they present the basic theoretical formalism and some of the preliminary results

  14. Entanglement of a two-atom system driven by the quantum vacuum in arbitrary cavity size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Hidalgo, G., E-mail: gfloreshidalgo@unifei.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rojas, M., E-mail: moises.leyva@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Rojas, Onofre, E-mail: ors@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-10

    We study the entanglement dynamics of two distinguishable atoms confined into a cavity and interacting with a quantum vacuum field. As a simplified model for this system, we consider two harmonic oscillators linearly coupled to a massless scalar field which are inside a spherical cavity of radius R. Through the concurrence, the entanglement dynamics for the two-atom system is discussed for a range of initial states composed of a superposition of atomic states. Our results reveal how the entanglement of the two atoms behaves through the time evolution, in a precise way, for arbitrary cavity size and for arbitrary coupling constant. All our computations are analytical and only the final step is numerical. - Highlights: • Entanglement time evolution in arbitrary cavity size is considered. • In free space concurrence approaches a fixed value at large time. • For finite cavity, concurrence behaves almost as a periodic function of time.

  15. Metamaterial Electromagnetic Superabsorber with Arbitrary Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic superabsorber that has larger absorption cross section than its real size may be a novel photothermal device with improved solar energy conversion rates. Based on a transformation optical approach, the material parameters for a two-dimensional (2D metamaterial-assisted electromagnetic superabsorber with arbitrary geometries are derived and validated by numerical simulation. We find that for the given geometry size, the absorption cross section of the superabsorber using nonlinear transformation is larger than that using linear transformation. These transformations can also be specialized to the designing the N-sided regular polygonal superabsorber just by changing the contour equation. All theoretical and numerical results validate the material parameters for the 2D electromagnetic superabsorber we have developed.

  16. ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi

    2013-06-01

    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.

  17. A pulse generator of arbitrary shaped waveform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiayou; Chen Zhihao

    2011-01-01

    The three bump magnets in the booster extraction system of SSRF are driven by a signal generator with an external trigger. The signal generator must have three independent and controllable outputs, and both amplitude and make-and-break should be controllable, with current state information being readable. In this paper, we describe a signal generator based on FPGA and DAC boards. It makes use of characteristics of both FPGA flex programmable and rich reconfigurable IO resources. The system has a 16-bit DAC with four outputs, using Matlab to write a GUI based on RS232 protocol for control. It was simulated in Modelsim and tested on board. The results indicate that the system is well designed and all the requirements are met. The arbitrary waveform is writable, and the pulse width and period can be controlled. (authors)

  18. Arbitrary spin fermions on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinaria, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lattice actions are constructed for free Dirac and Majorana fermions of arbitrary (half-integer) spin various extensions of the spin 1/2 Kogut-Susskind, Kaehler and Wilson formalisms. In each case, the spectrum degeneracy and preservation of gauge invariance is analysed, and the equivalence or non-equivalence to previously constructed actions is determined. The Kogut-Susskind and lattice Kaehler actions are then written explicitly in terms of spinors to demonstrate how the degenerate fermions couple on the lattice and how the original spinorial actions are recovered (or to recovered) in the continuum limit. Both degenerate and non-degenerate mass terms are dealt with and the various U(1) invariances of the lattice actions are pointed out

  19. Scattering of massless particles in arbitrary dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachazo, Freddy; He, Song; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2014-10-24

    We present a compact formula for the complete tree-level S-matrix of pure Yang-Mills and gravity theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The new formula for the scattering of n particles is given by an integral over the positions of n points on a sphere restricted to satisfy a dimension-independent set of equations. The integrand is constructed using the reduced Pfaffian of a 2n×2n matrix, Ψ, that depends on momenta and polarization vectors. In its simplest form, the gravity integrand is a reduced determinant which is the square of the Pfaffian in the Yang-Mills integrand. Gauge invariance is completely manifest as it follows from a simple property of the Pfaffian.

  20. Solving stochastic inflation for arbitrary potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jerome; Musso, Marcello

    2006-01-01

    A perturbative method for solving the Langevin equation of inflationary cosmology in the presence of backreaction is presented. In the Gaussian approximation, the method permits an explicit calculation of the probability distribution of the inflaton field for an arbitrary potential, with or without the volume effects taken into account. The perturbative method is then applied to various concrete models, namely, large field, small field, hybrid, and running mass inflation. New results on the stochastic behavior of the inflaton field in those models are obtained. In particular, it is confirmed that the stochastic effects can be important in new inflation while it is demonstrated they are negligible in (vacuum dominated) hybrid inflation. The case of stochastic running mass inflation is discussed in some details and it is argued that quantum effects blur the distinction between the four classical versions of this model. It is also shown that the self-reproducing regime is likely to be important in this case

  1. ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honda, Masazumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-06-15

    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.

  2. Projection operator and propagator for an arbitrary integral spin

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Shi Zhong; Wu Ning; Zheng Zhi Peng

    2002-01-01

    Based on the solution of the Bargmann-Wigner equation for an arbitrary integral spin, a direct derivation of the projection operator and propagator for an arbitrary integral spin is presented. The explicit form for the spin projection operators constructed by Behrends and Fronsdal is confirmed. The commutation rules and a general expression for the Feynman propagator for a free particle of arbitrary integral spin are deduced

  3. Solving Nonlinear Euler Equations with Arbitrary Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2005-01-01

    A computer program that efficiently solves the time-dependent, nonlinear Euler equations in two dimensions to an arbitrarily high order of accuracy has been developed. The program implements a modified form of a prior arbitrary- accuracy simulation algorithm that is a member of the class of algorithms known in the art as modified expansion solution approximation (MESA) schemes. Whereas millions of lines of code were needed to implement the prior MESA algorithm, it is possible to implement the present MESA algorithm by use of one or a few pages of Fortran code, the exact amount depending on the specific application. The ability to solve the Euler equations to arbitrarily high accuracy is especially beneficial in simulations of aeroacoustic effects in settings in which fully nonlinear behavior is expected - for example, at stagnation points of fan blades, where linearizing assumptions break down. At these locations, it is necessary to solve the full nonlinear Euler equations, and inasmuch as the acoustical energy is of the order of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude below that of the mean flow, it is necessary to achieve an overall fractional error of less than 10-6 in order to faithfully simulate entropy, vortical, and acoustical waves.

  4. Dyonic black holes at arbitrary locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, Patrick; Ortín, Tomás; Ramírez, Pedro F.

    2017-10-01

    We construct and study stationary, asymptotically flat multicenter solutions describing regular black holes with non-Abelian hair (colored magnetic-monopole and dyon fields) in two models of N=2 , d = 4 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills theories: the quadratic model \\overline{CP}^3 and the cubic model ST[2, 6], which can be embedded in 10-dimensional Heterotic Supergravity. These solutions are based on the multicenter dyon recently discovered by one of us, which solves the SU(2) Bogomol'nyi and dyon equations on E^3 . In contrast to the well-known Abelian multicenter solutions, the relative positions of the non-Abelian black-hole centers are unconstrained. We study necessary conditions on the parameters of the solutions that ensure the regularity of the metric. In the case of the \\overline{CP}^3 model we show that it is enough to require the positivity of the "masses" of the individual black holes, the finiteness of each of their entropies and their superadditivity. In the case of the ST[2, 6] model we have not been able to show that analogous conditions are sufficient, but we give an explicit example of a regular solution describing thousands of non-Abelian dyonic black holes in equilibrium at arbitrary relative positions. We also construct non-Abelian solutions that interpolate smoothly between just two aDS2×S2 vacua with different radii ( dumbbell solutions).

  5. A sheath model for arbitrary radiofrequency waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. M.; Chabert, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    The sheath is often the most important region of a rf plasma, because discharge impedance, power absorption and ion acceleration are critically affected by the behaviour of the sheath. Consequently, models of the sheath are central to any understanding of the physics of rf plasmas. Lieberman has supplied an analytical model for a radio-frequency sheath driven by a single frequency, but in recent years interest has been increasing in radio-frequency discharges excited by increasingly complex wave forms. There has been limited success in generalizing the Lieberman model in this direction, because of mathematical complexities. So there is essentially no sheath model available to describe many modern experiments. In this paper we present a new analytical sheath model, based on a simpler mathematical framework than that of Lieberman. For the single frequency case, this model yields scaling laws that are identical in form to those of Lieberman, differing only by numerical coefficients close to one. However, the new model may be straightforwardly solved for arbitrary current waveforms, and may be used to derive scaling laws for such complex waveforms. In this paper, we will describe the model and present some illustrative examples.

  6. Maskless Arbitrary Writing of Molecular Tunnel Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seo Eun; Kim, Miso; Yoon, Hyo Jae

    2017-11-22

    Since fabricating geometrically well-defined, noninvasive, and compliant electrical contacts over molecular monolayers is difficult, creating molecular-scale electronic devices that function in high yield with good reproducibility is challenging. Moreover, none of the previously reported methods to form organic-electrode contacts at the nanometer and micrometer scales have resulted in directly addressable contacts in an untethered form under ambient conditions without the use of cumbersome equipment and nanolithography. Here we show that in situ encapsulation of a liquid metal (eutectic Ga-In alloy) microelectrode, which is used for junction formation, with a convenient photocurable polymeric scaffold enables untethering of the electrode and direct writing of arbitrary arrays of high-yielding molecular junctions under ambient conditions in a maskless fashion. The formed junctions function in quantitative yields and can afford tunneling currents with high reproducibility; they also function at low temperatures and under bent. The results reported here promise a massively parallel printing technology to construct integrated circuits based on molecular junctions with soft top contacts.

  7. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  8. Including Arbitrary Antenna Patterns in Microwave Imaging of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra......A linear inversion scheme for microwave imaging of buried objects is presented in which arbitrary antennas are accounted for through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra...

  9. One-sided dichotomies versus two-sided dichotomies: arbitrary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two- sided nonuniform exponential dichotomies with arbitrary growth rates in terms of the existence of one-sided nonuniform exponential dichotomies on the past and on the future. We consider both linear nonautonomous dynamics with discrete and continuous time, on an arbitrary Banach space. Keywords: Growth rates ...

  10. Orthonormal polynomials for elliptical wavefronts with an arbitrary orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José A; Navarro, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    We generalize the analytical form of the orthonormal elliptical polynomials for any arbitrary aspect ratio to arbitrary orientation and give expression for them up to the 4th order. The utility of the polynomials is demonstrated by obtaining the expansion up to the 8th order in two examples of an off-axis wavefront exiting from an optical system with a vignetted pupil.

  11. A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Lujun; Zhou Daming; Wang Jian; Li Guanhai; Li Zhifeng; Chen Xiaoshuang; Lu Wei, E-mail: xschen@mail.sitp.ac.cn [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200083 Shanghai (China)

    2011-06-15

    A generalized transformation is proposed to design an illusion device. The device can reshape an arbitrarily shaped perfect electrical conductor (PEC) into another dielectric object with arbitrary geometry. Such a device can evolve into an ideal invisibility cloak with non-conformal boundaries if the virtual space is filled with air. Furthermore, the validity of our proposed transformation is confirmed by two specific devices. One is to convert a regular polygonal PEC cylinder into a circular dielectric cylinder. Another one is to reshape a circular PEC cylinder into a regular polygonal dielectric cylinder.

  12. Quantum simulation of spin models on an arbitrary lattice with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenblit, S; Kafri, D; Campbell, W C; Islam, R; Edwards, E E; Monroe, C; Gong, Z-X; Lin, G-D; Duan, L-M; Kim, J; Kim, K

    2012-01-01

    A collection of trapped atomic ions represents one of the most attractive platforms for the quantum simulation of interacting spin networks and quantum magnetism. Spin-dependent optical dipole forces applied to an ion crystal create long-range effective spin–spin interactions and allow the simulation of spin Hamiltonians that possess nontrivial phases and dynamics. Here we show how the appropriate design of laser fields can provide for arbitrary multidimensional spin–spin interaction graphs even for the case of a linear spatial array of ions. This scheme uses currently available trap technology and is scalable to levels where the classical methods of simulation are intractable. (paper)

  13. Arbitrary Phase Vocoders by means of Warping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Evangelista

    2013-08-01

    duration and/or frequency dependent bandwidth. As an example, in a constant Q frequency band allocation, the ratios of center band frequencies over bandwidth remains constant, so that the frequency bands become wider and wider as center frequency increases, similarly to the frequency distance of 12-tone scale notes or of octaves.While time-frequency allocation can be performed in an arbitrary way, the ability to reconstruct the original signal from Vocoder analysis data is essential in sound processing and transformation applications. Moreover, even the analysis or the production of spectrograms benefits from the perfect reconstruction property if one needs to be confident that no important information is hidden, which serves to completely describe the signal.

  14. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Li, E-mail: dengl@bupt.edu.cn; Hong, Weijun, E-mail: hongwj@bupt.edu.cn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Network System Architecture and Convergence, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China); Wu, Yongle, E-mail: wuyongle138@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  15. Boosting the Kerr geometry in an arbitrary direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasin, Herbert; Nachbagauer, Herbert

    1996-04-01

    We construct ultrarelativistic Kerr geometries from their distributional energy - momentum tensors. The latter are obtained by boosting Kerr's distributional energy - momentum tensor in arbitrary directions, thereby generalizing previous work by the authors.

  16. Thermodynamics of a classical ideal gas at arbitrary temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Palash B.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a fundamental relation for a classical ideal gas that is valid at all temperatures with remarkable accuracy. All thermodynamical properties of classical ideal gases can be deduced from this relation at arbitrary temperature.

  17. Arbitrary Deprivation of an Unregistered Credit Provider's Right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbitrary Deprivation of an Unregistered Credit Provider's Right to Claim Restitution of Performance Rendered Opperman v Boonzaaier (24887/2010) 2012 ZAWCHC 27 (17 April 2012) and National Credit Regulator v Opperman 2013 2 SA 1 (CC)

  18. Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalin, Igor A., E-mail: batalin@lpi.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119 991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lavrov, Peter M., E-mail: lavrov@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin Av. 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-10

    In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.

  19. Renormalization of the one-loop effective action on an arbitrary curved space-time: A general method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognola, G.

    1994-01-01

    Using ζ-function regularization for the one-loop effective action, we carry out the renormalization of the one-loop effective Lagrangian for a self-interacting scalar field theory in an arbitrary gravitational background. We give very general expressions and recover known results as special cases

  20. Natural oscillation frequencies for arbitrary piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns axial and lateral oscillations and oscillation frequencies of various empty (natural frequency of oscillation) and fluid filled (forced oscillation) piping systems. Forced oscillations of fluid filled piping systems and corresponding exchange of energy are denominated also Fluid-Structure-Interaction (FSI). Oscillations appear due to various external or internal impacts and are successfully described with eight-equation physical model for simulations of FSI during fast transients. The physical model is solved with characteristic upwind numerical method and is compiled into a computer code. Simulations were compared to the analytical solutions or solutions from the literature whenever was possible. Discussion on results and problems encountered is given. The proposed physical model gives accurate results, and it enables evaluation of natural frequency of arbitrarily loaded, arbitrarily shaped and arbitrarily supported piping systems. Piping systems are rarely empty, thus forced oscillations due to FSI effects were observed and simulated. Application of various fluids pointed out importance of the fluid's compressibility on pipe's axial oscillations. (author)

  1. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  2. Optical cloning of arbitrary images beyond the diffraction limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Onkar N.; Zhang, Lida; Evers, Jörg; Dey, Tarak N.

    2013-07-01

    Cloning of arbitrary images from the spatial profile of a laser beam onto that of a second beam is theoretically investigated. The two fields couple to each other while propagating in an atomic Λ medium displaying coherent population trapping in the case where probe and control fields have comparable strength. Our method is suitable to clone arbitrary images as demonstrated in numerical simulations where the three letters “CPT” are encoded in the control field profile. The cloned structures have features reduced in size by about a factor of 2, when compared to the initial control images, and are consistent with a recent related experiment.

  3. Nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour of shells of revolution under arbitrary loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.W.; Arbabi-Kanjoori, F.

    1975-01-01

    A formulation and solution technique are presented for the creep analysis of shells of revolution subjected to arbitrary loads and temperature changes. Arbitrary creep laws are admitted in the formulation with specific attention given to the two common laws, i.e. strain hardening and time hardening. The governing equations for creep of shells of revolution are derived. The solution method requires the quasi-static linearization of the equations: linear incremental behaviour is assumed during each time step. The incremental equations are expanded in Fourier series and solved by a numerical integration technique. (Auth.)

  4. Garbage-free reversible constant multipliers for arbitrary integers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for constructing reversible circuitry for multiplying integers by arbitrary integer constants. The method is based on Mealy machines and gives circuits whose size are (in the worst case) linear in the size of the constant. This makes the method unsuitable for large constants...

  5. Zero cycles on certain surfaces in arbitrary characteristic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let be a field of arbitrary characteristic. Let be a singular surface defined over with multiple rational curve singularities and suppose that the Chow group of zero cycles of its normalisation S ¯ is finite dimensional. We give numerical conditions under which the Chow group of zero cycles of is finite dimensional.

  6. Unveiling Reality of the Mind: Cultural Arbitrary of Consumerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the cultural arbitrary of consumerism by focusing on a personal realm. That is, I discuss what consumerism appeals to and how it flourishes in relation to our minds. I argue that we need to unveil reality of the mind, be aware of ourselves in relation to the perpetuation of consumerism, in order to critically intervene in the…

  7. Brownian motion of a particle with arbitrary shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Bogdan; Ekiel-Jeżewska, Maria L; Wajnryb, Eligiusz

    2015-06-07

    Brownian motion of a particle with an arbitrary shape is investigated theoretically. Analytical expressions for the time-dependent cross-correlations of the Brownian translational and rotational displacements are derived from the Smoluchowski equation. The role of the particle mobility center is determined and discussed.

  8. On the entropy of random surfaces with arbitrary genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, I.K.; Krzywicki, A.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate the susceptibility critical exponent γ for Polyakov random surfaces with arbitrary genus, using the Liouville theory to one-loop order. Some rigorous results obtained for special dimensionalities in a discrete version of the model are also noted. In all cases γ grows linearly with the genus of the surface. (orig.)

  9. Cauchy's problem for field equations with arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, V.

    1983-01-01

    We discuss Cauchy's problem and Huygens' principle for relativistic higher spin and non-zero mass equations, which are internally consistent in an arbitrary curved space-time. A representation theorem for the solution and conditions for the validity of Huygens' principle are given. The space-times on which these field equations satisfy Huygens' principle are determined explicitly [fr

  10. Dynamics of number systems computation with arbitrary precision

    CERN Document Server

    Kurka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This book is a source of valuable and useful information on the topics of dynamics of number systems and scientific computation with arbitrary precision. It is addressed to scholars, scientists and engineers, and graduate students. The treatment is elementary and self-contained with relevance both for theory and applications. The basic prerequisite of the book is linear algebra and matrix calculus. .

  11. Convergence Theorems for Partial Sums of Arbitrary Stochastic Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaosheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By using Doob's martingale convergence theorem, this paper presents a class of strong limit theorems for arbitrary stochastic sequence. Chow's two strong limit theorems for martingale-difference sequence and Loève's and Petrov's strong limit theorems for independent random variables are the particular cases of the main results.

  12. Cubic Equations and the Ideal Trisection of the Arbitrary Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Marion B.

    2006-01-01

    In the year 1837 mathematical proof was set forth authoritatively stating that it is impossible to trisect an arbitrary angle with a compass and an unmarked straightedge in the classical sense. The famous proof depends on an incompatible cubic equation having the cosine of an angle of 60 and the cube of the cosine of one-third of an angle of 60 as…

  13. Homotopy Continuation Method of Arbitrary Order of Convergence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gower & George 1993) to solve transcendental equations without any prior knowledge of the initial guess. These techniques are known as homotopy continuation methods. In the present paper, an efficient iterative method of arbitrary positive integer order of convergence ≥ 2 has been established for solving Kepler's ...

  14. Quantum electrodynamics with arbitrary charge on a noncommutative space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wanping; Long Zhengwen; Cai Shaohong

    2009-01-01

    Using the Seiberg-Witten map, we obtain a quantum electrodynamics on a noncommutative space, which has arbitrary charge and keep the gauge invariance to at the leading order in theta. The one-loop divergence and Compton scattering are reinvestigated. The noncommutative effects are larger than those in ordinary noncommutative quantum electrodynamics. (authors)

  15. Multiple scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam with arbitrary incidence by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.J.; Wu, Z.S.; Qu, T.; Shang, Q.C.; Bai, L.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory, multiple scattering of an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres illuminated by a zero-order Bessel beam (ZOBB) with arbitrary propagation direction is investigated. The particle size and configuration are arbitrary. The arbitrary incident Bessel beam is expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions (SVWFs). Utilizing the vector addition theorem of SVWFs, interactive and total scattering coefficients are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the particles is considered. The accuracy of the theory and codes are verified by comparing results with those obtained for arbitrary plane wave incidence by CST simulation, and for ZOBB incidence by a numerical method. The effects of angle of incidence, pseudo-polarization angle, half-conical angle, beam center position, and permittivity tensor elements on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres, such as a linear chain, a 4×4×4 cube-shaped array, and other periodical structures consisting of massive spheres, are numerically analyzed. Selected results on the properties of typical particles such as TiO 2 , SiO 2 , or other particle lattices are calculated. This investigation could provide an effective test for further research on the scattering characteristics of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres by a high-order Bessel vortex beam. The results have important application in optical tweezers and particle manipulation. - Highlights: • Scattering of Bessel beam by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres is studied. • The zero-order Bessel beam propagates and polarizes along arbitrary direction. • The accuracy of expansion coefficients, the scattering theory and codes is verified. • Effects of various parameters on scattering properties are numerically discussed. • Scattering properties of several type of periodical array are numerically analyzed.

  16. Electromagnetic properties for arbitrary spin particles: Natural electromagnetic moments from light-cone arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorce, Cedric

    2009-01-01

    We revisit the old-standing problem of the electromagnetic interaction for particles of arbitrary spin. Based on the assumption that light-cone helicity at tree level and Q 2 =0 should be conserved nontrivially by the electromagnetic interaction, we are able to derive all the natural electromagnetic moments for a pointlike particle of any spin. We provide here a transparent decomposition of the electromagnetic current in terms of covariant vertex functions. We also define in a general way the electromagnetic multipole form factors, and show their relation with the electromagnetic moments and covariant vertex functions. The light-cone helicity conservation argument determines uniquely the values of all electromagnetic moments, which we refer to as the 'natural' ones. These specific values are in accordance with the standard model, and the prediction of universal g=2 gyromagnetic factor is naturally recovered. We provide a very simple and compact formula for these natural moments. As an application of our results, we generalize the discussion of quark transverse charge densities to particles with arbitrary spin, giving more physical support to the light-cone helicity conservation argument.

  17. Acoustic invisibility cloaks of arbitrary shapes for complex background media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Ping

    2016-04-01

    We report on the theoretical investigation of the acoustic cloaks working in complex background media in this paper. The constitutive parameters of arbitrary-shape cloaks are derived based on the transformation acoustic theory and coordinate transformation technique. The detailed analysis of boundaries conditions and potential applications of the cloaks are also presented in our work. To overcome the difficulty of achieving the materials with ideal parameters in nature, concentric alternating layered isotropic materials is adopted to approximate the required properties of the cloak. Theoretical design and excellent invisibility are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The inhomogeneous medium and arbitrary-shape acoustic cloaks grow closer to real application and may be a new hot spot in future.

  18. Cell assemblies at multiple time scales with arbitrary lag constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Eleonora; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2017-01-11

    Hebb's idea of a cell assembly as the fundamental unit of neural information processing has dominated neuroscience like no other theoretical concept within the past 60 years. A range of different physiological phenomena, from precisely synchronized spiking to broadly simultaneous rate increases, has been subsumed under this term. Yet progress in this area is hampered by the lack of statistical tools that would enable to extract assemblies with arbitrary constellations of time lags, and at multiple temporal scales, partly due to the severe computational burden. Here we present such a unifying methodological and conceptual framework which detects assembly structure at many different time scales, levels of precision, and with arbitrary internal organization. Applying this methodology to multiple single unit recordings from various cortical areas, we find that there is no universal cortical coding scheme, but that assembly structure and precision significantly depends on the brain area recorded and ongoing task demands.

  19. Quantum optical arbitrary waveform manipulation and measurement in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowligy, Abijith S; Manurkar, Paritosh; Corzo, Neil V; Velev, Vesselin G; Silver, Michael; Scott, Ryan P; Yoo, S J B; Kumar, Prem; Kanter, Gregory S; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2014-11-17

    We describe a technique for dynamic quantum optical arbitrary-waveform generation and manipulation, which is capable of mode selectively operating on quantum signals without inducing significant loss or decoherence. It is built upon combining the developed tools of quantum frequency conversion and optical arbitrary waveform generation. Considering realistic parameters, we propose and analyze applications such as programmable reshaping of picosecond-scale temporal modes, selective frequency conversion of any one or superposition of those modes, and mode-resolved photon counting. We also report on experimental progress to distinguish two overlapping, orthogonal temporal modes, demonstrating over 8 dB extinction between picosecond-scale time-frequency modes, which agrees well with our theory. Our theoretical and experimental progress, as a whole, points to an enabling optical technique for various applications such as ultradense quantum coding, unity-efficiency cavity-atom quantum memories, and high-speed quantum computing.

  20. Generalization of the electronic susceptibility for arbitrary molecular geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherrer, Arne; Dreßler, Christian; Ahlert, Paul; Sebastiani, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.sebastiani@chemie.uni-halle.de [Institute of Chemistry, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2016-04-14

    We generalize the explicit representation of the electronic susceptibility χ{sub [R]}(r, r′) for arbitrary molecular geometries R. The electronic susceptibility is a response function that yields the response of the molecular electronic charge density at linear order to an arbitrary external perturbation. We address the dependence of this response function on the molecular geometry. The explicit representation of the molecular geometry dependence is achieved by means of a Taylor expansion in the nuclear coordinates. Our approach relies on a recently developed low-rank representation of the response function χ{sub [R]}(r, r′) which allows a highly condensed storage of the expansion and an efficient application within dynamical chemical environments. We illustrate the performance and accuracy of our scheme by computing the vibrationally induced variations of the response function of a water molecule and its resulting Raman spectrum.

  1. Bisimulation on Markov Processes over Arbitrary Measurable Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a notion of bisimulation on labelled Markov Processes over generic measurable spaces in terms of arbitrary binary relations. Our notion of bisimulation is proven to coincide with the coalgebraic definition of Aczel and Mendler in terms of the Giry functor, which associates with a mea......We introduce a notion of bisimulation on labelled Markov Processes over generic measurable spaces in terms of arbitrary binary relations. Our notion of bisimulation is proven to coincide with the coalgebraic definition of Aczel and Mendler in terms of the Giry functor, which associates...... with a measurable space its collection of (sub)probability measures. This coalgebraic formulation allows one to relate the concepts of bisimulation and event bisimulation of Danos et al. (i.e., cocongruence) by means of a formal adjunction between the category of bisimulations and a (full sub...

  2. Collisionless Plasma Modeling in an Arbitrary Potential Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.

    1997-01-01

    A new technique for calculating a collisionless plasma along a field line is presented. The primary feature of the new model is that it can handle an arbitrary (including nonmonotonic) potential energy distribution. This was one of the limiting constraints on the existing models in this class, and these constraints are generalized for an arbitrary potential energy composition. The formulation for relating current density to the field-aligned potential as well as formulas for density, temperature and energy flux calculations are presented for several distribution functions, ranging from a bi-Lorentzian with a loss cone to an isotropic Maxwellian. A comparison of these results with previous models shows that the formulation reduces.to the earlier models under similar assumptions.

  3. Matrix superpotentials and superintegrable systems for arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A G

    2012-01-01

    A countable set of quantum superintegrable systems for arbitrary spin is solved explicitly using tools of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. It is shown that these systems (introduced by Pronko (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 13331)) are special cases of models with shape invariant effective potentials that have recently been classified in Nikitin and Karadzhov (2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 305204, 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 445202). (paper)

  4. Superstring vertex operators and scattering amplitudes on arbitrary Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabel, G.; Nunez, C.; Iengo, R.; Bonini, M.

    1987-12-01

    The construction of scattering amplitudes involving arbitrary bosonic mass level states is considered in both the closed superstring and in the heterotic string theories, at any order of perturbation. From massless particle scattering on a general Riemann surface, the super-covariant form of the vertex operators is derived via factorization. The super-covariant rules, including the normal ordering prescriptions, to be used in computing amplitudes, are automatically given by this procedure. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig

  5. Spinor techniques for massive fermions with arbitrary polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.V.

    1999-12-01

    We present a new variant of spinor techniques for calculating the amplitudes of processes involving massive fermions with arbitrary polarization. It is relatively simple and leads to basic spinor products. Our procedure is riot more complex than CALCUL spinor techniques for massless fermions. We obtained spinor Chisholm identities for massive fermions. As an illustration, expressions are given for the amplitudes of elect ron- positron annihilation into fermions-pairs for several polarizations. (author)

  6. Gauss-Green cubature and moment computation over arbitrary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, Alvise; Vianello, Marco

    2009-09-01

    We have implemented in Matlab a Gauss-like cubature formula over arbitrary bivariate domains with a piecewise regular boundary, which is tracked by splines of maximum degree p (spline curvilinear polygons). The formula is exact for polynomials of degree at most 2n-1 using N~cmn2 nodes, 1directly on univariate Gauss-Legendre quadrature via Green's integral formula. Several numerical tests are presented, including computation of standard as well as orthogonal moments over a nonstandard planar region.

  7. Surface waves on currents with arbitrary vertical shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin K.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.

    2017-04-01

    We study dispersion properties of linear surface gravity waves propagating in an arbitrary direction atop a current profile of depth-varying magnitude using a piecewise linear approximation and develop a robust numerical framework for practical calculation. The method has been much used in the past for the case of waves propagating along the same axis as the background current, and we herein extend and apply it to problems with an arbitrary angle between the wave propagation and current directions. Being valid for all wavelengths without loss of accuracy, the scheme is particularly well suited to solve problems involving a broad range of wave vectors, such as ship waves and Cauchy-Poisson initial value problems. We examine the group and phase velocities over different wavelength regimes and current profiles, highlighting characteristics due to the depth-variable vorticity. We show an example application to ship waves on an arbitrary current profile and demonstrate qualitative differences in the wake patterns between concave down and concave up profiles when compared to a constant shear profile with equal depth-averaged vorticity. We also discuss the nature of additional solutions to the dispersion relation when using the piecewise-linear model. These are vorticity waves, drifting vortical structures which are artifacts of the piecewise model. They are absent for a smooth profile and are spurious in the present context.

  8. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorkov, S; Ivanov, B I; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G

    2014-05-01

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.

  9. Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi

    2017-06-01

    We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.

  10. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... including puppetry and dance. However, the aesthetics of these traditions vary across cultures and carry different associative and interpretive meanings. Puppetry offers a useful frame for understanding the relationship between abstract and imitative gestures and behavior, and instantiates the complex...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  11. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists such as ......The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists...... such as Lorentz and Einstein as well as mathematicians such as Poincare, Minkowski, Hilbert and Weyl contributed to this development. They created the new physical theories and the mathematical disciplines that play such paramount roles in their mathematical formulations. These physicists and mathematicians were...... also key figures in the philosophical discussions of nature and science - from philosophical tendencies like logical empiricism via critical rationalism to various neo-Kantian trends....

  12. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... including puppetry and dance. However, the aesthetics of these traditions vary across cultures and carry different associative and interpretive meanings. Puppetry offers a useful frame for understanding the relationship between abstract and imitative gestures and behavior, and instantiates the complex...

  13. Invisibility cloaks with arbitrary geometries for layered and gradually changing backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C; Yao, K; Li, F, E-mail: cli@mail.ie.ac.c [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-09-21

    Cloaks with arbitrary geometries are proposed which can make objects invisible in inhomogeneous backgrounds. The general and explicit expressions of the complex permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for cloaks embedded in layered and gradually changing media. The inner and the outer boundaries of the cloaks can be non-conformal with arbitrary shapes, which considerably improve the flexibility of the cloak applications. The interactions of electromagnetic waves with irregular cloaks are studied based on numerical simulations. The influences of the cloaked and uncloaked perfect electric conductor (PEC) cylinders upon the scattering fields of the multilayered backgrounds are quantitatively evaluated. The effect of loss on the cloaking performance has also been investigated. It is verified that cloaks with ideal parameters can smoothly deflect and guide the incoming beams to propagate around the shielded regions without disturbing the beams when they return to the inhomogeneous backgrounds. Therefore, the objects in the shielded region can be effectively invisible to the corresponding backgrounds. The performance of lossy cloaks will degrade with comparatively large power reduction of the transmitted beams.

  14. Review on Photonic Generation of Chirp Arbitrary Microwave Waveforms for Remote Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Srivastav, Akash; Athokpam, Bidhanshel Singh

    2017-12-01

    A novel technique to generate an arbitrary chirped waveform by harnessing features of lithium niobate (LiNb O_3) Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and demonstrated. The most important application of chirped microwave waveform is that, it improves the range resolution of radar. Microwave photonics system provides high bandwidth capabilities of fiber-optic systems and also contains the ability to provide interconnect transmission properties, which are virtually independent of length. The low-loss wide bandwidth capability of optoelectronic systems makes them attractive for the transmission and processing of microwave signals, while the development of high-capacity optical communication systems has required the use of microwave techniques in optical transmitters and receivers. These two strands have led to the development of the research area of microwave photonics. So, it should be consider that microwave photonics as the field that studies the interaction between microwave and optical waves for applications such as communications, radars, sensors and instrumentations. In this paper, we have thoroughly reviewed the arbitrary chirped microwave generation techniques by using photonics technology.

  15. General expressions for divergence relations and multipole expansions for arbitrary scalar functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Becker, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    In theories of the cohesion of a system whose matter density is constant (e.g., classical liquid drops) or nearly constant except in a thin surface region (e.g., nuclei or neutron stars), there occur computationally difficult single and double volume integrals of energy densities. Such integrals have been important in recent dynamical calculations of fission and heavy-ion reactions. Even if the matter density is diffuse, the integrals can be written as integrals over finite volumes by modeling the density as the convolution of a step function and a diffuseness function. If the integrands can be written as divergences of tensor fields, the integrals over finite volumes can be reduced to surface integrals by Gauss' theorem. We have found general expressions, which we call divergence relations, for a vector field whose divergence is a given scalar function and for a second-rank tensor field whose double divergence is the scalar. The equations derived are much easier to use and apply to a wider class of functions than formulas previously obtained in the literature. The generalization to nth order for application to many-body forces is included, and for all orders the dimensionality is arbitrary. The interaction energy of two nonoverlapping systems is often most simply evaluated by using the generalized Slater multipole expansion of the two-body interaction. A new expression is derived for the radial factor G/sub l/(r 1 ,r 2 ) appearing in the multipole expansion of an arbitrary scalar, two-body function. This G/sub l/ is expressed as an integral involving the product of the Fourier transform of the interaction and two Bessel functions. For some cases this integral can easily be evaluated by contour integration

  16. Simulation of an arbitrary quantum channel with minimal ancillary resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Noh, Kyungjoo; Albert, Victor V.; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Girvin, Steven M.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    We discuss an explicit and efficient construction of quantum circuits that can simulate an arbitrary given quantum channel acting on a d-level quantum system, with the minimal quantum ancillary resource--a qubit and its QND readout. The elementary operations required are unitary evolutions and single qubit projective measurement. We further show that this technique opens up exciting new possibilities in the field of quantum control, quantum simulation, quantum error correction, and quantum state discrimination. Our proposal can be implemented on platforms such as a superconducting transmon qubit inside a microwave cavity.

  17. Trivariate Local Lagrange Interpolation and Macro Elements of Arbitrary Smoothness

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, Michael Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Michael A. Matt constructs two trivariate local Lagrange interpolation methods which yield optimal approximation order and Cr macro-elements based on the Alfeld and the Worsey-Farin split of a tetrahedral partition. The first interpolation method is based on cubic C1 splines over type-4 cube partitions, for which numerical tests are given. The second is the first trivariate Lagrange interpolation method using C2 splines. It is based on arbitrary tetrahedral partitions using splines of degree nine. The author constructs trivariate macro-elements based on the Alfeld split, where each tetrahedron

  18. Optimal Black-Box Secret Sharing over Arbitrary Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge

    2002-01-01

    are defined over ℤ and are designed independently of the group G from which the secret and the shares are sampled. This means that perfect completeness and perfect privacy are guaranteed regardless of which group G is chosen. We define the black-box secret sharing problem as the problem of devising....... A recent example is secure general multi-party computation over black-box rings. In 1994 Desmedt and Frankel have proposed an elegant approach to the black-box secret sharing problem based in part on polynomial interpolation over cyclotomic number fields. For arbitrary given T t,n with 0

  19. Do Reichenbachian Common Cause Systems of Arbitrary Finite Size Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Claudio; Evans, Peter W.

    2017-12-01

    The principle of common cause asserts that positive correlations between causally unrelated events ought to be explained through the action of some shared causal factors. Reichenbachian common cause systems are probabilistic structures aimed at accounting for cases where correlations of the aforesaid sort cannot be explained through the action of a single common cause. The existence of Reichenbachian common cause systems of arbitrary finite size for each pair of non-causally correlated events was allegedly demonstrated by Hofer-Szabó and Rédei in 2006. This paper shows that their proof is logically deficient, and we propose an improved proof.

  20. Non-linear sigma models on arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Diaz, A.H.; Zhang, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A Ward-Takahashi type identity is obtained for two insertions of the energy-momentum tensor of the non-linear sigma model on an arbitrary Riemann surface. The identity shows explicitly how the Virasoro algebra is violated by spurious terms generated by the trace anomaly. Requiring these terms to vanish leads to a set of constraints on the graviton and dilaton background fields, which are necessary for the algebra to be restored. Although the modular parameters play an important role in the computation, the background field equations turn out to be genus independent up to order α'. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  1. Antenna Correlation From Input Parameters for Arbitrary Topologies and Terminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The spatial correlation between pairs of antennas in a system comprised of N RF ports is found by extending the N × N scattering matrix to (N + 1)×(N + 1) spatial scattering matrix, where the extra space dimension accounts for the reference port patterns. The lossless property of the spatial...... scattering matrix in a 3D uniform field is employed for expressing the spatial correlation between the port patterns at arbitrary complex terminations merely from the reference scattering parameters and the complex terminations without any far-field calculation....

  2. Controlling electromagnetic fields at boundaries of arbitrary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jonathon Yi Han; Wong, Liang Jie; Molardi, Carlo; Genevet, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    Rapid developments in the emerging field of stretchable and conformable photonics necessitate analytical expressions for boundary conditions at metasurfaces of arbitrary geometries. Here, we introduce the concept of conformal boundary optics: a design theory that determines the optical response for designer input and output fields at such interfaces. Given any object, we can realize coatings to achieve exotic effects like optical illusions and anomalous diffraction behavior. This approach is relevant to a broad range of applications from conventional refractive optics to the design of the next-generation of wearable optical components. This concept can be generalized to other fields of research where designer interfaces with nontrivial geometries are encountered.

  3. Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun; Yang, Xin Mi; Ma, Hui Feng; Cheng, Qiang

    2011-05-01

    Based on transformation optics, we present a shrinking device, which can transform an arbitrary object virtually into a small-size object with different material parameters as one desires. Such an illusion device will confuse the detectors or the viewers, and hence the real size and material parameters of the enclosed object cannot be perceived. We fabricated and measured a shrinking device by using metamaterials, which works at the nonresonant frequency and has low loss. The device has been validated by both numerical simulations and experiments on circular and square objects. Good shrinking performance has been demonstrated.

  4. Bessel-like beams modulated by arbitrary radial functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman; Wiggins

    2000-06-01

    An approximate method for determining the radial and axial intensity of a Bessel-like beam is presented for the general case in which a radial Bessel distribution of any order is modulated by an arbitrary function. For Bessel-Gauss, generalized Bessel-Gauss, and Bessel-super-Gauss beams, this simple approximation yields results that are very close to the exact values, while they are exact for Bessel beams. A practical beam that can be generated with a combination of simple lenses is also analyzed and illustrated.

  5. Nonreciprocal lasing in topological cavities of arbitrary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Babak; Ndao, Abdoulaye; Vallini, Felipe; El Amili, Abdelkrim; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Kanté, Boubacar

    2017-11-01

    Resonant cavities are essential building blocks governing many wave-based phenomena, but their geometry and reciprocity fundamentally limit the integration of optical devices. We report, at telecommunication wavelengths, geometry-independent and integrated nonreciprocal topological cavities that couple stimulated emission from one-way photonic edge states to a selected waveguide output with an isolation ratio in excess of 10 decibels. Nonreciprocity originates from unidirectional edge states at the boundary between photonic structures with distinct topological invariants. Our experimental demonstration of lasing from topological cavities provides the opportunity to develop complex topological circuitry of arbitrary geometries for the integrated and robust generation and transport of photons in classical and quantum regimes.

  6. Generalized BRST symmetry for arbitrary spin conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani.mandal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-05-11

    We develop the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for arbitrary spin-s conformal field theories. We discuss the novel features of the FFBRST transformation in these systems. To illustrate the results we consider the spin-1 and spin-2 conformal field theories in two examples. Within the formalism we found that FFBRST transformation connects the generating functionals of spin-1 and spin-2 conformal field theories in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, the conformal field theories in the framework of FFBRST transformation are also analyzed in Batalin–Vilkovisky (BV) formulation to establish the results.

  7. Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurjar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically...... closed field k and let X be a smooth, projective variety over k together with a very ample line bundle O(1). The main result of the paper is that if E is a semistable (resp. stable) principal G-bundle on X w.r.t O(1), then the restriction of E to a general, high multi-degree, complete-intersection curve...

  8. Generation of arbitrary complex quasi-non-diffracting optical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Petrov, Dmitri; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C; Torner, Lluis

    2013-09-23

    Due to their unique ability to maintain an intensity distribution upon propagation, non-diffracting light fields are used extensively in various areas of science, including optical tweezers, nonlinear optics and quantum optics, in applications where complex transverse field distributions are required. However, the number and type of rigorously non-diffracting beams is severely limited because their symmetry is dictated by one of the coordinate system where the Helmholtz equation governing beam propagation is separable. Here, we demonstrate a powerful technique that allows the generation of a rich variety of quasi-non-diffracting optical beams featuring nearly arbitrary intensity distributions in the transverse plane. These can be readily engineered via modifications of the angular spectrum of the beam in order to meet the requirements of particular applications. Such beams are not rigorously non-diffracting but they maintain their shape over large distances, which may be tuned by varying the width of the angular spectrum. We report the generation of unique spiral patterns and patterns involving arbitrary combinations of truncated harmonic, Bessel, Mathieu, or parabolic beams occupying different spatial domains. Optical trapping experiments illustrate the opto-mechanical properties of such beams.

  9. Spectroscopy of the Schwarzschild black hole at arbitrary frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian

    2012-09-14

    Linear field perturbations of a black hole are described by the Green function of the wave equation that they obey. After Fourier decomposing the Green function, its two natural contributions are given by poles (quasinormal modes) and a largely unexplored branch cut in the complex frequency plane. We present new analytic methods for calculating the branch cut on a Schwarzschild black hole for arbitrary values of the frequency. The branch cut yields a power-law tail decay for late times in the response of a black hole to an initial perturbation. We determine explicitly the first three orders in the power-law and show that the branch cut also yields a new logarithmic behavior T(-2ℓ-5)lnT for late times. Before the tail sets in, the quasinormal modes dominate the black hole response. For electromagnetic perturbations, the quasinormal mode frequencies approach the branch cut at large overtone index n. We determine these frequencies up to n(-5/2) and, formally, to arbitrary order. Highly damped quasinormal modes are of particular interest in that they have been linked to quantum properties of black holes.

  10. Arbitrary Symmetric Running Gait Generation for an Underactuated Biped Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Dadashzadeh

    Full Text Available This paper investigates generating symmetric trajectories for an underactuated biped during the stance phase of running. We use a point mass biped (PMB model for gait analysis that consists of a prismatic force actuator on a massless leg. The significance of this model is its ability to generate more general and versatile running gaits than the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP model, making it more suitable as a template for real robots. The algorithm plans the necessary leg actuator force to cause the robot center of mass to undergo arbitrary trajectories in stance with any arbitrary attack angle and velocity angle. The necessary actuator forces follow from the inverse kinematics and dynamics. Then these calculated forces become the control input to the dynamic model. We compare various center-of-mass trajectories, including a circular arc and polynomials of the degrees 2, 4 and 6. The cost of transport and maximum leg force are calculated for various attack angles and velocity angles. The results show that choosing the velocity angle as small as possible is beneficial, but the angle of attack has an optimum value. We also find a new result: there exist biped running gaits with double-hump ground reaction force profiles which result in less maximum leg force than single-hump profiles.

  11. Arbitrary Symmetric Running Gait Generation for an Underactuated Biped Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashzadeh, Behnam; Esmaeili, Mohammad; Macnab, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates generating symmetric trajectories for an underactuated biped during the stance phase of running. We use a point mass biped (PMB) model for gait analysis that consists of a prismatic force actuator on a massless leg. The significance of this model is its ability to generate more general and versatile running gaits than the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model, making it more suitable as a template for real robots. The algorithm plans the necessary leg actuator force to cause the robot center of mass to undergo arbitrary trajectories in stance with any arbitrary attack angle and velocity angle. The necessary actuator forces follow from the inverse kinematics and dynamics. Then these calculated forces become the control input to the dynamic model. We compare various center-of-mass trajectories, including a circular arc and polynomials of the degrees 2, 4 and 6. The cost of transport and maximum leg force are calculated for various attack angles and velocity angles. The results show that choosing the velocity angle as small as possible is beneficial, but the angle of attack has an optimum value. We also find a new result: there exist biped running gaits with double-hump ground reaction force profiles which result in less maximum leg force than single-hump profiles.

  12. Progress on a Vlasov Treatment of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Arbitrary Planar Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bassi, Gabriele; Warnock, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates (shielding). The time evolution of the phase space distribution is determined by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This provides lower numerical noise than the macroparticle method, and allows the study of emittance degradation and microbunching in bunch compressors. We calculate the fields excited by the bunch in the lab frame using a formula simpler than that based on retarded potentials.* We have developed an algorithm for solving the Vlasov equation in the beam frame using arc length as the independent variable and our method of local characteristics (discretized Perron-Frobenius operator).We integrate in the interaction picture in the hope that we can adopt a fixed grid. The distribution function will be represented by B-splines, in a scheme preserving positivity and normalization of the distribution. The transformation between l...

  13. Arbitrary 3D flaws in electromagnetothermoelastic composites under coupled multiple fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, B J; Qin, T Y

    2008-01-01

    The arbitrary 3D flaws in fully electromagnetothermoelastic coupled multiphase composites (EMTE-CMCs) under extended electromagnetothermoelastic coupled loads are turned into a set of extended hypersingular integral equations. Analytical solutions for the extended singular stresses, the extended stress intensity factors and the extended energy release rate near the crack fronts are provided. A numerical method is put forward in which the extended displacement discontinuities are approximated by the product of basic density functions and polynomials. In addition, the relationships between the extended stress intensity factors and the shapes of cracks, the distance between two interface flaws, the properties of the materials and the electromagnetoelastic coupling effects are discussed. The effects of flaw orientation, interaction and shielding are analyzed

  14. SHARC: ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Surface Hopping in the Adiabatic Representation Including Arbitrary Couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Martin; Marquetand, Philipp; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Sola, Ignacio; González, Leticia

    2011-05-10

    We present a semiclassical surface-hopping method which is able to treat arbitrary couplings in molecular systems including all degrees of freedom. A reformulation of the standard surface-hopping scheme in terms of a unitary transformation matrix allows for the description of interactions like spin-orbit coupling or transitions induced by laser fields. The accuracy of our method is demonstrated in two systems. The first one, consisting of two model electronic states, validates the semiclassical approach in the presence of an electric field. In the second one, the dynamics in the IBr molecule in the presence of spin-orbit coupling after laser excitation is investigated. Due to an avoided crossing that originates from spin-orbit coupling, IBr dissociates into two channels: I + Br((2)P3/2) and I + Br*((2)P1/2). In both systems, the obtained results are in very good agreement with those calculated from exact quantum dynamical simulations.

  15. OncoSimulR: genetic simulation with arbitrary epistasis and mutator genes in asexual populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Uriarte, Ramon

    2017-06-15

    OncoSimulR implements forward-time genetic simulations of biallelic loci in asexual populations with special focus on cancer progression. Fitness can be defined as an arbitrary function of genetic interactions between multiple genes or modules of genes, including epistasis, restrictions in the order of accumulation of mutations, and order effects. Mutation rates can differ among genes, and can be affected by (anti)mutator genes. Also available are sampling from simulations (including single-cell sampling), plotting the genealogical relationships of clones and generating and plotting fitness landscapes. Implemented in R and C ++, freely available from BioConductor for Linux, Mac and Windows under the GNU GPL license. Version 2.5.9 or higher available from: http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/devel/bioc/html/OncoSimulR.html . GitHub repository at: https://github.com/rdiaz02/OncoSimul. ramon.diaz@iib.uam.es. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Extending Landauer's bound from bit erasure to arbitrary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David

    The minimal thermodynamic work required to erase a bit, known as Landauer's bound, has been extensively investigated both theoretically and experimentally. However, when viewed as a computation that maps inputs to outputs, bit erasure has a very special property: the output does not depend on the input. Existing analyses of thermodynamics of bit erasure implicitly exploit this property, and thus cannot be directly extended to analyze the computation of arbitrary input-output maps. Here we show how to extend these earlier analyses of bit erasure to analyze the thermodynamics of arbitrary computations. Doing this establishes a formal connection between the thermodynamics of computers and much of theoretical computer science. We use this extension to analyze the thermodynamics of the canonical ``general purpose computer'' considered in computer science theory: a universal Turing machine (UTM). We consider a UTM which maps input programs to output strings, where inputs are drawn from an ensemble of random binary sequences, and prove: i) The minimal work needed by a UTM to run some particular input program X and produce output Y is the Kolmogorov complexity of Y minus the log of the ``algorithmic probability'' of Y. This minimal amount of thermodynamic work has a finite upper bound, which is independent of the output Y, depending only on the details of the UTM. ii) The expected work needed by a UTM to compute some given output Y is infinite. As a corollary, the overall expected work to run a UTM is infinite. iii) The expected work needed by an arbitrary Turing machine T (not necessarily universal) to compute some given output Y can either be infinite or finite, depending on Y and the details of T. To derive these results we must combine ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics with fundamental results from computer science, such as Levin's coding theorem and other theorems about universal computation. I would like to ackowledge the Santa Fe Institute, Grant No

  17. Thermal stability of black holes with arbitrary hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Aloke Kumar

    2018-02-01

    We have derived the criteria for thermal stability of charged rotating black holes, for horizon areas that are large relative to the Planck area (in these dimensions). In this paper, we generalized it for black holes with arbitrary hairs. The derivation uses results of loop quantum gravity and equilibrium statistical mechanics of the grand canonical ensemble and there is no explicit use of classical spacetime geometry at all in this analysis. The assumption is that the mass of the black hole is a function of its horizon area and all the hairs. Our stability criteria are then tested in detail against some specific black holes, whose metrics provide us with explicit relations for the dependence of the mass on the area and other hairs of the black holes. This enables us to predict which of these black holes are expected to be thermally unstable under Hawking radiation.

  18. Arbitrary function generator for APS injector synchrotron correction magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despe, O.D.

    1991-01-01

    The APS injector synchrotron has eighty correction magnets around its circumference to provide the vernier field changes required for beam orbit correction during acceleration. The arbitrary function generator (AFG) design is based on scanning out encoded data from a semi-conductor memory, a first-in-first-out (FIFO) device. The data input consists of a maximum of 20 correction values specified within the acceleration window. Additional points between these values are then linearly interpolated to create a uniformly spaced 1000 data-point function stored in the FIFO. Each point, encoded as a 3-bit value is scanned out in synchronism with the injection pulse and used to clock the up/down counter driving the DAC. The DAC produces the analog reference voltage used to control the magnet current. 1 ref., 4 figs

  19. Quantum Simulations of One-Dimensional Nanostructures under Arbitrary Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Pekka

    A powerful technique is discussed for simulating mechanical and electromechanical properties of one-dimensional nanostructures under arbitrary combinations of bending, twisting, and stretching. The technique is based on an unconventional control of periodic symmetry, which eliminates artifacts due to deformation constraints and quantum finite-size effects and allows transparent electronic-structure analysis. Via density-functional tight-binding implementation, the technique demonstrates nonlinear electromechanical properties in carbon nanotubes and abrupt behavior in the structural yielding of Au7 and Mo6S6 nanowires. The technique drives simulations closer to more realistic modeling of slender one-dimensional nanostructures under experimental conditions. Academy of Finland is acknowledged for funding and the CSC-IT Center for Science in Finland for the computer resources.

  20. Agile high resolution arbitrary waveform generator with jitterless frequency stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T. A.; Koizumi, Hideya

    2010-05-11

    Jitterless transition of the programmable clock waveform is generated employing a set of two coupled direct digital synthesis (DDS) circuits. The first phase accumulator in the first DDS circuit runs at least one cycle of a common reference clock for the DDS circuits ahead of the second phase accumulator in the second DDS circuit. As a phase transition through the beginning of a phase cycle is detected from the first phase accumulator, a first phase offset word and a second phase offset word for the first and second phase accumulators are calculated and loaded into the first and second DDS circuits. The programmable clock waveform is employed as a clock input for the RAM address controller. A well defined jitterless transition in frequency of the arbitrary waveform is provided which coincides with the beginning of the phase cycle of the DDS output signal from the second DDS circuit.

  1. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    CERN Document Server

    Lakatos, G

    2003-01-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or ...

  2. Efficient scheme for parametric fitting of data in arbitrary dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ning-Ning; Tzeng, Wen-Jer; Kao, Hisen-Ching

    2008-07-01

    We propose an efficient scheme for parametric fitting expressed in terms of the Legendre polynomials. For continuous systems, our scheme is exact and the derived explicit expression is very helpful for further analytical studies. For discrete systems, our scheme is almost as accurate as the method of singular value decomposition. Through a few numerical examples, we show that our algorithm costs much less CPU time and memory space than the method of singular value decomposition. Thus, our algorithm is very suitable for a large amount of data fitting. In addition, the proposed scheme can also be used to extract the global structure of fluctuating systems. We then derive the exact relation between the correlation function and the detrended variance function of fluctuating systems in arbitrary dimensions and give a general scaling analysis.

  3. Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1986-12-16

    This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2], corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H[sub 2]O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered. 1 fig.

  4. A study of non-critical strings in arbitrary dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    A new classical action for two-dimensional gravity is established where the graviton is accompanied by a scalar partner, a dilaton. It is shown that the role of the dilaton field is to pacify the induced Liouville action, and to make quantum gravity easy to handle. The effective action, defined as the sum of the contributions from classical gravity, the ghosts, the induced Liouville mode and the matter, is a conformal theory. It is shown that this effective action can be interpreted as a non-linear sigma model, coupled to a linear dilaton background, in a target manifold with two additional fields and minkowskian signature. This helps us to identify the spectrum of non-critical strings in arbitrary dimensions. The analogous analysis of non-critical superstrings is also performed. (orig.)

  5. Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2011-11-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.

  6. Compound words prompt arbitrary semantic associations in conceptual memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien eBoutonnet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic relativity theory has received empirical support in domains such as colour perception and object categorisation. It is unknown however, whether relations between words idiosyncratic to language impact nonverbal representations and conceptualisations. For instance, would one consider the concepts of horse and sea as related were it not for the existence of the compound seahorse? Here, we investigated such arbitrary conceptual relationships using a non-linguistic picture relatedness task in participants undergoing event-related brain potential recordings. Picture pairs arbitrarily related because of a compound and presented in the compound order elicited N400 amplitudes similar to unrelated pairs. Surprisingly, however, pictures presented in the reverse order (as in the sequence horse – sea reduced N400 amplitudes significantly, demonstrating the existence of a link in memory between these two concepts otherwise unrelated. These results break new ground in the domain of linguistic relativity by revealing predicted semantic associations driven by lexical relations intrinsic to language.

  7. The boundary sources method with arbitrary order anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gert Van den, Eynde; Beauwens, R.; Mund, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Boundary Sources Method (BSM) is an integral method for solving the one-speed neutron transport equation that makes capital out of the exact knowledge of a transport kernel for the classical geometries: planar, spherical and cylindrical. We have developed a slab (multi-region) BSM code that allows for arbitrary order anisotropic scattering. The basic ingredient of our method is the calculation of (angular moments of) infinite medium Green's functions. We have used the singular Eigen-expansion (SEE) method developed for anisotropic scattering by Mika and Case and have developed a robust and accurate method to calculate its two parts: the discrete and continuum spectrum. We use several one-dimensional neutron transport benchmarks to show its high accuracy. We have treated 3 types of problems: 2-cell (U-H 2 O) disadvantage factors, the Reed problem and an extreme scattering problem

  8. Simultaneity in Minkowski Spacetime: From Uniqueness to Arbitrariness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Fabien

    2012-09-01

    Malament (Noûs 11:293-300, 1977) proved a certain uniqueness theorem about standard synchrony, also known as Poincaré-Einstein simultaneity, which has generated many commentaries over the years, some of them contradictory. We think that the situation called for some clarification. After reviewing and discussing some of the literature involved, we prove two results which, hopefully, will help clarifying this debate by filling the gap between the uniquess of Malament's theorem, which allows the observer to use very few tools, and the complete arbitrariness of a time coordinate in full-fledged Relativity theory. In the spirit of Malament's theorem, and in opposition to most of its commentators, we emphasize explicit definability of simultaneity relations, and give only constructive proofs. We also explore what happens when we reduce to "purely local" data with respect to an observer.

  9. Heat radiation and transfer for point particles in arbitrary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asheichyk, Kiryl; Müller, Boris; Krüger, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    We study heat radiation and heat transfer for pointlike particles in a system of other objects. Starting from exact many-body expressions found from scattering theory and fluctuational electrodynamics, we find that transfer and radiation for point particles are given in terms of the Green's function of the system in the absence of the point particles. These general expressions contain no approximation for the surrounding objects. As an application, we compute the heat transfer between two point particles in the presence of a sphere of arbitrary size and show that the transfer is enhanced by several orders of magnitude through the presence of the sphere, depending on the materials. Furthermore, we compute the heat emission of a point particle in front of a planar mirror. Finally, we show that a particle placed inside a spherical mirror cavity does not radiate energy.

  10. Ionization waves of arbitrary velocity driven by a flying focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palastro, J. P.; Turnbull, D.; Bahk, S.-W.; Follett, R. K.; Shaw, J. L.; Haberberger, D.; Bromage, J.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    A chirped laser pulse focused by a chromatic lens exhibits a dynamic, or flying, focus in which the trajectory of the peak intensity decouples from the group velocity. In a medium, the flying focus can trigger an ionization front that follows this trajectory. By adjusting the chirp, the ionization front can be made to travel at an arbitrary velocity along the optical axis. We present analytical calculations and simulations describing the propagation of the flying focus pulse, the self-similar form of its intensity profile, and ionization wave formation. The ability to control the speed of the ionization wave and, in conjunction, mitigate plasma refraction has the potential to advance several laser-based applications, including Raman amplification, photon acceleration, high-order-harmonic generation, and THz generation.

  11. SAMBA: Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlfeld, R., E-mail: r.ahlfeld14@imperial.ac.uk; Belkouchi, B.; Montomoli, F.

    2016-09-01

    A new arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) method is presented for moderately high-dimensional problems characterised by limited input data availability. The proposed methodology improves the algorithm of aPC and extends the method, that was previously only introduced as tensor product expansion, to moderately high-dimensional stochastic problems. The fundamental idea of aPC is to use the statistical moments of the input random variables to develop the polynomial chaos expansion. This approach provides the possibility to propagate continuous or discrete probability density functions and also histograms (data sets) as long as their moments exist, are finite and the determinant of the moment matrix is strictly positive. For cases with limited data availability, this approach avoids bias and fitting errors caused by wrong assumptions. In this work, an alternative way to calculate the aPC is suggested, which provides the optimal polynomials, Gaussian quadrature collocation points and weights from the moments using only a handful of matrix operations on the Hankel matrix of moments. It can therefore be implemented without requiring prior knowledge about statistical data analysis or a detailed understanding of the mathematics of polynomial chaos expansions. The extension to more input variables suggested in this work, is an anisotropic and adaptive version of Smolyak's algorithm that is solely based on the moments of the input probability distributions. It is referred to as SAMBA (PC), which is short for Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos. It is illustrated that for moderately high-dimensional problems (up to 20 different input variables or histograms) SAMBA can significantly simplify the calculation of sparse Gaussian quadrature rules. SAMBA's efficiency for multivariate functions with regard to data availability is further demonstrated by analysing higher order convergence and accuracy for a set of nonlinear test functions with 2, 5

  12. SAMBA: Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, R.; Belkouchi, B.; Montomoli, F.

    2016-09-01

    A new arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) method is presented for moderately high-dimensional problems characterised by limited input data availability. The proposed methodology improves the algorithm of aPC and extends the method, that was previously only introduced as tensor product expansion, to moderately high-dimensional stochastic problems. The fundamental idea of aPC is to use the statistical moments of the input random variables to develop the polynomial chaos expansion. This approach provides the possibility to propagate continuous or discrete probability density functions and also histograms (data sets) as long as their moments exist, are finite and the determinant of the moment matrix is strictly positive. For cases with limited data availability, this approach avoids bias and fitting errors caused by wrong assumptions. In this work, an alternative way to calculate the aPC is suggested, which provides the optimal polynomials, Gaussian quadrature collocation points and weights from the moments using only a handful of matrix operations on the Hankel matrix of moments. It can therefore be implemented without requiring prior knowledge about statistical data analysis or a detailed understanding of the mathematics of polynomial chaos expansions. The extension to more input variables suggested in this work, is an anisotropic and adaptive version of Smolyak's algorithm that is solely based on the moments of the input probability distributions. It is referred to as SAMBA (PC), which is short for Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos. It is illustrated that for moderately high-dimensional problems (up to 20 different input variables or histograms) SAMBA can significantly simplify the calculation of sparse Gaussian quadrature rules. SAMBA's efficiency for multivariate functions with regard to data availability is further demonstrated by analysing higher order convergence and accuracy for a set of nonlinear test functions with 2, 5 and 10

  13. Ajustar: A interactive processor for to fit, by means of least squares, one variable polynomials (arbitrary degree) at experimental points; Ajustar: Un procesador interactivo para ajuste por minimos cuadrados de polinomios algebraicos (en una sola variable y grado arbitrario) a conjuntos de datos experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Miro, J. J.; Pena Gutierrez, J.

    1991-07-01

    In this report is offered, to scientist and technical people, a numeric tool consisting in a FORTRAN program, of interactive use, with destination to make lineal {sup l}east squares{sup ,} fittings on any set of empirical observations. The method based in the orthogonal functions (for discrete case), instead of direct solving the equations system, is used. The procedure includes also the optionally facilities of: variable change, direct interpolation, correlation non linear factor, {sup w}eights{sup o}f the points, confidence intervals (Schelle, Miller, Student), and plotting results. (Author) 10 refs.

  14. A novel measuring method for arbitrary optical vortex by three spiral spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Bo [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guo, Lana [School of Electronics and Information, Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, Guangzhou 510665 (China); Yue, Chengfeng [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Zhilie, E-mail: tangzhl@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-02-26

    In this letter, the topological charge of non-integer vortices determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Based on the conclusion, a novel method to measure non-integer vortices is presented. This method is applicable not only to arbitrary non-integer vortex but also to arbitrary integer vortex. - Highlights: • Different non-integer vortices cannot have three spiral spectra is demonstrated. • Relationship between the non-integer topological charge and the spiral spectra is presented. • Topological charge of non-integer vortices can be determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra.

  15. Geometrical critical phenomena on a random surface of arbitrary genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplantier, B.; Kostov, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    The statistical mechanics of self-avoiding walks (SAW) or of the O(n)-loop model on a two-dimensional random surface are shown to be exactly solvable. The partition functions of SAW and surface configurations (possibly in the presence of vacuum loops) are calculated by planar diagram enumeration techniques. Two critical regimes are found: a dense phase where the infinite walks and loops fill the infinite surface, the non-filled part staying finite, and a dilute phase where the infinite surface singularity on the one hand, and walk and loop singularities on the other, merge together. The configuration critical exponents of self-avoiding networks of any fixed topology G, on a surface with arbitrary genus H, are calculated as universal functions of G and H. For self-avoiding walks, the exponents are built from an infinite set of basic conformal dimensions associated with central charges c = -2 (dense phase) and c = 0 (dilute phase). The conformal spectrum Δ L , L ≥ 1 associated with L-leg star polymers is calculated exactly, for c = -2 and c = 0. This is generalized to the set of L-line 'watermelon' exponents Δ L of the O(n) model on a random surface. The divergences of the partition functions of self-avoiding networks on the random surface, possibly in the presence of vacuum loops, are shown to satisfy a factorization theorem over the vertices of the network. This provides a proof, in the presence of a fluctuating metric, of a result conjectured earlier in the standard plane. From this, the value of the string susceptibility γ str (H,c) is extracted for a random surface of arbitrary genus H, bearing a field theory of central charge c, or equivalently, embedded in d=c dimensions. Lastly, by enumerating spanning trees on a random lattice, we solve the similar problem of hamiltonian walks on the (fluctuating) Manhattan covering lattice. We also obtain new results for dilute trees on a random surface. (orig./HSI)

  16. Josephson effect in SIFS junctions at arbitrary scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugach, N. G.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The interplay between dirty and clean limits in Superconductor-Ferromagnet-Superconductor (SFS) Josephson junctions is a subject of intensive theoretical studies. SIFS junctions, containing an additional insulator (I) barrier are interesting as potential logic elements in superconducting circuits, since their critical current I c can be tuned over a wide range, still keeping a high I c R N product, where R N is the normal resistance of the junction. They are also a convenient model system for a comparative study of the 0-π transitions for arbitrary relations between characteristic lengths of the F-layer: the layer thickness d, the mean free path l, the magnetic length ξ H =v F /2H, and the nonmagnetic coherence length ξ 0 =v F /2πT, where v F is the Fermi velocity, H is the exchange magnetic energy, and T is the temperature. The spatial variations of the order parameter are described by the complex coherent length in the ferromagnet ξ F -1 = ξ 1 -1 + iξ 2 -1 . It is well known, that in the dirty limit (l 1,2 ) described by the Usadel equations both ξ 1 2 = ξ 2 2 = v F l/3H. In this work the spatial distribution of the anomalous Green's functions and the Josephson current in the SIFS junction are calculated. The linearized Eilenberger equations are solved together with the Zaitsev boundary conditions. This allows comparing the dirty and the clean limits, investigating a moderate disorder, and establishing the applicability limits of the Usadel equations for such structures. We demonstrate that for an arbitrary relation between l, ξ H , and d the spatial distribution of the anomalous Green's function can be approximated by a single exponent with reasonable accuracy, and we find its effective decay length and oscillation period for several values of ξ H , l and d. The role of different types of the FS interface is analyzed. The applicability range of the Usadel equation is established. The results of calculations have been applied to the

  17. R-matrix formalism for local cells of arbitrary geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbet, R. K.

    1984-10-01

    The R matrix of Wigner and Eisenbud has been widely used in nuclear scattering theory and in the theory of electron scattering by atoms and molecules. To consider problems in solid-state or surface physics, where atoms are in complex environments, this theory must be put into a form that is valid for volumes enclosed by surfaces of arbitrary shape. A variational principle for an operator in general geometry is derived. This operator relates function values to normal derivatives on a surface Σ of a closed volume Ω inside which the function satisfies Schrödinger's equation. Using a spherically averaged potential function, the operator for a Wigner-Seitz atomic cell can be computed from solutions of the local radial Schrödinger equation. Formulas that eliminate a common interface between adjacent cells are derived. With these methods, calculations carried out in modular subcells can be extended to larger structures. For regular solids, it is shown that periodic boundary conditions applied to functions and normal derivatives at the surface of a translational unit cell lead to a secular determinant expressed in terms of the operator for the unit cell, whose zeros determine energy-band structure.

  18. Coordinate transformations make perfect invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wei; Yan Min; Ruan Zhichao; Qiu Min

    2008-01-01

    By investigating wave properties at cloak boundaries, invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape constructed by general coordinate transformations are confirmed to be perfectly invisible to the external incident wave. The differences between line transformed cloaks and point transformed cloaks are discussed. The fields in the cloak medium are found analytically to be related to the fields in the original space via coordinate transformation functions. At the exterior boundary of the cloak, it is shown that no reflection is excited even though the permittivity and permeability do not always have a perfectly matched layer form, whereas at the inner boundary, no reflection is excited either, and in particular no field can penetrate into the cloaked region. However, for the inner boundary of any line transformed cloak, the permittivity and permeability in a specific tangential direction are always required to be infinitely large. Furthermore, the field discontinuity at the inner boundary always exists; the surface current is induced to make this discontinuity self-consistent. A point transformed cloak does not experience such problems. The tangential fields at the inner boundary are all zero, implying that no field discontinuity exists

  19. Monomial geometric programming with an arbitrary fuzzy relational inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shivanian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimization model with geometric objective function is presented. Geometric programming is widely used; many objective functions in optimization problems can be analyzed by geometric programming. We often encounter these in resource allocation and structure optimization and technology management, etc. On the other hand, fuzzy relation equalities and inequalities are also used in many areas. We here present a geometric programming model with a monomial objective function subject to the fuzzy relation inequality constraints with an arbitrary function. The feasible solution set is determined and compared with some common results in the literature. A necessary and sufficient condition and three other necessary conditions are presented to conceptualize the feasibility of the problem. In general a lower bound is always attainable for the optimal objective value by removing the components having no effect on the solution process. By separating problem to non-decreasing and non-increasing function to prove the optimal solution, we simplify operations to accelerate the resolution of the problem.

  20. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  1. Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesis With Multilevel Pulse Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Justus A.; Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Golden, Evan B.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the implementation of new commercial pulse-bias electronics that have enabled an improvement in the generation of quantum-accurate waveforms both with and without low-frequency compensation biases. We have used these electronics to apply a multilevel pulse bias to the Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer and have generated, for the first time, a quantum-accurate bipolar sinusoidal waveform without the use of a low-frequency compensation bias current. This uncompensated 1 kHz waveform was synthesized with an rms amplitude of 325 mV and maintained its quantum accuracy over a1.5 mA operating current range. The same technique and equipment was also used to synthesize a quantum-accurate 1 MHz sinusoid with a 1.2 mA operating margin. In addition, we have synthesized a compensated 1 kHz sinusoid with an rms amplitude of 1 V and a 2.7 mA operating margin. PMID:28736494

  2. New Hamiltonians for loop quantum cosmology with arbitrary spin representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Achour, Jibril; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Geiller, Marc

    2017-04-01

    In loop quantum cosmology, one has to make a choice of SU(2) irreducible representation in which to compute holonomies and regularize the curvature of the connection. The systematic choice made in the literature is to work in the fundamental representation, and very little is known about the physics associated with higher spin labels. This constitutes an ambiguity of which the understanding, we believe, is fundamental for connecting loop quantum cosmology to full theories of quantum gravity like loop quantum gravity, its spin foam formulation, or cosmological group field theory. We take a step in this direction by providing here a new closed formula for the Hamiltonian of flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker models regularized in a representation of arbitrary spin. This expression is furthermore polynomial in the basic variables which correspond to well-defined operators in the quantum theory, takes into account the so-called inverse-volume corrections, and treats in a unified way two different regularization schemes for the curvature. After studying the effective classical dynamics corresponding to single and multiple-spin Hamiltonians, we study the behavior of the critical density when the number of representations is increased and the stability of the difference equations in the quantum theory.

  3. Two-photon couplings of quarkonia with arbitrary JPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1992-01-01

    We present theoretical results for the two-photon widths of relativistic quarkonium states with arbitrary angular momenta. These relativistic formulas are required to obtain reasonable agreement with the absolute scale of quarkonium decay rates to two photons, and have previously only been derived for spin-singlet q bar q states. We also evaluate these formulas numerically for ell ≤3 q = u, d states in a Coulomb-plus-linear q bar q potential model. Light-quark higher-ell and radially-excited q bar q states should be observable experimentally, as their two-photon widths are typically found to be ∼1 KeV. The radially-excited 1 S 0 higher-mass quarkonium states such as c bar c and b bar b should also be observable in γγ, but orbitally-excited c bar c states with ell>1 and b bar b states with ell>0 are expected to have very small two-photon widths. The helicity structure of the higher-ell q bar q couplings is predicted to be nontrivial, with both λ=0 and λ=2γγ final states contributing significantly; these results may be useful as signatures for q bar q states

  4. ELECTRON COOLING SIMULATION FOR ARBITRARY DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIDORIN,A.; SMIRNOV, A.; FEDOTOV, A.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KAYRAN, D.

    2007-09-10

    Typically, several approximations are being used in simulation of electron cooling process, for example, density distribution of electrons is calculated using an analytical expression and distribution in the velocity space is assumed to be Maxwellian in all degrees of freedom. However, in many applications, accurate description of the cooling process based on realistic distribution of electrons is very useful. This is especially true for a high-energy electron cooling system which requires bunched electron beam produced by an Energy Recovery Linac (Em). Such systems are proposed, for instance, for RHIC and electron - ion collider. To address unique features of the RHIC-I1 cooler, new algorithms were introduced in BETACOOL code which allow us to take into account local properties of electron distribution as well as calculate friction force for an arbitrary velocity distribution. Here, we describe these new numerical models. Results based on these numerical models are compared with typical approximations using electron distribution produced by simulations of electron bunch through ERL of RHIC-II cooler.

  5. Unifying model for random matrix theory in arbitrary space dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuta, Giovanni M.; Krausser, Johannes; Milkus, Rico; Zaccone, Alessio

    2018-03-01

    A sparse random block matrix model suggested by the Hessian matrix used in the study of elastic vibrational modes of amorphous solids is presented and analyzed. By evaluating some moments, benchmarked against numerics, differences in the eigenvalue spectrum of this model in different limits of space dimension d , and for arbitrary values of the lattice coordination number Z , are shown and discussed. As a function of these two parameters (and their ratio Z /d ), the most studied models in random matrix theory (Erdos-Renyi graphs, effective medium, and replicas) can be reproduced in the various limits of block dimensionality d . Remarkably, the Marchenko-Pastur spectral density (which is recovered by replica calculations for the Laplacian matrix) is reproduced exactly in the limit of infinite size of the blocks, or d →∞ , which clarifies the physical meaning of space dimension in these models. We feel that the approximate results for d =3 provided by our method may have many potential applications in the future, from the vibrational spectrum of glasses and elastic networks to wave localization, disordered conductors, random resistor networks, and random walks.

  6. Coordinate transformations make perfect invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Wei; Yan Min; Ruan Zhichao; Qiu Min [Laboratory of Optics, Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Department of Microelectronics and Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: min@kth.se

    2008-04-15

    By investigating wave properties at cloak boundaries, invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape constructed by general coordinate transformations are confirmed to be perfectly invisible to the external incident wave. The differences between line transformed cloaks and point transformed cloaks are discussed. The fields in the cloak medium are found analytically to be related to the fields in the original space via coordinate transformation functions. At the exterior boundary of the cloak, it is shown that no reflection is excited even though the permittivity and permeability do not always have a perfectly matched layer form, whereas at the inner boundary, no reflection is excited either, and in particular no field can penetrate into the cloaked region. However, for the inner boundary of any line transformed cloak, the permittivity and permeability in a specific tangential direction are always required to be infinitely large. Furthermore, the field discontinuity at the inner boundary always exists; the surface current is induced to make this discontinuity self-consistent. A point transformed cloak does not experience such problems. The tangential fields at the inner boundary are all zero, implying that no field discontinuity exists.

  7. Quantum symmetries and Cartan decompositions in arbitrary dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessandro, Domenico [Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Albertini, Francesca [Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Padova, Via Trieste 63, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2007-03-09

    Decompositions of Lie groups are used in systems and control, both to analyse dynamics and to design control algorithms for systems with state varying on a Lie group. In this paper, we investigate the relation between Cartan decompositions of the unitary group and discrete quantum symmetries. To every Cartan decomposition, there corresponds a quantum symmetry which is the identity when applied twice. As an application, we describe a new and general method to obtain Cartan decompositions of the unitary group of evolutions of multipartite systems from Cartan decompositions on the single subsystems. The resulting decomposition, which we call of the odd-even type, contains, as a special case, the concurrence canonical decomposition (CCD) presented in [6-8] in the context of entanglement theory. The CCD is therefore extended from the case of a multipartite system of N qubits to the case where the component subsystems have arbitrary dimensions. We present an example of application of the results to control design for quantum systems.

  8. Modeling of amorphous carbon structures with arbitrary structural constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, F H; Gava, V; Martinotto, A L; Cassol, L A; Perottoni, C A

    2010-10-06

    In this paper we describe a method to generate amorphous structures with arbitrary structural constraints. This method employs the simulated annealing algorithm to minimize a simple yet carefully tailored cost function (CF). The cost function is composed of two parts: a simple harmonic approximation for the energy-related terms and a cost that penalizes configurations that do not have atoms in the desired coordinations. Using this approach, we generated a set of amorphous carbon structures spawning nearly all the possible combinations of sp, sp(2) and sp(3) hybridizations. The bulk moduli of this set of amorphous carbons structures was calculated using Brenner's potential. The bulk modulus strongly depends on the mean coordination, following a power-law behavior with an exponent ν = 1.51 ± 0.17. A modified cost function that segregates carbon with different hybridizations is also presented, and another set of structures was generated. With this new set of amorphous materials, the correlation between the bulk modulus and the mean coordination weakens. The method proposed can be easily modified to explore the effects on the physical properties of the presence of hydrogen, dangling bonds, and structural features such as carbon rings.

  9. The neural basis of conditional reasoning with arbitrary content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noveck, Ira A; Goel, Vinod; Smith, Kathleen W

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral predictions about reasoning have usually contrasted two accounts, Mental Logic and Mental Models. Neuroimaging techniques have been providing new measures that transcend this debate. We tested a hypothesis from Goel and Dolan (2003) that predicts neural activity predominantly in a left parietal-frontal system when participants reason with arbitrary (non-meaningful) materials. In an event-related fMRI investigation, we employed propositional syllogisms, the majority of which involved conditional reasoning. While investigating conditional reasoning generally, we ultimately focused on the neural activity linked to the two valid conditional forms--Modus Ponens (If p then q; p//q) and Modus Tollens (If p then q; not-q//not-p). Consistent with Goel and Dolan (2003), we found a left lateralized parietal frontal network for both inference forms with increasing activation when reasoning becomes more challenging by way of Modus Tollens. These findings show that the previous findings with more complex Aristotlean syllogisms are robust and cast doubt upon accounts of reasoning that accord primary inferential processes uniquely to either the right hemisphere or to language areas.

  10. A cell multipole based domain decomposition algorithm for molecular dynamics simulation of systems of arbitrary shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimhulu, Pasupulati; Madura, Jeffry D.

    2002-04-01

    A domain decomposition algorithm for molecular dynamics simulation of atomic and molecular systems with arbitrary shape and non-periodic boundary conditions is described. The molecular dynamics program uses cell multipole method for efficient calculation of long range electrostatic interactions and a multiple time step method to facilitate bigger time steps. The system is enclosed in a cube and the cube is divided into a hierarchy of cells. The deepest level cells are assigned to processors such that each processor has contiguous cells and static load balancing is achieved by redistributing the cells so that each processor has approximately same number of atoms. The resulting domains have irregular shape and may have more than 26 neighbors. Atoms constituting bond angles and torsion angles may straddle more than two processors. An efficient strategy is devised for initial assignment and subsequent reassignment of such multiple-atom potentials to processors. At each step, computation is overlapped with communication greatly reducing the effect of communication overhead on parallel performance. The algorithm is tested on a spherical cluster of water molecules, a hexasaccharide and an enzyme both solvated by a spherical cluster of water molecules. In each case a spherical boundary containing oxygen atoms with only repulsive interactions is used to prevent evaporation of water molecules. The algorithm shows excellent parallel efficiency even for small number of cells/atoms per processor.

  11. Interaction of MHD shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundersen, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A plane MHD shock wave of arbitrary strength meets a slender body moving at super-true-sonic speed in the opposite direction. The interaction between the given shock wave and the weak shock attached to the slender body is studied for aligned fields for axisymmetrical flow and for both aligned and transverse fields in the two-dimensional case. Formal solutions for the linearized flow in the interaction region are obtained by the use of integral transforms. (author)

  12. Massive graviton on arbitrary background: derivation, syzygies, applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Laura [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Deffayet, Cédric [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); IHES, Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Strauss, Mikael von [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2015-06-23

    We give the detailed derivation of the fully covariant form of the quadratic action and the derived linear equations of motion for a massive graviton in an arbitrary background metric (which were presented in arXiv:1410.8302 [hep-th]). Our starting point is the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) family of ghost free massive gravities and using a simple model of this family, we are able to express this action and these equations of motion in terms of a single metric in which the graviton propagates, hence removing in particular the need for a “reference metric' which is present in the non perturbative formulation. We show further how 5 covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. This last constraint involves powers and combinations of the curvature of the background metric. The 5 constraints are obtained for a background metric which is unconstrained, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations. We then apply these results to the case of Einstein space-times, where we show that the 5 constraints become trivial, and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times, for which we correct in particular some results that appeared elsewhere. To reach our results, we derive several non trivial identities, syzygies, involving the graviton fields, its derivatives and the background metric curvature. These identities have their own interest. We also discover that there exist backgrounds for which the dRGT equations cannot be unambiguously linearized.

  13. Generalization of the Ewens sampling formula to arbitrary fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaris, Constantin D.

    2018-01-01

    In considering evolution of transcribed regions, regulatory sequences, and other genomic loci, we are often faced with a situation in which the number of allelic states greatly exceeds the size of the population. In this limit, the population eventually adopts a steady state characterized by mutation-selection-drift balance. Although new alleles continue to be explored through mutation, the statistics of the population, and in particular the probabilities of seeing specific allelic configurations in samples taken from the population, do not change with time. In the absence of selection, the probabilities of allelic configurations are given by the Ewens sampling formula, widely used in population genetics to detect deviations from neutrality. Here we develop an extension of this formula to arbitrary fitness distributions. Although our approach is general, we focus on the class of fitness landscapes, inspired by recent high-throughput genotype-phenotype maps, in which alleles can be in several distinct phenotypic states. This class of landscapes yields sampling probabilities that are computationally more tractable and can form a basis for inference of selection signatures from genomic data. Using an efficient numerical implementation of the sampling probabilities, we demonstrate that, for a sizable range of mutation rates and selection coefficients, the steady-state allelic diversity is not neutral. Therefore, it may be used to infer selection coefficients, as well as other evolutionary parameters from population data. We also carry out numerical simulations to challenge various approximations involved in deriving our sampling formulas, such as the infinite-allele limit and the “full connectivity” assumption inherent in the Ewens theory, in which each allele can mutate into any other allele. We find that, at least for the specific numerical examples studied, our theory remains sufficiently accurate even if these assumptions are relaxed. Thus our framework

  14. Massive graviton on arbitrary background: derivation, syzygies, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Strauss, Mikael von

    2015-01-01

    We give the detailed derivation of the fully covariant form of the quadratic action and the derived linear equations of motion for a massive graviton in an arbitrary background metric (which were presented in arXiv:1410.8302 [hep-th]). Our starting point is the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) family of ghost free massive gravities and using a simple model of this family, we are able to express this action and these equations of motion in terms of a single metric in which the graviton propagates, hence removing in particular the need for a ''reference metric' which is present in the non perturbative formulation. We show further how 5 covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. This last constraint involves powers and combinations of the curvature of the background metric. The 5 constraints are obtained for a background metric which is unconstrained, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations. We then apply these results to the case of Einstein space-times, where we show that the 5 constraints become trivial, and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times, for which we correct in particular some results that appeared elsewhere. To reach our results, we derive several non trivial identities, syzygies, involving the graviton fields, its derivatives and the background metric curvature. These identities have their own interest. We also discover that there exist backgrounds for which the dRGT equations cannot be unambiguously linearized

  15. Randomness and arbitrary coordination in the reactive ultimatum game

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto; Valverde, Pablo; Lamb, Luis C.

    2016-07-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution - as introduced in game theory by Maynard Smith - is not the only important evolutionary aspect in an evolutionary dynamics, since complex interdependencies, competition, and growth should be modeled by, for example, reactive aspects. In the ultimatum game, the reciprocity and the fifty-fifty partition seems to be a deviation from rational behavior of the players under the light of Nash equilibrium. Such equilibrium emerges, for example, from the punishment of the responder who generally tends to refuse unfair proposals. In the iterated version of the game, the proposers are able to improve their proposals by adding a value thus making fairer proposals. Such evolutionary aspects are not properly Darwinian-motivated, but they are endowed with a fundamental aspect: they reflect their actions according to value of the offers. Recently, a reactive version of the ultimatum game where acceptance occurs with fixed probability was proposed. In this paper, we aim at exploring this reactive version of the ultimatum game where the acceptance by players depends on the offer. In order to do so, we analyze two situations: (i) mean field and (ii) we consider players inserted within the networks with arbitrary coordination. We then show that the reactive aspect, here studied, thus far not analyzed in the evolutionary game theory literature can unveil an essential feature for the convergence to fifty-fifty split. Moreover we also analyze populations under four different polices ranging from a highly conservative to a moderate one, with respect to the decision in changing the proposal based on acceptances. We show that the idea of gaining less more times added to the reciprocity of the players is highly relevant to the concept of ;healthy; societies population bargaining.

  16. The impact of approximations and arbitrary choices on geophysical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Andrew P.; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-01-01

    Whenever a geophysical image is to be constructed, a variety of choices must be made. Some, such as those governing data selection and processing, or model parametrization, are somewhat arbitrary: there may be little reason to prefer one choice over another. Others, such as defining the theoretical framework within which the data are to be explained, may be more straightforward: typically, an `exact' theory exists, but various approximations may need to be adopted in order to make the imaging problem computationally tractable. Differences between any two images of the same system can be explained in terms of differences between these choices. Understanding the impact of each particular decision is essential if images are to be interpreted properly-but little progress has been made towards a quantitative treatment of this effect. In this paper, we consider a general linearized inverse problem, applicable to a wide range of imaging situations. We write down an expression for the difference between two images produced using similar inversion strategies, but where different choices have been made. This provides a framework within which inversion algorithms may be analysed, and allows us to consider how image effects may arise. In this paper, we take a general view, and do not specialize our discussion to any specific imaging problem or setup (beyond the restrictions implied by the use of linearized inversion techniques). In particular, we look at the concept of `hybrid inversion', in which highly accurate synthetic data (typically the result of an expensive numerical simulation) is combined with an inverse operator constructed based on theoretical approximations. It is generally supposed that this offers the benefits of using the more complete theory, without the full computational costs. We argue that the inverse operator is as important as the forward calculation in determining the accuracy of results. We illustrate this using a simple example, based on imaging the

  17. Nature of the Darwin term and (Zα)4m3/M2 contribution to the Lamb shift for an arbitrary spin of the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khriplovich, I.B.; Mil'shtejn, A.I.; Sen'kov, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The contact Darwin term is demonstrated to be of the same origin as the spin-orbit interactions. The (Zα) 4 m 3 /M 2 correction to the Lamb shift, generated by the Darwin term, is found for an arbitrary nonvanishing spin of the nucleus, both half-integer and integer. There is also a contribution of the same nature to the nuclear quadrupole moment [ru

  18. Numerical simulation of the supersonic boundary layer interaction with arbitrary oriented acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, A. N.; Gaponov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Based the direct numerical simulation in the paper the supersonic flow around of the infinitely thin plate, which was perturbed by the acoustic wave, was investigated. Calculations carried out in the case of small perturbations at the Mach number M=2 and Reynold's numbers Resound wave more efficiently if the plate is irradiated from above. At the fixed Reynolds's number and frequency there are critical values of the sliding and incidence angles (χ, φ) at which the disturbances excited by a sound wave are maxima. At M=2 it takes place at χ≈ φ ≈30°. The excitation efficiency of perturbations in the boundary layer increases with the Mach number, and it decreases with a frequency.

  19. Fractional Calculus-Based Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Propagation in Arbitrary Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Bia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of electromagnetic fields and biological tissues has become a topic of increasing interest for new research activities in bioelectrics, a new interdisciplinary field combining knowledge of electromagnetic theory, modeling, and simulations, physics, material science, cell biology, and medicine. In particular, the feasibility of pulsed electromagnetic fields in RF and mm-wave frequency range has been investigated with the objective to discover new noninvasive techniques in healthcare. The aim of this contribution is to illustrate a novel Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD scheme for simulating electromagnetic pulse propagation in arbitrary dispersive biological media. The proposed method is based on the fractional calculus theory and a general series expansion of the permittivity function. The spatial dispersion effects are taken into account, too. The resulting formulation is explicit, it has a second-order accuracy, and the need for additional storage variables is minimal. The comparison between simulation results and those evaluated by using an analytical method based on the Fourier transformation demonstrates the accuracy and effectiveness of the developed FDTD model. Five numerical examples showing the plane wave propagation in a variety of dispersive media are examined.

  20. Arbitrary symbolism in natural language revisited: when word forms carry meaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Reilly

    Full Text Available Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog. Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1-2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., "apartment" as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., "fate" as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words.

  1. Quantum-assisted learning of graphical models with arbitrary pairwise connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Benedetti, Marcello; Biswas, Rupak; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro

    Mainstream machine learning techniques rely heavily on sampling from generally intractable probability distributions. There is increasing interest in the potential advantages of using quantum computing technologies as sampling engines to speedup these tasks. However, some pressing challenges in state-of-the-art quantum annealers have to be overcome before we can assess their actual performance. The sparse connectivity, resulting from the local interaction between quantum bits in physical hardware implementations, is considered the most severe limitation to the quality of constructing powerful machine learning models. Here we show how to surpass this `curse of limited connectivity' bottleneck and illustrate our findings by training probabilistic generative models with arbitrary pairwise connectivity on a real dataset of handwritten digits and two synthetic datasets in experiments with up to 940 quantum bits. Our model can be trained in quantum hardware without full knowledge of the effective parameters specifying the corresponding Boltzmann-like distribution. Therefore, the need to infer the effective temperature at each iteration is avoided, speeding up learning, and the effect of noise in the control parameters is mitigated, improving accuracy. This work was supported in part by NASA, AFRL, ODNI, and IARPA.

  2. An arbitrary boundary with ghost particles incorporated in coupled FEM-SPH model for FSI problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ting; Hu, Dean; Wan, Detao; Zhuang, Chen; Yang, Gang

    2017-12-01

    It is important to treat the arbitrary boundary of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems in computational mechanics. In order to ensure complete support condition and restore the first-order consistency near the boundary of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for coupling Finite Element Method (FEM) with SPH model, a new ghost particle method is proposed by dividing the interceptive area of kernel support domain into subareas corresponding to boundary segments of structure. The ghost particles are produced automatically for every fluid particle at each time step, and the properties of ghost particles, such as density, mass and velocity, are defined by using the subareas to satisfy the boundary condition. In the coupled FEM-SPH model, the normal and shear forces from a boundary segment of structure to a fluid particle are calculated through the corresponding ghost particles, and its opposite forces are exerted on the corresponding boundary segment, then the momentum of the present method is conservation and there is no matching requirements between the size of elements and the size of particles. The performance of the present method is discussed and validated by several FSI problems with complex geometry boundary and moving boundary.

  3. Fast and Simple Method for Evaluation of Polarization Correction to Propagation Constant of Arbitrary Order Guided Modes in Optical Fibers with Arbitrary Refractive Index Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Bourdine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents fast and simple method for evaluation of polarization correction to scalar propagation constant of arbitrary order guided modes propagating over weakly guiding optical fibers. Proposed solution is based on earlier on developed modified Gaussian approximation extended for analysis of weakly guiding optical fibers with arbitrary refractive index profile in the core region bounded by single solid outer cladding. Some results are presented that illustrate the decreasing of computational error during the estimation of propagation constant when polarization corrections are taken into account. Analytical expressions for the first and second derivatives of polarization correction are derived and presented.

  4. Prime factorization of arbitrary integers with a logarithmic energy spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleisberg, F.; Di Pumpo, F.; Wolff, G.; Schleich, W. P.

    2018-02-01

    We propose an iterative scheme to factor numbers based on the quantum dynamics of an ensemble of interacting bosonic atoms stored in a trap where the single-particle energy spectrum depends logarithmically on the quantum number. When excited by a time-dependent interaction these atoms perform Rabi oscillations between the ground state and an energy state characteristic of the factors. The number to be factored is encoded into the frequency of the sinusoidally modulated interaction. We show that a measurement of the energy of the atoms at a time chosen at random yields the factors with probability one half. We conclude by discussing a protocol to obtain the desired prime factors employing a logarithmic energy spectrum which consists of prime numbers only.

  5. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  6. Equivalent-circuit model for stacked slot-based 2D periodic arrays of arbitrary geometry for broadband analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Maria Denise; Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the transmission and reflection spectra of stacked slot-based 2D periodic structures of arbitrary geometry and the ability to devise and control their electromagnetic responses have been a matter of extensive research for many decades. The purpose of this paper is to develop an equivalent Π circuit model based on the transmission-line theory and Floquet harmonic interactions, for broadband and short longitudinal period analysis. The proposed circuit model overcomes the limits of identical and symmetrical configurations imposed by the even/odd excitation approach, exploiting both the circuit topology of a single 2D periodic array of apertures and the ABCD matrix formalism. The transmission spectra obtained through the equivalent-circuit model have been validated by comparison with full-wave simulations carried out with a finite-element commercial electromagnetic solver. This allowed for a physical insight into the spectral and angular responses of multilayer devices with arbitrary aperture shapes, guaranteeing a noticeable saving of computational resources.

  7. Transformations of multiple q-series with quasi-arbitrary terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W; Srivastava, Hari M.

    1999-01-01

    We present several transformations of series whose terms involve basic Pochhammer symbols together with an essentially arbitrary factor. Each of these transformations is related to a certain basic hypergeometric transformation formula. Relevant connections with various known results are considered...

  8. Arbitrary geometry resonance calculation using subgroup method and method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Liu, Qingjie; Chen, Qichang

    2011-01-01

    Complex design of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly has proposed new challenges to the resonance calculation method. In this study, a subgroup resonance calculation method for two-dimensional arbitrary geometry is studied. The subgroup method is extended to arbitrary geometry fuel assembly by using the two-dimensional arbitrary geometry neutron transport calculation method of characteristics (MOC). Spatially dependent group averaged cross-sections are obtained by weighing the subgroup cross-section with subgroup flux spectrum. In addition to the great adaptability in geometry, this method has advantages in treating multiple resonant regions with complex resonant materials as well. Therefore, it is possible to calculate the spatially dependent resonance cross section of arbitrary geometry fuel assembly by one step. (author)

  9. Hardware in the loop simulation of arbitrary magnitude shaped correlated radar clutter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple process for the generation of arbitrary probability distributions of complex data with correlation from sample to sample, optimized for hardware in the loop radar environment simulation. Measured radar clutter is used...

  10. Parity-violating anomalous currents in arbitrary odd dimensions from stochastic quantisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiange; Liu Yiaoyang

    1990-01-01

    The stochastic quantization method is applied to evaluate the parity-violating anomalous currents in arbitrary odd dimensions. The complete anomalous vacuum currents which have gauge and Lorentz covariance are achieved. (author)

  11. Helicity injection with moving vacuum--plasma boundary with arbitrary flux surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    If a toroidal plasma has arbitrary nested magnetic flux surfaces and a moving plasma--vacuum interface, then any helicity injected by modulating the magnetic fields is simply consumed by an increase in helicity dissipation due to the modulated fields

  12. Regridding Scientific Mesh Data Using Arbitrary Cell Neighborhood Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Mahdiraji, Alireza; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    A spacial case of the regrid operator uses information of neighboring cells of a cell of interest to perform interpolation on scientific meshes. Example use-cases are smoothing skewed data fields, computing value of the first derivative in oceanographic applications, etc. Using neighbors' information is proved to improve the accuracy of the computations for a cell of interest. The regrid works in two steps: mapping step which assigns to each cell of a mesh a set of its neighboring cells and interpolation step which estimates the data on each cell by combining the data from its neighbors. The common method to specify a cell neighborhood is the stencil string which is originally defined only for structured meshes, e.g., five-point stencil. The stencil was later generalized to express neighborhood on unstructured meshes. A stencil w.r.t. an unstructured mesh consists of a sequence of digits representing the dimensions of neighboring cells of a cell. For instance, the stencil 010 w.r.t. a mesh means any calculation for a vertex needs to have access to all the adjacent vertices (i.e., vertices sharing an edge with the vertex of interest). The stencil uses hard coded dimensions and thus contains no topological abstraction. Moreover, it is not obvious whether the result is the union of elements visited in each intermediate layer (hull) or the elements only in the last layer (halo). In addition, it is not possible to filter intermediate cells using predicates. Finally, existing mesh libraries (e.g., GrAL and GridFields) which accommodate the stencil concept do not provide a generic implementation, i.e., a specific Python or C++ APIs needs to be implemented for each stencil. We propose a neighborhood expression which uses the topological relationships (i.e., boundary, co-boundary, and adjacencies) to express arbitrary cell neighborhood. The expression contains any number of the topological relationships w.r.t. to a mesh and a cell as initial context of the neighborhood

  13. Optical and electric properties of dynamic holographic gratings with arbitrary contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, Nickolai; Buchhave, Preben; Lyuksyutov, Sergei

    1997-01-01

    An analytical solution of the photoconductive material equations for dynamic holographic gratings of arbitrary contrast has been obtained. A method of measuring high-contrast correlation functions has been suggested and tested experimentally. Good agreement with the analytical expression for the ......An analytical solution of the photoconductive material equations for dynamic holographic gratings of arbitrary contrast has been obtained. A method of measuring high-contrast correlation functions has been suggested and tested experimentally. Good agreement with the analytical expression...

  14. Arbitrary control of entanglement between two nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles coupling to a superconducting-circuit qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wan-Jun; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Zhong, Zhi-Rong

    2018-01-01

    We propose an effective scheme for realizing a Jaynes-Cummings model with the collective nitrogen-vacancy-center ensemble (NVE) bosonic modes in a hybrid system. Specifically, the controllable transmon qubit can alternatively interact with one of the two NVEs, which results in the production of N -particle entangled states. Arbitrary N -particle entangled states, NOON states, N -dimensional entangled states, and entangled coherent states are demonstrated. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed via numerical simulation. Since no cavity photons or excited levels of the NV center are populated during the whole process, our scheme is insensitive to cavity decay and the spin dephasing effect of the NVE. The idea provides a scalable way to realize NVE-circuit cavity quantum information processing with current technology.

  15. Casimir effect for interacting fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses some recent work on the Casimir effect: that is the problem of renormalizing Tsub(μγ) on locally-flat space-times. That is on space-times which, while topologically non-trivial are locally Minkowskian - with vanishing local curvature. The author has developed a systematic method for calculating this Casimir effect for interacting fields to arbitrary order in perturbation theory - and for arbitrary components of Tsub(μγ) which he describes in general and then illustrates it by describing first order perturbation theory calculations for a lambdaphi 4 theory for the two models: the cylinder space-time and the parallel plates. (Auth.)

  16. The arbitrariness of the sign: learning advantages from the structure of the vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Christiansen, Morten H; Fitneva, Stanka A

    2011-08-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that systematic mappings between phonological word forms and their meanings can facilitate language learning (e.g., in the form of sound symbolism or cues to grammatical categories). Yet, paradoxically from a learning viewpoint, most words have an arbitrary form-meaning mapping. We hypothesized that this paradox may reflect a division of labor between 2 different language learning functions: arbitrariness facilitates learning specific word meanings and systematicity facilitates learning to group words into categories. In a series of computational investigations and artificial language learning studies, we varied the extent to which the language was arbitrary or systematic. For both the simulations and the behavioral studies, we found that the optimal structure of the vocabulary for learning incorporated this division of labor. Corpus analyses of English and French indicate that these predicted patterns are also found in natural languages.

  17. Electromagnetic complementary media with arbitrary geometries and non-conformal boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guochang; Li, Chao; Chen, Chao; Fang, Guangyou

    2014-06-01

    A generalized folded transformation procedure is presented for the space with arbitrary shapes. General expressions for the constitute parameters of complementary media are deduced, which can be readily applied to design complementary media based transformation optics devices (CMTOD) with arbitrary shapes. It's no longer limited to the situation when the inner and outer boundaries of the CMTOD are conformal or similar shapes, and can be available for the non-conformal situations. Three kinds of CMTOD are designed and studied, which involves a super-lens, an external cloak that hides object outside the cloaking shell, and an illusion optics device that transforms one object to another. Full-wave simulations are carried out to validate the proposed approach. The generalization introduced here makes a step forward for the flexible design of CMTOD with arbitrary geometries.

  18. Hamiltonian guiding center drift orbit calculation for toroidal plasmas of arbitrary cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.B.; Chance, M.S.

    1984-02-01

    A Hamiltonian guiding center drift orbit formalism is developed which permits the efficient calculation of particle trajectories in toroidal devices of arbitrary cross section with arbitrary plasma ..beta... The magnetic field is assumed to be a small perturbation from a zero order toroidal equilibrium field possessing either axial or helical symmetry. The equilibrium field can be modelled analytically or obtained numerically from equilibrium codes. A numerical code based on the formalism is used to study particle orbits in circular and bean-shaped tokamak configurations.

  19. Illusion thermodynamics: A camouflage technique changing an object into another one with arbitrary cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiao; Wu, Linzhi, E-mail: wlz@hit.edu.cn [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The previously reported magical thermal devices, such as the thermal invisible cloak and the thermal concentrator, are generalized into one general case named here thermal illusion device. The thermal illusion device is displayed by the design of a thermal reshaper which can reshape an arbitrary thermal object into another one with arbitrary cross section. General expressions of the material parameters for the thermal reshaper are derived unambiguously to greatly facilitate the design of general thermal illusion device. We believe that this work will broaden the current research and pave a path to the thermal invisibility. Numerical simulations show good agreement with the analytical results of the thermal illusion device.

  20. Differential algebraic method for arbitrary order curvilinear-axis combined geometric-chromatic aberration analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng Min; Lu Yi Long; Yao Zhen Hua

    2003-01-01

    The principle of differential algebra is applied to analyse and calculate arbitrary order curvilinear-axis combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of electron optical systems. Expressions of differential algebraic form of high order combined aberrations are obtained and arbitrary order combined aberrations can be calculated numerically. As an example, a typical wide electron beam focusing system with curved optical axes named magnetic immersion lens has been studied. All the second-order and third-order combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of the lens have been calculated, and the patterns of the corresponding geometric aberrations and combined aberrations have been given as well.

  1. Computer-controlled High Resolution Arbitrary Waveform Generator (HRAWG) for Focusing Beamforming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assef, Amauri Amorin; Maia, Joaquim Miguel; Costa, Eduardo Tavares

    In advanced ultrasound imaging systems, expensive high-end integrated analog front-ends have been traditionally used to support generation of arbitrary transmit waveforms, in addition to transmit focusing and apodization control. In this paper, we present a cost-effective computer-controlled reconfigurable high-resolution arbitrary waveform generator (HRAWG) that has been designed for ultrasound research, development and teaching at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), Brazil. The 8-channel transmit beamformer is fully controlled by a host computer in which a Matlab GUI with the Field II simulation program, allows easy and accurate control over the transmission parameters such as waveform, amplitude apodization and timing.

  2. A computer graphics based model for scattering from objects of arbitrary shapes in the optical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Rozehnal, Ivan; Thompson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-graphics-based model, named DIANA, is presented for generation of objects of arbitrary shape and for calculating bidirectional reflectances and scattering from them, in the visible and infrared region. The computer generation is based on a modified Lindenmayer system approach which makes it possible to generate objects of arbitrary shapes and to simulate their growth, dynamics, and movement. Rendering techniques are used to display an object on a computer screen with appropriate shading and shadowing and to calculate the scattering and reflectance from the object. The technique is illustrated with scattering from canopies of simulated corn plants.

  3. Encoding arbitrary grey-level optical landscapes for trapping and manipulation using GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Rodrigo, Peter John; Palima, Darwin

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of phase-only spatial light modulators (SLM), generalized phase contrast (GPC) has been applied with great success to the projection of binary light patterns through arbitrary-NA microscope objectives for real-time three-dimensional manipulation of microscopic particles. Here, we rev...

  4. Simulation of free surfaces in 3-D with the arbitrary Lagrange-Euler method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1995-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3-D transient finite element program so as to simulate multiple fluid flows with Surfaces and interfaces of general shapes. The description of fluid interfaces includes continuity of velocity and a discontinuous...

  5. Diluted Ising spin 1/2 lattice with an arbitrary coordination number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach Thanh Cong; El Amraoui, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A useful representation for the Callen identity in the case of spin 1/2 is introduced by a simple technique. The phase diagrams, percolation problems of the diluted Ising lattice with arbitrary coordination number z are also discussed. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  6. A note on fixed point optimality criteria for the location problem with arbitrary norms: Reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    The single-facility location problem in continuous space is considered, with distances given by arbitrary norms. When distances are Euclidean, for many practical problems the optimal location of the new facility coincides with one of the existing facilities. This property carries over to problems...

  7. Magnetic properties and thermodynamics of decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wei, E-mail: liwei-b09@mails.gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Gong Shoushu [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhao Yang [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Su Gang, E-mail: gsu@gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-05-31

    The decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin and the single-ion anisotropy is exactly solved by the transfer matrix method. The solutions reveal abundant novel properties than the conventional one-dimensional Ising model. It is compared with the experimental data of a necklace-like molecule-based magnet, that gives a qualitative consistency.

  8. Magnetic properties and thermodynamics of decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Gong Shoushu; Chen Ziyu; Zhao Yang; Su Gang

    2010-01-01

    The decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin and the single-ion anisotropy is exactly solved by the transfer matrix method. The solutions reveal abundant novel properties than the conventional one-dimensional Ising model. It is compared with the experimental data of a necklace-like molecule-based magnet, that gives a qualitative consistency.

  9. Comparison of Artificial Dissipation and Limited Flux Schemes in Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Finite Element Formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, P.N.; van der Helm, P.N.; Huetink, Han; Akkerman, Remko

    1998-01-01

    A comparison is made between Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element formulations for simulation of forming processes based on an artificial dissipation scheme and a limited flux scheme. The first ALE algorithm is based on an averaging procedure used in post-processing of finite element

  10. One-loop counterterms for the dimensional regularization of arbitrary Lagrangians

    OpenAIRE

    Pronin, P.; Stepanyantz, K.

    1996-01-01

    We present master formulas for the divergent part of the one-loop effective action for an arbitrary (both minimal and nonminimal) operators of any order in the 4-dimensional curved space. They can be considered as computer algorithms, because the one-loop calculations are then reduced to the simplest algebraic operations. Some test applications are considered by REDUCE analytical calculation system.

  11. Wavefronts, light rays and caustic of a circular wave reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Montiel-Piña, Enrique; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Santiago, José Guadalupe; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Rosado, Alfonso; Suárez-Xique, Román

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to obtain expressions for both the wavefront train and the caustic associated with the light rays reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve after being emitted by a point light source located at an arbitrary position in the two-dimensional free space. To this end, we obtain an expression for the k-function associated with the general integral of Stavroudis to the eikonal equation that describes the evolution of the reflected light rays. The caustic is computed by using the definitions of the critical and caustic sets of the two-dimensional map that describes the evolution of an arbitrary wavefront associated with the general integral. The general results are applied to circular and parabolic mirrors. The main motivation to carry out this research is to establish, in future work, the caustic touching theorem in a two-dimensional optical medium and to study the diffraction problem by using the k-function concept. Both problems are important in the computation of the image of an arbitrary object under reflection and refraction

  12. Arbitrary waveform generator and differentiator employing an integrated optical pulse shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2015-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an optical arbitrary waveformgenerator and high-order photonic differentiator based on a four-tap finiteimpulse response (FIR) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on-chip circuit. Based onamplitude and phase modulation of each tap controlled by thermal heaters,we obtain several...

  13. An analog CMOS chip set for neural networks with arbitrary topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansner, John; Lehmann, Torsten

    1993-01-01

    implementing an ANN with arbitrary topology. The neuron test chip contains an array of 4 neurons with well defined hyperbolic tangent activation functions which is implemented by using parasitic lateral bipolar transistors. The synapse test chip is a cascadable 4×4 matrix-vector multiplier with variable, 10-b...

  14. Design of an arbitrary path-following controller for a non-holonomic mobile platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sabatta, DG

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available the researchers divide the path up into circular and straight segments which are handled independently. The controller takes as input the first two derivatives of the arbitrary path at each point and calculates the desired forward and rotational velocities...

  15. On existence of soliton solutions of arbitrary-order system of nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestkov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    The soliton solutions are constructed for the system of arbitrary-order coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations . The necessary and sufficient conditions of existence of these solutions are obtained. It is shown that the maximum number of solitons in nondegenerate case is 4L, where L is order of the system. (author)

  16. Partial wave expansions for arbitrary spin and the role of non-central forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The partial wave expansion of the amplitudes used by Hooton and Johnson for the scattering of particles of arbitrary spin is derived. A discussion is given of the extent to which effects arising from transition matrix elements that are diagonal and non-diagonal in orbital angular momentum can be distinguished in observables. (Auth.)

  17. Maximum Likelihood Dynamic Factor Modeling for Arbitrary "N" and "T" Using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Oud, Johan H. L.; von Oertzen, Timo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    This article has 3 objectives that build on each other. First, we demonstrate how to obtain maximum likelihood estimates for dynamic factor models (the direct autoregressive factor score model) with arbitrary "T" and "N" by means of structural equation modeling (SEM) and compare the approach to existing methods. Second, we go beyond standard time…

  18. Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2013-01-01

    Employing the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated T–Q relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived

  19. Quaternion based generalization of Chern–Simons theories in arbitrary dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D'Adda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A generalization of Chern–Simons gauge theory is formulated in any dimension and arbitrary gauge group where gauge fields and gauge parameters are differential forms of any degree. The quaternion algebra structure of this formulation is shown to be equivalent to a three Z2-gradings structure, thus clarifying the quaternion role in the previous formulation.

  20. TaylUR 3, a multivariate arbitrary-order automatic differentiation package for Fortran 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, G.M. von

    2009-09-01

    The new version of TaylUR is based on a completely new core, which now is able to compute the numerical values of all of a complex-valued function's partial derivatives up to an arbitrary order, including mixed partial derivatives. (orig.)

  1. S-duality in N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theories with arbitrary gauge group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, Nicholas; Fraser, Christophe; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Kneipp, Marco A.C.

    1996-12-01

    The Goddard, Nuyts and Olive conjecture for electric-magnetic duality in the Yang-Mills theory with an arbitrary gauge group G is extended by including a non-vanishing vacuum angle θ. This extended S-duality conjecture includes the case when the unbroken gauge group in non-Abelian and a definite prediction for the spectrum of dyons results. (author)

  2. Adaptive hp-FEM with Arbitrary-Level Hanging Nodes for Maxwell’s Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolín, Pavel; Dubcová, Lenka; Doležel, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2010), s. 518-532 ISSN 2070-0733 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : hp-FEM * arbitrary-level hanging nodes * irregular meshes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.510, year: 2010 http://www.global-sci.org/aamm/

  3. A simplified two-dimensional boundary element method with arbitrary uniform mean flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Barhoumi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To reduce computational costs, an improved form of the frequency domain boundary element method (BEM is proposed for two-dimensional radiation and propagation acoustic problems in a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. The boundary integral equation (BIE representation solves the two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation (CHE and its fundamental solution, which must satisfy a new Sommerfeld radiation condition (SRC in the physical space. In order to facilitate conventional formulations, the variables of the advanced form are expressed only in terms of the acoustic pressure as well as its normal and tangential derivatives, and their multiplication operators are based on the convected Green’s kernel and its modified derivative. The proposed approach significantly reduces the CPU times of classical computational codes for modeling acoustic domains with arbitrary mean flow. It is validated by a comparison with the analytical solutions for the sound radiation problems of monopole, dipole and quadrupole sources in the presence of a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. Keywords: Two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation, Two-dimensional convected Green’s function, Two-dimensional convected boundary element method, Arbitrary uniform mean flow, Two-dimensional acoustic sources

  4. On the integration of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian concept and non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobbe, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this treatise is to present a harmonious mathematical formulation of an explicit moving mesh method that can be used as a basis for many numerical techniques. In most cases a moving mesh is only used to include arbitrary motions and deformations of a geometry into the simulation of a

  5. Economic scheme for remote preparation of an arbitrary five-qubit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A scheme for remotely preparing an arbitrary five-qubit Brown state by using three three-qubit GHZ states as the quantum channel is proposed. It is shown that, after the sender per- forms two different three-qubit projective measurements, the receiver should introduce two auxiliary qubits and employ suitable ...

  6. On the electromagnetic field and the Teukolsky relations in arbitrary space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, B.; Ferrando, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The relations on the electromagnetic field obtained by Teukolsky for type D, vacuum space-times are studied. The role played by the maxwellian geometry of the basic tetrad is shown. It is proved that Teukolsky relations are, generically, incomplete. Once completed, their generalization to arbitrary space-times is given [fr

  7. Field representation inside arbitrary linear optical media by single surface currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, BJ; Doosje, M; Knoester, J

    2004-01-01

    Recently a novel method has been proposed for the calculation of the scattering of an incoming electromagnetic wave by an arbitrarily shaped photonic crystal. The method rests on the representation of an arbitrary electromagnetic field inside a volume V by a fictitious surface current distribution

  8. Encoding arbitrary grey-level optical landscapes for trapping and manipulation using GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Rodrigo, Peter John; Palima, Darwin

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of phase-only spatial light modulators (SLM), generalized phase contrast (GPC) has been applied with great success to the projection of binary light patterns through arbitrary-NA microscope objectives for real-time three-dimensional manipulation of microscopic particles. Here, we...

  9. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method for interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng

    Interfacial flows, fluid flows involving two or more fluids that do not mix, are common in many natural and industrial processes such as rain drop formation, crude oil recovery, polymer blending, fuel spray formation, and so on. Surfactants (surface active substances) play an important role in such processes because they significantly change the interfacial dynamics. In this thesis, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method has been developed to numerically simulate interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants. The interface is captured using a coupled level set and volume of fluid method. To evolve the surfactant concentration, the method directly tracks the surfactant mass and the interfacial area. The surfactant concentration, which determines the local surface tension through an equation of state, is then computed as surfactant mass per interfacial area. By directly tracking the surfactant mass, the method conserves the surfactant mass exactly. To accurately approximate the interfacial area, the fluid interface is reconstructed using piecewise parabolas. The evolution of the level set function, volume fraction, interfacial area, and the surfactant mass is performed using an ALE approach. The fluid flow is governed by Stokes equations, which are solved using a finite element method. The surface forces are included in the momentum equation using a continuum surface stress formulation. To efficiently resolve the complex interfacial dynamics, interfacial regions of high surface curvature, and near contact regions between two interacting interfaces, the grid near the interface is adaptively refined. The method is extendible to axisymmetric and 3D spaces, and can be coupled with other flow solvers, such as Navier-Stokes and viscoelastic flow solvers, as well. The method has been applied to study the effect of surfactants on drop deformation and breakup in an extensional flow. Drop deformation results are compared with available experimental and theoretical

  10. A Study of Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations of Arbitrary Order with Riemann-Liouville Type Multistrip Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop the existence theory for nonlinear fractional differential equations of arbitrary order with Riemann-Liouville type boundary conditions involving nonintersecting finite many strips of arbitrary length. Our results are based on some standard tools of fixed point theory. For the illustration of the results, some examples are also discussed.

  11. Propagation of waves from an arbitrary shaped surface-A generalization of the Fresnel diffraction integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshchenko, R. M.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Artyukov, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    Using the method of Laplace transform the field amplitude in the paraxial approximation is found in the two-dimensional free space using initial values of the amplitude specified on an arbitrary shaped monotonic curve. The obtained amplitude depends on one a priori unknown function, which can be found from a Volterra first kind integral equation. In a special case of field amplitude specified on a concave parabolic curve the exact solution is derived. Both solutions can be used to study the light propagation from arbitrary surfaces including grazing incidence X-ray mirrors. They can find applications in the analysis of coherent imaging problems of X-ray optics, in phase retrieval algorithms as well as in inverse problems in the cases when the initial field amplitude is sought on a curved surface.

  12. Arbitrary parameters in implicit regularization and democracy within perturbative description of 2-dimensional gravitational anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Leonardo A.M. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Physics Department, ICEx, P.O. Box 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: lamsouza@fisica.ufmg.br; Sampaio, Marcos [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Physics Department, ICEx, P.O. Box 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: msampaio@fisica.ufmg.br; Nemes, M.C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Physics Department, ICEx, P.O. Box 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: carolina@fisica.ufmg.br

    2006-01-26

    We show that the Implicit Regularization Technique is useful to display quantum symmetry breaking in a complete regularization independent fashion. Arbitrary parameters are expressed by finite differences between integrals of the same superficial degree of divergence whose value is fixed on physical grounds (symmetry requirements or phenomenology). We study Weyl fermions on a classical gravitational background in two dimensions and show that, assuming Lorentz symmetry, the Weyl and Einstein Ward identities reduce to a set of algebraic equations for the arbitrary parameters which allows us to study the Ward identities on equal footing. We conclude in a renormalization independent way that the axial part of the Einstein Ward identity is always violated. Moreover whereas we can preserve the pure tensor part of the Einstein Ward identity at the expense of violating the Weyl Ward identities we may as well violate the former and preserve the latter.

  13. Multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates via laser-assisted transfer-printing process

    KAUST Repository

    Park, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    A laser-assisted transfer-printing process is developed for multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates using femtosecond laser scanning on a graphene/metal substrate and transfer techniques without using multi-step patterning processes. The short pulse nature of a femtosecond laser on a graphene/copper sheet enables fabrication of high-resolution graphene patterns. Thanks to the scale up, fast, direct writing, multi-scale with high resolution, and reliable process characteristics, it can be an alternative pathway to the multi-step photolithography methods for printing arbitrary graphene patterns on desired substrates. We also demonstrate transparent strain devices without expensive photomasks and multi-step patterning process. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Unified approach for determining the enthalpic fictive temperature of glasses with arbitrary thermal history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Potuzak, M.; Mauro, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a unified routine to determine the enthalpic fictive temperature of a glass with arbitrary thermal history under isobaric conditions. The technique is validated both experimentally and numerically using a novel approach for modeling of glass relaxation behavior. The technique is applic......We propose a unified routine to determine the enthalpic fictive temperature of a glass with arbitrary thermal history under isobaric conditions. The technique is validated both experimentally and numerically using a novel approach for modeling of glass relaxation behavior. The technique...... is applicable to glasses of any thermal history, as proved through a series of numerical simulations where the enthalpic fictive temperature is precisely known within the model. Also, we demonstrate that the enthalpic fictive temperature of a glass can be determined at any calorimetric scan rate in excellent...

  15. The effect of the Gauss-Bonnet term on Hawking radiation from arbitrary dimensional black brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Xiao-Mei [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Yangzhou University, Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou (China); Saavedra, Joel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Oevguen, Ali [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Eastern Mediterranean University, Physics Department, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus (Country Unknown)

    2017-09-15

    We investigate the probabilities of the tunneling and the radiation spectra of massive spin-1 particles from arbitrary dimensional Gauss-Bonnet-Axions (GBA) Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black branes, via using the WKB approximation to the Proca spin-1 field equation. The tunneling probabilities and Hawking temperature of the arbitrary dimensional GBA AdS black brane is calculated via the Hamilton-Jacobi approach. We also compute the Hawking temperature via the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling approach. The results obtained from the two methods are consistent. In our setup, the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) coupling affects the Hawking temperature if and only if the momentum of the axion fields is non-vanishing. (orig.)

  16. A general family of morphed nonlinear phase oscillators with arbitrary limit cycle shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajallooeian, Mostafa; van den Kieboom, Jesse; Mukovskiy, Albert; Giese, Martin A.; Ijspeert, Auke J.

    2013-11-01

    We present a general family of nonlinear phase oscillators which can exhibit arbitrary limit cycle shapes and infinitely large basins of attraction. This general family is the superset of familiar control methods like PD-control over a periodic reference, and rhythmic Dynamical Movement Primitives. The general methodology is based on morphing the limit cycle of an existing phase oscillator with phase-based scaling functions to obtain a desired limit cycle behavior. The introduced methodology can be represented as first, second, or n-th order dynamical systems. The elegance of the formulation provides the possibility to define explicit arbitrary convergence behavior for simple cases. We analyze the stability properties of the methodology with the Poincaré-Bendixson theorem and the Contraction Theory, and use numerical simulations to show the properties of some oscillators that are a subset of this general family.

  17. Conservative DEC Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations on Arbitrary Surface Simplicial Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mamdouh; Hirani, Anil; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-11-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surfaces is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of signed diagonal Hodge star operators, while using the circumcentric dual defined on arbitrary meshes, is shown to produce correct solutions even when many non-Delaunay triangles pairs exist. This allows the DEC discretization to admit arbitrary surface simplicial meshes, in contrast to the previously held notion that DEC was limited only to Delaunay meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with several numerical test cases demonstrating its numerical convergence and conservation properties. Recent developments regarding the extension to conservative higher order methods are also presented. KAUST Baseline Research Funds of R. Samtaney.

  18. Dispersion characteristics of planar grating with arbitrary grooves for terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Miaomiao; Li, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of getting the dispersion relations in planar grating with arbitrary grooves for terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation is investigated analytically. The continuous profile of the groove is approximately replaced by a series of rectangular steps. By making use of field matches method and the continuity of transverse admittance, the universal dispersion equation for grating with arbitrarily shaped grooves is derived. By solving the dispersion equation in presence of electron beam, the growth rate is obtained directly and the dependence on beam parameters is analyzed. Comparisons of the dispersion characteristics among some special groove shapes have been made by numerical calculation. The results show that the rectangular-step approximation method provides a novel approach to obtain the universal dispersion relation for grating with arbitrary grooves for Smith-Purcell radiation

  19. Inquiry into the scientific basis for bitemark profiling and arbitrary distortion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Mary A; Cooper, Howard I; Dorion, Robert B J

    2010-07-01

    Prediction of dental characteristics from a bitemark (bitemark profiling) and arbitrary photographic distortion compensation are two practices proposed in bitemark analysis. Recent research on the effect of inherent skin tension properties in bitemark analysis suggests that these practices are subject to review. A biting apparatus was used to create 66 bitemarks in human cadaver skin. The bitemarks were photographed, sized 1:1, and evaluated with Adobe Photoshop. Metric/angular measurements and hollow volume dental overlays were employed. Distortion produced was calculated and assessed. Results showed distortional ranges were nonuniform both between bites, as well as within each bite. Thus, enlarging/decreasing the photograph uniformly would not correct the distortion that resulted. With regard to bitemark profiling, 38% of the bites created patterns that could be misleading if profiled. Features were present/absent that were inconsistent with the biter's dentition. Conclusions indicate bitemark profiling and arbitrary distortion compensation may be inadvisable.

  20. Arbitrary vehicle steering characteristics with changing ratio rack and pinion transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András G Bendefy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve arbitrary steering characteristics at vehicles, a steering mechanism was developed, in which changing ratio rack and pinion connections have been applied. In contrary to a regular steering mechanism where only a single rack is used, two racks were applied in order to make arbitrary characteristics possible. The turning wheel’s required motion functions had to be defined first, thereafter could we determine the changing ratio rack and pinion geometry which produces this motion. First, a simplified two-dimensional mockup was created in order to study the difficulties and possibilities of a real construction. Later, a fully functional assembly was designed and manufactured to make further experiments possible.

  1. Combining retraction edge lithography and plasma etching for arbitrary contour nanoridge fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiping; Jansen, Henri; de Boer, Meint; Berenschot, Erwin; Bouwes, Dominique; Gironès, Miriam; Huskens, Jurriaan; Tas, Niels

    2010-09-01

    Edge lithography in combination with fluorine-based plasma etching is employed to avoid the dependence on crystal orientation in single crystal silicon to create monolithic nanoridges with arbitrary contours. This is demonstrated by using a mask with circular structures and Si etching at cryogenic temperature with SF6+O2 plasma mixtures. Initially, the explored etch recipe was used with Cr as the masking material. Although nanoridges with perfect vertical sidewalls have been achieved, Cr causes severe sidewall roughness due to line edge roughness. Therefore, an SU-8 polymer is used instead. Although the SU-8 pattern definition needs further improvement, we demonstrate the possibility of fabricating Si nanoridges of arbitrary contours providing a width below 50 nm and a height between 25 and 500 nm with smooth surface finish. Artifacts in the ridge profile are observed and are mainly caused by the bird's beak phenomenon which is characteristic for the used LOCOS process.

  2. The Mehler-Fock transform of general order and arbitrary index and its inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Nasim

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available An integral transform involving the associated Legendre function of zero order, P−12+iτ(x, x∈[1,∞, as the kernel (considered as a function of τ, is called Mehler-Fock transform. Some generalizations, involving the function P−12+iτμ(x, where the order μ is an arbitrary complex number, including the case when μ=0,1,2,… have been known for some time. In this present note, we define a general Mehler-Fock transform involving, as the kernel, the Legendre function P−12+tμ(x, of general order μ and an arbitrary index −12+t, t=σ+iτ, −∞<τ<∞. Then we develop a symmetric inversion formulae for these transforms. Many well-known results are derived as special cases of this general form. These transforms are widely used for solving many axisymmetric potential problems.

  3. Three-Dimensional Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Thick Plates on Pasternak Foundation with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first known vibration characteristic of rectangular thick plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions on the basis of the three-dimensional elasticity theory. The arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained by laying out three types of linear springs on all edges. The modified Fourier series are chosen as the basis functions of the admissible function of the thick plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges. The exact solution is obtained based on the Rayleigh–Ritz procedure by the energy functions of the thick plate. The excellent accuracy and reliability of current solutions are demonstrated by numerical examples and comparisons with the results available in the literature. In addition, the influence of the foundation coefficients as well as the boundary restraint parameters is also analyzed, which can serve as the benchmark data for the future research technique.

  4. Influence of paravertebral miorelaxant on arbitrary maximal ventilation of respirators system at skilled sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syshko D.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional being of the respirator system of the skilled sportsmen, engaged in the greco-roman fight (n=22, heavy athletics (n=25 and football (n=24 before and after course of paravertebral miorelaxant, is studied. The course of paravertebral miorelaxant was the system of exercises in a water environment with the use of «noodle». The necessity of application of correction influences, for sportsmen, was conditioned by the presence of hypertonic of paravertebral muscles, registered through miotonometric. It is got, those parameters of arbitrary maximal ventilation of respirators system (MVR, after the course of paravertebral miorelaxant, changed depending on the orientation of the training process determined by the type of sport. It is certain, whatever the change of tone of paravertebral muscles renders the reliable changes in the structure of arbitrary MVL at footballers, for certain affects chronotropics to the component at heavy athletics and inotropics at the representatives of the greco-roman fight.

  5. Digital processing with single electrons for arbitrary waveform generation of current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yuma; Nakamura, Shuji; Onomitsu, Koji; Kaneko, Nobu-Hisa

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate arbitrary waveform generation of current using a GaAs-based single-electron pump. In our experiment, a digital processing algorithm known as delta–sigma modulation is incorporated into single-electron pumping to generate a density-modulated single-electron stream, by which we demonstrate the generation of arbitrary waveforms of current including sinusoidal, square, and triangular waves with a peak-to-peak amplitude of approximately 10 pA and an output bandwidth ranging from dc to close to 1 MHz. The developed current generator can be used as the precise and calculable current reference required for measurements of current noise in low-temperature experiments.

  6. Optimal cloning of qubits given by an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution on the Bloch sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Miranowicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We find an optimal quantum cloning machine, which clones qubits of arbitrary symmetrical distribution around the Bloch vector with the highest fidelity. The process is referred to as phase-independent cloning in contrast to the standard phase-covariant cloning for which an input qubit state is a priori better known. We assume that the information about the input state is encoded in an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution (phase function) on the Bloch sphere of the cloned qubits. We find analytical expressions describing the optimal cloning transformation and fidelity of the clones. As an illustration, we analyze cloning of qubit state described by the von Mises-Fisher and Brosseau distributions. Moreover, we show that the optimal phase-independent cloning machine can be implemented by modifying the mirror phase-covariant cloning machine for which quantum circuits are known.

  7. Digital simulation of an arbitrary stationary stochastic process by spectral representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, Harold T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a straightforward, efficient, and computationally fast method for creating a large number of discrete samples with an arbitrary given probability density function and a specified spectral content. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set...... of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In contrast to previous work, where the analyses were limited...... to auto regressive and or iterative techniques to obtain satisfactory results, we find that a single application of the inverse transform method yields satisfactory results for a wide class of arbitrary probability distributions. Although a single application of the inverse transform technique does...

  8. Explicit formulation for natural frequencies of double-beam system with arbitrary boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzabeigy, Alborz; Madoliat, Reza [Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabbagh, Vahid [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, free transverse vibration of two parallel beams connected through Winkler type elastic layer is investigated. Euler- Bernoulli beam hypothesis has been applied and it is assumed that boundary conditions of upper and lower beams are similar while arbitrary without any limitation even for non-ideal boundary conditions. Material properties and cross-section geometry of beams could be different from each other. The motion of the system is described by a homogeneous set of two partial differential equations, which is solved by using the classical Bernoulli-Fourier method. Explicit expressions are derived for the natural frequencies. In order to verify accuracy of results, the problem once again solved using modified Adomian decomposition method. Comparison between results indicates excellent accuracy of proposed formulation for any arbitrary boundary conditions. Derived explicit formulation is simplest method to determine natural frequencies of double-beam systems with high level of accuracy in comparison with other methods in literature.

  9. Seiberg-Witten maps and noncommutative Yang-Mills theories for arbitrary gauge groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnich, Glenn; Brandt, Friedemann; Grigoriev, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    Seiberg-Witten maps and a recently proposed construction of noncommutative Yang-Mills theories (with matter fields) for arbitrary gauge groups are reformulated so that their existence to all orders is manifest. The ambiguities of the construction which originate from the freedom in the Seiberg-Witten map are discussed with regard to the question whether they can lead to inequivalent models, i.e., models not related by field redefinitions. (author)

  10. Harmonic Development of an Arbitrary Function of the Moon/Sun/Planets Coordinates to Poisson Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    A new algorithm for the spectral analysis of an arbitrary function of the Moon/Sun/planets coordinates tabulated over a long period of time is proposed. Expansion of the function to a Poisson series is directly made where the amplitudes and arguments of the series' terms are high-degree time polynomials (as opposed to the classical Fourier analysis where the terms' amplitudes are constants and the arguments are linear functions of time).

  11. Characterisation of the flow regimes of arbitrary manoeuvre in absolute and relative frames

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterisation of the flow regimes of arbitrary manoeuvre in absolute and relative frames I. Gledhill1 and J. Nordstr?m2 1Aeronautical Systems Competency Area, Defence, Peace, Safety and Security Operational Unit, CSIR 2 Dept of Mathematics, U Link... perturbations: dynamic derivatives - Relative frame terms: ? Roohani and Skews 2007?2011 ? In the inertial frame: - Inoue et al. ? CSIR 2011 www.csir.co.za U=Uinf U=0 Theory Background to present work ? Transformation between...

  12. Hamiltonian design to prepare arbitrary states of four-level systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chao; Martínez-Cercós, D.; Martínez-Garaot, S.; Chen, Xi; Muga, J. G.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a method to manipulate four-level systems with specific coupling configurations by means of time-dependent couplings and constant energy shifts (detunings in quantum-optical realizations). We inversely engineer the Hamiltonian, in ladder, tripod, or diamond configurations, to prepare arbitrary states using the geometry of four-dimensional rotations to set the state populations; specifically, we use Cayley's factorization of a general rotation into right- and left-isoclinic rotations.

  13. Position-momentum uncertainty relations based on moments of arbitrary order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zozor, Steeve; Portesi, Mariela; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S.

    2011-01-01

    The position-momentum uncertainty-like inequality based on moments of arbitrary order for d-dimensional quantum systems, which is a generalization of the celebrated Heisenberg formulation of the uncertainty principle, is improved here by use of the Renyi-entropy-based uncertainty relation. The accuracy of the resulting lower bound is physico-computationally analyzed for the two main prototypes in d-dimensional physics: the hydrogenic and oscillator-like systems.

  14. Differential equation for genus-two characters in arbitrary rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.D.; Sen, A.

    1989-01-01

    We develop a general method for deriving ordinary differential equations for the genus-two ''characters'' of an arbitrary rational conformal field theory using the hyperelliptic representation of the genus-two moduli space. We illustrate our method by explicitly deriving the character differential equations for k=1 SU(2), G 2 , and F 4 WZW models. Our method provides an intrinsic definition of conformal field theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  15. New finite volume methods for approximating partial differential equations on arbitrary meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermeline, F.

    2008-12-01

    This dissertation presents some new methods of finite volume type for approximating partial differential equations on arbitrary meshes. The main idea lies in solving twice the problem to be dealt with. One addresses the elliptic equations with variable (anisotropic, antisymmetric, discontinuous) coefficients, the parabolic linear or non linear equations (heat equation, radiative diffusion, magnetic diffusion with Hall effect), the wave type equations (Maxwell, acoustics), the elasticity and Stokes'equations. Numerous numerical experiments show the good behaviour of this type of method. (author)

  16. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han; Wei, Wu; Chun-Wang, Wu; Hong-Yi, Dai; Cheng-Zu, Li

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given

  17. Realization of arbitrary positive-operator-value measurement of single atomic qubit via cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yang; Wu Wei; Wu Chunwang; Dai Hongyi; Li Chengzu

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given. (authors)

  18. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Chun-Wang; Dai, Hong-Yi; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-12-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given.

  19. Solution for acoustic field of thermo-acoustic emission from arbitrary source

    OpenAIRE

    Hanping Hu; Dongdong Wang; Zedong Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an expression for acoustic field of thermo-acoustic (TA) emission from arbitrary source is presented by deriving the solutions of TA emission from spherical surface and point source in gas and then taking advantage of the point sources superposition and the surface heat distribution factor. Accordingly, the computational analysis of acoustic pressure field of TA emission is extended to three-dimensional cases. The theory developed in this work is in good agreement with the exper...

  20. The relativistic Coulomb problem for particles with arbitrary half-integer spin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederle, Jiří; Nikitin, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2006), s. 10931-10944 ISSN 0305-4470 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : relativistic Coulomb problem * Kepler problem * integral particle with arbitrary half-integer spin Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.577, year: 2006

  1. Arbitrary Dimension Convection-Diffusion Schemes for Space-Time Discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, Randolph E. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zikatanov, Ludmil T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-01-20

    This note proposes embedding a time dependent PDE into a convection-diffusion type PDE (in one space dimension higher) with singularity, for which two discretization schemes, the classical streamline-diffusion and the EAFE (edge average finite element) one, are investigated in terms of stability and error analysis. The EAFE scheme, in particular, is extended to be arbitrary order which is of interest on its own. Numerical results, in combined space-time domain demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  2. Ordinary-derivative formulation of conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin bosonic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2007-01-01

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin bosonic fields in flat space-time of even dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. Second-derivative (ordinary-derivative) formulation for such fields is developed. We obtain gauge invariant Lagrangian and the corresponding gauge transformations. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg and auxiliary fields. Realization of global conformal boost symmetries on conformal gauge fields is obtained. Modified de Donder gauge ...

  3. A Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations on Arbitrary Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Luo; Luqing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2010-01-01

    A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on arbitrary grids. The developed RDG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate its accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and versatility. The numerical results indicate that this RDG method is able to deliver the same accuracy as the well-known Bassi-Rebay II scheme, at a half of its computing costs for the discretization of the viscous fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations, clearly demonstrating its superior performance over the existing DG methods for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  4. Arbitrariness is not enough: towards a functional approach to the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacková, Ľudmila; Matlach, Vladimír; Faltýnek, Dan

    2017-12-01

    Arbitrariness in the genetic code is one of the main reasons for a linguistic approach to molecular biology: the genetic code is usually understood as an arbitrary relation between amino acids and nucleobases. However, from a semiotic point of view, arbitrariness should not be the only condition for definition of a code, consequently it is not completely correct to talk about "code" in this case. Yet we suppose that there exist a code in the process of protein synthesis, but on a higher level than the nucleic bases chains. Semiotically, a code should be always associated with a function and we propose to define the genetic code not only relationally (in basis of relation between nucleobases and amino acids) but also in terms of function (function of a protein as meaning of the code). Even if the functional definition of meaning in the genetic code has been discussed in the field of biosemiotics, its further implications have not been considered. In fact, if the function of a protein represents the meaning of the genetic code (the sign's object), then it is crucial to reconsider the notion of its expression (the sign) as well. In our contribution, we will show that the actual model of the genetic code is not the only possible and we will propose a more appropriate model from a semiotic point of view.

  5. Mixed multiplicities for arbitrary ideals and generalized Buchsbaum-Rim multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callejas-Bedregal, R.; Jorge Perez, V.H.

    2005-12-01

    We introduce first the notion of mixed multiplicities for arbitrary ideals in a local d-dimensional noetherian ring (A, m) which, in some sense, generalizes the concept of mixed multiplicities for m-primary ideals. We also generalize Teissier's Product Formula for a set of arbitrary ideals. We also extend the notion of the Buchsbaum-Rim multiplicity (in short, we write BR-multiplicity) of a submodule of a free module to the case where the submodule no longer has finite colength. For a submodule M of A p we introduce a sequence e BR k (M), k = 0,...,d + p - 1 which in the ideal case coincides with the multiplicity sequence c 0 (I, A),...,c d (I, A) defined for an arbitrary ideal I of A by Achilles and Manaresi in [AM]. In case that M has finite colength in A p and it is totally decomposable we prove that our BR-multiplicity sequence essentially falls into the standard BR-multiplicity of M. (author)

  6. Attenuation Correction of Weather Radar Reflectivity with Arbitrary Oriented Microwave Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To compensate radar reflectivity for attenuation effect, a new method for attenuation correction of the radar reflectivity using arbitrary oriented microwave link (referred henceforth to as ACML is developed and evaluated. Referring to the measurement of arbitrary oriented microwave link, the ACML method optimizes the ratio of specific attenuation to specific differential phase which is a key parameter in attenuation correction schemes. The proposed method was evaluated using real data of a dual-polarization X-band radar and measurements of two microwave links during two rainstorm events. The results showed that the variation range of the optimized ratio was overall consistent with the results of the previous studies. After attenuation correction with the optimal ratios, the radar reflectivity was significantly compensated, especially at long distances. The corrected reflectivity was more intense than the reflectivity corrected by the “self-consistent” (SC method and closer to the reflectivity of a nearby S-band radar. The effectiveness of the method was also verified by comparing the rain rates estimated by the X-band radar with those derived by rain gauges. It is demonstrated that arbitrary oriented microwave link can be adopted to optimize the attenuation correction of radar reflectivity.

  7. The direct Discontinuous Galerkin method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoquan; Cheng, Jian; Liu, Tiegang; Luo, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The direct discontinuous Galerkin (DDG) method based on a traditional discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is extended and implemented for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. Compared to the widely used second Bassi-Rebay (BR2) scheme for the discretization of diffusive fluxes, the DDG method has two attractive features: first, it is simple to implement as it is directly based on the weak form, and therefore there is no need for any local or global lifting operator; second, it can deliver comparable results, if not better than BR2 scheme, in a more efficient way with much less CPU time. Two approaches to perform the DDG flux for the Navier- Stokes equations are presented in this work, one is based on conservative variables, the other is based on primitive variables. In the implementation of the DDG method for arbitrary grid, the definition of mesh size plays a critical role as the formation of viscous flux explicitly depends on the geometry. A variety of test cases are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the DDG method for discretizing the viscous fluxes in the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids.

  8. Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia Pereira Machado Tabchoury

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11 presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

  9. Arbitrary scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid spheroid with large aspect-ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhixiong; Li, Wei; Mitri, Farid G.; Chai, Yingbin; Zhao, Yao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the T-matrix (null-field) method is applied to investigate the acoustic scattering by a large-aspect-ratio rigid spheroid immersed in a non-viscous fluid under the illumination of an unbounded zeroth-order Bessel beam with arbitrary orientation. Based on the proposed method, a MATLAB software package is constructed accordingly, and then verified and validated to compute the acoustic scattering by a rigid oblate or prolate spheroid in the Bessel beam. Several numerical examples are carried out to investigate the novel phenomenon of acoustic scattering by spheroids in Bessel beams with arbitrary incidence, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e. the ratio of the polar radius over the equatorial radius of the spheroid), the half-cone angle of Bessel beam, the dimensionless frequency, as well as the angle of incidence. The quasi-periodic oscillations are observed in the plots of the far-field backscattering form function modulus versus the dimensionless frequency, owing to the interference between the specular reflection and the Franz wave circumnavigating the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Furthermore, the 3D far-field scattering directivity patterns at end-on incidence and 2D polar plots at arbitrary angles of incidence are exhibited, which could provide new insights into the physical mechanisms of Bessel beam scattering by flat or elongated spheroid. This research work may provide an impetus for the application of acoustic Bessel beam in engineering practices.

  10. Acoustoelectric interaction in degenerately doped piezoelectric semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    1972-01-01

    The acoustoelectric gain constant is calculated quantum mechanically for arbitrary degeneracy of the electron gas. The requirements of energy and momentum conservation in individual electron-phonon interactions result in a rather sharp reduction of the gain factor when the acoustic wave number ex...

  11. On interaction with external fields. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polubarinov, I.V.

    1978-01-01

    An introduction into theory of interaction of any quantized charged field with arbitrary external time-dependent classical fields is exposed. Usual field operator terms are used. S-matrix is explicitly represented in an N-ordered form. Its matrix elements are treated, using a particle number operator formalism. Pair number distribution produced by external fields from vacuum is characterized

  12. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element analysis of free surface flow using a velocity-vorticity formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, D.C.; Young, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the application of velocity-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional free surface flow using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. The velocity Poisson equations and the vorticity transport equations are solved using a finite element method to obtain the velocity and the vorticity fields in the interior region of the computational domain. The boundary-fitted coordinates system is adopted to solve the boundary equations for kinematic and dynamic conditions at the free surface using a finite difference method. The numerical model for the velocity-vorticity formulation is validated for a square cavity flow at Re=400 and 1000. The solitary wave reflected from a vertical wall is chosen as a test case for comparison and validation of the free surface flow model. Then the proposed numerical model is used to obtain flow results for the following free surface flow cases: (i) interaction between two opposite solitary waves, (ii) seiche phenomenon in a rectangular reservoir, and (iii) solitary wave through a submerged rectangular structure in a viscous fluid. The efficiency of the present numerical model for numerical treatment of free surface flows is discussed. Furthermore the advantage of this formulation with respect to primitive variables formulation is addressed from the computational point of view

  13. Description and manual for the use of DRIVER - an interactive modelling aid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Furniss, PR

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available The modelling aid DRIVER is described. It permits the interactive manipulation of the parameters and variables of difference models which are implemented as FORTRAN subroutines. Relationships in the model can be expressed as arbitrary functions. A...

  14. Ambulatory Sensing of the Dynamic interaction between the human body and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Schepers, H. Martin; Cooper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate power transfer between the human body and the environment during short interactions and relatively arbitrary movements with net displacement and varying loads (mass and spring), and appeared to be accurate within 4%.

  15. Radionuclide migration through fractured rock for arbitrary-length decay chain: Analytical solution and global sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkarami, Pirouz; Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an analytical approach to simulate nuclide migration through a channel in a fracture accounting for an arbitrary-length decay chain. The nuclides are retarded as they diffuse in the porous rock matrix and stagnant zones in the fracture. The Laplace transform and similarity transform techniques are applied to solve the model. The analytical solution to the nuclide concentrations at the fracture outlet is governed by nine parameters representing different mechanisms acting on nuclide transport through a fracture, including diffusion into the rock matrices, diffusion into the stagnant water zone, chain decay and hydrodynamic dispersion. Furthermore, to assess how sensitive the results are to parameter uncertainties, the Sobol method is applied in variance-based global sensitivity analyses of the model output. The Sobol indices show how uncertainty in the model output is apportioned to the uncertainty in the model input. This method takes into account both direct effects and interaction effects between input parameters. The simulation results suggest that in the case of pulse injections, ignoring the effect of a stagnant water zone can lead to significant errors in the time of first arrival and the peak value of the nuclides. Likewise, neglecting the parent and modeling its daughter as a single stable species can result in a significant overestimation of the peak value of the daughter nuclide. It is also found that as the dispersion increases, the early arrival time and the peak time of the daughter decrease while the peak value increases. More importantly, the global sensitivity analysis reveals that for time periods greater than a few thousand years, the uncertainty of the model output is more sensitive to the values of the individual parameters than to the interaction between them. Moreover, if one tries to evaluate the true values of the input parameters at the same cost and effort, the determination of priorities should follow a certain

  16. Optimal performance at arbitrary power of minimally nonlinear irreversible thermoelectric generators with broken time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Liu, Wei; Li, Qianwen; Zhang, Lei; Bai, Long

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the performance at arbitrary power of minimally nonlinear irreversible thermoelectric generators (MNITGs) with broken time-reversal symmetry within linear irreversible thermodynamics, and the efficiency of MNITGs at arbitrary power is analytically derived. Furthermore, a universal bound on the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TGs) with broken time-reversal symmetry and the arbitrary power is obtained. Some system-specific characteristics are discussed and uncovered. A large efficiency at arbitrary power can also be achieved via the cooperative mechanism between the system parameters. Our results indicate that the broken time-reversal symmetry provides the physically allowed degrees of freedom for tuning the performance of thermoelectric devices, and the physical trade-off region between the efficiency and the power output can also offer the appropriate space for optimizing the performance of TGs.

  17. Using MBL To Verify Newton's Second Law and the Impulse-Momentum Relationship with an Arbitrary Changing Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo; Gelbman, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Uses microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) to teach Newton's second law and the impulse-momentum relationship with a high degree of precision and accuracy while applying forces that change in an arbitrary way. (YDS)

  18. A line rate calculation method for arbitrary directional imaging of an Earth observing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Moon-Jin; Kim, Eunghyun; Lim, Seong-Bin; Choi, Seok-Weon

    2016-10-01

    For an earth observing satellite, a line rate is the number of lines which the CCD of push broom type camera scans in a second. It can be easily calculated by ground velocity divided by ground sample distance. Accurate calculation of line rate is necessary to obtain high quality image using TDI CCD. The earth observing satellite has four types of imaging missions which are strip imaging, stereo imaging, multi-point imaging, and arbitrary directional imaging. For the first three types of imaging, ground scanning direction is aligned with satellite velocity direction. Therefore, if the orbit propagation and spacecraft attitude information are available, the ground velocity and ground sample distance could be easily calculated. However, the calculation method might not be applicable to the arbitrary directional imaging. In the arbitrary directional imaging mode, the ground velocity is not fixed value which could be directly derived by orbit information. Furthermore, the ground sample distance might not be easily calculated by simple trigonometry which is possible for the other types of imaging. In this paper, we proposed a line rate calculation method for the arbitrary directional imaging. We applied spherical geometry to derive the equation of ground point which is the intersection between the line of sight vector of the camera and earth surface. The derivative of this equation for time is the ground velocity except the factor of earth rotation. By adding this equation and earth rotation factor, the true ground velocity vector could be derived. For the ground sample distance, we applied the equation of circle and ellipse for yaw angle difference. The equation of circle is used for the yaw angle representation on the plane which is orthogonal to the line of sight vector. The equation of ellipse is used for the yaw angle representation on the ground surface. We applied the proposed method to the KOMPSAT-3A (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite 3A) mission which is the first

  19. Comparison of Four Mixed Layer Mesoscale Parameterizations and the Equation for an Arbitrary Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two issues, the inter-comparison of four mixed layer mesoscale parameterizations and the search for the eddy induced velocity for an arbitrary tracer. It must be stressed that our analysis is limited to mixed layer mesoscales since we do not treat sub-mesoscales and small turbulent mixing. As for the first item, since three of the four parameterizations are expressed in terms of a stream function and a residual flux of the RMT formalism (residual mean theory), while the fourth is expressed in terms of vertical and horizontal fluxes, we needed a formalism to connect the two formulations. The standard RMT representation developed for the deep ocean cannot be extended to the mixed layer since its stream function does not vanish at the ocean's surface. We develop a new RMT representation that satisfies the surface boundary condition. As for the general form of the eddy induced velocity for an arbitrary tracer, thus far, it has been assumed that there is only the one that originates from the curl of the stream function. This is because it was assumed that the tracer residual flux is purely diffusive. On the other hand, we show that in the case of an arbitrary tracer, the residual flux has also a skew component that gives rise to an additional bolus velocity. Therefore, instead of only one bolus velocity, there are now two, one coming from the curl of the stream function and other from the skew part of the residual flux. In the buoyancy case, only one bolus velocity contributes to the mean buoyancy equation since the residual flux is indeed only diffusive.

  20. Predictive wavefront control for Adaptive Optics with arbitrary control loop delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2007-10-30

    We present a modification of the closed-loop state space model for AO control which allows delays that are a non-integer multiple of the system frame rate. We derive the new forms of the Predictive Fourier Control Kalman filters for arbitrary delays and show that they are linear combinations of the whole-frame delay terms. This structure of the controller is independent of the delay. System stability margins and residual error variance both transition gracefully between integer-frame delays.

  1. Analysis of circular fibers with an arbitrary index profile by the Galerkin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shangping; Wu, Feng; Ikram, Khalid; Albin, Sacharia

    2004-01-01

    We propose a full-vectorial Galerkin method for the analysis of circular symmetric fibers with arbitrary index profiles. A set of orthogonal Laguerre-Gauss functions is used to calculate the dispersion relation and mode fields of TE and TM modes. Examples are given for both standard step-index fibers and Bragg fibers. For standard step-index fiber with low or high index contrast, the Galerkin method agrees well with the analytical results. In the case of the TE mode of a Bragg fiber it agrees well with the asymptotic results.

  2. Current-Induced Switching of a Single-Molecule Magnet with Arbitrary Oriented Easy Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnas, Józef

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate theoretically how tilting of an easy axis of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) from the orientation collinear with magnetic moments of the leads affects the switching process induced by current flowing through the system. To do this we consider a model system that consists of a SMM embedded in the nonmagnetic barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction. The anisotropy axis of the SMM forms an arbitrary angle with magnetic moments of the leads (the latt...

  3. Broad-aperture polarized proton target with arbitrary orientation of polarization vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, A.A.; Get'man, V.A.; Derkach, A.Ya.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Razumnyj, A.A.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Polarized proton target with the Helmholtz broad-aperture superconducting magnetic system is described. Axial aperture α=95 deg, inter-coil access angle β=23 deg. The structure of the target allows various versions of the installation what make sure an arbitrary orientation of polarization vector. The 0.1 W cold output 3 He evaporation cryostat was used to obtain the work temperature 0.5 K allowing quick transformation to a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator. Results of the study are given on the dynamical proton polarization in 1,2-propylenglycol with various stable Cr 5 complexes

  4. Analytic theory for the selection of 2-D needle crystal at arbitrary Peclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Saleh

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic theory is presented for the velocity selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal for arbitrary Peclet number for small values of the surface tension parameter. The velocity selection is caused by the effect of transcendentally small terms which are determined by analytic continuation to the complex plane and analysis of nonlinear equations. The work supports the general conclusion of previous small Peclet number analytical results of other investigators, though there are some discrepancies in details. It also addresses questions raised on the validity of selection theory owing to assumptions made on shape corrections at large distances from the tip.

  5. Analytic theory for the selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal at arbitrary Peclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, S.

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic theory is presented for the velocity selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal for arbitrary Peclet number for small values of the surface tension parameter. The velocity selection is caused by the effect of transcendentally small terms which are determined by analytic continuation to the complex plane and analysis of nonlinear equations. The work supports the general conclusion of previous small Peclet number analytical results of other investigators, though there are some discrepancies in details. It also addresses questions raised on the validity of selection theory owing to assumptions made on shape corrections at large distances from the tip.

  6. The O(N) model: Calculation of the effective potential for arbitrary values of N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalbuoni, R.; Castellani, E.; De Curtis, S.; Florence Univ.

    1983-01-01

    By using the technique of the effective action for composition operators, we present a calculation of the effective potential of the O(N) scalar model for arbitrary values of N. The potential is given as a truncation of a loop expansion, and reproduces the known results of the N->infinite limit. The potential shows a symmetry breaking for ''small'' values of the ''classical fields'', whereas it shows Landau-type singularities in the region of ''large'' value. However, these singularities are clearly an artifact of our approximation and the model is perfectly consistent in the low energy regime. (orig.)

  7. Efficient evaluation of Casimir force in arbitrary three-dimensional geometries by integral equation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jie L.; Tong, M.S.; Atkins, Phillip; Chew, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we generalized the surface integral equation method for the evaluation of Casimir force in arbitrary three-dimensional geometries. Similar to the two-dimensional case, the evaluation of the mean Maxwell stress tensor is cast into solving a series of three-dimensional scattering problems. The formulation and solution of the three-dimensional scattering problems are well-studied in classical computational electromagnetics. This Letter demonstrates that this quantum electrodynamic phenomenon can be studied using the knowledge and techniques of classical electrodynamics.

  8. ALE3D: An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Multi-Physics Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Charles R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, Andrew T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barton, Nathan R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bramwell, Jamie A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Capps, Arlie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, Michael H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chou, Jin J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dawson, David M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Diana, Emily R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, Timothy A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Faux, Douglas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fisher, Aaron C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greene, Patrick T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heinz, Ines [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kanarska, Yuliya [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Khairallah, Saad A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Liu, Benjamin T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Margraf, Jon D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nichols, Albert L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nourgaliev, Robert N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puso, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reus, James F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robinson, Peter B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shestakov, Alek I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Solberg, Jerome M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Taller, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tsuji, Paul H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Christopher A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Jeremy L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-23

    ALE3D is a multi-physics numerical simulation software tool utilizing arbitrary-Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) techniques. The code is written to address both two-dimensional (2D plane and axisymmetric) and three-dimensional (3D) physics and engineering problems using a hybrid finite element and finite volume formulation to model fluid and elastic-plastic response of materials on an unstructured grid. As shown in Figure 1, ALE3D is a single code that integrates many physical phenomena.

  9. Arbitrary amplitude magnetosonic solitary and shock structures in spin quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Biswajit [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata-700126 (India); Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar; Khan, Manoranjan [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India)

    2013-11-15

    A nonlinear analysis is carried out for the arbitrary amplitude magnetosonic solitary and shock structures in spin quantum plasmas. A quantum magnetohydrodynamic model is used to describe the magnetosonic quantum plasma with the Bohm potential and the pressure like spin force for electrons. Analytical calculations are used to simplify the basic equations, which are then studied numerically. It is shown that the magnetic diffusivity is responsible for dissipation, which causes the shock-like structures rather than the soliton structures. Additionally, wave speed, Zeeman energy, and Bohm potential are found to have significant impact on the shock wave structures.

  10. Linear dynamic analysis of arbitrary thin shells modal superposition by using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Filho, O.J.A.

    1978-11-01

    The linear dynamic behaviour of arbitrary thin shells by the Finite Element Method is studied. Plane triangular elements with eighteen degrees of freedom each are used. The general equations of movement are obtained from the Hamilton Principle and solved by the Modal Superposition Method. The presence of a viscous type damping can be considered by means of percentages of the critical damping. An automatic computer program was developed to provide the vibratory properties and the dynamic response to several types of deterministic loadings, including temperature effects. The program was written in FORTRAN IV for the Burroughs B-6700 computer. (author)

  11. An analytical model of evaporation efficiency for unsaturated soil surfaces with an arbitrary thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, Olivier; Al Bitar, Ahmad; Rivalland, Vincent; Béziat, Pierre; Ceschia, Eric; Dedieu, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2418.1; Analytical expressions of evaporative efficiency over bare soil (defined as the ratio of actual to potential soil evaporation) have been limited to soil layers with a fixed depth and/or to specific atmospheric conditions. To fill the gap, a new analytical model is developed for arbitrary soil thicknesses and varying boundary layer conditions. The soil evaporative efficiency is written [0.5 – 0.5 cos(πθL/ θmax)]^P with θL being the water content in the soil layer o...

  12. Development of a multimaterial, two-dimensional, arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian mesh computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed a large, multimaterial, two-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) computer program. The special feature of an ALE mesh is that it can be either an embedded Lagrangian mesh, a fixed Eulerian mesh, or a partially embedded, partially remapped mesh. Remapping is used to remove Lagrangian mesh distortion. This general purpose program has been used for astrophysical modeling, under the guidance of James R. Wilson. The rationale behind the development of this program will be used to highlight several important issues in program design

  13. On the sensitivity of the recursive filter with arbitrary order predictor in DPCM system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danković Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity analysis of the recursive filter in a DPCM system, with arbitrary order predictor, is presented in this paper. Relations for sensitivity, related to predictor coefficients, are derived both in cases of stable and unstable systems. In this way, we presented new information which can improve design of the system in the sense of better performances via parameters (coefficient adjustment. Given relations were verified for the case of real system in three different configurations: with the second, third and fifth order predictors.

  14. Synthetic space with arbitrary dimensions in a few rings undergoing dynamic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Luqi; Xiao, Meng; Lin, Qian; Fan, Shanhui

    2018-03-01

    We show that a single ring resonator undergoing dynamic modulation can be used to create a synthetic space with an arbitrary dimension. In such a system, the phases of the modulation can be used to create a photonic gauge potential in high dimensions. As an illustration of the implication of this concept, we show that the Haldane model, which exhibits nontrivial topology in two dimensions, can be implemented in the synthetic space using three rings. Our results point to a route toward exploring higher-dimensional topological physics in low-dimensional physical structures. The dynamics of photons in such synthetic spaces also provides a mechanism to control the spectrum of light.

  15. Simulation of drift dynamics of arbitrary carrier distributions in complex semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    De Castro Manzano, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    An extensible open-source C++ software for the simulation of elec- trons and holes drift in semiconductor detectors of complex geometries has been developed in order to understand transient currents and charge collection efficiencies of arbitrary charge distributions. The simulation is based on Ramo’s theorem formalism to obtain induced currents in the electrodes. Efficient open source C++ numerical libraries are used to ob- tain the electric and weighting field using finite-element methods and to simulate the carrier transport. A graphical user interface is also provided. The tool has already been proved useful to model laser induced transient currents

  16. Application of Arbitrary-Order Hilbert Spectral Analysis to Passive Scalar Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y X; Lu, Z M; Liu, Y L; Schmitt, F G; Gagne, Y

    2011-01-01

    In previous work [Huang et al., PRE 82, 26319, 2010], we found that the passive scalar turbulence field maybe less intermittent than what we believed before. Here we apply the same method, namely arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis, to a passive scalar (temperature) time series with a Taylor's microscale Reynolds number Re λ ≅ 3000. We find that with increasing Reynolds number, the discrepancy of scaling exponents between Hilbert ξ θ (q) and Kolmogorov-Obukhov-Corrsin (KOC) theory is increasing, and consequently the discrepancy between Hilbert and structure function could disappear at infinite Reynolds number.

  17. An Exact Relation for N=1 Orientifold Field Theories with Arbitrary Superpotential

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, Adi; Shifman, M

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a nonperturbative relation for orientifold parent/daughter pairs of supersymmetric theories with an arbitrary tree-level superpotential. We show that super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory with matter in the adjoint representation at N-->infinity, is equivalent to a SYM theory with matter in the antisymmetric representation and a related superpotential. The gauge symmetry breaking patterns match in these theories too. The moduli spaces in the limiting case of a vanishing superpotential are also discussed. Finally we argue that there is an exact mapping between the effective superpotentials of two finite-N theories belonging to an orientifold pair.

  18. On a possibility of restoration of an arbitrary shape hadron cascade in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvashnin, A.N.; Rubtsov, V.I.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Yakovlev, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A problem of restoring hadron cascade of an arbitrary form in the atmosphere has been considered. The restoration method of hadron cascade is based on using time and amplitude detectors of the Cherenkov radiation. The calculation of the Cherenkov radiation intensity at distances above 200 m from the shower axis was conducted in the approximation of a luminous point model. It is shown that using 5-6 time and amplitude detectors at the above-mentioned distance parameters of a cascade curve can be estimated solving a set of nonlinear equations

  19. Pulse propagation in a two-pass optical amplifier with arbitrary laser beams overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Farahbod

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for two-pass optical amplifier with arbitrary beams overlap has been developed which generalized the classical theory of Frantz-Nodvik for single pass amplifier. The effect of counterpropagating beams on gain and output energy fluence included in the model. Moreover, the appropriate limiting relations for two special cases of weak input signal and saturation state of the amplifier gain have been derived. The results indicate that for complete beams overlap, the gain and output energy have the least values. The model predictions are consistent with experimental observations and exact analytical model for two-pass amplifier when beam propagation paths are coincided.

  20. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von

    2015-01-01

    Although males are generally less discriminating than females when it comes to choosing a mate, they still benefit from distinguishing between mates that are receptive to courtship and those that are not, in order to avoid wasting time and energy. It is known that males of Drosophila melanogaster...... of the experiment was carried out in darkness.This is, to our knowledge 1) the first evidence that male D. melanogaster can use more arbitrary cues and 2) the first evidence that males use visual cues during mate choice learning. Our findings suggest that that D. melanogaster has untapped potential as a model...

  1. Solution for acoustic field of thermo-acoustic emission from arbitrary source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanping Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an expression for acoustic field of thermo-acoustic (TA emission from arbitrary source is presented by deriving the solutions of TA emission from spherical surface and point source in gas and then taking advantage of the point sources superposition and the surface heat distribution factor. Accordingly, the computational analysis of acoustic pressure field of TA emission is extended to three-dimensional cases. The theory developed in this work is in good agreement with the experimental results and applicable for solving many complex and important TA emission problems including nanothermophones and phased array and impulse-driven TA emissions.

  2. Green's function surface-integral method for nonlocal response of plasmonic nanowires in arbitrary dielectric environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We develop a nonlocal-response generalization to the Green's function surface-integral method (GSIM), also known as the boundary-element method. This numerically efficient method can accurately describe the linear hydrodynamic nonlocal response of arbitrarily shaped plasmonic nanowires in arbitrary...... and the longitudinal wave number become smaller, or when the effective background permittivity or the mode inhomogeneity increase. The inhomogeneity can be expressed in terms of an effective angular momentum of the surface-plasmon mode. We compare local and nonlocal response of freestanding nanowires, and of nanowires...

  3. Stochastic Primal-Dual Hybrid Gradient Algorithm with Arbitrary Sampling and Imaging Application

    KAUST Repository

    Chambolle, Antonin

    2017-06-15

    We propose a stochastic extension of the primal-dual hybrid gradient algorithm studied by Chambolle and Pock in 2011 to solve saddle point problems that are separable in the dual variable. The analysis is carried out for general convex-concave saddle point problems and problems that are either partially smooth / strongly convex or fully smooth / strongly convex. We perform the analysis for arbitrary samplings of dual variables, and obtain known deterministic results as a special case. Several variants of our stochastic method significantly outperform the deterministic variant on a variety of imaging tasks.

  4. A Piecewise Linear Finite Element Discretization of the Diffusion Equation for Arbitrary Polyhedral Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, T S; Adams, M L; Yang, B; Zika, M R

    2005-01-01

    We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation, and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2D) or polyhedral (3D) grids. We show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's finite-volume method. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids

  5. A piecewise linear finite element discretization of the diffusion equation for arbitrary polyhedral grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, T.S.; Adams, M.L.; Yang, B.; Zika, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation, and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2-dimensional) or polyhedral (3-dimensional) grids. We show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's finite-volume method. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids. (authors)

  6. Terrain following of arbitrary surfaces using a high intensity LED proximity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Many robotic operations, e.g., mapping, scanning, feature following, etc., require accurate surface following of arbitrary targets. This paper presents a versatile surface following and mapping system designed to promote hardware, software and application independence, modular development, and upward expandability. These goals are met by: a full, a priori specification of the hardware and software interfaces; a modular system architecture; and a hierarchical surface-data analysis method, permitting application specific tuning at each conceptual level of topological abstraction. This surface following system was fully designed and independently of any specific robotic host, then successfully integrated with and demonstrated on a completely a priori unknown, real-time robotic system. 7 refs.

  7. Active stabilization of a Michelson interferometer at an arbitrary phase with subnanometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassani, Davide; Galli, Matteo; Bajoni, Daniele

    2014-04-15

    We report on the active stabilization of a Michelson interferometer at an arbitrary phase angle with a precision better than 1° at λ=632.8  nm, which corresponds to a precision in the optical path difference between the two arms of less than 1 nm. The stabilization method is ditherless, and the error signal is computed from the spatial shift of the interference pattern of a reference laser, measured in real-time with a CCD array detector. We discuss the usefulness of this method for nanopositioning, optical interferometry, and quantum optical experiments.

  8. Flexible implementation of the Ensemble Model with arbitrary order of moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, W. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: ackermann@temf.tu-darmstadt.de; Weiland, T. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: thomas.weiland@temf.tu-darmstadt.de

    2006-03-01

    The Ensemble Model takes advantage of an approach to express the phase space particle distribution function in terms of the first, second and higher order moments instead of considering individual particles. Based on a new flexible implementation, an arbitrary number of orders can be processed and automatically converted into proper update equations for the simulation program V-Code. In this paper the influence of the introduction of higher order moments on the beam dynamics simulation is investigated. The achievable accuracy and the numerical efforts are compared with the ones obtained from the lower order calculations.

  9. Fast immersed interface Poisson solver for 3D unbounded problems around arbitrary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, T.; Winckelmans, G.; Chatelain, P.

    2018-02-01

    We present a fast and efficient Fourier-based solver for the Poisson problem around an arbitrary geometry in an unbounded 3D domain. This solver merges two rewarding approaches, the lattice Green's function method and the immersed interface method, using the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury decomposition formula. The method is intended to be second order up to the boundary. This is verified on two potential flow benchmarks. We also further analyse the iterative process and the convergence behavior of the proposed algorithm. The method is applicable to a wide range of problems involving a Poisson equation around inner bodies, which goes well beyond the present validation on potential flows.

  10. Polarized photoproduction from nuclear targets with arbitrary spin and relation to deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoodbhoy, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad

    1990-01-01

    Inclusive photo-production from polarized targets of arbitrary spin is analyzed by using multipoles. The Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule, which was originally fromulated for spin-1/2 targets, is generalized to all spins and multipoles, and shown to have some interesting consequences. Measurements to test the new rules, or to derive nuclear structure information from them, could be incorporated into existing plans at electron accelerator facilities. Finally, the possible relevance of these generalized sum rules to sum rules measurable in polarized lepton-polarized target deep inelastic inclusive scattering is discussed. (orig.)

  11. A General Model for Representing Arbitrary Unsymmetries in Various Types of Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne-Hansen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    When dealing with unsymmetric faults various proposals have been put forward. In general they have been characterized by specific treatment of the single fault in accordance with the structure and impedances involved. The model presented is based on node equations and was originally developed...... for transient stability studies in order to allow for an arbitrary fault representation as seen from the positive sequence network. The method results in impedances -or admittances-combining the negative sequence and zero sequence representation for the symmetrical network with the structure and electrical...

  12. Secular dynamics of hierarchical multiple systems composed of nested binaries, with an arbitrary number of bodies and arbitrary hierarchical structure. II. External perturbations: flybys and supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2018-02-01

    We extend the formalism of a previous paper to include the effects of flybys and instantaneous perturbations such as supernovae on the long-term secular evolution of hierarchical multiple systems with an arbitrary number of bodies and hierarchy, provided that the system is composed of nested binary orbits. To model secular encounters, we expand the Hamiltonian in terms of the ratio of the separation of the perturber with respect to the barycentre of the multiple system, to the separation of the widest orbit. Subsequently, we integrate over the perturber orbit numerically or analytically. We verify our method for secular encounters, and illustrate it with an example. Furthermore, we describe a method to compute instantaneous orbital changes to multiple systems, such as asymmetric supernovae and impulsive encounters. The secular code, with implementation of the extensions described in this paper, is publicly available within AMUSE, and we provide a number of simple example scripts to illustrate its usage for secular and impulsive encounters, and asymmetric supernovae. The extensions presented in this paper are a next step toward efficiently modeling the evolution of complex multiple systems embedded in star clusters.

  13. Construction of multiple trade-offs to obtain arbitrary singularities of adaptive dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, Éva

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary singularities are central to the adaptive dynamics of evolving traits. The evolutionary singularities are strongly affected by the shape of any trade-off functions a model assumes, yet the trade-off functions are often chosen in an ad hoc manner, which may unjustifiably constrain the evolutionary dynamics exhibited by the model. To avoid this problem, critical function analysis has been used to find a trade-off function that yields a certain evolutionary singularity such as an evolutionary branching point. Here I extend this method to multiple trade-offs parameterized with a scalar strategy. I show that the trade-off functions can be chosen such that an arbitrary point in the viability domain of the trait space is a singularity of an arbitrary type, provided (next to certain non-degeneracy conditions) that the model has at least two environmental feedback variables and at least as many trade-offs as feedback variables. The proof is constructive, i.e., it provides an algorithm to find trade-off functions that yield the desired singularity. I illustrate the construction of trade-offs with an example where the virulence of a pathogen evolves in a small ecosystem of a host, its pathogen, a predator that attacks the host and an alternative prey of the predator.

  14. Recursion-transform method for computing resistance of the complex resistor network with three arbitrary boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    We develop a general recursion-transform (R-T) method for a two-dimensional resistor network with a zero resistor boundary. As applications of the R-T method, we consider a significant example to illuminate the usefulness for calculating resistance of a rectangular m×n resistor network with a null resistor and three arbitrary boundaries, a problem never solved before, since Green's function techniques and Laplacian matrix approaches are invalid in this case. Looking for the exact calculation of the resistance of a binary resistor network is important but difficult in the case of an arbitrary boundary since the boundary is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. In this paper we obtain several general formulas of resistance between any two nodes in a nonregular m×n resistor network in both finite and infinite cases. In particular, 12 special cases are given by reducing one of the general formulas to understand its applications and meanings, and an integral identity is found when we compare the equivalent resistance of two different structures of the same problem in a resistor network.

  15. Optimal O(1 Bilateral Filter with Arbitrary Spatial and Range Kernels Using Sparse Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengdong Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of acceleration schemes for speeding up the time-consuming bilateral filter have been proposed in the literature. Among these techniques, the histogram-based bilateral filter trades the flexibility for achieving O(1 computational complexity using box spatial kernel. A recent study shows that this technique can be leveraged for O(1 bilateral filter with arbitrary spatial and range kernels by linearly combining the results of multiple-box bilateral filters. However, this method requires many box bilateral filters to obtain sufficient accuracy when approximating the bilateral filter with a large spatial kernel. In this paper, we propose approximating arbitrary spatial kernel using a fixed number of boxes. It turns out that the multiple-box spatial kernel can be applied in many O(1 acceleration schemes in addition to the histogram-based one. Experiments on the application to the histogram-based acceleration are presented in this paper. Results show that the proposed method has better accuracy in approximating the bilateral filter with Gaussian spatial kernel, compared with the previous histogram-based methods. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed histogram-based bilateral filter is robust with respect to the parameters of the filter kernel.

  16. A Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Compressible Euler Equations on Arbitrary Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Luo; Luquing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau

    2009-06-01

    A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Euler equations on arbitrary grids. By taking advantage of handily available and yet invaluable information, namely the derivatives, in the context of the discontinuous Galerkin methods, a solution polynomial of one degree higher is reconstructed using a least-squares method. The stencils used in the reconstruction involve only the van Neumann neighborhood (face-neighboring cells) and are compact and consistent with the underlying DG method. The resulting DG method can be regarded as an improvement of a recovery-based DG method in the sense that it shares the same nice features as the recovery-based DG method, such as high accuracy and efficiency, and yet overcomes some of its shortcomings such as a lack of flexibility, compactness, and robustness. The developed DG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method. The numerical results indicate that this reconstructed DG method is able to obtain a third-order accurate solution at a slightly higher cost than its second-order DG method and provide an increase in performance over the third order DG method in terms of computing time and storage requirement.

  17. Complete hierarchies of SIR models on arbitrary networks with exact and approximate moment closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Kieran J; Wilkinson, Robert R

    2015-06-01

    We first generalise ideas discussed by Kiss et al. (2015) to prove a theorem for generating exact closures (here expressing joint probabilities in terms of their constituent marginal probabilities) for susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) dynamics on arbitrary graphs (networks). For Poisson transmission and removal processes, this enables us to obtain a systematic reduction in the number of differential equations needed for an exact 'moment closure' representation of the underlying stochastic model. We define 'transmission blocks' as a possible extension of the block concept in graph theory and show that the order at which the exact moment closure representation is curtailed is the size of the largest transmission block. More generally, approximate closures of the hierarchy of moment equations for these dynamics are typically defined for the first and second order yielding mean-field and pairwise models respectively. It is frequently implied that, in principle, closed models can be written down at arbitrary order if only we had the time and patience to do this. However, for epidemic dynamics on networks, these higher-order models have not been defined explicitly. Here we unambiguously define hierarchies of approximate closed models that can utilise subsystem states of any order, and show how well-known models are special cases of these hierarchies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Double-channel vector spatial light modulator for generation of arbitrary complex vector beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng-Shan; Rong, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Shu-Zhen

    2014-01-15

    We propose an approach for implementation of an arbitrary vector beam based on a vector spatial light modulator (VSLM), which is simply composed by a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) and a composed half-wave plate with checkerboard structure. In combination with a four-phase encoding algorithm, the VSLM can transform a linear polarized Gaussian beam or a plane wave into a vector beam with both arbitrary spatial polarization and complex amplitude distributions in two dimensions. It is demonstrated that the VSLM can directly transform pure phase values into two orthogonal polarized complex values with high-diffraction efficiency. Compared with the existing methods for generation of vector beams with SLMs, our approach is on-axis and common-path with simple structure and only involves the zero-order diffraction. The proposed structure is also easier to make an integration and design portable device since it abstains from using optical elements such as special gratings, prisms, and reflectors.

  19. Non-supersymmetric matrix strings from generalized Yang-Mills theory on arbitrary Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billó, M.; D'Adda, A.; Provero, P.

    2000-06-01

    We quantize pure 2d Yang-Mills theory on an arbitrary Riemann surface in the gauge where the field strength is diagonal. Twisted sectors originate, as in Matrix string theory, from permutations of the eigenvalues around homotopically non-trivial loops. These sectors, that must be discarded in the usual quantization due to divergences occurring when two eigenvalues coincide, can be consistently kept if one modifies the action by introducing a coupling of the field strength to the space-time curvature. This leads to a generalized Yang-Mills theory whose action reduces to the usual one in the limit of zero curvature. After integrating over the non-diagonal components of the gauge fields, the theory becomes a free string theory (sum over unbranched coverings) with a U (1) gauge theory on the world-sheet. This is shown to be equivalent to a lattice theory with a gauge group which is the semi-direct product of S N and U (1) N. By using well known results on the statistics of coverings, the partition function on arbitrary Riemann surfaces and the kernel functions on surfaces with boundaries are calculated. Extensions to include branch points and non-abelian groups on the world-sheet are briefly commented upon.

  20. Crack detection in a beam with an arbitrary number of transverse cracks using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaji, N. [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrjoo, M. [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, a crack detection approach is presented for detecting depth and location of cracks in beam-like structures. For this purpose, a new beam element with an arbitrary number of embedded transverse edge cracks, in arbitrary positions of beam element with any depth, is derived. The components of the stiffness matrix for the cracked element are computed using the conjugate beam concept and Betti's theorem, and finally represented in closed-form expressions. The proposed beam element is efficiently employed for solving forward problem (i.e., to gain precise natural frequencies and mode shapes of the beam knowing the cracks' characteristics). To validate the proposed element, results obtained by new element are compared with two-dimensional (2D) finite element results and available experimental measurements. Moreover, by knowing the natural frequencies and mode shapes, an inverse problem is established in which the location and depth of cracks are determined. In the inverse approach, an optimization problem based on the new finite element and genetic algorithms (GAs) is solved to search the solution. It is shown that the present algorithm is able to identify various crack configurations in a cracked beam. The proposed approach is verified through a cracked beam containing various cracks with different depths.

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Safari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature is investigated experimentally and numerically. For laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature, a new and comprehensive method is proposed in this paper. This method contains simple linear irradiating lines and using an analytical method, required process parameters for laser forming of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is proposed. In this method, laser output power, laser scanning speed and laser beam diameter are selected based on laser machine and process limitations. As in the laser forming of a cylindrical surface, parallel irradiating lines are needed; therefore key parameter for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is the number of irradiating lines. Hence, in the proposed analytical method, the required number of irradiating lines for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is suggested. Performance of the proposed method for production of cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is verified with experimental tests. The results show that using proposed analytical method, cylindrical surfaces with any radius of curvature can be produced successfully.

  2. Generalized Remote Preparation of Arbitrary m-qubit Entangled States via Genuine Entanglements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a feasible, general protocol for quantum communication within a network via generalized remote preparation of an arbitrary m-qubit entangled state designed with genuine tripartite Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger-type entangled resources. During the implementations, we construct novel collective unitary operations; these operations are tasked with performing the necessary phase transfers during remote state preparations. We have distilled our implementation methods into a five-step procedure, which can be used to faithfully recover the desired state during transfer. Compared to previous existing schemes, our methodology features a greatly increased success probability. After the consumption of auxiliary qubits and the performance of collective unitary operations, the probability of successful state transfer is increased four-fold and eight-fold for arbitrary two- and three-qubit entanglements when compared to other methods within the literature, respectively. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the presented scheme for state preparation, including: success probabilities, reducibility and generalizability.

  3. Norm overlap between many-body states: Uncorrelated overlap between arbitrary Bogoliubov product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, B.; Duguet, T.

    2018-02-01

    Background: State-of-the-art multi-reference energy density functional calculations require the computation of norm overlaps between different Bogoliubov quasiparticle many-body states. It is only recently that the efficient and unambiguous calculation of such norm kernels has become available under the form of Pfaffians [L. M. Robledo, Phys. Rev. C 79, 021302 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevC.79.021302]. Recently developed particle-number-restored Bogoliubov coupled-cluster (PNR-BCC) and particle-number-restored Bogoliubov many-body perturbation (PNR-BMBPT) ab initio theories [T. Duguet and A. Signoracci, J. Phys. G 44, 015103 (2017), 10.1088/0954-3899/44/1/015103] make use of generalized norm kernels incorporating explicit many-body correlations. In PNR-BCC and PNR-BMBPT, the Bogoliubov states involved in the norm kernels differ specifically via a global gauge rotation. Purpose: The goal of this work is threefold. We wish (i) to propose and implement an alternative to the Pfaffian method to compute unambiguously the norm overlap between arbitrary Bogoliubov quasiparticle states, (ii) to extend the first point to explicitly correlated norm kernels, and (iii) to scrutinize the analytical content of the correlated norm kernels employed in PNR-BMBPT. Point (i) constitutes the purpose of the present paper while points (ii) and (iii) are addressed in a forthcoming paper. Methods: We generalize the method used in another work [T. Duguet and A. Signoracci, J. Phys. G 44, 015103 (2017), 10.1088/0954-3899/44/1/015103] in such a way that it is applicable to kernels involving arbitrary pairs of Bogoliubov states. The formalism is presently explicated in detail in the case of the uncorrelated overlap between arbitrary Bogoliubov states. The power of the method is numerically illustrated and benchmarked against known results on the basis of toy models of increasing complexity. Results: The norm overlap between arbitrary Bogoliubov product states is obtained under a closed

  4. Effect of Initial Stress on the Dynamic Response of a Multi-Layered Plate-Strip Subjected to an Arbitrary Inclined Time-Harmonic Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daşdemir, A.

    2017-08-01

    The forced vibration of a multi-layered plate-strip with initial stress under the action of an arbitrary inclined time-harmonic force resting on a rigid foundation is considered. Within the framework of the piecewise homogeneous body model with the use of the three-dimensional linearized theory of elastic waves in initially stressed bodies (TLTEWISB), a mathematical modelling is presented in plane strain state. It is assumed that there exists the complete contact interaction at the interface between the layers and the materials of the layer are linearly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic. The governing system of the partial differential equations of motion for the considered problem is solved approximately by employing the Finite Element Method (FEM). Further, the influence of the initial stress parameter on the dynamic response of the plate-strip is presented.

  5. Guaranteeing global synchronization in networks with stochastic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinglmayr, Johannes; Kirst, Christoph; Bettstetter, Christian; Timme, Marc

    2012-07-01

    We design the interactions between oscillators communicating via variably delayed pulse coupling to guarantee their synchronization on arbitrary network topologies. We identify a class of response functions and prove convergence to network-wide synchrony from arbitrary initial conditions. Synchrony is achieved if the pulse emission is unreliable or intentionally probabilistic. These results support the design of scalable, reliable and energy-efficient communication protocols for fully distributed synchronization as needed, e.g., in mobile phone networks, embedded systems, sensor networks and autonomously interacting swarm robots.

  6. Multivariate sparse group lasso for the multivariate multiple linear regression with an arbitrary group structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanming; Nan, Bin; Zhu, Ji

    2015-06-01

    We propose a multivariate sparse group lasso variable selection and estimation method for data with high-dimensional predictors as well as high-dimensional response variables. The method is carried out through a penalized multivariate multiple linear regression model with an arbitrary group structure for the regression coefficient matrix. It suits many biology studies well in detecting associations between multiple traits and multiple predictors, with each trait and each predictor embedded in some biological functional groups such as genes, pathways or brain regions. The method is able to effectively remove unimportant groups as well as unimportant individual coefficients within important groups, particularly for large p small n problems, and is flexible in handling various complex group structures such as overlapping or nested or multilevel hierarchical structures. The method is evaluated through extensive simulations with comparisons to the conventional lasso and group lasso methods, and is applied to an eQTL association study. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Transverse resistive wall impedances and shielding effectiveness for beam pipes of arbitrary wall thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Al-Khateeb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using field matching techniques, closed form analytic expressions for the transverse impedance and for the shielding effectiveness of a smooth cylindrical beam pipe of arbitrary thickness are presented. In the limit of thick and thin beam pipes the well-known expressions are reproduced. The transverse transmission coefficient is compared with the longitudinal one that has been obtained in our previous work [A. M. Al-Khateeb, O. Boine-Frankenheim, R. W. Hasse, and I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 71, 026501 (2005.PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.71.026501]. The results are applied to the heavy ion synchrotron SIS 18 and to the planned SIS 100 at GSI. In both machines the stainless steel beam pipe in the dipole sections is much thinner than the skin depths at the revolution frequency and, therefore, the impedance value and the transmission are of concern.

  8. Generating functional analysis of batch minority games with arbitrary strategy numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, N; Coolen, A C C

    2006-01-01

    Both the phenomenology and the theory of minority games (MG) with more than two strategies per agent are different from those of the conventional and extensively studied case S = 2. MGs with S > 2 exhibit nontrivial statistics of the frequencies with which the agents select from their available decision making strategies, with far-reaching implications. In the few theoretical MG studies with S > 2 published so far, these statistics could not be calculated analytically. This prevented solution even in ergodic stationary states; equations for order parameters could only be closed approximately, using simulation data. Here we carry out a generating functional analysis of fake history batch MGs with arbitrary values of S, and give an analytical solution of the strategy frequency problem. This leads to closed equations for order parameters in the ergodic regime, exact expressions for strategy selection statistics, and phase diagrams. Our results find perfect confirmation in numerical simulations

  9. Data structure techniques for the graphical special unitary group approach to arbitrary spin representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, R.D.; Schlesinger, M.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of computing matrix elements of quantum mechanical operators in complex N-particle systems it is necessary that as much of each irreducible representation be stored in high-speed memory as possible in order to achieve the highest possible rate of computations. A graph theoretic approach to the representation of N-particle systems involving arbitrary single-particle spin is presented. The method involves a generalization of a technique employed by Shavitt in developing the graphical group approach (GUGA) to electronic spin-orbitals. The methods implemented in GENDRT and DRTDIM overcome many deficiencies inherent in other approaches, particularly with respect to utilization of memory resources, computational efficiency in the recognition and evaluation of non-zero matrix elements of certain group theoretic operators and complete labelling of all the basis states of the permutation symmetry (S N ) adapted irreducible representations of SU(n) groups. (orig.)

  10. Higher harmonic generation in nonlinear waveguides of arbitrary cross-section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankit; Bartoli, Ivan; Salamone, Salvatore; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    This article concerns the generation and properties of double harmonics in nonlinear isotropic waveguides of complex cross-section. Analytical solutions of nonlinear Rayleigh-Lamb waves and rod waves have been known for some time. These solutions explain the phenomenon of cumulative double harmonic generation of guided waves. These solutions, however, are only applicable to simple geometries. This paper combines the general approach of the analytical solutions with semi-analytical finite element models to generalize the method to more complex geometries, specifically waveguides with arbitrary cross-sections. Supporting comparisons with analytical solutions are presented for simple cases. This is followed by the study of the case of a rail track. One reason for studying nonlinear guided waves in rails is the potential measurement of thermal stresses in welded rail.

  11. Determination of neutron flux with an arbitrary energy distribution by measurement of irradiated foils activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Milosevic, M.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure for the neutron flux determination in a neutron field with an arbitrary energy spectrum, based on the using of standard methods for the measurement of irradiated foils activity and on the application of the SCALE-4.4a code system for averaged cross section calculation is described in this paper. Proposed procedure allows to include the energy spectrum of neutron flux reestablished in the location of irradiated foils and the resonance self-shielding effects in the foils also. Example application of this procedure is given for the neutron flux determination inside the neutron filter with boron placed in the centre of heavy water critical assembly RB at the Vinca Institute (author)

  12. Numerical Evaluation of Arbitrary Singular Domain Integrals Using Third-Degree B-Spline Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xiu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is presented for the numerical evaluation of arbitrary singular domain integrals. In this method, singular domain integrals are transformed into a boundary integral and a radial integral which contains singularities by using the radial integration method. The analytical elimination of singularities condensed in the radial integral formulas can be accomplished by expressing the nonsingular part of the integration kernels as a series of cubic B-spline basis functions of the distance r and using the intrinsic features of the radial integral. In the proposed method, singularities involved in the domain integrals are explicitly transformed to the boundary integrals, so no singularities exist at internal points. A few numerical examples are provided to verify the correctness and robustness of the presented method.

  13. Semiparametric efficient and robust estimation of an unknown symmetric population under arbitrary sample selection bias

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2013-09-01

    We propose semiparametric methods to estimate the center and shape of a symmetric population when a representative sample of the population is unavailable due to selection bias. We allow an arbitrary sample selection mechanism determined by the data collection procedure, and we do not impose any parametric form on the population distribution. Under this general framework, we construct a family of consistent estimators of the center that is robust to population model misspecification, and we identify the efficient member that reaches the minimum possible estimation variance. The asymptotic properties and finite sample performance of the estimation and inference procedures are illustrated through theoretical analysis and simulations. A data example is also provided to illustrate the usefulness of the methods in practice. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  14. Wave-front reconstruction without twin-image blurring by two arbitrary step digital holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gu L; Lin, Ching Yang; Yau, Hon Fai; Kuo, Ming Kuei; Chang, Chi Ching

    2007-09-03

    We discuss a novel approach for numerical wave-front reconstruction which utilizes arbitrary phase step digital holography. Our experimental results demonstrate that only two digital holograms and a simple estimation procedure are required for twin-image suppression, and for numerical reconstruction. One advantage of this approach is its simplicity. Only one estimate equation needs be applied. In addition the optical system can be constructed from inexpensive, generally available elements. Another advantage is the effectiveness of the method. The tolerance of the estimated value is less than 1% different than the actual value. This means that the quality of the reconstructed image is superior. This novel approach should make the application of digital holography easier and more widely available.

  15. Design of optical finite impulse response filter generating arbitrary spectrum output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Kallol; Chakraborty, Ajoy Kumar

    2015-06-01

    In the present communication, a procedure for the synthesis of an optical finite impulse response (FIR) birefringent filter generating arbitrary spectral output is presented. The basic filter consists of a cascaded system of n identical retarders between two polarizers at the two ends. A mathematical model of the optical FIR filter is introduced using the FIR theory of digital filter design. The parameters determined by the synthesis procedure are the angles of the optic axes of the individual crystals and the angle of the output polarizer. Classical FIR filter design method along with the optical backward transfer technique has been used. Two different arbitrarily specified spectral output profiles have been studied. However, the method is equally applicable for any periodic transfer function whose corresponding impulse response is real and causal.

  16. Encoding arbitrary grey-level optical landscapes for trapping and manipulation using GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Rodrigo, Peter John; Palima, Darwin

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of phase-only spatial light modulators (SLM), generalized phase contrast (GPC) has been applied with great success to the projection of binary light patterns through arbitrary-NA microscope objectives for real-time three-dimensional manipulation of microscopic particles. Here, we...... review the analysis of the GPC method with emphasis on efficiently producing speckle-free two-dimensional grey-level light Patterns. Numerical simulations are applied to construct 8-bit grey-level optical potential landscapes with high fidelity and optical throughput via the GPC method. Three types...... of patterns were constructed: geometric block patterns, multi-level optical trap arrays, and optical obstacle arrays. Non-periodic patterns were accurately projected with an average of 80% diffraction efficiency. Periodic patterns yielded even higher diffraction efficiencies, averaging 94%, by the utilization...

  17. Selection criterion of stable dendritic growth at arbitrary Péclet numbers with convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Dmitri V; Galenko, Peter K

    2013-06-01

    A free dendrite growth under forced fluid flow is analyzed for solidification of a nonisothermal binary system. Using an approach to dendrite growth developed by Bouissou and Pelcé [Phys. Rev. A 40, 6673 (1989)], the analysis is presented for the parabolic dendrite interface with small anisotropy of surface energy growing at arbitrary Péclet numbers. The stable growth mode is obtained from the solvability condition giving the stability criterion for the dendrite tip velocity V and dendrite tip radius ρ as a function of the growth Péclet number, flow Péclet number, and Reynolds number. In limiting cases, the obtained stability criterion presents known criteria for small and high growth Péclet numbers of the solidifying system with and without convective fluid flow.

  18. A parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm for the controllability of arbitrary networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm-parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm-which can rapidly determine the minimum control nodes of arbitrary networks with both control nodes and state nodes. The corresponding network can be fully controlled with the obtained control scheme. We transformed the network controllability issue into a combinational optimization problem based on the Popov-Belevitch-Hautus rank condition. A set of canonical networks and a list of real-world networks were experimented. Comparison results demonstrated that the algorithm was more ideal to optimize the controllability of networks, especially those larger-size networks. We demonstrated subsequently that there were links between the optimal control nodes and some network statistical characteristics. The proposed algorithm provides an effective approach to improve the controllability optimization of large networks or even extra-large networks with hundreds of thousands nodes.

  19. Film transfer enabled by nanosheet seed layers on arbitrary sacrificial substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dral

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An approach for film transfer is demonstrated that makes use of seed layers of nanosheets on arbitrary sacrificial substrates. Epitaxial SrTiO3, SrRuO3, and BiFeO3 films were grown on Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheet seed layers on phlogopite mica substrates. Cleavage of the mica substrates enabled film transfer to flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy confirmed that crystal orientation and film morphology remained intact during transfer. The generic nature of this approach is illustrated by growing films on zinc oxide substrates with a nanosheet seed layer. Film transfer to a flexible substrate was accomplished via acid etching.

  20. Laser pulse transient method for measuring the normal spectral emissivity of samples with arbitrary surface quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeromen, A.; Grabec, I.; Govekar, E.

    2008-09-01

    A laser pulse transient method for measuring normal spectral emissivity is described. In this method, a laser pulse ( λ=1064 nm) irradiates the top surface of a flat specimen. A two-dimensional temperature response of the bottom surface is measured with a calibrated thermographic camera. By solving an axisymmetric boundary value heat conduction problem, the normal spectral emissivity at 1064 nm is determined by using an iterative nonlinear least-squares estimation procedure. The method can be applied to arbitrary sample surface quality. The method is tested on a nickel specimen and used to determine the normal spectral emissivity of AISI 304 stainless steel. The expanded combined uncertainty of the method has been estimated to be 18%.

  1. Method of analysis for compressible flow through mixed-flow centrifugal impellers of arbitrary design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Joseph T; Ginsburg, Ambrose; Osborn, Walter M

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.

  2. Dispersion characteristics of anisotropic unmagnetized ultra-relativistic transverse plasma wave with arbitrary electron degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, M.; Farooq, H.; Abbas, G.; Noureen, S.; Iqbal, Z.; Rasheed, A.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal momentum space anisotropy is ubiquitous in many astrophysical and laboratory plasma environments. Using Vlasov-Maxwell's model equations, a generalized polarization tensor for a collisionless ultra-relativistic unmagnetized electron plasma is derived. In particular, the tensor is obtained by considering anisotropy in the momentum space. The integral of moments of Fermi-Dirac distribution function in terms of Polylog functions is used for describing the border line plasma systems (T/e TF e ≈1 ) comprising arbitrary electron degeneracy, where Te and TF e, are thermal and Fermi temperatures, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of variation in thermal momentum space anisotropy on the electron equilibrium number density and the spectrum of electromagnetic waves are analyzed.

  3. Information guided channel hopping with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-10-01

    In order to realize the information guided channel hopping, also known as spatial modulation, with more design flexibility, in this paper we propose a novel scheme that allows operation with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas. Once the number of transmit antennas is not a power of two, the antennas\\' symbols are mapped by different numbers of bits. Subsequently, constellations with different orders are exploited for the modulation of radiated symbols so as to guarantee that the total number of bits transmitted at each time slot remains the same. Furthermore, we introduce a decoding algorithm with low complexity for this design. Numerical results on bit error rate performance are provided and substantiate that the proposed scheme turns out to be a promising alternative to the design of information guided channel hopping. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform shaping based on cascaded optical modulators of single FBG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyuan; Li, Peili

    2015-08-10

    A dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation (O-AWG) with amplitude and phase independently controlled in optical modulators of single fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) has been proposed. This novel scheme consists of several optical modulators. In the optical modulator (O-MOD), a uniform FBG is used to filter spectral component of the input signal. The amplitude is controlled by fiber stretcher (FS) in Mach-Zehnder interference (MZI) structure through interference of two MZI arms. The phase is manipulated via the second FS in the optical modulator. This scheme is investigated by simulation. Consequently, optical pulse trains with different waveforms as well as pulse trains with nonuniform pulse intensity, pulse spacing and pulse width within each period are obtained through FSs adjustment to alter the phase shifts of signal in each O-MOD.

  5. A hybrid technique for spacecraft attitude interpolation with arbitrary attitude data gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm for obtaining sufficiently accurate estimates of a system parameter Y, given a data record of the parameter in which at arbitrary times no direct observations of Y exist, and describing the variance of these estimates, is proposed. The method provides estimates at all requested times, and the variance of the estimates is maintained as close to the variance of directly measured data as the quality of input information will allow. Three classes of information are used: (1) the measured data record of Y and the statistical extension of this record into time intervals of no direct measurement, obtained by a modification of standard autocorrelation techniques; (2) an a priori indicator of the behavior of Y; and (3) one or more indirect indicators of Y based on observation of other system parameters. The application of the algorithm to the SEASAT-A attitude determination under conditions of sensor field-of-view limitations and sun occultations is presented.

  6. Reliability-based sensitivity of mechanical components with arbitrary distribution parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi Min; Yang, Zhou; Wen, Bang Chun; He, Xiang Dong; Liu, Qiaoling

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability-based sensitivity method for mechanical components with arbitrary distribution parameters. Techniques from the perturbation method, the Edgeworth series, the reliability-based design theory, and the sensitivity analysis approach were employed directly to calculate the reliability-based sensitivity of mechanical components on the condition that the first four moments of the original random variables are known. The reliability-based sensitivity information of the mechanical components can be accurately and quickly obtained using a practical computer program. The effects of the design parameters on the reliability of mechanical components were studied. The method presented in this paper provides the theoretic basis for the reliability-based design of mechanical components

  7. Reconfigurable ultra-wideband transmitter for generation of arbitrary impulse shapes and modulation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, A. T.; Eisner, C. J.; Blech, M. D.; Eibert, T. F.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper a reconfigurable ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse radio (IR) transmitter is presented. The IR signal is synthesized at an intermediate frequency (IF) by employing a multi-Nyquist digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with 12 bit resolution and an update rate of 2.3 GHz. Digital generation of signals in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) guarantees very high flexibility of the reconfigurable design. For upconversion to the radio frequency (RF) band, a first order bandpass (BP) sampling concept and an alternative conventional concept with mixer stages, have been realized. The system enables to generate signals with arbitrary modulation schemes and techniques at an external host personal computer (PC) employing MATLAB. Different measurements using a digitizing oscilloscope have been conducted to demonstrate the performance of the transmitter.

  8. Tagged particle in single-file diffusion with arbitrary initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cividini, J.; Kundu, A.

    2017-08-01

    We compute the full probability distribution of the positions of a tagged particle exactly for the given arbitrary initial positions of the particles, and for general single-particle propagators. We consider the thermodynamic limit of our exact expressions in quenched and annealed settings. For a particular class of single-particle propagators, the exact formula is expressed in a simple integral form in the quenched case whereas in the annealed case, it is expressed as a simple combination of Bessel functions. In particular, we focus on the step and the power-law initial configurations. In the former case, a drift is induced even when the one-particle propagators are symmetric. On the other hand, in the later case the scaling of the cumulants of the position of the tracer differs from the uniform case. We provide numerical verifications of our results.

  9. Symbol Error Probability of DF Relay Selection over Arbitrary Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Alexandropoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analytical expression for the moment generating function (MGF of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio of dual-hop decode-and-forward (DF relaying systems with relay selection when operating over Nakagami-m fading channels. The derived MGF expression, which is valid for arbitrary values of the fading parameters of both hops, is subsequently utilized to evaluate the average symbol error probability (ASEP of M-ary phase shift keying modulation for the considered DF relaying scheme under various asymmetric fading conditions. It is shown that the MGF-based ASEP performance evaluation results are in excellent agreement with equivalent ones obtained by means of computer simulations, thus validating the correctness of the presented MGF expression.

  10. Calculation of electromagnetic fields and forces in coil systems of arbitrary geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program, EFFI, is described which calculates the electric and magnetic fields due to an arbitrary spatial distribution of current-carrying circular loops, circular arcs, and straight lines. The electric field is assumed to arise solely from the time variation of the magnetic field, and the magnetic field due to the changing electric field is assumed to be negligible. In addition, the conductor bundle elements (loops, arcs, lines) are assumed to be absent. Electric and magnetic flux lines and magnetic forces and inductances are also calculated by the program. The algorithm used in the code, which is based on a combination of direct and numerical integration using the Biot-Savart law, is discussed. The methods used to maintain accuracy in calculating fields within the conductor bundle, in particular, are detailed. Several examples are then presented to illustrate the input and output features as well as the accuracy obtained and the running time required

  11. Global Dynamics of Infectious Disease with Arbitrary Distributed Infectious Period on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current epidemic models assume that the infectious period follows an exponential distribution. However, due to individual heterogeneity and epidemic diversity, these models fail to describe the distribution of infectious periods precisely. We establish a SIS epidemic model with multistaged progression of infectious periods on complex networks, which can be used to characterize arbitrary distributions of infectious periods of the individuals. By using mathematical analysis, the basic reproduction number R0 for the model is derived. We verify that the R0 depends on the average distributions of infection periods for different types of infective individuals, which extend the general theory obtained from the single infectious period epidemic models. It is proved that if R0<1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; otherwise the unique endemic equilibrium exists such that it is globally asymptotically attractive. Finally numerical simulations hold for the validity of our theoretical results is given.

  12. Stabilizing effect of passive conductors with arbitrary shape for positional instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shogo; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Yoshida, Hidetoshi

    1983-10-01

    For positional instabilities in the tokamak, the stabilizing index nsub(s) is an adequate parameter to characterize the stabilizing effect produced by several kinds of passive conductors around a plasma column such as vacuum vessel and poloidal field coils. Since a system of passive conductors with arbitrary shape can be involved into multiple L-R circuits, this parameter nsub(s) of those passive conductors is expressed in a simple form by using a method of the eigen mode expansion of multiple L-R circuits. This parameter nsub(s) is very useful to estimate not only a growth rate of positional instability and its feedback stabilization but also an inward shift of plasma column due to a minor disruption. (author)

  13. Level Set Projection Method for Incompressible Navier-Stokes on Arbitrary Boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Williams-Rioux, Bertrand

    2012-01-12

    Second order level set projection method for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is proposed to solve flow around arbitrary geometries. We used rectilinear grid with collocated cell centered velocity and pressure. An explicit Godunov procedure is used to address the nonlinear advection terms, and an implicit Crank-Nicholson method to update viscous effects. An approximate pressure projection is implemented at the end of the time stepping using multigrid as a conventional fast iterative method. The level set method developed by Osher and Sethian [17] is implemented to address real momentum and pressure boundary conditions by the advection of a distance function, as proposed by Aslam [3]. Numerical results for the Strouhal number and drag coefficients validated the model with good accuracy for flow over a cylinder in the parallel shedding regime (47 < Re < 180). Simulations for an array of cylinders and an oscillating cylinder were performed, with the latter demonstrating our methods ability to handle dynamic boundary conditions.

  14. Linear systems formulation of scattering theory for rough surfaces with arbitrary incident and scattering angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywonos, Andrey; Harvey, James E; Choi, Narak

    2011-06-01

    Scattering effects from microtopographic surface roughness are merely nonparaxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected or transmitted wavefront. Rayleigh-Rice, Beckmann-Kirchhoff. or Harvey-Shack surface scatter theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. Smooth-surface and/or paraxial approximations have severely limited the range of applicability of each of the above theoretical treatments. A recent linear systems formulation of nonparaxial scalar diffraction theory applied to surface scatter phenomena resulted first in an empirically modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff surface scatter model, then a generalized Harvey-Shack theory that produces accurate results for rougher surfaces than the Rayleigh-Rice theory and for larger incident and scattered angles than the classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff and the original Harvey-Shack theories. These new developments simplify the analysis and understanding of nonintuitive scattering behavior from rough surfaces illuminated at arbitrary incident angles.

  15. Fast MR image reconstruction for partially parallel imaging with arbitrary k-space trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Chen, Yunmei; Lin, Wei; Huang, Feng

    2011-03-01

    Both acquisition and reconstruction speed are crucial for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in clinical applications. In this paper, we present a fast reconstruction algorithm for SENSE in partially parallel MR imaging with arbitrary k-space trajectories. The proposed method is a combination of variable splitting, the classical penalty technique and the optimal gradient method. Variable splitting and the penalty technique reformulate the SENSE model with sparsity regularization as an unconstrained minimization problem, which can be solved by alternating two simple minimizations: One is the total variation and wavelet based denoising that can be quickly solved by several recent numerical methods, whereas the other one involves a linear inversion which is solved by the optimal first order gradient method in our algorithm to significantly improve the performance. Comparisons with several recent parallel imaging algorithms indicate that the proposed method significantly improves the computation efficiency and achieves state-of-the-art reconstruction quality.

  16. A Walking Method for Non-Decomposition Intersection and Union of Arbitrary Polygons and Polyhedrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yao, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-28

    We present a method for computing the intersection and union of non- convex polyhedrons without decomposition in O(n log n) time, where n is the total number of faces of both polyhedrons. We include an accompanying Python package which addresses many of the practical issues associated with implementation and serves as a proof of concept. The key to the method is that by considering the edges of the original ob- jects and the intersections between faces as walking routes, we can e ciently nd the boundary of the intersection of arbitrary objects using directional walks, thus handling the concave case in a natural manner. The method also easily extends to plane slicing and non-convex polyhedron unions, and both the polyhedron and its constituent faces may be non-convex.

  17. On the (1 + 3) threading of spacetime with respect to an arbitrary timelike vector field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejancu, Aurel [Kuwait University, Department of Mathematics, P.O.Box 5969, Safat (Kuwait); Calin, Constantin [Technical University ' ' Gh.Asachi' ' , Department of Mathematics, Iasi (Romania)

    2015-04-15

    We develop a newapproach on the (1 + 3) threading of spacetime (M, g) with respect to a congruence of curves defined by an arbitrary timelike vector field. The study is based on spatial tensor fields and on theRiemannian spatial connection ∇*, which behave as 3D geometric objects. We obtain new formulas for local components of the Ricci tensor field of (M, g) with respect to the threading frame field, in terms of the Ricci tensor field of ∇* and of kinematic quantities. Also, new expressions for time covariant derivatives of kinematic quantities are stated. In particular, a new form of Raychaudhuri's equation enables us to prove Lemma 6.3, which completes a well-known lemma used in the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems. Finally, we apply the new (1 + 3) formalism to the study of the dynamics of a Kerr-Newman black hole. (orig.)

  18. QSWalk: A Mathematica package for quantum stochastic walks on arbitrary graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falloon, Peter E.; Rodriguez, Jeremy; Wang, Jingbo B.

    2017-08-01

    We present a Mathematica package, QSWalk, to simulate the time evaluation of Quantum Stochastic Walks (QSWs) on arbitrary directed and weighted graphs. QSWs are a generalization of continuous time quantum walks that incorporate both coherent and incoherent dynamics and as such, include both quantum walks and classical random walks as special cases. The incoherent component allows for quantum walks along directed graph edges. The dynamics of QSWs are expressed using the Lindblad formalism, originally developed for open quantum systems, which frames the problem in the language of density matrices. For a QSW on a graph of N vertices, we have a sparse superoperator in an N2-dimensional space, which can be solved efficiently using the built-in MatrixExp function in Mathematica. We illustrate the use of the QSWalk package through several example case studies.

  19. A piecewise linear finite element discretization of the diffusion equation for arbitrary polyhedral grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Teresa S.; Adams, Marvin L.; Yang, Brian; Zika, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a piecewise linear (PWL) Galerkin finite element spatial discretization for the multi-dimensional radiation diffusion equation. It uses recently introduced piecewise linear weight and basis functions in the finite element approximation and it can be applied on arbitrary polygonal (2D) or polyhedral (3D) grids. We first demonstrate some analytical properties of the PWL method and perform a simple mode analysis to compare the PWL method with Palmer's vertex-centered finite-volume method and with a bilinear continuous finite element method. We then show that this new PWL method gives solutions comparable to those from Palmer's. However, since the PWL method produces a symmetric positive-definite coefficient matrix, it should be substantially more computationally efficient than Palmer's method, which produces an asymmetric matrix. We conclude that the Galerkin PWL method is an attractive option for solving diffusion equations on unstructured grids

  20. Efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2010-04-01

    We present an efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel. The basic idea in the present scheme is that two parties in quantum communication first transmit the entangled states in the frequency degree of freedom which suffers little from the noise in an optical fiber. After the two parties share the photon pairs, they add some operations and equipments to transfer the frequency entanglement of pairs into the polarization entanglement with the success probability of 100%. Finally, they can get maximally entangled polarization states with polarization independent wavelength division multiplexers and quantum frequency up-conversion which can erase distinguishability for frequency. Compared with conventional entanglement purification protocols, the present scheme works in a deterministic way in principle. Surprisingly, the collective noise leads to an additional advantage.

  1. Robust fitting of Zernike polynomials to noisy point clouds defined over connected domains of arbitrary shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Diego Rodríguez; Gómez-Pedrero, José A; Alonso, Jose; Quiroga, Juan A

    2016-03-21

    A new method for fitting a series of Zernike polynomials to point clouds defined over connected domains of arbitrary shape defined within the unit circle is presented in this work. The method is based on the application of machine learning fitting techniques by constructing an extended training set in order to ensure the smooth variation of local curvature over the whole domain. Therefore this technique is best suited for fitting points corresponding to ophthalmic lenses surfaces, particularly progressive power ones, in non-regular domains. We have tested our method by fitting numerical and real surfaces reaching an accuracy of 1 micron in elevation and 0.1 D in local curvature in agreement with the customary tolerances in the ophthalmic manufacturing industry.

  2. Analysis of arbitrary defects in photonic crystals by use of the source-model technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Alon; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2004-07-01

    A novel method derived from the source-model technique is presented to solve the problem of scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab that contains an arbitrary defect (perturbation). In this method, the electromagnetic fields in the perturbed problem are expressed in terms of the field due to the periodic currents obtained from a solution of the corresponding unperturbed problem plus the field due to yet-to-be-determined correction current sources placed in the vicinity of the perturbation. Appropriate error measures are suggested, and a few representative structures are presented and analyzed to demonstrate the versatility of the proposed method and to provide physical insight into waveguiding and defect coupling mechanisms typical of finite-thickness photonic crystal slabs.

  3. Carlson iterating rational approximation and performance analysis of fractional operator with arbitrary order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiu-Yan; Yuan Xiao; Yu Bo

    2017-01-01

    The performance analysis of the generalized Carlson iterating process, which can realize the rational approximation of fractional operator with arbitrary order, is presented in this paper. The reasons why the generalized Carlson iterating function possesses more excellent properties such as self-similarity and exponential symmetry are also explained. K-index, P-index, O-index, and complexity index are introduced to contribute to performance analysis. Considering nine different operational orders and choosing an appropriate rational initial impedance for a certain operational order, these rational approximation impedance functions calculated by the iterating function meet computational rationality, positive reality, and operational validity. Then they are capable of having the operational performance of fractional operators and being physical realization. The approximation performance of the impedance function to the ideal fractional operator and the circuit network complexity are also exhibited. (paper)

  4. Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs with arbitrary joint spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-01-01

    We present a scheme for generating polarization-entangled photons pairs with arbitrary joint spectrum. Specifically, we describe a technique for spontaneous parametric down-conversion in which both the center frequencies and the bandwidths of the down-converted photons may be controlled by appropriate manipulation of the pump pulse. The spectral control offered by this technique permits one to choose the operating wavelengths for each photon of a pair based on optimizations of other system parameters (loss in optical fiber, photon counter performance, etc.). The combination of spectral control, polarization control, and lack of group-velocity matching conditions makes this technique particularly well suited for a distributed quantum information processing architecture in which integrated optical circuits are connected by spans of optical fiber

  5. Algorithm for calculating spectral intensity due to charged particles in arbitrary motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. R. Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for calculating the spectral intensity of radiation due to the coherent addition of many particles with arbitrary trajectories is described. Direct numerical integration of the Liénard-Wiechert potentials, in the far field, for extremely high photon energies and many particles is made computationally feasible by a mixed analytic and numerical method. Exact integrals of spectral intensity are made between discretely sampled trajectories, by assuming the space-time four-vector is a quadratic function of proper time. The integral Fourier transform of the trajectory with respect to time, the modulus squared of which comprises the spectral intensity, can then be formed by piecewise summation of exact integrals between discrete points. Because of this, the calculation is not restricted by discrete sampling bandwidth theory and, hence, for smooth trajectories, time steps many orders larger than the inverse of the frequency of interest can be taken.

  6. A parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm for the controllability of arbitrary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm—parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm—which can rapidly determine the minimum control nodes of arbitrary networks with both control nodes and state nodes. The corresponding network can be fully controlled with the obtained control scheme. We transformed the network controllability issue into a combinational optimization problem based on the Popov-Belevitch-Hautus rank condition. A set of canonical networks and a list of real-world networks were experimented. Comparison results demonstrated that the algorithm was more ideal to optimize the controllability of networks, especially those larger-size networks. We demonstrated subsequently that there were links between the optimal control nodes and some network statistical characteristics. The proposed algorithm provides an effective approach to improve the controllability optimization of large networks or even extra-large networks with hundreds of thousands nodes. PMID:29554140

  7. Probabilistic Teleportation of Arbitrary Two-Qubit Quantum State via Non-Symmetric Quantum Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation has significant meaning in quantum information. In particular, entangled states can also be used for perfectly teleporting the quantum state with some probability. This is more practical and efficient in practice. In this paper, we propose schemes to use non-symmetric quantum channel combinations for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary two-qubit quantum state from sender to receiver. The non-symmetric quantum channel is composed of a two-qubit partially entangled state and a three-qubit partially entangled state, where partially entangled Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ state and W state are considered, respectively. All schemes are presented in detail and the unitary operations required are given in concise formulas. Methods are provided for reducing classical communication cost and combining operations to simplify the manipulation. Moreover, our schemes are flexible and applicable in different situations.

  8. Stability of horizontal viscous fluid layers in a vertical arbitrary time periodic electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Hardt, Steffen

    2017-12-01

    The stability of a horizontal interface between two viscous fluids, one of which is conducting and the other is dielectric, acted upon by a vertical time-periodic electric field is considered theoretically. The two fluids are bounded by electrodes separated by a finite distance. For an applied ac electric field, the unstable interface deforms in a time periodic manner, owing to the time dependent Maxwell stress, and is characterized by the oscillation frequency which may or may not be the same as the frequency of the ac electric field. The stability curve, which relates the critical voltage, manifested through the Mason number—the ratio of normal electric stress and viscous stress, and the instability wavenumber at the onset of the instability, is obtained by means of the Floquet theory for a general arbitrary time periodic electric field. The limit of vanishing viscosities is shown to be in excellent agreement with the marginal stability curves predicted by means of a Mathieu equation. The influence of finite viscosity and electrode separation is discussed in relation to the ideal case of inviscid fluids. The methodology to obtain the marginal stability curves developed here is applicable to any arbitrary but time periodic signal, as demonstrated for the case of a signal with two different frequencies, and four different frequencies with a dc offset. The mode coupling in the interfacial normal stress leads to appearance of harmonic and subharmonic modes, characterized by the frequency of the oscillating interface at an integral or half-integral multiple of the applied frequency, respectively. This is in contrast to the application of a voltage with a single frequency which always leads to a harmonic mode oscillation of the interface. Whether a harmonic or subharmonic mode is the most unstable one depends on details of the excitation signal.

  9. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Discretization of MHD on 3D Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieben, R N; White, D A; Wallin, B K; Solberg, J M

    2006-06-12

    We present an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) discretization of the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on unstructured hexahedral grids. The method is formulated using an operator-split approach with three distinct phases: electromagnetic diffusion, Lagrangian motion, and Eulerian advection. The resistive magnetic dynamo equation is discretized using a compatible mixed finite element method with a 2nd order accurate implicit time differencing scheme which preserves the divergence-free nature of the magnetic field. At each discrete time step, electromagnetic force and heat terms are calculated and coupled to the hydrodynamic equations to compute the Lagrangian motion of the conducting materials. By virtue of the compatible discretization method used, the invariants of Lagrangian MHD motion are preserved in a discrete sense. When the Lagrangian motion of the mesh causes significant distortion, that distortion is corrected with a relaxation of the mesh, followed by a 2nd order monotonic remap of the electromagnetic state variables. The remap is equivalent to Eulerian advection of the magnetic flux density with a fictitious mesh relaxation velocity. The magnetic advection is performed using a novel variant of constrained transport (CT) that is valid for unstructured hexahedral grids with arbitrary mesh velocities. The advection method maintains the divergence free nature of the magnetic field and is second order accurate in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. For regions in which the magnetic field is discontinuous (e.g. MHD shocks) the method is limited using a novel variant of algebraic flux correction (AFC) which is local extremum diminishing (LED) and divergence preserving. Finally, we verify each stage of the discretization via a set of numerical experiments.

  10. DAC-board based X-band EPR spectrometer with arbitrary waveform control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Thomas; Keller, Timothy J.; Franck, John M.; Barnes, Ryan P.; Glaser, Steffen J.; Martinis, John M.; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    We present arbitrary control over a homogenous spin system, demonstrated on a simple, home-built, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 8–10 GHz (X-band) and controlled by a 1 GHz arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) with 42 dB (i.e. 14-bit) of dynamic range. Such a spectrometer can be relatively easily built from a single DAC (digital to analog converter) board with a modest number of stock components and offers powerful capabilities for automated digital calibration and correction routines that allow it to generate shaped X-band pulses with precise amplitude and phase control. It can precisely tailor the excitation profiles “seen” by the spins in the microwave resonator, based on feedback calibration with experimental input. We demonstrate the capability to generate a variety of pulse shapes, including rectangular, triangular, Gaussian, sinc, and adiabatic rapid passage waveforms. We then show how one can precisely compensate for the distortion and broadening caused by transmission into the microwave cavity in order to optimize corrected waveforms that are distinctly different from the initial, uncorrected waveforms. Specifically, we exploit a narrow EPR signal whose width is finer than the features of any distortions in order to map out the response to a short pulse, which, in turn, yields the precise transfer function of the spectrometer system. This transfer function is found to be consistent for all pulse shapes in the linear response regime. In addition to allowing precise waveform shaping capabilities, the spectrometer presented here offers complete digital control and calibration of the spectrometer that allows one to phase cycle the pulse phase with 0.007° resolution and to specify the inter-pulse delays and pulse durations to ≤250 ps resolution. The implications and potential applications of these capabilities will be discussed. PMID:23999530

  11. Fractal assembly of micrometre-scale DNA origami arrays with arbitrary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2017-12-01

    Self-assembled DNA nanostructures enable nanometre-precise patterning that can be used to create programmable molecular machines and arrays of functional materials. DNA origami is particularly versatile in this context because each DNA strand in the origami nanostructure occupies a unique position and can serve as a uniquely addressable pixel. However, the scale of such structures has been limited to about 0.05 square micrometres, hindering applications that demand a larger layout and integration with more conventional patterning methods. Hierarchical multistage assembly of simple sets of tiles can in principle overcome this limitation, but so far has not been sufficiently robust to enable successful implementation of larger structures using DNA origami tiles. Here we show that by using simple local assembly rules that are modified and applied recursively throughout a hierarchical, multistage assembly process, a small and constant set of unique DNA strands can be used to create DNA origami arrays of increasing size and with arbitrary patterns. We illustrate this method, which we term ‘fractal assembly’, by producing DNA origami arrays with sizes of up to 0.5 square micrometres and with up to 8,704 pixels, allowing us to render images such as the Mona Lisa and a rooster. We find that self-assembly of the tiles into arrays is unaffected by changes in surface patterns on the tiles, and that the yield of the fractal assembly process corresponds to about 0.95m - 1 for arrays containing m tiles. When used in conjunction with a software tool that we developed that converts an arbitrary pattern into DNA sequences and experimental protocols, our assembly method is readily accessible and will facilitate the construction of sophisticated materials and devices with sizes similar to that of a bacterium using DNA nanostructures.

  12. Design of a Compact Wireless Multi-Channel High Area-Efficient Stimulator with Arbitrary Channel Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless, implantable, multi-channel, programmable stimulator with arbitrary channel combination. A novel channel management module using a switch array is presented, enabling arbitrary channel configuration with a silicon area reduction of 81%. The chip was fabricated in a 0.18- μ m Taiwan semiconductor manufacturing company (TSMC high voltage (HV complementary metal–oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology. A stimulator system was realized using the proposed integrated circuit (IC. A wireless communication link was established between a specified Android-based graphical user interface (GUI and the proposed device for control of the stimulation pattern and wireless battery charging. The size of the entire system occupies a volume of only 14 mm × 14 mm × 4 mm (without the battery. Experimental results demonstrated a successful independent configuration between different channels, as well as an arbitrary channel combination, as expected.

  13. The orthogonal gradients method: A radial basis functions method for solving partial differential equations on arbitrary surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Piret, Cécile

    2012-05-01

    Much work has been done on reconstructing arbitrary surfaces using the radial basis function (RBF) method, but one can hardly find any work done on the use of RBFs to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we investigate methods to solve PDEs on arbitrary stationary surfaces embedded in . R3 using the RBF method. We present three RBF-based methods that easily discretize surface differential operators. We take advantage of the meshfree character of RBFs, which give us a high accuracy and the flexibility to represent the most complex geometries in any dimension. Two out of the three methods, which we call the orthogonal gradients (OGr) methods are the result of our work and are hereby presented for the first time. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Method for Estimating Maximum Torque Control Axis of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for an Arbitrary Current Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomigashi, Yoshio; Ueyama, Kenji

    A method for directly estimating the axis corresponding to the current phase in maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control is proposed for sensorless vector control. This axis is called the maximum torque control (MTC) axis. In past studies concerning such methods, the behavior of the axis has been considered only for the case of MTPA control and not for an arbitrary current vector (with flux weakening control) that has a phase different from that for MTPA control. This paper enhances the definition of the MTC axis for an arbitrary current vector, describes an extended EMF model based on the MTC axis, and presents a method that can directly estimate the axis for an arbitrary current vector with flux weakening control. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by numerical analysis results.

  15. An examination of the validity of nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulation algorithms for arbitrary steady-state flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian J; Baig, Chunggi; Keffer, David J

    2005-09-15

    Nonlinear-response theory of nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulation algorithms is considered under the imposition of an arbitrary steady-state flow field. It is demonstrated that the SLLOD and DOLLS algorithms cannot be used for general flows, although the SLLOD algorithm is rigorous for planar Couette flow. Following the same procedure used to establish SLLOD as the valid algorithm for planar Couette flow [D. J. Evans and E. P. Morriss, Phys. Rev. A 30, 1528 (1984)], it is demonstrated that the p-SLLOD algorithm is valid for arbitrary flows and produces the correct nonlinear response of the viscous pressure tensor.

  16. Magnetic flux density distribution in superconducting cylinders of arbitrary cross section subjected to an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, G.

    1982-07-01

    We show here how the application of the critical state model allows one to determine the magnetic flux density B⃗ in each point of a superconducting cylinder with an arbitrary cross section subjected to axial magnetic fields Hz; the B = 0 boundaries of the regions occupied by the vortices are so defined. We successively consider the cases where the critical current density Jc is either isotropic (constant or an arbitrary function of B) or tensorial, which means, for our problem, the use of two components Jcx and Jcy (either constant or depending on B but Jcx/Jcy remaining constant).

  17. On the computation of the demagnetization tensor for uniformly magnetized particles of arbitrary shape. Part I: Analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, S.; Beleggia, M.; Zhu, Y.; De Graef, M.

    2004-01-01

    A Fourier space formalism based on the shape amplitude of a particle is used to compute the demagnetization tensor field for uniformly magnetized particles of arbitrary shape. We provide a list of explicit shape amplitudes for important particle shapes, among others: the sphere, the cylindrical tube, an arbitrary polyhedral shape, a truncated paraboloid, and a cone truncated by a spherical cap. In Part I of this two-part paper, an analytical representation of the demagnetization tensor field for particles with cylindrical symmetry is provided, as well as expressions for the magnetostatic energy and the volumetric demagnetization factors

  18. Analytical expressions for group delay in the far field from an optical fiber having an arbitrary index profile

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Per Lander

    1981-01-01

    A general and efficient model for optical fibers with a few modes and arbitrary index profiles is established. The model yields a solution of the vectorial wave equation and analytical expressions for the group delay and the far field. Convergence tests have shown that the dispersion can be calculated with an accuracy better than 0.2 ps/(km . nm).

  19. Analytical expressions for group delay in the far field from an optical fiber having an arbitrary index profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Per Lander

    1981-01-01

    A general and efficient model for optical fibers with a few modes and arbitrary index profiles is established. The model yields a solution of the vectorial wave equation and analytical expressions for the group delay and the far field. Convergence tests have shown that the dispersion can...

  20. LEAF: a computer program to calculate fission product release from a reactor containment building for arbitrary radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.E.; Apperson, C.E. Jr.; Foley, J.E.

    1976-10-01

    The report describes an analytic containment building model that is used for calculating the leakage into the environment of each isotope of an arbitrary radioactive decay chain. The model accounts for the source, the buildup, the decay, the cleanup, and the leakage of isotopes that are gas-borne inside the containment building

  1. Blow-up results for systems of nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary positive initial energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Tang Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial boundary value problem for a system of nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations in a bounded domain is considered. We prove the existence of local solutions by using a successive approximation method. Then, we show blow-up results with arbitrary positive initial energy by a concavity method. Also estimates for the lifespan of solutions are given.

  2. Simulation of radar signals with arbitrary signal generator; Simulacion de senales de Radar con un Generador de senales Arbitrario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to provide a brief review of the basic principles of radar and some of the challenges in testing these systems. Also explain the advantages of using an advanced arbitrary signal generator (AWG) as the Tabor WX to simulate radar signals both purposes of developing and testing. (Author)

  3. LEAF: a computer program to calculate fission product release from a reactor containment building for arbitrary radioactive decay chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.E.; Apperson, C.E. Jr.; Foley, J.E.

    1976-10-01

    The report describes an analytic containment building model that is used for calculating the leakage into the environment of each isotope of an arbitrary radioactive decay chain. The model accounts for the source, the buildup, the decay, the cleanup, and the leakage of isotopes that are gas-borne inside the containment building.

  4. Domain of arbitrary extension and distortion by noise effects in relaxation spectra Τ2 in MRI obtained by stochastic inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galavis, P.; Martinez, V.; Farias, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Martin, M.; Martin, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is examined about the capacity for managing domains with arbitrary extension, the response noise and the loss of information which has a new high sensibility stochastic inversion method to the Laplace transformation which allows to obtain multi echo in Τ 2 for to characterization of tissues by NMR imaging diagnostic. (Author)

  5. Arbitrary quadratures determination of the monoenergetic neutron density in an homogeneous finite sphere with isotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez G, J., E-mail: julian.sanchez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The solution of the so-called Canonical problems of neutron transport theory has been given by Case, who developed a method akin to the classical eigenfunction expansion procedure, extended to admit singular eigenfunctions. The solution is given as a set consisting of a Fredholm integral equation coupled with a transcendental equation, which has to be solved for the expansion coefficients by iteration. CASE's method make extensive use of the results of the theory of functions of a complex variable and many successful approaches to solve in an approximate form the above mentioned set have been reported in the literature. We present here an entirely different approach which deals with the canonical problems in a more direct and elementary manner. As far as we know, the original idea for the latter method is due to Carlvik who devised the escape probability approximation to the solution of the neutron transport equation in its integral form. In essence, the procedure consists in assuming a sectionally constant form of the neutron density that in turn yields a set of linear algebraic equations obeyed by the assumed constant values of the density. Very well established techniques of numerical analysis for the solution of integral equations consist in independent approaches that generalize the sectionally constant approach by assuming a sectionally low degree polynomial for the unknown function. This procedure also known as the arbitrary quadratures method is especially suited to deal with cases where the kernel of the integral equation is singular. The author wishes to present the results obtained with the arbitrary quadratures method for the numerical calculation of the monoenergetic neutron density in a critical, homogeneous sphere of finite radius with isotropic scattering. The singular integral equation obeyed by the neutron density in the critical sphere is introduced, an outline of the method's main features is given, and tables and graphs of the density

  6. Computing Streamfunction and Velocity Potential in a Limited Domain of Arbitrary Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J.; Xu, Q.

    2012-04-01

    A new approach to solve for streamfunction and velocity potential in a limited domain of arbitrary shape is developed by minimizing the difference between the domain-integrated kinetic energy of the original horizontal velocity and that of the reconstructed one. The non-uniqueness of solution and compatibility between the coupled boundary conditions in computing velocity potential and streamfunction from horizontal velocity in a limited domain of arbitrary shape are revisited theoretically with rigorous mathematical treatments. Classic integral formulas and their variants are used to formulate solutions for the coupled problems. When there is no inner boundary (around a data hole) inside the domain, the total solution is the sum of the internally and externally induced parts. For the internally induced part, three numerical schemes (grid-staggering, local-nesting and piecewise continuous integration) are designed to deal with the singularity of the Green's function encountered in numerical calculations. For the externally induced part, by setting the velocity potential (or streamfunction) component to zero, the other component of the solution can be computed in two ways: (1) Solve for the density function from its boundary integral equation and then construct the solution from the boundary integral of the density function. (2) Use the Cauchy integral to construct the solution directly. The boundary integral can be discretized on a uniform grid along the boundary. By using local-nesting (or piecewise continuous integration), the scheme is refined to enhance the discretization accuracy of the boundary integral around each corner point (or along the entire boundary). When the domain is not free of data holes, the total solution contains a data-hole-induced part, and the Cauchy integral method is extended to construct the externally induced solution with irregular external and internal boundaries. An automated algorithm is designed to facilitate the integrations along

  7. Arbitrary quadratures determination of the monoenergetic neutron density in an homogeneous finite sphere with isotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez G, J.

    2015-09-01

    The solution of the so-called Canonical problems of neutron transport theory has been given by Case, who developed a method akin to the classical eigenfunction expansion procedure, extended to admit singular eigenfunctions. The solution is given as a set consisting of a Fredholm integral equation coupled with a transcendental equation, which has to be solved for the expansion coefficients by iteration. CASE's method make extensive use of the results of the theory of functions of a complex variable and many successful approaches to solve in an approximate form the above mentioned set have been reported in the literature. We present here an entirely different approach which deals with the canonical problems in a more direct and elementary manner. As far as we know, the original idea for the latter method is due to Carlvik who devised the escape probability approximation to the solution of the neutron transport equation in its integral form. In essence, the procedure consists in assuming a sectionally constant form of the neutron density that in turn yields a set of linear algebraic equations obeyed by the assumed constant values of the density. Very well established techniques of numerical analysis for the solution of integral equations consist in independent approaches that generalize the sectionally constant approach by assuming a sectionally low degree polynomial for the unknown function. This procedure also known as the arbitrary quadratures method is especially suited to deal with cases where the kernel of the integral equation is singular. The author wishes to present the results obtained with the arbitrary quadratures method for the numerical calculation of the monoenergetic neutron density in a critical, homogeneous sphere of finite radius with isotropic scattering. The singular integral equation obeyed by the neutron density in the critical sphere is introduced, an outline of the method's main features is given, and tables and graphs of the density

  8. Ion interactions with solids and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    The models developed for studying processing of energy losses in dense medium, in particular some recent results for atomic systems confined in solids and in partially degenerated medium are described. Applications of these models to some cases of ion interaction with thin metallic foils and with dense plasmas are described. The processes of excitation and energy losses in the case of a degenerated electron gas, and in the general case of a plasma with arbitrary degenerescency are considered. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn around...

  10. Interactive Installations for Spatial Access to Artistic Sketchbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Laursen, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    A book is a book – or is it? With present-day, aordable technology, we can scale a book to become a spatial object, or even a space in itself, of almost arbitrary size. We describe our design of and experiences with a generic interactive installation, called Viskbook, that provides a convincing i...

  11. Geometric interpretation for the interacting-boson-fermion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.

    1988-08-11

    A geometric oriented approach for studying the interacting-boson-fermion model for odd-A nuclei is presented. A deformed single-particle hamiltonian is derived by means of an algebraic Born-Oppenheimer treatment. Observables concerning spectrum and transitions are calculated for the case of a single-j fermion coupled to a prolate core charge boson number and arbitrary deformations.

  12. A geometric interpretation for the interacting-boson-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1988-01-01

    A geometric oriented approach for studying the interacting-boson-fermion model for odd-A nuclei is presented. A deformed single-particle hamiltonian is derived by means of an algebraic Born-Oppenheimer treatment. Observables concerning spectrum and transitions are calculated for the case of a single-j fermion coupled to a prolate core charge boson number and arbitrary deformations

  13. Analytical models of lateral power devices with arbitrary vertical doping profiles in the drift region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Ting-Ting; Guo Yu-Feng; Yu Ying; Jian Tong; Yao Jia-Fei; Sheu Gene

    2013-01-01

    By solving the 2D Poisson's equation, analytical models are proposed to calculate the surface potential and electric field distributions of lateral power devices with arbitrary vertical doping profiles. The vertical and the lateral breakdown voltages are formulized to quantify the breakdown characteristic in completely-depleted and partially-depleted cases. A new reduced surface field (RESURF) criterion which can be used in various drift doping profiles is further derived for obtaining the optimal trade-off between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance. Based on these models and the numerical simulation, the electric field modulation mechanism and the breakdown characteristics of lateral power devices are investigated in detail for the uniform, linear, Gaussian, and some discrete doping profiles along the vertical direction in the drift region. Then, the mentioned vertical doping profiles of these devices with the same geometric parameters are optimized, and the results show that the optimal breakdown voltages and the effective drift doping concentrations of these devices are identical, which are equal to those of the uniform-doped device, respectively. The analytical results of these proposed models are in good agreement with the numerical results and the previous experimental results, confirming the validity of the models presented here. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Determination of the quality index (Q) for photon beams at arbitrary field sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Otto A

    2009-09-01

    A commonly used beam quality index (Q) for high-energy photon beams is the tissue phantom ratio (TPR20,10) for a square field of 10 x 10 cm2 and SDD of 100 cm. On some specialized radiotherapy treatment equipment such a reference collimator setting is not achievable. Likewise a flat beam profile, not explicitly required in dosimetry protocols, but certainly influences the measurement of Q, is not always produced. In this work, a method was developed in order to determine Q at any field size, especially for small and nonflattened beams. An analytical relationship was derived between TPR20,10 for arbitrary field sizes and Q [the TPR20,10 (10 x 10 cm2)] as quality index. The proposed model equation was fitted to the measured and published data in order to achieve three general fit parameters. The procedure was then tested with published data from TomoTherapy and CyperKnife treatment devices. For standard flattened photon fields, the uncertainty in Q measured at any field size using the parameters derived from this study is better than 1%. In flattening-filter free beams, the proposed procedure results in a reliable Q for any field size setting. A method is introduced and successfully tested in order to measure the beam quality under nonstandard conditions. It can be used, e.g., to get energy dependent correction factors as tabulated in dosimetry codes of practice even if standard conditions are not adjustable.

  15. Lectures on a theory of computation and complexity over the reals (or an arbitrary ring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, L.

    1990-01-01

    These lectures will discuss a new theory of computation and complexity which attempts to integrate key ideas from the classical theory in a setting more amenable to problems defined over continuous domains. The approach taken here is both algebraic and concrete; the underlying space is an arbitrary ring (or field) and the basic operations are polynominal (or rational) maps and tests. This approach yields results in the continuous setting analogous to the pivotal classical results of undecidability and NP-completeness over the integers, yet reflecting the special mathematical character of the underlying space. The goal of these lectures is to highlight key aspects of the new theory as well as to give exposition, in this setting, of classical ideas and results. Indeed, since this new theory is more mathematical, perhaps less dependent on logic than the classical theory, a number of key results have more straightforward and transparent proofs in this setting. One of our themes will be the comparison of results over the integers with results over the reals and complex numbers. Contrasting one theory with the other will help illuminate each, and give deeper understanding to such basic concepts as decidability, definability, computability, and complexity. 53 refs

  16. Design of micro distribution systems consisting of long channels with arbitrary cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdanitis, S; Valougeorgis, D

    2012-01-01

    Gas flows through long micro-channels of various cross sections have been extensively investigated over the years both numerically and experimentally. In various technological applications including microfluidics, these micro-channels are combined together in order to form a micro-channel network. Computational algorithms for solving gas pipe networks in the hydrodynamic regime are well developed. However, corresponding tools for solving networks consisting of micro-channels under any degree of gas rarefaction is very limited. Recently a kinetic algorithm has been developed to simulate gas distribution systems consisting of long circular channels under any vacuum conditions. In the present work this algorithm is generalized and extended into micro-channels of arbitrary cross-section etched by KOH in silicon (triangular and trapezoidal channels with acute angle of 54.74°). Since a kinetic approach is implemented, the analysis is valid and the results are accurate in the whole range of the Knudsen number, while the involved computational effort is very small. This is achieved by successfully integrating the kinetic results for the corresponding single channels into the general solver for designing the gas pipe network. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach two typical systems consisting of long rectangular and trapezoidal micro-channels are solved.

  17. An Efficient and Secure Arbitrary N-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol Using Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ching-Nung; Gao, Pei-Pei; Yu, Wen-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Two quantum key agreement protocols using Bell states and Bell measurement were recently proposed by Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(11), 2391-2405, 2014). However, Zhu et al. pointed out that there are some security flaws and proposed an improved version (Quantum Inf. Process. 14(11), 4245-4254, 2015). In this study, we will show Zhu et al.'s improvement still exists some security problems, and its efficiency is not high enough. For solving these problems, we utilize four Pauli operations { I, Z, X, Y} to encode two bits instead of the original two operations { I, X} to encode one bit, and then propose an efficient and secure arbitrary N-party quantum key agreement protocol. In the protocol, the channel checking with decoy single photons is introduced to avoid the eavesdropper's flip attack, and a post-measurement mechanism is used to prevent against the collusion attack. The security analysis shows the present protocol can guarantee the correctness, security, privacy and fairness of quantum key agreement.

  18. Limit load estimation method for pipe with an arbitrary shaped circumferential surface flaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Hasegawa, Kunio; Onizawa, Kunio; Sugino, Hideharu

    2009-01-01

    When a flaw is detected in a stainless steel pipe during in-service inspection, the limit load criterion given in the codes such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the pipe. However, in the present codes, the limit load criterion is only provided for the case of a flaw with the uniform depth, although many flaws with complicated shape such as stress corrosion cracking have been actually detected in a pipe. In this paper, a limit load estimation method is proposed considering a circumferential flaw with arbitrary shape, in order to make it possible to evaluate the integrity of the pipe for general case. The plastic collapse moment and stress are obtained by dividing the surface flaw into several segmented sub-flaws. Using this method, good agreement is observed between the numerical solution and reported experimental results. Several numerical examples are also given to show the validity of this method. Finally, it can be seen that the number of the segmented sub-flaws for the semi-elliptical surface flaw is sufficient to be three from engineering judgment. (author)

  19. Discontinuous diffusion synthetic acceleration for Sn transport on 2D arbitrary polygonal meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcksin, Bruno; Ragusa, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) technique applied to the S n radiation transport equation is developed using Piece-Wise Linear Discontinuous (PWLD) finite elements on arbitrary polygonal grids. The discretization of the DSA equations employs an Interior Penalty technique, as is classically done for the stabilization of the diffusion equation using discontinuous finite element approximations. The penalty method yields a system of linear equations that is Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD). Thus, solution techniques such as Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) can be effectively employed. Algebraic MultiGrid (AMG) and Symmetric Gauss–Seidel (SGS) are employed as conjugate gradient preconditioners for the DSA system. AMG is shown to be significantly more efficient than SGS. Fourier analyses are carried out and we show that this discontinuous finite element DSA scheme is always stable and effective at reducing the spectral radius for iterative transport solves, even for grids with high-aspect ratio cells. Numerical results are presented for different grid types: quadrilateral, hexagonal, and polygonal grids as well as grids with local mesh adaptivity

  20. Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation Using Arbitrary Arrays for Massive MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Doumtsop Lonkeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the quick advancement of wireless communication networks, the need for massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO to offer adequate network capacity has turned out to be apparent. As a portion of array signal processing, direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation is of indispensable significance to acquire directional data of sources and to empower the 3D beamforming. In this paper, the performance of DOA estimation for massive MIMO systems is analyzed and compared using a low-complexity algorithm. To be exact, the 2D Fourier domain line search (FDLS MUSIC algorithm is studied to mutually estimate elevation and azimuth angle, and arbitrary array geometry is utilized to represent massive MIMO systems. To avoid the computational burden in estimating the data covariance matrix and its eigenvalue decomposition (EVD due to the large-scale sensors involved in massive MIMO systems, the reduced-dimension data matrix is applied on the signals received by the array. The performance is examined and contrasted with the 2D MUSIC algorithm for different types of antenna configuration. Finally, the array resolution is selected to investigate the performance of elevation and azimuth estimation. The effectiveness and advantage of the proposed technique have been proven by detailed simulations for different types of MIMO array configuration.

  1. Josephson junction between two high Tc superconductors with arbitrary transparency of interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Rashedi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dc Josephson junction between two singlet superconductors (d-wave and s-wave with arbitrary reflection coefficient has been investigated theoretically. For the case of high Tc superconductors, the c-axes are parallel to an interface with finite transparency and their ab-planes have a mis-orientation. The physics of potential barrier will be demonstrated by a transparency coefficient via which the tunneling will occur. We have solved the nonlocal Eilenberger equations and obtained the corresponding and suitable Green functions analytically. Then, using the obtained Green functions, the current-phase diagrams have been calculated. The effect of the potential barrier and mis-orientation on the currents is studied analytically and numerically. It is observed that, the current phase relations are totally different from the case of ideal transparent Josephson junctions between d-wave superconductors and two s-wave superconductors. This apparatus can be used to demonstrate d-wave order parameter in high Tc superconductors.

  2. Vibration analysis of multi-span beam system under arbitrary boundary and coupling conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Chaofan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the difficulties of studying the vibration analysis model of a multi-span beam system under various boundary and coupling conditions, this paper constructs a free vibration analysis model of a multi-span beam system on the basis of the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. The vibration characteristics of a multi-span beam system under arbitrary boundary supports and elastic coupling conditions are investigated using the current analysis model. Unlike most existing techniques, the beam displacement function is generally sought as an improved Fourier cosine series, and four sine terms are introduced to overcome all the relevant discontinuities or jumps of elastic boundary conditions. On this basis, the unknown series coefficients of the displacement function are treated as the generalized coordinates and solved using the Rayleigh-Ritz method, and the vibration problem of multi-span bean systems is converted into a standard eigenvalue problem concerning the unknown displacement expansion coefficient. By comparing the free vibration characteristics of the proposed method with those of the FEA method, the efficiency and accuracy of the present method are validated, providing a reliable and theoretical basis for multi-span beam system structure in engineering applications.

  3. Stress compensation for arbitrary curvature control in vanadium dioxide phase transition actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Kaichen; Lou, Shuai; Choe, Hwan Sung; Yao, Jie; Wu, Junqiao; Liu, Kai; You, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Due to its thermally driven structural phase transition, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) has emerged as a promising material for micro/nano-actuators with superior volumetric work density, actuation amplitude, and repetition frequency. However, the high initial curvature of VO 2 actuators severely obstructs the actuation performance and application. Here, we introduce a “seesaw” method of fabricating tri-layer cantilevers to compensate for the residual stress and realize nearly arbitrary curvature control of VO 2 actuators. By simply adjusting the thicknesses of the individual layers, cantilevers with positive, zero, or negative curvatures can be engineered. The actuation amplitude can be decoupled from the curvature and controlled independently as well. Based on the experimentally measured residual stresses, we demonstrate sub-micron thick VO 2 actuators with nearly zero final curvature and a high actuation amplitude simultaneously. This “seesaw” method can be further extended to the curvature engineering of other microelectromechanical system multi-layer structures where large stress-mismatch between layers are inevitable.

  4. Arbitrary amplitude nucleus-acoustic solitons in multi-ion quantum plasmas with relativistically degenerate electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2018-02-01

    A three component degenerate relativistic quantum plasma (consisting of relativistically degenerate electrons, nondegenerate inertial light nuclei, and stationary heavy nuclei) is considered to model the linear wave and also the electrostatic solitary waves in the light nuclei-scale length. A well-known normal mode analysis is employed to investigate the linear wave properties. A mechanical-motion analog (Sagdeev-type) pseudo-potential approach, which reveals the existence of large amplitude solitary excitations, is adopted to study the nonlinear wave properties. Only the positive potential solitary excitations are found to exist in the plasma medium under consideration. The basic properties of the arbitrary amplitude electrostatic acoustic modes in the light nuclei-scale length and their existence domain in terms of soliton speed (Mach number) are examined. The modifications of solitary wave characteristics and their existence domain with the variation of different key plasma configuration parameters (e.g., electrons degeneracy parameter, inertial light nuclei number density, and degenerate electron number density) are also analyzed. Our results, which may be helpful to explain the basic features of the nonlinear wave propagation in multi-component degenerate quantum plasmas, in connection with astrophysical compact objects (e.g., white dwarfs) are briefly discussed.

  5. Buckling of Nonprismatic Column on Varying Elastic Foundation with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Ghadban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckling of nonprismatic single columns with arbitrary boundary conditions resting on a nonuniform elastic foundation may be considered as the most generalized treatment of the subject. The buckling differential equation for such columns is extremely difficult to solve analytically. Thus, the authors propose a numerical approach by discretizing the column into a finite number of segments. Each segment has constants E (modulus of elasticity, I (moment of inertia, and β (subgrade stiffness. Next, an exact analytical solution is derived for each prismatic segment resting on uniform elastic foundation. These segments are then assembled in a matrix from which the critical buckling load is obtained. The derived formulation accounts for different end boundary conditions. Validation is performed by benchmarking the present results against analytical solutions found in the literature, showing excellent agreement. After validation, more examples are solved to illustrate the power and flexibility of the proposed method. Overall, the proposed method provides reasonable results, and the examples solved demonstrate the versatility of the developed approach and some of its many possible applications.

  6. Quantitative investigation of linear arbitrary polarization in an APPLE-II undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Apollonio, Marco; Zhu, Jingtao; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2018-03-01

    Insertion devices are utilized at synchrotron radiation facilities around the world for their capability to provide a high-brilliance X-ray beam. APPLE-II type undulators are especially important for their capacity to switch between a variety of photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to investigate the polarization calibration of an APPLE-II undulator (period length λ u = 64 mm) installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. Systematic measurement of the beam polarization state at a range of linear arbitrary angles has been compared with the expected result for a given set of undulator gap and row phase parameters calculated from theory. Determination of the corresponding Stokes-Poincaré parameters from the measured data reveals a discrepancy between the two. The limited number of energy/polarization combinations included in the undulator calibration tables necessitates the use of interpolated values for the missing points which is expected to contribute to the discrepancy. However, by modifying the orbit of the electron beam through the undulator by at least 160 µm it has been found that for certain linear polarizations the discrepancies can be corrected. Overall, it is suggested that complete correction of the Stokes-Poincaré parameters for all linear angles would require alteration of both these aspects.

  7. Numerical model for the solution of two-dimensional natural convection problems in arbitrary cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milioli, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this research work a numerical model for the solution of two-dimensional natural convection problems in arbitrary cavities of a Boussinesq fluid is presented. The conservation equations are written in a general curvilinear coordinate system which matches the irregular boundaries of the domain. The nonorthogonal system is generated by a suitable system of elliptic equations. The momentum and continuity equations are transformed from the Cartesian system to the general curvilinear system keeping the Cartesian velocity components as the dependent variables in the transformed domain. Finite difference equations are obtained for the contravariant velocity components in the transformed domain. The numerical calculations are performed in a fixed rectangular domain and both the Cartesian and the contravariant velocity components take part in the solutiomn procedure. The dependent variables are arranged on the grid in a staggered manner. The numerical model is tested by solving the driven flow in a square cavity with a moving side using a nonorthogoanl grid. The natural convenction in a square cavity, using an orthogonal and a nonorthogonal grid, is also solved for the model test. Also, the solution for the buoyancy flow between a square cylinder placed inside a circular cylinder is presented. The results of the test problems are compared with those available in the specialized literature. Finally, in order to show the generality of the model, the natural convection problem inside a very irregular cavity is presented. (Author) [pt

  8. Unified Formulation Applied to Free Vibrations Finite Element Analysis of Beams with Arbitrary Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents hierarchical finite elements on the basis of the Carrera Unified Formulation for free vibrations analysis of beam with arbitrary section geometries. The displacement components are expanded in terms of the section coordinates, (x, y, using a set of 1-D generalized displacement variables. N-order Taylor type expansions are employed. N is a free parameter of the formulation, it is supposed to be as high as 4. Linear (2 nodes, quadratic (3 nodes and cubic (4 nodes approximations along the beam axis, (z, are introduced to develop finite element matrices. These are obtained in terms of a few fundamental nuclei whose form is independent of both N and the number of element nodes. Natural frequencies and vibration modes are computed. Convergence and assessment with available results is first made considering different type of beam elements and expansion orders. Additional analyses consider different beam sections (square, annular and airfoil shaped as well as boundary conditions (simply supported and cantilever beams. It has mainly been concluded that the proposed model is capable of detecting 3-D effects on the vibration modes as well as predicting shell-type vibration modes in case of thin walled beam sections.

  9. A mesh partitioning algorithm for preserving spatial locality in arbitrary geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivarti, Girish V., E-mail: g.nivarti@alumni.ubc.ca; Salehi, M. Mahdi; Bushe, W. Kendal

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: •An algorithm for partitioning computational meshes is proposed. •The Morton order space-filling curve is modified to achieve improved locality. •A spatial locality metric is defined to compare results with existing approaches. •Results indicate improved performance of the algorithm in complex geometries. -- Abstract: A space-filling curve (SFC) is a proximity preserving linear mapping of any multi-dimensional space and is widely used as a clustering tool. Equi-sized partitioning of an SFC ignores the loss in clustering quality that occurs due to inaccuracies in the mapping. Often, this results in poor locality within partitions, especially for the conceptually simple, Morton order curves. We present a heuristic that improves partition locality in arbitrary geometries by slicing a Morton order curve at points where spatial locality is sacrificed. In addition, we develop algorithms that evenly distribute points to the extent possible while maintaining spatial locality. A metric is defined to estimate relative inter-partition contact as an indicator of communication in parallel computing architectures. Domain partitioning tests have been conducted on geometries relevant to turbulent reactive flow simulations. The results obtained highlight the performance of our method as an unsupervised and computationally inexpensive domain partitioning tool.

  10. Effect of noise on deterministic joint remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Ming; Qu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jin-Guang

    2017-05-01

    Quantum communication has attracted much attention in recent years. Deterministic joint remote state preparation (DJRSP) is an important branch of quantum secure communication which could securely transmit a quantum state with 100% success probability. In this paper, we study DJRSP of an arbitrary two-qubit state in noisy environment. Taking a GHZ based DJRSP scheme of a two-qubit state as an example, we study how the scheme is influenced by all types of noise usually encountered in real-world implementations of quantum communication protocols, i.e., the bit-flip, phase-flip (phase-damping), depolarizing, and amplitude-damping noise. We demonstrate that there are four different output states in the amplitude-damping noise, while there is the same output state in each of the other three types of noise. The state-independent average fidelity is presented to measure the effect of noise, and it is shown that the depolarizing noise has the worst effect on the DJRSP scheme, while the amplitude-damping noise or the phase-flip has the slightest effect depending on the noise rate. Our results are also suitable for JRSP and RSP.

  11. Mean-field equations for neuronal networks with arbitrary degree distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykamp, Duane Q; Friedman, Daniel; Shaker, Sammy; Shinn, Maxwell; Vella, Michael; Compte, Albert; Roxin, Alex

    2017-04-01

    The emergent dynamics in networks of recurrently coupled spiking neurons depends on the interplay between single-cell dynamics and network topology. Most theoretical studies on network dynamics have assumed simple topologies, such as connections that are made randomly and independently with a fixed probability (Erdös-Rényi network) (ER) or all-to-all connected networks. However, recent findings from slice experiments suggest that the actual patterns of connectivity between cortical neurons are more structured than in the ER random network. Here we explore how introducing additional higher-order statistical structure into the connectivity can affect the dynamics in neuronal networks. Specifically, we consider networks in which the number of presynaptic and postsynaptic contacts for each neuron, the degrees, are drawn from a joint degree distribution. We derive mean-field equations for a single population of homogeneous neurons and for a network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, where the neurons can have arbitrary degree distributions. Through analysis of the mean-field equations and simulation of networks of integrate-and-fire neurons, we show that such networks have potentially much richer dynamics than an equivalent ER network. Finally, we relate the degree distributions to so-called cortical motifs.

  12. Finite difference method and algebraic polynomial interpolation for numerically solving Poisson's equation over arbitrary domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsugio Fukuchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite difference method (FDM based on Cartesian coordinate systems can be applied to numerical analyses over any complex domain. A complex domain is usually taken to mean that the geometry of an immersed body in a fluid is complex; here, it means simply an analytical domain of arbitrary configuration. In such an approach, we do not need to treat the outer and inner boundaries differently in numerical calculations; both are treated in the same way. Using a method that adopts algebraic polynomial interpolations in the calculation around near-wall elements, all the calculations over irregular domains reduce to those over regular domains. Discretization of the space differential in the FDM is usually derived using the Taylor series expansion; however, if we use the polynomial interpolation systematically, exceptional advantages are gained in deriving high-order differences. In using the polynomial interpolations, we can numerically solve the Poisson equation freely over any complex domain. Only a particular type of partial differential equation, Poisson's equations, is treated; however, the arguments put forward have wider generality in numerical calculations using the FDM.

  13. A dose assessment method for arbitrary geometries with virtual reality in the nuclear facilities decommissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Nan; Liu, Yong-kuo; Xia, Hong; Ayodeji, Abiodun; Bai, Lu

    2018-03-01

    During the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, a large number of cutting and demolition activities are performed, which results in a frequent change in the structure and produce many irregular objects. In order to assess dose rates during the cutting and demolition process, a flexible dose assessment method for arbitrary geometries and radiation sources was proposed based on virtual reality technology and Point-Kernel method. The initial geometry is designed with the three-dimensional computer-aided design tools. An approximate model is built automatically in the process of geometric modeling via three procedures namely: space division, rough modeling of the body and fine modeling of the surface, all in combination with collision detection of virtual reality technology. Then point kernels are generated by sampling within the approximate model, and when the material and radiometric attributes are inputted, dose rates can be calculated with the Point-Kernel method. To account for radiation scattering effects, buildup factors are calculated with the Geometric-Progression formula in the fitting function. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method was verified by means of simulations using different geometries and the dose rate results were compared with that derived from CIDEC code, MCNP code and experimental measurements.

  14. Super-resolution method for arbitrary retrospective sampling in fluorescence tomography with raster scanning photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2013-03-22

    Dense spatial sampling is required in high-resolution optical imaging and many other biomedical optical imaging methods, such as diffuse optical imaging. Arrayed photodetectors, in particular charge coupled device cameras are commonly used mainly because of their high pixel count. Nonetheless, discrete-element photodetectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are often desirable in many performance-demanding imaging applications. However, utilization of the discrete-element photodetectors typically requires raster scan to achieve arbitrary retrospective sampling with high density. Care must be taken in using the relatively large sensitive areas of discrete-element photodetectors to densely sample the image plane. In addition, off-line data analysis and image reconstruction often require full-field sampling. Pixel-by-pixel scanning is not only slow but also unnecessary in diffusion-limited imaging. We propose a super-resolution method that can recover the finer features of an image sampled with a coarse-scale sensor. This generalpurpose method was established on the spatial transfer function of the photodetector-lens system, and achieved super-resolution by inversion of this linear transfer function. Regularized optimization algorithms were used to achieve optimized deconvolution. Compared to the uncorrected blurred image, the proposed super-resolution method significantly improved image quality in terms of resolution and quantitation. Using this reconstruction method, the acquisition speed with a scanning photodetector can be dramatically improved without significantly sacrificing sampling density or flexibility.

  15. Novel programmable microwave photonic filter with arbitrary filtering shape and linear phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqi; Chen, Feiya; Peng, Huanfa; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2017-04-17

    We propose and demonstrate a novel optical frequency comb (OFC) based microwave photonic filter which is able to realize arbitrary filtering shape with linear phase response. The shape of filter response is software programmable using finite impulse response (FIR) filter design method. By shaping the OFC spectrum using a programmable waveshaper, we can realize designed amplitude of FIR taps. Positive and negative sign of FIR taps are achieved by balanced photo-detection. The double sideband (DSB) modulation and symmetric distribution of filter taps are used to maintain the linear phase condition. In the experiment, we realize a fully programmable filter in the range from DC to 13.88 GHz. Four basic types of filters (lowpass, highpass, bandpass and bandstop) with different bandwidths, cut-off frequencies and central frequencies are generated. Also a triple-passband filter is realized in our experiment. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of a programmable multiple passband MPF with linear phase response. The experiment shows good agreement with the theoretical result.

  16. Arbitrary amplitude electrostatic wave propagation in a magnetized dense plasma containing helium ions and degenerate electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, S., E-mail: shahzadm100@gmail.com; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q. [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, Munazza Z. [Department of Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)

    2016-06-15

    The obliquely propagating arbitrary amplitude electrostatic wave is studied in a dense magnetized plasma having singly and doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons pressures. The Fermi temperature for ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons described by N. M. Vernet [(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007), p. 57] is used to define ion acoustic speed in ultra-dense plasmas. The pseudo-potential approach is used to solve the fully nonlinear set of dynamic equations for obliquely propagating electrostatic waves in a dense magnetized plasma containing helium ions. The upper and lower Mach number ranges for the existence of electrostatic solitons are found which depends on the obliqueness of the wave propagation with respect to applied magnetic field and charge number of the helium ions. It is found that only compressive (hump) soliton structures are formed in all the cases and only subsonic solitons are formed for a singly charged helium ions plasma case with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons. Both subsonic and supersonic soliton hump structures are formed for doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons plasma case containing singly as well as doubly charged helium ions. The effect of propagation direction on the soliton amplitude and width of the electrostatic waves is also presented. The numerical plots are also shown for illustration using dense plasma parameters of a compact star (white dwarf) from literature.

  17. In-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xianjie; Shi, Dongyan; Qin, Zhengrong; Wang, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    In comparison with the out-of-plane vibrations of annular plates, far less attention has been paid to the in-plane vibrations which may also play a vital important role in affecting the sound radiation from and power flows in a built-up structure. In this investigation, a generalized Fourier series method is proposed for the in-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions along each of its edges. Regardless of the boundary conditions, the in-plane displacement fields are invariantly expressed as a new form of trigonometric series expansions with a drastically improved convergence as compared with the conventional Fourier series. All the unknown expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Unlike most of the existing studies, the presented method can be readily and universally applied to a wide spectrum of in-plane vibration problems involving different boundary conditions, varying material, and geometric properties with no need of modifying the basic functions or adapting solution procedures. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the current solution for predicting the in-plane vibration characteristics of annular plates subjected to different boundary conditions.

  18. In-Plane Vibration Analysis of Annular Plates with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjie Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with the out-of-plane vibrations of annular plates, far less attention has been paid to the in-plane vibrations which may also play a vital important role in affecting the sound radiation from and power flows in a built-up structure. In this investigation, a generalized Fourier series method is proposed for the in-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions along each of its edges. Regardless of the boundary conditions, the in-plane displacement fields are invariantly expressed as a new form of trigonometric series expansions with a drastically improved convergence as compared with the conventional Fourier series. All the unknown expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Unlike most of the existing studies, the presented method can be readily and universally applied to a wide spectrum of in-plane vibration problems involving different boundary conditions, varying material, and geometric properties with no need of modifying the basic functions or adapting solution procedures. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the current solution for predicting the in-plane vibration characteristics of annular plates subjected to different boundary conditions.

  19. Proton beam writing of long, arbitrary structures for micro/nano photonics and fluidics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udalagama, Chammika; Teo, E.J.; Chan, S.F.; Kumar, V.S.; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen proton beam writing maturing into a versatile lithographic technique able to produce sub-100 nm, high aspect ratio structures with smooth side walls. However, many applications in the fields of photonics and fluidics require the fabrication of structures with high spatial resolution that extends over several centimetres. This cannot be achieved by purely magnetic or electrostatic beam scanning due to the large off-axis beam aberrations in high demagnification systems. As a result, this has limited us to producing long straight structures using a combination of beam and stage scanning. In this work we have: (1) developed an algorithm to include any arbitrary pattern into the writing process by using a more versatile combination of beam and stage scanning while (2) incorporating the use of the ubiquitous AutoCAD DXF (drawing exchange format) into the design process. We demonstrate the capability of this approach in fabricating structures such as Y-splitters, Mach-Zehnder modulators and microfluidic channels that are over several centimetres in length, in polymer. We also present optimisation of such parameters as scanning speed and scanning loops to improve on the surface roughness of the structures. This work opens up new possibilities of using CAD software in PBW for microphotonics and fluidics device fabrication.

  20. Multipartite Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of settings and outcomes per site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubenets, Elena R

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a single general representation incorporating in a unique manner all Bell-type inequalities for a multipartite correlation scenario with an arbitrary number of settings and any spectral type of outcomes at each site. Specifying this general representation for correlation functions, we prove that the form of any correlation Bell-type inequality does not depend on spectral types of outcomes, in particular, on their numbers at different sites, and is determined only by extremal values of outcomes at each site. We also specify the general form of bounds in Bell-type inequalities on joint probabilities. Our approach to the derivation of Bell-type inequalities is universal, concise and can be applied to a multipartite correlation experiment with outcomes of any spectral type, discrete or continuous. We, in particular, prove that, for an N-partite quantum state, possibly, infinite dimensional, admitting the N{2 x ... x 2}-setting LHV description, the Mermin-Klyshko inequality holds for any two bounded quantum observables per site, not necessarily dichotomic

  1. On the Penrose inequality for dust null shells in the Minkowski spacetime of arbitrary dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, Marc; Soria, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    A particular, yet relevant, case of the Penrose inequality involves null shells propagating in the Minkowski spacetime. Despite previous claims in the literature, the validity of this inequality remains open. In this paper, we rewrite this inequality in terms of the geometry of the surface obtained by intersecting the past null cone of the original surface S with a constant time hyperplane and the 'time height' function of S over this hyperplane. We also specialize to the case when S lies in the past null cone of a point and show the validity of the corresponding inequality in any dimension (in four dimensions this inequality was proved by Tod (1985 Class. Quantum Grav. 2 L65-8). Exploiting properties of convex hypersurfaces in the Euclidean space, we write down the Penrose inequality in the Minkowski spacetime of an arbitrary dimension n + 2 as an inequality for two smooth functions on the sphere S n . We finally obtain a sufficient condition for the validity of the Penrose inequality in the four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and show that this condition is satisfied by a large class of surfaces. (paper)

  2. An efficient direct solver for rarefied gas flows with arbitrary statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Manuel A., E-mail: f99543083@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10167, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jaw-Yen, E-mail: yangjy@iam.ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10167, Taiwan (China); Center of Advanced Study in Theoretical Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10167, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    A new numerical methodology associated with a unified treatment is presented to solve the Boltzmann–BGK equation of gas dynamics for the classical and quantum gases described by the Bose–Einstein and Fermi–Dirac statistics. Utilizing a class of globally-stiffly-accurate implicit–explicit Runge–Kutta scheme for the temporal evolution, associated with the discrete ordinate method for the quadratures in the momentum space and the weighted essentially non-oscillatory method for the spatial discretization, the proposed scheme is asymptotic-preserving and imposes no non-linear solver or requires the knowledge of fugacity and temperature to capture the flow structures in the hydrodynamic (Euler) limit. The proposed treatment overcomes the limitations found in the work by Yang and Muljadi (2011) [33] due to the non-linear nature of quantum relations, and can be applied in studying the dynamics of a gas with internal degrees of freedom with correct values of the ratio of specific heat for the flow regimes for all Knudsen numbers and energy wave lengths. The present methodology is numerically validated with the unified treatment by the one-dimensional shock tube problem and the two-dimensional Riemann problems for gases of arbitrary statistics. Descriptions of ideal quantum gases including rotational degrees of freedom have been successfully achieved under the proposed methodology.

  3. Dimensional reduction as a method to obtain dual theories for massive spin two in arbitrary dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudeir, A.; Montemayor, R.; Urrutia, Luis F.

    2008-09-01

    Using the parent Lagrangian method together with a dimensional reduction from D to (D-1) dimensions, we construct dual theories for massive spin two fields in arbitrary dimensions in terms of a mixed symmetry tensor TA[A1A2…AD-2]. Our starting point is the well-studied massless parent action in dimension D. The resulting massive Stueckelberg-like parent actions in (D-1) dimensions inherit all the gauge symmetries of the original massless action and can be gauge fixed in two alternative ways, yielding the possibility of having a parent action with either a symmetric or a nonsymmetric Fierz-Pauli field eAB. Even though the dual sector in terms of the standard spin two field includes only the symmetrical part e{AB} in both cases, these two possibilities yield different results in terms of the alternative dual field TA[A1A2…AD-2]. In particular, the nonsymmetric case reproduces the Freund-Curtright action as the dual to the massive spin two field action in four dimensions.

  4. Calculation of Water Drop Trajectories to and About Arbitrary Three-Dimensional Bodies in Potential Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norment, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations can be performed for any atmospheric conditions and for all water drop sizes, from the smallest cloud droplet to large raindrops. Any subsonic, external, non-lifting flow can be accommodated; flow into, but not through, inlets also can be simulated. Experimental water drop drag relations are used in the water drop equations of motion and effects of gravity settling are included. Seven codes are described: (1) a code used to debug and plot body surface description data; (2) a code that processes the body surface data to yield the potential flow field; (3) a code that computes flow velocities at arrays of points in space; (4) a code that computes water drop trajectories from an array of points in space; (5) a code that computes water drop trajectories and fluxes to arbitrary target points; (6) a code that computes water drop trajectories tangent to the body; and (7) a code that produces stereo pair plots which include both the body and trajectories. Code descriptions include operating instructions, card inputs and printouts for example problems, and listing of the FORTRAN codes. Accuracy of the calculations is discussed, and trajectory calculation results are compared with prior calculations and with experimental data.

  5. Non-orthogonal version of the arbitrary polygonal C-grid and a new diamond grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-uniform grids of the sphere have become popular recently since they avoid parallel scaling bottlenecks associated with the poles of latitude–longitude grids. However quasi-uniform grids of the sphere are often non-orthogonal. A version of the C-grid for arbitrary non-orthogonal grids is presented which gives some of the mimetic properties of the orthogonal C-grid. Exact energy conservation is sacrificed for improved accuracy and the resulting scheme numerically conserves energy and potential enstrophy well. The non-orthogonal nature means that the scheme can be used on a cubed sphere. The advantage of the cubed sphere is that it does not admit the computational modes of the hexagonal or triangular C-grids. On various shallow-water test cases, the non-orthogonal scheme on a cubed sphere has accuracy less than or equal to the orthogonal scheme on an orthogonal hexagonal icosahedron. A new diamond grid is presented consisting of quasi-uniform quadrilaterals which is more nearly orthogonal than the equal-angle cubed sphere but with otherwise similar properties. It performs better than the cubed sphere in every way and should be used instead in codes which allow a flexible grid structure.

  6. Effect of ion suprathermality on arbitrary amplitude dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Mayout, Saliha; Amour, Rabia

    2009-01-01

    Arbitrary amplitude dust acoustic waves in a high energy-tail ion distribution are investigated. The effects of charge variation and ion suprathermality on the large amplitude dust acoustic (DA) soliton are then considered. The correct suprathermal ion charging current is rederived based on the orbit motion limited approach. In the adiabatic case, the variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to show the existence of rarefactive variable charge DA solitons involving cusped density humps. The dust charge variation leads to an additional enlargement of the DA soliton, which is less pronounced as the ions evolve far away from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. In the nonadiabatic case, the dust charge fluctuation may provide an alternate physical mechanism causing anomalous dissipation the strength of which becomes important and may prevail over that of dispersion as the ion spectral index κ increases. Our results may provide an explanation for the strong spiky waveforms observed in auroral electric field measurements by Ergun et al.[Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2025 (1998)].

  7. Spring constant calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers of arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sader, John E.; Sanelli, Julian A.; Adamson, Brian D.; Bieske, Evan J.; Monty, Jason P.; Marusic, Ivan; Wei Xingzhan; Mulvaney, Paul; Crawford, Simon A.; Friend, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The spring constant of an atomic force microscope cantilever is often needed for quantitative measurements. The calibration method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] for a rectangular cantilever requires measurement of the resonant frequency and quality factor in fluid (typically air), and knowledge of its plan view dimensions. This intrinsically uses the hydrodynamic function for a cantilever of rectangular plan view geometry. Here, we present hydrodynamic functions for a series of irregular and non-rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers that are commonly used in practice. Cantilever geometries of arrow shape, small aspect ratio rectangular, quasi-rectangular, irregular rectangular, non-ideal trapezoidal cross sections, and V-shape are all studied. This enables the spring constants of all these cantilevers to be accurately and routinely determined through measurement of their resonant frequency and quality factor in fluid (such as air). An approximate formulation of the hydrodynamic function for microcantilevers of arbitrary geometry is also proposed. Implementation of the method and its performance in the presence of uncertainties and non-idealities is discussed, together with conversion factors for the static and dynamic spring constants of these cantilevers. These results are expected to be of particular value to the design and application of micro- and nanomechanical systems in general.

  8. Electrical modelling of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges under an arbitrary excitation voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuhai; Neiger, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    In order to quantitatively describe the electrical working principles of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), a dynamic electrical model for homogeneous DBDs has been put forward that is composed of a new equivalent circuit for homogeneous DBDs and the equations derived from it. This model is a global and self-consistent model, valid for an arbitrary external excitation voltage. This model reveals instantaneous relations of internal electrical quantities in the gap (gap voltage, internal discharge current and internal power consumption process) to external electrical quantities (external voltage and external total current) and provides the theoretical fundamentals to calculate the temporal development processes of all internal electrical quantities in the discharge gap from the measured external voltage and external total current. The knowledge obtained of dynamic processes of DBDs in the discharge gap explains quantitatively the mechanisms that result in ignition, development and extinction of DBDs and provide physical interpretation of the measured external total current and other phenomena such as memory effect and multiple current pulses in one half period. In this model, several current terms (external total current, external displacement current, external discharge current, internal discharge current and internal displacement current) are introduced to distinguish the different currents involved in DBDs. Moreover, the equations for charge and energy deposition by one discharge and in one half period are derived. Applications of this model to studying a bipolar sine wave excited DBD and a unipolar pulse excited DBD are also included. This model has been proved to be a useful tool to understand DBDs better

  9. Density of Eigenvalues of Random Normal Matrices with an Arbitrary Potential, and of Generalized Normal Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Etingof

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the works by Wiegmann-Zabrodin, Elbau-Felder, Hedenmalm-Makarov, and others, we consider the normal matrix model with an arbitrary potential function, and explain how the problem of finding the support domain for the asymptotic eigenvalue density of such matrices (when the size of the matrices goes to infinity is related to the problem of Hele-Shaw flows on curved surfaces, considered by Entov and the first author in 1990-s. In the case when the potential function is the sum of a rotationally invariant function and the real part of a polynomial of the complex coordinate, we use this relation and the conformal mapping method developed by Entov and the first author to find the shape of the support domain explicitly (up to finitely many undetermined parameters, which are to be found from a finite system of equations. In the case when the rotationally invariant function is βz^2, this is done by Wiegmann-Zabrodin and Elbau-Felder. We apply our results to the generalized normal matrix model, which deals with random block matrices that give rise to *-representations of the deformed preprojective algebra of the affine quiver of type Â_{m-1}. We show that this model is equivalent to the usual normal matrix model in the large N limit. Thus the conformal mapping method can be applied to find explicitly the support domain for the generalized normal matrix model.

  10. The rate of thermal expansion of a thin metallic slab of arbitrary shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y C

    2009-08-12

    In a previous paper the rate of thermal expansion of a long, slender insulating bar has been worked out. Our present aim is to extend that work to the thermal expansion rate of not only a long metallic bar, but to further generalize it to a thin metallic slab of arbitrary shape. Assuming that the thickness of the slab is small compared to the linear dimension of its area we again take advantage of the two distinct, disparate timescales to turn the familiar problem of thermal expansion into a time-dependent problem of the rate of the expansion. Based on the previously established finite physical momentum of an acoustic phonon when translational invariance is broken, we show that the combined pressure of the phonons and the free electrons due to their outward momenta would suffer a Doppler reduction as the specimen expands upon heating. This Doppler reduction gives rise to damping of the expanding motion, thus yielding as a first result the time of thermal expansion of a long slender metal bar. The generalization to the important case of a thin metallic slab of any shape is then worked out in detail before a concluding section containing a long physical discussion and summary.

  11. An equal force theory for network models of soft materials with arbitrary molecular weight distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verron, E.; Gros, A.

    2017-09-01

    Most network models for soft materials, e.g. elastomers and gels, are dedicated to idealized materials: all chains admit the same number of Kuhn segments. Nevertheless, such standard models are not appropriate for materials involving multiple networks, and some specific constitutive equations devoted to these materials have been derived in the last few years. In nearly all cases, idealized networks of different chain lengths are assembled following an equal strain assumption; only few papers adopt an equal stress assumption, although some authors argue that such hypothesis would reflect the equilibrium of the different networks in contact. In this work, a full-network model with an arbitrary chain length distribution is derived by considering that chains of different lengths satisfy the equal force assumption in each direction of the unit sphere. The derivation is restricted to non-Gaussian freely jointed chains and to affine deformation of the sphere. Firstly, after a proper definition of the undeformed configuration of the network, we demonstrate that the equal force assumption leads to the equality of a normalized stretch in chains of different lengths. Secondly, we establish that the network with chain length distribution behaves as an idealized full-network of which both chain length and density of are provided by the chain length distribution. This approach is finally illustrated with two examples: the derivation of a new expression for the Young modulus of bimodal interpenetrated polymer networks, and the prediction of the change in fluorescence during deformation of mechanochemically responsive elastomers.

  12. A Method for Designing FIR Filters with Arbitrary Magnitude Characteristic Used for Modeling Human Audiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZOPOS, E.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an iterative method for designing FIR filters that implement arbitrary magnitude characteristics, defined by the user through a set of frequency-magnitude points (frequency samples. The proposed method is based on the non-uniform frequency sampling algorithm. For each iteration a new set of frequency samples is generated, by processing the set used in the previous run; this implies changing the samples location around the previous frequency values and adjusting their magnitude through interpolation. If necessary, additional samples can be introduced, as well. After each iteration the magnitude characteristic of the resulting filter is determined by using the non-uniform DFT and compared with the required one; if the errors are larger than the acceptable levels (set by the user a new iteration is run; the length of the resulting filter and the values of its coefficients are also taken into consideration when deciding a re-run. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method a tool for designing FIR filters that match human audiograms was implemented in LabVIEW. It was shown that the resulting filters have smaller coefficients than the standard one, and can also have lower order, while the errors remain relatively small.

  13. Meshing Highly Regular Structures: The Case of Super Carbon Nanotubes of Arbitrary Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schröppel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesh generation is an important step in many numerical methods. We present the “Hierarchical Graph Meshing” (HGM method as a novel approach to mesh generation, based on algebraic graph theory. The HGM method can be used to systematically construct configurations exhibiting multiple hierarchies and complex symmetry characteristics. The hierarchical description of structures provided by the HGM method can be exploited to increase the efficiency of multiscale and multigrid methods. In this paper, the HGM method is employed for the systematic construction of super carbon nanotubes of arbitrary order, which present a pertinent example of structurally and geometrically complex, yet highly regular, structures. The HGM algorithm is computationally efficient and exhibits good scaling characteristics. In particular, it scales linearly for super carbon nanotube structures and is working much faster than geometry-based methods employing neighborhood search algorithms. Its modular character makes it conducive to automatization. For the generation of a mesh, the information about the geometry of the structure in a given configuration is added in a way that relates geometric symmetries to structural symmetries. The intrinsically hierarchic description of the resulting mesh greatly reduces the effort of determining mesh hierarchies for multigrid and multiscale applications and helps to exploit symmetry-related methods in the mechanical analysis of complex structures.

  14. A Constitutive Formulation for the Linear Thermoelastic Behavior of Arbitrary Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Usal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear thermoelastic behavior of a composite material reinforced by two independent and inextensible fiber families has been analyzed theoretically. The composite material is assumed to be anisotropic, compressible, dependent on temperature gradient, and showing linear elastic behavior. Basic principles and axioms of modern continuum mechanics and equations belonging to kinematics and deformation geometries of fibers have provided guidance and have been determining in the process of this study. The matrix material is supposed to be made of elastic material involving an artificial anisotropy due to fibers reinforcing by arbitrary distributions. As a result of thermodynamic constraints, it has been determined that the free energy function is dependent on a symmetric tensor and two vectors whereas the heat flux vector function is dependent on a symmetric tensor and three vectors. The free energy and heat flux vector functions have been represented by a power series expansion, and the type and the number of terms taken into consideration in this series expansion have determined the linearity of the medium. The linear constitutive equations of the stress and heat flux vector are substituted in the Cauchy equation of motion and in the equation of conservation of energy to obtain the field equations.

  15. Low beta rigid mode stability criterion for an arbitrary Larmor radius plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Wong, H.V.

    1987-05-01

    The low beta flute interchange dispersion relation for rigid displacement perturbation of axisymmetric plasma equilibria with arbitrary Larmor radius particles and field line curvature, large compared to the plasma radius, is derived. The equilibrium particle orbits are characterized by two constants of motion, energy and angular momentum, and a third adiabatic invariant derived from the rapid radial motion. The Vlasov equation is integrated, assuming that the mode frequency, axial ''bounce'' frequency, and particle drift frequency are small compared to the cyclotron frequency, and it is demonstrated that the plasma response to a rigid perturbation has a universal character independent of Larmor radius. As a result the interchange instability is the same as that predicted from conventional MHD theory. However, a new prediction, more optimistic than earlier work, is found for the low density threshold of systems like Migma, which are disc-shaped, that is, the axial extent Δz is less than the radial extent r 0 . For Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1, the stability criterion is determined by the total particle number. Whereas the older theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much greater than 1) predicted instability at about the densities achieved in actual Migma experiments, the present theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1) indicates that the experimental results were for plasmas with particle number below the interchange threshold

  16. Unsteady 2D potential-flow forces and a thin variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunaa, M.

    2006-07-15

    In this report analytical expressions for the unsteady 2D force distribution on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by its camberline as in classic thin-airfoil theory, and the deflection of the airfoil is given by superposition of chordwise deflection mode shapes. It is shown from the expressions for the forces, that the influence from the shed vorticity in the wake is described by the same time-lag for all chordwise positions on the airfoil. This time-lag term can be approximated using an indicial function approach, making the practical calculation of the aerodynamic response numerically very efficient by use of Duhamel superposition. Furthermore, the indicial function expressions for the time-lag terms are formulated in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stability analysis. The analytical expressions for the forces simplify to all previously known steady and unsteady thin-airfoil solutions. Apart from the obvious applications within active load control/reduction, the current theory can be used for various applications which up to now have been possible only using much more computational costly methods. The propulsive performance of a soft heaving propulsor, and the influence of airfoil camberline elasticity on the flutter limit are two computational examples given in the report that highlight this feature. (au)

  17. A simple algorithm for calculating the area of an arbitrary polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Wijeweera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computing the area of an arbitrary polygon is a popular problem in pure mathematics. The two methods used are Shoelace Method (SM and Orthogonal Trapezoids Method (OTM. In OTM, the polygon is partitioned into trapezoids by drawing either horizontal or vertical lines through its vertices. The area of each trapezoid is computed and the resultant areas are added up. In SM, a formula which is a generalization of Green’s Theorem for the discrete case is used. The most of the available systems is based on SM. Since an algorithm for OTM is not available in literature, this paper proposes an algorithm for OTM along with efficient implementation. Conversion of a pure mathematical method into an efficient computer program is not straightforward. In order to reduce the run time, minimal computation needs to be achieved. Handling of indeterminate forms and special cases separately can support this. On the other hand, precision error should also be avoided. Salient feature of the proposed algorithm is that it successfully handles these situations achieving minimum run time. Experimental results of the proposed method are compared against that of the existing algorithm. However, the proposed algorithm suggests a way to partition a polygon into orthogonal trapezoids which is not an easy task. Additionally, the proposed algorithm uses only basic mathematical concepts while the Green’s theorem uses complicated mathematical concepts. The proposed algorithm can be used when the simplicity is important than the speed.

  18. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  19. HiggsSignals. Confronting arbitrary Higgs sectors with measurements at the Tevatron and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtle, Philip [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Heinemeyer, Sven [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Staal, Oscar [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). The Oskar Klein Centre; Stefaniak, Tim [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    HiggsSignals is a Fortran90 computer code that allows to test the compatibility of Higgs sector predictions against Higgs rates and masses measured at the LHC or the Tevatron. Arbitrary models with any number of Higgs bosons can be investigated using a model-independent input scheme based on HiggsBounds. The test is based on the calculation of a {chi}{sup 2} measure from the predictions and the measured Higgs rates and masses, with the ability of fully taking into account systematics and correlations for the signal rate predictions, luminosity and Higgs mass predictions. It features two complementary methods for the test. First, the peak-centered method, in which each observable is defined by a Higgs signal rate measured at a specific hypothetical Higgs mass, corresponding to a tentative Higgs signal. Second, the mass-centered method, where the test is evaluated by comparing the signal rate measurement to the theory prediction at the Higgs mass predicted by the model. The program allows for the simultaneous use of both methods, which is useful in testing models with multiple Higgs bosons. The code automatically combines the signal rates of multiple Higgs bosons if their signals cannot be resolved by the experimental analysis. We compare results obtained with HiggsSignals to official ATLAS and CMS results for various examples of Higgs property determinations and find very good agreement. A few examples of HiggsSignals applications are provided, going beyond the scenarios investigated by the LHC collaborations. For models with more than one Higgs boson we recommend to use HiggsSignals and HiggsBounds in parallel to exploit the full constraining power of Higgs search exclusion limits and the measurements of the signal seen at m{sub H} {approx} 125.5 GeV.

  20. Real-time arbitrary view synthesis method for ultra-HD auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanfa; Sang, Xinzhu; Duo, Chen; Zhao, Tianqi; Fan, Xin; Guo, Nan; Yu, Xunbo; Yan, Binbin

    2013-08-01

    An arbitrary view synthesis method from 2D-Plus-Depth image for real-time auto-stereoscopic display is presented. Traditional methods use depth image based rendering (DIBR) technology, which is a process of synthesizing "virtual" views of a scene from still or moving images and associated per-pixel depth information. All the virtual view images are generated and then the ultimate stereo-image is synthesized. DIBR can greatly decrease the number of reference images and is flexible and efficient as the depth images are used. However it causes some problems such as the appearance of holes in the rendered image, and the occurrence of depth discontinuity on the surface of the object at virtual image plane. Here, reversed disparity shift pixel rendering is used to generate the stereo-image directly, and the target image won't generate holes. To avoid duplication of calculation and also to be able to match with any specific three-dimensional display, a selecting table is designed to pick up appropriate virtual viewpoints for auto-stereoscopic display. According to the selecting table, only sub-pixels of the appropriate virtual viewpoints are calculated, so calculation amount is independent of the number of virtual viewpoints. In addition, 3D image warping technology is used to translate depth information to parallax between virtual viewpoints and parallax, and the viewer can adjust the zero-parallax-setting-plane (ZPS) and change parallax conveniently to suit his/her personal preferences. The proposed method is implemented with OPENGL and demonstrated on a laptop computer with a 2.3 GHz Intel Core i5 CPU and NVIDA GeForce GT540m GPU. We got a frame rate 30 frames per second with 4096×2340 video. High synthesis efficiency and good stereoscopic sense can be obtained. The presented method can meet the requirements of real-time ultra-HD super multi-view auto-stereoscopic display.

  1. Learning, remembering and applying an arbitrary non-matching to position rule in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B O; Billinton, A; Wilkinson, L S

    2001-11-01

    We describe maze-based behavioural methodologies to assay aspects of arbitrary rule learning in mice. The methods allow for rapid acquisition of a non-matching to position (NMTP) rule that is relatively uninfluenced by innate behavioural strategies, and which give rise to stable baseline performance. Use of the NMTP rule under baseline conditions did not appear to be influenced by extra-maze cues nor intra-maze cues based on olfactory information. Hence the information used to guide performance at test was probably a visual and/or a kinaesthetic representation of the sample. Whatever the precise nature of the trace, its availability to guide behaviour was degraded by introducing delays between sample and test run components of the task. The characteristics of the so-called "forgetting curve" produced did not seem to be influenced by mediating strategies, whereby performance could be maintained following a delay by use of persistent olfactory cues or rehearsal of the correct response using body position, suggesting that, to some degree the degraded performance following delays was indexing effects on short term memory processes. We then went on to obtain behavioural indices that may be of use in dissociating, within-subjects, between learning the basic NMTP rule and being able to apply it in a choice situation, using single and simultaneous discrimination conditions, respectively. The data are discussed in terms of the utility of the behavioural methods to assay different psychological functions underlying the ability to learn, remember and apply non-matching to position rules in mice and their particular use in examining age-related deficits in cognitive functioning.

  2. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balpande, Suresh S.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of

  3. The Techniques for Arbitrary Secure Quering to Encrypted Cloud Database Using Fully Homomorphic Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipp B. Burtyka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of queries to an encrypted database without its decryption has been actively investigated recently by both cryptographers and database researchers. Such a work is allowed by various types of so-called Processable encryption (PE, as well as special architectures of database management systems (DBMS which use these types of encryption. The most known types of PEs are order-preserving encryption, homomorphic encryption, functional encryption, searchable encryption, and property-preserving encryption. Based on these types of encryption, various DBMSs are built, the most famous of which are CryptDB, Mo- nomi, Arx and DBMS by researchers from Novosibirsk. These DBMSs are built on the basis of various types of PEs, for example order-preserving encryption, homomorphic encryption and traditional block encryption. However, this approach can cause privacy problems. The best approach from the security viewpoint is to build a cryptographic database using only homomorphic encryption. An obstacle to this is insufficient efficiency of the existing homomorphic encryption schemes and incomplete solution of a set of issues related to ensuring the confidentiality of decisions making in an untrusted environment. In this paper, we propose the techniques for solving these problems, in particular for organization of execution arbitrary secure query to the encrypted relational database using fully homomorphic encryption. Also we propose a model of query condition that splits query into atomic predicates and linking condition. One of roposed technique is aimed at ensuring the security of linking condition of queries, others keep security of atomic predicates. The parameters of the proposed techniques make it possible to implement them using the already existing homomorphic encryption schemes. The proposed techniques can be a basis for building secure cryptographic cloud databases.

  4. A Numerical Method for Calculating Stellar Occultation Light Curves from an Arbitrary Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, D. M.; Elliot, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for speeding up numerical calculations of a light curve for a stellar occultation by a planetary atmosphere with an arbitrary atmospheric model that has spherical symmetry. This improved speed makes least-squares fitting for model parameters practical. Our method takes as input several sets of values for the first two radial derivatives of the refractivity at different values of model parameters, and interpolates to obtain the light curve at intermediate values of one or more model parameters. It was developed for small occulting bodies such as Pluto and Triton, but is applicable to planets of all sizes. We also present the results of a series of tests showing that our method calculates light curves that are correct to an accuracy of 10(exp -4) of the unocculted stellar flux. The test benchmarks are (i) an atmosphere with a l/r dependence of temperature, which yields an analytic solution for the light curve, (ii) an atmosphere that produces an exponential refraction angle, and (iii) a small-planet isothermal model. With our method, least-squares fits to noiseless data also converge to values of parameters with fractional errors of no more than 10(exp -4), with the largest errors occurring in small planets. These errors are well below the precision of the best stellar occultation data available. Fits to noisy data had formal errors consistent with the level of synthetic noise added to the light curve. We conclude: (i) one should interpolate refractivity derivatives and then form light curves from the interpolated values, rather than interpolating the light curves themselves; (ii) for the most accuracy, one must specify the atmospheric model for radii many scale heights above half light; and (iii) for atmospheres with smoothly varying refractivity with altitude, light curves can be sampled as coarsely as two points per scale height.

  5. The Inclusion of Arbitrary Load Histories in the Strength Decay Model for Stress Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Stress rupture is a failure mechanism where failures can occur after a period of time, even though the material has seen no increase in load. Carbon/epoxy composite materials have demonstrated the stress rupture failure mechanism. In a previous work, a model was proposed for stress rupture of composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPVs) and similar composite structures based on strength degradation. However, the original model was limited to constant load periods (holds) at constant load. The model was expanded in this paper to address arbitrary loading histories and specifically the inclusions of ramp loadings up to holds and back down. The broadening of the model allows for failures on loading to be treated as any other failure that may occur during testing instead of having to be treated as a special case. The inclusion of ramps can also influence the length of the "safe period" following proof loading that was previously predicted by the model. No stress rupture failures are predicted in a safe period because time is required for strength to decay from above the proof level to the lower level of loading. Although the model can predict failures during the ramp periods, no closed-form solution for the failure times could be derived. Therefore, two suggested solution techniques were proposed. Finally, the model was used to design an experiment that could detect the difference between the strength decay model and a commonly used model for stress rupture. Although these types of models are necessary to help guide experiments for stress rupture, only experimental evidence will determine how well the model may predict actual material response. If the model can be shown to be accurate, current proof loading requirements may result in predicted safe periods as long as 10(13) years. COPVs design requirements for stress rupture may then be relaxed, allowing more efficient designs, while still maintaining an acceptable level of safety.

  6. Power penalties for multi-level PAM modulation formats at arbitrary bit error rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliteevskiy, Nikolay A.; Wood, William A.; Downie, John D.; Hurley, Jason; Sterlingov, Petr

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in combining multi-level pulsed amplitude modulation formats (PAM-L) and forward error correction (FEC) in next-generation, short-range optical communications links for increased capacity. In this paper we derive new formulas for the optical power penalties due to modulation format complexity relative to PAM-2 and due to inter-symbol interference (ISI). We show that these penalties depend on the required system bit-error rate (BER) and that the conventional formulas overestimate link penalties. Our corrections to the standard formulas are very small at conventional BER levels (typically 1×10-12) but become significant at the higher BER levels enabled by FEC technology, especially for signal distortions due to ISI. The standard formula for format complexity, P = 10log(L-1), is shown to overestimate the actual penalty for PAM-4 and PAM-8 by approximately 0.1 and 0.25 dB respectively at 1×10-3 BER. Then we extend the well-known PAM-2 ISI penalty estimation formula from the IEEE 802.3 standard 10G link modeling spreadsheet to the large BER case and generalize it for arbitrary PAM-L formats. To demonstrate and verify the BER dependence of the ISI penalty, a set of PAM-2 experiments and Monte-Carlo modeling simulations are reported. The experimental results and simulations confirm that the conventional formulas can significantly overestimate ISI penalties at relatively high BER levels. In the experiments, overestimates up to 2 dB are observed at 1×10-3 BER.

  7. Proposal for arbitrary-order temporal integration of ultrafast optical signals using a single uniform-period fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Azaña, José

    2008-07-01

    A simple and practical all-fiber design for implementing arbitrary-order temporal integration of ultrafast optical waveforms is proposed and numerically investigated. We demonstrate that an ultrafast photonics integrator of any desired integration order can be implemented using a uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a properly designed amplitude-only grating apodization profile. In particular, the grating coupling strength must vary according to the (N-1) power of the fiber distance for implementing an Nth-order photonics integrator (N=1,2,...). This approach requires the same level of practical difficulty for realizing any given integration order. The proposed integration devices operate over a limited time window, which is approximately fixed by the round-trip propagation time in the FBG. Ultrafast arbitrary-order all-optical integrators capable of accurate operation over nanosecond time windows can be implemented using readily feasible FBGs.

  8. Digital simulation of two-dimensional random fields with arbitrary power spectra and non-Gaussian probability distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, Harold; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the......Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set...... with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In most cases the method provides satisfactory results and can thus be considered an engineering approach. Several illustrative...

  9. Non-Arbitrariness in Mapping Word Form to Meaning: Cross-Linguistic Formal Markers of Word Concreteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Hung, Jinyi; Westbury, Chris

    2017-05-01

    Arbitrary symbolism is a linguistic doctrine that predicts an orthogonal relationship between word forms and their corresponding meanings. Recent corpora analyses have demonstrated violations of arbitrary symbolism with respect to concreteness, a variable characterizing the sensorimotor salience of a word. In addition to qualitative semantic differences, abstract and concrete words are also marked by distinct morphophonological structures such as length and morphological complexity. Native English speakers show sensitivity to these markers in tasks such as auditory word recognition and naming. One unanswered question is whether this violation of arbitrariness reflects an idiosyncratic property of the English lexicon or whether word concreteness is a marked phenomenon across other natural languages. We isolated concrete and abstract English nouns (N = 400), and translated each into Russian, Arabic, Dutch, Mandarin, Hindi, Korean, Hebrew, and American Sign Language. We conducted offline acoustic analyses of abstract and concrete word length discrepancies across languages. In a separate experiment, native English speakers (N = 56) with no prior knowledge of these foreign languages judged concreteness of these nouns (e.g., Can you see, hear, feel, or touch this? Yes/No). Each naïve participant heard pre-recorded words presented in randomized blocks of three foreign languages following a brief listening exposure to a narrative sample from each respective language. Concrete and abstract words differed by length across five of eight languages, and prediction accuracy exceeded chance for four of eight languages. These results suggest that word concreteness is a marked phenomenon across several of the world's most widely spoken languages. We interpret these findings as supportive of an adaptive cognitive heuristic that allows listeners to exploit non-arbitrary mappings of word form to word meaning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. The Energy-Momentum Tensor at Finite Temperature in Arbitrary Curved Space-Times : Particles and Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Naohito, NAKAZAWA; Research Institute for Theoretical Physics Hiroshima University

    1985-01-01

    We formulate a field-theoretical method at finite temperature to calculate a thermal energy-momentum tensor in arbitrary curved space-times using a momentum-space representation of the thermal Green's function in terms of Riemann normal coordinates. In particular, the thermal energy-momentum tensor for a massive scalar field is calculated by the high-temperature expansion. A locally observed temperature is obtained by requiring the conservation law of the thermal energy-momentum tensor.

  11. Toward Arbitrary-Direction Energy Harvesting through Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerators Using Perovskite PbTiO3Nanotube Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Bum; Han, Jin Kyu; Noothongkaew, Suttinart; Kim, Seong Ku; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; Lim, Jongsun; Bu, Sang Don; An, Ki-Seok

    2017-02-01

    New fiber-type piezoelectric nanogenerator devices consisting of radially aligned perovskite PbTiO 3 nanotubes are designed for energy harvesting from arbitrary mechanical motion. The free-standing fiber-type nanogenerators generate constant amount of electric power by bending or wind motion regardless of direction, thus, extending the possibility of their practical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. An inhomogeneous T-Q equation for the open XXX chain with general boundary terms: completeness and arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomechie, Rafael I

    2013-01-01

    An inhomogeneous T-Q equation has recently been proposed by Cao, Yang, Shi and Wang for the open spin-1/2 XXX chain with general (nondiagonal) boundary terms. We argue that a simplified version of this equation describes all the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of this model. We also propose a generating function for the inhomogeneous T-Q equations of arbitrary spin. (fast track communication)

  13. Effective modeling and reverse-time migration for novel pure acoustic wave in arbitrary orthorhombic anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shigang; Liu, Yang

    2018-03-01

    The conventional pseudo-acoustic wave equations (PWEs) in arbitrary orthorhombic anisotropic (OA) media usually have coupled P- and SV-wave modes. These coupled equations may introduce strong SV-wave artifacts and numerical instabilities in P-wave simulation results and reverse-time migration (RTM) profiles. However, pure acoustic wave equations (PAWEs) completely decouple the P-wave component from the full elastic wavefield and naturally solve all the aforementioned problems. In this article, we present a novel PAWE in arbitrary OA media and compare it with the conventional coupled PWEs. Through decomposing the solution of the corresponding eigenvalue equation for the original PWE into an ellipsoidal differential operator (EDO) and an ellipsoidal scalar operator (ESO), the new PAWE in time-space domain is constructed by applying the combination of these two solvable operators and can effectively describe P-wave features in arbitrary OA media. Furthermore, we adopt the optimal finite-difference method (FDM) to solve the newly derived PAWE. In addition, the three-dimensional (3D) hybrid absorbing boundary condition (HABC) with some reasonable modifications is developed for reducing artificial edge reflections in anisotropic media. To improve computational efficiency in 3D case, we adopt graphic processing unit (GPU) with Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) instead of traditional central processing unit (CPU) architecture. Several numerical experiments for arbitrary OA models confirm that the proposed schemes can produce pure, stable and accurate P-wave modeling results and RTM images with higher computational efficiency. Moreover, the 3D numerical simulations can provide us with a comprehensive and real description of wave propagation.

  14. Learning of arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli in adults: the "bond effect" of haptic exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fredembach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well-known that human beings are able to associate stimuli (novel or not perceived in their environment. For example, this ability is used by children in reading acquisition when arbitrary associations between visual and auditory stimuli must be learned. The studies tend to consider it as an "implicit" process triggered by the learning of letter/sound correspondences. The study described in this paper examined whether the addition of the visuo-haptic exploration would help adults to learn more effectively the arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults were asked to learn 15 new arbitrary associations between visual stimuli and their corresponding sounds using two learning methods which differed according to the perceptual modalities involved in the exploration of the visual stimuli. Adults used their visual modality in the "classic" learning method and both their visual and haptic modalities in the "multisensory" learning one. After both learning methods, participants showed a similar above-chance ability to recognize the visual and auditory stimuli and the audio-visual associations. However, the ability to recognize the visual-auditory associations was better after the multisensory method than after the classic one. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed that adults learned more efficiently the arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli when the visual stimuli were explored with both vision and touch. The results are discussed from the perspective of how they relate to the functional differences of the manual haptic modality and the hypothesis of a "haptic bond" between visual and auditory stimuli.

  15. Hysteresis modelling of GO laminations for arbitrary in-plane directions taking into account the dynamics of orthogonal domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghel, A.P.S.; Sai Ram, B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chwastek, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland); Daniel, L. [Group of Electrical Engineering-Paris (GeePs), CNRS(UMR8507)/CentraleSupelec/UPMC/Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kulkarni, S.V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-11-15

    The anisotropy of magnetic properties in grain-oriented steels is related to their microstructure. It results from the anisotropy of the single crystal properties combined to crystallographic texture. The magnetization process along arbitrary directions can be explained using phase equilibrium for domain patterns, which can be described using Neel's phase theory. According to the theory the fractions of 180° and 90° domain walls depend on the direction of magnetization. This paper presents an approach to model hysteresis loops of grain-oriented steels along arbitrary in-plane directions. The considered description is based on a modification of the Jiles–Atherton model. It includes a modified expression for the anhysteretic magnetization which takes into account contributions of two types of domain walls. The computed hysteresis curves for different directions are in good agreement with experimental results. - Highlights: • An extended Jiles–Atherton description is used to model hysteresis loops in GO steels. • The model stresses the role of material anisotropy and different contributions of the two types of domain walls. • Hysteresis loops can be modeled along arbitrary in-plane directions. • Modeling results are in good agreement with experiments.

  16. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri; Urvoy, Alban; Firstenberg, Ofer; Büchler, Hans Peter; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole-dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source.

  17. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Sebastian; Büchler, Hans Peter; Tresp, Christoph; Urvoy, Alban; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Menke, Henri; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole–dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source. (tutorial)

  18. Stabilizing liquid drops of arbitrary shape by the interfacial jamming of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.; Cui, Mengmeng; Emrick, Todd

    2018-01-30

    A stabilized assembly including a first liquid phase of non-spherical droplets in a second liquid phase, wherein the second liquid phase is immiscible with the first phase, and nanoparticle surfactants assembled at an interface of the non-spherical droplets and the second phase is disclosed. The nanoparticle surfactants include nanoparticles and end-functionalized polymers that can interact through ligand type interactions, and the first phase is stabilized by a disordered, jammed layer of nanoparticle surfactants. A method of preparing a stabilized assembly is also disclosed.

  19. Dispersion measurement on chirped mirrors at arbitrary incidence angle and polarization state (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Mate; Somoskoi, Tamas; Seres, Imre; Borzsonyi, Adam; Sipos, Aron; Osvay, Károly

    2017-05-01

    The optical elements of femtosecond high peak power lasers have to fulfill more and more strict requirements in order to support pulses with high intensity and broad spectrum. In most cases chirped pulse amplification scheme is used to generate high peak power ultrashort laser pulses, where a very precise control of spectral intensity and spectral phase is required in reaching transform-limited temporal shape at the output. In the case of few cycle regime, the conventional bulk glass, prism-, grating- and their combination based compressors are not sufficient anymore, due to undesirable nonlinear effects in their material and proneness to optical damages. The chirped mirrors are also commonly used to complete the compression after a beam transport system just before the target. Moreover, the manufacturing technology requires quality checks right after production and over the lifetime of the mirror as well, since undesired deposition on the surface can lead alteration from the designed value over a large part of the aperture. For the high harmonic generation, polarization gating technology is used to generate single attosecond pulses [1]. In this case the pulse to be compressed has various polarization state falling to the chirped mirrors. For this reason, it is crucial to measure the dispersion of the mirrors for the different polarization states. In this presentation we demonstrate a simple technique to measure the dispersion of arbitrary mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 55 degree, even for a 12" optics. A large aperture 4" mirror has been scanned over with micrometer accuracy and the dispersion property through the surface has been investigated with a stable interference fringes in that robust geometry. We used Spectrally Resolved Interferometry, which is based on a Michaelson interferometer and a combined visible and infrared spectrometer. Tungsten halogen lamp with 10 mW coupled optical power was used as a white-light source so with the selected

  20. Accurate and versatile multivariable arbitrary piecewise model regression of nonlinear fluidic muscle behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veale, A.J.; Xie, Sheng Quan; Anderson, Iain Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Wearable exoskeletons and soft robots require actuators with muscle-like compliance. These actuators can benefit from the robust and effective interaction that biological muscles' compliance enables them to have in the uncertainty of the real world. Fluidic muscles are compliant but difficult to

  1. Optimum interior area thermal resistance model to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of an insulated pipe with arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, H.-M.

    2003-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics for an insulated regular polygonal (or circular) pipe are investigated by using a wedge thermal resistance model as well as the interior area thermal resistance model R th =t/K s /[(1-α)A 2 +αA 3 ] with a surface area weighting factor α. The errors of the results generated by an interior area model can be obtained by comparing with the exact results generated by a wedge model. Accurate heat transfer rates can be obtained without error at the optimum α opt with the related t/R 2 . The relation between α opt and t/R 2 is α opt =1/ln(1+t/R 2 )-1/(t/R 2 ). The value of α opt is greater than zero and less than 0.5 and is independent of pipe size R 2 /R cr but strongly dependent on the insulation thickness t/R 2 . The interior area model using the optimum value α opt with the related t/R 2 should also be applied to an insulated pipe with arbitrary shape within a very small amount of error for the results of heat transfer rates. The parameter R 2 conservatively corresponds to the outside radius of the maximum inside tangent circular pipe within the arbitrary shaped pipes. The approximate dimensionless critical thickness t cr /R 2 and neutral thickness t e /R 2 of an insulated pipe with arbitrary shape are also obtained. The accuracies of the value of t cr /R 2 as well as t e /R 2 are strongly dependent on the shape of the insulated small pipe. The closer the shape of an insulated pipe is to a regular polygonal or circular pipe, the more reliable will the values of t cr /R 2 as well as t e /R 2 be

  2. Analytic approximations of Von Kármán plate under arbitrary uniform pressure—equations in integral form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, XiaoXu; Liao, ShiJun

    2018-01-01

    Analytic approximations of the Von Kármán's plate equations in integral form for a circular plate under external uniform pressure to arbitrary magnitude are successfully obtained by means of the homotopy analysis method (HAM), an analytic approximation technique for highly nonlinear problems. Two HAM-based approaches are proposed for either a given external uniform pressure Q or a given central deflection, respectively. Both of them are valid for uniform pressure to arbitrary magnitude by choosing proper values of the so-called convergence-control parameters c 1 and c 2 in the frame of the HAM. Besides, it is found that the HAM-based iteration approaches generally converge much faster than the interpolation iterative method. Furthermore, we prove that the interpolation iterative method is a special case of the first-order HAM iteration approach for a given external uniform pressure Q when c 1 = - θ and c 2 = -1, where θ denotes the interpolation iterative parameter. Therefore, according to the convergence theorem of Zheng and Zhou about the interpolation iterative method, the HAM-based approaches are valid for uniform pressure to arbitrary magnitude at least in the special case c 1 = - θ and c 2 = -1. In addition, we prove that the HAM approach for the Von Kármán's plate equations in differential form is just a special case of the HAM for the Von Kármán's plate equations in integral form mentioned in this paper. All of these illustrate the validity and great potential of the HAM for highly nonlinear problems, and its superiority over perturbation techniques.

  3. SIMULATION OF SURFACE HEATING FOR ARBITRARY SHAPE’S MOVING BODIES/SOURCES BY USING R-FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Plankovskyy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to propose an efficient algorithm for determining the place of an action of a heat source with a given motion law for a body of an arbitrary shape using methods of analytical geometry. The solution to this problem is an important part of a modeling of a laser, plasma, ion beam treatment. In addition, it can also be used for mass transfer problems, such as simulation of coating, sputtering, painting etc. The problem is solved by the method of R-functions to define the shape of the test body and the heat source and the analytical determination zone shadowing. As an example, we consider the problem of using the method of ion cleaning parameters optimization considering temperature limitations. Application of the R-functions can significantly reduce the amount of computation with usage of the ray tracing algorithm. The numerical realization of the proposed method requires an accurate creation of a numerical mesh. The best results in terms of accuracy of determination the scope of the source can be expected when applying adaptive tunable meshes. In case of integration of the R-functions into the CAD system, the use of the proposed method would be simple enough. The proposed method allows to determine the range of the source by the expression, which is constructed only once for the body and the source of arbitrary geometric shapes moving in any law. This distinguishes the proposed approach against all known algorithms for ray tracing. The proposed method can also be used for time-dependent multisource with arbitrary shapes, which move in different directions.

  4. On the computation of the demagnetization tensor field for an arbitrary particle shape using a Fourier space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beleggia, M.; Graef, M. de

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented to compute the demagnetization tensor field for uniformly magnetized particles of arbitrary shape. By means of a Fourier space approach it is possible to compute analytically the Fourier representation of the demagnetization tensor field for a given shape. Then, specifying the direction of the uniform magnetization, the demagnetizing field and the magnetostatic energy associated with the particle can be evaluated. In some particular cases, the real space representation is computable analytically. In general, a numerical inverse fast Fourier transform is required to perform the inversion. As an example, the demagnetization tensor field for the tetrahedron will be given

  5. Linearization-based method for solving a multicomponent diffusion phase-field model with arbitrary solution thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welland, M. J.; Tenuta, E.; Prudil, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    This article describes a phase-field model for an isothermal multicomponent, multiphase system which avoids implicit interfacial energy contributions by starting from a grand potential formulation. A method is developed for incorporating arbitrary forms of the equilibrium thermodynamic potentials in all phases to determine an explicit relationship between chemical potentials and species concentrations. The model incorporates variable densities between adjacent phases, defect migration, and dependence of internal pressure on object dimensions ranging from the macro- to nanoscale. A demonstrative simulation of an overpressurized nanoscopic intragranular bubble in nuclear fuel migrating to a grain boundary under kinetically limited vacancy diffusion is shown.

  6. Irreversibility analysis in unsteady flow over a vertical plate with arbitrary wall shear stress and ramped wall temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad; ul Karim, Faizan; Khan, Ilyas; Ali, Farhad; Khan, Dolat

    2018-03-01

    The present paper aims to report irreversibility analysis in unsteady flow of viscous fluid over a vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature and arbitrary wall shear stress in the presence of thermal radiation. The equations which governing the problem are solved by the method of Laplace transform. The expression for Bejan number and volumetric entropy generation rate are calculated. The effects of different embedded parameters on the Bejan number and the entropy generation number are elaborated by graphs. It is noted that entropy production in thermal system can be minimized by decreasing thermal radiation. It is also observed that heat transfer increases the entropy of the system.

  7. A direct algorithm for convective adjustment of the vertical temperature profile for an arbitrary critical lapse rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmaev, Rashid A.

    1991-01-01

    An efficient direct algorithm of convective adjustment for an arbitrary critical value of the vertical temperature lapse rate gamma is proposed. The algorithm provides an exact and unique solution of a standard convective adjustment problem for models with temperature specified either on nonuniformly spaced levels or for layers of different thicknesses in pressure, sigma, or other vertical coordinate related to pressure. The algorithm may be recommended for use either directly in atmospheric models not explicitly including a hydrologic cycle with prescribed gamma, or as a part of more complicated parameterizations of moist convection, where gamma may be calculated depending on relative humidity.

  8. Threshold results for the existence of global and blow-up solutions to Kirchhoff equations with arbitrary initial energy

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yuzhu; Li, Qingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we will apply the modified potential well method and variational method to the study of the long time behaviors of solutions to a class of parabolic equation of Kirchhoff type. Global existence and blow up in finite time of solutions will be obtained for arbitrary initial energy. To be a little more precise, we will give a threshold result for the solutions to exist globally or to blow up in finite time when the initial energy is subcritical and critical, respectively. The decay...

  9. Noninvasive Quantum Measurement of Arbitrary Operator Order by Engineered Non-Markovian Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülte, Johannes; Bednorz, Adam; Bruder, Christoph; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    The development of solid-state quantum technologies requires the understanding of quantum measurements in interacting, nonisolated quantum systems. In general, a permanent coupling of detectors to a quantum system leads to memory effects that have to be taken into account in interpreting the measurement results. We analyze a generic setup of two detectors coupled to a quantum system and derive a compact formula in the weak-measurement limit that interpolates between an instantaneous (text-book type) and almost continuous—detector dynamics-dependent—measurement. A quantum memory effect that we term "system-mediated detector-detector interaction" is crucial to observe noncommuting observables simultaneously. Finally, we propose a mesoscopic double-dot detector setup in which the memory effect is tunable and that can be used to explore the transition to non-Markovian quantum measurements experimentally.

  10. Regular approach for generating van der Waals Cs coefficients to arbitrary orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsiannikov, Vitali D; Mitroy, J

    2006-01-01

    A completely general formalism is developed to describe the energy E disp = Σ s C s /R s of dispersion interaction between two atoms in spherically symmetric states. Explicit expressions are given up to the tenth order of perturbation theory for the dispersion energy E disp and dispersion coefficients C s . The method could, in principle, be used to derive the expressions for any s while including all contributing orders of perturbation theory for asymptotic interaction between two atoms. The theory is applied to the calculation of the complete series up to s = 30 for two hydrogen atoms in their ground state. A pseudo-state series expansion of the two-atom Green function gives rapid convergence of the series for radial matrix elements. The numerical values of C s are computed up to C 30 to a relative accuracy of 10 -7 or better. The dispersion coefficients for the hydrogen-antihydrogen interaction are obtained from the H-H coefficients by simply taking the absolute magnitude of C s

  11. Vol2velle: Printable Interactive Volume Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Sergej; Bruckner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Interaction is an indispensable aspect of data visualization. The presentation of volumetric data, in particular, often significantly benefits from interactive manipulation of parameters such as transfer functions, rendering styles, or clipping planes. However, when we want to create hardcopies of such visualizations, this essential aspect is lost. In this paper, we present a novel approach for creating hardcopies of volume visualizations which preserves a certain degree of interactivity. We present a method for automatically generating Volvelles, printable tangible wheel charts that can be manipulated to explore different parameter settings. Our interactive system allows the flexible mapping of arbitrary visualization parameters and supports advanced features such as linked views. The resulting designs can be easily reproduced using a standard printer and assembled within a few minutes.

  12. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system to use arbitrary Windows applications by directly controlling mouse and keyboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuler, Martin

    2015-08-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) allows to control a computer by brain activity only, without the need for muscle control. In this paper, we present an EEG-based BCI system based on code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs) that enables the user to work with arbitrary Windows applications. Other BCI systems, like the P300 speller or BCI-based browsers, allow control of one dedicated application designed for use with a BCI. In contrast, the system presented in this paper does not consist of one dedicated application, but enables the user to control mouse cursor and keyboard input on the level of the operating system, thereby making it possible to use arbitrary applications. As the c-VEP BCI method was shown to enable very fast communication speeds (writing more than 20 error-free characters per minute), the presented system is the next step in replacing the traditional mouse and keyboard and enabling complete brain-based control of a computer.

  13. Scattering of acoustic and electromagnetic waves by small impedance bodies of arbitrary shapes applications to creating new engineered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of acoustic or electromagnetic waves reflecting off, and scattering from, intercepted bodies of any size and kind can make determinations about the materials of those bodies and help in better understanding how to manipulate such materials for desired characteristics. This book offers analytical formulas which allow you to calculate acoustic and electromagnetic waves, scattered by one and many small bodies of an arbitrary shape under various boundary conditions. Equations for the effective (self-consistent) field in media consisting of many small bodies are derived. These results and formulas are new and not available in the works of other authors. In particular, the theory developed in this book is different from the classical work of Rayleigh on scattering by small bodies: not only analytical formulas are derived for the waves scattered by small bodies of an arbitrary shape, but the amplitude of the scattered waves is much larger, of the order O(a 2-k), than in Rayleigh scattering, where the or...

  14. Age of Acquisition Effects on Word Processing for Chinese Native Learners' English: ERP Evidence for the Arbitrary Mapping Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jin; Liu, Tongtong; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Pei, Xuna

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at distinguishing processing of early learned L2 words from late ones for Chinese natives who learn English as a foreign language. Specifically, we examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) effect arose during the arbitrary mapping from conceptual knowledge onto linguistic units. The behavior and ERP data were collected when 28 Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to perform semantic relatedness judgment on word pairs, which represented three stages of word learning (i.e., primary school, junior and senior high schools). A 3 (AoA: early vs. intermediate vs. late) × 2 (regularity: regular vs. irregular) × 2 (semantic relatedness: related vs. unrelated) × 2 (hemisphere: left vs. right) × 3 (brain area: anterior vs. central vs. posterior) within-subjects design was adopted. Results from the analysis of N100 and N400 amplitudes showed that early learned words had an advantage in processing accuracy and speed; there is a tendency that the AoA effect was more pronounced for irregular word pairs and in the semantic related condition. More important, ERP results showed early acquired words induced larger N100 amplitudes for early AoA words in the parietal area and more negative-going N400 than late acquire words in the frontal and central regions. The results indicate the locus of the AoA effect might derive from the arbitrary mapping between word forms and semantic concepts, and early acquired words have more semantic interconnections than late acquired words.

  15. Precision calibration method for binocular vision measurement systems based on arbitrary translations and 3D-connection information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jinghao; Jia, Zhenyuan; Liu, Wei; Fan, Chaonan; Xu, Pengtao; Wang, Fuji; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Binocular vision systems play an important role in computer vision, and high-precision system calibration is a necessary and indispensable process. In this paper, an improved calibration method for binocular stereo vision measurement systems based on arbitrary translations and 3D-connection information is proposed. First, a new method for calibrating the intrinsic parameters of binocular vision system based on two translations with an arbitrary angle difference is presented, which reduces the effect of the deviation of the motion actuator on calibration accuracy. This method is simpler and more accurate than existing active-vision calibration methods and can provide a better initial value for the determination of extrinsic parameters. Second, a 3D-connection calibration and optimization method is developed that links the information of the calibration target in different positions, further improving the accuracy of the system calibration. Calibration experiments show that the calibration error can be reduced to 0.09%, outperforming traditional methods for the experiments of this study. (paper)

  16. Research on analytical model and design formulas of permanent magnetic bearings based on Halbach array with arbitrary segmented magnetized angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nianxian; Wang, Dongxiong; Chen, Kuisheng; Wu, Huachun

    2016-01-01

    The bearing capacity of permanent magnetic bearings can be improved efficiently by using the Halbach array magnetization. However, the research on analytical model of Halbach array PMBs with arbitrary segmented magnetized angle has not been developed. The application of Halbach array PMBs has been limited by the absence of the analytical model and design formulas. In this research, the Halbach array PMBs with arbitrary segmented magnetized angle has been studied. The magnetization model of bearings is established. The magnetic field distribution model of the permanent magnet array is established by using the scalar magnetic potential model. On the basis of this, the bearing force model and the bearing stiffness model of the PMBs are established based on the virtual displacement method. The influence of the pair of magnetic rings in one cycle and the structure parameters of PMBs on the maximal bearing capacity and support stiffness characteristics are studied. The reference factors for the design process of PMBs have been given. Finally, the theoretical model and the conclusions are verified by the finite element analysis.

  17. A Ku band pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer using an arbitrary waveform generator for quantum control experiments at millikelvin temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Yung Szen, E-mail: yungszen@utm.my [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Tabuchi, Yutaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Negoro, Makoto; Kagawa, Akinori; Kitagawa, Masahiro, E-mail: kitagawa@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    We present a 17 GHz (Ku band) arbitrary waveform pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for experiments down to millikelvin temperatures. The spectrometer is located at room temperature, while the resonator is placed either in a room temperature magnet or inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator; the operating temperature range of the dilution unit is from ca. 10 mK to 8 K. This combination provides the opportunity to perform quantum control experiments on electron spins in the pure-state regime. At 0.6 T, spin echo experiments were carried out using γ-irradiated quartz glass from 1 K to 12.3 mK. With decreasing temperatures, we observed an increase in spin echo signal intensities due to increasing spin polarizations, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Through experimental data fitting, thermal spin polarization at 100 mK was estimated to be at least 99%, which was almost pure state. Next, to demonstrate the ability to create arbitrary waveform pulses, we generate a shaped pulse by superposing three Gaussian pulses of different frequencies. The resulting pulse was able to selectively and coherently excite three different spin packets simultaneously—a useful ability for analyzing multi-spin system and for controlling a multi-qubit quantum computer. By applying this pulse to the inhomogeneously broadened sample, we obtain three well-resolved excitations at 8 K, 1 K, and 14 mK.

  18. Fabrication of Micro-Optics Elements with Arbitrary Surface Profiles Based on One-Step Maskless Grayscale Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyuan Deng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A maskless lithography method to realize the rapid and cost-effective fabrication of micro-optics elements with arbitrary surface profiles is reported. A digital micro-mirror device (DMD is applied to flexibly modulate that the exposure dose according to the surface profile of the structure to be fabricated. Due to the fact that not only the relationship between the grayscale levels of the DMD and the exposure dose on the surface of the photoresist, but also the dependence of the exposure depth on the exposure dose, deviate from a linear relationship arising from the DMD and photoresist, respectively, and cannot be systemically eliminated, complicated fabrication art and large fabrication error will results. A method of compensating the two nonlinear effects is proposed that can be used to accurately design the digital grayscale mask and ensure a precise control of the surface profile of the structure to be fabricated. To testify to the reliability of this approach, several typical array elements with a spherical surface, aspherical surface, and conic surface have been fabricated and tested. The root-mean-square (RMS between the test and design value of the surface height is about 0.1 μm. The proposed method of compensating the nonlinear effect in maskless lithography can be directly used to control the grayscale levels of the DMD for fabricating the structure with an arbitrary surface profile.

  19. 3-D DC resistivity modelling with arbitrary long electrode sources using finite element method on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Yuanying; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    We present a 3-D electrical resistivity modelling with long electrode sources using finite element method on unstructured tetrahedral grids. The radius and resistivity of the electrode is neglected and the electrode can be regarded as a line source with finite length in our modelling. An approximated equation for determining the current density along the electrode is derived for current density correction in heterogeneous media. Electrical fields excited by arbitrary long electrode sources in heterogeneous conductive media can be simulated. Both total- and secondary-potential methods are implemented in the simulation. The analytic electrical potentials of an arbitrary long electrode source in a conductive half-space is derived and used for accuracy analysis in the numerical simulations. The apparent resistivities for survey arrays with long electrode sources are proposed based on the analytic solution of the half-space model. The responses of electrical fields excited by point electrode and long electrode sources to resistivity anomalies are compared with ground and borehole simulations, which shows that the arrays with long electrode sources are more sensitive to the anomalies than those with point electrode sources. A time-lapsed monitoring for hydraulic fracturing in oil field using the production wells as long electrode sources is also simulated, which indicates that the borehole potential data of the long electrode source array can help assess the location of the fracture zone.

  20. Exact Performance Analysis of Dual-Hop Semi-Blind AF Relaying over Arbitrary Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2011-10-01

    Relay transmission is promising for future wireless systems due to its significant cooperative diversity gain. The performance of dual-hop semi-blind amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems was extensively investigated, for transmissions over Rayleigh fading channels or Nakagami- fading channels with integer fading parameter. For the general Nakagami- fading with arbitrary values, the exact closed-form system performance analysis is more challenging. In this paper, we explicitly derive the moment generation function (MGF), probability density function (PDF) and moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over arbitrary Nakagami- fading channels with semi-blind AF relay. With these results, the system performance evaluation in terms of outage probability, average symbol error probability, ergodic capacity and diversity order, is conducted. The analysis developed in this paper applies to any semi-blind AF relaying systems with fixed relay gain, and two major strategies for computing the relay gain are compared in terms of system performance. All analytical results are corroborated by simulation results and they are shown to be efficient tools to evaluate system performance.

  1. Functional renormalization group approach to SU(N ) Heisenberg models: Real-space renormalization group at arbitrary N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buessen, Finn Lasse; Roscher, Dietrich; Diehl, Sebastian; Trebst, Simon

    2018-02-01

    The pseudofermion functional renormalization group (pf-FRG) is one of the few numerical approaches that has been demonstrated to quantitatively determine the ordering tendencies of frustrated quantum magnets in two and three spatial dimensions. The approach, however, relies on a number of presumptions and approximations, in particular the choice of pseudofermion decomposition and the truncation of an infinite number of flow equations to a finite set. Here we generalize the pf-FRG approach to SU (N )-spin systems with arbitrary N and demonstrate that the scheme becomes exact in the large-N limit. Numerically solving the generalized real-space renormalization group equations for arbitrary N , we can make a stringent connection between the physically most significant case of SU(2) spins and more accessible SU (N ) models. In a case study of the square-lattice SU (N ) Heisenberg antiferromagnet, we explicitly demonstrate that the generalized pf-FRG approach is capable of identifying the instability indicating the transition into a staggered flux spin liquid ground state in these models for large, but finite, values of N . In a companion paper [Roscher et al., Phys. Rev. B 97, 064416 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.064416] we formulate a momentum-space pf-FRG approach for SU (N ) spin models that allows us to explicitly study the large-N limit and access the low-temperature spin liquid phase.

  2. Numerically stable, scalable formulas for parallel and online computation of higher-order multivariate central moments with arbitrary weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebay, Philippe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Terriberry, Timothy B. [Xiph.Org Foundation, Arlington, VA (United States); Kolla, Hemanth [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bennett, Janine [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-29

    Formulas for incremental or parallel computation of second order central moments have long been known, and recent extensions of these formulas to univariate and multivariate moments of arbitrary order have been developed. Formulas such as these, are of key importance in scenarios where incremental results are required and in parallel and distributed systems where communication costs are high. We survey these recent results, and improve them with arbitrary-order, numerically stable one-pass formulas which we further extend with weighted and compound variants. We also develop a generalized correction factor for standard two-pass algorithms that enables the maintenance of accuracy over nearly the full representable range of the input, avoiding the need for extended-precision arithmetic. We then empirically examine algorithm correctness for pairwise update formulas up to order four as well as condition number and relative error bounds for eight different central moment formulas, each up to degree six, to address the trade-offs between numerical accuracy and speed of the various algorithms. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the most elaborate among the above mentioned formulas, with the utilization of the compound moments for a practical large-scale scientific application.

  3. Design a freeform microlens array module for any arbitrary-shape collimated beam shaping and color mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Enguo; Wu, Rengmao; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-06-01

    Collimated beam shaping with freeform surface usually employs a predefined mapping to tailor one or multiple freeform surfaces. Limitation on those designs is that the source, the freeform optics and the target are in fixed one-to-one correspondence with each other. To overcome this drawback, this paper presents a kind of freeform microlens array module integrated with an ultra-thin freeform microlens array and a condenser lens to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam into a prescribed uniform rectangular illumination and achieve color mixing. The design theory is explicitly given, and some key issues are addressed. Several different application examples are given, and the target is obtained with high uniformity and energy efficiency. This freeform microlens array module, which shows better flexibility and practicality than the regular designs, can be used not only to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam (or a collimated beam integrated with several sub-collimated beams), but also most importantly to achieve color mixing. With excellent optical performance and ultra-compact volume, this optical module together with the design theory can be further introduced into other applications and will have a huge market potential in the near future.

  4. Continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry: Extensions to arbitrary areas, multi-frequency and 3D capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, B.; Ewins, D.; Acciavatti, F.

    2014-01-01

    To date, differing implementations of continuous scan laser Doppler vibrometry have been demonstrated by various academic institutions, but since the scan paths were defined using step or sine functions from function generators, the paths were typically limited to 1D line scans or 2D areas such as raster paths or Lissajous trajectories. The excitation was previously often limited to a single frequency due to the specific signal processing performed to convert the scan data into an ODS. In this paper, a configuration of continuous-scan laser Doppler vibrometry is demonstrated which permits scanning of arbitrary areas, with the benefit of allowing multi-frequency/broadband excitation. Various means of generating scan paths to inspect arbitrary areas are discussed and demonstrated. Further, full 3D vibration capture is demonstrated by the addition of a range-finding facility to the described configuration, and iteratively relocating a single scanning laser head. Here, the range-finding facility was provided by a Microsoft Kinect, an inexpensive piece of consumer electronics

  5. Partition functions of classical Heisenberg spin chains with arbitrary and different exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregg, P J; GarcIa-Palacios, J L; Svedlindh, P

    2008-01-01

    The classical Heisenberg model has been effective in modelling exchange interactions in molecular magnets. In this model, the partition function is important as it allows the calculation of the magnetization and susceptibility. For an ensemble of N-spin sites, this typically involves integrals in 2N dimensions. Here, for two-, three- and four-spin nearest neighbour open linear Heisenberg chains these integrals are reduced to sums of known functions, using a result due to Gegenbauer. For the case of the three- and four-spin chains, the sums are equivalent in form to the results of Joyce. The general result for an N-spin chain is also obtained

  6. Grid Free Plasma Simulations for Arbitrary Domains with Applications to Ion Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christlieb, Andrew; Krasny, Robert; Emhoff, Jerry; Boyd, Iain

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the potential advantages that grid-free particle methods may have over traditional particle-mesh methods for electrostatic plasma simulations. The grid-free method is O(N log N) and couples a treecode field solver with a boundary integral method to efficiently solve Poisson's equation on a bounded domain without using an underlying mesh [1,2,3]. The treecode computes the free-space potential by replacing particle-particle interactions with particle-cluster interactions, while the boundary integral method accounts for the desired boundary conditions (e.g. Dirichlet, Neumann, or mixed). The boundary integral method effectively represents the domain boundary as a set of point charges and the treecode is used to evaluate the forces due to the internal and boundary charges in an efficient manner. This approach is well-suited for complicated domains. We will present an overview of the method and then consider the application of mesh-based and grid-free field solvers for an ion optics simulation. REFERENCES [1] Christlieb, A.J., Krasny, R., Emhoff, J., Boyd, I. (2004) presented at the XXIV Rarefied Gas Dynamics Conference, Bari Italy [2] Christlieb, A.J., Krasny, R., Verboncoeur, J.P. (2004) Comput. Phys. Commun., to appear [3] Lindsay, K., Krasny, R. (2001) J. Comput. Phys., vol. 172, p. 879

  7. Analytic approximation to the scattering of antiplane shear waves by free surfaces of arbitrary shape via superposition of incident, reflected and diffracted rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juan; Gomez, Juan; Saenz, Mario; Vergara, Juan

    2013-03-01

    The scattering induced by surface topographies of arbitrary shapes, submitted to horizontally polarized shear waves (SH) is studied analytically. In particular, we propose an analysis technique based on a representation of the scattered field like the superposition of incident, reflected and diffracted rays. The diffraction contribution is the result of the interaction of the incident and reflected waves, with the geometric singularities present in the surface topography. This splitting of the solution into different terms, makes the difference between our method and alternative numerical/analytical approaches, where the complete field is described by a single term. The contribution from the incident and reflected fields is considered using standard techniques, while the diffracted field is obtained using the idea of a ray as was introduced by the geometrical theory of diffraction. Our final solution however, is an approximation in the sense that, surface-diffracted rays are neglected while we retain the contribution from corner-diffracted rays and its further diffraction. These surface rays are only present when the problem has smooth boundaries combined with shadow zones, which is far from being the typical scenario in far-field earthquake engineering. The proposed technique was tested in the study of a combined hill-canyon topography and the results were compared with those of a boundary element algorithm. After considering only secondary sources of diffraction, a difference of 0.09 per cent (with respect to the incident field amplitude) was observed. The proposed analysis technique can be used in the interpretation of numerical and experimental results and in the preliminary prediction of the response in complex topographies.

  8. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Goor, F.A. van; Boller, K.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM chirped pulse. Different types of chirp and pulse envelopes are considered. In the case of small chirp, an analytical expression is found for arbitrary temporal profiles of the chirp and the pulse envelope. In the 3D case, the interaction with a chirped pulse results in a polarization-dependent scattering of charged particles

  9. Information propagation for interacting-particle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, Norbert [Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, MC 305-16, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Harrison, Sarah K. [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, United Kingdome (United Kingdom); Osborne, Tobias J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz-Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, DE-30167 Hannover (Germany); Institute for Advanced Study Berlin, DE-14193 Berlin (Germany); Eisert, Jens [Institute for Advanced Study Berlin, DE-14193 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, DE-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    We study the speed at which information propagates through systems of interacting quantum particles moving on a regular lattice and show that for a certain class of initial conditions there exists a maximum speed of sound at which information can propagate. Our argument applies equally to quantum spins, bosons such as in the Bose-Hubbard model, fermions, anyons, and general mixtures thereof, on arbitrary lattices of any dimension. It also pertains to dissipative dynamics on the lattice, and generalizes to the continuum for quantum fields. Our result can be seen as an analog of the Lieb-Robinson bound for strongly correlated models.

  10. Multi-branes boundary states with open string interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesando, Igor

    2008-01-01

    We derive boundary states which describe configurations of multiple parallel branes with arbitrary open string states interactions in bosonic string theory. This is obtained by a careful discussion of the factorization of open/closed string states amplitudes taking care of cycles needed by ensuring vertices commutativity: in particular the discussion reveals that already at the tree level open string knows of the existence of closed string

  11. Long-range dispersion interactions. III: Method for two homonuclear atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; Zhang, J.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for systematically evaluating the long-range dispersion interaction between two homonuclear atoms in arbitrary LS coupled states is outlined. The method is then used to generate dispersion coefficients for a number of the low-lying states of the Na and Mg dimers

  12. Maternal Interactional Behavior with Nonorganic Failure-to-Thrive Infants: A Case Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotar, Dennis; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Observations of mothers of 47 6-month-old infants with early histories of nonorganic failure to thrive indicated these mothers demonstrated less adaptive social interactional behavior, less positive affective behavior, and more arbitrary termination of feedings when compared to mothers of physically normal infants. (DB)

  13. Consideration of Transient Stream/Aquifer Interaction with the Nonlinear Boussinesq Equation using HPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Sfahani, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of stream–aquifer interaction was investigated via mathematical modeling using the Boussinesq equation. A new approximate solution of the one-dimensional Boussinesq equation is presented for a semi-infinite aquifer when the hydraulic head at the source is an arbitrary function of t...

  14. A First-Order Analytical Theory for Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Arbitrary Elliptical Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete first-order analytical solution, which includes the short periodic terms, for the problem of optimal low-thrust limited-power transfers between arbitrary elliptic coplanar orbits in a Newtonian central gravity field is obtained through canonical transformation theory. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mayer problem of optimal control theory with Cartesian elements—position and velocity vectors—as state variables. After applying the Pontryagin maximum principle and determining the maximum Hamiltonian, classical orbital elements are introduced through a Mathieu transformation. The short periodic terms are then eliminated from the maximum Hamiltonian through an infinitesimal canonical transformation built through Hori method. Closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for the average canonical system by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation through separation of variables technique. For transfers between close orbits a simplified solution is straightforwardly derived by linearizing the new Hamiltonian and the generating function obtained through Hori method.

  15. Fractional Laplacian time-space models for linear and nonlinear lossy media exhibiting arbitrary frequency power-law dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Holm, S.

    2004-04-01

    Frequency-dependent attenuation typically obeys an empirical power law with an exponent ranging from 0 to 2. The standard time-domain partial differential equation models can describe merely two extreme cases of frequency-independent and frequency-squared dependent attenuations. The otherwise nonzero and nonsquare frequency dependency occurring in many cases of practical interest is thus often called the anomalous attenuation. In this study, a linear integro-differential equation wave model was developed for the anomalous attenuation by using the space-fractional Laplacian operation, and the strategy is then extended to the nonlinear Burgers equation. A new definition of the fractional Laplacian is also introduced which naturally includes the boundary conditions and has inherent regularization to ease the hypersingularity in the conventional fractional Laplacian. Under the Szabo's smallness approximation, where attenuation is assumed to be much smaller than the wave number, the linear model is found consistent with arbitrary frequency power-law dependency.

  16. How to best name a place? Facilitation and inhibition of route learning due to descriptive and arbitrary location labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eMeilinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishing verbal memory traces for non-verbal stimuli was reported to facilitate or inhibit memory for the non-verbal stimuli. We show that these effects are also observed in a domain not indicated before – wayfinding. Fifty-three participants followed a guided route in a virtual environment. They were asked to remember half of the intersections by relying on the visual impression only. At the other 50% of the intersections, participants additionally heard a place name, which they were asked to memorize. For testing, participants were teleported to the intersections and were asked to indicate the subsequent direction of the learned route. In Experiment 1, intersections’ names were arbitrary (i.e., not related to the visual impression. Here, participants performed more accurately at unnamed intersections. In Experiment 2, intersections’ names were descriptive and participants’ route memory was more accurate at named intersections. Results have implications for naming places in a city and for wayfinding aids.

  17. Shape Sensing Using a Multi-Core Optical Fiber Having an Arbitrary Initial Shape in the Presence of Extrinsic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Matthew D. (Inventor); Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Shape of a multi-core optical fiber is determined by positioning the fiber in an arbitrary initial shape and measuring strain over the fiber's length using strain sensors. A three-coordinate p-vector is defined for each core as a function of the distance of the corresponding cores from a center point of the fiber and a bending angle of the cores. The method includes calculating, via a controller, an applied strain value of the fiber using the p-vector and the measured strain for each core, and calculating strain due to bending as a function of the measured and the applied strain values. Additionally, an apparent local curvature vector is defined for each core as a function of the calculated strain due to bending. Curvature and bend direction are calculated using the apparent local curvature vector, and fiber shape is determined via the controller using the calculated curvature and bend direction.

  18. Arbitrary Angular Momentum Electron Repulsion Integrals with Graphical Processing Units: Application to the Resolution of Identity Hartree-Fock Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Wennmohs, Frank; Neese, Frank

    2017-07-11

    A resolution of identity based implementation of the Hartree-Fock method on graphical processing units (GPUs) is presented that is capable of handling basis functions with arbitrary angular momentum. For practical reasons, only functions up to (ff|f) angular momentum are presently calculated on the GPU, thus leaving the calculation of higher angular momenta integrals on the CPU of the hybrid CPU-GPU environment. Speedups of up to a factor of 30 are demonstrated relative to state-of-the-art serial and parallel CPU implementations. Benchmark calculations with over 3500 contracted basis functions (def2-SVP or def2-TZVP basis sets) are reported. The presented implementation supports all devices with OpenCL support and is capable of utilizing multiple GPU cards over either MPI or OpenCL itself.

  19. Frequency comb generation using femtosecond pulses and cross-phase modulation in optical fiber at arbitrary center frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D J; Diddams, S A; Taubman, M S; Cundiff, S T; Ma, L S; Hall, J L

    2000-03-01

    A technique is presented for generating optical frequency combs centered at arbitrary wavelengths by use of cross-phase modulation (XPM) between a femtosecond pulse train and a cw laser beam by copropagating these signals through an optical fiber. We report results from use of this method to place a 90-MHz frequency comb on an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and on a frequency-doubled Nd:YVO(4) laser at 532 nm. XPM is verified to be the comb-generating process, and the width of the frequency comb is measured and compared with theory. The spacing of the frequency comb is compared with the femtosecond source, and a frequency measurement with this comb is demonstrated.

  20. Colliding galaxies, rotating neutron stars and merging black holes-visualizing high dimensional datasets on arbitrary meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benger, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of datasets stemming from diverse sources is challenged by the large variety of substantial differences in topology, geometry and nature of the associated data fields. Since there is no standard on how to formulate and treat data for scientific visualization, algorithms are frequently implemented in a highly domain-specific way. Here, we explore the potential of point-wise rendering as a generic way to represent single or multiple fields instantaneously on arbitrary mesh types. This approach is discussed within the terminology of fiber bundles as a general mathematical concept to model scalar-, vector- and tensorfields given on topological spaces (with manifolds as a particular case). We give application examples based on datasets originating from astrophysics and show first results of a tensor field visualization of a recently produced complex dataset of colliding black holes in their final orbit. We finally propose a data layout representing the mathematical concept of a 'field' generic enough to handle all cases involved.