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Sample records for arbitrarily primed pcr

  1. Evaluation of zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed PCR methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I Wayan Suardana; Dyah Ayu Widiasih; I Gusti Ngurah Kade Mahardika; Komang Januartha Putra Pinatih; Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR) methods as one of the DNA fingerprinting methods. Methods:A total of 14 isolates consisted of 11 isolates originated from human feces with renal failure symptoms, 2 isolates originated from cattle feces, and 1 control isolate were used in this study. DNA of each isolate was extracted, and their profiles were studied by using AP-PCR method with M13 F and M13 R arbitrary primers. Results:The results founded that all of 14 isolates had similarity range from 54.6%to 88.5%. Isolates KL-106(3) and KL-55(6) originated from humans showed the degree of similarity with isolates SM-25(1) and SM-7(1) originated from cattle as high as 85%and 77%, respectively. Conclusions:The high degree of similarity between isolates originated from cattle and human indicated the high potency of zoonoses. The results also concluded AP-PCR method as a briefly fingerprinting method in order to trace the epidemiological of E. coli O157:H7.

  2. Evaluation of zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed PCR methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I; Wayan; Suardana; Dyah; Ayu; Widiasih; I; Gusti; Ngurah; Kade; Mahardika; Komang; Januartha; Putra; Pinatih; Budi; Setiadi; Daryono

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed-PCR(AP-PCR) methods as one of the DNA fingerprinting methods.Methods: A total of 14 isolates consisted of 11 isolates originated from human feces with renal failure symptoms, 2 isolates originated from cattle feces, and 1 control isolate were used in this study. DNA of each isolate was extracted, and their pro files were studied by using AP-PCR method with M13 F and M13 R arbitrary primers.Results: The results founded that all of 14 isolates had similarity range from 54.6% to88.5%. Isolates KL-106(3) and KL-55(6) originated from humans showed the degree of similarity with isolates SM-25(1) and SM-7(1) originated from cattle as high as 85% and77%, respectively.Conclusions: The high degree of similarity between isolates originated from cattle and human indicated the high potency of zoonoses. The results also concluded AP-PCR method as a brie fly fingerprinting method in order to trace the epidemiological of E. coli O157:H7.

  3. RNA arbitrarily primed PCR and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal plasticity in the acid tolerance response of Streptococcus macedonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Boutou, Effrossyni; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos; Vorgias, Constantinos E; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2008-10-01

    We have previously reported that an acid tolerance response (ATR) can be induced in Streptococcus macedonicus cells at mid-log phase after autoacidification, transient exposure to acidic pH, or acid habituation, as well as at stationary phase. Here, we compared the transcriptional profiles of these epigenetic phenotypes, by RNA arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR), and their whole-cell chemical compositions, by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). RAP-PCR fingerprints revealed significant differences among the phenotypes, indicating that gene expression during the ATR is influenced not only by the growth phase but also by the treatments employed to induce the response. The genes coding for the mannose-specific IID component, the 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase, the 3-oxoacyl-acyl carrier protein, the large subunit of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, and a hypothetical protein were found to be induced at least under some of the acid-adapting conditions. Furthermore, principal component analysis of the second-derivative-transformed FT-IR spectra segregated S. macedonicus phenotypes individually in all spectral regions that are characteristic for major cellular constituents like the polysaccharides of the cell wall, fatty acids of the cell membrane, proteins, and other compounds that absorb in these regions. These findings provide evidence for major changes in cellular composition due to acid adaptation that were clearly different to some extent among the phenotypes. Overall, our data demonstrate the plasticity in the ATR of S. macedonicus, which reflects the inherent ability of the bacterium to adjust the response to the distinctiveness of the imposed stress condition, probably to maximize its adaptability.

  4. Chromosomal assignment of human DNA fingerprint sequences by simultaneous hybridization to arbitrarily primed PCR products from human/rodent monochromosome cell hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Jun; Sekiya, Takao [National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Navarro, J.M. [Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-15

    We have developed a technique for the simultaneous chromosomal assignment of multiple human DNA sequences from DNA fingerprints obtained by the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Radioactively labeled human AP-PCR products are hybridized to DNA fingerprints generated with the same arbitrary primer from human/rodent monochromosome cell hybrids after electroblotting to a nylong membrane. Human-specific hybridization bands in the human/rodent fingerprints unambiguously determine their chromosome of origin. We named this method simultaneous hybridization of arbitrarily primed PCR DNA fingerprinting products (SHARP). Using this approach, we determined the chromosomal origins of most major bands of human AP-PCR fingerprints obtained with two arbitrary primers. Altogether, the chromosomal localization of near 50 DNA fragments, comprehensive of all human chromosomes except chromosomes 21 and Y, was achieved in this simple manner. Chromosome assignment of fingerprint bands is essential for molecular karyotyping of cancer by AP-PCR DNA fingerprinting. The SHARP method provides a convenient and powerful tool for this purpose. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Elucidation of the Vibrio anguillarum genetic response to the potential fish probiont Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, using RNA-arbitrarily primed PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrøm, Kim; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The antagonistic interaction between a potential fish probiont, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2, and its target organism, Vibrio anguillarum, was investigated by studying the genetic response of the target organism when it was exposed to the antagonist. We compared the differential display...... of arbitrarily PCR-amplified gene transcripts in V anguillarum serotype O1 when it was exposed to AH2 supernatant with the display of transcripts in nonexposed control cultures. Growth of V. anguillarum was immediately arrested when the organism was exposed to 50% (vol/vol) AH2 supernatant. A total of 10...

  6. National Department of Defense Surveillance for Invasive Streptococcus Pneumoniae: Antibiotic Resistance, Serotype Distribution, and Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-15

    penicillin -susceptible and peni- cillin-resistant Streptococcnspneuttmoniae serotypes in Canada. J Infect Dis Streptococcus pneumoniae Surveillance Group...Gray for the Streptococcus pneumonia Surveillance Group Report No. 00-44 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH...Defense Surveillance for Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae : Antibiotic Resistance, Serotype Distribution, and Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain

  7. Universally Primed PCR (UP-PCR) and its applications for taxonomy in Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mette Lübeck

    2004-01-01

    @@ Universally Primed PCR (UP-PCR) is a PCR fingerprinting method that has demonstrated its applicability in different aspects of mycology. These applications constitute analysis of genome structures, identification of species, analysis of population and species diversity, revealing of genetic relatedness at infra-and inter-species level, and identification of UP-PCR markers at different taxonomic levels (strain, group and/or species) . A further development of the UP-PCR technique is an UP-PCR product cross hybridisation assay that facilitates investigation of sequence similarity (homology) of UP-PCR products and grouping of strains into UP-PCR hybridisation groups. This separates the strains into entities with high genetic similarity (DNA homology) . UP-PCR has been used as an aid in taxonomy and species delineation, and to monitor biocontrol strains following their release into the environment by fingerprint characterisation of pure cultures and through direct detection in soil by amplification of UP-PCR-derived SCAR markers. The technique has been applied to Trichoderma strains in particularly with the aims of strain recognition and classification.

  8. Triplet repeat primed PCR simplifies testing for Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Mohamed; Millson, Alison; Miller, Christine E; Lyon, Elaine

    2013-03-01

    Diagnostic and predictive testing for Huntington disease (HD) requires an accurate determination of the number of CAG repeats in the Huntingtin (HHT) gene. Currently, when a sample appears to be homozygous for a normal allele, additional testing is required to confirm amplification from both alleles. If the sample still appears homozygous, Southern blot analysis is performed to rule out an undetected expanded HTT allele. Southern blot analysis is expensive, time-consuming, and labor intensive and requires high concentrations of DNA. We have developed a chimeric PCR process to help streamline workflow; true homozygous alleles are easily distinguished by this simplified method, and only very large expanded alleles still require Southern blot analysis. Two hundred forty-six HD samples, previously run with a different fragment analysis method, were analyzed with our new method. All samples were correctly genotyped, resulting in 100% concordance between the methods. The chimeric PCR assay was able to identify expanded alleles up to >150 CAG repeats. This method offers a simple strategy to differentiate normal from expanded CAG alleles, thereby reducing the number of samples reflexed to Southern blot analysis. It also provides assurance that expanded alleles are not routinely missed because of allele dropout.

  9. Detection of large expansions in myotonic dystrophy type 1 using triplet primed PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita eSingh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disease caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the DMPK gene. Methodology for genetic testing of DM1 is currently not optimal, in particular for the early-onset patients in pediatric populations where large expanded (CTGn alleles are usually common. Individuals who are homozygous for a normal allele and individuals who are heterozygous for one normal and one large expanded allele are indistinguishable by conventional PCR, as both generate a single product of the normal allele. Thus, reflex Southern blot has often been needed to distinguish these cases. With the aim to decrease the need for reflex Southern blot tests, a novel, single-tube CTG repeat primed PCR technology was designed to distinguish the true homozygous patients from the individuals whose large alleles are missed by conventional PCR. The method utilizes two gene-specific primers that flank the triplet repeat region and a third primer set complementary to the repeated region to detect the large alleles. Compared to traditional PCR, this novel Triplet-repeat Primed PCR can detect the presence of large expanded alleles with demonstrating a ladder pattern. Using this single-step protocol, 45 specimens were tested. The alleles with sizes ≤ 85 repeats were determined by the gene specific primers. 13 abnormal alleles, which missed by the conventional PCR, were successfully detected by the Triplet-repeat Primed PCR. All the abnormal alleles were confirmed and measured by Southern Blot analysis. In summary, optimized TP-PCR can accurately detect the presence of the large expanded alleles. With the ability to distinguish the true homozygous patients from the false negative homozygous individuals, the application of the optimized TP-PCR can significantly reduce the need of Southern Blot tests.

  10. Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrath, Uwe; Beckers, Gerold J.M.; Flors, Victor;

    2006-01-01

    Infection of plants by necrotizing pathogens or colonization of plant roots with certain beneficial microbes causes the induction of a unique physiological state called "priming." The primed state can also be induced by treatment of plants with various natural and synthetic compounds. Primed plan...

  11. Characterization of Iranian nonaflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus based on microsatellite-primed PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshyarfard, Mahmoud; Rouhani, Hamid; Falahati-Rastegar, Mahrokh; Malekzadeh-Shafaroudi, Saeid; Mahdikhani-Moghaddam, Esmat

    2015-01-01

    Out of fifty-two Iranian nonaflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus,collected from various substrates (soil and kernel) and sources (peanut, corn and pistachio), fifteen representatives were selected according to their different geographical origins (six provinces: Guilan and Golestan, Ardebil, Fars, Kerman and Semnan) and vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs, IR1 to IR15) for microsatellite-primed PCR analysis. Two inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers AFMPP and AFM13 were used to determine polymorphism and the relationship among strain isolates. A. flavus isolates were identified by their morphologies and their identities were confirmed by PCR amplification using the specific primer pair ITS1 and ITS4. The results revealed variations in the percentages of polymorphisms. In the ISSR analysis, primers AFMPP and AFM13 generated a total of 18 and 23 amplicons among the fungal strains, out of which 12 (66.7%) and 22 (95.7%) were polymorphic, respectively. Cluster analysis of the ISSR data was carried out using 1 D DNA gel image analysis. The two dendrograms obtained through these markers showed six different clusterings of testing nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus L strains, but we noticed that some clusters were different in some cases. The microsatellite-primed PCR data revealed that the Iranian nonaflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus were not clustered according to their origins and sources. This study is the first to characterize Iranian nonaflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus using ISSR markers.

  12. Characterization of Iranian Nonaflatoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus Based on Microsatellite-primed PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Houshyarfard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Out of fifty-two Iranian nonaflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus, which were collected from various substrates (soil and kernel and sources (peanut, corn and pistachio, fifteen representatives were selected according to their different geographical origins (six provinces: Guilan and Golestan, Ardebil, Fars, Kerman and Semnan and vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs, IR1 to IR15 for microsatellite-primed PCR analysis. Two inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR primers AFMPP and AFM13 were used to determine the polymorphism and the relationship among strain isolates. The A. flavus isolates were identified by their morphologies and their identities were confirmed by PCR amplification using the specific primer pair ITS1 and ITS4. The results revealed variations in the percentages of polymorphisms. In ISSR analysis, primers AFMPP and AFM13 generated a total of 18 and 23 amplicons among the fungal strains, which 12 (66.7% and 22 (95.7% were polymorphic, respectively. Cluster analysis of ISSR data was carried out by using 1 D DNA gel image analysis. The two dendrograms obtained through these markers showed six different clustering of testing nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus L strains, but we noted that some clusters were different in some cases. The microsatellite-primed PCR data revealed that the Iranian nonaflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus were not clustered based on their origins and sources. This study is the first to characterize Iranian nonaflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus using ISSR markers.

  13. Universally Primed-PCR indicates geographical variation of Peronospora farinosa ex. Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette

    2010-02-01

    In the Andean region of South America downy mildew, caused by Peronospora farinosa, is the most important disease of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Peronospora farinosa, a highly polyphyletic species, occurs on quinoa and wild relatives on all continents. However, very little is known about the geographic diversity of the pathogen. As the interest in quinoa as a novel crop is increasing worldwide, geographical differences in the population structure of the downy mildew pathogen must be taken into consideration in order to design appropriate control strategies under a variety of circumstances. As a step towards understanding the geographic diversity of P. farinosa from quinoa, 40 downy mildew isolates from the Andean highlands and Denmark were characterized using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Eight UP-PCR primers were tested. A combined analysis of markers separated the Danish and Andean isolates in two distinct clusters. This study raises new questions about the origin and spread of P. farinosa on quinoa, its geographic diversity and host specificity.

  14. Identification and differentiation of Candida parapsilosis complex species by use of exon-primed intron-crossing PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Wu, Zengbin; Ling, Bo; Pan, Shuming; Liao, Wanqing; Pan, Weihua; Yao, Zhirong

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex is composed of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and the closely related species Lodderomyces elongisporus. An exon-primed intron-crossing PCR assay was developed here to distinguish the members of the species complex on the basis of the distinct sizes of amplicons, and Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were further discriminated by restriction enzyme analysis.

  15. T Oligo-Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (TOP-PCR): A Robust Method for the Amplification of Minute DNA Fragments in Body Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Yu-Shin; Chen, Tzu-Han; Huang, Yu-Feng; Midha, Mohit K.; Shiau, Hsin-Chieh; Shen, Chen-Yang; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yu, Alice L.; Chiu, Kuo Ping

    2017-01-01

    Body fluid DNA sequencing is a powerful noninvasive approach for the diagnosis of genetic defects, infectious agents and diseases. The success relies on the quantity and quality of the DNA samples. However, numerous clinical samples are either at low quantity or of poor quality due to various reasons. To overcome these problems, we have developed T oligo-primed polymerase chain reaction (TOP-PCR) for full-length nonselective amplification of minute quantity of DNA fragments. TOP-PCR adopts homogeneous “half adaptor” (HA), generated by annealing P oligo (carrying a phosphate group at the 5′ end) and T oligo (carrying a T-tail at the 3′ end), for efficient ligation to target DNA and subsequent PCR amplification primed by the T oligo alone. Using DNA samples from body fluids, we demonstrate that TOP-PCR recovers minute DNA fragments and maintains the DNA size profile, while enhancing the major molecular populations. Our results also showed that TOP-PCR is a superior method for detecting apoptosis and outperforms the method adopted by Illumina for DNA amplification. PMID:28094343

  16. 应用AP-PCR鉴定浅部真菌病病原菌菌种%Identification the Type of Superficial Mycosis by the Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 曾维惠; 聂建军; 覃静净

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究应用任意引物聚合酶链反应(AP-PCR)对浅部真菌病病原菌进行分子生物学鉴定的意义.方法 应用OPAA11(5′-ACCCGACCTG-3′),OPAA17(5′-GAGCCCGACT-3′),OPD1 8(5′-GAGAGCCAAC-3′)和OPU15(5′-ACGGGCCAGT-3′)四种随机引物,随机扩增从浅部真菌病患者的皮屑或甲屑标本中提取的真菌DNA.结果 从各标本提取所得的红色毛癣菌、许兰毛癣菌、紫色毛癣菌、犬小孢子菌、絮状表皮癣菌及石膏样小孢子菌DNA经OPAA11,OPAA17,OPD18或OPU15扩增后,产生的电泳带型在不同菌种间存在明显差异.结论 AP-PCR对于浅部真菌病病原菌的鉴定具有诊断价值.%Objective To study the significance of AP-PCR in identification of superficial mycosis. Methods Using 4 random primers, OPAA11 (5'-ACCCGACCTG-3'), OPAA17 (5'-GAGCCCGACT-3'), OPD18 (5'-GAGAGCCAAC-3'), OPU15 (5'-ACGGGCCAGT-3') to amplification fungus DNA extracted from the scale of the superficial mycosis patients. Results DNA of trichophyton rubrum, trichophyton schoenleini, trichophyton prupureatum, microsporum canis, acrothesium floccosum, microsporum gypseum from clinic specimens showed different band patterns after being amplified by random primer OPAA11, OPAA 17, OPD1 8 or OPU15. Conclusion AP-PCR may applied in the identification of dermatophytes for superficial mycosis.

  17. Prime Knowledge about Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Several proofs demonstrating that there are infinitely many primes, different types of primes, tests of primality, pseudo primes, prime number generators and open questions about primes are discussed in Section 1. Some of these notions are elaborated upon in Section 2, with discussions of the Riemann zeta function and how algorithmic complexity…

  18. Effect of specific or random c-DNA priming on sensitivity of tyrosinase nested RT-PCR : Potential clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calogero, A; Hospers, GAP; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Mulder, NH; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    2000-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be of clinical relevance in identifying malignant melanoma cells in blood or tissues of patients at risk for disseminated melanoma. The diagnostic value of this marker however, is still controversial. The objective of this study was to

  19. Characterization and evaluation of an arbitrary primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) product for the specific detection of Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Jafar A; AlMomin, Sabah; Al-Mouqati, Salwa A; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory detection of Brucella is based largely on bacterial isolation and phenotypic characterization. These methods are lengthy and labor-intensive and have been associated with a heightened risk of laboratory-acquired infection. Antibody based indirect detection methods also suffer from limitations in proper diagnosis of the organism. To overcome these problems, nucleic acid amplification has been explored for rapid detection and confirmation of the presence of Brucella spp. PCR-based diagnostics is useful for screening large populations of livestock to identify infected individuals and confirms the presence of the pathogen. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed and identified a 1.3 kb PCR fragment specifically amplifiable from DNA isolated from Brucella. A BLAST search revealed no significant homology with the reported sequences from species other than the members of Brucella. The isolated fragment seems to be a part of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase gene in Brucella sp. Translational BLAST revealed certain degree of homology of this sequence with orthologs of this gene reported from other microbial species at the deduced amino acid level. The sequence information was used to develop PCR based assays to detect Brucella sp. from various samples. The minimum detection limit of Brucella from blood and milk samples spiked with Brucella DNA was found to be 1 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the PCR based detection protocol was successfully used for the detection of Brucella from various organs and spiked samples of diseased sheep. Diagnosis of Brucellosis by PCR based method reported in this study is relatively rapid, specific and simple.

  20. Single-step protocol for preparation of plant tissue for analysis by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, D; Henry, R

    1995-09-01

    PCR has many applications in the isolation and analysis of plant DNA. The influence of salt and EDTA concentration, pH, incubation time and temperature on the preparation of plant material for PCR was evaluated. A general single-step method was developed in which a small amount of plant tissue was heated in a simple solution. The DNA in the supernatant was found to be suitable for most PCR applications including arbitrarily primed PCR (random-amplified polymorphic DNA) and PCR with specific primers for both single- and multiple-copy genes. The technique is much simpler than those generally used for plant DNA preparation and was successful with tissues from a wide range of species.

  1. Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable suns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Baudon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V,E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem on a special class of graphs called suns. This paper is a complement of [O. Baudon, F. Gilbert, M. Woźniak, Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs, research report, 2010].

  2. 简并寡核苷酸引物PCR技术的建立及其检测灵敏度分析%Degenerate Oligonucleotide Primed-PCR Technology Establishment and Its Sensitivity Test Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建强; 刘宝琴; 蔡继峰; 李文慧; 龙仁; 侯一平

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立基于简并寡核苷酸引物PCR(degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR,DOP-PCR)的全基因组检测体系,并对其可靠性、灵敏度进行研究.方法 通过荧光标记STR复合扩增毛细管电泳检测系统,对DOP-PCR扩增产物进行检测,获得DOP-PCR检测体系的灵敏度、可靠性. 结果 成功建立了可靠的DOP-PCR检测体系,经过DOP-PCR预处理再进行STR分型检验,其检测灵敏度可达到5个细胞量(相当于30pg).结论 本研究建立的DOP-PCR技术可靠且可提高法医学微量检材的检测灵敏度.%Objective To establish a whole genome amplification testing system based on degenerate oligonu-cleotide primed-PCR(DOP-PCR) and to explore its reliability and sensitivity. Methods DOP-PCR amplified production was detected by fluorescent labeled multiplex STR amplification and capillary electrophore-sis detection system to determine reliability and sensitivity of DOP-PCR system. Results DOP-PCR system was successfully established and the detection sensitivity reached 5 cells (30pg) by pretreatment of DOP-PCR and then detection of STR genotyping. Conclusion The system established in this study is reliable and more testing sensitive for forensic trace evidence.

  3. Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Baudon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V;E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The main aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem. We present a solution for trees, suns, and partially for a class of 2-connected graphs called balloons.

  4. Use of dual priming oligonucleotide system-based multiplex RT-PCR combined with high performance liquid chromatography assay for simultaneous detection of five enteric viruses associated with acute enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Lu; Wang, Zi-Wei; Qin, Yue; Sun, Chao; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Jiang, Yan-Ping; Qiao, Xin-Yuan; Tang, Li-Jie; Li, Yi-Jing; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a specific and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of human astrovirus, human rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus and enteric adenovirus associated with acute enteritis was developed, based on the specific dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) system and the sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The DPO system-based multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) combined with HPLC assay was more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time SYBR Green PCR assay, and showed a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 96%-100%. The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay indicates its great potential to be a useful tool for the accurate diagnosis of enteric virus infections.

  5. Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Julia

    2013-01-01

    RT-PCR is commonly used to test for genetic diseases and to characterize gene expression in various tissue types, cell types, and over developmental time courses. This serves as a form of expression profiling, but typically as a candidate approach. RT-PCR is also commonly used to clone cDNAs for further use with other molecular biology techniques (e.g., see Oligo(dT)-primed RT-PCR isolation of polyadenylated RNA degradation intermediates and Circularized RT-PCR (cRT-PCR): analysis of RNA 5' ends, 3' ends, and poly(A) tails).

  6. Prime Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the difficulty of creating playful representation of domain-specific abstract concepts, this study discusses the design of Prime Slaughter, a computer game aimed at facilitating individual sense-making of abstract mathematical concepts. Specifically the game proposes a transposition...... of primality and factorization into playful interactions, addressed to primary and early secondary school children. Taking into account individual needs expressed by children regarding play, during a participatory design processes aimed at enhancing learning in museums, Prime Slaughter allows for multiple...

  7. Hawking Temperature of an Arbitrarily Accelerating Black Hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei-Zhen Pan; Wei Liu

    2014-09-01

    Hawking temperature of an arbitrarily accelerating black hole with electric and magnetic charges are obtained based on the Klein–Gordon equation with a correct-dimension new tortoise coordinate transformation.

  8. Exon-primed, intron-crossing (EPIC) loci for five nuclear genes in deep-sea protobranch bivalves: primer design, PCR protocols and locus utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert M; Etter, R J

    2011-11-01

    We describe PCR primers and amplification protocols developed to obtain introns from conserved nuclear genes in deep-sea protobranch bivalves. Because almost no sequence data for protobranchs are publically available, mollusk and other protostome sequences from GenBank were used to design degenerate primers, making these loci potentially useful in other invertebrate taxa. Amplification and sequencing success varied across the test group of 30 species, and we present five loci spanning this range of outcomes. Intron presence in the targeted regions also varied across genes and species, often within single genera; for instance, the calmodulin and β-tubulin loci contained introns with high frequency, whereas the triose phosphate isomerase locus never contained an intron. In introns for which we were able to obtain preliminary estimates of polymorphism levels in single species, polymorphism was greater than traditional mitochondrial loci. These markers will greatly increase the ability to assess population structure in the ecologically important protobranchs, and may prove useful in other taxa as well.

  9. Arbitrarily thin metamaterial structure for perfect absorption and giant magnification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Yi; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2011-01-01

    In our common understanding, for strong absorption or amplification in a slab structure, the desire of reducing the slab thickness seems contradictory to the condition of small loss or gain. In this paper, this common understanding is challenged. It is shown that an arbitrarily thin metamaterial...... layer can perfectly absorb or giantly amplify an incident plane wave at a critical angle when the real parts of the permittivity and permeability of the metamaterial are zero while the absolute imaginary parts can be arbitrarily small. The metamaterial layer needs a totally reflective substrate...

  10. Prime Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the difficulty of creating playful representation of domain-specific abstract concepts, this study discusses the design of Prime Slaughter, a computer game aimed at facilitating individual sense-making of abstract mathematical concepts. Specifically the game proposes a transposition...... forms of play and their integration. A simple working prototype has already been developed; it will be tested and re-designed through participatory workshops, involving a group of children in our target group....

  11. Hawking Radiation via Tunnelling from Arbitrarily Dimensional Schwarzschild Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jun; ZHAO Zheng; GAO Chang-Jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ We extend Parikh's recent work to the arbitrarily dimensional Schwarzschild black holes whose Arnowitt-DeserMisner (ADM) mass is identical to its mass parameter. We view Hawking radiation as a tunnelling process across the event horizon. From the tunnelling probability we also find a leading correction to the semiclassical emission rate. The result consists with an underlying unitary theory.

  12. Electromagnetic radiation and motion of arbitrarily shaped particle

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2001-01-01

    Covariant form of equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped particle in the electromagnetic radiation field is presented. Equation of motion in the proper frame of the particle uses the radiation pressure cross section 3 $\\times$ 3 matrix. The obtained equation of motion is compared with known result.

  13. Sequential decays of the. Upsilon. prime prime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, U.; Kaarsberg, T.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lovelock, D.M.J.; Narain, M.; Schamberger, R.D.; Willins, J.; Yanagisawa, C. (Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (USA)); Franzini, P.; Tuts, P.M.; Kanekal, S.; Wu, Q. (Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (USA))

    1991-03-25

    We have studied the decay chain {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}{r arrow}{chi}{sub {ital b}}{sup {prime}}({chi}{sub {ital b}}){gamma} {r arrow}{Upsilon}{prime}({Upsilon}){gamma}{gamma}{r arrow}{mu}{mu}({ital ee}){gamma}{gamma} with the CUSB II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. For a sample of 1.33{times}10{sup 6} {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}'s we find {approx}400 events. We measure branching ratios for {chi}{sub {ital b}{ital J}}{sup {prime}}{r arrow}{Upsilon}{prime}({Upsilon}){gamma} and, using calculated {ital E}1 rates, we derive total and hadronic widths of the {chi}{sub {ital b}}{sup {prime}} states. From these widths we obtain values of {alpha}{sub {ital s}} in the range between 0.13 and 0.21, in agreement with other determinations. We observe the suppressed decay {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}{r arrow}{chi}{sub {ital b}}{gamma}. The measured branching ratio suggests that relativistic effects are important. We also determine the branching ratios for {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}{r arrow}{Upsilon}{prime}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} to be (1.3{plus minus}0.4{plus minus}0.2)% and {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}{r arrow}{Upsilon}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} to be (1.8{plus minus}0.3{plus minus}0.2)%.

  14. Prime Mover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael Frederik

    2002-01-01

    The important issue of technological determinism is analysed in relation to various theoretical positions, and it is highlighted with a chain of empirical cases drawn form history. The fundamental questions to be considered is the nature of determinism in Karl Marx' philosophical work and the shi...... of modernism versus primitivism in historiography. This question is narrowed down to the discussion of the vertical water wheel as the prime mover in history. The problem is related to the abuse of technical development as an independent variable in general history....

  15. Pressure Transient Analysis of Arbitrarily Shaped Fractured Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Huimei; He Yingfu; Jiang Hanqiao; Chen Minfeng

    2007-01-01

    Reservoir boundary shape has a great influence on the transient pressure response of oil wells located in arbitrarily shaped reservoirs.Conventional analytical methods can only be used to calculate transient pressure response in regularly shaped reservoirs.Under the assumption that permeability varies exponentially with pressure drop,a mathematical model for well test interpretation of arbitrarily shaped deformable reservoirs was established.By using the regular perturbation method and the boundary element method,the model could be solved.The pressure behavior of wells with wellbore storage and skin effects was obtained by using the Duhamel principle.The type curves were plotted and analyzed by considering the effects of permeability modulus,arbitrary shape and impermeable region.

  16. Kerr black holes as particle accelerators to arbitrarily high energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañados, Máximo; Silk, Joseph; West, Stephen M

    2009-09-11

    We show that intermediate mass black holes conjectured to be the early precursors of supermassive black holes and surrounded by relic cold dark matter density spikes can act as particle accelerators with collisions, in principle, at arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies in the case of Kerr black holes. While the ejecta from such interactions will be highly redshifted, we may anticipate the possibility of a unique probe of Planck-scale physics.

  17. Bell tests with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency and homodyne measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Mateus; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Santos, Marcelo França; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra

    2011-01-01

    We show that hybrid local measurements combining homodyne measurements and photodetection provide violations of a Bell inequality with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency. This is shown in two different scenarios: when one part receives an atom entangled to the field mode to be measured by the other part and when both parts make similar photonic measurements. Our findings definitely put the hybrid measurement scenario as a strong candidate for the implementation of a loophole-free Bell test.

  18. A Simplified Algorithm for Impedance Calculation of Arbitrarily Shaped Radiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; SHA Kan; GAN Woon-Seng; YAN Yong-Hong; TIAN Jing

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is well known that a computationally efficient model for calculation of radiation impedance of an arbitrarily shaped piston has been developed. We simplify the proposed algorithm by using geometric characteristics and intrinsic relationship between the analytic expressions. As an example, the method accuracy is illustrated and the radiation impedance of a right-angled triangular piston is calculated. The numerical results are in good agreement with that obtained directly by the quadruple integral method.

  19. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.

    2006-01-01

    A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowi......-Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated....

  20. PCR-RFLP and AP-PCR of rbcL and ITS of rDNA Show That × Taxodiomeria peizhongii (Taxodium x Cryptomeria) Is not an Intergeneric Hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    ×Taxodiomeria peizhongiiZ. J. Ye, J. J. Zhang et S. H. Pan was regarded as a new intergeneric hybrid between Taxodium mucronatum Tenore (as the female donor) and Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibrenk ex Otto et Dietr (as the male donor). To confirm the authenticity of the intergeneric hybrid, we analyzed the rbcL gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 26S-18S ribosomal RNA gene of the three species using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), and obtained the following results: i) Taxodiomeria peizhongii had the same RFLP maps of the rbcL gene and the ITS as Taxodium mucronatum, but was different from C. fortunei; ii) a 311-bp PCR amplification product was obtained in C. fortunei by AP-PCR of ITS, but was not found in Taxodiomeria peizhongii. Our results have demonstrated that C. fortunei did not provide any genome for Taxodiomeria peizhongii, implying that T. peizhongii is not an intergeneric hybrid between the two species.

  1. Development of a rapid PCR assay specific for Staphylococcus saprophyticus and application to direct detection from urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, F; Picard, F J; Ménard, C; Roy, P H; Ouellette, M; Bergeron, M G

    2000-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is one of the most frequently encountered microorganisms associated with acute urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young, sexually active female outpatients. Conventional identification methods based on biochemical characteristics can efficiently identify S. saprophyticus, but the rapidities of these methods need to be improved. Rapid and direct identification of this bacterium from urine samples would be useful to improve time required for the diagnosis of S. saprophyticus infections in the clinical microbiology laboratory. We have developed a PCR-based assay for the specific detection of S. saprophyticus. An arbitrarily primed PCR amplification product of 380 bp specific for S. saprophyticus was sequenced and used to design a set of S. saprophyticus-specific PCR amplification primers. The PCR assay was specific for S. saprophyticus when tested with DNA from 49 gram-positive and 31 gram-negative bacterial species. This assay was also able to amplify efficiently DNA from all 60 strains of S. saprophyticus from various origins tested. This assay was adapted for direct detection from urine samples. The sensitivity levels achieved with urine samples was 19 CFU with 30 cycles of amplification and 0.5 CFU with 40 cycles of amplification. This PCR assay for the specific detection of S. saprophyticus is simple and rapid (approximately 90 min, including the time for urine specimen preparation).

  2. ON ALMOST PRIME SUBMODULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hani A. Khashan

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we define almost prime submodules as a new generalization of prime and weakly prime submodules of unitary modules over a commutative ring with identity.We study some basic properties of almost prime submodules and give some characterizations of them,especially for (finitely generated faithful) multiplication modules.

  3. Scattering of arbitrarily shaped beam by a chiral object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Sun, Yufa; Zhang, Huayong

    2017-02-01

    An exact semi-analytical solution to the arbitrarily shaped beam scattering by a chiral object is proposed through expanding the scattered and internal fields in terms of appropriate spherical vector wave functions. By using the boundary conditions and the method of moments technique, the unknown expansion coefficients are determined. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are given to a chiral spheroid and a chiral circular cylinder of finite length, and the scattering characteristics are discussed concisely.

  4. Carrier recovery systems for arbitrarily mapped APK signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Y.; Namiki, J.

    1982-10-01

    This paper introduces new carrier recovery techniques for general amplitude-phase keying (APK) modulation signals. The APK's include not only normal QAM but also arbitrarily mapped APK's, including an unsymmetrical APK. Difficulty in phase error detection due to signal mapping complexity, undesirable stable-lock point existence, and the contradiction between a fast acquisition and an accurate steady state performance can be overcome. For that purpose, an acquisition mode and a steady-state mode are used. Furthermore, read-only memories (ROM) are used for recognizing various system states. Random sampling controlled PLL noise performance and acquisition mode carrier recovery circuit pull-in performance with hysteresis property was obtained.

  5. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  6. RAP-PCR fingerprinting reveals time-dependent expression of development-related genes following differentiation process of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianpei; Yu, Xiaomin; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiles are important data to reveal the functions of genes putatively involved in crucial biological processes. RNA arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) and specifically primed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were combined to screen differentially expressed genes following development of a commercial Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain 8010 (serotype 3a3b). Six differentially expressed transcripts (RAP1 to RAP6) were obtained. RAP1 encoded a putative triple helix repeat-containing collagen or an exosporium protein H related to spore pathogenicity. RAP2 was homologous to a ClpX protease and an ATP-dependent protease La (LonB), which likely acted as virulence factors. RAP3 was homologous to a beta subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase required for the development of Myxococcus xanthus. RAP4 had homology to a quinone oxidoreductase involved in electron transport and ATP formation. RAP5 showed significant homology to a uridine kinase that mediates phosphorylation of uridine and azauridine. RAP6 shared high sequence identity with 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate-hydroxymethyltransferase (also known as ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase or PanB) involved in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The findings described here would help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the differentiation process of B. thuringiensis and unravel novel pathogenic genes.

  7. A finite crack with arbitrarily varied surface piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    We study the contribution of arbitrarily varied surface piezoelectricity to the anti-plane deformation and in-plane electric fields of a hexagonal piezoelectric material containing a finite crack. The varied surface piezoelectricity is incorporated by using an extended version of the continuum-based surface/interface model of Gurtin and Murdoch. In our discussion, the surface properties, including the surface elastic stiffness, the surface piezoelectric modulus and the surface dielectric permittivity, are assumed to be varied arbitrarily along the crack surfaces. By using the Green’s function method, the original boundary value problem is reduced to a system of two coupled first-order Cauchy singular integro-differential equations. Through a diagonalization strategy, the coupled system is transformed into two independent singular integro-differential equations, each of which can be numerically solved by using the collocation method. Our results indicate that the variation of the surface electroelastic moduli exerts a significant influence on the crack opening displacement, the electric potential jump across the crack faces and on the strengths of the logarithmic singularity in stresses and electric displacements at the crack tips.

  8. Efficient Prime Counting and the Chebyshev Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function where is the logarithm integral and the number of primes up to is well known to be positive up to the (very large Skewes' number. Likewise, according to Robin's work, the functions and , where and are Chebyshev summatory functions, are positive if and only if Riemann hypothesis (RH holds. One introduces the jump function at primes and one investigates , , and . In particular, , and for . Besides, for any odd , an infinite set of the so-called Chebyshev primes. In the context of RH, we introduce the so-called Riemann primes as champions of the function (or of the function . Finally, we find a good prime counting function , that is found to be much better than the standard Riemann prime counting function.

  9. An Alternate Set of Basis Functions for the Electromagnetic Solution of Arbitrarily-Shaped, Three-Dimensional, Closed, Conducting Bodies Using Method of Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.; Baginski, Michael E.; Rao, Sadasiva M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present an alternate set of basis functions, each defined over a pair of planar triangular patches, for the method of moments solution of electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems associated with arbitrarily-shaped, closed, conducting surfaces. The present basis functions are point-wise orthogonal to the pulse basis functions previously defined. The prime motivation to develop the present set of basis functions is to utilize them for the electromagnetic solution of dielectric bodies using a surface integral equation formulation which involves both electric and magnetic cur- rents. However, in the present work, only the conducting body solution is presented and compared with other data.

  10. 13 CFR 125.2 - Prime contracting assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procurements as prime contractors. (3) Requirement for market research. In addition to the requirements of... contract containing bundled or substantially bundled requirements, an agency must conduct market research... PCR shall recommend to the procurement activity alternative procurement methods which would...

  11. MIMO Multiple Access Channel with an Arbitrarily Varying Eavesdropper

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiang; Yener, Aylin

    2012-01-01

    A two-transmitter Gaussian multiple access wiretap channel with multiple antennas at each of the nodes is investigated. The channel matrices at the legitimate terminals are fixed and revealed to all the terminals, whereas the channel matrix of the eavesdropper is arbitrarily varying and only known to the eavesdropper. The secrecy degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) region under a strong secrecy constraint is characterized. A transmission scheme that orthogonalizes the transmit signals of the two users at the intended receiver and uses a single-user wiretap code is shown to be sufficient to achieve the s.d.o.f. region. The converse involves establishing an upper bound on a weighted-sum-rate expression. This is accomplished by using induction, where at each step one combines the secrecy and multiple-access constraints associated with an adversary eavesdropping a carefully selected group of sub-channels.

  12. Almost Graded Prime Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Jaber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Graded commutative ring with unity over an abelian group were introduced by many authors such as T. Y. Lam and C. T. C. Wall, and almost prime ideals over commutative rings with unity were introduced by S.M. Batwadeker and P.K. Sharma, and this forced us to try to extend the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Approach: We develop the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Results: We extended some basic results about almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case, and then we gave a relationship between n-almost graded prime ideals and weakly graded prime ideals. Conclusion: The extended results about almost and n-almost graded prime ideals allow us to classify further properties about almost graded prime ideals. 2000 AMS Mathematics Subject Classification: 13 A 02.

  13. Array projector design for projection on arbitrarily curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stephanie; Schreiber, Peter; Riedel, Alf; Sieler, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The micro-optical array projector is a new and innovative possibility to project patterns onto arbitrary shaped surfaces1 . In contrast to single-aperture systems the illuminance of the projected image is raised by only increasing the lateral extent of the projector while keeping the length constant. Thanks to the setup - analogous to a fly's eye condenser - we obtain a very compact design with homogenization of illumination. The images to be projected are presented as arbitrarily curved CAD-objects. Because of its complexity, the first attempt was a chief-ray backtrace implemented into a CAD-program, with the individual projectorlets modelled as pinhole cameras. With this principle one can trace the slides for several applications like the projection on perpendicular, as well as tilted and curved surfaces. Since aberrations cannot be considered with the simple CAD backtrace described above, we used the commercially available raytracer Zemax®, controlled by a macro, working in conjunction with a CADprogram for improved slide mask generation. Despite both methods, depending on the complexity of the optical system, are generating the fundamental mask data, the paper will show that there is a tradeoff between calculation time and accuracy. Based on this evaluation we will discuss further development as well as the possibility of improvement concerning the calculation methods. The different methods were investigated to determine their advantages and disadvantages. This provides the basis for the scope of application. Further we will demonstrate simulations as well as results obtained with built demonstrators.

  14. Quasi-static relaxation of arbitrarily shaped sessile drops

    CERN Document Server

    Iliev, S; Nikolayev, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    We study a spontaneous relaxation dynamics of arbitrarily shaped liquid drops on solid surfaces in the partial wetting regime. It is assumed that the energy dissipated near the contact line is much larger than that in the bulk of the fluid. We have shown rigorously in the case of quasi-static relaxation using the standard mechanical description of dissipative system dynamics that the introduction of a dissipation term proportional to the contact line length leads to the well known local relation between the contact line velocity and the dynamic contact angle at every point of an arbitrary contact line shape. A numerical code is developed for 3D drops to study the dependence of the relaxation dynamics on the initial drop shape. The available asymptotic solutions are tested against the obtained numerical data. We show how the relaxation at a given point of the contact line is influenced by the dynamics of the whole drop which is a manifestation of the non-local

  15. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  16. Dynamics of structural priming

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Gaurav

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is about how our syntactic choice changes with linguistic experience. Studies on syntactic priming show that our decisions are influenced by sentences that we have recently heard or recently spoken. They also show that not all sentences have an equal amount of influence; that repetition of verbs increases priming (the lexical-boost effect) and that some verbs are more susceptible to priming than others. This thesis explores how and why syntactic decisions change with time and what...

  17. Priming semantico e museografia

    OpenAIRE

    Annalisa Banzi

    2012-01-01

    Il priming è una tipologia di memoria implicita che facilita l’apprendimento di stimoli di diversa natura (stimoli visivi, semantici, etc.). Un allestimento museale che adotti strumenti basati sul priming potrebbe aiutare il pubblico a selezionare i contenuti relativi agli oggetti esposti. In questo articolo viene descritta l’applicazione del priming semantico allo spazio museale. Questa operazione in prima battutta potrebbe essere letta come una mancanza di fiducia nelle capacità cognitive d...

  18. An ERP investigation of orthographic priming with superset primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktori, Maria; Midgley, Katherine; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2015-01-12

    Prime stimuli formed by inserting unrelated letters in a given target word (called "superset" primes) provide a means to modify the relative positions of the letters shared by prime and target. Here we examined the time-course of superset priming effects in an ERP study using the sandwich-priming paradigm. We compared the effects of superset primes formed by the insertion of unrelated letters (e.g., maurkdet-MARKET), or by the insertion of hyphens (e.g., ma-rk-et-MARKET), with identity priming (e.g., market-MARKET), all measured relative to unrelated control primes. Behavioral data revealed significantly greater priming in the hyphen-insert condition compared with the letter-insert condition. In the ERP signal, letter-insert priming emerged later than hyphen-insert priming and produced a reversed priming effect in the N400 time-window compared with the more typical N400 priming effects seen for both hyphen-insert priming and identity priming. The different pattern of priming effects seen for letter-insert primes and hyphen-insert primes suggests that compared with identity priming, letter superset priming reflects the joint influence of: (1) a disruption in letter position information, and (2) an inhibitory influence of mismatching letters.

  19. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...

  20. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  1. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  2. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  3. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  4. The semantic priming project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin

    2013-12-01

    Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies.

  5. Prime Submodules and Flat Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.AZIZI

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some characterizations of prime submodules in fiat modules and, particularly,in free modules are given. Furthermore, the height of prime submodules and some saturated chain of prime submodules are also given.

  6. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  7. The stability of beam with two billeting arbitrarily, but symmetrical support under action of follow loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ts. Gnuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The non-conservative stability problem of pressing beam when two support billeting symmetrical on arbitrarily distance from the end is considered. It is show the possibility statical form loss of stability. The critical loads are determined.

  8. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng; Li-Zhi; Xiao; Bo-xun; 等

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method in time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  9. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li-zhi; Xiao Bo-xur; Zhu Guo-qiang; Yang Zi-jie

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method of time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  10. A Relation between Prime Numbers and Twin Prime Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Every mathematician has been concerned with prime numbers, and has metwith mysterious surprises about them. Besides intuition, using empirical methods has an important role to findrelations between prime numbers. A relation between any prime numberand any twin prime number has been obtained.

  11. Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shan

    2009-01-01

    An effective vaccine usually requires more than one time immunization in the form of prime-boost. Traditionally the same vaccines are given multiple times as homologous boosts. New findings suggested that prime-boost can be done with different types of vaccines containing the same antigens. In many cases such heterologous prime-boost can be more immunogenic than homologous prime-boost. Heterologous prime-boost represents a new way of immunization and will stimulate better understanding on the...

  12. The Set of Prime Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Iovane, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    In this work we show that the prime distribution is deterministic. Indeed the set of prime numbers P can be expressed in terms of two subsets of N using three specific selection rules, acting on two sets of prime candidates. The prime candidates are obtained in terms of the first perfect number. The asymptotic behaviour is also considered. We obtain for the first time an explicit relation for generating the full set P of prime numbers smaller than n or equal to n.

  13. Shape-adaptive discrete wavelet transform for coding arbitrarily shaped texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shipeng; Li, Weiping

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a shape adaptive discrete wavelet transform (SA-DWT) scheme for coding arbitrarily shaped texture. The proposed SA-DWT can be used for object-oriented image coding. The number of coefficients after SA-DWT is identical to the number of pels contained in the arbitrarily shaped image objects. The locality property of wavelet transform and self-similarity among subbands are well preserved throughout this process.For a rectangular region, the SA-DWT is identical to a standard wavelet transform. With SA-DWT, conventional wavelet based coding schemes can be readily extended to the coding of arbitrarily shaped objects. The proposed shape adaptive wavelet transform is not unitary but the small energy increase is restricted at the boundary of objects in subbands. Two approaches of using the SA-DWT algorithm for object-oriented image and video coding are presented. One is to combine scalar SA-DWT with embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding technique, the other is an extension of the normal vector wavelet coding (VWC) technique to arbitrarily shaped objects. Results of applying SA-VWC to real arbitrarily shaped texture coding are also given at the end of this paper.

  14. Efficient prime counting and the Chebyshev primes

    CERN Document Server

    Planat, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The function $\\epsilon(x)=li(x)-\\pi(x)$ is known to be positive up to the (very large) Skewes' number. Besides, according to Robin's work, the functions $\\epsilon_{\\theta}(x)=li[\\theta(x)]-\\pi(x)$ and $\\epsilon_{\\psi}(x)=li[\\psi(x)]-\\pi(x)$ are positive if and only if Riemann hypothesis (RH) holds (the first and the second Chebyshev function are $\\theta(x)=\\sum_{p \\le x} \\log p$ and $\\psi(x)=\\sum_{n=1}^x \\Lambda(n)$, respectively, $li(x)$ is the logarithmic integral, $\\mu(n)$ and $\\Lambda(n)$ are the M\\"obius and the Von Mangoldt functions). Negative jumps in the above functions $\\epsilon$, $\\epsilon_{\\theta}$ and $\\epsilon_{\\psi}$ may potentially occur only at $x+1 \\in \\mathcal{P}$ (the set of primes). One denotes $j_p=li(p)-li(p-1)$ and one investigates the jumps $j_p$, $j_{\\theta(p)}$ and $j_{\\psi(p)}$. In particular, $j_p1$ for $p<10^{11}$. Besides, $j_{\\psi(p)}<1$ for any odd $p \\in \\mathcal{Ch}$, an infinite set of so-called {\\it Chebyshev primes} with partial list ${109, 113, 139, 181, 197, 199, ...

  15. Sums of many primes

    CERN Document Server

    Languasco, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH) holds, we prove an explicit formula for the number of representations of an integer as a sum of $k\\geq 5$ primes. Our error terms in such a formula improve by some logarithmic factors an analogous result by Friedlander-Goldston.

  16. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  17. On Particles and Primes

    CERN Document Server

    Knill, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Primes in the two complete associative normed division algebras C and H have affinities with structures seen in the standard model of particle physics. On the integers in the two algebras, there are two equivalence relations: a strong one, related to a U(1) and SU(3) symmetry allowing to permute and switch signs of the coordinates of the integers, as well as a weak relation with origins from units U(1),SU(2) in the algebra. Weak equivalence classes within the strong equivalence classes of odd primes in C case relate to leptons, the inert ones being neutrino like, and the split ones resembling electron-positron pairs. In the H case, for odd primes, the equivalence classes come in groups of two or three, leading to a caricature of hadrons featuring either mesons built by a quark pair or then baryons obtained by quark triplets. We can now list for every rational prime p all these particles and attach fractional charges to its constituents.

  18. Explicit solution of the Volterra integral equation for transient fields on inhomogeneous arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2011-09-01

    A new predictor-corrector scheme for solving the Volterra integral equation to analyze transient electromagnetic wave interactions with arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous dielectric bodies is considered. Numerical results demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed method are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Comment on "Kerr Black Holes as Particle Accelerators to Arbitrarily High Energy"

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Pretorius, Frans; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that rotating black holes could serve as particle colliders with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. Astrophysical limitations on the maximal spin, back-reaction effects and sensitivity to the initial conditions impose severe limits on the likelihood of such collisions.

  20. Finite-difference time domain solution of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles and surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews the fundamental methods and some of the applications of the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique for the modeling of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric particles and surfaces. The emphasis is on the details of the FDTD algorithms...

  1. Anchored PCR (A-PCR):A new method for chromosome walking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bojun; SUN Chao; WANG Yong; HU Yuanlei; LIN Zhongping

    2004-01-01

    @@ PCR-based techniques are most popular methods for isolation of DNA sequences flanking a known region.Such techniques published to date mainly include three types: inverse PCR (IPCR)[1-3], ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR)[4-9] and randomly primed PCR (RP-PCR)[10-12].IPCR was the first method developed for this kind of purpose. However, it is now rarely used because of the difficulty in finding suitable restriction sites in the target region or poor circularization of the template molecule.LM-PCR and RP-PCR are more frequently used nowadays, yet they also have some limitations. For example,LM-PCR depends on restriction sites within a reasonable distance in the flanking regions, while the amplified products of RP-PCR are generally small (<1 kb). Moreover, both methods often result in excessive amplification of non-specific molecules, which greatly reduces their efficiencies in obtaining sequences of interest. To resolve these problems, some new strategies have emerged in the past few years, such as Vectorette-PCR[6], biotin-capture PCR[7], TAIL-PCR[l2] and T-linker PCR[9]. These improved methods are more efficient than their old versions;however, most of them are still limited by restriction digestion or ligation. Although the intervening steps are avoided in TAIL-PCR, the amplified fragments are often small because of the use of random primers.

  2. Chen's Theorem with Small Primes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Chun CAI

    2002-01-01

    Let N be a sufficiently large even integer. In this paper it is proved that the equationN = p + P2, p ≤ N0.95,is solvable, where p denotes a prime and P2 denotes an almost prime with at most two prime factors.

  3. Chen's Theorem with Small Primes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingjie LI; Yingchun CAI

    2011-01-01

    Let N be a sufficiently large even integer. Let p denote a prime and P2 denote an almost prime with at most two prime factors. In this paper, it is proved that the equation N - p+ P2 (p ≤ AT0.945) is solvable.

  4. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  5. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2008-01-01

    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  6. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  7. Cantor Primes as Prime-Valued Cyclotomic Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Salas, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Cantor primes are primes p such that 1/p belongs to the middle-third Cantor set. One way to look at them is as base-3 analogues of the famous Mersenne primes, which encompass all base-2 repunit primes, i.e., primes consisting of a contiguous sequence of 1's in base 2 and satisfying an equation of the form p + 1 = 2^q. The Cantor primes encompass all base-3 repunit primes satisfying an equation of the form 2p + 1 = 3^q, and I show that in general all Cantor primes > 3 satisfy a closely related equation of the form 2pK + 1 = 3^q, with the base-3 repunits being the special case K = 1. I use this to prove that the Cantor primes > 3 are exactly the prime-valued cyclotomic polynomials of the form $\\Phi_s(3^{s^j}) \\equiv 1$ (mod 4). Significant open problems concern the infinitude of these, making Cantor primes perhaps more interesting than previously realised.

  8. 锚定PCR(Anchored PCR):一种新的染色体步行方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏君; 孙超; 王勇; 胡鸢雷; 林忠平

    2004-01-01

    基于PCR的技术是克隆已知DNA片段侧翼序列的最常用方法.到目前为止,这些方法大致可以分为3种类型:反向PCR(inverse PCR)、连接介导的PCR(1igation-mediated PCR)和随机引物PCR(randomly primed PCR).反向PCR是使用最早的方法,其原理是用限制性内切酶消化基因组总

  9. Exponential quadruplex priming amplification for DNA-based isothermal diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partskhaladze, Tamar; Taylor, Adam; Lomidze, Levan; Gvarjaladze, David; Kankia, Besik

    2015-02-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a method of choice for molecular diagnostics. However, PCR relies on thermal cycling, which is not compatible with the goals of point-of-care diagnostics. A simple strategy to turn PCR into an isothermal method would be to use specific primers, which upon polymerase elongation can self-dissociate from the primer-binding sites. We recently demonstrated that a monomolecular DNA quadruplex, GGGTGGGTGGGTGGG, meets these requirements, which led to the development of the linear versions of quadruplex priming amplification (QPA). Here we demonstrate exponential version of isothermal QPA, which allows an unprecedented 10(10)-fold amplification of DNA signal in less than 40 min.

  10. A general method for the detection of large CAG repeat expansions by fluorescent PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, J P; Barron, L H; Goudie, D; Kelly, K; Dow, D.; FitzPatrick, D.R.; Brock, D J

    1996-01-01

    The expansion of a tandemly repeated trinucleotide sequence, CAG, is the mutational mechanism for several human genetic diseases. We present a generally applicable PCR amplification method using a fluorescently labelled locus specific primer flanking the CAG repeat together with paired primers amplifying from multiple priming sites within the CAG repeat. Triplet repeat primed PCR (TP PCR) gives a characteristic ladder on the fluorescence trace enabling the rapid identification of large pathog...

  11. Robust Computation of Dipole Electromagnetic Fields in Arbitrarily-Anisotropic, Planar-Stratified Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Sainath, K; Donderici, B

    2013-01-01

    We develop a general-purpose formulation, based on two-dimensional spectral integrals, for computing electromagnetic fields produced by arbitrarily-oriented dipoles in planar-stratified environments, where each layer may exhibit arbitrary and independent anisotropy in both the (complex) permittivity and permeability. Among the salient features of our formulation are (1) computation of eigenmodes (characteristic plane waves) supported in arbitrarily anisotropic media in a numerically robust fashion, (2) implementation of an hp-adaptive refinement for the numerical integration to evaluate the radiation and weakly-evanescent spectra contributions, and (3) development of an adaptive extension of an integral convergence acceleration technique to compute the strongly-evanescent spectrum contribution. While other semianalytic techniques exist to solve this problem, none have full applicability to media exhibiting arbitrary double anisotropies in each layer, where one must account for the whole range of possible phen...

  12. A novel synthesis approach for birefringent filters having arbitrarily amplitude transmittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassi, Abde Rezzaq; Hamdi, Rachid; Bendimerad, Djalal Falih; Benkelfat, Badr-Eddine

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel procedure for the synthesis of a filter having an arbitrarily specified amplitude transmittance. The filter configuration consists of N birefringent stages placed between a polarizer and an analyzer, with each stage containing an identical section and a variable section. An additional variable section is placed in front of the analyzer. The synthesis procedure is based on the resolution of a generalized nonlinear equation system directly deducted from the Jones matrix formalism to determine the angles of each stage, the angle of the analyzer and the phase shifts of the variable sections. A typical example of a 6-stage birefringent filter having an arbitrarily non-symmetric amplitude transmittance is shown and the opto-geometrical parameters are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed synthesis procedure. The results obtained show an excellent agreement with those developed in the literature.

  13. Tomographic active optical trapping of arbitrarily shaped objects by exploiting 3-D refractive index maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun

    2016-01-01

    Optical trapping can be used to manipulate the three-dimensional (3-D) motion of spherical particles based on the simple prediction of optical forces and the responding motion of samples. However, controlling the 3-D behaviour of non-spherical particles with arbitrary orientations is extremely challenging, due to experimental difficulties and the extensive computations. Here, we achieved the real-time optical control of arbitrarily shaped particles by combining the wavefront shaping of a trapping beam and measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distribution of samples. Engineering the 3-D light field distribution of a trapping beam based on the measured 3-D RI map of samples generates a light mould, which can be used to manipulate colloidal and biological samples which have arbitrary orientations and/or shapes. The present method provides stable control of the orientation and assembly of arbitrarily shaped particles without knowing a priori information about the sample geometry. The proposed method can ...

  14. Hawking Radiation of an Arbitrarily Accelerating Kinnersley Black Hole: Spin-Acceleration Coupling Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双清; 闫沐霖

    2003-01-01

    The Hawking radiation of Weyl neutrinos in an arbitrarily accelerating Kinnersley black hole is investigated using a method of the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation.Both the location and temperature of the event horizon depend on the time and on the angles.They are in agreement with the previous results,but thethermal radiation spectrum of massless spinor particles displays a type of spin-acceleration coupling effect.

  15. Difference between consecutive primes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾朝华

    1995-01-01

    Suppose that B is a sufficiently large positive constant, ε is a sufficiently small positive constant, X and N are sufficiently large. It is mainly proved that i) for the positive integers n, Xprime number; ii) if A = N1/2+s, then the even numbers in the interval (N, N+A), except for 0(Alog-B N) values, are all Goldbach numbers.

  16. On the fractal distribution of primes and prime-indexed primes by the binary image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Carlo; Ciancio, Armando

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the distribution of primes and prime-indexed primes (PIPs) is studied by mapping primes into a binary image which visualizes the distribution of primes. These images show that the distribution of primes (and PIPs) is similar to a Cantor dust, moreover the self-similarity with respect to the order of PIPs (already proven in Batchko (2014)) can be seen as an invariance of the binary images. The index of primes plays the same role of the scale for fractals, so that with respect to the index the distribution of prime-indexed primes is characterized by the self-similarity alike any other fractal. In particular, in order to single out the scale dependence, the PIPs fractal distribution will be evaluated by limiting to two parameters, fractal dimension (δ) and lacunarity (λ), that are usually used to measure the fractal nature. Because of the invariance of the corresponding binary plots, the fractal dimension and lacunarity of primes distribution are invariant with respect to the index of PIPs.

  17. Psychotherapy Augmentation through Preconscious Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Borgeat, François; O’Connor, Kieron; Amado, Danielle; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy. Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36-weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioral therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming conditi...

  18. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably…

  19. Neuroimaging correlates of negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, C; Haworth, E J; Peters, E; Hemsley, D R; Sharma, T; Gray, J A; Pickering, A; Gregory, L; Simmons, A; Bullmore, E T; Williams, S C

    2001-11-16

    Many theoretical accounts of selective attention and memory retrieval include reference to active inhibitory processes, such as those argued to underlie the negative priming effect. fMRI was used in order to investigate the areas of cortical activation associated with Stroop interference, Stroop facilitation and Stroop negative priming tasks. The most significant activation within the negative priming task was within the inferior parietal lobule, left temporal lobe and frontal lobes. Areas of cortical activation are discussed with reference to theoretical accounts of the negative priming effect.

  20. PCR thermocycler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.

    2003-01-01

    A sleeve-type silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber or thermocycler having improved thermal performance. The silicon sleeve reaction chamber is improved in thermal performance by etched features therein that reduce thermal mass and increase the surface area of the sleeve for cooling. This improved thermal performance of the thermocycler enables an increase in speed and efficiency of the reaction chamber. The improvement is accomplished by providing grooves in the faces of the sleeve and a series of grooves on the interior surfaces that connect with grooves on the faces of the sleeve. The grooves can be anisotropically etched in the silicon sleeve simultaneously with formation of the chamber.

  1. Prime mover progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-05-01

    Manufacturers continue to upgrade fluidized bed and steam technologies to meet more stringent emission, efficiency and service challenges from global power market customers. Offshore, suppliers are being pushed to provide quality, low-cost production and significant local competitive presence in nearly all international markets. The ability to meet customer and regulatory demands for emissions across different global market segments remains a priority for prime mover suppliers as they develop environmental technical improvements. Products initially developed for the more stringent European regulations are now finding a market in the US. In developing countries, demand continues for utility-size boiler products, but pollution control equipment costs remain a parallel consideration. Industry improvements to steam cycle equipment, namely turbines, continue to reap benefits in terms of efficiency and operational flexibility. Boiler and steam manufacturers` response to global markets remains right on target as product development strategies are constantly adjusted and analyzed to reach an optimum marketing mix. Innovation and advances in prime mover power equipment technology remain a mainstay of suppliers` ability to meet the needs of a changing, competitive clientele.

  2. Prime injections and quasipolarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Alberto Agustín-Aquino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $p$ be a prime number. Consider the injection\\[ \\iota:\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\to\\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}:x\\mapsto px, \\]and the elements $e^{u}.v:=(u,v\\in \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ and$e^{w}.r:=(w,r\\in \\mathbb{Z}/pn \\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$. Suppose that $e^{u}.v\\in\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ is seen as an automorphism of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$defined by $e^{u}.v(x=vx+u$; then $e^{u}.v$ is a \\emph{quasipolarity} if it is an involution without fixed points.In this brief note we give an explicit formula for the number of quasipolarities of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$ interms of the prime decomposition of $n$, and we prove sufficient conditions such that $(e^{w}.r\\circ \\iota=\\iota\\circ (e^{u}.v$, where $e^{w}.r$ and $e^{u}.v$ are quasipolarities.

  3. Investigating Home Primes and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Marlena; Schiffman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The process of prime factor splicing to generate home primes raises opportunity for conjecture and exploration. The notion of "home primes" is relatively new in the chronicle of mathematics. Heleen (1996-97) first described a procedure called "prime factor splicing" (PFS). The exploration of home primes is interesting and…

  4. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of

  5. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that

  6. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  7. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  8. Almost primes in short intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that the short interval(x-x101/232,x] contains at least an almost prime P2 for sufficiently large x,where P2 denotes an integer having at most two prime factors counted with multiplicity.

  9. Immediate Priming and Cognitive Aftereffects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Three forced-choice perceptual word identification experiments tested the claim that transitions from positive to negative priming as a function of increasing prime duration are due to cognitive aftereffects. These aftereffects are similar in nature to perceptual aftereffects that produce a negative image due to overexposure and habituation to a…

  10. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  11. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  12. Attentional priming releases crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Heimisson, Pétur Rúnar; Róbertsson, Gunnar Freyr; Whitney, David

    2013-10-01

    Views of natural scenes unfold over time, and objects of interest that were present a moment ago tend to remain present. While visual crowding places a fundamental limit on object recognition in cluttered scenes, most studies of crowding have suffered from the limitation that they typically involved static scenes. The role of temporal continuity in crowding has therefore been unaddressed. We investigated intertrial effects upon crowding in visual scenes, showing that crowding is considerably diminished when objects remain constant on consecutive visual search trials. Repetition of both the target and distractors decreases the critical distance for crowding from flankers. More generally, our results show how object continuity through between-trial priming releases objects that would otherwise be unidentifiable due to crowding. Crowding, although it is a significant bottleneck on object recognition, can be mitigated by statistically likely temporal continuity of the objects. Crowding therefore depends not only on what is momentarily present, but also on what was previously attended.

  13. Exodus: Prime Mover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nikkol; Conwell, Pete; Johnson, Matt; Shields, Wendy; Thornton, Tim; Tokarz, Rob; Mcmanus, Rich

    1992-01-01

    The Exodus Prime Mover is an overnight package delivery aircraft designed to serve the Northern Hemisphere of Aeroworld. The preliminary design goals originated from the desire to produce a large profit. The two main driving forces throughout the design process were first to reduce the construction man-hours by simplifying the aircraft design, thereby decreasing the total production cost of the aircraft. The second influential factor affecting the design was minimizing the fuel cost during cruise. The lowest fuel consumption occurs at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. Overall, it was necessary to balance the economic benefits with the performance characteristics in order to create a profitable product that meets all specified requirements and objectives.

  14. Priming semantico e museografia / Semantic priming and museography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Banzi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Il priming è una tipologia di memoria implicita che facilita l’apprendimento di stimoli di diversa natura (stimoli visivi, semantici, etc.. Un allestimento museale che adotti strumenti basati sul priming potrebbe aiutare il pubblico a selezionare i contenuti relativi agli oggetti esposti. In questo articolo viene descritta l’applicazione del priming semantico allo spazio museale. Questa operazione in prima battutta potrebbe essere letta come una mancanza di fiducia nelle capacità cognitive del visitatore nel discriminare il significato delle informazioni. In realtà è una forma di sostegno per aiutare il visitatore a sviluppare gradualmente una propria metodologia di approccio ai contenuti proposti nel museo. Grazie al priming, il pubblico riceve una serie di stimoli che possono aiutare a costituire la base delle proprie conoscenze in ambito storico-artistico ed essere il punto di partenza sul quale costruire un metodo critico.   Many psychological aspects such as motivation, emotion, and attention, affect human learning. Among these, priming triggers and tunes implicit memory processes. Hence the goal of this paper is to check whether semantic priming can be used as an effective tool to design a supportive museum environment where people can easily learn. Moreover, the resulting stronger and more persistent memories could encourage museum visitors to learn more and better, and to develop a method to “read” the artworks. After a brief overview of current models of semantic priming, practical and theoretical issues are considered and discussed.

  15. A sharp interface immersed boundary method for solving flow with arbitrarily irregular and changing geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Huangrui; Zhang, Fan; Cronin, Duane S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a sharp interface immersed boundary method is developed for efficiently and robustly solving flow with arbitrarily irregular and changing geometries. The proposed method employs a three-step prediction-correction flow reconstruction scheme for boundary treatment and enforces Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, and Cauchy boundary conditions in a straightforward and consistent manner. Numerical experiments concerning flow of two and three space dimensions, stationary and moving objects, convex and concave geometries, no-slip and slip wall boundary conditions are conducted to demonstrate the proposed method.

  16. Prestack reverse-time depth migration of arbitrarily wide-angle wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Bing-shou; ZHANG Hui-xing; ZHANG Jing

    2008-01-01

    Based on arbitrarily wide-angle wave equations, a reverse-time propagation scheme is developed by substituting the partial derivatives of depth and time with central differences. The partial derivative of horizontal direction is replaced with high order difference. The imaging condition is computed by solving the eikonal equations. On the basis of above techniques, a prestack reverse-time depth migration algorithm is developed. The processing exam-ples of synthetic data show that the method can remove unwanted internal reflections and decrease the migration noise. The method also has the advantage of fidelity and is appficable of dip angle reflector imaging.

  17. Three-dimensional Analysis of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Plate with Arbitrarily Distributed Material Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wuxiang; MA Shaokun; WU Hao

    2014-01-01

    An orthotropic functionally graded piezoelectric rectangular plate with arbitrarily distributed material properties was studied, which is simply supported and grounded (electrically) on its four lateral edges. The state equations of the functionally graded piezoelectric material were obtained using the state-space approach, and a Peano-Baker series solution was obtained for the coupled electroelastic fields of the functionally graded piezoelectric plate subjected to mechanical and electric loading on its upper and lower surfaces. The influence of different distributions of material properties on the structural response of the plate was studied using the obtained solutions.

  18. A general method for numerical Green's function in arbitrarily layered soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jun; HE Jinliang; ZENG Rong; SUN Weiming; YU Gang

    2003-01-01

    A straightforward approach is developed to calculate Green's function of a point current source in horizontal multi-layer soils. The sampling value of the coefficient of Green's function is obtained in an iterative way in terms of the equation group satisfying the pertinent boundary value problem. Further, the closed-form expression of multilayered soil Green's function can be given by the vector matrix pencil technology. The numerical results are in agreement with those by using other softwares. The approach proposed here is applicable to grounding problems with the structure of arbitrarily layered soil without needing the analytical expression of Green's function.

  19. Calculation of pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized, and excited ultrasound transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Svendsen, Niels Bruun

    1992-01-01

    A method for simulation of pulsed pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized and excited ultrasound transducers is suggested. It relies on the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating pulsed pressure fields, and can also handle the continuous wave and pulse-echo case. The field...... is calculated by dividing the surface into small rectangles and then Summing their response. A fast calculation is obtained by using the far-field approximation. Examples of the accuracy of the approach and actual calculation times are given...

  20. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  1. Robust computation of dipole electromagnetic fields in arbitrarily anisotropic, planar-stratified environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L; Donderici, Burkay

    2014-01-01

    We develop a general-purpose formulation, based on two-dimensional spectral integrals, for computing electromagnetic fields produced by arbitrarily oriented dipoles in planar-stratified environments, where each layer may exhibit arbitrary and independent anisotropy in both its (complex) permittivity and permeability tensors. Among the salient features of our formulation are (i) computation of eigenmodes (characteristic plane waves) supported in arbitrarily anisotropic media in a numerically robust fashion, (ii) implementation of an hp-adaptive refinement for the numerical integration to evaluate the radiation and weakly evanescent spectra contributions, and (iii) development of an adaptive extension of an integral convergence acceleration technique to compute the strongly evanescent spectrum contribution. While other semianalytic techniques exist to solve this problem, none have full applicability to media exhibiting arbitrary double anisotropies in each layer, where one must account for the whole range of possible phenomena (e.g., mode coupling at interfaces and nonreciprocal mode propagation). Brute-force numerical methods can tackle this problem but only at a much higher computational cost. The present formulation provides an efficient and robust technique for field computation in arbitrary planar-stratified environments. We demonstrate the formulation for a number of problems related to geophysical exploration.

  2. Impact of Interference in Coexisting Wireless Networks with Applications to Arbitrarily Varying Bidirectional Broadcast Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Boche

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift from an exclusive allocation of frequency bands, one for each system, to a shared use of frequencies comes along with the need of new concepts since interference will be an ubiquitous phenomenon. In this paper, we use the concept of arbitrarily varying channels to model the impact of unknown interference caused by coexisting wireless systems which operate on the same frequencies. Within this framework, capacity can be zero if pre-specified encoders and decoders are used. This necessitates the use of more sophisticated coordination schemes where the choice of encoders and decoders is additionally coordinated based on common randomness. As an application we study the arbitrarily varying bidirectional broadcast channel and derive the capacity regions for different coordination strategies. This problem is motivated by decode-and-forward bidirectional or two-way relaying, where a relay establishes a bidirectional communication between two other nodes while sharing the resources with other coexisting wireless networks.

  3. Establishment of multiplex real-time fluorescence PCR for Salmonella,Shigella,Campylobacter and Yersinia enterocoliti-ca basing on dual priming oligonucleotide system%基于双启动寡聚核苷酸引物的沙门菌、志贺菌、弯曲杆菌、耶尔森菌多重实时荧光PCR方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁红; 李明; 贾昕; 许军强

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立多重实时荧光PCR同时检测沙门菌、志贺菌、弯曲杆菌、耶尔森菌的方法。方法通过设计针对沙门菌、志贺菌、弯曲杆菌和耶尔森菌的双寡聚核苷酸引物,来建立这4种病原体的多重PCR检测体系。结果建立的多重PCR体系可同时特异性扩增4种病原体的DNA片段。沙门菌和弯曲杆菌的特异性和敏感度都是100.0%,志贺菌和耶尔森菌的敏感度是100.0%,特异性分别是99.3%和98.6%。最低检测限均为103 co pies/mL。结论该体系可快速、有效、准确检测出样品中4种病原体的存在,可用于肠胃道相关病原体感染的辅助评价。%Objective To establish a multiplex real‐time fluorescence PCR assay for simultaneously detecting Salmonella ,Shigella ,Campylobacter and Yersinia enterocolitica .Methods Dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO ) was designed for these four pathogens .A multiplex RT‐PCR assay system was developed using DPO primers .Results The specific DNA fragments of 4 kinds of pathogen were amplified simultaneously and specifically by this established PCR assay system .The specificity and sensitivity of the assay for detecting Salmonella and Campylobacter all were 100 .0% ,the sensitivities for detecting Shigella and Yersinia enterocolitica were 100 .0% and the specificities were 99 .3% and 98 .6% respectively .The limit of detection(LOD) was 103 copies/mL .Conclusion This multiplex RT‐PCR system can detect the existence of these four kinds of pathogen rapidly ,effectively and accurately and can be used the auxiliary evaluation of gastrointestinal related pathogen infection .

  4. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  5. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eBorgeat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  6. No priming for global motion in crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Gall, Martin G; Manassi, Mauro; Greenlee, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    There is psychophysical evidence that low-level priming, e.g., from oriented gratings, as well as high-level semantic priming, survives crowding. We investigated priming for global translational motion in crowded and noncrowded conditions. The results indicated that reliable motion priming occurs in the noncrowded condition, but motion priming does not survive crowding. Crowding persisted despite variations in the direction of the flankers with respect to the prime's direction. Motion priming was still absent under crowding when 85% of the flankers moved in the same direction as the prime. Crowding also persisted despite variations in the speed of the flankers relative to the prime even when the flankers' speed was four times slower than the speed of the prime. However, a priming effect was evident when the prime's spatial location was precued and its distance to the flankers increased, suggesting a release from crowding. These results suggest that transient attention induced by precueing the spatial location of the prime may improve subjects' ability to discriminate its direction. Spatial cueing could act to decrease the integration field, thereby diminishing the influence of nearby distracters. In an additional experiment in which we used fewer flankers, we found a priming effect under conditions in which the interelement distance varied between flankers and prime. Overall, the results suggest that motion priming is strongly affected by crowding, but transient attention can partially retrieve such facilitation.

  7. Continued fractions constructed from prime numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Marek

    2010-01-01

    We give 50 digits values of the simple continued fractions whose denominators are formed from a) prime numbers, b) twin primes, c) primes of the form m^2+1 and Mersenne primes. All these continued fractions belong to the set of measure zero of exceptions to the Khinchin Theorem.

  8. Response Priming with More or Less Biological Movements as Primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, David; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Response priming in general is a suitable tool in cognitive psychology to investigate motor preactivations. Typically, compatibility effects reflect faster reactions in cases in which prime and target suggest the same response (i.e., compatible trials) compared with cases in which prime and target suggest opposite responses (i.e., incompatible trials). With moving dots that were horizontally aligned, Bermeitinger (2013) found a stable pattern of results: with short SOAs, faster responses in compatible trials were found; with longer SOAs up to 250 ms, faster responses in incompatible trials were found. It is unclear whether these results are specific to the special motion used therein or whether it generalizes to other motions. We therefore used other motions realized by arrangements of dots. In four experiments, we tested point-light displays (biological coherent walkers vs. less biological scrambled/split displays) as primes. In two experiments, eye gaze motions realized by moving dots representing irises and pupils (i.e., biological) versus the same motion either without surrounding face information or integrated in an abstract line drawing (i.e., less biological) were used. We found overall large positive compatibility effects with biological motion primes and also positive-but smaller-compatibility effects with less biological motion primes. Most important, also with very long SOAs (up to 1320 ms), we did not find evidence for negative compatibility effects. Thus, the pattern of positive-followed-by-negative-compatibility effects found in Bermeitinger (2013) seems to be specific to the materials used therein, whereas response priming in general seems an applicable tool to study motion perception.

  9. Locus of single-prime negative priming: the role of perceptual form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2013-07-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon in which after a single prime word is briefly presented, repeating it as the probe target results in a delay in responding to the target. The present study investigated the locus of this negative priming effect. Experiment 1 showed that repeating the identity of the prime produced a negative priming effect but merely repeating the response of the prime did not. Experiment 2 showed that the negative priming effect transformed into positive priming when the probe distractor was absent. Experiments 3 and 4 further revealed that single-prime negative priming was observed when the perceptual form was repeated. Taken together, these results suggest that single-prime negative priming involves a perceptual locus.

  10. On the Control of Single-Prime Negative Priming: The Effects of Practice and Time Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict…

  11. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  12. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects...

  13. The occurrence of prime numbers revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Tapia Moore; José Tapia Yañez

    2016-01-01

    Based on an arithmetical and autocatalytic approach, the authors propose a solution for the occurrence of prime numbers. Exact arithmetical calculations are provided for: the closest prime to any given positive integer (or any number of bigger or smaller primes from that integer); the quantity of prime (and composite) numbers between 1 and any positive integer; the quantity of prime (and composite) numbers between any two positive integers.

  14. The occurrence of prime numbers revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Tapia Moore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on an arithmetical and autocatalytic approach, the authors propose a solution for the occurrence of prime numbers. Exact arithmetical calculations are provided for: the closest prime to any given positive integer (or any number of bigger or smaller primes from that integer; the quantity of prime (and composite numbers between 1 and any positive integer; the quantity of prime (and composite numbers between any two positive integers.

  15. Invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seulong

    2016-01-01

    Bi-isotropic media, which include isotropic chiral media and Tellegen media as special cases, are the most general form of linear isotropic media where the electric displacement and the magnetic induction are related to both the electric field and the magnetic intensity. In inhomogeneous bi-isotropic media, electromagnetic waves of two different polarizations are coupled to each other. In this paper, we develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method for the study of wave propagation in arbitrarily-inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media, which can be used to solve the coupled wave propagation problem accurately and efficiently. We verify the validity and usefulness of the method by applying it to several examples, including the wave propagation in a uniform chiral slab, the surface wave excitation in a bilayer system made of a layer of Tellegen medium and a metal layer, and the mode conversion of transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations in inhomogeneous Telle...

  16. Numerical Calculation for Nonlinear Waves in Waterof Arbitrarily Varying Depth with Boussinesq Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱良生; 洪广文

    2001-01-01

    Based on the high order nonlinear and dispersive wave equation with a dissipative term, a numerical model for nonlinear waves is developed. It is suitable to calculate wave propagation in water areas with an arbitrarily varying bottom slope and a relative depth h/L0≤1. By the application of the completely implicit stagger grid and central difference algorithm, discrete governing equations are obtained. Although the central difference algorithm of second-order accuracy both in time and space domains is used to yield the difference equations, the order of truncation error in the difference equation is the same as that of the third-order derivatives of the Boussinesq equation. In this paper, the correction to the first-order derivative is made, and the accuracy of the difference equation is improved. The verifications of accuracy show that the results of the numerical model are in good agreement with those of analytical solutions and physical models.

  17. Cubic Spline Solutions of Nonlinear Bending and Buckling of Circular Plates with Arbitrarily Variable Thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝胜; 李婧; 龙泉

    2003-01-01

    The cubic B-splines taken as trial function, the large deflection of a circular plate with arbitrarily variable thickness,as well as the buckling load, have been calculated by the method of point collocation. The support can be elastic. Loads imposed can be polynomial distributed loads, uniformly distributed radial forces or moments along the edge respectively or their combinations. Convergent solutions can still be obtained by this method under the load whose value is in great excess of normal one. Under the action of the uniformly distributed loads, linear solutions of circular plates with linearly or quadratically variable thickness are compared with those obtained by the parameter method. Buckling of a circular plate with identical thickness beyond critical thrust is compared with those obtained by the power series method.

  18. Auxetic two-dimensional lattice with Poisson's Ratio arbitrarily close to -1

    CERN Document Server

    Cabras, L

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new lattice structure having macroscopic Poisson's ratio arbitrarily close to the stability limit -1. We tested experimentally the effective Poisson's ratio of the micro-structured medium; the uniaxial test has been performed on a thermoplastic lattice produced with a 3d printing technology. A theoretical analysis of the effective properties has been performed and the expression of the macroscopic constitutive properties is given in full analytical form as a function of the constitutive properties of the elements of the lattice and on the geometry of the microstructure. The analysis has been performed on three micro-geometry leading to an isotropic behaviour for the cases of three-fold and six-fold symmetry and to a cubic behaviour for the case of four-fold symmetry.

  19. Hawking radiation as tunnelling from arbitrarily dimensional Reissner-Nordstr(o)m de Sitter black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qing-Quan; Yang Shu-Zheng; Wu Shuang-Qing

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends Parikh-Wilzcek's recent work, which treats the Hawking radiation as a semi-classical tunnelling process from the event horizon of four dimensional Schwarzshild and Reissner-Nordstr(o)m black holes, to that of arbitrarily dimensional Reissner-Nordstr(o)m de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the tunnelling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the factually radiant spectrum is no longer precisely thermal after taking the dynamical black hole background and energy conservation into account, but is consistent with the underlying unitary theory and then satisfies the first law of the black hole thermodynamics. Meanwhile, in Parikh-Wilzcek's framework, this paper points out that the information conservation is only suitable for the reversible process but in highly unstable evaporating black hole (irreversible process) the information loss is possible.

  20. Variational Stability Form for the Capacitance of an Arbitrarily Shaped Conducting Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGChanghong; LILong; ZHAIHuiqing

    2004-01-01

    A new analytical method for finding the capacitance of an arbitrarily shaped conducting plate is presented in this paper. If the charge density suitable to fringe conditions and the appropriate charge barycenter are supposed, the variational stability form with high accuracy for the capacitance C can be achieved by simple curve integrals or the superposition of basic triangles. In this paper, some analytical examples such as an elliptical plate, a regular polygonal plate and a rectangular plate are given. It is worth pointing out that the analytical closed-form for an elliptical plate is accurate. Comparing the result of the analytical closed-form for the square plate and the numerical result of Richardson's extrapolation, the relative error is less than 1.7%. Furthermore, the relationship between the charge barycenter and the variational stability is discussed.

  1. Failure of energy stability in Oldroyd-B fluids at arbitrarily low Reynolds numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Döring, C; Schumacher, J

    2004-01-01

    Energy theory for incompressible Newtonian fluids is, in many cases, capable of producing strong absolute stability criteria for steady flows. In those fluids the kinetic energy naturally defines a norm in which perturbations decay monotonically in time at sufficiently low (but non-zero) Reynolds numbers. There are, however, at least two obstructions to the generalization of such methods to Oldroyd-B fluids. One previously recognized problem is the fact that the natural energy does not correspond to a proper functional norm on perturbations. Another problem, original to this work, is the fact that fluctuations in Oldroyd-B fluids may be subject to non-normal amplification at arbitrarily low Reynolds numbers (albeit at sufficiently large Weissenberg numbers). Such transient growth, occuring even when the base flow is linearly stable, precludes the uniform monotonic decay of any reasonable measure of the disturbance's amplitude.

  2. On Equation of Motion for Arbitrarily Shaped Particle under Action of Electromagnetic Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2002-01-01

    Arguments of astronomers against equation of motion for arbitrarily shaped particle under action of electromagnetic radiation are discussed. Each of the arguments is commented in detail from the point of view of the required physics. It is shown that the arguments of astronomers, including referees in several astronomical and astrophysical journals, are unacceptable from the physical point of view. Detail explanations should help astronomers in better physical understanding of the equation of motion. Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.

  3. Equation of Motion for an Arbitrarily Shaped Particle Moving in a Radiation Field

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2003-01-01

    We consider the motion of uncharged dust grains of arbitrary shape including the effects of electromagnetic radiation and thermal emission. The resulting relativistically covariant equation of motion is expressed in terms of standard optical parameters. Explicit expressions for secular changes of osculating orbital elements are derived in detail for the special case of the Poynting-Robertson effect. Two subcases are considered: (i) central acceleration due to gravity and the radial component of radiation pressure independent of the particle velocity, (ii) central acceleration given by gravity and the radiation force as the disturbing force. The latter case yields results which may be compared with secular orbital evolution in terms of orbital elements for an arbitrarily shaped dust particle. The effects of solar wind are also presented.

  4. Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf -> 16.5

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, P M

    2016-01-01

    Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf -> 16.5, where the leading beta-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks-Zaks (BZ) expansion in a0=(8/321)(16.5-nf) is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MSbar or any renormalization scheme (RS) whose nf dependence is `regular.' However, `irregular' RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the `optimal' RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a `master equation' expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a -> a*^2/a about the fixed point a*.

  5. Synthetic generation of arbitrarily long series of flood hydrographs for flood risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Isabel; Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Mediero, Luis; Garrote, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Flood risk assessment is an essential component of natural disaster management. Flood frequency analysis has traditionally been approached by fitting relatively short series of annual maxima of observations to a parametric probability distribution. Under this approach, only one relevant variable (usually peak discharge) can be analyzed, while in many practical applications, like dam safety analysis, the entire flood hydrograph is of interest. Obtaining a good representation of the ensemble of hydrographs would require extremely long historical flood series which almost never exist. Hydrometeorological modelling tools can be applied to extend the relatively short series of observations and generate an arbitrarily long series of synthetic events that can be used in flood risk assessment. The heavy computational burden of these processes requires the contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developments to enable the practical application of the hydrometeorological modelling chain for this purpose. In this paper, an example of this methodology is applied to the Santillana reservoir, located in the Manzanares basin, in Spain. The methodology is based on the Monte Carlo generation of synthetic hydrographs from rainstorms events extracted from arbitrarily long synthetic rainfall time series. The rainfall series are generated with the RainSim software, a model based on a spatial-temporal Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses process. The highest event of every year is chosen, based on three different criterions. The selected rainstorm events are transformed into runoff by the RIBS distributed rainfall-runoff event model, obtaining the ensemble of hydrographs which make possible to evaluate the associated flood risk. The procedure has been validated by comparing the observed flood frequency series in the Santillana reservoir with the synthetic ones, obtaining a good agreement.

  6. Priming and Habituation for Faces: Individual Differences and Inversion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate repetition priming for faces was examined across a range of prime durations in a threshold identification task. Similar to word repetition priming results, short duration face primes produced positive priming whereas long duration face primes eliminated or reversed this effect. A habituation model of such priming effects predicted that…

  7. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  8. Specific PCR and real-time PCR assays for detection and quantitation of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawhari, Maan; Abrahamian, Peter; Sater, Ali Abdel; Sobh, Hana; Tawidian, Patil; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2015-02-01

    Almond witches' broom (AlmWB) is a fast-spreading lethal disease of almond, peach and nectarine associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. The development of PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for the sensitive and specific detection of the phytoplasma is of prime importance for early detection of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' and for epidemiological studies. The developed qPCR assay herein uses a TaqMan(®) probe labeled with Black Hole Quencher Plus. The specificity of the PCR and that of the qPCR detection protocols were tested on 17 phytoplasma isolates belonging to 11 phytoplasma 16S rRNA groups, on samples of almond, peach, nectarine, native plants and insects infected or uninfected with the phytoplasma. The developed assays showed high specificity against 'Ca. P. phoenicium' and no cross-reactivity against any other phytoplasma, plant or insect tested. The sensitivity of the developed PCR and qPCR assays was similar to the conventional nested PCR protocol using universal primers. The qPCR assay was further validated by quantitating AlmWB phytoplasma in different hosts, plant parts and potential insect vectors. The highest titers of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' were detected in the phloem tissues of stems and roots of almond and nectarine trees, where they averaged from 10(5) to 10(6) genomic units per nanogram of host DNA (GU/ng of DNA). The newly developed PCR and qPCR protocols are reliable, specific and sensitive methods that are easily applicable to high-throughput diagnosis of AlmWB in plants and insects and can be used for surveys of potential vectors and alternative hosts.

  9. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  10. Sex Determination Using PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kima, Peter E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

    2004-01-01

    PCR has revolutionized many aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology research. In the following exercise, students learn PCR by isolating their own DNA, amplifying specific segments of the X and Y chromosomes, and estimating the sizes of the PCR products using agarose gel electrophoresis. Based on the pattern of PCR products, students can…

  11. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  12. Application of broad-spectrum PCR amplification and direct sequencing for identification of the infrequent bacterial cultures from clinical sources, targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene with universal primes%基于细菌16S rRNA基因的PCR扩增与测序分析在临床不常见菌鉴定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茶; 鄂顺梅; 叶金艳; 唐小龙; 蓝锴; 罗强; 戴小波; 袁慧; 屈平华; 顾全; 黄彬; 张伟铮; 穆小萍; 张磊; 陈默蕊; 王露霞

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify the infrequent strains in clinical isolates by broad-spectrum PCR amplification and direct sequencing targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene.Methods Total 48 clinical isolates and 7 false-positive blood culture samples were collected from 7 different hospitals or institutions from Decemler 2010 to September 201 1.The bacterial 16S rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced by universal prime sets of 27f-1492r and 27f-1525r,and MicroSeq 500 16S rRNA gene kit.The homology analysis was used by the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool,and comparing to gene sequence of the type strain.provided by the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature.The criteria for the bacterial identification was interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M M 18-A.Results All of the 48 cultured strains were succeeded amplifying and sequencing the targeted 16S rRNA genes.According to the criteria of CLSI MM18-A,total 35 strains were specified to the species level,11 strains were specified to the genus level,and the other 2 strains were specified to possible novel genus and species.Combining the analysis the sequence of other housekeeping gene with the results of biochemical results,total 42 strains can be specified to the species level,including some clinical important pathogens,such as Streptobacillus,Capnocytophaga,Nocardia,Mycobacterium,Roseomonas and Campylobacter.Two false-positive blood culture samples were managed to amplify 16S rRNA genes and finally identified as Streptococcus pneumoniae.We also identified one novel subspecies of Campylobacter fetus,and some new valid-published species,such as Acinetobacter parvus,Mycobacterium phocaicum,Roseomonas mucosa and Halomonas johnsoniae.Conclusions The 16S rRNA gene sequence based identification has unique advantages over the phenotypic methods.It is universal to almost of all the bacteria,and can provide the genetic classified information.It is very suitable for the clinical

  13. 3D time-domain airborne EM modeling for an arbitrarily anisotropic earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe

    2016-08-01

    Time-domain airborne EM data is currently interpreted based on an isotropic model. Sometimes, it can be problematic when working in the region with distinct dipping stratifications. In this paper, we simulate the 3D time-domain airborne EM responses over an arbitrarily anisotropic earth with topography by edge-based finite-element method. Tetrahedral meshes are used to describe the abnormal bodies with complicated shapes. We further adopt the Backward Euler scheme to discretize the time-domain diffusion equation for electric field, obtaining an unconditionally stable linear equations system. We verify the accuracy of our 3D algorithm by comparing with 1D solutions for an anisotropic half-space. Then, we switch attentions to effects of anisotropic media on the strengths and the diffusion patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses. For numerical experiments, we adopt three typical anisotropic models: 1) an anisotropic anomalous body embedded in an isotropic half-space; 2) an isotropic anomalous body embedded in an anisotropic half-space; 3) an anisotropic half-space with topography. The modeling results show that the electric anisotropy of the subsurface media has big effects on both the strengths and the distribution patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses; this effect needs to be taken into account when interpreting ATEM data in areas with distinct anisotropy.

  14. Positivity, discontinuity, finite resources, and nonzero error for arbitrarily varying quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche, H.; Nötzel, J.

    2014-12-01

    This work is motivated by a quite general question: Under which circumstances are the capacities of information transmission systems continuous? The research is explicitly carried out on finite arbitrarily varying quantum channels (AVQCs). We give an explicit example that answers the recent question whether the transmission of messages over AVQCs can benefit from assistance by distribution of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver in the affirmative. The specific class of channels introduced in that example is then extended to show that the unassisted capacity does have discontinuity points, while it is known that the randomness-assisted capacity is always continuous in the channel. We characterize the discontinuity points and prove that the unassisted capacity is always continuous around its positivity points. After having established shared randomness as an important resource, we quantify the interplay between the distribution of finite amounts of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver, the (nonzero) probability of a decoding error with respect to the average error criterion and the number of messages that can be sent over a finite number of channel uses. We relate our results to the entanglement transmission capacities of finite AVQCs, where the role of shared randomness is not yet well understood, and give a new sufficient criterion for the entanglement transmission capacity with randomness assistance to vanish.

  15. Tomo-PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body with surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Jeon, Young Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-02-01

    A three-dimensional surface of an arbitrarily moving body in a flow field was reconstructed using the DAISY descriptor and epipolar geometry constraints. The surface shape of a moving body was reconstructed with tomographic PIV flow measurement. Experimental images were captured using the tomographic PIV system, which consisted of four high-speed cameras and a laser. The originally captured images, which contained the shape of the arbitrary moving body and the tracer particles, were separated into the particle and surface images using a Gaussian smoothing filter. The weak contrast of the surface images was enhanced using a local histogram equalization method. The histogram-equalized surface images were used to reconstruct the surface shape of the moving body. The surface reconstruction method required a sufficiently detailed surface pattern to obtain the intensity gradient profile of the local descriptor. The separated particle images were used to reconstruct the particle volume intensity via tomographic reconstruction approaches. Voxels behind the reconstructed body surface were neglected during the tomographic reconstruction and velocity calculation. The three-dimensional three-component flow vectors were calculated based on the cross-correlation functions between the reconstructed particle volumes. Three-dimensional experiments that modeled the flows around a flapping flag, a rotating cylinder, and a flapping robot fish tail were conducted to validate the present technique.

  16. Start-up of electrophoresis of an arbitrarily oriented dielectric cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan Y; Keh, Huan J

    2014-09-01

    An analytical study is presented for the transient electrophoretic response of a circular cylindrical particle to the step application of an electric field. The electric double layer adjacent to the particle surface is thin but finite compared with the radius of the particle. The time-evolving electroosmotic velocity at the outer boundary of the double layer is utilized as a slip condition so that the transient momentum conservation equation for the bulk fluid flow is solved. Explicit formulas for the unsteady electrophoretic velocity of the particle are obtained for both axially and transversely applied electric fields, and can be linearly superimposed for an arbitrarily-oriented applied field. If the cylindrical particle is neutrally buoyant in the suspending fluid, the transient electrophoretic velocity is independent of the orientation of the particle relative to the applied electric field and will be in the direction of the applied field. If the particle is different in density from the fluid, then the direction of electrophoresis will not coincide with that of the applied field until the steady state is attained. The growth of the electrophoretic mobility with the elapsed time for a cylindrical particle is substantially slower than for a spherical particle.

  17. Effects of Arbitrarily Directed Field on Spin Phase Oscillations in Biaxial Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; ZHU JiaLin; LU Rong; XIONG JiaJiong

    2001-01-01

    Quantum phase interference and spin-parity effects are studied in biaxial molecular magnets in a magnetic field at an arbitrarily directed angle. The calculations of the ground-state tunnel splitting are performed on the basis of the instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, and complemented by exactly numerical diagonalization. Both the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and the pre-exponential factor are obtained for the entire region of the direction of the field. Our results show that the tunnel splitting oscillates with the field for the small field angle, while for the large field angle the oscillation is completely suppressed. This distinct angular dependence, together with the dependence of the tunnel splitting on the field strength, provides an independent test for spin-parity effects in biaxial molecular magnets. The analytical results for the molecular Fes magnet are found to be in good agreement with the numerical simulations, which suggests that even the molecular magnet with total spin S = 10 is large enough to be treated as a giant spin system.``

  18. Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf → 161/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, P. M.

    2016-09-01

    Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf → 161/2, where the leading β-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks-Zaks (BZ) expansion in a0 ≡8/321 (161/2 -nf) is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MS ‾ or any renormalization scheme (RS) whose nf dependence is 'regular'. However, 'irregular' RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the 'optimal' RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a 'master equation' expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a →a*2 / a about the fixed point a*.

  19. A two-level parallel direct search implementation for arbitrarily sized objective functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, N.; Moffat, H.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    In the past, many optimization schemes for massively parallel computers have attempted to achieve parallel efficiency using one of two methods. In the case of large and expensive objective function calculations, the optimization itself may be run in serial and the objective function calculations parallelized. In contrast, if the objective function calculations are relatively inexpensive and can be performed on a single processor, then the actual optimization routine itself may be parallelized. In this paper, a scheme based upon the Parallel Direct Search (PDS) technique is presented which allows the objective function calculations to be done on an arbitrarily large number (p{sub 2}) of processors. If, p, the number of processors available, is greater than or equal to 2p{sub 2} then the optimization may be parallelized as well. This allows for efficient use of computational resources since the objective function calculations can be performed on the number of processors that allow for peak parallel efficiency and then further speedup may be achieved by parallelizing the optimization. Results are presented for an optimization problem which involves the solution of a PDE using a finite-element algorithm as part of the objective function calculation. The optimum number of processors for the finite-element calculations is less than p/2. Thus, the PDS method is also parallelized. Performance comparisons are given for a nCUBE 2 implementation.

  20. Positivity, discontinuity, finite resources, and nonzero error for arbitrarily varying quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boche, H., E-mail: boche@tum.de, E-mail: janis.noetzel@tum.de; Nötzel, J., E-mail: boche@tum.de, E-mail: janis.noetzel@tum.de [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Informationstechnik, Technische Universität München, 80290 München (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    This work is motivated by a quite general question: Under which circumstances are the capacities of information transmission systems continuous? The research is explicitly carried out on finite arbitrarily varying quantum channels (AVQCs). We give an explicit example that answers the recent question whether the transmission of messages over AVQCs can benefit from assistance by distribution of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver in the affirmative. The specific class of channels introduced in that example is then extended to show that the unassisted capacity does have discontinuity points, while it is known that the randomness-assisted capacity is always continuous in the channel. We characterize the discontinuity points and prove that the unassisted capacity is always continuous around its positivity points. After having established shared randomness as an important resource, we quantify the interplay between the distribution of finite amounts of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver, the (nonzero) probability of a decoding error with respect to the average error criterion and the number of messages that can be sent over a finite number of channel uses. We relate our results to the entanglement transmission capacities of finite AVQCs, where the role of shared randomness is not yet well understood, and give a new sufficient criterion for the entanglement transmission capacity with randomness assistance to vanish.

  1. Synchronizing femtosecond laser with x-ray synchrotron operating at arbitrarily different frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wonhyuk [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sooheyong, E-mail: sooheyong@gmail.com [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Intae, E-mail: neplus@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Landahl, Eric C. [Department of Physics, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois 60614 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ability to synchronize a femtosecond laser to x-ray pulses is crucial for performing ultrafast time-resolved x-ray scattering experiments at synchrotrons. Conventionally, the task has been achieved by locking a harmonic frequency of the laser oscillator to the storage ring master radio-frequency (RF). However, when the frequency mismatch between the two sources cannot be compensated by small adjustments to the laser cavity length, synchronization to a harmonic frequency requires modifying the optical components of the laser system. We demonstrate a novel synchronization scheme, which is a flexible alternative for synchronizing these two sources operating at arbitrarily different frequencies. First, we find the greatest common divisor (GCD) of the two frequencies that is still within the limited tuning range of the laser cavity length. The GCD is generated by dividing down from the storage ring RF, and is separately multiplied up to provide a feedback signal for synchronizing the laser cavity. Unique to our scheme, the GCD also serves as a harmonic RF source for the laser amplifier such that only laser oscillator pulses at fixed integer multiples of the storage ring RF are selected for amplification and delivery to experiments. Our method is implemented at the Photon Test Facility beamline of Pohang Light Source where timing-jitter less than 4 ps (r.m.s.) is measured using a new shot-to-shot method.

  2. Digital Image Watermarking for Arbitrarily Shaped Objects Based On SA-DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Regragui

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many image watermarking schemes have been proposed in recent years, but they usually involve embedding a watermark to the entire image without considering only a particular object in the image, which the image owner may be interested in. This paper proposes a watermarking scheme that can embed a watermark to an arbitrarily shaped object in an image. Before embedding, the image owner specifies an object of arbitrary shape that is of a concern to him. Then the object is transformed into the wavelet domain using in place lifting shape adaptive DWT(SADWT and a watermark is embedded by modifying the wavelet coefficients. In order to make the watermark robust and transparent, the watermark is embedded in the average of wavelet blocks using the visual model based on the human visual system. Wavelet coefficients n least significant bits (LSBs are adjusted in concert with the average. Simulation results shows that the proposed watermarking scheme is perceptually invisible and robust against many attacks such as lossy compression (e.g. JPEG, JPEG2000, scaling, adding noise, filtering, etc.

  3. Digital Image Watermarking for Arbitrarily Shaped Objects Based On SA-DWT

    CERN Document Server

    Essaouabi, A; Fegragui, F

    2009-01-01

    Many image watermarking schemes have been proposed in recent years, but they usually involve embedding a watermark to the entire image without considering only a particular object in the image, which the image owner may be interested in. This paper proposes a watermarking scheme that can embed a watermark to an arbitrarily shaped object in an image. Before embedding, the image owner specifies an object of arbitrary shape that is of a concern to him. Then the object is transformed into the wavelet domain using in place lifting shape adaptive DWT(SADWT) and a watermark is embedded by modifying the wavelet coefficients. In order to make the watermark robust and transparent, the watermark is embedded in the average of wavelet blocks using the visual model based on the human visual system. Wavelet coefficients n least significant bits (LSBs) are adjusted in concert with the average. Simulation results shows that the proposed watermarking scheme is perceptually invisible and robust against many attacks such as loss...

  4. Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf→1612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Stevenson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf→1612, where the leading β-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks–Zaks (BZ expansion in a0≡8321(1612−nf is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MS‾ or any renormalization scheme (RS whose nf dependence is ‘regular’. However, ‘irregular’ RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the ‘optimal’ RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a ‘master equation’ expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a→a⁎2/a about the fixed point a⁎.

  5. Electromagnetic scattering from two parallel 2D targets arbitrarily located in a Gaussian beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yun-Hua; Guo Li-Xin; Wu Qiong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper based on the equivalence principle and the reciprocity theorem, the scattered field up to second-order by two parallel 2D targets arbitrarily located in a Gaussian beam is considered. The first-order solution can easily be obtained by calculating the scattered field from isolated targets when illuminated by a Gaussian beam. However, because of the difficulty in formulating the couple scattering field, it is almost impossible to find an analytical solution for the second-order scattered field if the shapes of 2D targets are not canonical geometries. In order to overcome this problem, in this paper, the second-order solution is derived by using the technique based on the reciprocity theorem and the equivalence principle. Meanwhile, the relation between the secondary scattered field from target #1 and target #2 is obtained. Specifically, the bi- and mono-static scattering of Gaussian beam by two parallel adjacent inhomogeneous plasma-coated conducting circular cylinders is calculated and the dependence of attenuation of the scattering width on the thickness of the coated layer, electron number density, collision frequency and radar frequency is discussed in detail.

  6. A Study of Force and Position Tracking Control for Robot Contact with an Arbitrarily Inclined Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Bosheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive impedance control method for a robot’s end‐effector while it slides steadily on an arbitrarily inclined panel; it concentrates on robot force position tracking control for the inclined plane with an unknown normal direction and varying environmental damping and stiffness. The proposed control strategy uses the Recursive Least Squares (RLS algorithm to estimate environmental damping and stiffness parameters during the impact‐contact process between the robot and the environment. It achieves the expected posture adjustment of the robot’s end‐effector based on the measured contact torques and, during the robot’s end‐ effectorʹs sliding on the inclined plane, a fuzzy control is developed to adjust the robot impedance model parameters on‐line and adaptively for changes in environmental damping and stiffness. The designed robot force position control method is robust to the changes of the environmental parameters but the implementation of the proposed control algorithms is simple. Finally, experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  8. Bol loops of odd prime exponent

    CERN Document Server

    Foguel, Tuval

    2009-01-01

    Although any finite Bol loop of odd prime exponent is solvable, we show there exist such Bol loops with trivial center. We also construct finitely generated, infinite, simple Bruck loops of odd prime exponent for sufficiently large primes. This shows that the Burnside problem for Bruck loops has a negative answer.

  9. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  10. Affective priming with auditory speech stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In

  11. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  12. Diophantine Approximation with Two Primes and One Square of Prime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-ping; WANG Tian-ze

    2012-01-01

    We show that if λ1,λ2,λ3 are non-zero real numbers,not all of the same sign,η is real and λ1/λ2 is irrational,then there are infinitely many ordered triples of primes (p1,p2,p3) for which |λ1p1 + λ2p2 + λ3P23 +η| < (maxpj)-1/40 (log maxpj)4.

  13. Tight coupling between positive and reversed priming in the masked prime paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2010-01-01

    When associations between certain visual stimuli and particular actions are learnt, those stimuli become capable of automatically and unconsciously activating their associated action plans. Such sensorimotor priming is assumed to be fundamental for efficient responses, and can be reliably measured in masked prime studies even when the primes are not consciously perceived. However, when the delay between prime and target is increased, reversed priming effects are often found instead (the negat...

  14. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  15. Controllability, Bezoutian and relative primeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Datta

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Let f(x and g(x be two polynomials of degree n. Then it is well-known that the Bezoutian matrix Bfg associated with f(x and g(x is nonsingular if and only if f(x and g(x are relatively prime. We give an alternative proof of this result. The proof is based on a result on controllability derived in this note.

  16. Characteristics of Arbitrarily-Shaped Helical Groove Slow-Wave Structure Loaded with a Concentric Dielectric-Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu-Bin; Wei, Yan-Yu; Liu, Hong-Tao

    2010-12-01

    The dielectric-rod is loaded on the central axis of the arbitrarily-shaped helical groove slow-wave structure. Meanwhile, the profile of the groove is replaced by a series of continuous rectangular steps. The unified dispersion equation of the arbitrarily-shaped helical groove waveguide loaded with a concentric dielectric-rod is obtained by means of a combination of filed-matching method and admittance-matching technique. Then, the effect of the change of groove shape and the dielectric-rod parameters on the dispersion and coupling impedance is approached by theory calculation. The results show that: loaded with dielectric-rod, the bandwidth of the helical groove traveling wave tube (TWT) is effectively broadened, but the coupling impedance is reduced. Among the five different groove shapes, the triangle-type groove has the widest bandwidth but the smallest coupling impedance, and the swallow-tailed-type groove has the narrowest bandwidth but the largest coupling impedance.

  17. Compact stars in the braneworld: A new branch of stellar configurations with arbitrarily large mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugones, Germán; Arbañil, José D. V.

    2017-03-01

    We study the properties of compact stars in the Randall-Sundrum type-II braneworld (BW) model. To this end, we solve the braneworld generalization of the stellar structure equations for a static fluid distribution with spherical symmetry considering that the spacetime outside the star is described by a Schwarzschild metric. First, the stellar structure equations are integrated employing the so-called causal limit equation of state (EOS), which is constructed using a well-established EOS at densities below a fiducial density, and the causal EOS P =ρ above it. It is a standard procedure in general relativistic stellar structure calculations to use such EOSs for obtaining a limit in the mass radius diagram, known as the causal limit, above which no stellar configurations are possible if the EOS fulfills the condition that the sound velocity is smaller than the speed of light. We find that the equilibrium solutions in the braneworld model can violate the general relativistic causal limit, and for sufficiently large mass they approach asymptotically to the Schwarzschild limit M =2 R . Then, we investigate the properties of hadronic and strange quark stars using two typical EOSs: a nonlinear relativistic mean-field model for hadronic matter and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model for quark matter. For masses below ˜1.5 M⊙- 2 M⊙ , the mass versus radius curves show the typical behavior found within the frame of general relativity. However, we also find a new branch of stellar configurations that can violate the general relativistic causal limit and that, in principle, may have an arbitrarily large mass. The stars belonging to this new branch are supported against collapse by the nonlocal effects of the bulk on the brane. We also show that these stars are always stable under small radial perturbations. These results support the idea that traces of extra dimensions might be found in astrophysics, specifically through the analysis of masses and

  18. Fully automatic segmentation of arbitrarily shaped fiducial markers in cone-beam CT projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, J.; Wan, H.; Toftegaard, J.; Schmidt, M. L.; Chotard, F.; Parikh, P. J.; Poulsen, P. R.

    2017-02-01

    Radio-opaque fiducial markers of different shapes are often implanted in or near abdominal or thoracic tumors to act as surrogates for the tumor position during radiotherapy. They can be used for real-time treatment adaptation, but this requires a robust, automatic segmentation method able to handle arbitrarily shaped markers in a rotational imaging geometry such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection images and intra-treatment images. In this study, we propose a fully automatic dynamic programming (DP) assisted template-based (TB) segmentation method. Based on an initial DP segmentation, the DPTB algorithm generates and uses a 3D marker model to create 2D templates at any projection angle. The 2D templates are used to segment the marker position as the position with highest normalized cross-correlation in a search area centered at the DP segmented position. The accuracy of the DP algorithm and the new DPTB algorithm was quantified as the 2D segmentation error (pixels) compared to a manual ground truth segmentation for 97 markers in the projection images of CBCT scans of 40 patients. Also the fraction of wrong segmentations, defined as 2D errors larger than 5 pixels, was calculated. The mean 2D segmentation error of DP was reduced from 4.1 pixels to 3.0 pixels by DPTB, while the fraction of wrong segmentations was reduced from 17.4% to 6.8%. DPTB allowed rejection of uncertain segmentations as deemed by a low normalized cross-correlation coefficient and contrast-to-noise ratio. For a rejection rate of 9.97%, the sensitivity in detecting wrong segmentations was 67% and the specificity was 94%. The accepted segmentations had a mean segmentation error of 1.8 pixels and 2.5% wrong segmentations.

  19. Affective Priming Caused by Lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Sato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, arousal increases when telling a lie, as indicated in psychophysiological studies about lie detection. But the emotional valence induced by lying is unknown, though intuition indicates that it may be negative. Indeed, the Electrodermal Activity (EDA, used in such studies, only shows arousal changes during an emotional response. In this study, we examined the emotional valence induced by lying using two tasks. First, in the deceptive task, participants answered “no” to every question regarding the nature of displayed playing cards. Therefore, they told a lie about specific cards. During the task, their EDA was recorded. Secondly, in the figure estimation task, they assessed pictures by “like” or “dislike” after looking at playing cards visibly or subliminally as prime stimuli. We expected them to tend to estimate figures by “dislike” when cards relevant to deception were previously shown. This would mean that an affective priming effect due to telling a lie happened. Actually, this effect was found only when prime stimuli were displayed visibly. This result suggests that lying per se induces negative emotions even without motivation or punishment due to lying. Furthermore, we found that such effect was more blatant in participants whose EDA changes were salient while lying.

  20. KAPAO Prime: Design and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Lorcan; Choi, P. I.; Severson, S. A.; Spjut, E.

    2013-01-01

    KAPAO (KAPAO A Pomona Adaptive Optics instrument) is a dual-band natural guide star adaptive optics system designed to measure and remove atmospheric aberration over UV-NIR wavelengths from Pomona College’s telescope atop Table Mountain. We present here, the final optical system, KAPAO Prime, designed in Zemax Optical Design Software that uses custom off-axis paraboloid mirrors (OAPs) to manipulate light appropriately for a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, deformable mirror, and science cameras. KAPAO Prime is characterized by diffraction limited imaging over the full 81” field of view of our optical camera at f/33 as well as over the smaller field of view of our NIR camera at f/50. In Zemax, tolerances of 1% on OAP focal length and off-axis distance were shown to contribute an additional 4 nm of wavefront error (98% confidence) over the field of view of our optical camera; the contribution from surface irregularity was determined analytically to be 40nm for OAPs specified to λ/10 surface irregularity (632.8nm). Modeling of the temperature deformation of the breadboard in SolidWorks revealed 70 micron contractions along the edges of the board for a decrease of 75°F when applied to OAP positions such displacements from the optimal layout are predicted to contribute an additional 20 nanometers of wavefront error. Flexure modeling of the breadboard due to gravity is on-going. We hope to begin alignment and testing of KAPAO Prime in Q1 2013.

  1. Prediction of two-dimensional sound propagation over an arbitrarily-shaped barrier using the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong M.; Eversman, W.

    1992-01-01

    2D sound propagation over an arbitrarily-shaped barrier situated on a locally reacting infinite plane in a homogeneous medium is treated utilizing the BEM. The BIE is formulated so that the integral along an infinite homogeneous plane disappears if the half space Green's function is selected to satisfy the boundary condition of this plane. Comparison of the BEM results with test results by Habault and by Kearns shows good agreement of the sound field utilizing the BEM.

  2. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmels, Max; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    In evaluative priming, positive or negative primes facilitate reactions to targets that share the same valence. While this effect is commonly explained as reflecting invariant structures in semantic long-term memory or in the sensorimotor system, the present research highlights the role of integrativity in evaluative priming. Integrativity refers to the ease of integrating two concepts into a new meaningful compound representation. In extended material tests using paired comparisons from two pools of positive and negative words, we show that evaluative congruity is highly correlated with integrativity. Therefore, in most priming studies, congruity and integrativity are strongly confounded. When both aspects are disentangled by manipulating congruity and integrativity orthogonally, three priming experiments show that evaluative-priming effects were confined to integrative prime-target pairs. No facilitation of prime-congruent targets was obtained for non-integrative stimuli. These findings are discussed from a broader perspective on priming conceived as flexible, context-dependent, and serving a generative adaptation function.

  3. Signal and noise in bridging PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler David S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a variant of the standard PCR reaction termed bridging, or jumping, PCR the primer-bound sequences are originally on separate template molecules. Bridging can occur if, and only if, the templates contain a region of sequence similarity. A 3' end of synthesis in one round of synthesis that terminates in this region of similarity can prime on the other. In principle, Bridging PCR (BPCR can detect a subpopulation of one template that terminates synthesis in the region of sequence shared by the other template. This study considers the sensitivity and noise of BPCR as a quantitative assay for backbone interruptions. Bridging synthesis is also important to some methods for computing with DNA. Results In this study, BPCR was tested over a 328 base pair segment of the E. coli lac operon and a signal to noise ratio (S/N of approximately 10 was obtained under normal PCR conditions with Taq polymerase. With special precautions in the case of Taq or by using the Stoffel fragment the S/N was improved to 100, i.e. 1 part of cut input DNA yielded the same output as 100 parts of intact input DNA. Conclusions In the E. coli lac operator region studied here, depending on details of protocol, between 3 and 30% per kilobase of final PCR product resulted from bridging. Other systems are expected to differ in the proportion of product that is bridged consequent to PCR protocol and the sequence analyzed. In many cases physical bridging during PCR will have no informational consequence because the bridged templates are of identical sequence, but in a number of special cases bridging creates, or, destroys, information.

  4. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  5. Positive and negative spatial priming in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Mark; Stark, Rudolf; Kern, Georg; Laiacker, Manuela; Kirsch, Peter; Vaitl, Dieter

    2006-07-01

    Priming tasks are used for investigating the deficits of selective attention in schizophrenia, which are thought to be related to the psychotic symptoms. Priming was assessed in acutely psychotic unmedicated (n = 22) and medicated (n = 36) schizophrenia patients and in control subjects (n = 42). The subjects had to indicate the location of a target stimulus in two consecutive stimulus displays (prime and probe). Each stimulus appeared together with a distractor on a screen. Negative Priming is characterized by an increase in reaction time, whenever a probe target is presented at a prime distractor location. Positive Priming is characterized by a decrease in reaction time, when the probe target is presented at the prime target location. Schizophrenia patients altogether showed no abnormalities in priming effects, neither in the acute phase of illness (medicated and unmedicated) nor in partial remission (one month later, medicated). In unmedicated patients however Negative Priming was inversely correlated with the severity of positive symptoms. This indicates a priming deficit in a small subgroup of severely ill patients. The data support the notion that automatic (implicit) mechanisms of learning are unimpaired in schizophrenia patients unless symptoms exceed a certain critical level.

  6. Microbial stress priming: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Linares, Diana R; Lehmann, Anika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2016-04-01

    Microbes have to cope with complex and dynamic environments, making it likely that anticipatory responses provide fitness benefits. Mild, previous stressors can prepare microbes (stress priming) to further and potentially damaging stressors (triggering). We here quantitatively summarize the findings from over 250 trials of 34 studies including bacteria and fungi, demonstrating that priming to stress has a beneficial impact on microbial survival. In fact, survival of primed microbes was about 10-fold higher compared with that in non-primed microbes. Categorical moderators related to microbial taxonomy and the kind of stress applied as priming or as triggering revealed significant differences of priming effect size among 14 different microbial species, 6 stress categories and stressor combination. We found that priming by osmotic, physiological and temperature stress had the highest positive effect sizes on microbial response. Cross-protection was evident for physiological, temperature and pH stresses. Microbes are better prepared against triggering by oxidative, temperature and osmotic stress. Our finding of an overall positive mean effect of priming regardless of the microbial system and particular stressor provides unprecedentedly strong evidence of the broad ecological significance of microbial stress priming. These results further suggest that stress priming may be an important factor in shaping microbial communities.

  7. The temporal dynamics of visual object priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin P; Mason, Emily J; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-11-01

    Priming reflects an important means of learning that is mediated by implicit memory. Importantly, priming occurs for previously viewed objects (item-specific priming) and their category relatives (category-wide priming). Two distinct neural mechanisms are known to mediate priming, including the sharpening of a neural object representation and the retrieval of stimulus-response mappings. Here, we investigated whether the relationship between these neural mechanisms could help explain why item-specific priming generates faster responses than category-wide priming. Participants studied pictures of everyday objects, and then performed a difficult picture identification task while we recorded event-related potentials (ERP). The identification task gradually revealed random line segments of previously viewed items (Studied), category exemplars of previously viewed items (Exemplar), and items that were not previously viewed (Unstudied). Studied items were identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of item-specific priming, and importantly Exemplar items were also identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of category-wide priming. Early activity showed sustained neural suppression of parietal activity for both types of priming. However, these neural suppression effects may have stemmed from distinct processes because while category-wide neural suppression was correlated with priming behavior, item-specific neural suppression was not. Late activity, examined with response-locked ERPs, showed additional processes related to item-specific priming including neural suppression in occipital areas and parietal activity that was correlated with behavior. Together, we conclude that item-specific and category-wide priming are mediated by separate, parallel neural mechanisms in the context of the current paradigm. Temporal differences in behavior are determined by the timecourses of these distinct processes.

  8. A paradox of syntactic priming: Why response tendencies show priming for passives, and response latencies show priming for actives

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, M.; Segaert, K.; Menenti, L.; Weber, K.; Hagoort, P.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in re...

  9. The direction of masked auditory category priming correlates with participants' prime discrimination ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeitinger, Christina; Wentura, Dirk; Koppermann, Christopher; Hauser, Micha; Grass, Benjamin; Frings, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Semantic priming refers to the phenomenon that participants typically respond faster to targets following semantically related primes as compared to semantically unrelated primes. In contrast, Wentura and Frings (2005) found a negatively signed priming effect (i.e., faster responses to semantically unrelated as compared to semantically related targets) when they used (a) a special masking technique for the primes and (b) categorically related prime-target-pairs (e.g., fruit-apple). The negatively signed priming effect was most pronounced for participants with random prime discrimination performance, whereas participants with high prime discrimination performance showed a positive effect. In the present study we analyzed the after-effects of masked category primes in audition. A comparable pattern of results as in the visual modality emerged: The poorer the individual prime discrimination, the more negative is the semantic priming effect. This result is interpreted as evidence for a common mechanism causing the semantic priming effect in vision as well as in audition instead of a perceptual mechanism only working in the visual domain.

  10. First observation of the M1 transition $\\psi^\\prime\\to \\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Ferroli, R B; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, L; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J G; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 106 million $\\psi^\\prime$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, we have made the first measurement of the M1 transition between the radially excited charmonium $S$-wave spin-triplet and the radially excited $S$-wave spin-singlet states: $\\psi^\\prime\\to\\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime$. Analyses of the processes $\\psi^\\prime\\to \\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime$ with $\\eta_c^\\prime\\to \\K_S^0 K\\pi$ and $K^+K^-\\pi^0$ gave an $\\eta_c^\\prime$ signal with a statistical significance of greater than 10 standard deviations under a wide range of assumptions about the signal and background properties. The data are used to obtain measurements of the $\\eta_c^\\prime$ mass ($M(\\eta_c^\\prime)=3637.6\\pm 2.9_\\mathrm{stat}\\pm 1.6_\\mathrm{sys}$ MeV/$c^2$), width ($\\Gamma(\\eta_c^\\prime)=16.9\\pm 6.4_\\mathrm{stat}\\pm 4.8_\\mathrm{sys}$ MeV), and the product branching fraction ($\\BR(\\psi^\\prime\\to \\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime)\\times \\BR(\\eta_c^\\prime\\to K\\bar K\\pi) = (1.30\\pm 0.20_\\mathrm{stat}\\pm 0.30_\\mathrm{sys})\\tim...

  11. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  12. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.

  13. Tight Coupling between Positive and Reversed Priming in the Masked Prime Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2010-01-01

    When associations between certain visual stimuli and particular actions are learned, those stimuli become capable of automatically and unconsciously activating their associated action plans. Such sensorimotor priming is assumed to be fundamental for efficient responses, and can be reliably measured in masked prime studies even when the primes are…

  14. Priming effects on the N400 in the affective priming paradigm with facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Luis; Dieguez-Risco, Teresa; Méndez-Bértolo, Constantino; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A

    2013-06-01

    We studied the effect of facial expression primes on the evaluation of target words through a variant of the affective priming paradigm. In order to make the affective valence of the faces irrelevant to the task, the participants were assigned a double prime-target task in which they were unpredictably asked either to identify the gender of the face or to evaluate whether the word was pleasant or unpleasant. Behavioral and electrophysiological (event-related potential, or ERP) indices of affective priming were analyzed. Temporal and spatial versions of principal components analyses were used to detect and quantify those ERP components associated with affective priming. Although no significant behavioral priming was observed, electrophysiological indices showed a reverse priming effect, in the sense that the amplitude of the N400 was higher in response to congruent than to incongruent negative words. Moreover, a late positive potential (LPP), peaking around 700 ms, was sensitive to affective valence but not to prime-target congruency. This pattern of results is consistent with previous accounts of ERP effects in the affective priming paradigm that have linked the LPP with evaluative priming and the N400 with semantic priming. Our proposed explanation of the N400 priming effects obtained in the present study is based on two assumptions: a double check of affective stimuli in terms of valence and specific emotion content, and the differential specificities of facial expressions of positive and negative emotions.

  15. An Intriguing Method for Fabricating Arbitrarily Shaped “Matreshka” Hydrogels Using a Self-Healing Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an intriguing strategy for the creation of arbitrarily shaped hydrogels utilizing a self-healing template (SHT. A SHT was loaded with a photo-crosslinkable monomer, PEG diacrylate (PEGDA, and then ultraviolet light (UV crosslinked after first shaping. The SHT template was removed by simple washing with water, leaving behind the hydrogel in the desired physical shape. A hierarchical 3D structure such as “Matreshka” boxes were successfully prepared by simply repeating the “self-healing” and “photo-irradiation” processes. We have also explored the potential of the SHT system for the manipulation of cells.

  16. One version of direct response priming requires automatization of the relevant associations but not awareness of the prime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Stuart T

    2015-07-01

    Priming is the influence of one event on performance during a second event. One type of priming is known as semantic priming because it biases interpretation of the subsequent stimulus. Another type, direct response priming, biases responding directly without semantic mediation. Research reviewed in this article indicates that two versions of the second type, direct response priming, can be distinguished. One version, explicit priming, requires awareness of the prime. The other version, associative response priming, occurs even if the prime is masked and not phenomenally visible. This version, which is attributed to associations relating specific sensory events to movements of particular muscles, is enabled only if the association has previously been automatized by brief practice in which the to-be-primed response is made to the stimulus that subsequently appears as the prime. Associative response priming can be explained by a simple stimulus-response interpretation; other varieties of priming are more theoretically challenging.

  17. Diagnostic PCR: validation and sample preparation are two sides of the same coin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wolffs, Petra; Radstrøm, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Increased use of powerful PCR technology for the routine detection of pathogens has focused attention on the need for international validation and preparation of official non-commercial guidelines. Bacteria of epidemiological importance should be the prime focus, although a "validation infrastruc......Increased use of powerful PCR technology for the routine detection of pathogens has focused attention on the need for international validation and preparation of official non-commercial guidelines. Bacteria of epidemiological importance should be the prime focus, although a "validation...

  18. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  19. Semilocal formal fibers of principal prime ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Chatlos, John; Watson, Nathaniel G; Wu, Sherry X

    2009-01-01

    Let (T,m) be a complete local (Notherian) ring, C a finite set of pairwise incomparable nonmaximal prime ideals of T, and p a nonzero element. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for T to be the completion of an integral domain A containing the prime ideal pA whose formal fiber is semilocal with maximal ideals the elements of C.

  20. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech.

  1. Prime pairs and the zeta function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, J.

    2009-01-01

    Are there infinitely many prime pairs with given even difference? Most mathematicians think so. Using a strong arithmetic hypothesis, Goldston, Pintz and Yildirim have recently shown that there are infinitely many pairs of primes differing by at most sixteen. There is extensive numerical support for

  2. Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

  3. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  4. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  5. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  6. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  7. Prime power polynomial maps over finite fields

    CERN Document Server

    Berson, Joost

    2012-01-01

    We consider polynomial maps described by so-called prime power polynomials. These polynomials are defined using a fixed power of a prime number, say q. Considering invertible polynomial maps of this type over a characteristic zero field, we will only obtain (up to permutation of the variables) triangular maps, which are the most basic examples of polynomial automorphisms. However, over the finite field F_q automorphisms of this type have (in general) an entirely different structure. Namely, we will show that the prime power polynomial maps over F_q are in one-to-one correspondence with matrices having coefficients in a univariate polynomial ring over F_q. Furthermore, composition of polynomial maps translates to matrix multiplication, implying that invertible prime power polynomial maps correspond to invertible matrices. This alternate description of the prime power polynomial automorphism subgroup leads to the solution of many famous conjectures for this kind of polynomials and polynomial maps.

  8. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  9. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  10. Random reward priming is task-contingent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings...... for a Gabor patch of odd spatial frequency we found no evidence of reward priming, while we only partially replicate the reward priming in the exact original paradigm tested by Hickey and colleagues. The results cast doubt on the proposal that random reward enhances salience, suggested in the original papers......, and highlight the need for a more nuanced account. In many other paradigms reward effects have been found to progress gradually, becoming stronger as they build up, and we argue that for robust reward priming, reward schedules need to be more consistent than in the original 1-trial reward priming paradigm....

  11. Movement-Based Priming: Clinical Applications and Neural Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel Montie; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2017-01-01

    Priming can be described as behavior change generated by preceding stimuli. Although various types of priming have been long studied in the field of psychology, priming that targets motor cortex is a relatively new topic of research in the fields of motor control and rehabilitation. In reference to a rehabilitation intervention, priming is categorized as a restorative approach. There are a myriad of possible priming approaches including noninvasive brain stimulation, motor imagery, and sensory-based priming, to name a few. The authors report on movement-based priming which, compared to other priming types, is less frequently examined and under reported. Movement-based priming includes, but is not limited to, bilateral motor priming, unilateral priming, and aerobic exercise. Clinical and neural mechanistic aspects of movement-based priming techniques are explored.

  12. Exponential sums over primes in short intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jianya

    2006-01-01

    [1]Vinogradov,I.M.,Estimation of certain trigonometric sums with prime variables,Izv.Acad.Nauk.SSSR,1939,3:371-398.[2]Zhan,T.,On the representation of large odd integer as a sum of three almost equal primes,Acta Math.Sin.,1991,7:259-272.[3]Ren,X.M.,On exponential sums over primes and application in the Waring-Goldbach problem,Sci.China,Ser.A-Math.,2005,48(6):785-797.[4]Liu,J.Y.,Wooley,T.D.,Yu,G.,The quadratic Waring-Goldbach problem,J.Number Theory,2004,107:298-321.[5]Hua,L.K.,Some results in the additive prime number theory,Quart.J.Math.(Oxford),1938,9:68-80.[6]Liu,J.Y.,Zhan,T.,On sums of five almost equal prime squares,Acta Arith.,1996,77:369-383.[7]Bauer,C.,A note on sums of five almost equal prime squares,Arch.Math,1997,69:20-30.[8]Liu,J.Y.,Zhan,T.,Sums of five almost equal prime squares,Science in China,Ser.A,1998,41:710-722.[9]Liu,J.Y.,Zhan,T.,Hua's theorem on prime squares in short intervals,Acta Math.Sin.,2000,16:1-22.[10]Bauer,C.,Sums of five almost equal prime squares,Acta Math.Sin.,2005,21(4):833-840.[11]Lü,G.S.,Hua's Theorem with five almost equal prime variables,Chin.Ann.Math.,Ser.B,2005,26(2):291-304.[12]Vinogradov,I.M.,Elements of Number Theory,Dover Publications,1954.[13]Titchmarsh,E.C.,The Theory of the Riemann Zeta-function,2nd ed.,Oxford:Oxford University Press,1986.

  13. E 1 transitions from the. Upsilon. prime prime state and the fine structure of the. chi. sub b prime states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, M.; Lovelock, D.M.J.; Heintz, U.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Schamberger, R.D.; Willins, J.; Yanagisawa, C. (State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (USA)); Franzini, P.; Tuts, P.M.; Kanekal, S.; Wu, Q.W. (Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (USA))

    1991-06-17

    Using the CUSB-II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have made precision measurements of the electric dipole transition rates from {Upsilon}{prime}{prime} to {chi}{sub {ital b}}{sup {prime}}, which are in excellent agreement with theory. The fine-structure splitting is found to be {ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}2}{sup {prime}}){minus}{ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}1}{sup {prime}})=13.5{plus minus}0.4{plus minus}0.5 MeV and {ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}1}{sup {prime}}){minus}{ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}0}{sup {prime}})=23.3{plus minus}0.7{plus minus}0.7 MeV, leading to a ratio {ital R}=0.584{plus minus}0.024{plus minus}0.02. The fine structure measures the relative contributions of the spin-orbit interaction {ital a}=9.5{plus minus}0.2{plus minus}0.1 MeV and tensor interaction {ital b}=2.3{plus minus}0.1{plus minus}0.1 MeV. We also find that the long-range confining potential transforms as a Lorentz scalar.

  14. Re-naming D Double Prime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    "Knowledge about the dynamics of the D double prime region is a key to unlock some fundamental mysteries of the Earth heat engine which governs a wide range of global geophysical processes from tectonics to geodynamo." This benign sentence makes complete sense to many geophysicists. But for many others, it makes sense all except the odd nomenclature "D double prime". One knows about the crust, upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core, but where is the D double prime region? What meaning does it try to convey? Where is D prime region, or D, or A, B, C regions for that matter, and are there higher-order primes? How does such an odd name come about anyway? D double prime, or more "simply" D", is a generic designation given to the thin shell, about 200 km thick, of the lowermost mantle just above the core-mantle boundary inside the Earth. Incidentally, whether D" is "simpler" than "D double prime" depends on whether you are pronouncing it or writing/typing it; and D" can be confusing to readers in distinguishing quotation marks (such as in the above sentences) and second derivatives, and to word processors in spelling check and indexing.

  15. A general method for the detection of large CAG repeat expansions by fluorescent PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J P; Barron, L H; Goudie, D; Kelly, K; Dow, D; Fitzpatrick, D R; Brock, D J

    1996-12-01

    The expansion of a tandemly repeated trinucleotide sequence, CAG, is the mutational mechanism for several human genetic diseases. We present a generally applicable PCR amplification method using a fluorescently labelled locus specific primer flanking the CAG repeat together with paired primers amplifying from multiple priming sites within the CAG repeat. Triplet repeat primed PCR (TP PCR) gives a characteristic ladder on the fluorescence trace enabling the rapid identification of large pathogenetic CAG repeats that cannot be amplified using flanking primers. We used our method to test a cohort of 183 people from myotonic dystrophy families including unaffected subjects and spouses. Eighty five clinically affected subjects with expanded alleles on Southern blot analysis were all correctly identified by TP PCR. This method is applicable for any human diseases involving CAG repeat expansions.

  16. 模糊Prime元%Fuzzy Prime Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶三平

    2012-01-01

    基于完备剩余格,本文在模糊完备格中,引入模糊Prime元概念.给出了模糊Prime元的等价刻画,证明了所有的模糊Prime元构成的模糊集是模糊完全分配格.%Based on complete residuated lattices, the concept of fuzzy Prime elements in fuzzy complete lattices is given, then the equivalent characterization of fuzzy Prime elements is obtained. We also prove that the fuzzy subsets of fuzzy Prime elements is a fuzzy completely distributice lattice.

  17. An introduction to E-Prime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Charbonneau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When running an experiment, precision is essential to ensure results are as exact as possible. Thus, computers, which offer endless accuracy, have become an inevitable tool to design experiments. To avoid programming from scratch for each new situation, a program, E-Prime, has been created to ease the conception of experiments. E-Prime, developed by PSTNet, offers a user-friendly interface that makes typical experiments easy to create. This paper shows how to effortlessly create an experiment with E-Prime, followed by a simple example.

  18. Análisis de variabilidad genética en Moniliophthora roreri con AP-PCR y RAPD en Antioquia, Colombia Analysis of genetic variability in Moniliophthora roreri with AP-PCR and RAPD in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanador Kafuri Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri es el agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao, la enfermedad más severa en las plantaciones de cacao en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Los marcadores moleculares RAPD (Random Amplyfied Polymorphism of DNA y AP-PCR (Arbitraly Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction fueron usados para estudiar la variabilidad genética de 170 aislamientos de M. roreri colectados en doce municipios de Antioquia. El análisis dividió la población en seis grupos, el grupo G1 fue el más grande y contenía el 95% de los aislamientos con una alta similitud genética (coeficiente de similitud de 0,7 a 1, mientras los otros cinco grupos contenían solo aislamientos de Apartadó y Dabeiba con una similitud genética moderadamente baja (coeficiente de similitud entre 0,45 a 0,55. El análisis de componentes principales mostró una alta similitud genética entre la población excepto entre los aislamientos de Apartadó y Dabeiba, que registraron los más altos niveles de variabilidad genética con valores altos del índice de Shannon y el porcentaje de loci polimórficos, mientras los otros aislamientos registraron una baja variabilidad genética. Los valores de diversidad y diferenciación genética en la población muestran una introducción reciente de M. roreri en las plantaciones de cacao de Antioquia, y una reproducción predominantemente clonal en la población. De acuerdo con Amova, la mayoría de la variación genética se encontró dentro de los municipios (75,68% con solo un 5,94% presente entre las subregiones.Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of moniliasis in cocoa, the most severe disease affecting cocoa plantations in the Antioquia department in Colombia. RAPD (random amplified polymorphism of DNA and AP-PCR (arbitrarily-primed polymerase chain reaction molecular markers were used for studying the genetic variability of 170 M. roreri isolates collected from twelve municipalities in Antioquia. Cluster analysis divided the

  19. Prime Focus Spectrograph - Subaru's future -

    CERN Document Server

    Sugai, Hajime; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Shimono, Atsushi; Ohyama, Youichi; Ueda, Akitoshi; Ling, Hung-Hsu; de Arruda, Marcio Vital; Barkhouser, Robert H; Bennett, Charles L; Bickerton, Steve; Braun, David F; Bruno, Robin J; Carr, Michael A; Oliveira, João Batista de Carvalho; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Dekany, Richard G; Dominici, Tania Pereira; Ellis, Richard S; Fisher, Charles D; Gunn, James E; Heckman, Timothy M; Ho, Paul T P; Hu, Yen-Shan; Jaquet, Marc; Karr, Jennifer; Kimura, Masahiko; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Mignant, David Le; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H; Madec, Fabrice; Marrara, Lucas Souza; Martin, Laurent; Murayama, Hitoshi; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; Orndorff, Joe D; Vilaça, Rodrigo de Paiva; Macanhan, Vanessa Bawden de Paula; Prieto, Eric; Santos, Jesulino Bispo dos; Seiffert, Michael D; Smee, Stephen A; Smith, Roger M; Sodré, Laerte; Spergel, David N; Surace, Christian; Vives, Sebastien; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Yan, Chi-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project has been endorsed by Japanese community as one of the main future instruments of the Subaru 8.2-meter telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph targets cosmology with galaxy surveys, Galactic archaeology, and studies of galaxy/AGN evolution. Taking advantage of Subaru's wide field of view, which is further extended with the recently completed Wide Field Corrector, PFS will enable us to carry out multi-fiber spectroscopy of 2400 targets within 1.3 degree diameter. A microlens is attached at each fiber entrance for F-ratio transformation into a larger one so that difficulties of spectrograph design are eased. Fibers are accurately placed onto target positions by positioners, each of which consists of two stages of piezo-electric rotary motors, through iterations by using back-illuminated fiber position measurements with a wide-field metrology camera. Fibers then carry l...

  20. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  1. Syntactic Variance and Priming Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangalore, Srinivas; Behrens, Bergljot; Carl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    on the syntactic level. We tested these hypotheses with translation data from the TPR database, more specifically for three language pairs (English-German, English-Danish, and English-Spanish). Our results show that response times are shorter when syntactic structures are shared. The model explains this through......The present work investigates the relationship between syntactic variation and priming in translation. It is based on the claim that languages share a common cognitive network of neural activity. When the source and target languages are solicited in a translation context, this shared network can...... lead to facilitation effects, so-called priming effects. We suggest that priming is a default setting in translation, a special case of language use where source and target languages are constantly co-activated. Such priming effects are not restricted to lexical elements, but do also occur...

  2. Pakistan prime minister pledges science boost

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Pakistan's prime minister announced plans for a 1 billion rupee (23 million US dollars) investment in science and technology. About half is expected to be spent on research and infrasture, the rest on science education (6 paragraphs).

  3. SATDA teams up with American Prime Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>With over 37 years of experience in the real estate industry, American Prime, a family owned and operated company, headquartered in Miami, Florida, is an industry leader in the developing, marketing, selling, and financing of real

  4. Positions priming in briefly presented search arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Arni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Kyllingsbæk, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Repetition priming in visual search has been a topic of extensive research since Maljkovic & Nakayama [1994, Memory & Cognition, 22, 657-672] presented the first detailed studies of such effects. Their results showed large reductions in reaction times when target color was repeated on consecutive...... pop-out search trials. Such repetition effects have since been generalized to a multitude of target attributes. Priming has primarily been investigated using self-terminating visual search paradigms, comparing differences in response times. Response accuracy has predominantly served as a control...... variable. Here we present results from experiments where position priming is demonstrated in paradigms involving temporally limited exposures to singleton targets. Position priming of response accuracy was observed in an eye-movement-controlled spatial judgment task and in partial report tasks where...

  5. Degree of handedness and priming: further evidence for a distinction between production and identification priming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVoie, Donna J; Olbinski, Brianna; Palmer, Shayna

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between implicit and explicit forms of memory retrieval is long-standing, and important to the extent it reveals how different neural architecture supports different aspects of memory function. Similarly, distinctions have been made between kinds of repetition priming, a form of implicit memory retrieval. This study focuses on the production-identification (ID) priming distinction, which delineates priming tasks involving verification of stimulus features as compared to priming tasks that require use of a cue to guide response retrieval. Studies investigating this dissociation in dementia or similar patient populations indicate that these forms of priming may differ in their neural bases. The current study looks at degree of handedness as a way of investigating inferred neural architecture supporting these two forms of priming. A growing body of research indicates that degree of handedness (consistent, or CH, versus inconsistent, or ICH) is associated with greater interhemispheric interaction and functional access to right hemisphere processing in ICH, with superior performance seen in ICH on memory tasks reliant on this processing. Arguments about the theoretical mechanisms underlying ID and production forms of perceptual priming tasks suggest that performance on these tasks will differ as a function of degree of handedness. We tested this question in a group of CH and ICH young adults, who were asked to study lists of words prior to performing a production priming task (word stem completion, WSC), a perceptual word ID task, and a word stem cued recall task. While both handedness groups exhibited reliable priming across tasks, WSC priming was greater in ICH than CH participants, with ID priming not differing between groups. This dissociation supports the argument that production and ID forms of priming have different underlying neural bases.

  6. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with arbitrarily charged dust and trapped electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Rahman; A A Mamun

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical investigation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in three-component unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of trapped electrons, Maxwellian ions, and arbitrarily charged cold mobile dust was done. It has been found that, owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a vortex-like one, the dynamics of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) waves is governed by a nonlinear equation of modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) type (instead of KdV). The reductive perturbation method was employed to study the basic features (amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of DA solitary waves which are significantly modified by the presence of trapped electrons. The implications of our results in space and laboratory plasmas are briefly discussed.

  7. Active coated nano-particle excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole — resonance and transparency effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the optical properties of active coated spherical nano-particles excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole. The nano-particles are made of specific dielectric and plasmonic materials. The spatial near-field distribution as well as the normalized...... radiation resistance is examined. Both enhanced as well as reduced radiation effects are demonstrated. In particular, it is shown that specific active coated nano-particles can be designed to be resonant, leading to much larger values of the normalized radiation resistance than is the case...... with the corresponding passive coated nano-particles, thereby overcoming the intrinsic losses present in the plasmonic materials. Moreover, it is shown that other active coated nano-particle designs can significantly reduce the normalized radiation resistance; thus both the resonant as well as non...

  8. The Small Signal Analysis of a Centered Dielectric-Rod Loaded, Arbitrarily-Shaped Helical Groove Traveling-Wave-Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyu; Liu, Hongtao; He, Jun; Gong, Yubin; Yue, Lingna; Wang, Wenxiang; Park, Gun-Sik

    2007-12-01

    Properties of traveling wave-beam interaction in a centered dielectric-rod loaded, arbitrarily-shaped helical groove slow-wave structure (SWS) are investigated for a thin annular electron beam. The “hot” dispersion equation is obtained by means of the self-consistent field theory, and the small signal analysis is carried out including the effects of the dielectric-rod parameters and the groove shapes. The numerical results show that the bandwidth of the helical groove TWT is expanded by loading dielectric-rod, however, the small-signal gain is reduced; and when the groove shape changes from the swallow-tail shape to the triangle shape, the working frequency increases , while the peak gain decreases.

  9. New Basis Functions for the Electromagnetic Solution of Arbitrarily-shaped, Three Dimensional Conducting Bodies using Method of Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.; Baginski, Michael E.; Rao, Sadasiva M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present a new set of basis functions, defined over a pair of planar triangular patches, for the solution of electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems associated with arbitrarily-shaped surfaces using the method of moments solution procedure. The basis functions are constant over the function subdomain and resemble pulse functions for one and two dimensional problems. Further, another set of basis functions, point-wise orthogonal to the first set, is also defined over the same function space. The primary objective of developing these basis functions is to utilize them for the electromagnetic solution involving conducting, dielectric, and composite bodies. However, in the present work, only the conducting body solution is presented and compared with other data.

  10. Hawking effect and quantum nonthermal radiation of an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole using a new tortoise coordinate transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Wei-Zhen; Yang Xue-Jun; Xie Zhi-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, this paper investigates the Hawking effect from an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole by the improved Damour-Ruffini method. After the tortoise coordinate transformation,the Klein-Gordon equation can be written as the standard form at the event horizon. Then extending the outgoing wave from outside to inside of the horizon analytically, the surface gravity and Hawking temperature can be obtained automatically. It is found that the Hawking temperatures of different points on the surface are different. The quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics of a black hole near the event horizon is also discussed by studying the Hamilton Jacobi equation in curved spacetime and the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels near the event horizon is given. There is a dimensional problem in the standard tortoise coordinate and the present results may be more reasonable.

  11. Periodicity In The Intervals Between Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    simple proportionality in Eq.(32), such that the basic form of Dc over the range (0,Γ] is repeated in progressively smaller scale over subsequent...striations are an aggregate visual effect that could be produced only from finely-grained periodicity in the δ- dependence of Dp. Figure (6) is a...a randomized analogue of the first 104 primes. indicates a certain ‘Russian dolls’-style self-similarity in the periodicity of the prime intervals

  12. Retro-priming, priming, and double testing: psi and replication in a test-retest design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeyron, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have been conducted in recent years on anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect (Bem, 2010), yet more data are needed to understand these processes precisely. For this purpose, we carried out an initial retro-priming study in which the response times of 162 participants were measured (Rabeyron and Watt, 2010). In the current paper, we present the results of a second study in which we selected those participants who demonstrated the strongest retro-priming effect during the first study, in order to see if we could replicate this effect and therefore select high scoring participants. An additional objective was to try to find correlations between psychological characteristics (anomalous experiences, mental health, mental boundaries, trauma, negative life events) and retro-priming results for the high scoring participants. The retro-priming effect was also compared with performance on a classical priming task. Twenty-eight participants returned to the laboratory for this new study. The results, for the whole group, on the retro-priming task, were negative and non-significant (es = -0.25, ns) and the results were significant on the priming task (es = 0.63, p priming results for all the sub-groups (students, male, female). Ten participants were found to have positive results on the two retro-priming studies, but no specific psychological variables were found for these participants compared to the others. Several hypotheses are considered in explaining these results, and the author provide some final thoughts concerning psi and replicability.

  13. Non-cognate translation priming in masked priming lexical decision experiments: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2016-09-09

    The masked translation priming paradigm has been widely used in the last 25 years to investigate word processing in bilinguals. Motivated by studies reporting mixed findings, in particular for second language (L2) to first language (L1) translation priming, we conducted, for the first time in the literature, a meta-analysis of 64 masked priming lexical decision experiments across 24 studies to assess the effect sizes of L1-L2 and L2-L1 non-cognate translation priming effects in bilinguals. Our meta-analysis also investigated the influence of potential moderators of translation priming effects. The results provided clear evidence of significant translation priming effects for both directions, with L1-L2 translation priming significantly larger than L2-L1 translation priming (i.e., effect size of 0.86 vs. 0.31). The analyses also revealed that L1-L2 translation effect sizes were moderated by the interval between prime and target (ISI), whereas L2-L1 translation effect sizes were modulated by the number of items per cell. Theoretical and methodological implications of this meta-analysis are discussed and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  14. Hyperthermia enhances CTL cross-priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongzhen; Cao, Tinghua; Connolly, John E; Monnet, Laurence; Bennett, Lynda; Chapel, Sylvie; Bagnis, Claude; Mannoni, Patrice; Davoust, Jean; Palucka, A Karolina; Banchereau, Jacques

    2006-02-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with killed allogeneic melanoma cells can cross-prime naive CD8(+) T cells to differentiate into melanoma-specific CTLs in 3-wk cultures. In this study we show that DCs loaded with killed melanoma cells that were heated to 42 degrees C before killing are more efficient in cross-priming of naive CD8(+) T cells than DCs loaded with unheated killed melanoma cells. The enhanced cross-priming was demonstrated by several parameters: 1) induction of naive CD8(+) T cell differentiation in 2-wk cultures, 2) enhanced killing of melanoma peptide-pulsed T2 cells, 3) enhanced killing of HLA-A*0201(+) melanoma cells in a standard 4-h chromium release assay, and 4) enhanced capacity to prevent tumor growth in vitro in a tumor regression assay. Two mechanisms might explain the hyperthermia-induced enhanced cross-priming. First, heat-treated melanoma cells expressed increased levels of 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and enhanced cross-priming could be reproduced by overexpression of HSP70 in melanoma cells transduced with HSP70 encoding lentiviral vector. Second, hyperthermia resulted in the increased transcription of several tumor Ag-associated Ags, including MAGE-B3, -B4, -A8, and -A10. Thus, heat treatment of tumor cells permits enhanced cross-priming, possibly via up-regulation of both HSPs and tumor Ag expression.

  15. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  16. Pure Mediated Priming: A Retrospective Semantic Matching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lara L.

    2010-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the activation of a target (e.g., "stripes") by a prime (e.g., "lion") that is related indirectly via a connecting mediator (e.g., tiger). In previous mediated priming studies (e.g., McNamara & Altarriba, 1988), the mediator was associatively related to the prime. In contrast, pure mediated…

  17. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  18. Apta-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alessandro; Polo, Pedro Nadal; Rubio, Miriam Jauest; Svobodova, Marketa; Lerga, Teresa Mairal; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2016-01-01

    Real-time Apta-PCR is a methodology that can be used for a wide variety of applications ranging from food quality control to clinical diagnostics. This method takes advantage of the combination of the sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification with the selectivity of aptamers. Ultra-low detection of target analyte can potentially be achieved, or, improved detection limits can be achieved with aptamers of low-medium affinity. Herein, we describe a generic methodology coined real-time Apta-PCR, using a model target (β-conglutin) and a competitive format, which can be adapted for the detection of any target which an aptamer has been selected for.

  19. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique A Smeets

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming.

  20. False memories and lexical decision: even twelve primes do not cause long-term semantic priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Zeelenberg (René); D. Pecher (Diane)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSemantic priming effects are usually obtained only if the prime is presented shortly before the target stimulus. Recent evidence obtained with the so-called false memory paradigm suggests, however, that in both explicit and implicit memory tasks semantic relations between words can resul

  1. Prime and prejudice: co-occurrence in the culture as a source of automatic stereotype priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghen, Paul; Aikman, Shelley N; Van Gulick, Ana E

    2011-09-01

    It has been argued that stereotype priming (response times are faster for stereotypical word pairs, such as black-poor, than for non-stereotypical word pairs, such as black-balmy) is partially a function of biases in the belief system inherent in the culture. In three priming experiments, we provide direct evidence for this position, showing that stereotype priming effects associated with race, gender, and age can be very well explained through objectively measured associative co-occurrence of prime and target in the culture: (a) once objective associative strength between word pairs is taken into account, stereotype priming effects disappear; (b) the relationship between response time and associative strength is identical for social primes and non-social primes. The correlation between associative-value-controlled stereotype priming and self-report measures of racism, sexism, and ageism is near zero. The racist/sexist/ageist in all of us appears to be (at least partially) a reflection of the surrounding culture.

  2. A computational approach to negative priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrobsdorff, H.; Ihrke, M.; Kabisch, B.; Behrendt, J.; Hasselhorn, M.; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2007-09-01

    Priming is characterized by a sensitivity of reaction times to the sequence of stimuli in psychophysical experiments. The reduction of the reaction time observed in positive priming is well-known and experimentally understood (Scarborough et al., J. Exp. Psycholol: Hum. Percept. Perform., 3, pp. 1-17, 1977). Negative priming—the opposite effect—is experimentally less tangible (Fox, Psychonom. Bull. Rev., 2, pp. 145-173, 1995). The dependence on subtle parameter changes (such as response-stimulus interval) usually varies. The sensitivity of the negative priming effect bears great potential for applications in research in fields such as memory, selective attention, and ageing effects. We develop and analyse a computational realization, CISAM, of a recent psychological model for action decision making, the ISAM (Kabisch, PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, 2003), which is sensitive to priming conditions. With the dynamical systems approach of the CISAM, we show that a single adaptive threshold mechanism is sufficient to explain both positive and negative priming effects. This is achieved by comparing results obtained by the computational modelling with experimental data from our laboratory. The implementation provides a rich base from which testable predictions can be derived, e.g. with respect to hitherto untested stimulus combinations (e.g. single-object trials).

  3. Priming intelligent behavior: an elusive phenomenon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Shanks

    Full Text Available Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained.

  4. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  5. Priming for novel object associations: Neural differences from object item priming and equivalent forms of recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Mayes, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The neural substrates of associative and item priming and recognition were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study over two separate sessions. In the priming session, participants decided which object of a pair was bigger during both study and test phases. In the recognition session, participants saw different object pairs and performed the same size-judgement task followed by an associative recognition memory task. Associative priming was accompanied by reduced activity in the right middle occipital gyrus as well as in bilateral hippocampus. Object item priming was accompanied by reduced activity in extensive priming-related areas in the bilateral occipitotemporofrontal cortex, as well as in the perirhinal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. Associative recognition was characterized by activity increases in regions linked to recollection, such as the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior medial frontal gyrus and posterior parahippocampal cortex. Item object priming and recognition recruited broadly overlapping regions (e.g., bilateral middle occipital and prefrontal cortices, left fusiform gyrus), even though the BOLD response was in opposite directions. These regions along with the precuneus, where both item priming and recognition were accompanied by activation, have been found to respond to object familiarity. The minimal structural overlap between object associative priming and recollection-based associative recognition suggests that they depend on largely different stimulus-related information and that the different directions of the effects indicate distinct retrieval mechanisms. In contrast, item priming and familiarity-based recognition seemed mainly based on common memory information, although the extent of common processing between priming and familiarity remains unclear. Further implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Simultaneous detection and subtyping of porcine endogenous retroviruses proviral DNA using the dual priming oligonucleotide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyoung Joon; Park, Seong Jun; Kim, Hye Kwon; Ann, Soo Kyung; Rho, Semi; Keum, Hyun Ok; Park, Bong Kyun

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR that can detect porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) proviral genes (pol, envA, envB, envC) and porcine mitochondrial DNA, using a dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) system. The primer specifically detected the PERV proviral genes pol, envA, envB, envC, and porcine mitochondrial DNA only in samples of pig origin. The sensitivity of the primer was demonstrated by simultaneous amplification of all 5 target genes in as little as 10 pg of pig DNA containing PERV proviral genes and mitochondrial DNA. The multiplex PCR, when applied to field samples, simultaneously and successfully amplified PERV proviral genes from liver, blood and hair root samples. Thus, the multiplex PCR developed in the current study using DPO-based primers is a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for the detection and subtyping of PERV proviral genes.

  7. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications.

  8. The role of short-term memory in semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A L; Diehl, V A

    2001-07-01

    Two theories of priming were compared: spreading activation theories, in particular ACT, and compound-cue theories. Whereas ACT assumes that priming is a result of diffusing activation in long-term memory, compound-cue models suggest that priming results from a formation process of prime and target in short-term memory. Thirty-eight participants took part in a study that combined a digit span task with a double lexical decision task consisting of a prime and a target item. Digit span length (low, medium, and high) and prime type (related or unrelated word or nonword) were both within-subject variables. As expected, results showed significant priming effects. In favor of ACT, no interaction between digit span length and prime type was found. Additionally, a nonword inhibition effect (unrelated versus nonword prime) was found, which was predicted by compound-cue theories. This finding is discussed in terms of the process interference and response competition hypotheses.

  9. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Flexas

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms and extended (SOA = 300 ms conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.

  10. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Olivera La Rosa, Antonio; Munar, Enric

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion) were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms) and extended (SOA = 300 ms) conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.

  11. Extending ALE3D, an Arbitrarily Connected hexahedral 3D Code, to Very Large Problem Size (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, A L

    2010-12-15

    As the number of compute units increases on the ASC computers, the prospect of running previously unimaginably large problems is becoming a reality. In an arbitrarily connected 3D finite element code, like ALE3D, one must provide a unique identification number for every node, element, face, and edge. This is required for a number of reasons, including defining the global connectivity array required for domain decomposition, identifying appropriate communication patterns after domain decomposition, and determining the appropriate load locations for implicit solvers, for example. In most codes, the unique identification number is defined as a 32-bit integer. Thus the maximum value available is 231, or roughly 2.1 billion. For a 3D geometry consisting of arbitrarily connected hexahedral elements, there are approximately 3 faces for every element, and 3 edges for every node. Since the nodes and faces need id numbers, using 32-bit integers puts a hard limit on the number of elements in a problem at roughly 700 million. The first solution to this problem would be to replace 32-bit signed integers with 32-bit unsigned integers. This would increase the maximum size of a problem by a factor of 2. This provides some head room, but almost certainly not one that will last long. Another solution would be to replace all 32-bit int declarations with 64-bit long long declarations. (long is either a 32-bit or a 64-bit integer, depending on the OS). The problem with this approach is that there are only a few arrays that actually need to extended size, and thus this would increase the size of the problem unnecessarily. In a future computing environment where CPUs are abundant but memory relatively scarce, this is probably the wrong approach. Based on these considerations, we have chosen to replace only the global identifiers with the appropriate 64-bit integer. The problem with this approach is finding all the places where data that is specified as a 32-bit integer needs to be

  12. Prime Minister of Pakistan visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday, 23 January 2016, CERN welcomed Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan.   From left to right: Minister of Finance Mr Mohammad Ishaq Dar, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti and CMS national contact physicist Hafeez Hoorani. Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif arrived at Point 5 in Cessy, where he was welcomed onto French soil by the sous-préfet of Cessy, Stéphane Donnot, and, representing CERN, Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, Directors Eckhard Elsen and Charlotte Warakaulle, and Rüdiger Voss, the adviser for relations with Pakistan. It was the first visit by a head of government of Pakistan since the country became CERN's latest Associate Member State in July 2015. The Prime Minister then had the opportunity to visit the CMS underground experimental area accompanied by the CMS Spokesperson, Tiziano Camporesi, and the CMS collaboration’...

  13. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Michaela; Degner, Juliane; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific emotion. In three studies, we investigated the specificity of emotion processing under conditions of limited awareness using a modified variant of an affective priming task. Faces with happy, angry, sad, fearful, and neutral expressions were presented as masked primes for 33 ms (Study 1) or 14 ms (Studies 2 and 3) followed by emotional target faces (Studies 1 and 2) or emotional adjectives (Study 3). Participants' task was to categorise the target emotion. In all three studies, discrimination of targets was significantly affected by the emotional primes beyond a simple positive versus negative distinction. Results indicate that specific aspects of emotions might be automatically disentangled in addition to valence, even under conditions of subjective unawareness.

  14. Prime factorization using magnonic holographic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khivintsev, Yuri; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Gutierrez, David; Chiang, Howard; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Filimonov, Yuri; Khitun, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Determining the prime factors of a given number N is a problem that requires super-polynomial time for conventional digital computers. A polynomial-time algorithm was invented by Shor for quantum computers. In this paper, we present experimental data that demonstrate prime factorization using spin-wave interference but without quantum entanglement. Prime factorization includes three major steps. First, a general-type computer calculates the sequence of numbers mkmod(N), where N is the number to be factorized, m is a randomly chosen positive integer, and k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6…. Next, the period of the calculated sequence r is determined by exploiting spin-wave interference. Finally, the general-type computer determines the primes based on the obtained r. The experiment for period finding was conducted on a six-terminal Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 device. We chose number 15 for testing and determined its primes using a sequence of measurements. The obtained experimental data for a micrometer-sized prototype aimed to demonstrate the benefits of using spin-wave devices to solve complex computational problems. Scalability is one of the major strengths inherent in this type of wave-based device, which may provide a route to nanometer-sized logic circuits. We discuss the physical and technological limitations of this approach, which define the maximum size of N and the computational speed. Although this classical approach cannot compete with the quantum algorithm in terms of efficiency, magnonic holographic devices can potentially be used as complementary logic units aimed at speeding up prime factorization for classical computers.

  15. Evaluation of PCR and multiplex PCR in relation to nested PCR for diagnosing Theileria equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Leal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional PCR (PCRTeq for diagnosing Theileria equi and multiplex PCR (M/PCRTeq-Bc for diagnosing T. equi and Babesia caballi were comparatively evaluated with nested PCR (N/PCR-Teq for diagnosing equine piroplasmosis. In DNA sensitivity determinations, in multiple dilutions of equine blood that had tested positive for T. equi, PCR-Teq and N/PCR-Teq detected hemoparasite DNA in the larger dilutions (1:128, but did not differ significantly from the M/PCRTeq-Bc (1:64. In analyses on equine serum tested by ELISA, there was high agreement between this serological test and PCR-Teq (k = 0.780 and moderate agreement with N/PCR-Teq (k = 0.562 and M/PCRTeq-Bc (k = 0.488. PCR-Teq found a higher frequency of T. equi both in extensively and intensively reared horses, but this was not significant in relation to N/PCR-Teq (P>0.05, and both PCRs indicated that there was an endemic situation regarding T. equi in the population of horses of this sample. PCR-Teq was only significantly different from M/PCR-Teq-Bc (P<0.05. PCR-Teq presented high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to N/PCR-Teq, but with the advantage of higher speed in obtaining results and lower costs and risks of laboratory contamination. This accredits PCR-Teq for epidemiological studies and for determinations on affected horses.

  16. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics....

  17. On a Class of Prime Entire Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuldeep Singh CHARAK; Ilpo LAINE

    2009-01-01

    In this note it is proved that entire functions of the form Fa(z) = H(z)-aα(z),where H and α are entire functions, with α having at least one zero, H' and α' having no common zeros and T(r, α) = S(T, H), are prime in entire sense for most values of α. The class of these functions is seen to contain examples of both periodic and non-periodic prime entire functions found by Noda,Qiao, Urabe and by Singh and Charak. Another result due to Singh and Charak will be improved as well.

  18. Exponential sums over primes in short intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianya; L(U) Guangshi; ZHAN Tao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we establish one new estimate on exponential sums over primes in short intervals. As an application of this result, we sharpen Hua's result by proving that each sufficiently large integer N congruent to 5 modulo 24 can be written as N = p21 +p22 +p23 +p24 +p25, with |pj - √N/5| ≤ U = N1/2-1/20+ε,where pj are primes. This result is as good as what one can obtain from the generalized Riemann hypothesis.

  19. Acceleration Detection of Large (Probably Prime Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vidakovic

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid unnecessary applications of Miller-Rabin algorithm to the number in question, we resortto trial division by a few initial prime numbers, since such a division take less time. How far we should gowith such a division is the that we are trying to answer in this paper?For the theory of the matter is fullyresolved. However, that in practice we do not have much use.Therefore, we present a solution that isprobably irrelevant to theorists, but it is very useful to people who have spent many nights to producelarge (probably prime numbers using its own software.

  20. Extra $Z^\\prime$s and $W^\\prime$s in Heterotic--String Derived Models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, Alon E

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration recently recorded possible excess in the di--boson production at the di--boson invariant mass at around 2 TeV. Such an excess may be produced if there exist additional $Z^\\prime$ and/or $W^\\prime$ at that scale. We survey the extra $Z^\\prime$s and $W^\\prime$s that may arise from semi--realistic heterotic string vacua in the free fermionic formulation in seven distinct cases including: $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}\\in SO(10)$; family universal $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ not in $SO(10)$; non--universal $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$; hidden sector $U(1)$ symmetries and kinetic mixing; left--right symmetric models; Pati--Salam models; leptophobic and custodial symmetries. Each case has a distinct signature associated with the extra symmetry breaking scale. In one of the cases we explore the discovery potential at the LHC using resonant leptoproduction. Existence of extra vector boson with the reported properties will significantly constrain the space of allowed string vacua.

  1. MPprimer: a program for reliable multiplex PCR primer design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaolei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex PCR, defined as the simultaneous amplification of multiple regions of a DNA template or multiple DNA templates using more than one primer set (comprising a forward primer and a reverse primer in one tube, has been widely used in diagnostic applications of clinical and environmental microbiology studies. However, primer design for multiplex PCR is still a challenging problem and several factors need to be considered. These problems include mis-priming due to nonspecific binding to non-target DNA templates, primer dimerization, and the inability to separate and purify DNA amplicons with similar electrophoretic mobility. Results A program named MPprimer was developed to help users for reliable multiplex PCR primer design. It employs the widely used primer design program Primer3 and the primer specificity evaluation program MFEprimer to design and evaluate the candidate primers based on genomic or transcript DNA database, followed by careful examination to avoid primer dimerization. The graph-expanding algorithm derived from the greedy algorithm was used to determine the optimal primer set combinations (PSCs for multiplex PCR assay. In addition, MPprimer provides a virtual electrophotogram to help users choose the best PSC. The experimental validation from 2× to 5× plex PCR demonstrates the reliability of MPprimer. As another example, MPprimer is able to design the multiplex PCR primers for DMD (dystrophin gene which caused Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, which has 79 exons, for 20×, 20×, 20×, 14×, and 5× plex PCR reactions in five tubes to detect underlying exon deletions. Conclusions MPprimer is a valuable tool for designing specific, non-dimerizing primer set combinations with constrained amplicons size for multiplex PCR assays.

  2. Ferrimagnetic spin-1/2 chain of alternating Ising and Heisenberg spins in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strečka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ferrimagnetic spin-1/2 chain composed of alternating Ising and Heisenberg spins in an arbitrarily oriented magnetic field is exactly solved using the spin-rotation transformation and the transfer-matrix method. It is shown that the low-temperature magnetization process depends basically on a spatial orientation of the magnetic field. A sharp stepwise magnetization curve with a marked intermediate plateau, which emerges for the magnetic field applied along the easy-axis direction of the Ising spins, becomes smoother and the intermediate plateau shrinks if the external field is tilted from the easy-axis direction. The magnetization curve of a polycrystalline system is also calculated by performing powder averaging of the derived magnetization formula. The proposed spin-chain model brings an insight into high-field magnetization data of 3d-4f bimetallic polymeric compound Dy(NO3(DMSO2Cu(opba(DMSO2, which provides an interesting experimental realization of the ferrimagnetic chain composed of two different but regularly alternating spin-1/2 magnetic ions Dy3+ and Cu2+ that are reasonably approximated by the notion of Ising and Heisenberg spins, respectively.

  3. The theory of an arbitrarily perturbed bird-cage resonator, and a simple method for restoring it to full symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, James

    The first-order theory of a low-pass bird-cage resonator perturbed at a single capacitor [J. Tropp, J. Magn. Reson.82, 51 (1989)] is extended by explicit calculation to cover a low-pass bird cage perturbed arbitrarily at every reactance, provided that a first-order condition is satisfied. It is shown that the effect of arbitrary perturbation, i.e., the splitting of resonances and rotation of the polarization axes, can be exactly mimicked (in first order) by a pair of capacitors spaced by an azimuth of {π}/{4}. This result may be extended by symmetry arguments to the high-pass and simple band-pass bird cage. A method of correcting symmetry (abolishing the splitting of the useful eigenstates) is then derived, which provides near-perfect correction by the application of two capacitors, typically spaced {π}/{4} on the resonator azimuth. Experimental results are given for a low-pass bird-cage; and the correction procedure is verified and demonstrated in practical detail; and it is shown that the limit of the first-order theory is that the first of the two requisite correction capacitors should be within 7 or 8% of the nominal bird-cage capacitance. Practical examples of symmetry correction outside the first-order regime are also given.

  4. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2016-01-21

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.

  5. Formal deduction of the Saint-Venant-Exner model including arbitrarily sloping sediment beds and associated energy

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Nieto, E D; Narbona-Reina, G; Zabsonré, J D

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a deduction of the Saint-Venant-Exner model through an asymptotic analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. A multi-scale analysis is performed in order to take into account that the velocity of the sediment layer is smaller than the one of the fluid layer. This leads us to consider a shallow water type system for the fluid layer and a lubrication Reynolds equation for the sediment one. This deduction provides some improvements with respect to the classical Saint-Venant-Exner model: (i) the deduced model has an associated energy. Moreover, it allows us to explain why classical models do not have an associated energy and how to modify them in order to recover a model with this property. (ii) The model incorporates naturally a necessary modification that must be taken into account in order to be applied to arbitrarily sloping beds. Furthermore, we show that this modification is different of the ones considered classically, and that it coincides with a classical one only if the solution ha...

  6. The effect of retinal illuminance on visual motion priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tatsuto; Tuladhar, Anup; Yoshimoto, Sanae

    2011-05-25

    The perceived direction of a directionally ambiguous stimulus is influenced by the moving direction of a preceding priming stimulus. Previous studies have shown that a brief priming stimulus induces positive motion priming, in which a subsequent directionally ambiguous stimulus is perceived to move in the same direction as the primer, while a longer priming stimulus induces negative priming, in which the following ambiguous stimulus is perceived to move in the opposite direction of the primer. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of motion priming by examining how retinal illuminance and velocity of the primer influences the perception of priming. Subjects judged the perceived direction of 180-deg phase-shifted (thus directionally ambiguous) sine-wave gratings displayed immediately after the offset of a primer stimulus. We found that perception of motion priming was greatly modulated by the retinal illuminance and velocity of the primer. Under low retinal illuminance, positive priming nearly disappeared even when the effective luminance contrast was equated between different conditions. Positive priming was prominent when the velocity of the primer was low, while only negative priming was observed when the velocity was high. These results suggest that the positive motion priming is induced by a higher-order mechanism that tracks prominent features of the visual stimulus, while a directionally selective motion mechanism induces negative motion priming.

  7. SNP Markers Discovery in Soybean with Use of Degenerate Oligolucleotide Primed PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Janiak; M.Y. Kim; S.H. Lee

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are several strategies that can be applied in SNP discovery, as for example the locus-specific amplification of target genome regions (Primmer et al., 2002; Van et al., 2004) or simultaneous assembly of anonymous sequences which are the product of whole genome shotgun sequencing (Webber and Myers, 1997) or reduced representation shotgun sequencing (Altshuler et al., 2000).

  8. Thematic Mathematics: The Combinatorics of Prime Factorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use a particular example to illustrate a thematic approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics. Our theme, suitable for undergraduates and able sixth-form students, is the enumeration of mathematical objects associated with the prime factorizations of integers. It is shown in detail how this gives rise to some beautiful…

  9. Kunlun Melts into Prime Time of CCTV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ On November 18, China Central Television (CCTV), the national broadcaster with more than 1 billion viewers, auctioned off its prime-time advertising time for next year at 32.40million yuan. The winner of the bid is lubricants branded as Kunlun from PetroChina Lubricants Company.

  10. Sums of Five Almost Equal Prime Squares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claus BAUER

    2005-01-01

    Let Pi, 1 ≤ i ≤ 5, be prime numbers. It is proved that every integer N that satisfies N ≡ 5 (mod 24) can be written as N = p1 2 + p2 2 + p2 3 + P4 2 + p5 2, where |√N5-pi| ≤ N1/2- s19/850+∈.

  11. Distribution law for twin primes amongst naturals

    CERN Document Server

    Benyaminov, Boris B

    2011-01-01

    A hypothesis is put forward regarding the function $\\pi_2(x)$ which describes the distribution of twin primes in the set of natural numbers. The function $\\pi_2(x)$ is tested by evaluation and an empirical $\\pi_2^{\\ast}(x)$ is arrived at, which is shown to be highly accurate. Several other questions are also addressed.

  12. Colorimetry and prime colours--a theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornaes, Hans Petter; Wold, Jan Henrik; Farup, Ivar

    2005-08-01

    Human colour vision is the result of a complex process involving topics ranging from physics of light to perception. Whereas the diversity of light entering the eye in principle span an infinite-dimensional vector space in terms of the spectral power distributions, the space of human colour perceptions is three dimensional. One important consequence of this is that a variety of colours can be visually matched by a mixture of only three adequately chosen reference lights. It has been observed that there exists one particular set of monochromatic reference lights that, according to a certain definition, is optimal for producing colour matches. These reference lights are commonly denoted prime colours. In the present paper, we intend to rigorously show that the existence of prime colours is not particular to the human visual system as sometimes stated, but rather an algebraic consequence of the manner in which a kind of colorimetric functions called colour-matching functions are defined and transformed. The solution is based on maximisation of a determinant determining the gamut size of the colour space spanned by the prime colours. Cramer's rule for solving a set of linear equations is an essential part of the proof. By means of examples, it is shown that mathematically the optimal set of reference lights is not unique in general, and that the existence of a maximum determinant is not a necessary condition for the existence of prime colours.

  13. 30 CFR 716.7 - Prime farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or planted. (6) Apply nutrients and soil amendments as needed to establish quick vegetative growth. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prime farmland. 716.7 Section 716.7 Mineral... those lands which are defined by the Secretary of Agriculture in 7 CFR 657 and which have...

  14. Bidirectional Priming Processes in the Simon Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Manja; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2009-01-01

    The Simon effect is mostly explained in terms of dual-route models, which imply unidirectional activation processes from stimulus features to response features. However, there is also evidence that these preactivated response features themselves prime corresponding stimulus features. From this perspective, the Simon effect should only occur…

  15. Comparison of affective and semantic priming in different SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongqing; Qu, Yuhong; Xiao, Yanli; Wu, Qi; Xia, Likun; Li, Wenhui; Liu, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Researchers have been at odds on whether affective or semantic priming is faster or stronger. The present study selects a series of facial expression photos and words, which have definite emotional meaning or gender meaning, to set up experiment including both affective and semantic priming. The intensity of emotion and gender information in the prime as well as the strength of emotional or semantic (in gender) relationship between the prime and the target is matched. Three groups of participants are employed separately in our experiment varied with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) as 50, 250 or 500 ms. The results show that the difference between two types of priming effect is revealed when the SOA is at 50 ms, in which the affective priming effect is presented when the prime has negative emotion. It indicates that SOA can affect the comparison between the affective and semantic priming, and the former takes the priority in the automatic processing level.

  16. Rhizosphere priming effects in two contrasting soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Davidson; Kirk, Guy; Ritz, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Inputs of fresh plant-derived carbon may stimulate the turnover of existing soil organic matter by so-called priming effects. Priming may occur directly, as a result of nutrient 'mining' by existing microbial communities, or indirectly via population adjustments. However the mechanisms are poorly understood. We planted C4 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in pots with two contrasting C3 soils (clayey, fertile TB and sandy, acid SH), and followed the soil CO2 efflux and its δ13C. The extent of C deposition in the rhizosphere was altered by intermittently clipping the grass in half the pots; there were also unplanted controls. At intervals, pots were destructively sampled for root and shoot biomass. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured using a gas-tight PVC chamber fitted over bare soil, and connected to an infra-red gas analyser; the δ13C of efflux was measured in air sub-samples withdrawn by syringe. The extent of priming was inferred from the δ13C of efflux and the δ13C of the plant and soil end-members. In unclipped treatments, in both soils, increased total soil respiration and rhizosphere priming effects (RPE) were apparent compared to the unplanted controls. The TB soil had greater RPE overall. The total respiration in clipped TB soil was significantly greater than in the unplanted controls, but in the clipped SH soil it was not significantly different from the controls. Clipping affected plant C partitioning with greater allocation to shoot regrowth from about 4 weeks after planting. Total plant biomass decreased in the order TB unclipped > SH unclipped >TB clipped > SH clipped. The results are consistent with priming driven by microbial activation stimulated by rhizodeposits and by nitrogen demand from the growing plants under N limited conditions. Our data suggest that photosynthesis drives RPE and soil differences may alter the rate and intensity of RPE but not the direction.

  17. On algebraic structure of the set of prime numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedi, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    The set of prime numbers has been analyzed, based on their algebraic and arithmetical structure. Here by obtaining a sort of linear formula for the set of prime numbers, they are redefined and identified; under a systematic procedure it has been shown that the set of prime numbers is combinations (unions and intersections) of some subsets of natural numbers, with more primary structures. In fact generally, the logical essence of obtained formula for prime numbers is similar to formula 2n - 1 ...

  18. Retro-priming, priming and double testing : psi and replication in a test-retest design

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas eRabeyron

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have been conducted in recent years on anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect (Bem, 2010), yet more data are needed to understand these processes precisely. For this purpose, we carried out an initial retro-priming study in which the response times of 162 participants were measured (Rabeyron & Watt, 2010). In the current paper, we present the results of a second study in which we selected those participants who demonstrated the strongest retro-priming ef...

  19. Retro-priming, priming, and double testing: psi and replication in a test–retest design

    OpenAIRE

    Rabeyron, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have been conducted in recent years on anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect (Bem, 2010), yet more data are needed to understand these processes precisely. For this purpose, we carried out an initial retro-priming study in which the response times of 162 participants were measured (Rabeyron and Watt, 2010). In the current paper, we present the results of a second study in which we selected those participants who demonstrated the strongest retro-priming ...

  20. Shifting Evaluation Windows: Predictable Forward Primes with Long SOAs Eliminate the Impact of Backward Primes

    OpenAIRE

    Fockenberg, Daniel A.; Koole, Sander L; Daniël Lakens; Semin, Gün R.

    2013-01-01

    Shifting Evaluation Windows: Predictable Forward Primes with Long SOAs Eliminate the Impact of Backward Primes Daniel A. Fockenberg1*, Sander L. Koole2, Danie¨ l Lakens3, Gu¨ n R. Semin4,5 1 Institut fu¨ r Psychologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universita¨t Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2 Department of Clinical Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 3 Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 4 Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and Sciences,...

  1. Then We Characterize Primes and Composite Numbers Via Divisibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikorong Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show a Theorem which helps us to characterize prime numbers and composite numbers via divisibility; and we use the characterizations of primes and composite numbers to characterize twin primes, Mersenne primes, even perfect numbers, Sophie Germain primes, Fermat primes, Fermat composite numbers and Mersenne composite numbers (we recall that a logic (non recursive proof of problems posed by twin primes, Mersenne primes, perfect numbers, Sophie Germain primes, Fermat primes, Fermat composite numbers and Mersenne composite numbers, is given in [12]. [[ Prime numbers are well kwown ( see [15] or [19] and we recall that a composite number is a non prime number. We recall (see [1] or [2] or [3] or [6] or [9] or [10] or [12] or [13] or [14] or [17] that a {\\it{Fermat prime }} is a prime of the form F_{n}=2^{2^{n}}+1, where n is an integer \\geq 0; and a {\\it{Fermat composite}}  is a non prime number of the form F_{n}=2^{2^{n}}+1, where n is an integer \\geq 1; it is known that for every j\\in \\lbrace 0, 1,2,3,4\\rbrace, F_{j} is a Fermat prime,  and it is also known that F_{5} and F_{6} are Fermat composite. We recall (see [11] that a prime h is called a {\\it{Sophie Germain prime}}, if both h and 2h+1 are prime; the first few Sophie Germain primes are 2, 3,5,11,23,29,41, ...; it is easy to check that 233 is a Sophie  Germain prime. A {\\it{Mersenne prime }} (see [6] or [10] or [11] or [16] or [19] or [20] or [21] is a prime of the form M_{m}=2^{m}-1, where m is prime; for example M_{13} and M_{19} are Mersenne prime. A Mersenne composite ( see [7] or [9]  is a non prime number of the form M_{m}=2^{m}-1, where m is prime; it is known that M_{11} and M_{67} are Mersenne composite. We also recall (see [4] or [5] or [7] or [8] or [10] or [11] or [18] or [19] or [20] or [22] that an integer t is a twin prime, if t is a prime \\geq 3 and if t-2 or t+2 is also a prime \\geq 3; for example, it is easy to check that (881,883 is a

  2. It takes time to prime: semantic priming in the ocular lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedemaker, Renske S; Gordon, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted in which the manual response mode typically used in lexical decision tasks (LDTs) was replaced with an eye-movement response through a sequence of 3 words. This ocular LDT combines the explicit control of task goals found in LDTs with the highly practiced ocular response used in reading text. In Experiment 1, forward saccades indicated an affirmative lexical decision (LD) on each word in the triplet. In Experiment 2, LD responses were delayed until all 3 letter strings had been read. The goal of the study was to evaluate the contribution of task goals and response mode to semantic priming. Semantic priming is very robust in tasks that involve recognition of words in isolation, such as LDT, but limited during text reading, as measured using eye movements. Gaze durations in both experiments showed robust semantic priming even though ocular response times were much shorter than manual LDs for the same words in the English Lexicon Project. Ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the priming effect was concentrated in estimates of tau (τ), meaning that priming was most pronounced in the slow tail of the distribution. This pattern shows differential use of the prime information, which may be more heavily recruited in cases in which the LD is difficult, as indicated by longer response times. Compared with the manual LD responses, ocular LDs provide a more sensitive measure of this task-related influence on word recognition as measured by the LDT.

  3. PCR, exit stage left ...

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989. The Prévessin Control Room (PCR) was recently engulfed in a wave of nostalgia. The PCR, scene of some of the greatest moments in CERN's history, is being dismantled to prepare for a complete overhaul. In February 2006, a new combined control centre for all the accelerators will open its doors on the same site, together with a new building currently under construction (see Bulletin issue 27/2004 of 28 June 2004). This marks the end of an important chapter in CERN's history. The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event 28 years ago when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world. Today the 80 terminals and PCs have b...

  4. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  5. The Nature of Affective Priming in Music and Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, K.S.; Witteman, J.; Schiller, N.O.; Van Heuven, V.J.; Aleman, A.; Martens, S.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of affective priming has caught scientific interest for over 30 years, yet the nature of the affective priming effect remains elusive. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of cross-modal affective priming and the influence of affective incongruence in music and speech on n

  6. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence of Syntactic Priming in Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Traxler, Matthew J.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2009-01-01

    Event-related potentials and eye tracking were used to investigate the nature of priming effects in sentence comprehension. Participants read 2 sentences (a prime sentence and a target sentence), both of which had a difficult and ambiguous sentence structure. The prime and target sentences contained either the same verb or verbs that were very…

  7. Give and Take: Syntactic Priming during Spoken Language Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Syntactic priming during language production is pervasive and well-studied. Hearing, reading, speaking or writing a sentence with a given structure increases the probability of subsequently producing the same structure, regardless of whether the prime and target share lexical content. In contrast, syntactic priming during comprehension has proven…

  8. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  9. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  10. Prospective and Retrospective Processing in Associative Mediated Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lara L.

    2012-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the faster word recognition of a target (e.g., milk) following presentation of a prime (e.g., pasture) that is related indirectly via a connecting "mediator" (e.g., cow). Association strength may be an important factor in whether mediated priming occurs prospectively (with target activation prior to its presentation) or…

  11. Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar,…

  12. Numerical Models for Exact Description of in-situ Digital In-Line Holography Experiments with Irregularly-Shaped Arbitrarily-Located Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Brunel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the development of a numerical simulator for digital in-line holography applications. In-line holograms of arbitrarily shaped and arbitrarily located objects are calculated using generalized Huygens-Fresnel integrals. The objects are 2D opaque or phase objects. The optical set-up is described by its optical transfer matrix. A wide variety of optical systems, involving windows, spherical or cylindrical lenses, can thus be taken into account. It makes the simulator applicable for design and description of in situ experiments. We discuss future applications of this simulator for detection of nanoparticles in droplets, or calibration of airborne instruments that detect and measure ice crystals in the atmosphere.

  13. Improvement of pesticide mineralization in on-farm biopurification systems by bioaugmentation with pesticide-primed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniegowski, Kristel; Bers, Karolien; Van Goetem, Kris; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Spanoghe, Pieter; Springael, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    Microcosms were used to examine whether pesticide-primed soils could be preferentially used over nonprimed soils for bioaugmentation of on-farm biopurification systems (BPS) to improve pesticide mineralization. Microcosms containing a mixture of peat, straw and either linuron-primed soil or nonprimed soil were irrigated with clean or linuron-contaminated water. The lag time of linuron mineralization, recorded for microcosm samples, was indicative of the dynamics of the linuron-mineralizing biomass in the system. Bioaugmentation with linuron-primed soil immediately resulted in the establishment of a linuron-mineralizing capacity, which increased in size when fed with the pesticide. Also, microcosms containing nonprimed soil developed a linuron-mineralizing population, but after extended linuron feeding. Additional experiments showed that linuron-mineralization only developed with some nonprimed soils. Concomitant with the increase in linuron degradation capacity, targeted PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed the proliferation of a Variovorax phylotype related to the linuron-degrading Variovorax sp. SRS16 in microcosms containing linuron-primed soil, suggesting the involvement of Variovorax in linuron degradation. The correlation between the appearance of specific Variovorax phylotypes and linuron mineralization capacity was less clear in microcosms containing nonprimed soil. The data indicate that supplementation of pesticide-primed soil results in the establishment of pesticide-mineralizing populations in a BPS matrix with more certainty and more rapidly than the addition of nonprimed soil.

  14. A numerical approach for simulating fluid structure interaction of flexible thin shells undergoing arbitrarily large deformations in complex domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmanov, Anvar, E-mail: agilmano@umn.edu [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Le, Trung Bao, E-mail: lebao002@umn.edu [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis, E-mail: fotis@umn.edu [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Department of Civil, Environmental and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    We present a new numerical methodology for simulating fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems involving thin flexible bodies in an incompressible fluid. The FSI algorithm uses the Dirichlet–Neumann partitioning technique. The curvilinear immersed boundary method (CURVIB) is coupled with a rotation-free finite element (FE) model for thin shells enabling the efficient simulation of FSI problems with arbitrarily large deformation. Turbulent flow problems are handled using large-eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky model in conjunction with a wall model to reconstruct boundary conditions near immersed boundaries. The CURVIB and FE solvers are coupled together on the flexible solid–fluid interfaces where the structural nodal positions, displacements, velocities and loads are calculated and exchanged between the two solvers. Loose and strong coupling FSI schemes are employed enhanced by the Aitken acceleration technique to ensure robust coupling and fast convergence especially for low mass ratio problems. The coupled CURVIB-FE-FSI method is validated by applying it to simulate two FSI problems involving thin flexible structures: 1) vortex-induced vibrations of a cantilever mounted in the wake of a square cylinder at different mass ratios and at low Reynolds number; and 2) the more challenging high Reynolds number problem involving the oscillation of an inverted elastic flag. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with previous numerical simulations and/or experiential measurements. Grid convergence tests/studies are carried out for both the cantilever and inverted flag problems, which show that the CURVIB-FE-FSI method provides their convergence. Finally, the capability of the new methodology in simulations of complex cardiovascular flows is demonstrated by applying it to simulate the FSI of a tri-leaflet, prosthetic heart valve in an anatomic aorta and under physiologic pulsatile conditions.

  15. A numerical approach for simulating fluid structure interaction of flexible thin shells undergoing arbitrarily large deformations in complex domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    We present a new numerical methodology for simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems involving thin flexible bodies in an incompressible fluid. The FSI algorithm uses the Dirichlet-Neumann partitioning technique. The curvilinear immersed boundary method (CURVIB) is coupled with a rotation-free finite element (FE) model for thin shells enabling the efficient simulation of FSI problems with arbitrarily large deformation. Turbulent flow problems are handled using large-eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky model in conjunction with a wall model to reconstruct boundary conditions near immersed boundaries. The CURVIB and FE solvers are coupled together on the flexible solid-fluid interfaces where the structural nodal positions, displacements, velocities and loads are calculated and exchanged between the two solvers. Loose and strong coupling FSI schemes are employed enhanced by the Aitken acceleration technique to ensure robust coupling and fast convergence especially for low mass ratio problems. The coupled CURVIB-FE-FSI method is validated by applying it to simulate two FSI problems involving thin flexible structures: 1) vortex-induced vibrations of a cantilever mounted in the wake of a square cylinder at different mass ratios and at low Reynolds number; and 2) the more challenging high Reynolds number problem involving the oscillation of an inverted elastic flag. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with previous numerical simulations and/or experiential measurements. Grid convergence tests/studies are carried out for both the cantilever and inverted flag problems, which show that the CURVIB-FE-FSI method provides their convergence. Finally, the capability of the new methodology in simulations of complex cardiovascular flows is demonstrated by applying it to simulate the FSI of a tri-leaflet, prosthetic heart valve in an anatomic aorta and under physiologic pulsatile conditions.

  16. Stationary Light Waves in Anizotropy and Nonolinear Plane Media, whose Dielectric Tensor's Principal Values Arbitrarily Depend upon Intensity Case of Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ochirbat, G

    2000-01-01

    A plane medium, whose dielectric tensor's principal values arbitrarily depend upon intensity, is considered. The problems of the TM and TE waves, within the problem of light scattering, are reduced to quadrature. A question of integrability of the full system of Maxwell equations is discussed. A closed equation has been obtained for an auxiliary variable for a nonlinearity of Kerr type. A scheme for integrating the full system of Maxwell equations by solving the equation over the auxiliary variable is suggested.

  17. Imbibitions, energy test and accelerated ageing in primed and non-primed seeds of Peltophorum dubium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILei-hong; ZHANGWan-li; ZUYuan-gang; SONIAPerez

    2005-01-01

    Peltophorum dubium seeds were set to imbibe with four treatments, soaked with solution Captan 0.2% under 10and 27℃,PEG 6000 -1.0 MPa under 10 and 27℃. For each treatment there were four replicates with 40 seeds incubated in 9-cm Petri dishes with double filter paper moistened with testing solution. The imbibition curves showed that the final weight increase were from 70% to 150% in the treatments when imbibition entered a lag phase. Seeds were tested for effects on germination of five treatments: control group (nonprimed), primed with PEG6000 -1.0 MPa at 10 and 27℃, primed with Captan 0.2% at 10 and 27℃. For each treatment, there were three sub-treatments: seeds were soaked in distilled water for 12, 24 and 36h before the energy test. Germination percentages of nonprimed seeds and primed in PEG 27℃ soaked in distilled water during 12 h were the highest, reaching 100%. The lowest germination percentage occurred primed seeds with PEG6000 27℃ and soaked in distilled water during 36 h, which was only 52%. Germination mean time of primed seeds in PEG at 10℃, soaked 24 h was 1.08 days, mean time of primed seeds in PEG at 27℃ soaked 12 h was 2.42 days. Accelerated ageing results showed low or no germination after ageing 72 h. Control group had a higher germination percentage and seeds were more resistant to deterioration than those in primed groups, both in Petri dish (27℃) and vermiculate (room temperature).

  18. Density of Primes in -th Power Residues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Balasubramanian; Prem Prakash Pandey

    2013-02-01

    Given a prime number , a finite set of integers $S=\\{a_1,\\ldots,a_m\\}$ and many -th roots of unity $^{r_i}_l,i=1,\\ldots,m$ we study the distribution of primes in $\\mathbb{Q}(_l)$ such that the -th residue symbol of $a_i$ with respect to is $^{r_i}_l$, for all . We find out that this is related to the degree of the extension $\\mathbb{Q}\\left(a^{\\frac{1}{l}}_1,\\ldots,a^{\\frac{1}{l}}_m\\right)/\\mathbb{Q}$. We give an algorithm to compute this degree. Also we relate this degree to rank of a matrix obtained from $S=\\{a_1,\\ldots,a_m\\}$. This latter argument enables one to describe the degree $\\mathbb{Q}\\left(a^{\\frac{1}{l}}_1,\\ldots,a^{\\frac{1}{l}}_m\\right)/\\mathbb{Q}$ in much simpler terms.

  19. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  20. Quantum Field Theories and Prime Numbers Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, G

    2012-01-01

    The Riemann hypothesis states that all nontrivial zeros of the zeta function lie on the critical line $\\Re(s)=1/2$. Hilbert and P\\'olya suggested a possible approach to prove it, based on spectral theory. Within this context, some authors formulated the question: is there a quantum mechanical system related to the sequence of prime numbers? In this Letter we assume that there is a class of hypothetical physical systems described by self-adjoint operators with countable infinite number of degrees of freedom with spectra given by the sequence of primes numbers. We prove a no-go theorem. We show that the generating functional of connected Schwinger functions of such theories cannot be constructed.

  1. Prime-Minister of Malta visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Prime-Minister of Malta, Dr Lawrence Gonzi, visited CERN and met Director-General, Robert Aymar, on 10 January. The Prime-Minister of Malta, Dr Lawrence Gonzi, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement. Dr Gonzi was given guided tours of the CMS experiment at Point 5 in Cessy and of the LHC magnet test facility, in which his country was involved. One of the high points of the day was the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and the Government of the Republic of Malta, aimed at the development of scientific and technical collaboration. "I’m really enthusiastic about this agreement, which constitutes a first step towards real collaboration between the Maltese government and CERN," said Nicholas Sammut, a Maltese engineer at CERN who was present throughout the visit (on the right). See also the video.

  2. A negative compatibility effect in priming of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jennifer D; Lleras, Alejandro; Oriet, Chris; Enns, James T

    2007-10-01

    The negative compatibility effect (NCE) is the surprising result that low-visibility prime arrows facilitate responses to opposite-direction target arrows. Here we compare the priming obtained with simple arrows to the priming of emotions when categorizing human faces, which represents a more naturalistic set of stimuli and for which there are no preexisting response biases. When inverted faces with neutral expressions were presented alongside emotional prime and target faces, only strong positive priming occurred. However, when the neutral faces were made to resemble the target faces in geometry (upright orientation), time (flashing briefly), and space (appearing in the same location), positive priming gradually weakened and became negative priming. Implications for theories of the NCE are discussed.

  3. Prime rings with PI rings of constants

    CERN Document Server

    Kharchenko, V K; Rodríguez-Romo, S

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that if the ring of constants of a restricted differential Lie algebra with a quasi-Frobenius inner part satisfies a polynomial identity (PI) then the original prime ring has a generalized polynomial identitiy (GPI). If additionally the ring of constants is semiprime then the original ring is PI. The case of a non-quasi-Frobenius inner part is also considered.

  4. Learning PrimeFaces extensions development

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a step by step approach that explains the most important extension components and their features. All the major features are explained by using the JobHub application with supporting screenshots.If you are an intermediate to advanced level user (or developer) who already has a basic working knowledge of PrimeFaces, then this book is for you.The only thing you need to know is Java Server Faces(JSF).

  5. Priming Cooperation in Social Dilemma Games

    OpenAIRE

    Drouvelis, Michalis; Metcalfe, Robert; Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2010-01-01

    Research on public goods mainly focuses its attention on the ability of incentives, beliefs and group structure to affect behaviour in social dilemma interactions. This paper investigates the pure effects of a rather subtle mechanism on social preferences in a one-shot linear public good game. Using priming techniques from social psychology, we activate the concept of cooperation and explore the extent to which this intervention brings about changes in people’s voluntary contributions to the ...

  6. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  7. Semantic Priming from Letter-Searched Primes Occurs for Low- but Not High-Frequency Targets: Automatic Semantic Access May Not Be a Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Neely, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Letter-search (LS) within a prime often eliminates semantic priming. In 2 lexical decision experiments, the authors found that priming from LS primes occurred for low-frequency (LF) but not high-frequency (HF) targets whether the target's word frequency was manipulated between or within participants and whether the prime-target pairs were…

  8. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: Task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-12-20

    Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs. semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In the present study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end, we investigated the modulation of masked pictorial vs. verbal priming by previously activated perceptual versus semantic task sets and assessed the electrophysiological correlates of priming using event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects showed a differential modulation of pictorial and verbal subliminal priming by previously activated task sets: Pictorial priming was only observed during the perceptual but not during the semantic task set. Verbal priming, in contrast, was found when either task set was activated. Furthermore, only verbal priming was associated with a modulation of the N400 ERP component, an index of semantic processing, whereas a priming-related modulation of earlier ERPs, indexing visuo-motor S-R activation, was found for both picture and words. The results thus demonstrate that different neuro-cognitive processes contribute to unconscious evaluative priming depending on the stimulus format.

  9. The masked priming toolbox: an open-source MATLAB toolbox for masked priming researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Tresilian, James; Schlaghecken, Friederike

    2011-03-01

    The Masked Priming Toolbox is an open-source collection of MATLAB functions that utilizes the free third-party PsychToolbox-3 (PTB3: Brainard, Spatial Vision, 10, 433-436, 1997; Kleiner, Brainard & Pelli, Perception, 36, 2007; Pelli, Spatial Vision, 10, 437-442, 1997). It is designed to allow a researcher to run masked (and unmasked) priming experiments using a variety of response devices (including keyboards, graphics tablets and force transducers). Very little knowledge of MATLAB is required; experiments are generated by creating a text file with the required parameters, and raw and analyzed data are output to Excel (as well as MATLAB) files for further analysis. The toolbox implements a variety of stimuli for use as primes and targets, as well as a variety of masks. Timing, size, location, and orientation of stimuli are all parameterizable. The code is open-source and made available on the Web under a Creative Commons License.

  10. The nature of affective priming in music and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Witteman, Jurriaan; Schiller, Niels O; Van Heuven, Vincent J; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of affective priming has caught scientific interest for over 30 years, yet the nature of the affective priming effect remains elusive. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of cross-modal affective priming and the influence of affective incongruence in music and speech on negativities in the N400 time-window. In Experiment 1, participants judged the valence of affective targets (affective categorization). We found that music and speech targets were evaluated faster when preceded by affectively congruent visual word primes, and vice versa. This affective priming effect was accompanied by a significantly larger N400-like effect following incongruent targets. In this experiment, both spreading of activation and response competition could underlie the affective priming effect. In Experiment 2, participants categorized the same affective targets based on nonaffective characteristics. However, as prime valence was irrelevant to the response dimension, affective priming effects could no longer be attributable to response competition. In Experiment 2, affective priming effects were observed neither at the behavioral nor electrophysiological level. The results of this study indicate that both affective music and speech prosody can prime the processing of visual words with emotional connotations, and vice versa. Affective incongruence seems to be associated with N400-like effects during evaluative categorization. The present data further suggest a role of response competition during the affective categorization of music, prosody, and words with emotional connotations.

  11. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  12. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eNakano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii a semantically-related form, and (iv a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i, (ii and (iii, but not for (iv. This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i, but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii and (iii. In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts – orthographically related, but which - in their commonly written form - share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system affect the processing of (morphologically complex words.

  13. Usefulness of ligation-mediated PCR genotyping in tracking outbreak-associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardassi, H; Namouchi, A; Karbouli, A; Khabouchi, N; Haltiti, R; Zarrouk, M; Mhennii, B; Kaabi, S

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of a multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) outbreak, the availability of a rapid typing method to carry out a nationwide prospective survey for the tracking of newly emerging MDR-TB foci became a priority. For this purpose, we have applied the IS6110 PCR-based genotyping assay, namely, LM-PCR (ligation-mediated PCR). The latter relies on ligation of a synthetic oligonucleotide priming site to a restriction site flanking IS6110. Sequences between the IS element and the restriction site are then amplified using an IS6110 specific outward primer and an oligonucleotide specific to the ligated priming site. Although it was found slightly less discriminative than the standard IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (IS6110 RFLP), LM-PCR allowed for the rapid and prospective identification of new outbreak-related cases within a large pool of circulating M. tuberculosis isolates. In comparison to IS6110 RFLP LM-PCR was found simple enough to justify its implementation in laboratories involved in MDR-TB surveillance at a nationwide scale.

  14. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

  15. On the Distribution of Atkin and Elkies Primes

    CERN Document Server

    Shparlinski, Igor E

    2011-01-01

    Given an elliptic curve E over a finite field F_q of q elements, we say that a prime ell not dividing q is an Elkies prime for E if t_E^2 - 4q is a square modulo ell, where t_E = q+1 - #E(F_q) and #E(F_q) is the number of F_q-rational points on E; otherwise ell is called an Atkin prime. We show that there are asymptotically the same number of Atkin and Elkies primes ell = (log q)^e for any fixed e > 0 and a sufficiently large q. We use this result to design and analyse a fast algorithm to generate random elliptic curves with #E(F_p) prime, where p varies uniformly over primes in a given interval [x,2x].

  16. Phonology in the Lexical Processing of Chinese: Priming Tone Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiaolin

    2000-01-01

    Using both visual-visual and auditory-visual priming lexical decision tasks, this study investigated phonological processing in reading logographic Chinese. Compound words sharing segmental templates but differing in lexical tones were used as primes and targets while their relative frequency was manipulated. It was found that tone neighbours did not prime each other significantly and the SOA of 100 msec in visual-visual priming. When the SOA was increased to 357 msec, or when primes were presented auditorily, the processing of target words was significantly delayed by their tone neighbours. Larger inhibitory effects were observed for low frequency targets with high frequency primes. It was argued that although phonological information is automatically activated and this activation affects access to semantics in reading Chinese,phonological mediation is not the only or the main ~urce of constraints on semantic activation.

  17. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  18. Notes on Automorphisms of Prime Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Shu-liang; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    Let Rbe a prime ring, L a noncentral Lie ideal and σ a nontrivial automorphism of Rsuch that usσ(u)ut = 0 for all u ∈ L, where s, t are fixed non-negative integers. If either charR>s+t or charR=0, then Rsatisfies s4, the standard identity in four variables. We also examine the identity (σ([x, y])−[x, y])n=0 for all x, y∈I, where I is a nonzero ideal of Rand n is a fixed positive integer. If either charR>n or charR=0, then Ris commutative.

  19. The n-th prime asymptotically

    CERN Document Server

    de Reyna, Juan Arias

    2012-01-01

    A new derivation of the classic asymptotic expansion of the n-th prime is presented. A fast algorithm for the computation of its terms is also given, which will be an improvement of that by Salvy (1994). Realistic bounds for the error with $\\li^{-1}(n)$, after having retained the first m terms, for $1\\le m\\le 11$, are given. Finally, assuming the Riemann Hypothesis, we give estimations of the best possible $r_3$ such that, for $n\\ge r_3$, we have $p_n> s_3(n)$ where $s_3(n)$ is the sum of the first four terms of the asymptotic expansion.

  20. Identity negative priming: a phenomenon of perception, recognition or selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecke Schrobsdorff

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the problem whether negative priming (NP is due to information processing in perception, recognition or selection. We argue that most NP studies confound priming and perceptual similarity of prime-probe episodes and implement a color-switch paradigm in order to resolve the issue. In a series of three identity negative priming experiments with verbal naming response, we determined when NP and positive priming (PP occur during a trial. The first experiment assessed the impact of target color on priming effects. It consisted of two blocks, each with a different fixed target color. With respect to target color no differential priming effects were found. In Experiment 2 the target color was indicated by a cue for each trial. Here we resolved the confounding of perceptual similarity and priming condition. In trials with coinciding colors for prime and probe, we found priming effects similar to Experiment 1. However, trials with a target color switch showed such effects only in trials with role-reversal (distractor-to-target or target-to-distractor, whereas the positive priming (PP effect in the target-repetition trials disappeared. Finally, Experiment 3 split trial processing into two phases by presenting the trial-wise color cue only after the stimulus objects had been recognized. We found recognition in every priming condition to be faster than in control trials. We were hence led to the conclusion that PP is strongly affected by perception, in contrast to NP which emerges during selection, i.e., the two effects cannot be explained by a single mechanism.

  1. Priming as a means of preventing skill failure under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Ashford, K; Jackson, RC

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 Human Kinetics The present study examined the effectiveness of a priming paradigm in alleviating skill failure under stress. The priming intervention took the form of a scrambled sentence task. Experiment 1: Thirty-four skilled field-hockey players performed a dribbling task in low-and high-pressure situations under single task, skill-focused, and priming conditions. Results revealed a significant increase in performance time from low to high pressure. In addition, perform...

  2. Identity negative priming: a phenomenon of perception, recognition or selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrobsdorff, Hecke; Ihrke, Matthias; Behrendt, Jörg; Herrmann, J Michael; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the problem whether negative priming (NP) is due to information processing in perception, recognition or selection. We argue that most NP studies confound priming and perceptual similarity of prime-probe episodes and implement a color-switch paradigm in order to resolve the issue. In a series of three identity negative priming experiments with verbal naming response, we determined when NP and positive priming (PP) occur during a trial. The first experiment assessed the impact of target color on priming effects. It consisted of two blocks, each with a different fixed target color. With respect to target color no differential priming effects were found. In Experiment 2 the target color was indicated by a cue for each trial. Here we resolved the confounding of perceptual similarity and priming condition. In trials with coinciding colors for prime and probe, we found priming effects similar to Experiment 1. However, trials with a target color switch showed such effects only in trials with role-reversal (distractor-to-target or target-to-distractor), whereas the positive priming (PP) effect in the target-repetition trials disappeared. Finally, Experiment 3 split trial processing into two phases by presenting the trial-wise color cue only after the stimulus objects had been recognized. We found recognition in every priming condition to be faster than in control trials. We were hence led to the conclusion that PP is strongly affected by perception, in contrast to NP which emerges during selection, i.e., the two effects cannot be explained by a single mechanism.

  3. The Current Status of Prime Focus Instrument of Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Huang, Pin-Jie; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Kimura, Masahiko; Chou, Richard C Y; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Morantz, Chaz N; Reiley, Dan J; Mao, Peter; Braun, David F; Wen, Chih-Yi; Yan, Chi-Hung; Karr, Jennifer; Gunn, James E; Murray, Graham; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Shimono, Atsushi; Ferreira, Decio; Santosh, Leandro Henriqu dos; Oliveira, Ligia Souza; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; Marrara, Lucas Souza

    2016-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph design for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capability of Hyper SuprimeCam (HSC). The prime focus unit of PFS called Prime Focus Instrument (PFI) provides the interface with the top structure of Subaru telescope and also accommodates the optical bench in which Cobra fiber positioners are located. In addition, the acquisition and guiding cameras (AGCs), the optical fiber positioner system, the cable wrapper, the fiducial fibers, illuminator, and viewer, the field element, and the telemetry system are located inside the PFI. The mechanical structure of the PFI was designed with special care such that its deflections sufficiently match those of the HSC's Wide Field Corrector (WFC) so the fibers will stay on targets over the course of the observations within the required accuracy. In this report, the latest status of PFI develop...

  4. Does pizza prime coin? Perceptual priming in lexical decision and pronunciation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Pecher (Diane); R. Zeelenberg (René); J.G.W. Raaijmakers (Jeroen)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn 6 experiments the authors investigated priming for perceptually related word pairs (i.e., words that refer to objects with the same shape such as pizza-coin), trying to replicate earlier findings by R. Schreuder et al (see record 1985-06198-001) while avoiding some of the methodologic

  5. Does pizza prime coin? Perceptual priming in lexical decision and pronunciation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecher, D.; Zeelenberg, R.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.

    1998-01-01

    In 6 experiments the authors investigated priming for perceptually related word pairs (i.e., words that refer to objects with the same shape such as pizza-coin), trying to replicate earlier findings by R. Schreuder et al (see record 1985-06198-001) while avoiding some of the methodological problems

  6. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

    2004-01-01

    A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C...

  7. Social priming increases nonverbal expressive behaviors in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Marin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia.

  8. Social priming increases nonverbal expressive behaviors in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Del-Monte

    Full Text Available Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia.

  9. Event-related potential correlates of emotional orthographic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faïta-Aïnseba, Frédérique; Gobin, Pamela; Bouaffre, Sarah; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2012-09-12

    Event-related potentials were used to explore the underlying mechanisms of masked orthographic priming and to determine whether the emotional valence of a word neighbor prime affects target processing in a lexical decision task. The results showed that the N200 and N400 amplitudes were modified by orthographic priming, which also varied with the emotional valence of the neighbors. These findings provide new evidence that the N400 component is sensitive to orthographic priming and further suggest that the affective content of the neighbor influences target word processing.

  10. Glutathione transferase supergene family in tomato: Salt stress-regulated expression of representative genes from distinct GST classes in plants primed with salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszár, Jolán; Horváth, Edit; Váry, Zsolt; Gallé, Ágnes; Bela, Krisztina; Brunner, Szilvia; Tari, Irma

    2014-05-01

    A family tree of the multifunctional proteins, glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) was created in Solanum lycopersicum based on homology to known Arabidopsis GSTs. The involvement of selected SlGSTs was studied in salt stress response of tomato primed with salicylic acid (SA) or in un-primed plants by real-time qPCR. Selected tau GSTs (SlGSTU23, SlGSTU26) were up-regulated in the leaves, while GSTs from lambda, theta, dehydroascorbate reductase and zeta classes (SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2, SlDHAR5, SlGSTZ2) in the root tissues under salt stress. Priming with SA exhibited a concentration dependency; SA mitigated the salt stress injury and caused characteristic changes in the expression pattern of SlGSTs only at 10(-4) M concentration. SlGSTF4 displayed a significant up-regulation in the leaves, while the abundance of SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2 and SlGSTZ2 transcripts were enhanced in the roots of plants primed with high SA concentration. Unexpectedly, under high salinity the SlDHAR2 expression decreased in primed roots as compared to the salt-stressed plants, however, the up-regulation of SlDHAR5 isoenzyme contributed to the maintenance of DHAR activity in roots primed with high SA. The members of lambda, theta and zeta class GSTs have a specific role in salt stress acclimation of tomato, while SlGSTU26 and SlGSTF4, the enzymes with high glutathione conjugating activity, characterize a successful priming in both roots and leaves. In contrast to low concentration, high SA concentration induced those GSTs in primed roots, which were up-regulated under salt stress. Our data indicate that induction of GSTs provide a flexible tool in maintaining redox homeostasis during unfavourable conditions.

  11. Diuretics Prime Plant Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application. PMID:23144763

  12. Epigenetic priming of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2011-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.

  13. Diuretics prime plant immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Noutoshi

    Full Text Available Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application.

  14. Digital PCR: A brief history

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Digital PCR for quantification of a target of interest has been independently developed several times, being described in 1990 and 1991 using the term “limiting dilution PCR” and in 1999 using the term “digital PCR”. It came into use in the decade following its first development but its use was cut short by the description of real-time PCR in 1996. However digital PCR has now had a renaissance due to the recent development of new instruments and chemistry which have made it a much simpler and...

  15. Form-based priming in spoken word recognition: the roles of competition and bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldinger, S D; Luce, P A; Pisoni, D B; Marcario, J K

    1992-11-01

    Phonological priming of spoken words refers to improved recognition of targets preceded by primes that share at least one of their constituent phonemes (e.g., BULL-BEER). Phonetic priming refers to reduced recognition of targets preceded by primes that share no phonemes with targets but are phonetically similar to targets (e.g., BULL-VEER). Five experiments were conducted to investigate the role of bias in phonological priming. Performance was compared across conditions of phonological and phonetic priming under a variety of procedural manipulations. Ss in phonological priming conditions systematically modified their responses on unrelated priming trials in perceptual identification, and they were slower and more errorful on unrelated trials in lexical decision than were Ss in phonetic priming conditions. Phonetic and phonological priming effects display different time courses and also different interactions with changes in proportion of related priming trials. Phonological priming involves bias; phonetic priming appears to reflect basic properties of activation and competition in spoken word recognition.

  16. Co-occurrence frequency evaluated with large language corpora boosts semantic priming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunellière, Angèle; Perre, Laetitia; Tran, ThiMai; Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, many computational techniques have been developed to analyse the contextual usage of words in large language corpora. The present study examined whether the co-occurrence frequency obtained from large language corpora might boost purely semantic priming effects. Two experiments were conducted: one with conscious semantic priming, the other with subliminal semantic priming. Both experiments contrasted three semantic priming contexts: an unrelated priming context and two related priming contexts with word pairs that are semantically related and that co-occur either frequently or infrequently. In the conscious priming presentation (166-ms stimulus-onset asynchrony, SOA), a semantic priming effect was recorded in both related priming contexts, which was greater with higher co-occurrence frequency. In the subliminal priming presentation (66-ms SOA), no significant priming effect was shown, regardless of the related priming context. These results show that co-occurrence frequency boosts pure semantic priming effects and are discussed with reference to models of semantic network.

  17. Simultaneous multiplex PCR detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Yeon; Hong, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Jea; Choi, Sun Hee; Min, Byeong Eun; Song, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Ryu, Ki Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10 pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53 °C to 63 °C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed.

  18. Easy-to-use strategy for reference gene selection in quantitative real-time PCR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, Stefanie; Renckhoff, Kristina; Engler, Andrea; Peters, Jürgen; Frey, Ulrich H

    2016-12-01

    Real-time PCR is an indispensable technique for mRNA expression analysis but conclusions depend on appropriate reference gene selection. However, while reference gene selection has been a topic of publications, this issue is often disregarded when measuring target mRNA expression. Therefore, we (1) evaluated the frequency of appropriate reference gene selection, (2) suggest an easy-to-use tool for least variability reference gene selection, (3) demonstrate application of this tool, and (4) show effects on target gene expression profiles. All 2015 published articles in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology were screened for the use of quantitative real-time PCR analysis and selection of reference genes. Target gene expression (Vegfa, Grk2, Sirt4, and Timp3) in H9c2 cells was analyzed following various interventions (hypoxia, hyperglycemia, and/or isoflurane exposure with and without subsequent hypoxia) in relation to putative reference genes (Actb, Gapdh, B2m, Sdha, and Rplp1) using the least variability method vs. an arbitrarily selected but established reference gene. In the vast majority (18 of 21) of papers, no information was provided regarding selection of an appropriate reference gene. In only 1 of 21 papers, a method of appropriate reference gene selection was described and in 2 papers reference gene selection remains unclear. The method of reference gene selection had major impact on interpretation of target gene expression. With hypoxia, for instance, the least variability gene was Rplp1 and target gene expression (Vefga) heavily showed a 2-fold up-regulation (p = 0.022) but no change (p = 0.3) when arbitrarily using Gapdh. Frequency of appropriate reference gene selection in this journal is low, and we propose our strategy for reference gene selection as an easy tool for proper target gene expression.

  19. The kinds of information that support novel associative object priming and how these differ from those that support item priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Mayes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how the information that supports novel associative and item object priming differs under identical study/test conditions. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated the meaningfulness of sentences linking two object pictures at study. At test, they performed either a size judgement or an associative recognition memory task on intact, recombined and novel picture (Experiment 1) or word (Experiment 2) associations. Associative priming was modulated by subjective meaningfulness of the encoded links, and depended on study/test perceptual overlap. In contrast, item priming was neither affected by the meaningfulness of the sentences nor by study/test changes in the stimulus presentation format. Associative priming and recognition were behaviourally dissociated, and associative recognition was probably too slow to have seriously contaminated associative priming. In Experiment 3, participants performed a perceptually oriented task during both experimental phases, and both associative and item priming were observed. These results suggest that associative priming depends on stored associative semantic and perceptual information when the test task requires flexible retrieval of associative information. Under the same conditions, item priming may only require activation of items' semantic properties. When both study and test tasks stress perceptual processing, retrieval of perceptual information is sufficient to support both kinds of priming.

  20. [Prime Ministers Eugenia Charles of Dominica, Margaret Thatcher and Indira Gandhi

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Neil

    2004-01-01

    207 x 153 mm. A photograph showing Eugenia Charles, Prime Minister of Dominica, Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister, and Indira Gandhi, Indian Prime Minister, with Tom Adams, Prime Minister of Barbados, and Lester Bird, Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Antigua and Barbuda, behind them. The delegates are pictured at Fort Aguada, Goa.

  1. Detection of tdh and trh genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from Corbicula moltkiana prime in West Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina; Radu, Son; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke; Napis, Suhaimi; Zakaria, Zunita; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2007-03-01

    The occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw Corbicula moltkiana Prime from Lake Singkarak and Pasar Raya Padang market and in cooked samples in West Sumatera, Indonesia, was studied. Thirteen raw and seven cooked bivalve samples were positive using CHROMAgar Vibrio medium. All 47 V parahaemolyticus isolates were positive for toxR gene but negative for trh. However, 36% (17/47) of V parahaemolyticus strains were positive for tdh gene. Antibiotic profiling showed that 76% and 38% of isolates from raw and cooked bivalves respectively were resistant to ampicillin. Using RAPD-PCR analysis, most of the strains were clustered according to their source of isolation but some of the strains from raw and cooked samples were clustered together. These results indicate that pathogenic V parahaemolyticus isolates are present in Corbicula moltkiana Prime in West Sumatera, Indonesia, suggesting that V parahaemolyticus may also be present in seafood in other regions of Indonesia.

  2. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  3. INTERSECTION OF PRIME SUBMODULES AND DIMENSION OF MODULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Azizi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the conditions by which a P-prime submodule can be expressed as a finite intersection or union of P-prime submodules. Also corresponding to dimension and rank of modules, some equivalent conditions for a ring to be a Dedekind domain are given.

  4. Brain correlates of negative and positive visuospatial priming in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher I; Keuthen, Nancy J; Savage, Cary R; Martis, Brian; Williams, Danielle; Wedig, Michelle; McMullin, Katherine; Rauch, Scott L

    2006-04-15

    A balance of inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms is essential for efficient and goal-directed behaviors. These mechanisms may go awry in several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by uncontrolled, repetitive behaviors. The visuospatial priming paradigm is a well-established probe of inhibition and facilitation that has been used to demonstrate behavioral deficits in patients with Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the brain correlates of this visuospatial priming paradigm are not yet well established. In the present study, we used a visuospatial priming paradigm and event-related functional MRI, to probe inhibitory and facilitatory brain mechanisms in healthy adult women. When subjects performed the negative priming (i.e., inhibitory) task, several regions of the prefrontal cortex were selectively activated relative to the neutral condition. Non-overlapping regions of the prefrontal cortex were deactivated in the positive priming condition. These results support the notion that the prefrontal cortex is involved in both inhibitory and facilitatory processing and demonstrate that this visuospatial priming task shares brain correlates with other positive and negative priming tasks. In conjunction with functional MRI, this visuospatial priming task may be useful for studying the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders in which deficient inhibitory processing or excessive facilitation is a feature.

  5. Syntactic Priming during Sentence Comprehension: Evidence for the Lexical Boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The…

  6. PRIME-XS, a European infrastructure for proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, Reinout; Olsen, Jesper V; Aebersold, Ruedi; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-01-01

    The PRIME-XS consortium is a pan-European infrastructure for proteomics. As a prologue to this special issue of Molecular & Cellular Proteomics on the research activities of the PRIME-XS consortium, we, as the guest editors of this issue, provide an overview of the structure and activities of this c

  7. Towers of Function Fields over Non-prime Finite Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Garcia, Arnaldo;

    2015-01-01

    Over all non-prime finite fields, we construct some recursive towers of function fields with many rational places. Thus we obtain a substantial improvement on all known lower bounds for Ihara’s quantity A(ℓ), for ℓ = pn with p prime and n > 3 odd. We relate the explicit equations to Drinfeld...

  8. On the Prime Ideals of C[0,1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that the set C[0, 1] of real-valuedcontinuous functions on the closed interval [0, 1]has a natural ring structure. Its maximal idealsare known to be points. Here we show thatalthough there exist prime ideals which are notmaximal, the zero set is again a singleton. In particular,each prime ideal is contained in a uniquemaximal ideal.

  9. Prime Number Identification in Idiots Savants: Can They Calculate Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The ability of some individuals with mental retardation to identify prime numbers despite their lack of necessary arithmetical skills is discussed. The article suggests that a distinction between prime and nonprime numbers can be made by utilizing the tendency of visual perception to be symmetrically organized. (Author/DB)

  10. Fall Colors, 2001-02: Prime Time Diversity Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, McCrae A.; Miller, Patti; Espejo, Eileen; Grossman-Swenson, Sarah

    Television is an integral part of American culture, and has the ability to play a major role in shaping belief systems, particularly for the youngest and most impressionable viewers. This study is the third annual study of diversity of characters in prime time television programming. The study examined the first two episodes of each prime time…

  11. Towers of Function Fields over Non-prime Finite Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Garcia, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Over all non-prime finite fields, we construct some recursive towers of function fields with many rational places. Thus we obtain a substantial improvement on all known lower bounds for Ihara’s quantity A(ℓ), for ℓ = pn with p prime and n > 3 odd. We relate the explicit equations to Drinfeld modu...

  12. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  13. Individual Differences in Syntactic Priming in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Although the syntactic priming methodology is a promising tool for language acquisition researchers, using the technique with children raises issues that are not problematic in adult research. The current paper reports on an individual differences study that addressed some of these outstanding issues. (a) Does priming purely reflect syntactic…

  14. Mechanisms of Masked Priming: Testing the Entry Opening Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Since it was introduced in Forster and Davis (1984), masked priming has been widely adopted in the psycholinguistic research on visual word recognition, but there has been little consensus on its actual mechanisms, i.e. how it occurs and how it should be interpreted. This dissertation addresses two different interpretations of masked priming, one…

  15. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  16. The Influence of Working Memory Load on Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Tom; Van Rensbergen, Bram; Storms, Gert; Hutchison, Keith A.; De Deyne, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The present research examines the nature of the different processes that have been proposed to underlie semantic priming. Specifically, it has been argued that priming arises as a result of "automatic target activation" and/or the use of strategies like prospective "expectancy generation" and "retrospective semantic…

  17. Children's Syntactic-Priming Magnitude: Lexical Factors and Participant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Anouschka; Thiele, Kristina; Kahsnitz, Dunja; Stenneken, Prisca

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether lexical repetition, syntactic skills, and working memory (WM) affect children's syntactic-priming behavior, i.e. their tendency to adopt previously encountered syntactic structures. Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children were primed with prenominal (e.g. "the yellow…

  18. Visual and Auditory Morphological Priming in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Michal; Schiff, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The quality of implicit morphological knowledge in adult Hebrew readers with developmental dyslexia was investigated. The priming paradigm was used to examine whether these adults extract and represent morphemic units similarly to normal readers during online word recognition. The group with dyslexia as a whole did not exhibit priming with visual…

  19. Development of Prime Cyber-Infrastructure for Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-14

    currentUser: string + DEBUG : bool = false - DEVELOPMENT_ROLE: string = "development" + dic: Dictionary<ResourceInfo, bool> = new Dictionary...48 6 Technologies used 6.1 PrIMe Portal The PrIMe portal is executed using the PHP language with the help of CMF Drupal-5. The standard

  20. Power Cocentralizing Generalized Derivations on Prime Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vincenzo De Filippis

    2010-06-01

    Let be a prime ring, the Utumi quotient ring of $R,C=Z(U)$ the extended centroid of , a non-central Lie ideal of , and non-zero generalized derivations of . Suppose that there exists an integer $n≥ 1$ such that $(H(u)u-uG(u))^n=0$, for all $u\\in L$, then one of the following holds: (1) there exists $c\\in U$ such that $H(x)=xc,G(x)=cx;(2)R$ satisfies the standard identity $s_4$ and char ()=2; (3) satisfies $s4$ and there exist $a, b, c\\in U$, such that $H(x)=ax+xc,G(x)=cx+xb$ and $(a-b)^n=0$.

  1. Cross-modal, bidirectional priming in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L E; Van der Smagt, Maarten J; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2015-05-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive achromatic graphemes to be inherently colored. In this study grapheme-color synesthetes and non-synesthetes discriminated (1) the color of visual targets presented along with aurally presented digit primes, and (2) the identity of aurally presented digit targets presented with visual color primes. Reaction times to visual color targets were longer when the color of the target was incongruent with the synesthetic percept reported for the prime. Likewise, discriminating aurally presented digit targets took longer when the color of the prime was incongruent with the synesthetic percept for the target. These priming effects were absent in non-synesthetes. We conclude that binding between digits and colors in grapheme-color synesthetes can occur bidirectionally across senses. The results are in line with the idea that synesthesia is the result of linking inducing stimuli (e.g. digits) to synesthetic percepts (colors) at an abstract - supra-modal - conceptual level of processing.

  2. Number theory an introduction via the density of primes

    CERN Document Server

    Fine, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this textbook provides an introduction and overview of number theory based on the density and properties of the prime numbers. This unique approach offers both a firm background in the standard material of number theory, as well as an overview of the entire discipline. All of the essential topics are covered, such as the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, theory of congruences, quadratic reciprocity, arithmetic functions, and the distribution of primes. New in this edition are coverage of p-adic numbers, Hensel's lemma, multiple zeta-values, and elliptic curve methods in primality testing. Key topics and features include: A solid introduction to analytic number theory, including full proofs of Dirichlet's Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem Concise treatment of algebraic number theory, including a complete presentation of primes, prime factorizations in algebraic number fields, and unique factorization of ideals Discussion of the AKS algorithm, which shows that primality testing is...

  3. Effect of social category priming on personal attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kerry; Dovidio, John F; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2003-07-01

    In four studies, we examined the spontaneous activation of specific attitudes related to social categories. These studies investigated whether priming participants with concepts associated with the elderly and skinheads influenced participants' attitudes. The results consistently demonstrated that priming a social category can influence people's attitudes such that they become more similar to those of people in the primed category. After participants were primed with the elderly category, their attitudes became more conservative; after participants were primed with the skinhead category, their attitudes became more prejudiced. We also found that these effects can occur without awareness and intention and are specific to the participants' own attitudes. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are considered.

  4. Priming: Ekim Öncesi Tohum Uygulamaları / Priming: Presowing Seed Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Elkoca, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET: Priming, ekim öncesinde tohuma yapılan çeşitli uygulamalar olup, çimlenme için gerekli metabolik aktiviteyi başlatacak,ancak kök çıkışına imkan tanımayacak seviyedeki kontrollü su alımı olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Priming pek çok bitki türünde,özellikle düşük sıcaklık gibi uygun olmayan koşullarda, çimlenme-çıkış oranını ve hızını artırmakta ve buna bağlı olarak, kısasürede istenilen sıklıkta...

  5. Influence of Temporal Expectations on Response Priming by Subliminal Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Raphael; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Unconscious processes are often assumed immune from attention influence. Recent behavioral studies suggest however that the processing of subliminal information can be influenced by temporal attention. To examine the neural mechanisms underlying these effects, we used a stringent masking paradigm together with fMRI to investigate how temporal attention modulates the processing of unseen (masked) faces. Participants performed a gender decision task on a visible neutral target face, preceded by a masked prime face that could vary in gender (same or different than target) and emotion expression (neutral or fearful). We manipulated temporal attention by instructing participants to expect targets to appear either early or late during the stimulus sequence. Orienting temporal attention to subliminal primes influenced response priming by masked faces, even when gender was incongruent. In addition, gender-congruent primes facilitated responses regardless of attention while gender-incongruent primes reduced accuracy when attended. Emotion produced no differential effects. At the neural level, incongruent and temporally unexpected primes increased brain response in regions of the fronto-parietal attention network, reflecting greater recruitment of executive control and reorienting processes. Congruent and expected primes produced higher activations in fusiform cortex, presumably reflecting facilitation of perceptual processing. These results indicate that temporal attention can influence subliminal processing of face features, and thus facilitate information integration according to task-relevance regardless of conscious awareness. They also suggest that task-congruent information between prime and target may facilitate response priming even when temporal attention is not selectively oriented to the prime onset time. PMID:27764124

  6. Structure and prime decomposition law and relative extensions of abelian fields with prime power degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤科

    1999-01-01

    Let L be an abelian extension of the rationals Q whose Galois group Gal(L) is an abelian (q-group q is any prime number). The explicit law of prime decomposition in L for any prime number p, the inertia group, residue class degree, and discriminant of L are given here; such fields L are classified into 4 or 8 classes according as q is odd or even with clear description of their structures. Then relative extension L/K is studied. L/K is proved to have a relative integral basis under certain simple conditions; relative discriminant D(L/K) is given explicitly; and necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for D(L/K) to be generated by a rational square (and by a rational). In particular, it is proved that L/K has a relative integral basis and that D(L/K) is generated by a rational square if [L: K]≥x~* or x~*+1 (according as q is odd or even), where x~* is the exponent of Gal(L). These results contain many related results on similar fields in literature.

  7. Ready for Prime Time: Implementing a Formal Afterschool Quality Improvement System by Prime Time Palm Beach County, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Julie; Lockaby, Tracey; Mayers, Leifa; Guterman, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This is the fourth report of a process evaluation of Palm Beach County Prime Time, Inc., an intermediary organization dedicated to improving the quality of afterschool programs, by Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. It covers the 2007-2008 program year, which was the inaugural year of Prime Time's formal Quality Improvement System (QIS)…

  8. Comparison of La-PCR and DOP-PCR in Vitro Amplification for Microisolated Chromosome in Rice(Oryza sativa L.)%染色体显微切割两种体外扩增方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建华; 孙传清; 陈正华; 王象坤

    1999-01-01

    以处于减数分裂中期Ⅰ的水稻三体花粉母细胞为材料,对额外染色体进行了显微分离,通过两种体外扩增方法,即接头引物PCR(linker-adaptor-PCR,LA-PCR)和简并寡聚核苷酸引物PCR(degenerated-oligonucleotide-primed-PCR,DOP-PCR),研究了这两种PCR方法在本研究所采用的微分离染色体体外扩增中的优缺点,认为两种方法都可以有效地体外扩增,但扩增DNA片段大小和对细胞质残留碎片的扩增结果有所不同,LA-PCR对微分离染色体扩增的DNA片段大于DOP-PCR,而对细胞质碎片DNA的扩增,DOP-PCR扩增的DNA片段大于LA-PCR,结论认为LA-PCR优于DOP-PCR.

  9. What you see depends on what you saw, and what else you saw: the interactions between motion priming and object priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiong; Jiang, Yang; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-12-01

    Both visual object priming and motion priming have been reported independently, but the interactions between the two are still largely unexplored. Here we investigated this question using a novel type of SFM stimuli, 3-D helixes, and found that the motion direction perception of an ambiguous helix can be biased by the motion direction of a preceding SFM stimulus - a classic motion priming effect. However, the effectiveness of motion priming depends on object priming: a neutral object priming produced a weak motion priming, a congruent object priming led to a strong motion priming, and critically, an incongruent object priming abolished and overpowered the motion priming. In contrast, object priming alone (in the absence of motion overlap) had little effects biasing motion perception. Taken together, these results suggest that there exists an integrated neural representation of motion and structure of 3-D SFM stimuli, and motion priming of 3-D SFM stimuli might happen at an intermediate stage between MT/V5 (which is not shape selective) and LO (lateral occipital, which is not motion selective). This novel type of stimuli, 3-D helixes, along with the prime-target paradigm, thus might offer a unique tool to examine neural bases underlying the perception of 3-D SFM stimuli and perceptual priming.

  10. Understanding the role of the 'self' in the social priming of mimicry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Wang

    Full Text Available People have a tendency to unconsciously mimic other's actions. This mimicry has been regarded as a prosocial response which increases social affiliation. Previous research on social priming of mimicry demonstrated an assimilative relationship between mimicry and prosociality of the primed construct: prosocial primes elicit stronger mimicry whereas antisocial primes decrease mimicry. The present research extends these findings by showing that assimilative and contrasting prime-to-behavior effect can both happen on mimicry. Specifically, experiment 1 showed a robust contrast priming effect where priming antisocial behaviors induces stronger mimicry than priming prosocial behaviors. In experiment 2, we manipulated the self-relatedness of the pro/antisocial primes and further revealed that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-related whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when the social primes are self-unrelated. In experiment 3, we used a novel cartoon movie paradigm to prime pro/antisocial behaviors and manipulated the perspective-taking when participants were watching these movies. Again, we found that prosocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a first-person point of view whereas antisocial primes increase mimicry only when participants took a third-person point of view, which replicated the findings in experiment 2. We suggest that these three studies can be best explained by the active-self theory, which claims that the direction of prime-to-behavior effects depends on how primes are processed in relation to the 'self'.

  11. Cross-modal evaluative priming: emotional sounds influence the processing of emotion words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura D; Larsen, Randy J

    2011-02-01

    Cross-modal priming occurs when a prime presented in one sensory modality influences responses to a target in a different sensory modality. Currently, demonstrations of cross-modal evaluative priming have been sparse and limited. In the present study, we seek to partially rectify this state of affairs by examining cross-modal evaluative priming from auditory primes to visual targets. Significant cross-modal priming effects were found, but only for negative primes. Results are discussed in terms of the negativity bias, and several suggestions are provided for using cross-modal evaluative priming to address theoretically important questions about emotion and cognition.

  12. Mapping of Microsatellite SW943 to Porcine Chromosome 12p11-(2/3p13) Using Primed in situ Synthesis and Somatic Cell Hybrid Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bang; WANG Yong-qiang; ZHANG Qing-de; YU Mei; ZHAO Shu-hong; XIONG Tong-an; LI Kui

    2002-01-01

    The porcine microsatellite SW943 was regionally localized on 12p11-(2/3p13) by the two methods: the Primed in situ (PRINS) labelling on the pachytene bivalents of pigs using the Dig-11-dUTP as the report molecule and pig × rodent Somatic Cell Hybrid PaneI(SCHP) which contains 27 cell lines through PCR amplification. Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods for physical mapping of microsatellites were also discussed.

  13. Insertion of part of an intron into the 5[prime] untranslated region of a Caenorhabditis elegans gene converts it into a trans-spliced gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, R.; Thomas, J.; Spieth, J.; Blumenthal, T. (Indiana University, Bloomington (United States))

    1991-04-01

    In nematodes, the RNA products of some genes are trans-spliced to a 22-nucleotide spliced leader (SL), while the RNA products of other genes are not. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there are two SLs, Sl1 and SL2, donated by two distinct small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles in a process functionally quite similar to nuclear intron removal. The authors demonstrate here that it is possible to convert a non-trans-spliced gene into a trans-spliced gene by placement of an intron missing only the 5[prime] splice site into the 5[prime] untranslated region. Stable transgenic strains were isolated expressing a gene in which 69 nucleotides of a vit-5 intron, including the 3[prime] splice site, were inserted into the 5[prime] untranslated region of a vit-2/vit-6 fusion gene. The RNA product of this gene was examined by primer extension and PCR amplification. Although the vit-2/vit-6 transgene product is not normally trans-spliced, the majority of transcripts from this altered gene were trans-spliced to SL1. They termed the region of a trans-spliced mRNA precursor between the 5[prime] end and the first 3[prime] splice site an 'outrun'. The results suggest that if a transcript begins with intronlike sequence followed by a 3[prime] splice site, this alone may constitute an outrun and be sufficient to demarcate a transcript as a trans-splice acceptor. These findings leave open the possibility that specific sequences are required to increase the efficiency of trans-splicing.

  14. CRISPR interference and priming varies with individual spacer sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chaoyou; Seetharam, Arun S; Musharova, Olga; Severinov, Konstantin; Brouns, Stan J J; Severin, Andrew J; Sashital, Dipali G

    2015-12-15

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) systems allow bacteria to adapt to infection by acquiring 'spacer' sequences from invader DNA into genomic CRISPR loci. Cas proteins use RNAs derived from these loci to target cognate sequences for destruction through CRISPR interference. Mutations in the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and seed regions block interference but promote rapid 'primed' adaptation. Here, we use multiple spacer sequences to reexamine the PAM and seed sequence requirements for interference and priming in the Escherichia coli Type I-E CRISPR-Cas system. Surprisingly, CRISPR interference is far more tolerant of mutations in the seed and the PAM than previously reported, and this mutational tolerance, as well as priming activity, is highly dependent on spacer sequence. We identify a large number of functional PAMs that can promote interference, priming or both activities, depending on the associated spacer sequence. Functional PAMs are preferentially acquired during unprimed 'naïve' adaptation, leading to a rapid priming response following infection. Our results provide numerous insights into the importance of both spacer and target sequences for interference and priming, and reveal that priming is a major pathway for adaptation during initial infection.

  15. Syntactic priming without lexical overlap in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina S; Carbary, Kathleen M; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2014-06-01

    Syntactic priming without lexical overlap is well-documented in language production. In contrast, reading-time comprehension studies, which typically use locally ambiguous sentences, generally find syntactic priming only with lexical overlap. This asymmetry has led some researchers to propose that distinct mechanisms underlie the comprehension and production of syntactic structure. Instead, we propose that methodological differences in how priming is assessed are largely responsible for the asymmetry: in comprehension, lexical biases in a locally ambiguous target sentence may overwhelm the influence of syntactic priming effects on a reader's interpretation. We addressed these issues in a self-paced reading study by (1) using target sentences containing global attachment ambiguities, (2) examining a syntactic structure which does not involve an argument of the verb, and (3) factoring out the unavoidable lexical biases associated with the target sentences in a mixed-effects regression model. Under these conditions, syntactic priming affected how ambiguous sentences were parsed, and facilitated reading times when target sentences were parsed using the primed structure. This resolves discrepancies among previous findings, and suggests that the same mechanism underlies syntactic priming in comprehension and production.

  16. Repetition priming-induced changes in sensorimotor transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2016-03-01

    When a behavior is repeated performance often improves, i.e., repetition priming occurs. Although repetition priming is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in the feeding network ofAplysia Similar to the priming observed elsewhere, priming inAplysiais stimulus specific, i.e., it can be either "ingestive" or "egestive." Previous studies demonstrated that priming alters motor and premotor activity. Here we sought to determine whether sensorimotor transmission is also modified. We report that changes in sensorimotor transmission do occur. We ask how they are mediated and obtain data that strongly suggest a presynaptic mechanism that involves changes in the "background" intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary afferents themselves. This form of plasticity has previously been described and generated interest due to its potentially graded nature. Manipulations that alter the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)]iimpact the efficacy of synaptic transmission. It is, however, unclear how graded control is exerted under physiologically relevant conditions. In the feeding system changes in the background [Ca(2+)]iare mediated by the induction of a nifedipine-sensitive current. We demonstrate that the extent to which this current is induced is altered by peptides (i.e., increased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of ingestive activity and decreased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of egestive activity). We suggest that this constitutes a behaviorally relevant mechanism for the graded control of synaptic transmission via the regulation of the [Ca(2+)]iin a neuron.

  17. Combinatorial Identities Via Phi Functions and Relatively Prime Subsets

    CERN Document Server

    Bachraoui, Mohamed El

    2010-01-01

    Let $n$ be a positive integer and let $A$ be nonempty finite set of positive integers. We say that $A$ is relatively prime if $\\gcd(A) =1$ and that $A$ is relatively prime to $n$ if $\\gcd(A,n)=1$. In this work we count the number of nonempty subsets of $A$ which are relatively prime and the number of nonempty subsets of $A$ which are relatively prime to $n$. Related formulas are also obtained for the number of such subsets having some fixed cardinality. This extends previous work for the cases where $A$ is an interval or a set in arithmetic progression. Applications include: a) An exact formula is obtained for the number of elements of $A$ which are co-prime to $n$; note that this number is $\\phi(n)$ if $A=[1,n]$. b) Algebraic characterizations are found for a nonempty finite set of positive integers to have elements which are all pairwise co-prime and consequently a formula is given for the number of nonempty subsets of $A$ whose elements are pairwise co-prime. c) We provide combinatorial formulas involving ...

  18. An extracellular subtilase switch for immune priming in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ramírez

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, induced resistance associates with acquisition of a priming state of the cells for a more effective activation of innate immunity; however, the nature of the components for mounting this type of immunological memory is not well known. We identified an extracellular subtilase from Arabidopsis, SBT3.3, the overexpression of which enhances innate immune responses while the loss of function compromises them. SBT3.3 expression initiates a durable autoinduction mechanism that promotes chromatin remodeling and activates a salicylic acid(SA-dependent mechanism of priming of defense genes for amplified response. Moreover, SBT3.3 expression-sensitized plants for enhanced expression of the OXI1 kinase gene and activation of MAP kinases following pathogen attack, providing additional clues for the regulation of immune priming by SBT3.3. Conversely, in sbt3.3 mutant plants pathogen-mediated induction of SA-related defense gene expression is drastically reduced and activation of MAP kinases inhibited. Moreover, chromatin remodeling of defense-related genes normally associated with activation of an immune priming response appear inhibited in sbt3.3 plants, further indicating the importance of the extracellular SBT3.3 subtilase in the establishment of immune priming. Our results also point to an epigenetic control in the regulation of plant immunity, since SBT3.3 is up-regulated and priming activated when epigenetic control is impeded. SBT3.3 represents a new regulator of primed immunity.

  19. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  20. Orbital Distribution Arbitrarily Close to the Homothetic Equilateral Triple Collision in the Free-Fall Three-Body Problem with Equal Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Hiroaki; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    The existence of escape and nonescape orbits arbitrarily close to the homothetic equilateral triple-collision orbit is considered analytically in the three-body problem with zero initial velocities and equal masses. It is proved that escape orbits in the initial condition space are distributed around three kinds of isosceles orbits. It is also proved that nonescape orbits are distributed in between the escape orbits where different particles escape. In order to show this, it is proved that the homothetic-equilateral orbit is isolated from other triple-collision orbits as far as the collision at the first triple encounter is concerned. Moreover, the escape criterion is formulated in the planar-isosceles problem and translated into the words of regularizing variables. The result obtained by us explains the orbital structure numerically.

  1. An efficient, direct finite difference method for computing sound propagation in arbitrarily shaped two-dimensional and axisymmetric ducts without flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, S.

    1978-01-01

    An efficient, direct finite difference method is presented for computing sound propagation in non-stepped two-dimensional and axisymmetric ducts of arbitrarily varying cross section without mean flow. The method is not restricted by axial variation of acoustic impedance of the duct wall linings. The non-uniform two-dimensional or axisymmetric duct is conformally mapped numerically into a rectangular or cylindrical computational domain using a new procedure based on a method of fast direct solution of the Cauchy-Riemann equations. The resulting Helmholtz equation in the computational domain is separable. The solution to the governing equation and boundary conditions is expressed as a linear combination of fundamental solutions. The fundamental solutions are computed only once for each duct shape by means of the fast direct cyclic reduction method for the discrete solution of separable elliptic equations. Numerical results for several examples are presented to show the applicability and efficiency of the method.

  2. Priming the Dissolved Organic Matter Breakdown in Urban Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, T.; Cronan, C. S.; Ohno, T.; Simon, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Land use and land cover change in the Anthropocene have altered the source, composition, and reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems around the world. In particular, urbanization increases the abundance of bioavailable DOM in streams. This bioavailable DOM may increase the utilization of less bioavailable pools of DOM via the "priming effect." The priming effect is a phenomenon whereby the addition of a small amount of labile DOM can increase or decrease the breakdown rate of less bioavailable DOM - positive and negative priming respectively. Our research tests priming as one potential mechanism altering DOM composition and increasing its bioavailability in urban streams. We measured DOM degradation during 30-day incubations in samples from a small urban stream and two microbial DOM sources mixed with DOM from a small stream dominated by less microbial allochthonous sources. We assessed priming by looking at observed percent biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) vs. endmember predicted BDOC. We also investigated the molecular dynamics of priming using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS). Using bulk DOC concentration we found evidence that adding small amounts of DOM from an urban stream could increase BDOC by a factor of two to three. At the molecular level, FT-ICR/MS showed that addition of labile DOM may increase the bioavailability of a variety of compound classes including proteins, lipids, and "black carbon." Furthermore, we observed that what is frequently reported as positive or negative priming may be more accurately understood as the net balance of simultaneous positive and negative priming operating on different DOM pools. Our results highlight an important global mechanism by which human activities may alter the composition and reactivity of DOM in fresh waters. Priming the degradation of allochthonous DOM with autochthonous or novel anthropogenic DOM may alter the organic energy

  3. A note on the countable union of prime submodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pournaki

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Let M be a finitely-generated module over a Noetherian ring R. Suppose is an ideal of R and let N=M and =Ann(M/N. If ⫅J(R, M is complete with respect to the -adic topology, {Pi}i≥1 is a countable family of prime submodules of M, and x∈M, then x+N⫅∪i≥1Pi implies that x+N⫅Pj for some i≥1. This extends a theorem of Sharp and Vámos concerning prime ideals to prime submodules.

  4. Effects of priming goal pursuit on implicit sequence learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, Katherine R.; Lee, Joanna M.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit learning, the type of learning that occurs without intent to learn or awareness of what has been learned, has been thought to be insensitive to the effects of priming, but recent studies suggest this is not the case. One study found that learning in the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task was improved by nonconscious goal pursuit, primed via a word search task (Eitam et al., 2008). In two studies, we used the goal priming word search task from Eitam et al., but with a different version o...

  5. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    KAUST Repository

    Savvides, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  6. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-04-01

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  7. Masked form priming is moderated by the size of the letter-order-free orthographic neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Jennifer S; Duncum, Sophie

    2016-03-16

    University students made lexical decisions to targets preceded by masked primes. In Experiment 1, transposed-letter primes were used also in the sandwich priming paradigm, in which the target is briefly pre-presented prior to the prime. The priming effects in the masked paradigm, but not in the sandwich paradigm, were moderated by the density of the letter-order-free neighbourhood of the target. In Experiment 2, letter-order-free neighbour prime words produced a priming cost in masked priming. These results are consistent with the idea that sandwich priming attenuates letter-order-free neighbour competition in target identification. Unexpectedly, no priming cost was produced by conventional (letter-position-preserving) word neighbour primes. Order-free neighbours may produce facilitation of target processing less, and more variably, than conventional neighbours.

  8. Multiplex PCR based on a universal biotinylated primer to generate templates for pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyao; Liu, Yunlong; Duan, Wenbang; Ye, Hui; Wu, Haiping; Li, Jinheng; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-06-01

    Pyrosequencing is a powerful tool widely used in genetic analysis, however template preparation prior to pyrosequencing is still costly and time-consuming. To achieve an inexpensive and labor-saving template preparation for pyrosequencing, we have successfully developed a single-tube multiplex PCR including a pre-amplification and a universal amplification. In the process of pre-amplification, a low concentration of target-specific primers tagged with universal ends introduced universal priming regions into amplicons. In the process of universal amplification, a high concentration of universal primers was used for yielding amplicons with various SNPs of interest. As only a universal biotinylated primer and one step of single-stranded DNA preparation were required for typing multiple SNPs located on different sequences, pyrosequencing-based genotyping became time-saving, labor-saving, sample-saving, and cost-saving. By a simple optimization of multiplex PCR condition, only a 4-plex and a 3-plex PCR were required for typing 7 SNPs related to tamoxifen metabolism. Further study showed that pyrosequencing coupled with an improved multiplex PCR protocol allowed around 30% decrease of either typing cost or typing labor. Considering the biotinylated primer and the optimized condition of the multiplex PCR are independent of SNP locus, it is easy to use the same condition and the identical biotinylated primer for typing other SNPs. The preliminary typing results of the 7 SNPs in 11 samples demonstrated that multiplex PCR-based pyrosequencing could be promising in personalized medicine at a low cost.

  9. Subaru Prime Focus Camera -- Suprime-Cam --

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, S; Sekiguchi, M; Okamura, S; Doi, M; Furusawa, H; Hamabe, M; Imi, K; Kimura, M; Nakata, F; Okada, N; Ouchi, M; Shimasaku, K; Yagi, M; Yasuda, N; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Maki; Okamura, Sadanori; Doi, Mamoru; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hamabe, Masaru; Imi, Katsumi; Kimura, Masahiki; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Masafumi; Yasuda, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    We have built an 80 mega pixels (10240 X 8192) mosaic CCD camera, called Suprime-Cam, for the wide field prime focus of the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Suprime-Cam covers a field of view 34 arcmin X 27 arcmin, a unique facility among the the 8 - 10 m class telescopes, with a resolution of 0.202 arcsec per pixel. The focal plane consists of ten high-resistivity 2kX4k CCDs developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and these are cooled by a large stirling cycle cooler. The CCD readout electronics are developed originally by our group (M-Front & Messia-III) and the system is designed scalable that allows multiple read-out of tens of CCDs. It takes 50 seconds to readout entire arrays. We have designed a filter exchange mechanism of jukebox type that can holds up to ten large filters (205 X 170 X 15 mm^3). The wide field corrector is basically a three-lens Wynne-type but has a new type of atmospheric dispersion corrector. The corrector provides flat focal plane and un-vignetted field of view of 30 arcmin in diameter. Ach...

  10. Emotional priming effects during Stroop task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Green, Steven R; Casp, Michael; Belger, Aysenil

    2010-02-01

    The ability to make decisions within an emotional context requires a balance between two functionally integrated neural systems that primarily support executive control and affective processing. Several studies have demonstrated effects of emotional interference presented during an ongoing cognitive task, but it is unclear how activating the emotional circuitry prior to a cognitive task may enhance or disrupt the executive system. In this study we used fMRI to examine the effects of emotional priming on executive processing during a number Stroop task. Our results indicated that during trials with less executive requirements, there was a greater aversive emotional attenuation effect in a network of regions including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), insula and cingulate gyrus. This attenuation effect was counteracted during trials with increased executive demand, suggesting that while pre-activation of the emotional system may lead to an automatic attenuation of activity in multiple regions, requirements for executive function may override the aversive emotional attenuation effect. Furthermore, this override effect was found to be associated with faster reaction times during executive processing. These findings demonstrate that activity in the vlPFC, cingulate and insula is dynamically adjusted in order to optimize performance, and illustrate the importance of the timing of each system's engagement in determining how competing cognitive and emotional information is processed.

  11. Dutch Vice Prime Minister:NL Welcomes More Chinese Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rose Yan

    2011-01-01

    @@ Mr.Maxime Verhagen, Vice Prime Minister & Minister of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation of the Netherlands - together with a large business delegation of 45 companies from the Nether-lands - visited China from May 9 to 14.

  12. Brand priming effect on consumers’ financial risk taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract Taking the perspective of brand priming theory, this study proposes that brands associated with an audacious personality trait may influence consumers to be take more risks in making subsequent decisions. Two experiments, run in sport brands contexts, showed that individuals exposed to brands with high (vs. low audacity traits demonstrated a higher rate of risk taking in financial decisions. The studies also showed that this effect is moderated by individuals’ experience with the financial market. This moderation suggests that there was an activation of a goal not just semantic activation, but through the brand priming. This research provides insights into how today's consumers deal with brand priming effects in risky choice settings. From a managerial perspective, it can help managers to understand the likely effects of brand priming on behavior and better predict the probability of risk aversion or risk seeking outcomes.

  13. Prime Hook National Wildife Refuge Annual Narrative 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  14. Narrative report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: January - December, 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  15. Prime Hook NWR Marsh Restoration Project Summary & Monitoring Plan 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This living document provides a condensed explanation of wetland management history and a large-scale tidal marsh restoration project at Prime Hook NWR in Delaware....

  16. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  17. Prime Hook National Wildife Refuge Annual Narrative 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  18. The role of selective attention in perceptual and affective priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of perceptual priming (word identification and word fragment completion), as well as preference priming (that may rely on special affective mechanisms) were examined after participants either read or named the colors of words and nonwords at study. Participants named the colors of words more slowly than the colors of nonwords, indicating that lexical processing of the words occurred at study. Nonetheless, priming on all three tests was lower after color naming than after reading, despite evidence of lexical processing during color naming shown by slower responses to words than to nonwords. These results indicate that selective attention to (rather than the mere processing of) letter string identity at study is important for subsequent repetition priming.

  19. Cross-linguistic syntactic priming in bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi; Gámez, Perla B; Gómez, Ligia E; Bowers, Edmond; Shimpi, Priya

    2010-11-01

    Previous research has used cross-linguistic priming methodology with bilingual adults to explore the nature of their syntactic representations. The present paper extends the use of this methodology to bilingual children to investigate the relation between the syntactic structures of their two languages. Specifically, we examined whether the use of passives by the experimenter in one language primed the subsequent use of passives by the child in the other language. Results showed evidence of syntactic priming from Spanish to English: hearing a Spanish sentence containing a passive led to the increase in children's production of the parallel structure in English. However, there was no priming in the other direction: hearing an English sentence containing a passive did not increase children's use of the parallel structure in Spanish. These results provide evidence for both the integration of syntactic representations in bilingual children and the asymmetry of the relation between their two languages.

  20. Introduction Management Plan Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a detailed outline of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge that includes information on the following topics: Location, History of the Refuge,...

  1. On the appearance of primes in linear recursive sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroma John H

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of difference equations to number theory by considering the set of linear second-order recursive relations, , U0 = 0, U1 = 1, and , , where R and Q are relatively prime integers and n ∈ {0,1,...}. These equations describe the set of extended Lucas sequences, or rather, the Lehmer sequences. We add that the rank of apparition of an odd prime p in a specific Lehmer sequence is the index of the first term that contains p as a divisor. In this paper, we obtain results that pertain to the rank of apparition of primes of the form 2n p ± 1. Upon doing so, we will also establish rank of apparition results under more explicit hypotheses for some notable special cases of the Lehmer sequences. Presently, there does not exist a closed formula that will produce the rank of apparition of an arbitrary prime in any of the aforementioned sequences.

  2. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1974 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Interim Land Use Plan Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The continued grazing of cattle on grasslands and marsh acquired by the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge will be designed to retard the development of undesirable...

  4. Prime Numbers, Quantum Field Theory and the Goldbach Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Barbero G., J. Fernando; Navarro-Salas, José

    2012-09-01

    Motivated by the Goldbach conjecture in number theory and the Abelian bosonization mechanism on a cylindrical two-dimensional space-time, we study the reconstruction of a real scalar field as a product of two real fermion (so-called prime) fields whose Fourier expansion exclusively contains prime modes. We undertake the canonical quantization of such prime fields and construct the corresponding Fock space by introducing creation operators bp\\dag — labeled by prime numbers p — acting on the vacuum. The analysis of our model, based on the standard rules of quantum field theory and the assumption of the Riemann hypothesis, allows us to prove that the theory is not renormalizable. We also comment on the potential consequences of this result concerning the validity or breakdown of the Goldbach conjecture for large integer numbers.

  5. Narrative report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: January - December, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Narrative report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: January - December, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Duck Virus Enteritis for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses some of the options for managing the large numbers of waterfowl should there be an outbreak of the Duck Virus Enteritis Disease at the Prime...

  8. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema: Effects on Emotion Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panoraia Andriopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of secure schema activation on selective attention towards attachment-related and emotional information. Seventy two participants were randomly allocated into two conditions–subliminal priming of mental representations of supportive attachment figures (a Picasso sketch of a mother holding a baby and looking into his eyes and a no priming condition followed by an administration of a dot probe task that included positive and negative attachment-related and emotion words. The results showed that the activation of the secure prime in conjunction with chronic attachment orientations affected the processing of positive and negative attachment-unrelated emotional information. Results highlight relationships between higher-order processes of the attachment system (attachment schema activation with early stage information processing (selective attention as assessed by the dot probe task. Methodological issues are discussed with reference to the priming method used and the traditional version of the dot-probe task.

  9. ON THE THETA OPERATOR FOR MODULAR FORMS MODULO PRIME POWERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Imin; Kiming, Ian

    2016-01-01

    We consider the classical theta operator θ on modular forms modulo pm and level N prime to p, where p is a prime greater than three. Our main result is that θ mod pm will map forms of weight k to forms of weight k+2+2pm−1(p−1) and that this weight is optimal in certain cases when m is at least tw...

  10. PRIME-XS, a European infrastructure for proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raijmakers, Reinout; Olsen, Jesper V; Aebersold, Ruedi; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-08-01

    The PRIME-XS consortium is a pan-European infrastructure for proteomics. As a prologue to this special issue of Molecular & Cellular Proteomics on the research activities of the PRIME-XS consortium, we, as the guest editors of this issue, provide an overview of the structure and activities of this consortium, which is funded by the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development.

  11. A Note on Primitive Permutation Groups of Prime Power Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Cai; Hua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Primitive permutation groups of prime power degree are known to be affine type, almost simple type, and product action type. At the present stage finding an explicit classification of primitive groups of affine type seems untractable, while the product action type can usually be reduced to almost simple type. In this paper, we present a short survey of the development of primitive groups of prime power degree, together with a brief description on such groups.

  12. Upper bounds for prime gaps related to Firoozbakht's conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Kourbatov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    We study two kinds of conjectural bounds for the prime gap after the k-th prime $p_k$: (A) $p_{k+1} 9$. The upper bound (A) is equivalent to Firoozbakht's conjecture. We prove that (A) implies (B) with $b=1$; on the other hand, (B) with $b=1.17$ implies (A). We also give other sufficient conditions for (A) that have the form (B) with $b\\to1$ as $p_k\\to\\infty$.

  13. Scale-invariant correlations and the distribution of prime numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdom, B.

    2009-08-01

    Negative correlations in the distribution of prime numbers are found to display a scale invariance. This occurs in conjunction with a nonstationary behavior. We compare the prime number series to a type of fractional Brownian motion which incorporates both the scale invariance and the nonstationary behavior. Interesting discrepancies remain. The scale invariance also appears to imply the Riemann hypothesis and we study the use of the former as a test of the latter.

  14. Prime factorization using quantum annealing and computational algebraic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Raouf; Alghassi, Hedayat

    2017-02-01

    We investigate prime factorization from two perspectives: quantum annealing and computational algebraic geometry, specifically Gröbner bases. We present a novel autonomous algorithm which combines the two approaches and leads to the factorization of all bi-primes up to just over 200000, the largest number factored to date using a quantum processor. We also explain how Gröbner bases can be used to reduce the degree of Hamiltonians.

  15. 3-tuples have at most 7 prime factors infinitely often

    CERN Document Server

    Maynard, James

    2012-01-01

    Let $L_1$, $L_2$ $L_3$ be integer linear functions with no fixed prime divisor. We show there are infinitely many $n$ for which the product $L_1(n)L_2(n)L_3(n)$ has at most 7 prime factors, improving a result of Porter. We do this by means of a weighted sieve based upon the Diamond-Halberstam-Richert multidimensional sieve.

  16. Prime factorization using quantum annealing and computational algebraic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Raouf; Alghassi, Hedayat

    2017-01-01

    We investigate prime factorization from two perspectives: quantum annealing and computational algebraic geometry, specifically Gröbner bases. We present a novel autonomous algorithm which combines the two approaches and leads to the factorization of all bi-primes up to just over 200000, the largest number factored to date using a quantum processor. We also explain how Gröbner bases can be used to reduce the degree of Hamiltonians. PMID:28220854

  17. Observation of $\\eta^{\\prime}\\to\\omega e^{+} e^{-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, Y; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, T; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, Y Hu G M Huang G S; Huang, H P; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcud, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, P R; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Loue, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, R Q; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Moriya, K; Muchnoia, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaeva, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Pu, Y N; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ren, H L; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Yin, M H Ye J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, H W; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncug, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugovh, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sample of \\etapr mesons produced in the radiative decay $J/\\psi\\to\\gamma\\eta^{\\prime}$ in $1.31\\times 10^9$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector, the decay $\\eta^{\\prime}\\to\\omega e^{+} e^{-}$ is observed for the first time, with a statistical significance of $8\\sigma$. The branching fraction is measured to be $\\mathcal{B}(\\eta^{\\prime}\\to\\omega e^{+} e^{-})=(1.97\\pm0.34(\\text{stat})\\pm0.17(\\text{syst}))\\times10^{-4}$, which is in agreement with theoretical predictions. The branching fraction of $\\eta^{\\prime}\\to\\omega\\gamma$ is also measured to be $(2.55\\pm0.03(\\text{stat})\\pm0.16(\\text{syst}))\\times10^{-2}$, which is the most precise measurement to date, and the relative branching fraction $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\eta^{\\prime}\\to \\omega e^{+}e^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\eta^{\\prime}\\to \\omega \\gamma)}$ is determined to be $(7.71\\pm1.34(\\text{stat})\\pm0.54(\\text{syst}))\\times10^{-3}$.

  18. Negative priming with numbers: no evidence for a semantic locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammertyn, Jan; Fias, Wim

    2005-10-01

    Selective attention has been studied extensively using the negative priming (NP) paradigm. An important issue regards the representational level at which NP occurs. We investigated this issue by using numbers as stimuli. Because numbers have a well-defined semantic organization, which can be clearly measured by means of the distance effect, they are very suitable for testing the assumption that NP is situated at a central semantic level. Four experiments are presented in which the numerical distance between prime distractor and probe target was manipulated. The task was magnitude comparison. Target and distractor were defined on the basis of colour. In Experiment 1, all numbers were presented in Arabic format; NP was observed only with identical prime distractor and probe target, and no distance-related NP was observed. This could not be explained by a decay of inhibition since in Experiment 2 similar results were obtained with a shortened response-to-stimulus interval. Experiment 3 showed that these observations also hold for numbers presented verbally. Nevertheless, a cross-notational experiment with Arabic prime and verbal probe (Experiment 4) revealed no NP whatsoever and excluded the possibility that the absence of distance-related negative priming was the result of a fine-tuned inhibitory mechanism operating at the semantic level. The results are considered in the light of current theories of negative priming.

  19. Effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Feng; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Wei-Cheng; Hou, Ben-Chao; Huang, Jian; Zhan, Yan-Ping; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.The New Zealand white rabbits were applied for the mechanism study of dexmedetomidine priming for preventing convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine. The influence of dexmedetomidine priming with different doses on the time for convulsion occurrence and the duration time of convulsion induced by lidocaine, as well as contents of excitatory amino acids (aspartate [Asp], glutamate [Glu]) and inhibitory amino acids (glycine [Gly], γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) in the brain tissue were investigated.With 3 and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine priming, the occurrence times of convulsion were prolonged from 196 seconds to 349 and 414 seconds, respectively. With dexmedetomidine priming, the contents of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu) were much reduced at occurrence time of convulsion comparing with that without dexmedetomidine priming, while content of inhibitory amino acids Gly was much enhanced.The application of dexmedetomidine before local anesthetics can improve intoxication dose threshold of the lidocaine, delay occurrence of the convulsion, and helped for the recovery of convulsion induced by lidocaine. The positive effect of dexmedetomidine on preventing convulsion would owe to not only the inhibition of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu), but also the promotion of inhibitory amino acids Gly secretion.

  20. Verification of the Firoozbakht conjecture for primes up to four quintillion

    OpenAIRE

    Kourbatov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    If $p_k$ is the k-th prime, the Firoozbakht conjecture states that the sequence $(p_k)^{1/k}$ is strictly decreasing. We use the table of first-occurrence prime gaps in combination with known bounds for the prime-counting function to verify the Firoozbakht conjecture for primes up to four quintillion $(4\\times10^{18})$.

  1. Primes in Fibonacci n-step and Lucas n-step Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Tony D.; Vos Post, Jonathan

    2005-09-01

    We search for primes in the Fibonacci n-step and Lucas n-step sequences, which are the natural generalizations of the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. While the Fibonacci n-step sequences are nearly devoid of primes, the Lucas n-step sequences are prime-rich. We tabulate the occurrence of primes in the first 10000 terms for n sequences.

  2. Priming from Distractors in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Is Modulated by Image Properties and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Irina M.; Benito, Claire T.; Dux, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated distractor processing in a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task containing familiar objects, by measuring repetition priming from a priming distractor (PD) to Target 2 (T2). Priming from a visually identical PD was contrasted with priming from a PD in a different orientation from T2. We also tested the effect of…

  3. Is Word-Order Similarity Necessary for Cross-Linguistic Structural Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Jia, Yuefang; Wang, Zhu; Dunlap, Susan; Shin, Jeong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    This article presents two experiments employing two structural priming paradigms that investigated whether cross-linguistic syntactic priming occurred in Chinese and English passive sentences that differ in word order (production-to-production priming in Experiment 1 and comprehension-to-production priming in Experiment 2). Results revealed that…

  4. The more you ignore me the closer I get: An ERP study of evaluative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Henning; Bachmann, Olga; Stahl, Jutta

    2014-12-01

    We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the various mental processes contributing to evaluative priming-that is, more positive judgments for targets preceded by affectively positive, as opposed to negative, prime stimuli. To ensure ecological validity, we employed a priori meaningful landscape pictures as targets and emotional adjectives as visual primes and presented both primes and targets for relatively long durations (>1 s). Prime-related lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) revealed response priming as one source of the significant evaluative priming effect. On the other hand, greater right-frontal positive slow wave in the ERP for pictures following negative, as compared with positive, primes indicated altered impression formation, thus supporting automatic spreading activation and/or affect misattribution accounts. Moreover, target LRPs suggested conscious counter-control to reduce the evaluative priming net effect. Finally, when comparing prime ERPs for two groups of participants showing strong versus weak evaluative priming, we found strong evidence for the role of depth of prime processing: In the weak-effect group, prime words evoked an increased visual P1/N1 complex, a larger posterior P2 component, and a greater left-parietal processing negativity presumably reflecting semantic processing. By contrast, a larger medial-frontal P2/N2 complex in the strong-effect group suggested top-down inhibition of the prime's emotional content. Thus, trying to ignore the primes can actually increase, rather than decrease, the evaluative priming effect.

  5. Modulation of facial reactions to avatar emotional faces by nonconscious competition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Peter; Mühlberger, Andreas; Kund, Anja; Hess, Ursula; Pauli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    To investigate whether subliminally priming for competition influences facial reactions to facial emotional displays, 49 participants were either subliminally competition primed or neutrally primed. Thereafter, they viewed computer generated avatar faces with happy, neutral, and sad expressions while Corrugator supercilii and Zygomaticus major reactions were recorded. Results revealed facial mimicry to happy and sad faces in the neutrally primed group but not the competition primed group. Furthermore, subliminal competition priming enhanced Corrugator supercilii activity after an initial relaxation while viewing happy faces. An impression formation task revealed counter empathic effects confirming successful competition priming. Overall, results indicate that nonconscious processes influence a presumably nonconscious behavior.

  6. On the effect of subliminal priming on subjective perception of images: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Wong, Ken; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this article investigates the influence of subliminal prime words on peoples' judgment about images, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). In this cross domain priming paradigm, the participants are asked to rate how much they like the stimulus images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words, with EEG recorded simultaneously. Statistical analysis tools are used to analyze the effect of priming on behavior, and machine learning techniques to infer the primes from EEGs. The experiment reveals strong effects of subliminal priming on the participants' explicit rating of images. The subjective judgment affected by the priming makes visible change in event-related potentials (ERPs); results show larger ERP amplitude for the negative primes compared with positive and neutral primes. In addition, Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifiers are proposed to infer the prime types from the average ERPs, which yields a classification rate of 70%.

  7. Enhanced priming of old, not new soil carbon at elevated atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergard, Mette; Reinsch, Sabine; Bengtson, Per;

    2016-01-01

    accelerate the decomposition of soil organic C (SOC), a phenomenon termed ‘the priming effect’, and the priming effect is most pronounced at low soil N availability. Hence, we hypothesized that priming of SOC decomposition in response to labile C addition would increase in soil exposed to long-term elevated...... CO2 exposure. Further, we hypothesized that long-term warming would enhance SOC priming rates, whereas drought would decrease the priming response.We incubated soil from a long-term, full-factorial climate change field experiment, with the factors elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, warming...... priming of SOC, and the priming response was higher in soil exposed to long-term elevated CO2 treatment. Drought tended to decrease the priming response, whereas long-term warming did not affect the level of priming significantly.We were also able to assess whether SOC-derived primed C in elevated CO2...

  8. Color coherent effects in (e,e{prime}N) and (e,e{prime}N,N(h)) processes at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankfurt, L.L.; Sargsyan, M.M. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Strikman, M.I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1994-04-01

    The options for investigating color coherent effects and competing nuclear effects of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei, nuclear shell effects in (e, e{prime}N) and (e, e{prime}NN(h)) reactions are considered. They argue that extension of CEBAF energies to reach Q{sup 2} = 10 GeV{sup 2} will allow systematical investigations of color coherent effects in nonperturbative regime of QCD and their interplay with nuclear effects.

  9. Priming of mononuclear cells with a combination of growth factors enhances wound healing via high angiogenic and engraftment capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Enze; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that a specific combination of growth factors enhances the survival, adhesion and angiogenic potential of mononuclear cells (MNCs). In this study, we sought to investigate the changes of the angiogenic potential of MNCs after short-time priming with a specific combination of growth factors. MNCs were isolated using density gradient centrifugation and incubated with a priming cocktail containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt)-3L , Angiopoietin (Ang)-1, granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2 and thrombopoietin (TPO) (all 400 ng/ml) for 15, 30 and 60 min. Wounds in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficiency (NOD-SCID) mice were created by skin excision followed by cell transplantation. We performed a qRT-PCR analysis on the growth factor-primed cells. The angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, FGF-2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the anti-apoptotic factors IGF-1 and transforming growth factor-β1 were significantly elevated in the MNCs primed for 30 min. (T30) compared with the non-primed MNCs (T0). The scratch wound assay revealed that T30- conditioned media (CM) significantly increased the rate of fibroblast-mediated wound closure compared with the rates from T0-CM and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-CM at 20 hrs. In vivo wound healing results revealed that the T30-treated wounds demonstrated accelerated wound healing at days 7 and 14 compared with those treated with T0. The histological analyses demonstrated that the number of engrafted cells and transdifferentiated keratinocytes in the wounds were significantly higher in the T30-transplanted group than in the T0-transplanted group. In conclusion, this study suggests that short-term priming of MNCs with growth factors might be alternative therapeutic option for cell

  10. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  11. Soil Mineralogy and Substrate Quality Effects on Microbial Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, B. K.; Rasmussen, C.; Dijkstra, P.; Schwartz, E.; Mau, R. L.; Liu, X. J. A.; Hungate, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) cycling can slow or accelerate in response to new C inputs from fresh organic matter. This change in native C mineralization, known as the "microbial priming effect," is difficult to predict because the underlying mechanisms of priming are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that soil mineral assemblage, specifically short-range-order (SRO) minerals, influences microbial responses to different quality C substrate inputs. To test this, we added 350 μg C g-1soil weekly of an artificial root exudates mixture primarily comprised of glucose, sucrose, lactate and fructose (a simple C source) or ground ponderosa pine litter (a complex C source) for six weeks to three soil types from similar ecosystems derived from different parent material. The soils, from andesite, basalt, and granite parent materials, had decreasing abundance in SRO minerals, respectively. We found that the simple C substrate induced 63 ±16.3% greater positive priming than the complex C across all soil types. The quantity of soil SRO materials was negatively correlated with soil respiration, but positively correlated with priming. The lowest SRO soil amended with litter primed the least (14 ± 11 μgCO2-C g-1), while the largest priming effect occurring in the highest SRO soil amended with simple substrate (246 ± 18 μgCO2-C g-1). Our results indicate that higher SRO mineral content could accelerate microorganisms' capacity to mineralize native soil organic carbon and respond more strongly to labile C inputs. However, while all treatments exhibited positive priming, the amount of C added over the six-week incubation was greater than total CO2 respired. This suggests that despite a relative stimulation of native C mineralization, these soils act as C sinks rather than sources in response to fresh organic matter inputs.

  12. Hyperalgesic priming is restricted to isolectin B4-positive nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E K; Levine, J D

    2010-08-11

    We have previously described a rat model for the contribution of neuroplastic changes in nociceptors to the transition from acute to chronic pain. In this model a prior injury activates protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon), inducing a chronic state characterized by marked prolongation of the hyperalgesia induced by inflammatory cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), referred to as hyperalgesic priming. In this study we evaluated the population of nociceptors involved in priming, by lesioning isolectin B4-positive (IB4(+)) nociceptors with intrathecal administration of a selective neurotoxin, IB4-saporin. To confirm that the remaining, TrkA(+)/IB4(-), nociceptors are still functional, we evaluated if nerve growth factor (NGF) induced hyperalgesia. While pretreatment with IB4-saporin eliminated the acute mechanical hyperalgesia induced by glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), NGF and PsiepsilonRACK, a highly selective activator of PKCepsilon, induced robust hyperalgesia. After injection of NGF, GDNF or PsiepsilonRACK, at a time at which hyperalgesia induced by PGE(2) is markedly prolonged (hyperalgesic priming) in control rats, in IB4-saporin-pretreated rats PGE(2) failed to produce this prolonged hyperalgesia. Thus, while PKCepsilon is present in most dorsal root ganglion neurons, where it can contribute to acute mechanical hyperalgesia, priming is restricted to IB4(+)-nociceptors, including those that are TrkA(+). While PKCepsilon activation can induce acute hyperalgesia in the IB4(+) population, it fails to induce priming. We suggest that hyperalgesic priming occurs only in IB4(+) nociceptors, and that in the peripheral terminals of nociceptors separate intracellular pools of PKCepsilon mediate nociceptor sensitization and the induction of hyperalgesic priming.

  13. Emotion Potentiates Response Activation and Inhibition in Masked Priming

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    Bruno eBocanegra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that emotion can have two-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emotion may inhibit the processing of small visual details and facilitate the processing of coarse visual features. In the present study, we investigated whether emotion can boost the activation and inhibition of automatic motor responses that are generated prior to overt perception. To investigate this, we tested whether an emotional cue affects covert motor responses in a masked priming task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which participants responded to target arrows that were preceded by invisible congruent or incongruent prime arrows. In the standard paradigm, participants react faster and commit fewer errors responding to the directionality of target arrows, when they are preceded by congruent vs. incongruent masked prime arrows (positive congruency effect: PCE. However, as prime-target SOAs increase, this effect reverses (negative congruency effect: NCE. These findings have been explained as evidence for an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition of a partial response elicited by the masked prime arrow. Our results show that the presentation of fearful face cues, compared to neutral face cues, increased the size of both the PCE and NCE, despite the fact that the primes were invisible. This is the first demonstration that emotion prepares an individual's visuomotor system for automatic activation and inhibition of motor responses in the absence of visual awareness.

  14. Two-temperature PCR for Microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-05-01

    Since its invention in 1983, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been the method of choice for DNA amplification. Successful PCR depends on the optimization of several parameters, which is a cumbersome task due to the many variables (conditions and compon

  15. Cloning a Full-length cDNA Encoding UDP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Amorpha fruticosa by PCR-based Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method based on degenerate Oligo-primed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and random amplification of cDNA end (RACE) PCR for cloning a full-length cDNA is described. An Amorpha fruticosa cDNA clone encoding UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP), a key enzyme producing UDP-glucose in the synthesis of sucrose and cell ulose, is cloned by using this method. We design 5' RACE primers based on UGP A1 fragment, which obtains from degenerate PCR. Inverse PCR and nested PCR enable cloning of the remainder 5' and 3' end fragments of the gene. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits significant homology with the other UGP genes cloned. This method is more simple and inexpensive than screening cDNA library, and can be easily adapted to clone other genes.

  16. Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, T.J.

    2000-04-18

    This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this engine will be conducted at ORNL. If this analysis is positive, then the performance of a generator set using this engine, the open Brayton and the 2-stroke diesel should

  17. Transient Analysis of Dispersive Power-Ground Plate Pairs With Arbitrarily Shaped Antipads by the DGTD Method With Wave Port Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-09-09

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current sources are represented in terms of the eigenmodes of the antipads. Since closed-forms solutions do not exist for the eigenmodes of the arbitrarily shaped antipads, they have to be calculated using numerical schemes. Spatial orthogonality of the eigenmodes permits determination of each mode\\'s temporal expansion coefficient by integrating the product of the electric field and the mode over the wave port. The temporal mode coefficients are then Fourier transformed to accurately calculate the S-parameters corresponding to different modes. Additionally, to generalize the DGTD to manipulate dispersive media, the auxiliary differential equation method is employed. This is done by introducing a time-dependent polarization volume current as an auxiliary unknown and the constitutive relation between this current and the electric field as an auxiliary equation. Consequently, computationally expensive temporal convolution is avoided. Various numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method, are presented.

  18. A generalized crystal-cutting method for modeling arbitrarily oriented crystals in 3D periodic simulation cells with applications to crystal-crystal interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Mathew, Nithin; Jiang, Shan; Sewell, Thomas D.

    2016-10-01

    A Generalized Crystal-Cutting Method (GCCM) is developed that automates construction of three-dimensionally periodic simulation cells containing arbitrarily oriented single crystals and thin films, two-dimensionally (2D) infinite crystal-crystal homophase and heterophase interfaces, and nanostructures with intrinsic N-fold interfaces. The GCCM is based on a simple mathematical formalism that facilitates easy definition of constraints on cut crystal geometries. The method preserves the translational symmetry of all Bravais lattices and thus can be applied to any crystal described by such a lattice including complicated, low-symmetry molecular crystals. Implementations are presented with carefully articulated combinations of loop searches and constraints that drastically reduce computational complexity compared to simple loop searches. Orthorhombic representations of monoclinic and triclinic crystals found using the GCCM overcome some limitations in standard distributions of popular molecular dynamics software packages. Stability of grain boundaries in β-HMX was investigated using molecular dynamics and molecular statics simulations with 2D infinite crystal-crystal homophase interfaces created using the GCCM. The order of stabilities for the four grain boundaries studied is predicted to correlate with the relative prominence of particular crystal faces in lab-grown β-HMX crystals. We demonstrate how nanostructures can be constructed through simple constraints applied in the GCCM framework. Example GCCM constructions are shown that are relevant to some current problems in materials science, including shock sensitivity of explosives, layered electronic devices, and pharmaceuticals.

  19. Degenerate target sites mediate rapid primed CRISPR adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineran, Peter C; Gerritzen, Matthias J H; Suárez-Diez, María; Künne, Tim; Boekhorst, Jos; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Staals, Raymond H J; Brouns, Stan J J

    2014-04-22

    Prokaryotes encode adaptive immune systems, called CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated), to provide resistance against mobile invaders, such as viruses and plasmids. Host immunity is based on incorporation of invader DNA sequences in a memory locus (CRISPR), the formation of guide RNAs from this locus, and the degradation of cognate invader DNA (protospacer). Invaders can escape type I-E CRISPR-Cas immunity in Escherichia coli K12 by making point mutations in the seed region of the protospacer or its adjacent motif (PAM), but hosts quickly restore immunity by integrating new spacers in a positive-feedback process termed "priming." Here, by using a randomized protospacer and PAM library and high-throughput plasmid loss assays, we provide a systematic analysis of the constraints of both direct interference and subsequent priming in E. coli. We have defined a high-resolution genetic map of direct interference by Cascade and Cas3, which includes five positions of the protospacer at 6-nt intervals that readily tolerate mutations. Importantly, we show that priming is an extremely robust process capable of using degenerate target regions, with up to 13 mutations throughout the PAM and protospacer region. Priming is influenced by the number of mismatches, their position, and is nucleotide dependent. Our findings imply that even outdated spacers containing many mismatches can induce a rapid primed CRISPR response against diversified or related invaders, giving microbes an advantage in the coevolutionary arms race with their invaders.

  20. Lack of Noradrenergic Modulation of Indirect Semantic Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyne S. Cios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine and dopamine are both believed to affect signal-to-noise in the cerebral cortex. Dopaminergic agents appear to modulate semantic networks during indirect semantic priming, but do not appear to affect problem solving dependent on access to semantic networks. Noradrenergic agents, though, do affect semantic network dependent problem solving. We wished to examine whether noradrenergic agents affect indirect semantic priming. Subjects attended three sessions: one each after propranolol (40 mg (noradrenergic antagonist, ephedrine (25 mg (noradrenergic agonist, and placebo. During each session, closely related, distantly related, and unrelated pairs were presented. Reaction times for a lexical decision task on the target words (second word in the pair were recorded. No decrease in indirect semantic priming occurred with ephedrine. Furthermore, across all three drugs, a main effect of semantic relatedness was found, but no main effect of drug, and no drug/semantic relatedness interaction effect. These findings suggest that noradrenergic agents, with these drugs and at these doses, do not affect indirect semantic priming with the potency of dopaminergic drugs at the doses previously studied. In the context of this previous work, this suggests that more automatic processes such as priming and more controlled searches of the lexical and semantic networks such as problem solving may be mediated, at least in part, by distinct mechanisms with differing effects of pharmacological modulation.

  1. Two failures to replicate high-performance-goal priming effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Harris

    Full Text Available Bargh et al. (2001 reported two experiments in which people were exposed to words related to achievement (e.g., strive, attain or to neutral words, and then performed a demanding cognitive task. Performance on the task was enhanced after exposure to the achievement related words. Bargh and colleagues concluded that better performance was due to the achievement words having activated a "high-performance goal". Because the paper has been cited well over 1100 times, an attempt to replicate its findings would seem warranted. Two direct replication attempts were performed. Results from the first experiment (n = 98 found no effect of priming, and the means were in the opposite direction from those reported by Bargh and colleagues. The second experiment followed up on the observation by Bargh et al. (2001 that high-performance-goal priming was enhanced by a 5-minute delay between priming and test. Adding such a delay, we still found no evidence for high-performance-goal priming (n = 66. These failures to replicate, along with other recent results, suggest that the literature on goal priming requires some skeptical scrutiny.

  2. Context-specific control and the Stroop negative priming effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Bruce; Thomson, David R; Bleile, Karmen; MacLellan, Ellen; Giammarco, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The present study highlights the utility of context-specific learning for different probe types in accounting for the commonly observed dependence of negative priming on probe selection. Using a Stroop priming procedure, Experiments 1a and 1b offered a demonstration that Stroop priming effects can differ qualitatively for selection and no-selection probes when probe selection is manipulated between subjects, but not when it is manipulated randomly from trial to trial within subject (see also Moore, 1994). In Experiments 2 and 3, selection and no-selection probes served as two contexts that varied randomly from trial to trial, but for which proportion repeated was manipulated separately. A context-specific proportion repeated effect was observed in Experiment 2, characterized by modest quantitative shifts in the repetition effects as a function of the context-specific proportion repeated manipulation. However, with a longer intertrial interval in Experiment 3, a context-specific proportion repeated manipulation that focused on the no-selection probes changed the repetition effect qualitatively, from negative priming when the proportion repeated was .25 to positive priming when the proportion repeated was .75. The results are discussed with reference to the role of rapid, context-specific learning processes in the integration of prior experiences with current perception and action.

  3. Effects of priming goal pursuit on implicit sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Katherine R; Lee, Joanna M; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2014-11-01

    Implicit learning, the type of learning that occurs without intent to learn or awareness of what has been learned, has been thought to be insensitive to the effects of priming, but recent studies suggest this is not the case. One study found that learning in the serial reaction time (SRT) task was improved by nonconscious goal pursuit, primed via a word search task (Eitam et al. in Psychol Sci 19:261-267, 2008). In two studies, we used the goal priming word search task from Eitam et al., but with a different version of the SRT, the alternating serial reaction time task (ASRT). Unlike the SRT, which often results in explicit knowledge and assesses sequence learning at one point in time, the ASRT has been shown to be implicit through sensitive measures of judgment, and it enables sequence learning to be measured continuously. In both studies, we found that implicit learning was superior in the groups that were primed for goal achievement compared to control groups, but the effect was transient. We discuss possible reasons for the observed time course of the positive effects of goal priming, as well as some future areas of investigation to better understand the mechanisms that underlie this effect, which could lead to methods to prolong the positive effects.

  4. Behavioral priming: it's all in the mind, but whose mind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Doyen

    Full Text Available The perspective that behavior is often driven by unconscious determinants has become widespread in social psychology. Bargh, Chen, and Burrows' (1996 famous study, in which participants unwittingly exposed to the stereotype of age walked slower when exiting the laboratory, was instrumental in defining this perspective. Here, we present two experiments aimed at replicating the original study. Despite the use of automated timing methods and a larger sample, our first experiment failed to show priming. Our second experiment was aimed at manipulating the beliefs of the experimenters: Half were led to think that participants would walk slower when primed congruently, and the other half was led to expect the opposite. Strikingly, we obtained a walking speed effect, but only when experimenters believed participants would indeed walk slower. This suggests that both priming and experimenters' expectations are instrumental in explaining the walking speed effect. Further, debriefing was suggestive of awareness of the primes. We conclude that unconscious behavioral priming is real, while real, involves mechanisms different from those typically assumed to cause the effect.

  5. Facial Features Can Induce Emotion: Evidence from Affective Priming Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Wu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study found that schematic faces with direct gazes, with mouths, with horizontal oval eyes, or without noses, tend to be perceived as in negative emotion. In this study we further explore these factors by the affective priming task. Faces were taking as prime, and positive or negative words were probe. The task was to judge the valence of the probe. If the faces could induce emotions, a target word with the same emotional valence should be judged faster than with opposite valence (the congruency effect. Experiment 1 used the most positive and negative rated faces in previous study as the primes. The positive faces were with vertical oval eyes and without mouth, while the negative faces were with horizontal eyes and with mouth. Results of 34 participants showed that those faces indeed elicited congruency effects. Experiment 2 manipulated gaze directions (N = 16. After the task the participants were asked to rate the prime faces. According to their rating, faces with direct gaze was perceive as positive, and elicited congruency effect with positive words in affective priming task. Our data thus support the conjecture that shape of eyes, the existence of mouths, and gaze directions could induces emotion.

  6. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming - activating supportive representations of attachment security - on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed.

  7. Attachment security balances perspectives: Effects of security priming on highly optimistic and pessimistic explanatory styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Deng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming – activating supportive representations of attachment security – on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: The security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed.

  8. Subliminal or not? Comparing null-hypothesis and Bayesian methods for testing subliminal priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Anders; Nilsson, Mats E

    2016-08-01

    A difficulty for reports of subliminal priming is demonstrating that participants who actually perceived the prime are not driving the priming effects. There are two conventional methods for testing this. One is to test whether a direct measure of stimulus perception is not significantly above chance on a group level. The other is to use regression to test if an indirect measure of stimulus processing is significantly above zero when the direct measure is at chance. Here we simulated samples in which we assumed that only participants who perceived the primes were primed by it. Conventional analyses applied to these samples had a very large error rate of falsely supporting subliminal priming. Calculating a Bayes factor for the samples very seldom falsely supported subliminal priming. We conclude that conventional tests are not reliable diagnostics of subliminal priming. Instead, we recommend that experimenters calculate a Bayes factor when investigating subliminal priming.

  9. Zeta function zeros, powers of primes, and quantum chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhr, Jamal; Bhaduri, Rajat K; van Zyl, Brandon P

    2003-08-01

    We present a numerical study of Riemann's formula for the oscillating part of the density of the primes and their integer powers. The formula consists of an infinite series of oscillatory terms, one for each zero of the zeta function on the critical line, and was derived by Riemann in his paper on primes, assuming the Riemann hypothesis. We show that high-resolution spectral lines can be generated by the truncated series at all integer powers of primes and demonstrate explicitly that the relative line intensities are correct. We then derive a Gaussian sum rule for Riemann's formula. This is used to analyze the numerical convergence of the truncated series. The connections to quantum chaos and semiclassical physics are discussed.

  10. Proceedings of the second International PrimeNet Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Adlarson, P; Bashkanov, M; Bergmann, F; Berłowski, M; Bijnens, J; Balkeståhl, L Caldeira; Coderre, D; Czerwinski, E; Di Donato, C; Dybczak, A; Fariborz, A; Fröhlich, I; Goslawski, P; Gullström, C -O; Gumberidze, M; Heijkenskjöld, L; Hodana, M; Hoferichter, M; Khan, F A; Kolesár, M; Krzemien, W; Kubis, B; Kuc, H; Lanz, S; Lersch, D; Masjuan, P; Messchendorp, J; Metag, V; Niecknig, F; Nikolaev, A; Ozerianska, I; del Rio, E Perez; Longhi, I Prado; Gómez, À Ramos; Ramalho, G; Redmer, C F; Salabura, P; Sawant, S; Schneider, S; Skorodko, T; Stollenwerk, F; Terschlüsen, C; Thiel, A; Werthmüller, D; Wirzba, A; Wurm, P; Zdebik, J; Zdráhal, M

    2012-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the second PrimeNet Workshop, held in September 26-28, 2011, at the campus of Forschungszentrum J\\"{u}lich, Germany. This workshop is part of the activities in the project "Study of Strongly Interacting Matter" (acronym HadronPhysics2), which is an integrating activity of the Seventh Framework Program of EU. This HP2 project contains several activities, one of them being the network PrimeNet having the focus on Meson Physics in Low-Energy QCD. This network is created to exchange information on experimental and theoretical ongoing activities on mainly eta and eta-prime physics at different European accelerator facilities and institutes.

  11. Co-Prime Sampliers and Arrays Research Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhour Alqahtani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a new technology to estimate the line spectra of multiple different processes as the sum of sinusoids buried in noise and DOA of narrow band signals to the array of antenna. In some technique we can construct a positive semi definite matrix. This paper will discuss the three journals done by Vaidyanathan, P.P. All the work is related to the digital signal processing. The three articles which have been evaluated in this paper are "Co prime sampling and the music algorithm,", "Sparse Sensing With Co-Prime Samplers and Arrays,” and "Theory of Sparse Co prime Sensing in Multiple Dimensions,". Overview of these articles have been provided along with the problem which has been addressed in the three articles as well as the solution which has been provided in the above given three journals.

  12. An enhanced method for sequence walking and paralog mining: TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Thomas M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although technological advances allow for the economical acquisition of whole genome sequences, many organisms' genomes remain unsequenced, and fully sequenced genomes may contain gaps. Researchers reliant upon partial genomic or heterologous sequence information require methods for obtaining unknown sequences from loci of interest. Various PCR based techniques are available for sequence walking - i.e., the acquisition of unknown DNA sequence adjacent to known sequence. Many such methods require rigid, elaborate protocols and/or impose narrowly confined options in the choice of restriction enzymes for necessary genomic digests. We describe a new method, TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR (or TVL-PCR that innovatively integrates available tools and familiar concepts to offer advantages as a means of both targeted sequence walking and paralog mining. Findings TVL-PCR exploits the ligation efficiency of the pCR®4-TOPO® (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, California vector system to capture fragments of unknown sequence by creating chimeric molecules containing defined priming sites at both ends. Initially, restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA is end-repaired to create 3' adenosine overhangs and is then ligated to pCR4-TOPO vectors. The ligation product pool is used directly as a template for nested PCR, using specific primers to target orthologous sequences, or degenerate primers to enable capture of paralogous gene family members. We demonstrated the efficacy of this method by capturing entire coding and partial promoter sequences of several strawberry Superman-like genes. Conclusions TVL-PCR is a convenient and efficient method for DNA sequence walking and paralog mining that is applicable to any organism for which relevant DNA sequence is available as a basis for primer design.

  13. Real-time PCR in Food Science: PCR Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; Cook, Nigel; Hernandez, Marta

    2013-01-01

    A principal consumer demand is a guarantee of the safety and quality of food. The presence of foodborne pathogens and their potential hazard, the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and the correct labelling in foods suitable for vegetarians are among the subjects where society demands total transparency. The application of controls within the quality assessment programmes of the food industry is a way to satisfy these demands, and is necessary to ensure efficient analytical methodologies are possessed and correctly applied by the Food Sector. The use of real-time PCR has become a promising alternative approach in food diagnostics. It possesses a number of advantages over conventional culturing approaches, including rapidity, excellent analytical sensitivity and selectivity, and potential for quantification. However, the use of expensive equipment and reagents, the need for qualified personnel, and the lack of standardized protocols are impairing its practical implementation for food monitoring and control.

  14. Repetition priming in selective attention: A TVA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-09-01

    Current behavior is influenced by events in the recent past. In visual attention, this is expressed in many variations of priming effects. Here, we investigate color priming in a brief exposure digit-recognition task. Observers performed a masked odd-one-out singleton recognition task where the target-color either repeated or changed between subsequent trials. Performance was measured by recognition accuracy over exposure durations. The purpose of the study was to replicate earlier findings of perceptual priming in brief displays and to model those results based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). We tested 4 different definitions of a generic TVA-model and assessed their explanatory power. Our hypothesis was that priming effects could be explained by selective mechanisms, and that target-color repetitions would only affect the selectivity parameter (α) of our models. Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure that estimated 4-15 free parameters, depending on the particular model. We draw two main conclusions. Color priming can be modeled simply as a change in selectivity between conditions of repetition or swap of target color. Depending on the desired resolution of analysis; priming can accurately be modeled by a simple four parameter model, where VSTM capacity and spatial biases of attention are ignored, or more fine-grained by a 10 parameter model that takes these aspects into account.

  15. Preparing to fight back: Generation and storage of priming compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria ePastor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immune-stimulated plants are able to respond more rapidly and adequately to various biotic stresses allowing them to efficiently combat an infection. During the priming phase, plant are stimulated in absence of a challenge, and can accumulate and store conjugates or precursors of molecules as well as other compounds that play a role in defense. These molecules can be released during the defensive phase following stress. These metabolites can also participate in the first stages of the stress perception. Here, we report the metabolic changes occuring in primed plants during the priming phase. β-aminobutyric acid (BABA causes a boost of the primary metabolism through the tricarboxylic acids (TCA such as citrate, fumarate, (S-malate and 2-oxoglutarate, and the potentiation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the octodecanoic pathway. On the contrary, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (PstAvrRpt2 represses the same pathways. Both systems used to prime plants share some common signals like the changes in the synthesis of amino acids and the production of SA and its glycosides, as well as IAA. Interestingly, a product of the purine catabolism, xanthosine, was found to accumulate following both BABA- and PstAvrRpt2-treatement. The compounds that are strongly affected in this stage are called priming compounds, since their effect on the metabolism of the plant is to induce the production of primed compounds that will help to combat the stress. At the same time, additional identified metabolites suggest the possible defense pathways that plants are using to get ready for the battle.

  16. Priming-induced Changes in Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, E.; Schuur, E.; Bracho, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Warming of tundra ecosystems due to climate change is predicted to thaw permafrost and increase plant biomass and litter input to soil. Additional input of easily decomposable carbon can alter microbial activity by providing a much needed energy source, thereby accelerating soil organic matter decomposition. This phenomenon, known as the priming effect, can increase CO2 flux from soil to the atmosphere. However, the extent to which this mechanism can decrease soil carbon stocks in the Arctic is unknown. This project assessed priming effects on permafrost soil collected from a moist acidic tundra site in Healy, Alaska. We hypothesized that priming would increase microbial activity by providing microbes with a fresh source of carbon, thereby increasing decomposition of old and slowly decomposing carbon. Soil from surface and deep layers were amended with multiple pulses of uniformly 13C labeled glucose and cellulose, and samples were incubated at 15° C to quantify whether labile substrate addition increased carbon mineralization. We quantified the proportion of old carbon mineralization by measuring 14CO2. Data shows that substrate addition resulted in higher respiration rates in amended soils; however, priming was only observed in deep layers, where 30% more soil-derived carbon was respired compared to control samples. This suggests that microbes in deep layers are limited in energy, and the addition of labile carbon increases native soil organic matter decomposition, especially in soil with greater fractions of slowly decomposing carbon. Priming in permafrost could exacerbate the effects of climate change by increasing mineralization rates of carbon accumulated over the long-term in deep layers. Therefore, quantifying priming effect in permafrost soils is imperative to understanding the dynamics of carbon turnover in a warmer world.

  17. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  18. Centre-surround inhibition is a general aspect of famous-person recognition: evidence from negative semantic priming from clearly visible primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anna

    2012-05-01

    A centre-surround attentional mechanism was proposed by Carr and Dagenbach (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16: 341-350, 1990) to account for their observations of negative semantic priming from hard-to-perceive primes. Their mechanism cannot account for the observation of negative semantic priming when primes are clearly visible. Three experiments (Ns = 30, 46, and 30) used a familiarity decision with names of famous people, preceded by a prime name with the same occupation as the target or with a different occupation. Negative semantic priming was observed at a 150- or 200-ms SOA, with positive priming at shorter (50-ms) and longer (1,000-ms) SOAs. In Experiment 3, we verified that the primes were easily recognisable in the priming task at an SOA that yielded negative semantic priming, which cannot be predicted by the original centre-surround mechanism. A modified version is proposed that explains transiently negative semantic priming by proposing that centre-surround inhibition is a normal, automatically invoked aspect of the semantic processing of visually presented famous names.

  19. Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Primer Design Using Free Online Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most…

  20. Modified Three-Dimensional Multicarrier Optical Prime Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mathematical model for novel three-dimensional multicarrier optical codes in terms of wavelength/time/space based on the prime sequence algorithm. The proposed model has been extensively simulated on MATLAB for prime numbers (P to analyze the performance of code in terms of autocorrelation and cross-correlation. The simulated outcome resembles the mathematical model and gives better results over other methods available in the literature as far as autocorrelation and cross-correlation are concerned. The proposed 3D optical codes are more efficient in terms of cardinality, improved security, and providing quality of services.

  1. Experimental research of a thermoacoustic prime mover and a refrigerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Kaijun; LI Qing; GUO Fangzhong

    2001-01-01

    Thermoacoustic engine has been concerned recently because of its advantages of no moving parts and no pollution. A prime mover is built and its characteristics of onset temperature difference, frequency and output acoustic power are measured and analyzed. A thermoacoustic refrigerator driven by this prime mover had been tested. It may develop a temperature difference of 25 K across the regenerator and a lowest temperature of -8°C was achieved with the frequency, input power and the static pressure 81.7 Hz, 800 W and 1 Mpa respectively.

  2. One-sided prime ideals in noncommutative algebra

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to provide noncommutative generalizations of the following theorems from commutative algebra: (Cohen's Theorem) every ideal of a commutative ring R is finitely generated if and only if every prime ideal of R is finitely generated, and (Kaplansky's Theorems) every ideal of R is principal if and only if every prime ideal of R is principal, if and only if R is noetherian and every maximal ideal of R is principal. We approach this problem by introducing certain fa...

  3. Photoproduction of eta-prime-mesons from the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Sibirtsev, A A; Krewald, S; Speth, J; Elster, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The presently available data for the reaction ${\\gamma}p{\\to}\\eta^\\prime{p}$ are analyzed in terms of a model in which the dominant production mechanism is the exchange of the vector mesons $\\omega$ and $\\rho$. To describe the data at photon energies close to the production threshold we introduce a resonance contribution due to the well established $S_{11}(1535)$ resonance. Finally we study the contributions due to nucleon exchange to the $\\eta^\\prime$ photoproduction and find, that those contributions can be seen at large angles in the differential cross section.

  4. Prime Minister Badawi:A New Look for Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuegang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Prime Minster Abdullah Badawi has successfully presented a new look for his country since he took over from his much-respected predecessor former Prime Minister Mohamad Mahathir and won a landslide election victory last March. Domestically, he has improved the image of the ruling National Front coalition (Barisan Nasional) and his party the United Malay's National Organization (UMNO) by pressing ahead with drastic reforms including crackdown on corruption and social crime. Externally, he has adopted a flexible, pragmatic foreign policy, boosting ties with other Asean partners and China while mending fences with Western nations alienated over the past decade.

  5. Splitting fields and periods of Fibonacci sequences modulo primes

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Sanjai; Su, Francis Edward

    2009-01-01

    What is the period of the Fibonacci sequence modulo a prime? The purpose of our brief expository paper is to illustrate an accessible, motivated treatment of this classical topic using only ideas from linear and abstract algebra (rather than the case-by-case analysis found in many papers on the subject, or techniques from graduate number theory). Our methods extend to general recurrences with prime moduli and provide some new insights. And our treatment highlights a nice application of the use of splitting fields that might be suitable to present in undergraduate course in abstract algebra or Galois theory.

  6. DPO multiplex PCR as an alternative to culture and susceptibility testing to detect Helicobacter pylori and its resistance to clarithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siffré Elodie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrolide resistance in Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for treatment failure when using a proton pump inhibitor-clarithromycin containing therapy. Macrolide resistance is due to a few mutations on the 23S ribomosal subunit encoded by the 23S rRNA gene. The present study aimed at investigating the performance of the dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO-PCR kit named Seeplex® ClaR-H. pylori ACE detection designed to detect H. pylori and two types of point mutations causing clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori. Methods The performance of Seeplex® ClaR-H. pylori ACE detection was evaluated on 127 gastric biopsies in comparison to conventional bacterial culture followed by the determination of susceptibility to clarithromycin by E-test, as well as by an in-house real-time PCR using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET technology. Results Considering culture as the reference test, the sensitivity of DPO-PCR and real-time FRET-PCR was 97.7% and 100% while specificity was 83.1% and 80.7%, respectively. However, both PCR were concordant in detecting 14 H. pylori positive cases which were negative by culture. Globally, E-test and DPO-PCR were concordant with regard to clarithromycin susceptibility in 95.3% of the cases (41/43, while real-time FRET-PCR and DPO-PCR were concordant in 95% (57/60. Conclusion The DPO-PCR is an interesting tool to detect H. pylori on gastric biopsies and to study its susceptibility to clarithromycin in laboratories that cannot perform real-time PCR assays.

  7. [One-step PCR sequencing]. Final report, July 1, 1994--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.

    1997-12-31

    The author explored the use of a novel class of boronated nucleic acids, the boranophosphates, as an alternative, but complementary method to dideoxysequencing. Boranophosphates can be used to directly amplify and sequence single- or double-stranded DNA. Fragments are derived not from truncations during polymerase synthesis, but from insertion and digestion back to a boronated marker or delimiter that was incorporated during exponential amplification. The method, which the author calls Boronated One-Step PCR Sequencing, is unique in that it employs a new class of {alpha}-P-boronated 2{prime}-deoxynucleoside 5{prime}-triphosphates first synthesized in the laboratory. These boronated triphosphates exhibit useful properties: (a) they are heat stable, (b) they can be base-specifically incorporated into DNA during the polymerase chain reaction, and (c) once incorporated, the boranophosphate nucleotide (marker) blocks the action of exonuclease. Thus, the positions of the stably-incorporated boronated markers can be revealed by a simple exonuclease digestion, producing a series of fragments--each of which is terminated base-specifically at the boronated markers--and thereby defining the sequence of the PCR product.

  8. Separate Brain Circuits Support Integrative and Semantic Priming in the Human Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Qi; Zhu, Zude; Wang, Suiping

    2016-07-01

    Semantic priming is a crucial phenomenon to study the organization of semantic memory. A novel type of priming effect, integrative priming, has been identified behaviorally, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a target word when the 2 concepts can be combined to form a unitary representation. We used both functional and anatomical imaging approaches to investigate the neural substrates supporting such integrative priming, and compare them with those in semantic priming. Similar behavioral priming effects for both semantic (Bread-Cake) and integrative conditions (Cherry-Cake) were observed when compared with an unrelated condition. However, a clearly dissociated brain response was observed between these 2 types of priming. The semantic-priming effect was localized to the posterior superior temporal and middle temporal gyrus. In contrast, the integrative-priming effect localized to the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus and left anterior temporal cortices. Furthermore, fiber tractography showed that the integrative-priming regions were connected via uncinate fasciculus fiber bundle forming an integrative circuit, whereas the semantic-priming regions connected to the posterior frontal cortex via separated pathways. The results point to dissociable neural pathways underlying the 2 distinct types of priming, illuminating the neural circuitry organization of semantic representation and integration.

  9. The effects of the concreteness of differently valenced words on affective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether affective priming is influenced by the concreteness of emotional words. To address this question, we conducted three experiments using lexical decision-priming task. In Experiment 1, positive-abstract (PA) and positive-concrete (PC) words were used as primes to examine the effect of the concreteness of positive words on affective priming, and in Experiment 2, negative-abstract (NA) and negative-concrete (NC) words were used as primes to examine the effect of the concreteness of negative words on affective priming. Results showed that participants responded faster to affectively congruent-abstract trails than incongruent-abstract trails in PA prime conditions, but for PC or negative word (NC and NA) prime conditions, there were no differences between the response times of congruent trails and incongruent trails. To examine the reliability of the priming effects observed in Experiments 1 and 2, we set up a neutral condition as a baseline in Experiment 3, through which we confirmed the difference in the affective priming effect between positive and negative primes in a concrete-abstract dimension. PA words were found to have the tendency to possess more emotional load and facilitate affective association between the prime and the target. The study finding suggests that aside from arousal and valence, the concreteness of positive words also has an impact on affective priming effect.

  10. Study of the bacterial diversity of foods: PCR-DGGE versus LH-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Bancalari, Elena; Milanović, Vesna; Cardinali, Federica; Osimani, Andrea; Sardaro, Maria Luisa Savo; Bottari, Benedetta; Bernini, Valentina; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2017-02-02

    The present study compared two culture-independent methods, polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR), for their ability to reveal food bacterial microbiota. Total microbial DNA and RNA were extracted directly from fourteen fermented and unfermented foods, and domain A of the variable regions V1 and V2 of the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed through LH-PCR and PCR-DGGE. Finally, the outline of these analyses was compared with bacterial viable counts obtained after bacterial growth on suitable selective media. For the majority of the samples, RNA-based PCR-DGGE revealed species that the DNA-based PCR-DGGE was not able to highlight. When analyzing either DNA or RNA, LH-PCR identified several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CCN) species that were not identified by PCR-DGGE. This phenomenon was particularly evident in food samples with viable loadsPCR was able to detect a higher number of peaks in the analyzed food matrices relative to species identified by PCR-DGGE. In light of these findings, it may be suggested that LH-PCR shows greater sensitivity than PCR-DGGE. However, PCR-DGGE detected some other species (LAB included) that were not detected by LH-PCR. Therefore, certain LH-PCR peaks not attributed to known species within the LH-PCR database could be solved by comparing them with species identified by PCR-DGGE. Overall, this study also showed that LH-PCR is a promising method for use in the food microbiology field, indicating the necessity to expand the LH-PCR database, which is based, up to now, mainly on LAB isolates from dairy products.

  11. Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia E. Lensink

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual language control (BLC is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an ERP study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch and L2 (English. Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block.

  12. Women and Blacks on Prime-Time Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Judith

    1977-01-01

    Reports on study of intersex and interrace dominance patterns in prime time television focusing on two-person interactions between men and women, Blacks and Whites, to determine if one person dominates or if two parties interact as equals. Relates sex and race dominance patterns to several program and character variables. (JMF)

  13. Priming the Interpretation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, Claudine N.; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2007-01-01

    Noun-noun combinations like "dog scarf" are common in everyday discourse but often have more than one interpretation. How do language users arrive at an interpretation of the relationship between the two nouns? This paper reports three expression-picture matching experiments that used a priming paradigm to investigate the influence of modifier and…

  14. Neural mechanisms of uncon-scious visual motion priming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The neural correlates of the motion priming were examined in normal young subjects using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Visual motion perception can be uncon-sciously biased in favor of a particular direction by a pre-ceding motion in that direction. Motion priming first in-volved an enhancement of ERP amplitude about 100 ms fol-lowing the onset of motion. The amplitudes of ERP compo-nents after 350 ms were also increased. The fMRI results suggest that the early-latency effect reflects modulation of neural responses in extrastriate cortex. Higher-level visual processing areas, including cortical regions MT/MST and the intraparietal cortices were also activated. The findings provide direct evidence that unconscious priming of motion perception is the result of interaction of direction-selective neural responses to motion stimuli. The results cannot be accounted for by refractoriness of neural responses, but in-stead support a theory of motion priming based on motion opponency, as proposed in computational models.

  15. Prime Time Television: A Profile of Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the manner in which prosocial behaviors are currently presented on entertainment television, including various categories of prosocial behavior in a detailed profile of a sample week of prime-time television, and seeks to determine positive behaviors performed, frequency, program types, time slot, which networks, and by what character…

  16. Channeling Children: Sex Stereotyping in Prime-Time TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Betty

    The portrayal of male and female roles on prime-time television programs was investigated. Sixteen programs were observed, and data on the number and occupation of female and male characters, on positive and negative behaviors, including competence and aggression, were recorded. Plot summaries were also written for typical episodes. Research on…

  17. Cross-modal, bidirectional priming in grapheme-color synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paffen, Chris L E; Van der Smagt, Maarten J; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive achromatic graphemes to be inherently colored. In this study grapheme-color synesthetes and non-synesthetes discriminated (1) the color of visual targets presented along with aurally presented digit primes, and (2) the identity of aurally presented digit targets p

  18. Microglia priming in the aging brain : Implications for neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin Arulseeli, Divya; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the thesis “Microglia priming in the aging brain: Implications for neurodegeneration” was to understand microglia phenotypes associated with brain aging and the potential mechanisms for this age-associated change. Microglia in the aging brain assume a hypersensitive proinflammator

  19. Habits, Priming and the Explanation of Mindless Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence on the influences of automatic and unconscious processes on our actions. In this article I introduce some representative examples of this growing body of evidence, chosen so as to form a diverse group of related mindless phenomena: habits, skills, priming and nudges. I...... on the old story of Buridan’s ass (Sect. 4)....

  20. Groups in Action on Prime-Time TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyton, Joann

    A study analyzed six prime-time television shows--"The Cosby Show,""Cheers,""Dear John,""Designing Women,""Golden Girls," and "Roseanne"--to examine group communication as it is portrayed on a daily basis in these shows, or how groups interact in the sitcom genre. One episode of each of…

  1. The Noether numbers for cyclic groups of prime order

    OpenAIRE

    Shank, R. James; Fleischmann, Peter; Sezer, Müfit; Woodcock, Chris F.

    2005-01-01

    The Noether number of a representation is the largest degree of an element in a minimal homogeneous generating set for the corresponding ring of invariants. We compute the Noether number for an arbitrary representation of a cyclic group of prime order, and as a consequence prove the "2p−3 conjecture."\\ud \\ud

  2. Galactic Archaeology with the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Masashi; Cohen, Judith; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present an overview of our Galactic Archaeology (GA) survey program with the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) for Subaru. Following successful design reviews, the instrument is now under construction with first light anticipated in 2018. Main characteristics of PFS and the science goals in our PFS/GA program are described.

  3. On prime non-primitive von Neumann regular algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Gene; Rangaswamy, Kulumani M

    2011-01-01

    Let $E$ be any directed graph, and $K$ any field. We classify those graphs $E$ for which the Leavitt path algebra $L_K(E)$ is primitive. As a consequence, we obtain classes of examples of von Neumann regular prime rings which are not primitive.

  4. Hua's Theorem on Five Almost Equal Prime Squares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Shi L(U)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we sharpen Hua's result by proving that each sufficiently large integer N congruent to 5 modulo 24 can be written as N = P21+P22+P23+P24+P25, with|Pj-(√N/5)|≤U = N1/2-1/28+ε, where pj are primes.

  5. Hua's Theorem with s Almost Equal Prime Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Feng SUN; Heng Cai TANG

    2009-01-01

    It is proved unconditionally that every sufficiently large positive integer satisfying some necessary congruence conditions can be represented as the sum of s almost equal k-th powers of prime numbers for 2≤ k≤10 and s = 2k + 1,which gives a short interval version of Hua's theorem.

  6. Affective priming during the processing of news articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Wirth, W.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of affective priming during the processing of news articles. It is assumed that the valence of the affective response to a news article will influence the processing of subsequent news articles. More specifically, it is hypothesized that participants who read

  7. Equivalence of nonlinear systems to input-output prime forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, R.; Respondek, W.; Schaft, van der A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of transforming nonlinear control systems into input-output prime forms is dealt with, using state space, static state feedback, and also output space transformations. Necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for the solvability of this problem are obtained. The results obtained gen

  8. Priming of Reach and Grasp Actions by Handled Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Breuer, Andreas T.

    2011-01-01

    Pictures of handled objects such as a beer mug or frying pan are shown to prime speeded reach and grasp actions that are compatible with the object. To determine whether the evocation of motor affordances implied by this result is driven merely by the physical orientation of the object's handle as opposed to higher-level properties of the object,…

  9. Priming effect in indicative and subjunctive exceptive conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Orlando; Sánchez-Curbelo, Isana

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of three experiments that examine the mental representations underlying the comprehension stages of negative exceptive conditionals using subjunctive mood ('B a menos que A', 'B a no ser que A'; 'B excepto que A'='B unless A') and indicative mood ('B excepto si A' and 'B salvo si A'='B except if A'). The mental representations during the comprehension stage were analyzed using a priming methodology. All experiments showed that participants read the true possibility 'not-B & A' faster when it was primed by exceptive conditionals requiring the subjunctive mood than when it was primed by exceptive conditionals requiring the indicative mood; other possibilities ('B & A', 'B & not-A', 'not-B & not-A') were primed equally by both connectives. The experiments showed that (a) when people understand negative exceptive conditionals using the subjunctive mood, such as 'B a menos que A'/'B a no ser que A'/'B excepto que A', they access the true possibilities 'not-B & A' and 'B & not-A', and (b) when they understand negative exceptive conditionals using the indicative mood, such as 'B excepto si A'/'B salvo si A', they access 'B & not-A', but not 'not-B & A'. We discuss the implications of this for current theories of reasoning.

  10. Can Intonational Phrase Structure Be Primed (Like Syntactic Structure)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Watson, Duane G.

    2014-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries were manipulated such that the recording included either no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred…

  11. 27 CFR 4.91 - List of approved prime names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of approved prime names. 4.91 Section 4.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Muscat Grand Noir Green Hungarian Grenache Grignolino Grillo Gros Verdot Helena Herbemont Higgins...

  12. On the appearance of primes in linear recursive sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Jaroma

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of difference equations to number theory by considering the set of linear second-order recursive relations, Un+2(R,Q=RUn+1−QUn, U0=0, U1=1, and Vn+2(R,Q=RVn+1−QVn, V0=2,  V1=R, where R and Q are relatively prime integers and n∈{0,1,…}. These equations describe the set of extended Lucas sequences, or rather, the Lehmer sequences. We add that the rank of apparition of an odd prime p in a specific Lehmer sequence is the index of the first term that contains p as a divisor. In this paper, we obtain results that pertain to the rank of apparition of primes of the form 2np±1. Upon doing so, we will also establish rank of apparition results under more explicit hypotheses for some notable special cases of the Lehmer sequences. Presently, there does not exist a closed formula that will produce the rank of apparition of an arbitrary prime in any of the aforementioned sequences.

  13. The $k$-Tuple Jumping Champions among Consecutive Primes

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaosheng, Wu

    2011-01-01

    For any real $x$ and any integer $k\\ge1$, we say that a set $\\mathcal{D}_{k}$ of $k$ distinct integers is a $k$-tuple jumping champion if it is the most common differences that occurs among $k+1$ consecutive primes less than or equal to $x$. For $k=1$, it's known as the jumping champion introduced by J. H. Conway. In 1999 A. Odlyzko, M. Rubinstein, and M. Wolf announced the Jumping Champion Conjecture that the jumping champions greater than 1 are 4 and the primorials 2, 6, 30, 210, 2310,.... They also made a weaker and possibly more accessible conjecture that any fixed prime $p$ divides all sufficiently large jumping champions. These two conjectures were proved by Goldston and Ledoan under the assumption of appropriate forms of the Hardy-Littlewood conjecture recently. In the present paper we consider the situation for any $k\\ge2$ and prove that any fixed prime $p$ divides every element of all sufficiently large $k$-tuple jumping champions under the assumption that the Hardy-Littlewood prime $k+1$-tuple conje...

  14. Equivalence of Nonlinear Systems to Input-Output Prime Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, R.; Respondek, W.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    1994-01-01

    The problem of transforming nonlinear control systems into input-output prime forms is dealt with, using state space, static state feedback, and also output space transformations. Necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for the solvability of this problem are obtained. The results obtained gen

  15. Permuting operations on strings and their relation to prime numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, Peter R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Some length-preserving operations on strings only permute the symbol positions in strings; such an operation $X$ gives rise to a family $\\{X_n\\}_{n\\geq 2}$ of similar permutations. We investigate the structure and the order of the cyclic group generated by $X_n$. We call an integer $n$ $X$-prime if

  16. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition: Combining Masked Priming with Magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Monahan, Philip J.; Poeppel, David

    2011-01-01

    Are words stored as morphologically structured representations? If so, when during word recognition are morphological pieces accessed? Recent masked priming studies support models that assume early decomposition of (potentially) morphologically complex words. The electrophysiological evidence, however, is inconsistent. We combined masked…

  17. A CRITERION FOR TESTING WHETHER A DIFFERENCE IDEAL IS PRIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunming YUAN; Xiao-Shan GAO

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a criterion for testing the irreducibility of a polynomial over an algebraic extension field. Using this criterion and the characteristic set method, the authors give a criterion for testing whether certain difference ascending chains are strong irreducible, and as a consequence, whether the saturation ideals of these ascending chains are prime ideals.

  18. The prime-pair conjectures of Hardy and Littlewood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, J.

    2012-01-01

    By (extended) Wiener-Ikehara theory, the prime-pair conjectures are equivalent to simple pole-type boundary behavior of corresponding Dirichlet series. Under a weak Riemann-type hypothesis, the boundary behavior of weighted sums of the Dirichlet series can be expressed in terms of the behavior of ce

  19. A pseudo zeta function and the distribution of primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, P R

    2000-07-05

    The Riemann zeta function is given by: [equation, see published text]. Zeta(s) may be analytically continued to the entire s-plane, except for a simple pole at s = 0. Of great interest are the complex zeros of zeta(s). The Riemann hypothesis states that the complex zeros all have real part 1/2. According to the prime number theorem, pn approximately n logn, where pn is the nth prime. Suppose that pn were exactly nlogn. In other words, in the Euler product above, replace the nth prime by nlogn. In this way, we define a pseudo zeta function C(s) for Re s > 1. One can show that C(s) may be analytically continued at least into the half-plane Re s > 0 except for an isolated singularity (presumably a simple pole) at s = 0. It may be shown that the pseudo zeta function C(s) has no complex zeros whatsoever. This means that the complex zeros of the zeta function are associated with the irregularity of the distribution of the primes.

  20. On Prime Near-Rings with Generalized Derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard E. Bell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Let N be a 3-prime 2-torsion-free zero-symmetric left near-ring with multiplicative center Z. We prove that if N admits a nonzero generalized derivation f such that f(N⊆Z, then N is a commutative ring. We also discuss some related properties.