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Sample records for aralia elata miq

  1. [Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in vitro from young shoots of Aralia elate (Miq.) Seem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J M; Li, X W; Zhang, D Y; Xing, M

    2001-06-01

    Explants excised from the young shoots of Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. were cultured on MS media. Calli were induced from the explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D, 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA. Then these calli were transferred onto the MS medium containing 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D + 0.5 mg/L BA + 0.5 mg/L NAA and 0.2% activated charcoal. Under these conditions the somatic embryoids were observed and regenerated plants were obtained from somatic embryogenesis. Then, a experimental system with stability and high regenerating efficiency has been set up for the propagation of the young plants, the cell breeding technology and the control of somatic embryogenesis of Aralia elata (Miq.).

  2. [Studies on triterpenoids and their glycosides from Aralia dasyphylla Miq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Y H; Gu, J Q; Xiao, K; Wang, Z Z; Lin, H W

    1997-10-01

    The structures of two triterpenoids and their glycosides were isolated from Aralia dasyphylla Miq. Their structures have been identified to be oleanoic acid(I), 16 beta-hydroxy-18 beta-H-oleanoic acid(II), oleanoic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(III) and 16 beta-hydroxy-18 beta-H-oleanoic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(IV), respectively, mainly through interpretation of UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13CNMR, DEPT, HMQC and HMBC spectra data. The stereochemistry of II has been confirmed by NOESY. Pharmacological experiments showed that the total saponins exerted preventative effect on CCl4-induced liver injury of male mice and hypoglycemic effect on a model of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  3. A New Dammarane-type Triterpene Saponin from the Root of Aralia elata

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    Wu Xiaopeng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new dammarane-type triterpene glycoside (1 and compounds Ginsenoside F 5 (2 , Ginsenoside F 3 (3, Ginsenoside F 2 (4 , Ginsenoside Rg 2 (5 were isolated from the root of Aralia elata Seem.. The new compound was established as 12-oxo-3β, 6α, 20 (S-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-β- D -gluco pranos yl (1→2 β- D -glucopyranoside . All the structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral and chemical evidence.

  4. Sub-chronic safety evaluation of the ethanol extract of Aralia elata leaves in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjin; He, Xiaoli; Niu, Wenying; Feng, Yuenan; Bian, Jingqi; Kuang, Haixue; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-08-01

    Aralia elata Seem. (A. elata) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat some diseases. This investigation aims to evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of the ethanol extract of A. elata leaves, namely ethanol leaves extract (ELE), in Beagle dogs. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, dogs were treated with the ELE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 12 weeks and followed by 4 weeks recovery period. During experimental period, clinical signs, mortality, body temperature, food consumption and body weight were recorded. Analysis of electrocardiogram, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology were performed. The results showed that both food consumption and body weight significantly decreased in high-dose group. Treatment-related side effects and mortality were observed in high-dose female dogs. Some parameters showed significant alterations in electrocardiogram, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and relative organ weights. These alterations were not related to dose or consistent across gender, which were ascribed to incidental and biological variability. The findings in this study indicated that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the ELE was 100 mg/kg in dogs and provided a vital reference for selecting a safe application dosage for human consumption.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Saponin-Producing Fungal Endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China

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    Yuhua Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres, and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL. According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  6. Isolation and characterization of saponin-producing fungal endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Yang, Hongyan; You, Xiangling; Li, Yuhua

    2012-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres), and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL). According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  7. 龙芽楤木根皮和茎皮中齐墩果酸的测定%Assaying of Oleanolic Acid in Velamen and Bark of Aralia elata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫东; 史维东; 王厚龙; 刘继霞; 何金龙

    2015-01-01

    为综合利用龙芽楤木资源.以龙芽楤木根皮和茎皮为供试材料,以齐墩果酸的含量为检测指标,用分光光度法在540nm处测吸光值进行含量测定,用醇提-酸碱处理法对龙芽楤木根皮和茎皮中齐墩果酸进行提取和纯化. 结果,龙芽楤木根皮和茎皮中齐墩果酸含量分别为5.52%、2.28%.提取和纯化后得率分别为2.61%、0.21%. 为龙芽楤木资源的综合利用提供参考依据.%By measuring the content of Aralia elata root bark and stem bark oleanolic acid, provide the basis for the comprehensive utilization of resources of Aralia elata. In Aralia elata root bark and stem bark as material,in ethanol extract, using alcohol extract - acid treatment method and root bark of Aralia elata reflux bark extract,conduct impurity bleaching and refining to extract more pure oleanolic acid with activated carbon and ethanol. Results: The oleanolic acid content in the velamen and bark of Aralia elata was 5.52%,2.28%. purified . oleanolic acid yield was 2.61%、0.21%.

  8. The effect of low temperature stratification time and freezing treatment on the seed germination ability of Aralia elata%低温层积时间及冷冻处理对龙芽楤木种子发芽力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东海; 安灵虎; 廉美香; 黄德江

    2015-01-01

    以龙芽楤木种子为对象,研究不同低温层积时间、冷冻处理对发芽力的影响,结果表明:龙芽楤木种子经日变温层积处理后,低温处理120 d左右时,发芽率、发芽势最高;已解除休眠的龙芽楤木种子经冷冻处理后进入二次休眠状态,经90 d左右的低温层积处理可解除休眠,与二次休眠前相比较其发芽率略有降低而发芽势则有所提高。%The effect of different temperature layers time and freezing treatment on germination force by choosing the seed of Aralia elata as object.The results showed that the germination rate and germination potential of the seed of Aralia elata were maximum after day variable temperature stratification and low temperature treatment for 120d.The seed of Aralia elata which had broken dormancy fell into the second hibernation after freezing treatment.It can break dormancy through low temperature stratification for 90d.Compared with the second dormancy, the germination rate decreased slightly while germi-nation potential increased.

  9. Comparison of cytoprotective effects of saponins isolated from leaves of Aralia elata Seem. (Araliaceae) with synthesized bisdesmosides of oleanoic acid and hederagenin on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Ebashi, J; Sumita, S; Furumoto, T; Nagamura, Y; Nishida, K; Isiguro, I

    1993-08-01

    Glycosylations of 3-O-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)- 3,4-di-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-23-O-acetylhederageni n (15) with mono- (16), di- (17) and trisaccharide bromide (18) gave the bisdesmoside peracetates 19, 20 and 22, respectively, which were treated with 5% KOH in MeOH to give the bisdesmosides 25-27. Hydrolysis of the glycosides 6 and 9 having beta-D-glucopyranose as a terminal sugar component with beta-glucosidase in acetate buffer (pH 4.7) gave compounds 28 and 29, respectively. Cytoprotective effects of the synthesized triterpenoidal saponins against CCl4-induced hepatic injury were compared with those of saponins isolated from the leaves of Aralia elata Seem. (Araliaceae) using isolated hepatocytes from rat liver. Although the monodesmosides 1-4 having neutral sugar components only at the O-3 position on the aglycones showed no cytoprotective effect, bisdesmosides having sugar components at both the O-3 and O-28 positions on the aglycones had potent effects, even when the species of the sugar components were different. The bisdesmosides 10, 11, and 27 having five monosaccharides in the molecules exhibited the most potent cytoprotective effects.

  10. Research Progress in Reproduction Techniques and Pharmacological Active Components of Aralia elata%龙牙楤木繁育技术与药理活性成分的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐明明; 李紫薇; 阎秀峰; 王洋; 蔺吉祥

    2015-01-01

    少,今后需要进一步研究。针对现有研究不足,今后研究中应关注如何利用分子生物学手段阐述龙牙楤木种子的休眠机理、龙牙楤木重要活性物质合成途径以及抗癌机制。另外,还需进一步利用代谢组学与指纹图谱技术更全面地对龙牙楤木资源进行评价与鉴定。%Aralia elata is a perennial woody plant which belongs to the Araliaceae. It is distributed widely in the Northeast of China and has great medicinal and edible values. It is also considered as an economic plant. In recent years, understory forest economy represented by growing woody plants as vegetables has become one of the important models of contemporary forestry development. A. elata was given extensive attention because of its high nutritional and pharmacological values. However,its chemical composition and pharmacological activity are still unclear. Meanwhile,serious destruction of A. elata resources due to over harvesting,it is very important to explore high-efficiency reproduction and cultivation techniques. This paper tries to review progresses in reproduction and cultivation techniques,chemical composition and pharmacological activity of A. elata in order to provide a scientific basis for the exploitation and development of A. elata resources. Current status and development trends of A. elata were reviewed in terms of reproduction and cultivation techniques,chemical composition and pharmacological activity. The reproduction model of A. elata can be divided into two types,respectively seed propagation and asexual reproduction. In general,stratification treatment is needed before seed sowing due to the deep dormancy of A. elata. In addition,gibberellins application and high-low changing temperature pregermination can also improve the germination of this species to some extent. Root segment propagation is the main reproduction method of A. elata. Root length had a significant effect on the rooting rate and seedling

  11. 龙牙葱木皂苷对大鼠酒精性肝病的防治作用%Protective effects of saponins derived from Aralia Elata (Miq) Seem. on alcoholic liver disease in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜施霖; 迟宝荣

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨龙牙葱木皂苷-齐墩果酸(OLA)对大鼠酒精性肝病(ALD)的防治作用及其机制.方法:以高脂饮食和酒精灌胃法诱发大鼠ALD模型,同时采用OLA进行干预,造模3个月后观察肝脏的病理变化;检测肝组织中丙二醛(MDA)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽(GSH)的变化;测定血清转氨酶(AST、ALT)、胆碱脂酶(ChE)、甘油三酯(TG)、总蛋白(TP)、白蛋白(ALB)、胆红素(BIL)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)以及MDA.结果:OLA能使模型组大鼠血清ALT、AST、TG、ChE、MDA和肝组织MDA降低,并且能使血清GSH-Px和肝组织的SOD、GSH升高,减轻肝脏病理损伤.结论:OLA通过清除自由基、降酶、降血脂而起到保护肝脏、预防ALD的作用,自由基和脂质过氧化损伤是ALD重要的发病学因素.

  12. The medicinal chemistry of genus Aralia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jason A; Clement, Ella S H

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aralia contains many plants used medicinally in Asia and the Americas. Although many members of this genus are used medicinally, the vast majority of this genus has not been explored chemically. The species of Aralia that have been explored chemically have yielded compounds of several classes, including triterpenoid saponins, sterols, diterpenoids, and acetylenic lipids. Many of the biologically active components found in genus Aralia have been evaluated for their potential as lead compounds for drug discovery. This review will explore the medicinal chemistry of compounds reported from genus Aralia, and future prospects for this genus will be considered.

  13. [Research on life history and phenological period of wild-stimulated cultivated Gastrodia elata f. elata in Guizhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-hua; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Zhi; Luo, Fu-lai; Liu, Hong-chang; Huang, Ming-jin; Wang, Hua-lei; Li, Jin-ling; Luo, Chun-li; Wen, Ping; Chen, Wen-yu

    2014-11-01

    In order to get to know the imitation of wild Gastrodia elata in life history and phenology period, by G. elata f. elata forest wild simulated cultivation in Dafang county, Guizhou province, observing and recording its morphological characteristics of each growth and development stage. This experiment summarized the law of its life history over 24 months, amplified the characteristics of each 5 phenology periods over the sexual and asexual reproduction of wild simulated cultivated G. elata f. elata in Guizhou. Which the results could clear the process of wild simulated cultivated G. elata f. elata in Guizhou, and provide a theoretical support for the standard technical of the simulated wild G. elata.

  14. Yuzurimine from of Daphniphyllum macropodum Miq.

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    Ying Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C27H37NO7, is a Daphniphyllum alkaloid isolated from a branch of Daphniphyllum macropodum Miq. All of the five-membered rings adopt envelope conformations while the six- and seven-membered ring adopt chair conformations. Classical intermolecular O—H...O and weak C—H...N hydrogen bonds are present in the crystal structure.

  15. Komponen kimia daun Cinnamomum macrophyllum Miq Lauraceae

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    Andria Agusta

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis on the chemical constituents of Cinnnamomum macrophyllum Miq leaves from Halmahera island using combination techniques GCMS was conducted. Total numbers of the constituents which can be detected were 59 consisted of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol derivates, alkanes, oxygenated hydrocarbon, alcohols, aldehydes, caboxilix acid and alkaloid aong with eight unidentified compounds (1-8. Leaves of C. macrophyllum contained bioactive compound such as limonene, isoeugenol, methyleugenon, safrole, vitamin E, furfuraldehyde, 2-furan-carboxaldehyde and 7-methyl xanthine.

  16. Secondary Metabolites from the Root of Aralia echinocaulis Hand. -Mazz.

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    Yunz hi Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The root of Aralia echinocaulis Hand. -Mazz. ( Araliaceae, are used as traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in China. A phytochemical investigation was carried out to this herb, and obtained twelve secondary metabolites, i.e., syringin (1, adenosine (2, saccharose (3, araliasaponin VII (4, araliasaponin VI (5, araliasaponin XI V (6, araliasaponin XVI (7, syringaresino l (8, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (9, coniferaldehyde (10, isovanillin (11 and β -sitosterol (12 . Their structures were determined mainly by comprehensive analyses of 1 H and 13 C NMR spectrum and comparison with available literature data or the authentic compounds . To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report that all of compounds have been isolated from the titled plant, and syringin should be one of the major active constituents of A. echinocaulis for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Antiangiogenic Polyketides from Peperomia dindygulensis Miq.

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    Hong-Zhuan Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new polyketides: 2Z-(heptadec-12-enyl-4-hydroxy-3,4,7,8-tetrahydro-2H-chromen-5(6H-one (1 and 2-(heptadec-12-enyl-5-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromen- 4-one (2, together with eleven known compounds: 4-hydroxy-2-[(3,4-methylenedioxy- phenyltridecanoyl] cyclohexane-1,3-dione (3, oleiferinone (4, 4-hydroxy-2-[(3,4- methylenedioxyphenylundecanoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (5, 4-hydroxy-2-[(11-phenyl- undecanoylcyclohexane-1,3-dione (6, proctorione C (7, surinone C (8, 5-hydroxy- 7,8,4'-trimethoxyflavone (9, 5-hydroxy-7,8,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (10, 5-hydroxy- 7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (11, 5,8-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (12 and cepharanone B (13 were isolated from the whole plant of Peperomia dindygulensis Miq. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 2, 3, 5 and 8 inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC proliferation and compounds 5 and 8 sharply suppressed HUVEC tube formation.

  18. The identity of the genus Austrobuxus Miq. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1964-01-01

    During a geographical survey of the genus Buxus in Malaysia I came across the name Buxus nitidus (Miq.) Hall. ƒ. Med. Rijksherb. n. 37 (1918) 16. This is based on a plant from Sumatra, collected by Teysmann (HB 769) on the coast of Sibolga, and described by Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 444—44

  19. On Merging Hunaniopanax with Aralia (Araliaceae),with Description of a New Taxon and Additional Nomenclatural Changes in Asian Aralia%湖南参属的归并及亚洲楤木属(五加科)的一个新种和一些名称的变更

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Molecular and morphological evidence suggests that the newly described Hunaniopanax hypoglaucus C. J. Qi & T. R. Cao is nested within Aralia L.Specifically Hunaniopanax is closely related to Aralia parasitica and A verticillata .Morphological data support its sister species relationship with A verticillata because the two taxa share a synapomorphy of verticillate pattern of inflorescence.To maintain the monophyly of Aralia, Hunaniopanax is herein merged with Aralia , and a new combination, Aralia hypoglauca (C. J. Qi & T. R. Cao) J. Wen & Y. F. Deng, is made. Aralia hypoglauca is also newly recorded from Guangxi, China in this study.The previously hypothesized close relationship of Hunaniopanax with Dendropanax Decne. & Planch. was refuted by our micromorphological examination as well as the DNA data. A new species, Aralia shangiana J. Wen, is herein described and two new combinations and a new name are also proposed: Aralia glabrifoliolata (C. B. Shang) J. Wen, comb. nov., A stellata (King) J. Wen,comb. nov., and A delavayi J. Wen, nom. nov.%分子与形态证据表明湖南参(Hunaniopanax hypoglaucus C.J.Qi & T.R.Cao)起源于木属(Aralia L.),湖南参的近缘种为寄生五叶参(Aralia parasitica)和轮伞五叶参(Aralia verticillata),形态证据支持湖南参为轮伞五叶参的姐妹种,此2种具轮伞花序这一共衍征.为了保证木属的单系性,现将湖南参并入木属,并作如下新组合:Aralia hypoglauca (C.J.Qi & T.R.Cao) J.Wen & Y.F.Deng.本文报道了湖南参在广西的新分布.目前的形态学和分子数据均不支持早先提出的湖南参与树参属(Dendropanax)的近缘关系.本文亦报道了木属的1新种、2新种组合和1个新名称:Aralia shangiana J.Wen.sp.nov.(向氏五叶参,新种);Aralia glabrifoliolata (C.B.Shang) J.Wen.comb.nov.(光叶五叶参,新组合);Aralia stellata (King) J.Wen,comb.nov.(星毛羽叶参,新组合)和Aralia delavayi J.Wen.nom.nov.(云南五叶参,新名称).

  20. Therapeutic potential of Gastrodia elata Blume for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Biao Huang; Soo-Hyun Park; Eun-Ock Park; Eun-Kyung Choi; Young-Chul Chung; Tong Zhao; Sushma Shrestha Muna; Hong-Mei Jin; Jong-Il Park; Kyu-Sik Jo; Bo-Hee Lee; Soo-Wan Chae; Sun-Young Kim

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the Chinese herb Gastrodia elata Blume can protect against amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ)-induced cell death. To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of Gastrodia elata Blume on Alzheimer's disease, we established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by injecting Aβ25 35 into bilateral hippocampi. These rats were intragastrically administered 500 or 1 000 mg/kg Gastrodia elata Blume per day for 52 consecutive days. Morris water maze tests showed that Gastrodia elata Blume treatment significantly improved the spatial memory of Alzheimer's disease rats. Congo red staining revealed that Gastrodia elata Blume significantly reduced the number of amyloid deposits in the hippocampus of these rats. Western blot analysis showed that choline acetyltransferase expression in the medial septum and hippocampus was significantly increased by the treatment of Gastrodia elata Blume, while Ellman method showed significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in all three regions (prefrontal cortex, medial septum and hippocampus). These findings suggest that long-term administration of Gastrodia elata Blume has therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease.

  1. [Study on identification of Gastrodia elata Bl. by Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ze-Feng; Xu, Rui; Cheng, Cun-Gui

    2007-09-01

    In the present article the FTIR spectra of the wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl. from different habitats and its confusable varieties such as Canna edulis Ker-Gawl, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Solanum tuberosum L. were obtained by horizontal attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR), and were all transformed by Fourier self-deconvolution. The authors investigated the discrepancy extent of Fourier self-deconvolution of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties under various bandwidth and enhancement, and found that the discrepancy extent of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties was the most obvious when the bandwidth was between 75.0 and 76.0 and enhancement was 3.2. By adopting Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy (FSD-IR) analytical method the samples were studied in detail. The results showed that we could find out the difference among them by means of Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy, although it was very difficult to find out the difference in FSD-IR spectra of wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl., and asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction Gastrodia elata Bl. The difference in FSD-IR spectra between Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties is also very great. Therefore, this method can be used to recognize different Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties simply, rapidly and accurately.

  2. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITIES OF DELONIX ELATA BARK EXTRACTS

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    G. Murugananthan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delonix elata (D. elata, has long been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of arthritis pain. In the present study an attempt was made to study the effect of D. elata barks for its anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect in animal models. Barks were subjected for extraction with pet. ether, chloroform and 40% hydroalcohol successively and evaporated under rotary evaporator to get the concentrated extract. All the extracts were subjected for acute oral toxicity studies in rats and found to be safe up to the dose of 5g/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet induced granuloma method, the hydro alcohol extract of D. elata barks showed significant protection against the inflammation. In Complete Freund’s Adjuvant induced arthritis model also the hydro alcohol exhibited significant protection on day 7 onwards.

  3. The MIQ-RS: A Suitable Option for Examining Movement Imagery Ability

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    Melanie Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Within rehabilitation settings, mental imagery helps to promote long-term recovery and facilitates compliance to rehabilitation exercises. Individuals who are able to effectively engage in imagery practice are likely to gain the most benefit from imagery training. Thus, a suitable imagery ability measurement tool for individuals with movement limitations is needed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Movement Imagery Questionnaire—Revised second version (MIQ-RS, and compare the results of this new version with Hall and Martin's (1997 MIQ-R. Three-hundred and twenty participants from a variety of sports and performance levels agreed to take part. Results showed the internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the MIQ-RS were satisfactory, the two-factor structure of the MIQ-RS was supported by confirmatory factor analysis, and Pearson correlations indicated a strong relationship between the MIQ-R and MIQ-RS. It appears the MIQ-RS is a suitable option for examining movement imagery ability primarily aimed at the upper extremity.

  4. Adulticidal efficacy of Delonix elata against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the adulticidal activity and toxicity of different solvent crude extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata against filariasis vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol leaf and seed extracts of D. elata were assayed for their toxicity against vector mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus. Bioassay was carried out by WHO method for determination of adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Results: All extracts showed moderate adulticidal effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of D. elata leaf against the adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values at 197.28 and 347.45mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity of D. elata plant extracts against filariasis vector mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  5. Adulticidal efficacy of Delonix elata against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the adulticidal activity and toxicity of different solvent crude extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata) against filariasis vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol leaf and seed extracts of D. elata were assayed for their toxicity against vector mosquitoCx. quinquefasciatus. Bioassay was carried out by WHO method for determination of adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Results: All extracts showed moderate adulticidal effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of D. elata leaf against the adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values at 197.28 and 347.45mg/L, respectively.Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity of D. elata plant extracts against filariasis vector mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  6. New distribution record of the endemic and rare Ficus dalhousiae Miq. (Moraceae

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    K.K.S. Kumara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present sighting of the endemic and rare Ficus dalhousiae Miq. (Moraceae in Kunthi Betta near Pandavapura forms a new distribution record for Karnataka. It is briefly described here with phenological data and its distribution.

  7. STRUCTURES OF TWO NEW BENZOFURAN DERIVATIVES FROM THE BARK OF MULBERRY TREE (MORUS MACROURA MIQ.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG-GUO SUN; RUO-YUN CHEN; DE-QUAN YU

    2001-01-01

    Two new benzofuran derivatives, macrourins A (1) and B (2), together with two known stilbene derivatives, were isolated from the barks of Morus macroura Miq. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic evidence.

  8. Taxonomic revision of the tropical African group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae, Cyperaceae

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    Escudero, Marcial

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical African monophyletic group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae is distributed in continental tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene archipelago, and Bioko Island (32 km off the coast of West Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. The first monographic treatment of this Carex group, as well as of the tribe Cariceae, was published by Kükenthal (as sect. Elatae Kük.. Recently, the first molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA phylogeny of Carex sect. Elatae has been published, which also included the species of sect. Spirostachyae. In the resulting consensus trees, most species of sect. Elatae were embedded within core Spirostachyae and so this section was joined with sect. Spirostachyae as subsect. Elatae. Within subsect. Elatae, several groups were described, one of which was termed the “tropical African group”. Here we present a taxonomic revision of this group, based on more than 280 vouchers from 29 herbaria as well as in field trips in Tropical Africa. In the revision, we recognise 12 species (16 taxa within the tropical African group, and so have somewhat modified our previous view, in which 10 species, 12 taxa were listed. One new species from Tanzania is included in this treatment, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Several combinations are made, C. cyrtosaccus is treated as a synonym of C. vallis-rosetto and, finally, the binomial C. greenwayi has been recognised.Las especies de la subsección Elatae (sección Spirostachyae del género Carex que se distribuyen por África tropical continental, Madagascar, el archipiélago de las Mascareñas y la isla de Bioko (a 32 km del litoral de África occidental, en el golfo de Guinea forman un grupo monofilético. El primer tratamiento taxonómico de este grupo de cárices, así como de la tribu Cariceae en su conjunto, fue elaborado por Kükenthal (sección Elatae Kük.; recientemente, se ha publicado el primer estudio de filogenia molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA de los táxones de este grupo

  9. How Tightly Linked Are Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae Patches to Anthropogenic Disturbances in Southeastern Cameroon?

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    Nils Bourland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While most past studies have emphasized the relationships between specific forest stands and edaphic factors, recent observations in Central African moist forests suggested that an increase of slash-and-burn agriculture since 3000–2000 BP (Before Present could be the main driver of the persistence of light-demanding tree species. In order to examine anthropogenic factors in the persistence of such populations, our study focused on Pericopsis elata, an endangered clustered timber species. We used a multidisciplinary approach comprised of botanical, anthracological and archaeobotanical investigations to compare P. elata patches with surrounding stands of mixed forest vegetation (“out-zones”. Charcoal samples were found in both zones, but were significantly more abundant in the soils of patches. Eleven groups of taxa were identified from the charcoals, most of them also present in the current vegetation. Potsherds were detected only inside P. elata patches and at different soil depths, suggesting a long human presence from at least 2150 to 195 BP, as revealed by our charcoal radiocarbon dating. We conclude that current P. elata patches most likely result from shifting cultivation that occurred ca. two centuries ago. The implications of our findings for the dynamics and management of light-demanding tree species are discussed.

  10. Mosquito adulticidal properties of Delonix elata (Family:Fabaceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the adulticidal activity of hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata) against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods:The bioassay was conducted in an experimental kit consisting of two cylindrical plastic tubes both measuring 125 mm×44 mm following the WHO method;mortality of the mosquitoes was recorded after 24 h. Results:The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of D. elata against Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 162.87 and 309.32 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions:From this result, it can be concluded the crude extract of D. elata was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  11. Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of bark ofFicus arnottiana Miq. (M)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Yogesh Kumar; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To develop a novel standardization technique, which can pave the way for rapid determination of different phytoconstitutents ofFicus arnottiana(F. arnottiana).Miq.(Moraceae). From extensive literature survey it was revealed that no reports were available on, standardization parameters ofF. arnottianaMiq.Methods:Phytochemical test,TLC analysis, foreign matter, Ash values, swelling index, foaming index, fluorescence analysis, determination of pH, extractive value, moisture content, microbiological analysis and crude fibre content were performed in the present investigation for the quality control of the drug.Results:Thus it was thought worthwhile to explore this endangered plant on the basis of its standardization parameters.Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, flavanoids and tannins were found to be present inF. arnottianaMiq. extracts. Ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water insoluble ash value, pH determination,Swelling index, foaming index and loss on drying were found to be2.44%w/w,0.32%w/w,1.93%w/w,8.29,(3.50±0.23),1 cm,11.6%w/w.The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug.Conclusion:These physicochemical data and phytochemical analysis of different extracts ofF. arnottianaMiq is useful for further studies for pharmacological screening. In future this study will be helpful for qualitative & quantitative analysis of phytoconstitutes for isolation of newer molecule fromF. arnottianaMiq.

  12. Enrichment of Logging Gaps with a High Conservation Value Species (Pericopsis elata in a Central African Moist Forest

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    Dakis-Yaoba Ouédraogo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Africa, most of the timber species require high light at the seedling stage for survival and growth. Forest managers face a regeneration shortage of these light-demanding timber species. To achieve long-term sustainability, there is a need for enrichment methods combining low cost and high species performance. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Pericopsis elata seedlings in enriched logging gaps in Cameroon. Over five years; the survival and size of each seedling was monitored in 27 logging gaps that were either left without maintenance or cleared. Gaps were relatively small with an average total area of 155 m2. We found that planted seedlings of P. elata performed well in logging gaps. Even without any maintenance 61% of the planted seedlings survived after five years with an average annual diameter increment of 0.28 cm. P. elata appeared to be a good candidate species for enrichment in logging gaps. We demonstrated that the seedlings of P. elata tolerated a wide range of soil conditions but that their performance was strongly influenced by light availability (gap clearance, suggesting potentially improved performance of P. elata in high light environments such as in plantation or larger gaps.

  13. 天麻种子与小菇属真菌共生萌发的研究%SYMBIOTIC GERMINATION BETWEEN GASTRODIA ELATA AND FUNGAL SPECIES OF MYCENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锦堂; 郭顺星; 范黎; 娜仁

    2001-01-01

    Four fungal species of Mycena were identificated from the strains isolated from the protocorm and roots of Orchidaceae species.M. osmundicola was isolated from the proocorm of G.elata, M. orchidicola, M.dendrobii and M. anoectochila respectively separated from the roots of Cymbidium sinense, Dendrobium candidum and Anoectochilus roxburghii. The symbiotic germination test beteen G. Elata seeds and the above fungal species demonstrated that these fungal species can stimulate the seed germination, which means the species of Mycena may be the key mycorrhizal fungi of G elata, because there were no reports about the other fungal species which stimulate G.elata seed germination. Besides G. elata, the above species of Mycena also distributed the roots of the other orchids.

  14. ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, isolated from the roots of Aralia continentalis, induces activation of Nrf2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ji-Hyo; Lee, Guem-San; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Kim, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Su-In; Jeong, Seung-Il; Kim, Hong-Jun; Ju, Young-Seung; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Sadikot, Ruxana T.; Christman, John W.; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Joo, Myungsoo

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study Excessive inflammation can lead to tissue damage and dysfunction of vital organs. Hence, regulating inflammatory response is a viable therapeutic approach. In Asian countries, various inflammatory diseases have often effectively been treated with herbal remedies including the root extract of Aralia continentalis Kitagawa (Araliaceae). Here, we investigated the effect of kaurenoic acid (ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid: KA), a diterpenoid that is extracted from Aralia continentalis Kitagawa root, on inflammation. Results Western blot and RT-PCR analyses show that KA induced the nuclear localization of Nrf2 as low as 1 nM in concentration and that KA treatment induced the expression of Nrf2 dependent genes such as GCLC and HO-1. On the other hand, KA did not affect the degradation of cytoplasmic IκB-α, the nuclear localization of RelA (p65), and NF-κB transcriptional activity in RAW 264.7 cells treated with endotoxin. Consistent with these data, KA treatment failed to suppress gene expression of representative pro-inflammatory mediators including COX-2, nitric oxide, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12, indicating that KA did not have an important impact on NF-κB activation. Conclusion Together, these results show that KA was an effective activator of Nrf2, and suggest that the beneficial effects of A. continentalis Kitagawa root extract are, at least in part, mediated by activating Nrf2. PMID:21884778

  15. Fingerprint chromatogram analysis of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax root by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Chen, Junhui; Chen, Bo; Lee, Frank Sen-Chun; Wang, Xiaoru

    2006-09-01

    A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the fingerprinting of extracts from the root of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax. HPLC with gradient elution was performed on an authentic reference standard of powdered P. heterophylla (Miq.) Pax root and 11 plant samples of the root were collected from different geographic locations. The HPLC chromatograms have been standardized through the selection and identification of reference peaks and the normalization of retention times and peak intensities of all the common peaks. The standardized HPLC fingerprints show high stability and reproducibility, and thus can be used effectively for the screening analysis or quality assessment of the root or its derived products. Similarity index calculations based on cosine angle values or correlation methods have been performed on the HPLC fingerprints. As a group, the fingerprints of the P. heterophylla (Miq.) Pax samples studied are highly correlated with closely similar fingerprints. Within the group, the samples can be further divided into subgroups based on hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Sample grouping based on HCA coincides nicely with those based on the geographical origins of the samples. The HPLC fingerprinting techniques thus have high potential in authentication or source-tracing types of applications.

  16. Preparative purification of plasmin activity stimulating phenolic derivatives from Gastrodia elata using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Jeeyoung; Park, Soyoung; Ryou, Chongsuk; Kim, Chul Young

    2016-06-01

    Gastrodia rhizome, a dried and steamed tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan for the treatment of neurological and nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, vertigo and convulsive illnesses. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of G. elata stimulated plasmin activity. The active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system, composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:4:6, v/v) followed by semi-preparative HPLC purification to separate active compounds and the water fraction was purified by Diaion HP-20 resin and semi-preparative HPLC. In ethyl acetate extract, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4), 4,4'-oxybis(methylene)diphenol (5) and 4,4'-methylenediphenol (6) were obtained with high purities. Parishin (7) and parishin B (8) were isolated from water extract. Among isolated compounds, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3) and 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4) significantly stimulated plasmin activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Dendrochronological Potential in a Semi-Deciduous Rainforest: The Case of Pericopsis elata in Central Africa

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    Maaike De Ridder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-lived pioneer species Pericopsis elata is one of the rare tropical timbers on the list of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species, supporting the need for accurate and reliable growth data. In one planted and one natural forest in the Democratic Republic of Congo, respectively four and 37 Pericopsis stem disks were collected. The tree-ring series of planted trees were used to confirm annual tree-ring formation. For the natural forest, a tree-ring chronology with 24 stem disks ranged from 1852 up to 2008. This chronology was compared with time-series of local precipitation, resulting in a significant correlation with the second half of the rainy season (September–November. This seasonal precipitation was related with sea surface temperatures of the West Indian Ocean. Higher precipitation during El Niño years corresponded with higher tree-ring indices but differences were not significant. In addition, pointer years were rare and did not have a consistent link with extreme climatic conditions. The existence of annual tree rings encourages further tree-ring analyses of P. elata and other flagship timber species in order to further document climate-growth responses and to provide the long-term framework that is needed for sustainable management planning.

  18. The Structure and Antifungal Functions of Vegetative Propagation Corm of Gastrodia elata%天麻的营养繁殖茎及其抑菌功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锦堂; 兰进

    2001-01-01

    天麻(Gastrodia elata Bl.)与蜜环菌(Armilla riamellea (Vahl.ex Fr.)Quel.)营共生生活,在正常情况下蜜环菌只侵染种麻及分化生长出的营养繁殖茎的表皮、皮层及大型细胞层。种麻的大型细胞层及营养繁殖茎隔离区的空腔细胞层和木栓细胞层,都是种麻与新生麻的防御结构,它们保护新生麻不遭蜜环菌病理侵染而正常生长。冬季,天麻进入冬眠期,隔离区的木栓细胞层形成断裂层,此层细胞是新生麻能够安全越冬的最后一道防御结构。%The growth of Gastrodia elata Bl. and Armillaria mellea (Vahl. exFr.) Quel. shares a special symbiotic relation. In general, A. mellea invades the G. elata, the epidermal cells, the cortical cells and the large cells of the growing vegetative propagation corm of G. elata. The empty cavity cells, the cork cells of the isolation in the vegetative propagation corms and the large cells of G. elata were the defensive structure, protecting the new G. elata from pathological invasion by A. mellea. In winter, G. elata enters the stage of hibernation. The faulting layer derived from the cork cells of the isolation was the last defensive structure by which new G. elata could safely live through the winter.

  19. Mycorrhizal Formation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Hair Roots of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya

    2016-06-25

    The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species.

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FRACTIONS OF DELONIX ELATA BARK

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    Pabbithi Sathya Chethan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of bark of Delonix elata. Antibacterial activity of various fractions obtained from methanolic extract (PE, DM , EA, MR of bark were carried out against three Gram positive bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Enterococus faceialis and three Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebesiela. The antifungal activity of the fractions was evaluated on two common pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Cryptcocus neoframens. The testing was done by the disc diffusion method. Zones of inhibition of fractions were compared with that of standard Amikacin for antibacterial activity and Ketoconazole for antifungal activity. The EA and MR fractions showed significant antibacterial activity but did not exhibit anti-fungal activities comparable with that of standard against the organisms tested.

  1. Optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from Stachys sieboldii Miq. tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai; Chen, Wei; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Jianzeng; Zhao, Yangxin; Li, Luxi; Wang, Yuxing; Zhang, Wenjing

    2015-07-10

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions of water-soluble polysaccharides from Stachys sieboldii Miq. tubers. A central composite design was used to optimize the extraction processing parameters. The optimum extraction conditions are as follows: extraction temperature, 95°C; extraction time, 2.5h; water to raw material ratio, 16; and extraction frequency, 3. Under the optimized conditions, an experimental yield of 9.21 ± 0.18%, which is in good agreement with the predicted yield, was obtained. Purified polysaccharide SSP II-a was successfully obtained using diethylaminoethanol-Sepharose and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. SSP II-a was found to be an acidic polysaccharide fraction with an average molecular weight of 168kDa and composed of rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose. In vitro antioxidant activity assays suggested that SSP II-a presents high scavenging activity toward superoxide anion, hydroxyl, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals but relatively lower scavenging activity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. The results indicated that response surface methodology is an effective method for the extraction of polysaccharides from S. sieboldii Miq. tubers and the polysaccharides could be explored as a potential antioxidant agent for use in medicine or functional food.

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, essential oil

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    Karoline Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, is an endemic species of Brazil, locally known as "cidrão". Although H. brasiliense is popularly used as sedative, chemical constituents of this species remains uncharacterized. This work presents the essential oil composition, obtained by distillation of the fresh leaves and from a stored sample for three months, analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The inhibitory effects of essential oil were tested by the agar dilution method against six bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus. In addition, six fungal species (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were included. Among the determined constituents, α-terpineol (10.2%, curzerene (8.9%, pinocarvone (8.4% and β-thujene (7.1% were found as the main components. The essential oil has only low activity against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, is remarkable active against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi with MIC values ranging from 0.125 to 2.5% (v/v.Óleo essencial de Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae: composição e atividade antimicrobiana. Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq. Chloranthaceae, é uma espécie endêmica no Brasil, conhecida como "cidrão". Embora H. brasiliense seja utilizada como calmante na medicina popular, não foi ainda caracterizada quanto aos constituintes químicos. Este trabalho apresenta a composição do óleo essencial, obtido pela destilação de folhas frescas e de amostra de óleo essencial armazenada por três meses, analisadas por GC-FID e CG-MS. Os efeitos inibitórios do óleo essencial foram testados pelo método da diluição em agar, contra seis espécies de bactérias (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e S. saprophyticus. Adicionalmente, seis espécies de fungos (Candida albicans

  3. Antimicrobial and allelopathic potential of the amides isolated from the roots of Ottonia martiana miq., piperaceae; Potencial antimicrobiano e alelopatico das amidas isoladas do extrato das raizes de Ottonia martiana Miq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunico, Miriam Machado; Dias, Josiane G.; Miguel, Marilis D.; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: obdulio@ufpr.br; Auer, Celso Garcia [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, EMBRAPA-Floresta, Colombo, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Cocco, Lilian C.; Lopes, Andre R.; Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Monache, Franco Delle [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia

    2006-07-15

    Two amides, piperovatine and isopiperlonguminine, were isolated from the roots of Ottonia martiana Miq., a herbaceous shrub commonly used in folk medicine in the treatment of toothache. The crude extract (CE) and isolated compounds were submitted to bioautography and allelopathic assay. The bioautograms allowed the detection of compounds with antibacterial activity and the identification of the bioactive substance piperovatine. The CE and amides exhibited an allelopathic effect on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedling growth but did not affect the seeds' germinability. (author)

  4. Ethyl ether fraction of Gastrodia elata Blume protects amyloid beta peptide-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Ju; Moon, Kwang-Deog; Lee, Dong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Han

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Recently, it has been reported that Alzheimer's disease is associated with cell death in neuronal cells including the hippocampus. Amyloid beta-peptide stimulates neuronal cell death, but the underlying signaling pathways are poorly understood. In order to develop anti-dementia agents with potential therapeutic value, we examined the effect of the herbal compound Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB) on neuronal cell death induced by amyloid beta-peptide in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The fractionation of GEB was carried out in various solvents. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effect of the ethyl ether fraction was more potent than any other fractions. In cells treated with amyloid beta-peptide, the neuroprotective effect of the ethyl ether, chloroform, and butanol fractions was 92, 44, and 39%, respectively, compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that the ethyl ether fraction of GEB contains one or more compounds that dramatically reduce amyloid beta-peptide induced neuronal cell death in vitro.

  5. Identification of species within Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch.(Vitaceae) based on DNA barcoding techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Miao FU; Wei-Mei JIANG; Cheng-Xin FU

    2011-01-01

    Many species of Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch. (Vitaceae) have long been used as medicinal plants in China, and some are endangered due to overexploitation. Although adulterants are often added to traditional Chinese medicines, there is no reliable or practical method for identifying them. In this study, we used four markers (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) as DNA barcodes to test their ability to distinguish species of Tetrastigma. The results indicated that the best barcode was ITS, which showed significant inter-specific genetic variability, and thus its potential as a DNA barcode for identifying Tetrastigma. Multiple loci provided a greater ability to distinguish species than single loci. We recommend using the combined rbcL+matK+ITS barcode for the genus. Phylogenetic trees from each barcode were compared. Analyses using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean discriminated an equal or greater percentage of resolvable species than did neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, or maximum parsimony analyses. Additionally, five medicinal species of Tetrastigma, especially T. Hemsleyanum, could be identified precisely using DNA barcoding.

  6. Bioautography to assess antibacterial activity of Ottonia martiana Miq. (Piperaceae on the human oral microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Machado Cunico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ottonia martiana Miq. (Piperaceae, a plant known popularly in southern Brazil as “anestésia” and used in the treatment of odontalgia for its anesthetic action on the oral mucosa, was investigated for antibacterial activity by paper disc agar diffusion and bioautographic methods, against microorganisms present in the human oral cavity [Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 49456, Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC 19615, Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 25975, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 and 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and Enterobacter aerogenes(ATCC 27853.The crude extract of O. martiana (32.9 mg mL-1 had antibacterial potential against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. Analysis of the bioautograms led to the detection of bioactive substances, among which it was possible to identify piperovatine (Rf 0.35, piperlonguminine (Rf 0.52 and isopiperlonguminine (Rf 0.52. The piperovatine and isopiperlonguminine were isolated from the roots of O. martiana, guided by a bioautographic antibacterial bioassay.

  7. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. Leaves Extracts

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    Vida Elsyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity.

  8. Inhibition of Struvite Crystal Growth in the Presence of Herbal Extract Orthosiphon Aristatus BL.MIQ

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    Muryanto Stefanus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of urinary stones is a serious problem worldwide. Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O is known as one of the main components of the stones. Traditionally, herbal extracts treatment is recommended. This paper discussestheeffects of Orthosiphon aristatus Bl.Miq leaves extract (OA on struvite crystals grown by diffusion gel method. After three weeks the crystals were separated from thegel, air dried and stored for characterisation. The crystals exhibit different morphologiesdepending upon the location of growth. It was found that OA caused the crystals to have noticeable surface defects, discolorisation and fragmentation. Also, OA (upto 5.0% decreased the growth rate. XRD analysis confirms struvite crystallinity. Pure crystals and those grown with OA showed identical XRD pattern, indicating that the crystalline nature may be unaffected. For crystals with OA, FTIR spectrum shifted to higher wave numbers, implying that the various organic compounds in OA might be absorbed on the crystal surface. TG-DTA studies showed similar thermal behaviour for both pure crystals and those with OA. However, the later revealed lowerendothermic temperature, indicating lower thermal stability. Fragmentationand lower thermal stability of struviteindicatedthat OA was a potent inhibitor of struvite and could be effective for urinary stone treatment.

  9. Cytotoxic pregnane steroids from the seeds of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth.) Miq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Ping; Su, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Bing

    2017-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the 80% ethanol extract of the seeds of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth.) Miq. led to the isolation of five new pregnane steroids, 17α,18,20S-trihydroxy-pregn-4-en-3,16-dione (1), 18-hydoxy-pregn-4,17(20)-trans-dien-3,16-dione (2), 3β,18-dihydroxy-pregn-5,17(20)-trans-dien-16-one (3), 2α,3β,4β,18-tetrahydroxy-pregn-5,17(20)-trans-dien-16-one (4), and 2α,3β,4β,17α,18,20S-hexahydroxy-pregn-5-en-16-one (5), along with two known compounds, 17α,20S-dihydroxy-pregn-4-en-3,16-dione (6) and 3β-hydroxy-pregn-5,17-dien-16-one (7). Structural elucidation of all the compounds was accomplished by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and HRESIMS. The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for cytotoxic activities against seven tumor cell lines. As a result, pregnane-type steroids 1, 5 and 6 exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values <20μM against all tested tumor cell lines except meningioma cells (BEN-MEN-1).

  10. Composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcelo Felipe Rodrigues; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; de Lira, Camila Soledade; de Lima Albuquerque, Bheatriz Nunes; Agra Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Essential oil from fresh leaves of the shrub Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC was obtained in 0.21% (w/w) yield by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Thirty-one components, accounting for 96.61% of the leaf oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (30.62%), terpinolene (17.44%), trans -caryophyllene (6.27%), α-pinene (5.92%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), and Limonene (4.46%). Bioassays against larvae of the Dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti) revealed that leaf oil (LC50 = 30.52 ppm), terpinolene (LC50 = 31.16 ppm), and pure 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (LC50 = 22.1 ppm) possessed larvicidal activities and are able to interfere with the activity of proteases from L4 gut enzymes. Additionally, the essential oil exhibited a strong oviposition deterrent activity at 50 and 5 ppm. This paper constitutes the first report of biological activities associated with the essential oil of leaves of P. corcovadensis.

  11. 天麻药材HPLC指纹图谱研究%HPLC Fingerprint of Gastrodia Elata Blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永来; 刘志承; 吕萍; 刘纪青

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study HPLC fingerprint of gastrodia elata BI for its reliable quality control.Methods:The analysis was performed on ultimate XB-C18 column (250mm×4.6mm,5μm);mobile phase methanal-1% acetic acid in water in a gradient elution columm temperrature 30℃,flow rate 1.0ml/min.The UV detector was set at 270nm.Results:The fingerprint of gastrodia elata BI was established and 16 common peaks were displayed in the fingerprint.The average recovery of gastrodine were 102.66%,(RSD<2.5%).Conclusion:The method can be provide a new model of the quality control for gastrodia elata Blume as well as an accurate and rapid tool for the identification of the unknown samples.%目的:研究天麻药材的HPLC 指纹图谱,为天麻药材的质量控制提供可靠方法.方法:采用HPLC 法.色谱柱为Ultimate XB-C18 柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-1% 冰醋酸水溶液,梯度洗脱,柱温为30℃,流速1ml·min-1,检测波长270nm.结果:初步建立了天麻药材的HPLC 指纹图谱,标定出16 个共有峰,天麻素的加样加收率为102.66%,RSD<2.5%.结论:HPLC 指纹图谱可为天麻药材质量控制提供一种新模式,并可为未知天麻样品鉴别提供一个准确、快捷的工具.

  12. Optimization of Extraction Process of Total Saponins from Root Bark ofAralia chinensis L.%楤木根皮总皂苷的提取工艺优化

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    葛蕾; 葛洁英

    2015-01-01

    目的:优化楤木根皮中总皂苷的提取工艺。方法采用香草醛-浓硫酸显色法测定楤木根皮总皂苷含量;以楤木根皮总皂苷提取率为指标,在单因素试验基础上,通过正交试验考察提取温度、乙醇浓度和液固比对提取效果的影响。结果楤木根皮总皂苷提取的最优工艺参数为:提取时间60 min,提取温度80℃,乙醇浓度80%,液固比7:1。结论得到了楤木根皮总皂苷提取的最优工艺参数,为楤木资源的综合利用和开发奠定基础。%Objective To optimize the extraction process of total saponins from the root bark ofAralia chinensis L. Methods The content of total saponins from the root bark ofAralia chinensis L. was determined by the vanillin-sulfuric acid chromogenic assay. On the basis of single factor experiment, orthogonal test was adopted to determine the impacts of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration and the rate of solvent to material on the extraction rate of total saponins.Results The optimized extraction process of total saponins from the root bark ofAralia chinensis L. was as follows: extraction time of 60 min, extraction temperature of 80℃, ethanol concentration of 80 % and the rate of solvent to material of 7:1.Conclusion The optimum extraction process parameters of total saponins from the root bark ofAralia chinensis L. were obtained. This study provided the basis for comprehensive utilization and development ofAralia chinensis L.

  13. Gastrodia elata attenuates inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wang, Li-Min; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Tian, Ke; Gu, Chen-Xi; Li, Zhi-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Gastrodia elata (GE), which belongs to the Orchidaceae family, was found to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, the effect of GE on inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) remains largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GE on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory response in RA-FLS and the underlying molecular mechanism was also explored. Our results demonstrated that GE significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in RA-FLS. GE also inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 expression in RA-FLS. Furthermore, pretreatment with GE significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced the expression of p-p65 and IκBα degradation in RA-FLS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that GE attenuated inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway signaling in RA-FLS. Thus, GE might have a therapeutic potential towards the treatment of RA.

  14. 天麻营繁茎被蜜环菌侵染过程中细胞结构的变化%The Changes of Cell Structure in the Courses of Armillaria mellea Penetrating the Nutritional Stems of Gastrodia elata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锦堂

    2001-01-01

    目的研究天麻营繁茎被蜜环菌侵染后细胞结构的变化,及天麻整个生长期的营养来源。方法作天麻营繁茎连续纵切片结合横切片观察;在天麻生长期切断其与菌材连接的蜜环菌索,测量新生麻生长情况。结果蜜环菌索侵入天麻营繁茎后,分成多个分枝的菌丝通道,菌丝突破通道形成菌丝流,向外侵入皮层细胞形成菌丝结,向内直接侵入大型细胞被天麻消化作为营养;切断天麻与菌材连接的蜜环菌索,新生麻就停止生长。结论蜜环菌索侵入天麻营繁茎后,菌丝结、突破菌丝通道的菌丝流,及大型细胞等三层细胞层呈片状环周包围了整个营繁茎,菌丝通道是天麻整个生长期营养的补给线。%Objective To study the cell structure changes of Gastrodia elata after Armillaria mellea infection as well as the nutritional resource of this important medicinal plant. Method Observation of the serial sections on the nutritional stems of G.elata, and measure new corms of G.elata when cut off the old corms connection with rhizomorph of A. mellea. Result After G. elata nutritional stems infected by A.mellea, the rhizomorph of A. mellea separate into several hyphal layers and penetrate hyphal stream which infect into the cells of cortex layer in the direction of outside and infect directly into layer cells in the direction of inside, these hypha can be used the nutrition of G. elata the new corms will be stop growth if cut off the rhizomorph of A. mellea connected with G. elata. Conclusion After the rhizomorph of A. mellea infected G. elata nutritional stems, hyphal coils and the hyphal stream will breakthrough passage cells as well as large cells surround the whole nutritional stems, so the passage cells is the key nutritional resource in the whole growth period of G. elata.

  15. Analysis on Volatile Constituents of Aralia cordata Thunb.from Different Places%不同产地九眼独活挥发油成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲兰香; 唐天君; 袁小红; 侯大斌; 王博

    2010-01-01

    [目的]明确四川省青川县和茂县产九眼独活(Aralia cordata Thunb.)根挥发油成分的组成及差异.[方法]用水蒸气蒸馏法提取青川县和茂县产九眼独活根挥发油,用GC-MS法分析和鉴定其成分.[结果]分别从青川县和茂县产九眼独活根中鉴定出了59、36种成分,分别占其精油总量的57.150%、45.867%.青川县产九眼独活根挥发油中的主要成分有α-没药醇(4.093%)、海松醛(18.857%)、sclarene(6.750%)、松香酸(3.900%)、13β-methyl-13-vinyl-7-en-3-one-podocarp(4.238%)等;茂县产九眼独活根挥发油中的主要成分有α-没药醇(2.502%)、海松醛(10.732%)、[1R-(1R*,3E,)]-3,7-dien-12-ol,4,8,12,15,15-pentamethyl-bicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca(10.209%)、海松酸(12.305%)等.[结论]青川县和茂县产九眼独活根挥发油的主要成分存在一定的差异,这为不同地区九眼独活商品的质量控制提供了参考标准.

  16. Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato bruto etanólico de raízes e partes aéreas de Ottonia martiana Miq. (Piperaceae Antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of Ottonia martiana Miq. (Piperaceae roots and aerial parts

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    M. M. Cunico

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ottonia martiana Miq., Piperaceae, conhecida na medicina popular brasileira como "anestésia", é um arbusto característico da Floresta Atlântica. Devido à ação anestésica sobre a mucosa oral, raízes e partes aéreas são popularmente utilizadas em dores de dente, na forma de alcoolaturas (bochechos ou pela mastigação de fragmentos de partes da planta. Como os microrganismos estão adquirindo resistência aos antibióticos tradicionais, a procura por novos agentes antimicrobianos, a partir de plantas, vem sendo intensificada. Nesta perspectiva, avaliou-se o efeito antimicrobiano do extrato bruto etanólico dos órgãos totais desta espécie (EBEtOH frente às bactérias Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 6569, Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442, utilizando-se os métodos de difusão em ágar e bioautografia. Os resultados obtidos por difusão em ágar mostraram que o EBEtOH de O. martiana apresenta potencial antibacteriano contra E. faecium, evidenciado pelo aparecimento de zonas de inibição de crescimento no respectivo bioautograma e não demonstraram ação antimicrobiana contra as outras cepas testadas.Ottonia martiana Miq., Piperaceae, known in Brazilian folk medicine as "anestésia", is an herbaceous shrub found in Atlantic Tropical Forest. Due to its anesthetic action on the mucous membranes of the mouth, roots and aerial parts are commonly used to relief toothache, usually as alcoholic macerates (mouth washing or by chewing parts of the plant. As most microorganisms are acquiring resistance to traditional antibiotics, the search for new antimicrobials agents, specially from plants, is being intensified. Based on this, the activity of the crude ethanolic extract from roots and aerial parts (EBEtOH of O. martiana against Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 6569, Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442 was evaluated using the agar difusion and bioautographic methods. Results

  17. Influences of Different Habitats on Asexual Propagation of Wild Gastrodia elata f. glauca being Domesticated in Ganzi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiang XIE

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The influences of different habitats on asexual propagation of wild Geg (abbreviation for Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. Chow) being domesticat-ed in Ganzi prefecture was studied. [Method] The research trial was carried out in the fol owing three kinds of habitats at the same time: the plastic greenhouses, the birch forest of shady slope and the shrubbery of sunny slope, and the results were analyzed with group data average hypothesis test method. [Result] The overal tuber (the juvenile tuber, the immature tuber and the mature tuber) yield and the mature tuber yield were both very significantly higher in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and respectively reached 9.52 and 6.70 kg/m2; the ma-ture tuber drying rate was dramatical y or very dramatical y lower in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and was 23.84%; the stabilities of the overal tuber yield, the mature tuber yield and the drying rate were al re-duced in the order of greenhouses, birch forest and shrubbery; and the dry mature tuber yield of the plastic greenhouses was the highest in the three kinds of habi-tats, and was 1.60 kg/m2. [Conclusion] A good habitat had to be created or chosen in the domesticating cultivation of the wild Geg in Ganzi prefecture. The preferred choice was the plastic greenhouse, the alternative one was the deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope. The imitating wild planting of the wild Geg should be done in the warm moist deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope.

  18. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants.

  19. A new flavonol C-glycoside and a rare bioactive lignanamide from Piper wallichii Miq. Hand.-Mazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Xia, Wen; Han, En-Ji; Xiang, Lan

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical constituents of Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. and evaluate their biological activity. Compounds were isolated by various column chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical characteristics and spectral data. The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibitory activity of the compounds were evaluated. Five compounds were obtained and identified as 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosylkaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 1, 2-dihydro-6,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-N(1), N(2)-bis-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2, 3-naphthalene dicarboxamide (2), goniothalactam (3), aristololactam A IIIa (4) and piperlonguminine (5). Compound 1 was a new flavonol C-glycoside, 2 was a rare lignanamide, which was isolated from the family Piperaceae for the first time, and compound 3 was isolated from this plant for the first time. Among them, 2 showed potent DPPH-scavenging activity, with IC50 of 31.38 ± 0.97 μmol·L(-1); Compounds 2, 3, and 4 showed AChE inhibitory activity at 100 μmol·L(-1), with inhibition rates of 28.57% ± 1.47%, 18.48% ± 2.41% and 17.4% ± 3.03%, respectively.

  20. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS-JENIS TANAMAN KOLEKSI DI KEBUN RAYA PURWODADI, BALI DAN CIBODAS YANG DISERANG BENALU Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. (LORANTHACEAE

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    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Botanic Garden represents an ecosystem area in which parasitic plants such as mistletoes are also incorporated. Mistletoe of Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. (Loranthaceae was a parasite of various plants cultivated in Botanic Gardens of Purwodadi, Bali, and Cibodas. The mistletoe attacked 143 host species which included in 48 plant families in those three Botanic Gardens. The most attacked host plants were belong to family Moraceae, especially Ficus spp., following by members of Myrtaceae, especially Syzygium spp. The ability to become parasite of various plants species assured that mistletoe of D. pentandra did not chosen certain host plants. The parasitic study of mistletoe D. pentandra is also reported in this paper.

  1. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

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    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored.

  2. Versión Española del Cuestionario-Revisado de Imagen del Movimiento (MIQ-R: Validación y propiedades psicométricas

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    Alfredo Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación deseábamos saber los factores que tenía la versión española del Cuestionario-Revisado de Imagen del Movimiento (MIQ-R, y cómo se distribuían los ítems. También deseábamos conocer la consistencia interna y cómo correlacionaba con otras medidas de habilidad de imagen. Para ello aplicamos la versión española del MIQ-R a una muestra de 201 estudiantes universitarios, y encontramos, mediante análisis factorial, que el cuestionario consta de dos factores, que juntos explican el 66.11% de la varianza total. Estos dos factores corresponden a la subescala visual y a la subescala cinestésica. La consistencia del test fue satisfactoria, tanto la consistencia de la puntuación total del test, como la de cada una de las dos subescalas. El MIQ-R correlacionó -.34 con el Cuestionario de Viveza de Imagen del Movimiento (VMIQ, y -.26 con el Cuestionario de Viveza de Imagen Visual (VVIQ. La versión española del MIQ-R se considera una buena medida de imagen del movimiento.

  3. Down-regulation of Slit-Robo pathway mediating neuronal cytoskeletal remodeling processes facilitates the antidepressive-like activity of Gastrodia elata Blume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hang; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Pei-Ju; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Pan, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Shui-Tein; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2014-10-29

    Nowadays, depression is a serious psychological disorder that causes extreme economic loss and social problems. Previously, we discovered that the water extract of Gastrodia elata Blume (WGE) improved depressive-like behavior by influencing neurotransmitters in rats subjected to the forced swimming test. To elucidate possible mechanisms, in the present study, we performed a proteomics and bioinformatics analysis to identify the related pathways. Western blot-validated results indicated that the core protein network modulated by WGE administration was closely associated with down-regulation of the Slit-Robo pathway, which modulates neuronal cytoskeletal remodeling processes. Although Slit-Robo signaling has been well investigated in neuronal development, its relationship with depression is not fully understood. We provide a potential hint on the mechanism responsible for the antidepressive-like activity of WGE. In conclusion, we suggest that the Slit-Robo pathway and neuronal cytoskeleton remodeling are possibly one of the pathways associated with the antidepressive-like effects of WGE.

  4. Study on the Quality Standard of Fresh Gastrodia elata Lyophilized Powder%鲜天麻冻干粉的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左爱萍; 王传方; 潘梅; 唐靖雯; 张丽艳; 吴浩

    2015-01-01

    目的:为建立鲜天麻冻干粉的质量标准提供参考。方法:采用薄层色谱(TLC)法对制剂中的天麻进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法测定制剂中天麻素的含量。色谱柱为Diamonsil C18,流动相为乙腈-0.05%磷酸(3∶97,V/V),流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为220 nm,柱温为25℃,进样量为10μl。结果:鲜天麻冻干粉的TLC图斑点清晰、分离度好。天麻素检测质量浓度线性范围为2.9~14.5μg/ml(r=0.9999);精密度、稳定性、重复性试验的RSD≤1.00%;加样回收率为98.07%~102.70%,RSD为1.74%(n=6)。结论:该方法操作简便、结果准确、重复性好,适用于鲜天麻冻干粉的质量控制。%OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for the establishment of quality standard for Fresh Gastrodia elata lyophilized powder. METHODS:TLC was conducted for the qualitative identification of G. elata in preparation,and HPLC was conducted for the content determination of gastrodin in preparation. The column was Diamonsil C18 with mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.05% phos-phoric acid(3∶97,V/V)at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min,detection wavelength was 220 nm,column temperature was 25 ℃ and vol-ume injection was 10 μl. RESULTS:TLC pots of Fresh G. elata lyophilized powder were clear and well-separated. The linear of gastrodin was 2.9-14.5 μg/ml(r=0.999 9);RSDs of precision,stability and reproducibility tests were no more than 1.00%;recov-ery was 98.07%-102.70%(RSD=1.74%,n=6). CONCLUSIONS:The method is simple,accurate and reproducible,and suitable for the quality control of Fresh G. elata lyophilized powder.

  5. A review on pharmacological action of active principle in gastrodia elata and the clinical application%天麻有效成分的药理作用与临床应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧君

    2016-01-01

    本论文主要通过文献查阅,对天麻的药理作用进行了归纳和整理。天麻在药理上对中枢神经系统有镇静、镇痛、抗惊厥的作用,对心血管系统有降血压、抗血小板聚集作用,还能够改善记忆、延缓衰老、增强免疫力等。%In this article, pharmacological action of active principle in gastrodia elata was generalized through consulting the literatures. The results shows that gastrodia elata on central nervous system play roles of sedation, analgesia and anticonvulsant, and on cardiovascular system play roles of lowering blood pressure, anti-platelet aggregation, and could improve memory, aging, strengthening the immune system and so on.

  6. Screening of Active Compounds from Gastrodia elata Blume for Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxation%云南昭通天麻松弛血管平滑肌活性成分的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维明; 杨莲; 李秀芳; 林青; 李国花; 魏文彬

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the vascular smooth muscle relaxation effect and explicit the material base of Gastrodia elata Blume. Method:Tension recording for rat isolated aortic artery was used to study the effect of vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Column chromatography and mass spectrography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry were used to isolate and identify the active compounds of G. elata Blume. Result: G. elata Blume.could significantly inhibit the smooth muscle constriction of isolated aortic artery induced by KCI. Five esterified phenolic compounds ( Ⅰ-Ⅴ ) were isolated from G. elata Blume, such as p-hydroxybenz aldehyde ( Ⅰ ); phydroxybenzyl methylether ( Ⅱ ); p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol ( Ⅲ ); 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl methane ( Ⅳ ); 4,4'-dihydroxydibenzyl ether( Ⅴ ). The results showed that the vascular smooth muscle relaxation effects were the result of the role of five compounds. Conclusion: The five esterified phenolic compounds ( Ⅰ - Ⅴ ) from G. elata Blume.play a combined role for vascular smooth muscle relaxation.%目的:观察天麻血管平滑肌松弛作用,明确其作用物质基础.方法:采用大鼠离体胸主动脉环灌流实验方法,对天麻血管平滑肌松弛作用进行考察,采用柱色谱法、光谱法(MS,NMR)对其活性成分进行了分离鉴定.结果:天麻能够显著抑制KCl引起的大鼠胸主动脉环收缩,从天麻乙酸乙酯提取物中分离并鉴定了5个酯溶性酚性成分(Ⅰ~Ⅴ):对羟基苯甲醛(Ⅰ)、对羟苄基甲醚(Ⅱ)、对羟基苯甲醇(Ⅲ)、4,4'-二羟基二苯基甲烷(Ⅳ),4,4-二羟基二苄醚(Ⅴ),明确了天麻的血管平滑肌松弛作用是这5个成分共同作用的结果.结论:天麻具有显著的血管平滑肌松弛作用,其作用主要由5个酯溶性酚性成分共同发挥.

  7. Assessment of acute and subchronic oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq (Pariparoba Avaliação da toxidade oral aguda e subcrônica de extrato etanólico de Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq. (Parapiroba

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    Sonia Barros

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a high degree of concern regarding the secure use of plant extracts and, for this very reason, preclinical and clinic toxicological evaluation of these extracts are needed. With the aim to assure the quality and the safety of the extract and due to the scarcity of literature information about Pariparoba extract toxicity, our purpose was to investigate the acute and subchronic toxicity of the standardized ethanolic dried root extract of Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq. This extract was administered orally to adult swiss mice and wistar rats and the mutagenic potencial of the extract was also evaluated. The extract showed to be non toxic.Existe uma grande preocupação quanto ao uso seguro de extratos vegetais e, por esta razão, a necessidade de estudos toxicológicos pré-clínicos e clínicos destes extratos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar a toxicidade aguda e subcrônica do extrato hidroalcoólico liofilizado de Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq., administrado por via oral para animais de laboratório. O potencial mutagênico do extrato foi também avaliado pelo teste do micronúcleo. Os resultados dos estudos a curto e médio prazo demonstraram que o extrato não apresenta propriedades tóxicas.

  8. A strategy for the separation of diterpenoid isomers from the root of Aralia continentalis by countercurrent chromatography: The distribution ratio as a substitute for the partition coefficient and a three-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Jin; Song, Kwang Ho; Choi, Wonmin; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-08-07

    Aralia continentalis (Araliaceae) is widely used as a medicinal plant in East Asia. Previous studies have indicated that diterpenoid isomers (kaurenoic acid, continentalic acid, and ent-continentalic acid) are the major bioactive compounds of this plant. A new strategy was developed to alleviate difficulties in the separation of these isomers from this plant. A three-phase solvent system was applied to separate the isomers, and furthermore, the distribution ratio (Kc) was introduced as a substitute for the partition coefficient (KD). For compounds exhibiting a single equilibrium, their distributions in two immiscible phases were only affected by the partition coefficient of each solute. However, compounds that have a dissociating functional group (e.g., -COOH) are involved in two types of equilibrium in the two-phase system. In this case, the partitioning behaviors of the solutes are greatly affected by the pH of the solution. A mathematical prediction was applied for adjusting the solutions to the proper pH values. To prevent non-used phase (medium phase) waste, both the stationary phase (upper phase) and mobile phase (lower phase) were prepared on-demand without pre-saturation with the application of (1)H NMR. Each fraction obtained was collected and dried, yielding the following diterpenoid isomers from the 50mg injected sample: kaurenoic acid (19.7mg, yield: 39%) and ent-continentalic acid (21.3mg, yield: 42%).

  9. Global profiling and rapid matching of natural products using diagnostic product ion network and in silico analogue database: Gastrodia elata as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chang-Jiang-Sheng; Zha, Liangping; Liu, Da-Hui; Kang, Liping; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Nan, Tie-Gui; Yang, Jian; Li, Fajie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-07-22

    Rapid discovery of novel compounds of a traditional herbal medicine is of vital significance for pharmaceutical industry and plant metabolic pathway analysis. However, discovery of unknown or trace natural products is an ongoing challenge. This study presents a universal targeted data-independent acquisition and mining strategy to globally profile and effectively match novel natural product analogues from an herbal extract. The famous medical plant Gastrodia elata was selected as an example. This strategy consists of three steps: (i) acquisition of accurate parent and adduct ions (PAIs) and the product ions data of all eluting compounds by untargeted full-scan MS(E) mode; (ii) rapid compound screening using diagnostic product ions (DPIs) network and in silico analogue database with SUMPRODUCT function to find novel candidates; and (iii) identification and isomerism discrimination of multiple types of compounds using ClogP and ions fragment behavior analyses. Using above data mining methods, a total of 152 compounds were characterized, and 70 were discovered for the first time, including series of phospholipids and novel gastroxyl derivatives. Furthermore, a number of gastronucleosides and phase II metabolites of gastrodin and parishins were discovered, including glutathionylated, cysteinylglycinated and cysteinated compounds, and phosphatidylserine analogues. This study extended the application of classical DPIs filter strategy and developed a structure-based screening approach with the potential for significant increase of efficiency for discovery and identification of trace novel natural products.

  10. Chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile analysis of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlan; Wang, Li; Liu, Xinxin; Cheng, Mengchun; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-02-01

    The chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of traditional Chinese medicine is very complicated and has been a great challenge. In the present study, chemical fingerprint of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata (EtAcGE) and metabolic profile of rat plasma sample after intragastric administration of EtAcGE (2.5g/kg) were investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). A total of 38 chemical constituents of EtAcGE were identified by comparing their retention time, accurate molecular mass and characteristic fragment ions with those of references, or tentatively characterized by comparing molecular formula, fragment ions with that of known compound or information available in literature. And 40 compounds were detected in dosed rat plasma sample, including 16 prototypes and 24 metabolites underwent metabolic process of glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfation, methylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation or mixed modes. The metabolic "soft spots" was hydroxyl or carboxy group. This is the first research for chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of EtAcGE, which lay a foundation for the further investigation of EtAcGE.

  11. Antioxidant and Prophylactic Effects of Delonix elata L., Stem Bark Extracts, and Flavonoid Isolated Quercetin against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

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    Pradeepa Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delonix elata L. (Ceasalpinaceae, is widely used by the traditional medical practitioners of Karnataka, India, to cure jaundice, and bronchial and rheumatic problems. The objective of this study was to screen the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the stem bark extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Among different stem bark extracts tested, the ethanol extract (DSE has shown significant in vitro antioxidant property in radicals scavenging, metal chelating, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. HPLC analysis of the DSE revealed the presence of known antioxidant molecules, namely, gallic acid, ellagic acid, coumaric acid, quercetin, and rutin. Bioassay-guided fractionation of DSE has resulted in the isolation and characterization of quercetin. DSE and quercetin have shown significant prophylactic effects by restoring the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, serum bilirubin, and total protein and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST. These results were proved to be hepatoprotective at par with silymarin and well supported by the histological observations of liver sections with distinct hepatic cells, and mild degree of fatty change and necrosis. The results indicated that the DSE and quercetin were significant for prophylactic activity against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. This activity could be attributed to the antioxidant constituents in the DSE and hence justified the ethnomedicinal claims.

  12. Determination of the levels of two types of neurotransmitter and the anti-migraine effects of different dose-ratios of Ligusticum chuanxiong and Gastrodia elata

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    Qiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC–Gastrodia elata (GE compatibility is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of migraine. It has been shown that the changes of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system are closely related to the pathogenesis of migraine; whether LC–GE compatibility might affect the neurotransmitters in migraine rats has not yet been studied. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector methods for quantification of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and excitatory amino acids (EAAs in rat brain were developed. The 5-HT was measured directly, while EAAs were determined by using dansyl chloride as precolumn derivative reagent. The validation of the methods, including selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recoveries, and stability were carried out and demonstrated to meet the requirements of quantitative analysis. Compared with the model group, the expression of 5-HT in migraine rat brain was enhanced from 30 minutes to 120 minutes and glutamate (L-Glu was suppressed from 30 minutes to 60 minutes in an LC–GE (4:3 group compared with the model group (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively. These findings showed that the analytical methods were simple, sensitive, selective, and low cost, and LC–GE 4:3 compatibility could have better efficacy for treating migraine through upregulating 5-HT levels and downregulating L-Glu levels.

  13. Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (L.) Gamble (family: Fabaceae) against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae) vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Govindarajan; Rajamohan, Sivakumar; Mohan, Rajeswari; Krishnamoorthy, Yogalakshmi

    2012-07-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Delonix elata against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of D. elata against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 93.59 and 111.83, and 163.69 and 202.77 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against two mosquitoes with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 115.28 and 139.04, and 225.07 and 273.03 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 300 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 500 ppm for seed

  14. 缓冲溶液浸提天麻多糖工艺的优化及抗氧化性研究%Study on citrate buffer assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Gastrodia elata and its antioxidant activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小燕; 杨海涛

    2016-01-01

    Taking Gastrodia elata from Qinba area as raw material,citrate buffer solution at pH 6 as the extraction solvent,the extraction and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Gastrodia elata by ul-trasonic were studied.The results showed that the optimum extraction technology of Gastrodia elata poly-saccharides were as follows:extraction temperature 50 ℃,solid-liquid ratio of 1∶40 g/mL,ultrasonic ex-traction time of 30 min,extract power 300 W,citrate buffer solution pH 6.0 as the extraction agent,under this condition,the extraction yield of polysaccharide was 36.21%,which was 20% higher than traditional extraction.Scavenging free radicals IC50 values for O2 -·,·OH and ABTS +· were 0.46,0.76 mg/mL and 6.7 μg/mL respectively,which was superior to the conventional antioxidants of ascorbic acid.The study proved that polysaccharides from Gastrodia elata has good reducing capacity and scavenging radical activity.%以秦巴山区天麻为原料,pH 6柠檬酸盐酸性缓冲溶液为浸提溶剂,研究超声辅助浸提天麻多糖的工艺条件,并考察其还原能力和清除羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基和 ABTS 自由基正离子的能力。结果表明,天麻多糖的最佳提取工艺为:超声温度50℃,料液比1∶40 g/mL,提取时间30 min,超声功率300 W,柠檬酸盐缓冲溶液 pH 6。该工艺条件下,天麻多糖的提取率为36.21%,与传统水提法相比,提高了20%。天麻多糖清除 O2-·、·OH、ABTS +·的 IC50值分别为0.46,0.76 mg/mL 和6.7μg/mL,优于同浓度条件下抗氧化剂 VC 溶液。

  15. Study on Cultivation of Gastrodia elata Blume with Poplar and Traditional Materials%杨树菌材与传统菌材栽培天麻的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志兵; 陈代雄; 陈京元; 林正保; 林亲雄

    2011-01-01

    采用随机区组实验设计,以杨树菌材、传统的栎树菌材和栗树菌材为材料在湖北省宜昌县、五峰县、鹤峰县3个栽培点进行了天麻的田间栽培实验.结果表明:蜜环菌在杨树菌材上生长较传统菌材菌丝萌发早,生长粗壮,生长点多;杨树菌材易被蜜环菌分解利用,腐朽程度高;不同菌材对天麻的产量与生物转化率无显著差异,而不同实验点之间差异显著;在适宜的条件下杨树菌材栽培天麻易获得高产,其产量与生物转化率分别高达4.977 kg/m2和30%.杨树是栽培天麻适合的菌材.%To evaluate the feasibility of cultivation of Gastrodia elata Bl.with poplar materials as alternatives to traditional materials,the field cultivation of Gastrodia elata Bl was carried out at three sites in Yichang,Wufeng,Hefeng counties in Hubei Province,with poplar and traditional cultivated materials.The results showed that the mycelium of Armillariella mellea in poplar materials developed faster,stronger and more abundantly than in traditional materials.Poplar materials were easily decomposed with high degree of decay and easily utilized by A.mellea.The yield and biological conversion were not much different between the cultivated materials but significantly varied in different cultivated sites.The poplar cultivated materials produced G.elata Bl with high yeild at suitable conditions,its yield and biological conversion could reach to 4.977 kg/m2 and 30 % respectively.The poplar material was suitable for the cultivation of Gastrodia elata Bl.

  16. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae); Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) de los compuestos aislados de la parte aerea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca, E-mail: mcavilam@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Productos Naturales Vegetales, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron [Laboratorio de Biopesticidas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-05-15

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC{sub 50} 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  17. Neolignanas e análise do óleo essencial das folhas de Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck Neolignans and the analysis of the essential oil of Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Pessini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das folhas de Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck Piparaceae, coletadas no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, foi obtido por hidrodestilação. Uma análise preliminar por CG/EM e RMN 13C foi realizada. O b-mirceno (70% foi identificado como componente majoritário através da comparação dos espectros de massa e RMN 13C com dados da literatura. Quatro neolignanas foram isoladas do extrato hidroetanólico das folhas e identificadas: eupomatenóide-6, eupomatenóide-5, eupomatenóide-3 e conocarpano. As estruturas dessas substâncias foram estabelecidas por meio de estudos de RMN ¹H e 13C, ¹H x ¹H - COSY, HETCOR, HMBC, gNOE e EM.The essential oil of Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck Piparaceae leaves, which were collected at a tree farm named Horto de Plantas Medicinais of the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, was obtained by hydrodistillation. A preliminary analysis by GC/MS was carried out. b-mirceno (70% was identified as the main constituent by comparing MS and 13C NMR with the literature data. Four neolignans were isolated from the leaves and identified: eupomatenoid-6, eupomatenoid-5, eupomatenoid-3 and conocarpan. Their structures were established by extensive ¹H and 13C NMR, ¹H x ¹H - COSY, HETCOR, HMBC, gNOE and MS spectral studies.

  18. Ent-pimara-8(14), 15-dien-19-oic acid isolated from the roots of Aralia cordata inhibits induction of inflammatory mediators by blocking NF-kappaB activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; Chae, Hee-Sung; Choi, Jang-Gi; Oh, Yoo-Chang; Lee, Young-Seob; Kim, Jong-Hak; Seung, Man-Jun; Jang, Hye-Jin; Bae, Ki-Hwan; Lee, John-Hwa; Shin, Dong-Won; Kwon, Dong Yeul

    2008-12-28

    Macrophages play central roles in the innate immune system. The roots of Aralia cordata are widely used in Oriental medicine as a remedy for arthritis. During our program to screen medicinal plants for potential anti-inflammatory compounds, ent-pimara-8(14), 15-dien-19-oic acid (pimaradienoic acid; PA) was isolated from the roots of A. cordata. We examined the effect of PA on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PA was found to significantly inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as the expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and IL-6. Furthermore, we examined whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways are involved in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. We found that a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and an ERK 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) significantly affected LPS-induced IL-6 production. In contrast, a JNK 1/2 inhibitor (SP600125) and PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin or LY294002) did not block the induction of IL-6 production by LPS. The LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was inhibited by PA, but not the phosphorylation of JNK 1/2 and AKT (Ser473). Moreover, PA suppressed I kappaB alpha degradation, NF-kappaB activation and luciferase activity. These results suggest that PA isolated from A. cordata has a potential regulatory effect on inflammatory iNOS, COX-2 and IL-6 expression through blockade of the phosphorylation of MAPKs following I kappaB alpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation.

  19. Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits

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    Faridah Hanim Shakirin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids. The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP or kernel oil (NK of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC. Total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise, thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs, and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil.

  20. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Morus macroura Miq.%光叶桑中酚类化合物的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴胜军; 于德泉; 吕子明; 陈若芸

    2006-01-01

    目的对光叶桑(Morus macroura Miq.)中的酚类化合物进行分离、鉴定.方法以硅胶、Sephadex LH-20、Rp C18、Rp C8色谱柱进行分离纯化,经理化性质、光谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果分离鉴定了7个酚类化合物,分别为moracin M(1)、2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,6-dihydroxybenzofuran(2)、mulberroside C(3)、oxyresveratrol(氧化白藜芦醇,4)、3',5',2,4-tetrahydroxy-4'-(3-methyl-1-butenyl)stilbene(5)、mulberrofuran G (6)、mulberrofuran K(7).结论化合物1~7为首次从该植物中分离得到,化合物3、5为首次从桑属植物中发现.

  1. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. PMID:27137366

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Nanomaterials from Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq Wood Bark: an Organic Waste Material from Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to produce nanomaterials from renewable bio-based materials, like wood bark, has great potential to benefit the wood processing industry. To support this issue, we investigated the production of bio-based nanomaterials using conventional balls milling. Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba(Roxb. Miq wood bark (JWB, an organic waste material from a community forest was subjected to conventional balls milling for 96 h and was converted into bio-based nanomaterial. The morphology and particle size, chemical components, functional groups and crystallinity of the bio-based nanomaterial were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, scanning electron microscopy extended with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The particle-sizes obtained for the JWB bio-based nanomaterial were between 43 nm to 469 nm and the functional groups were detected as cellulose. The chemical components found were carbon, oxygen, chloride, potassium and calcium, except for the sample produced from sieve type T14, which did not contain chloride. The crystalline structure was calcium oxalate hydrate (C2CaO4.H2O with crystalline sizes 21 nm and 15 nm, produced from sieve types T14 and T200 respectively.

  3. Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Total Alkaloids, Peimisine, Peimine and Peiminine from the Bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq, and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts

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    Xiao Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was used to extract total alkaloids, peimisine, peimine and peiminine from the bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA, ABTS radical scavenging activity (ABTS-RSA and ferric reducing capacity (FRAP assay. A central composite design (CCD with four variables and five levels was employed for optimization of process parameters, and response surface plots were constructed in accordance with a second order polynomial model. Under optimal conditions of 3.0 h, 60.4 °C, 26.5 MPa and 89.3% ethanol, the highest yields were predicted to be 3.8 mg/g for total alkaloids, 0.5 mg/g for peimisine, 1.3 mg/g for peimine and 1.3 mg/g for peiminine, and the antioxidant capacity of extracts displayed EC50, DPPH value of 5.5 mg/mL, EC50, ABTS value of 0.3 mg/mL and FRAP value of 118.2 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE/100 g.

  4. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq., Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb. and Blueberry Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Tsuda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.. The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.

  5. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK NPK DAN KOMPOS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SEMAI JABON (ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA ROXB MIQ PADA MEDIA TANAH BEKAS TAMBANG EMAS (TAILING

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    Basuki Wasis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tailings is one of the waste generated in the gold mining activities that contain nutrients are low. One of the principles for the management of tailings is merevegetasi land disturbed so that the necessary selection of the type that can be developed, in this case Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb Miq. Is one type that is recommended to be developed in the post-mine land revegetation because it is a type of fast-growing and has a high adaptability to various soil types. Experimental design used in this study was factorial design with two factors. The first factor is fertilizer NPK with 4 level and the second factor is the compost with 4 level. The best dose of the combination of the two fertilizer on the growth of seedlings jabon is high NPK fertilizer with compost dose of 15 grams and 10 grams and diameter growth for seedlings jabon, the best dose is the dose of 15 grams of NPK fertilizer and compost 0 grams

  6. Soil nutrient content analysis and assessment for cultivation base of gastrodia elata blume in Dejiang%德江天麻种植基地土壤养分含量分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 邓琴; 贾亚琪; 程志飞; 刘品祯; 曾宪强; 王坤; 曹永直; 邵先强

    2016-01-01

    对德江天麻种植基地土壤pH、养分含量调查和分析,结果表明:土壤属弱酸性环境,较适宜天麻种植要求;土壤有机质、全氮、碱解氮含量较为丰富,属土壤肥力2级水平,为天麻高品质、高产量提供天然优势;缓效钾、速效钾含量稍缺乏,属土壤肥力4级水平,可能会影响到天麻的正常生长.建议合理施用天麻专用化肥,适量补充钾肥、合理施用微生物肥料、科学合理规划种植、注重栽培管理.%By investigating and analyzing the pH value,nutrient content in Dejiang cultivation base of Gastrodia elata Blume. The results showed that soil was in acidic environment and it met the require-ments of planting. The concentration was more abundant and soil fertility with the second level,such as soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and available nitrogen. It offered natural advantages for high-quality,high yield of Gastrodia elata Blume in Dejiang. It was lack of slowly available and fast-avail-able potassium. And the soil fertility was in the fourth level. Sometimes it maybe have an effect of nor-mal growth. It recommended many ways in planting,such as reasonable application-specific fertiliz-er,the amount of added fertilizer,rational application of microbial fertilizers,scientific and rational planning of planting,cultivation and management focus.

  7. Quality index method (QIM application on shef life estimation of skinned fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus kept in iceAplicação do método do índice de qualidade (MIQ para o estudo da vida útil de filés de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sem pele, armazenados em gelo

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    Karoline Mikaelle de Paiva Soares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop the Quality Index Method (QIM for skinned fillets from farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and apply it in the establishment of its shelf life. The skinned fillets (120 g in average were kept in boxes with ice in the proportion of 1:1 (fillet:ice under average temperature of 0°C and stored at refrigeration chamber (4°C during 18 days. To evaluate the freshness during storage time sensory analysis (QIM and physicochemical (pH and TVB-N were performed every 72 hours from time zero, in triplicate. The maximum life of the Nile tilapia fillet in ice was estimated at 15 days. The MIQ was considered effective in evaluating the freshness of the Nile tilapia, since the sensory rejection by MIQ was determinant in the shelf life establishment. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver o Método do Índice de Qualidade (MIQ para filé sem pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, cultivada, e aplicá-lo no estabelecimento da sua vida útil. Os filés (média de 120 g cada foram mantidos em caixas com gelo na proporção de 1:1 (filé:gelo na temperatura média de 0°C e armazenados em câmaras de refrigeração (4°C por 18 dias. Para avaliar o frescor durante o armazenamento, realizaram-se análises sensoriais (MIQ e físico-químicas (pH e Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais a cada 72 horas, a partir do tempo zero, em triplicata. A vida útil máxima do filé sem pele de tilápia do Nilo, em gelo, foi estimada em 15 dias. O MIQ foi considerado eficiente na avaliação do frescor da tilápia do Nilo, já que a rejeição sensorial pelo MIQ foi determinante no estabelecimento da vida de prateleira.

  8. Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidóptera: Noctuidae de los compuestos aislados de la parte aérea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq. c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. & Yunck. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Constanza Ávila Murillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. & Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1, galangin (2, chrysin (5, 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6, pinostrobin (7; one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4; one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3; one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8; and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC 50 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively.

  9. 天麻乙酸乙酯提取物对行为绝望小鼠的抗抑郁作用%Anti-depression Effect of EtoAc Extracts of Gastrodia elata in Mice with Behavioral Despair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓菲; 林青; 代蓉; 解宇环; 周宁娜

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究天麻乙酸乙酯提取物(EtoAc extracts of Gastrodia elata,EEG)的抗抑郁作用.方法:雄性小鼠随机分为空白对照组,氟西汀组(20 mg·kg-1),氯丙咪嗪组(20 mg·kg-1),EEG低、高剂量组(0.063,0.126 g·kg-1),每组连续ig给药7d后,观察小鼠在悬尾实验(tail suspension test,TST),强迫游泳实验(forced swimming test,FST)中不动时间的变化情况以及小鼠在开场实验中自主活动的变化情况.结果:EEG高剂量(0.126 g·kg-1)能明显缩短小鼠悬尾不动时间,EEG高、低剂量(0.126,0.063 g·kg-1)均能明显缩短小鼠强迫游泳不动时间.EEG高、低剂量对小鼠在开场实验中的自主活动次数没有明显影响.结论:天麻乙酸乙酯提取物对“行为绝望”小鼠有抗抑郁作用.%Objective: To investigate the antidepressant effect of EtoAc extracts of Gastrodia elata (EEG). Method: Male mice were randomly divided into control group, fluoxetine group (20 mg ? kg-1 ) , chlorimipramine group (20 mg ·kg-1)and EEG low, high dose groups (0.063, 0. 126 g ·kg-1). Different groups were intragastrically administrated corresponding medicine once per day for seven days. Then tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used to observe immobility time of mice. And open field test were applied to observe autonomic activity of mice. Result: Intragastric administration of EEG significantly reduced immobility time in both forced swimming test (0. 126, 0. 063 g ·kg-1 ) and tail suspension test (0. 126 g·kg-1) in mice. However, EEG did not affect the number of autonomic activitt of mice in the open-field test. Conclusion: The EEG shows an antidepressant-like effect in the despair animal models of depression in mice.

  10. Effects of Polysaccharide of Gastrodia Elata Blume and Electro-Acupuncture on Expressions of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Stem Cell Factor Protein in Caudate Putamen of Focal Cerebral Ischemia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Bin; Wu, Feng; Miao, Hua-Chun; Xiong, Ke-Ren

    2016-12-23

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the neural protective effect of polysaccharide of Gastrodia elata Blume (PGB) and electro-acupuncture (EA) on focal cerebral ischemia rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (normal group, model group, PGB group, EA group and PGB+EA group). The model was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Two week after modeling, rats were given PGB, EA, or a combination of the 2 in continuous treatment for 2 successive weeks. 14 days after modeling, expressions of BDNF and SCF protein in the caudate putamen (CPu) were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Positive expression of BDNF and SCF protein was found in the right caudate putamen of each group of rats. Expressions of BDNF and SCF in the CPu of the model group were higher than normal group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the expressions of BDNF and SCF in the CPu of the PGB group, the EA group, and the PGB plus EA group increased significantly (P<0.05). The expressions of BDNF and SCF obviously increased in the PGB plus EA group compared to those of the EA group and the PGB group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS PGB and EA up-regulated the expressions of BDNF and SCF protein in the CPu of focal cerebral ischemia rats, and the combination of PGB+EA has a synergistic effect on the recovery from cerebral ischemia.

  11. 20C, a bibenzyl compound isolated from Gastrodia elata, protects PC12 cells against rotenone-induced apoptosis via activation of the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju-yang; Yuan, Yu-he; Yan, Jia-qing; Wang, Ya-nan; Chu, Shi-feng; Zhu, Cheng-gen; Guo, Qing-lan; Shi, Jian-gong; Chen, Nai-hong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our preliminary study shows that a bibenzyl compound isolated from Gastrodia elata, 2-[4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)benzyl]-4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenol (designated 20C), protects PC12 cells against H2O2-induced injury. In this study we investigated whether 20C exerted neuroprotective action in a cell model of Parkinson's disease. Methods: A cell model of Parkinson's disease was established in PC12 cells by exposure to rotenone (4 μmol/L) for 48 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed, and intracellular ROS level and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and oxidative stress-related proteins Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 were examined using Western blotting. The mRNA levels of HO-1 and NQO1 were determined with RT-PCR. The nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was observed with immunofluorescence staining. Results: Treatment with rotenone significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, accompanied by marked increases in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Rotenone also increased ROS accumulation, reduced MMP, and increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 as well as the mRNA and protein levels of the Nrf2 downstream target genes HO-1 and NQO1 in PC12 cells. Co-treatment with 20C (0.01–1 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated rotenone-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA partially reversed the protective effects of 20C in rotenone-treated PC12 cells. Conclusion: The bibenzyl compound 20C protects PC12 cells from rotenone-induced apoptosis, at least in part, via activation of the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway. PMID:27180985

  12. Determination of Gastrodin in Gastrodia elata Blume by HPLC with ELSD and DAD%高效液相色谱法分离/蒸发光散射和紫外检测法测定天麻中天麻甙含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泱; 丁明玉; 李红霞

    2001-01-01

    A normal-phase high performance chromatographic method with evaporative light-scattering detector(ELSD) and diode array detector(DAD), using n-hexane/methanol/ethyl acetate(volume ratio 6∶3∶2) as the mobile phase, was established for the direct determination of active constituents-gastrodin(GA) in the ethanol extracts of Gastrodia elata Blume. An silica gel column Zorbax RX-SIL[46 mm (i.d.)×25 cm, 5 μm] was employed. Regression equations revealed the linear relationships(r=0.998 and 0.999) between the peak areas of GA measured by ELSD and DAD and its concentration. The recoveries of GA measured by ELSD and DAD are 104.22% and 97.65%, respectively. The contents of GA measured by ELSD and DAD are 13.9 mg/g(2.79% RSD) and 12.1 mg/g(2.99% RSD) respectively in Gastrodia elata Blume. The detection limits of ELSD and DAD(S/N=3) are 3 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively. This method is simple, selective and sensitive.

  13. 天麻共生萌发菌栽培种生产工艺条件优化%Optimizing the Gastrodia elata Seed-germinating Strains Production Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立君; 段相程; 胡志芳; 李世辉; 赵艳娟; 师睿

    2016-01-01

    The best production process conditions for Gastrodia elata seed-germinating strain MY-001 were opti⁃mized. The results showed that the best liquid fermentation conditions were pressure of 0.020MPa,ermented liquid of brown sugar 10g/L,wheat bran 15g/L,peptone 1g/L. The number increasing ofhypha biomass over time accords with the Logisticgrowth model,the observations fit with the logistic equation fitting thehigher value(R2=97.7%),bio⁃mass tends to be stable after fermentation 144h. The optimum cultivation of the substrate were determined fagaceae plant leaves60%,broadleaf sawdust 30%,and wheat bran 10%.%经试验对天麻共生萌发菌MY-001的栽培种生产的工艺条件进行了优化,结果显示,既能降低生产成本又能提高生产效率的液体发酵条件为:液体菌种培养器的气压为0.020MPa,发酵液主要成分中红糖、麦麸和蛋白胨的最佳比例为红糖10g/L、麦麸15g/L、蛋白胨1g/L,萌发菌菌丝生物量随时间的变化符合逻辑斯蒂增长模型,其观测值与逻辑斯蒂方程拟合值的拟合度较高(R2=97.7%),发酵培养144h后生物量趋于稳定,栽培种基质最合适的比例为壳斗科植物树叶60%、阔叶树木屑30%和麦麸10%。

  14. Observation of foliar anatomical structures and adaptabilities of Ficus virens var. sublanceolata (Miq.) Corner and F. microcarpa Linn. F.%大叶榕和细叶榕叶片解剖结构及其适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少雄; 秦维; 肖德兴

    2010-01-01

    对大叶榕(Ficus virens var. sublanceolata(Miq. )Corner)和细叶榕(F. microcarpa Linn. F.)的叶片解剖结构以及电镜下气孔形态特征进行了观察和比较,并对大叶榕和细叶榕叶片对环境的适应性进行了探讨.结果显示,大叶榕叶肉无明显的栅栏组织和海绵组织分化,为等面叶,叶肉细胞排列紧密;上、下表皮由单层细胞构成,角质层极薄,下表皮上的角质膜呈网状凸起;气孔密度大,分布在下表皮并明显突起,在气孔周围没有角质层拱盖.细叶榕为异面叶,海绵组织细胞间隙大;上、下表皮由2层细胞组成复表皮,并具较厚的角质层,下表皮上的角质膜呈波浪状凸起.气孔分布在下表皮并内凹陷,气孔周围有角质层拱盖,拱盖缘厚突起.根据对两种植物叶脉的粗细、表皮的组成、细胞大小,角质层厚度、气孔凸凹程度和密度等方面的分析,表明细叶榕的对旱生环境的适应能力强于大叶榕.

  15. Padronização e determinação da fotoestabilidade do extrato de folhas de Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq (pariparoba e avaliação da inibição in vitro de metaloproteinases 2 e 9 na pele Standardization and determination of photostability of leaf extracts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq (pariparoba and evaluation of the inhibition in vitro of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Leite Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das pesquisas realizadas até hoje sobre os efeitos benéficos da pariparoba (Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq foi feita com o extrato da raíz desta espécie, e o seu emprego em larga escala comprometeria a exploração sustentável deste insumo natural. Neste sentido o uso das folhas da pariparoba, ao invés de raízes pela indústria cosmética, não põe em risco a existência da espécie. Neste trabalho foi determinada a concentração de 4-nerolidilcatecol (4-NC de um extrato de folhas por metodologia analítica validada em nosso laboratório, cujo valor foi cerca de 30% menor que no extrato de raiz, obtido da mesma maneira. Na avaliação de fotoestabilidade do extrato de folhas, uma solução de 0,25 mg/mL não apresentou alterações significativas do perfil espectroscópico após 2 horas de exposição à radiação UVB, demonstrando sua estabilidade. Metaloproteinases (MMPs são endopeptidases dependentes de zinco, envolvidas na remodelagem da matriz extracelular (MEC, e importantes na formação das rugas típicas do fotoenvelhecimento cutâneo. Também avaliamos, por técnica de zimografia, a capacidade do extrato de folhas de P. umbellata de inibir a atividade de MMPs 2 e 9 in vitro de pele de camundongos sem pêlo. O extrato de folhas (0,1 mg/mL inibiu em 80% a atividade destas enzimas, conforme avaliação densitométrica.Most researches that have been done until today about the beneficial effects of pariparoba (Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq have been done with root extract of this species, but the use in large scale would compromise the sustainable exploration of this natural resource. In this sense, the utilization of pariparoba leaves, substituting the roots, in the cosmetic industry does not put in risk the existence of the species. In this work the concentration of 4-nerolidylcathecol (4-NC in leaf extract was determined by the analytical methodology validated in our laboratory. The concentration of 4-NC in leaf extract

  16. 菌材树种及用量对甘孜州野生乌天麻无性繁殖的影响%Effects of Tree Species and Dosage of Rhizomorph Wood on Asexual Reproduction of Gastrodia elata.Bl.f.glauca S.Chow in Ganzi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学强; 彭宗杰

    2015-01-01

    研究不同菌材树种、菌材用量对甘孜州野生乌天麻(Gastrodia elata Bl.f.glauca S.Chow)无性繁殖的影响.结果表明,菌材树种对甘孜州野生乌天麻无性繁殖的产量和箭麻折干率均有极显著影响,刺叶栎类材质紧密树种所培养的天麻的产量和折干率极显著高于白桦类材质疏松树种:菌材用量对甘孜州野生乌天麻无性繁殖产量有极显著影响,但对箭麻折干率无影响.

  17. Effects of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Gastrodia elata on Neuroplasticity of Rat Cerebral Ischemia Injury Model%天麻乙酸乙酯提取物对大脑中动脉栓塞模型大鼠神经突触可塑性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小花; 李国花; 吴霜; 文金隆; 林青

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察天麻乙酸乙酯提取物对大脑中动脉栓塞模型大鼠神经突触可塑性的影响.方法:将动物随机分为3组,即假手术组、模型组、天麻乙酸乙酯提取物组(以下简称乙提组,剂量按生药量计为7.29 g·kg-1).预防性连续灌胃给予药物7d,末次给药0.5h后复制大鼠大脑中动脉栓塞模型,然后再进行治疗性连续灌胃给药7d,统汁模型复制后7d时的死亡率、各组大鼠在规定时间点进行神经行为学评定及脑组织取材检测GAP-43的表达.结果:与假手术组比较,模型组大鼠死亡率和神经病学评分明显升高、肌力评分和GAP-43表达明显降低;与模型组比较,乙提组大鼠术后第7天死亡率和神经病学评分明显降低、肌力评分和GAP-43表达明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:天麻乙酸乙酯提取物对大脑中动脉栓塞模型大鼠神经突触可塑性有一定的改善作用.%Objective: To observe the effects of ethyl acetate extraction from Gastrodia elata on the neuroplasticity of rat cerebral ischemia injury model. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group, model group and ethyl acetate extraction from G. elata group ( ethyl acetate extraction group, 7. 29 g ·kg-1 ) . The rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were replicated 0. 5 h later after the last dose of continuous oral administration of drug on the 7th day and keep administration of drug for another 7 days. Statistic data were collected on death rate of model on 7th day, as well as neurological behavior and expression of GAP-43 at specified time point. Result: Compared with the sham-operation group, the death rate and neurological syndromes of model group were markedly increased and the hanging wire and expression of GAP-43 were significantly decreased. Compared with the model group, the death rate and neurological syndromes of the ethyl acetate extraction group were significantly

  18. 细枝木麻黄小枝多酚提取液的抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidative Effects of Polyphenol Extracts from Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq.Branchlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 廖晓明; 董乐

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Study the antioxidative effects of polyphenol extracts from Casuarina cunninghamiana Mig. Branchiet. [Method]The poly-phenol was extracted from Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. Branchiet,using ethanol as extractant and employing ultrasonic treatment. In the mean time,the effects of polyphenol extracts were investigated both antioxidation in vitro and the peroxide value (POV) of maize oil. [Result] The scavenging activity of polyphenol extracts was 95.4% for DPPH· ,the scavenging concentration of polyphenol extracts was 68 mg/L for 50% DP-PH-,when the concentration of polyphenol extracts was 0.90 mg/ml. The scavenging activity of polyphenol extracts was 99.0% for ·OH,the scavenging concentration was 74 mg/L for 50% ·OH,when the concentration was 1.20 ing/ml. The scavenging activity was 98.9% for superox-ide anion radicals (O2-·) ,the scavenging concentration was 240 mg/ml for 50% 02-· , when the concentration was 1.20 mg/ml. The experimental results of the effects on the POV in maize oil showed that the POV was 82.78 mmol/kg when maize oil was layed in for 10 days without the polyphenol ,while the POV was 41.73 mmol/kg with 0.016% polyphenol. [Conclusion] Polyphenol extracts from Casuarina cunninghamiana Mig. Branchiet could scavenge DPPH· ,· OH and O2-· , which had integrated antioxygenic property.%[目的]研究细枝木麻黄小枝多酚提取液的抗氧化活性.[方法]以细枝木麻黄小枝为原料,以乙醇为提取溶剂,采用超声波辅助法提取细枝木麻黄多酚,并研究细枝木麻黄小枝多酚提取液的体外抗氧化作用及其对玉米油的抗氧化性能的影响.[结果]体外抗氧化试验结果表明,细枝木麻黄小枝多酚浓度为0.90 mg/ml时,对DPPH·的清除率为95.4%,半清除率(IC50)为68 mg/L;浓度为1.20mg/ml时,对·OH的清除率达99.0%,IC50为74mg/L;浓度为1.20 mg/ml时,对O2-·的清除率达98.9%,IC50为240 mg/L.对玉米油脂抗氧化性影响的试验结果表明,贮藏10d

  19. 浙贝母花及花粉中8种E族维生素的高效液相色谱-荧光分析%Determination of E Vitamins in the Flowers and Pollens of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. by HPLC-FLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋欣杭; 梁君玲; 李建伟; 吴世华

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To analyze and determine the chemical structures and contents of E vitamins in flowers and pollens of F. thunbergii Miq.,so as to provide scientific basis for its further development. [ Methods ] High-performance liquid chromatography-florescence detection ( HPLCFLD) was first established to determine the compositions of E vitamins. The detection conditions were as follows:Agilent Zorbax RX-SIL column (4.6 mm x 150 mm,5 μm) and guard column (4.6 mm x 10 mm,5 μm) ,mobile phase of hexane -0. 2% isopropanol-O. 8% acetic acid( 1: 4, V/V) ,column temperature of 25 ℃ ,flow rate of 1.0 ml/nin,the maximum excitation wavelength of 292 nm and the maximum emission wavelength was 328 nm. [ Results ] 8 kinds of vitamins were determined simultaneously for the first time,which were in good linear relationship within the detection range,R2 >0.999 0 and recovery rate exceeded 98%. There were 7 kinds of E vitamins in the flower of F. thunbergii Miq. ,among which D-a-tocotrienols was the highest that reached 181.606 mg/kg,however the contents of E vitamins in the pollens of F. thunbergii Miq. were relatively lower. [ Conclusion ] There are multiple kinds of E vitamins in the flowers and pollens of F. thunbergii Miq. ,comparatively speaking,the flower of F. thunbergii Miq. is richer in E vitamins,which deserves further research. Besides,HPLC-FLD is convenient and efficiency that can be used for determining the contents of E vitamins.%[目的]分析浙贝母花及其花粉中E族维生素的组成和含量,为浙贝母花资源的开发提供一定的科学依据.[方法]采用高效液相色谱-荧光分析法(HPLC-FLD)检测E族维生素的成分,检测条件如下:Agilent Zorbax RX-SIL(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,4.6mm×10 mm保护柱,含0.2%异丙醇和0.8%冰乙酸的正己烷溶液为流动相(1:4,V/V),流速为1.0 ml/min进行洗脱,柱温25℃,荧光最大激发波长292 nm,最大发射波长328 nm.[结果]首次建立了可同时测定8种维生

  20. 我国人工栽培和野生黑色羊肚菌的菌种鉴定及系统发育分析%Strain identification and phylogenetic analysis of cultivated and wild strains of Morchella belonging to Elata Clade in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何培新; 刘伟; 蔡英丽; 贺新生

    2015-01-01

    Applying regular morphology combined with the technology of ITS sequence analysis,the identi-fication and phylogenetic analysis of the 4 cultivated strains and 5 wild morel isolates mainly collected from Sichuan province and Chongqing municipality were carried out.The study followed the sequence identifica-tion program required by data bank of multilocus sequence typing(MLST).The phylogenetic tree was con-structed with reliable sequences obtained from BLAST one-by-one comparison.The results suggested that the cultivated morel varieties were identified as Morchella importuna,M.sextelata and M.septimelata.In addition,5 wild isolates were identified as M.elata and M.importuna,respectively.%采用常规形态学原理,结合核糖体 DNA 转录间隔区(ITS)序列分析技术,对我国4个羊肚菌主要栽培菌株和5个主要采集自川渝地区的野生分离物进行菌株鉴定和系统发育分析,研究遵循羊肚菌 MLST 数据库的序列鉴定程序,基于系统研究过的可靠序列信息,对获得的 ITS 序列进行逐一比对,选取相似度靠前的信息,构建系统发育树。结果表明,目前我国大面积种植的羊肚菌分别为梯纹羊肚菌、六妹羊肚菌和七妹羊肚菌;5个野生种质分别鉴定为梯纹羊肚菌和高羊肚菌。

  1. Optimization of Extraction Process of Methyl Eugenol from Volatile Oil of Asarum Sieboldii Miq.by Ultrasound-assisted Extraction%超声辅助提取华细辛挥发油中甲基丁香酚工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳天贽; 袁泉

    2013-01-01

    采用内标法测定甲基丁香酚的含量,在单因素试验基础上设计正交试验,研究浸泡时间、料液比、提取温度、提取时间对超声辅助提取(UAE)华细辛挥发油中甲基丁香酚提取率的影响.结果表明:最佳提取条件为:浸泡时间3h,料液比1∶40(g/mL),提取温度60℃,提取时间40 min,经3次平行实验验证,此条件下的甲基丁香酚平均得率为0.661%,比正交实验任意组得率高,该超声辅助提取工艺稳定可靠.%In this study,the content of methyl eugenol from volatile oil of Asarum sieboldii Miq. was extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction and determined by spiking internal standard. Based on the results of single factor experiment, orthogonal tests were designed to optimize the extraction conditions, including immersion time, material-liquid ratio, extraction temperature and time. The results showed that the best extraction conditions were as follows;3 h as immersion time, 1 : 40 as material-liquid ratio,60℃as the extraction temperature,40 min as the extraction time,with 3 parallel experimental verifications. The yields of methyl eugenol extracted out under this condition were higher than any orthogonal group. The ultrasound-assisted extraction process was proved to be stable and reliable.

  2. Drug: D10240 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10240 Crude, Drug Aralia root (non-JP); Wakyoukatsu; Araliae cordatae radix Aralia...] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) D10240 Aralia root PubChem: 163312271 ...

  3. Changes of Phenolic Compounds Content and Activity of Enzymes Related to Phenolic Compounds in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.Bulbs Stored at Different Cold Temperatures for Breaking Dormancy%浙贝母鳞茎酚类物质含量及相关酶活性与休眠解除的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昕; 金文韬; 凌庆枝; 何军邀

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨浙贝母鳞茎中酚类物质及相关酶活性与休眠解除的关系.[方法]将浙贝母鳞茎分别在4和10C条件下保湿贮藏至75 d,贮藏过程中定期取样测定鳞茎各部位酚类物质含量、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,同时比较了发芽鳞茎与休眠鳞茎中酚类物质含量和PAL与PPO活性的差异.[结果]低温解除休眠过程中,鳞茎及芽内酚类物质含量均呈降低趋势;10℃处理30 ~45 d和4℃处理45~60 d是酚类物质减少、解除休眠的关键时期;浙贝母各部位酚类物质含量与其PPO活性均呈显著负相关;顶芽中酚类物质含量与PAL活性呈显著正相关;鳞片中酚类物质含量与PAL活性没有明显的相关性.[结论]酚类物质与浙贝母鳞茎休眠有一定相关性,酚类物质含量下降是低温处理解除浙贝母鳞茎休眠的生理机制之一.%[ Objective ] To analyze changes of phenolic compounds content and activity of enzymes related to phenolic compounds in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. bulbs stored at different cold temperatures for breaking dormancy. [ Method] Bulbs of F. thunbergii were stored in moist sawdust up to 75 d at 4 or 10 ℃. The samples were taken periodically, and were used to determine phenolic compounds content, PAL activity, PPO activity in different parts of bulb. Differences in phenolic compounds content, PAL activity and PPO activity between dormant and dormancy-broken bulbs were analyzed. [ Result ] The results showed that a downward trend of phenolic compounds content in bulb was observed during the breaking of dormancy; 10 ℃ for 30 -45 d and 4 ℃ for 45 -60 d were the crucial period of dormancy release and the phenolic compounds decrease; phenolic compounds content and PPO activity were negatively correlated; phenolic compounds content and PAL activity in buds were significantly positive correlation; phenolic compounds content and PAL activity in bulbs had no significant

  4. Anthocyanin fingerprinting of true bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in black raspberry products has been increasing due to its flavor and potential health benefits. While black raspberries grown in North America are Rubus occidentalis L., there has been some confusion regarding the identity of black raspberry grown in Korea (known as bokbunja; R. corean...

  5. Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea leprosula Miq. cuttings, mycorrhizae and nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulyana Omon, R.

    2002-01-01

    "Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea leprosula cuttings, mycorrhizace and nutrients" discusses the mycorrhizal development in conditions of different dosage of NPK fertilizer, on different soil substrates and under different environmental conditions (controll

  6. Comportamento germinativo de sementes de diferentes cores de pariparoba [Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq.] Germinative behavior of Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq. seeds of different colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I Maia-Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Pothomorphe umbellata (Piperaceae, é uma espécie medicinal nativa do Brasil, utilizada na indústria de cosméticos e protetores de pele contra raios UVA e UVB. Com o intuito de gerar informações aplicadas à propagação da espécie, o presente trabalho relacionou a coloração e a massa de sementes de P. umbellata a seu comportamento germinativo. A coloração e a massa de sementes de P. umbellata foram características adequadas para avaliar a homogeneidade fisiológica, o vigor, o potencial e o comportamento germinativo. Assim, conclui-se que, embora de germinação lenta, as sementes de coloração preta e mais densa devem ser as escolhidas quando de coleta ou de processo seletivo.Pothomorphe umbellata (Piperaceae is a medicinal species native to Brazil, which has been used in the cosmetic industry and in products that protect the skin against UVA and UVB rays. To generate information applied to the species propagation, the present work related the coloration and the mass of P. umbellata seeds to their germinative behavior. The coloration and the mass of seeds of P. umbellata were characteristic appropriate to evaluate physiologic homogeneity, vigor, potential and germinative behavior. Thus, although of slow germination, seeds of black and denser coloration should be chosen during collection or selective process.

  7. Four new morel (Morchella) species in the Elata Subclade (sect. Distantes) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four Turkish Morchella species identified in published multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses are described here as new, using detailed macro- and microscopic data: M. mediterraneensis (Mel-27), M. fekeensis (Mel-28), M. magnispora (Mel-29), and M. conifericola (Mel-32). A distribution map of m...

  8. Selective tumor imaging by a novel tumor specific aralin-infrared-to-visible phosphor conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Y; Gotoh, Y; Komeno, T; Todoroki, R; Tashiro, F [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, 278-8510 Chiba (Japan); Tokuzen, K; Nagasaki, Y; Soga, K [Polyscale Technology Research Center, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, 278-8510 Chiba (Japan); Kamimura, M [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573, Ibaraki (Japan); Tomatsu, M, E-mail: ftashir@rs.noda.tus.ac.j [Akita Research Institute for Food and Brewing (ARIF), 4-26 Azasanuki Arayamachi, Akita, 010-1623 Akita (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Aralin is a novel cytotoxic protein from Aralia elata and selectively induces apoptosis in transformed cells as compared to normal cells (1). Aralin is a lectin specific for sugar chain such as galactose and possesses RNA N-glycosidase activity. In this study, antitumor potency of aralin was analyzed using the poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG)/streptavidin co-immobilized infrared-to-visible upconversion phosphors, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (2). Cy3-conjugated aralin could clearly detect the surface of SV40-transformed VA13 and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, but to a lesser extent on the normal human fibroblast WI-38 cells. Conjugation of aralin with PEGylated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphor was carried out via biotin-avidin binding. The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-conjugated aralin also clearly visualize by a fluorescence microscope measurements equipped with near-infrared excitation source scanning in HeLa cells. It is also important to note that no remarkable damage to the cells was observed during these observations. Thus, these data imply that the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-conjugated aralin would potentially be useful material for tumor detection in vivo.

  9. Selective tumor imaging by a novel tumor specific aralin-infrared-to-visible phosphor conjugate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Y.; Gotoh, Y.; Tokuzen, K.; Kamimura, M.; Komeno, T.; Tomatsu, M.; Todoroki, R.; Nagasaki, Y.; Soga, K.; Tashiro, F.

    2009-11-01

    Aralin is a novel cytotoxic protein from Aralia elata and selectively induces apoptosis in transformed cells as compared to normal cells (1). Aralin is a lectin specific for sugar chain such as galactose and possesses RNA N-glycosidase activity. In this study, antitumor potency of aralin was analyzed using the poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG)/streptavidin co-immobilized infrared-to-visible upconversion phosphors, Y2O3 nanoparticles (2). Cy3-conjugated aralin could clearly detect the surface of SV40-transformed VA13 and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, but to a lesser extent on the normal human fibroblast WI-38 cells. Conjugation of aralin with PEGylated Y2O3 nanophosphor was carried out via biotin-avidin binding. The Y2O3-conjugated aralin also clearly visualize by a fluorescence microscope measurements equipped with near-infrared excitation source scanning in HeLa cells. It is also important to note that no remarkable damage to the cells was observed during these observations. Thus, these data imply that the Y2O3-conjugated aralin would potentially be useful material for tumor detection in vivo.

  10. Effects of light and temperature on seed germination in Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Cecropiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoi Simone

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Cecropia hololeuca were submitted to regimes of constant and alternating temperatures, associated with photoperiods of white light, "shade light" and continuous darkness under controlled conditions in laboratory. Seeds did not germinate at constant temperatures of 10°C to 20°C and above 35°C. Seeds only germinated in the darkness when the temperature was alternated. "Shade light" inhibited germination. We concluded that the regime of alternating temperatures suppressed the light effects on seed germination of this species.

  11. RESPON PEMBERIAN HORMON TUMBUH DAN MIKORIZA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN STEK RAMIN (GONYSTYLUS BANCANUS (MIQ. KURZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wikan Utami

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine  the effect of growth hormones and mycorhyza application on the growth of ramin cuttings.  A Completely Randomized Design with 5 replicates was used in this study. The experiment consisted of two stages  i.e  hormon treatments (control, Rapid root, Root Up, IBA 250 mg/l, IBA 500 mg/l, IBA 1000 mg/l, Fusarium and mycorhyza applications. The result showed that  the highest number of root  was obtained from Root Up (12,83 cm,  while the lowest was from Fusarium treatments (4,67 cm. IBA 250 mg/l enhanced the number of roots and the length of root significantly  but not stimulate the development of  new leaf.  While mycorhyza application improving  the growth of the new leaf  and  the root development of ramin.

  12. Effects of the Ottonia martiana Miq. (Piperaceae extract on dog's ocular surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B.S. Lisbão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The anesthetics effects of aqueous extract of Ottonia martiana leaves were studied on the ocular surface of healthy beagle dogs. The dogs were divided in three groups (n=15: control group (CG, proxymetacaine group (PG and Ottonia group (OG, which were treated with 0.9% saline, 0.5% proxymetacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution and O. martiana extract respectively. An oftalmic evaluation was performed before the treatments. Eye drops were instilled at time 0 (T0 and 3 minutes later (T3. Axial corneal sensitivity was evaluated by esthesiometry 5 and 10 minutes after T0. Tear production and intraocular pressure were evaluated 10 minutes after T0. Slit lamp biomicroscopy was performed 10 and 20 minutes after T0 and the eyes were stained with fluorescein 20 minutes after T0. The STT was reduced in PG. Conjunctival hyperemia was observed in 13 animals from PG and constituted the only ocular alteration observed during the study. Esthesiometry revealed a decreased corneal sensitivity for PG and OG. Those results show that the O. martiana extract acts reducing corneal sensitivity in dogs. Moreover, its use does not decrease the tear production and does not cause any clinical ophthalmic alteration.

  13. PENGARUH EKSTRAK METANOL KULIT BATANG TUMBUHAN Tristania sumatrana Miq. TERHADAP FERTILITAS MENCIT PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaedy Samah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The antiferality effect of sibalusuah wood (Tristania sumatrana towards mice was evaluated. The substance was administered through gastric lavage tube in 3 different dosis I 525, 1050 and 2100 mg/kg b.w. during seven days before the mating period was conducted. On day 12 after gestation all the pregnant mice were killed after anaesthez with ether and the fetuses were withdrawn by laparotomy. The number of fetuses and the resorption occurences were noted to make account for the expected effect. The results showed that resorptions of fetuses have occurred, in all level of doses and increase with higher dose. No resorption occurred in controls.Also there were non pregnant mice in every dose given but not for the control group, which indicates that Ms preparation has an antiferality effect by prolonging estrogen cycle.

  14. FLAVONOIDES CON ACTIVIDAD ANTIFÚNGICA AISLADOS DE Piper septuplinervium (Miq. C. DC. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Avila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El fraccionamiento bioguiado del extractoetanólico de la parte aérea de Piper septuplinervium(Piperaceae permitió la obtenciónde dos substancias de tipoflavonoide, activas contra dos cepas dehongos fitopatógenos (Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. dianthi y Botrytis cinerea. Lasestructuras de los compuestos aisladosfueron determinadas de acuerdo con elanálisis espectroscópico (RMN uni y bidimensional,EMAR. La actividad antifúngicafue determinada por ensayo endisco, seguido por bioautografía directasobre las dos cepas de hongos en prueba.

  15. New Iridoid Glucosides from Caryopteris incana (Thunb. Miq. and Their α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Mao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In our continued investigations of the plant Caryopteris incana, five new iridoid glucosides 1–5, including two cis-trans-isomers, 3 and 4, along with six known compounds 6–11, were isolated from the n-butyl alcohol (n-BuOH soluble fraction of whole dried material of Caryopteris incana. Their structures were established by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS. Furthermore, all isolates were evaluated for their yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Among these compounds, 4–8 and 10 exhibited potent inhibition of α-glucosidase.

  16. Novel Microsatellite Markers Acquired from Rubus coreanus Miq. and Cross-Amplification in Other Rubus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-An Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rubus genus consists of more than 600 species that are distributed globally. Only a few Rubus species, including raspberries and blueberries, have been domesticated. Genetic diversity within and between Rubus species is an important resource for breeding programs. We developed genomic microsatellite markers using an SSR-enriched R. coreanus library to study the diversity of the Rubus species. Microsatellite motifs were discovered in 546 of 646 unique clones, and a dinucleotide repeat was the most frequent (75.3% type of repeat. From 97 microsatellite loci with reproducible amplicons, we acquired 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Rubus coreanus collection. The transferability values ranged from 59.8% to 84% across six Rubus species, and Rubus parvifolius had the highest transferability value (84%. The average number of alleles and the polymorphism information content were 5.7 and 0.541, respectively, in the R. coreanus collection. The diversity index of R. coreanus was similar to the values reported for other Rubus species. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on SSR profiles revealed that seven Rubus species could be allocated to three groups, and that R. coreanus was genetically close to Rubus crataegifolius (mountain berry. These new microsatellite markers might prove useful in studies of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among Rubus species.

  17. Novel microsatellite markers acquired from Rubus coreanus Miq. and cross-amplification in other Rubus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-An; Song, Jae Young; Choi, Heh-Ran; Chung, Jong-Wook; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Jung-Ro; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Myung-Chul

    2015-04-10

    The Rubus genus consists of more than 600 species that are distributed globally. Only a few Rubus species, including raspberries and blueberries, have been domesticated. Genetic diversity within and between Rubus species is an important resource for breeding programs. We developed genomic microsatellite markers using an SSR-enriched R. coreanus library to study the diversity of the Rubus species. Microsatellite motifs were discovered in 546 of 646 unique clones, and a dinucleotide repeat was the most frequent (75.3%) type of repeat. From 97 microsatellite loci with reproducible amplicons, we acquired 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Rubus coreanus collection. The transferability values ranged from 59.8% to 84% across six Rubus species, and Rubus parvifolius had the highest transferability value (84%). The average number of alleles and the polymorphism information content were 5.7 and 0.541, respectively, in the R. coreanus collection. The diversity index of R. coreanus was similar to the values reported for other Rubus species. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on SSR profiles revealed that seven Rubus species could be allocated to three groups, and that R. coreanus was genetically close to Rubus crataegifolius (mountain berry). These new microsatellite markers might prove useful in studies of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among Rubus species.

  18. Environmental Assessment for Lock and Dam 22 Major Rehabilitation, Ralls County, Missouri and Pike County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    parvula rare - Wild sarsaparilla Aralia nudicaulis rare - Salt meadow grass Leptochloa panlcoides - endangered Jeweled shooting star Dodecatheon...lots rare - Ditch grass Ruppia maritima rare - Small spike-rush Eleocharis parvula rare - Wild sarsaparilla Aralia nudicaulis rare Salt meadow grass

  19. 天麻素药理作用研究进展%Gastrodia elata pharmacological activity research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵生

    2015-01-01

    Gastrodin is one of the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine Gastrodiae Rhizoma,with sedative and hypnotic effect and other therapeutic pharmacologicaleffects.The recentprogresses on pharmacolo-gicalactivities of Gastrodinwere summarized in order to provide references for further study and development.%天麻素是中药天麻的有效成分之一,具有较好的镇静和安眠作用。本研究在检索国内外相关文献的基础上,对天麻素药理作用的研究进展进行了综述。

  20. Isolation of a Gastrodia Antifungal Protein Gene from a Genomic Library of G. elata and Its Sequence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new genomic DNA encoding a member of Gastrodia antifungal protein family is isolated and sequenced.This gene contains a 510 bp open reading frame and 531 bp promoter region without introns.Sequence analysis indicates that a 28 amino acids signal peptide exists at the N-terminal.It shows high sequence homology with the mannose-binding lectinsfrom Epipactis hellebo-rine, Listera ovata and Cymbidium hybrid.A putative TATA box and transcription start site is dete cted in the promoter region.

  1. Study on Seed Quality Standard of Aralia cordata Thunb.%食用土当归种子质量标准探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 安家成; 朱昌叁

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立食用土当归的种子质量标准,并解决种子萌发问题.方法 对食用土当归种子进行检验,并设计对比试验探讨赤霉素、温度对种子萌发的影响.结果 食用土当归种子净度为74% ~91%,平均值为83.3%;含水量为8.2% ~10.4%,平均值为9.4%;千粒重为0.91 ~ 1.02g,平均值为0.97g;种子经300mg/L赤霉素12h浸泡后转15/25℃(15℃16h,25℃8h)变温条件下萌发,发芽率>75%,发芽势>40%,25d发芽结束;隔年种子发芽率显著下降.结论 食用土当归优质种子质量标准为发芽率≥75%,发芽势≥40%,千粒重≥0.95 g,种子净度≥80%,含水量≤10.5%,且籽粒饱满,大小均匀;种子经赤霉素浸泡后转变温条件下萌发可有效提高发芽率;陈种不宜作为生产用种.

  2. 栽培食用土当归根的化学成分研究%Research on Chemical Ingredients of the Root from Cultivar Aralia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭腾; 董小萍; 邓赟; 涂永勤; 李小年

    2005-01-01

    从栽培食用土当归根的乙醚部位分离得到8个化合物,经UV、IR、1H-NMR、13CNMR等鉴定为:栲利烯酸(kaur-16-en-19-oic acid)(Ⅰ)、十六烷酸(docosanoic)(Ⅱ)、二十二烷酸(hexadecanoic acid)(Ⅲ)、豆甾醇(stigmasterol)(Ⅳ)、16-甲酰基-15-烯-栲利烯酸(16-formyl-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid)(Ⅴ)、7-酮基海松酸(7-oxo-ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-0ic acid)(Ⅵ)、17-羟基-15-烯-栲利烯酸(17-Hydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-19-0ic acid)(Ⅶ)、β-谷甾醇(sitosterol)(Ⅷ),其中化合物Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  3. Avaliação do extrato etanólico de Ottonia martiana Miq. para o controle de duas doenças florestais Evaluation of Ottonia martiana Miq. alcoholic extract to control two forest diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Cunico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabólitos secundários presentes em plantas medicinais apresentam várias propriedades biológicas incluindo a atividade antifúngica. Esse estudo avaliou o potencial antifúngico da planta medicinal Ottonia martiana no controle da pinta-preta em erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis e do mofo-cinzento em eucalipto (Eucalyptus dunnii. Extrato etanólico (EBEtOH dos órgãos totais (raízes, caules, folhas e frutos foi preparado e testado na concentração de 1000 μg mL-1 contra os patógenos Cylindrocladium spathulatum (pinta-preta e Botrytis cinerea (mofo-cinzento. Bioensaios in vitro (germinação de esporos e bioautografia direta e in vivo (teste de patogenicidade em mudas mostraram que o EBEtOH reduziu o crescimento micelial dos patógenos testados e a germinação dos esporos de C. spathulatum e estimulou a germinação de esporos de B. cinerea. O teste de patogenicidade mostrou que o controle da pinta-preta em erva-mate e do mofo cinzento em eucalipto não é viável usando-se a concentração testada de EBEtOH de O. martiana. Na bioautografia direta, foram detectadas zonas de inibição de crescimento micelial dos fungos e que foram relacionadas com a presença de piperovatina.Secondary metabolites from medicinal plants have several biological properties, including antifungal activity. This study evaluated the antifungal potential of the medicinal plant Ottonia martiana to control maté leaf spot (Ilex paraguariensis and eucalypt gray mould (Eucalyptus dunnii. Ethanol extract (EBEtOH of the total parts (roots, stems, leaves and fruits was prepared at the concentration of 1000 μg mL-1 and tested against Cylindrocladium spathulatum (maté leaf spot and Botrytis cinerea (eucalypt gray mould. In vitro bioassays (spore germination and direct bioautography and in vivo bioassays (pathogenicity test in seedlings showed that EBEtOH reduced the mycelial growth of the tested pathogens and the germination of C. spathulatum spores and stimulated the germination of B. cinerea spores. The pathogenicity test showed that the control of maté leaf spot and eucalypt gray mould is not viable using the tested concentration of O. martiana EBEtOH. Zones of mycelial growth inhibition were detected in direct bioautography and were related to the presence of piperovatine.

  4. Chemical constituents of Ottonia corcovadensis Miq. from Amazon forest: {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments; Constituintes quimicos de Ottonia corcovadensis Miq. da floresta Amazonica - atribuicao dos deslocamentos quimicos dos atomos de hidrogenio e carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facundo, Valdir A. [Rondonia Univ., Porto Velho, RO (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Morais, Selene M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Fisica; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas. Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: braz@uenf.br

    2004-02-01

    In an ethanolic extract of leaves of Ottonia corcovadensis (Piperaceae) were identified sixteen terpenoids of essential oil and the three flavonoids 3',4',5,5',7-penta methoxyflavone (1), 3',4',5,7-tetra methoxyflavone (2) and 5-hydroxy-3',4',5',7-tetra methoxyflavone (3) and cafeic acid (4). Two amides (5 and 6) were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the roots. The structures were established by spectral analysis, meanly NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectra. Extensive NMR analysis was also used to complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shift assignments of the flavonoids and amides. The components of the essential oil were identified by computer library search, retention indices and visual interpretation of mass spectra. (author)

  5. Antibacterial activity of extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessini Greisiele Lorena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the activity of the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Piper regnellii was tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The aqueous extractdisplayed a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of 1000 µg/ml. The ethyl acetate extract presented a good activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC and MBC at 15.62 µg/ml. In contrast to the relative low MICs for gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria were not inhibited by the extracts at concentrations < 1000 mg/ml. The ethyl acetate extract was fractionated on silica gel into nine fractions. The hexane and chloroform fractions were active against S. aureus (MIC at 3.9 µg/ml and B. subtilis (MIC at 3.9 and 7.8 µg/ml, respectively. Using bioactivity-directed fractionation, the hexane fraction was rechromatographed to yield the antimicrobial compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6identified as eupomatenoid-6, eupomatenoid-5, eupomatenoid-3, and conocarpan, respectively. The pure compounds 1 and 2 showed a good activity against S. aureus with MIC of 1.56 µg/ml and 3.12 µg/ml, respectively. Both compounds presented MIC of 3.12 µg/ml against B. subtilis. The pure compound 6 named as conocarpan was quite active against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC of 6.25 µg/ml. The antibacterial properties of P. regnellii justify its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds, contaminated through bacteria infections.

  6. PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN PULAI DARAT (Alstonia angustiloba Miq. DARI EMPAT POPULASI PADA UMUR SATU TAHUN DI WONOGIRI, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashudi Mashudi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aims to identify the effects of population sources and parent trees on the growth of Alstonia angustiloba of one year old. This experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design. The research used two factors, i.e. population sources (Carita-Banten, Pendopo-Muara Enim, Lubuk Linggau-Musi Rawas and Solok-West Sumatera, and parent trees (43 parent trees. In this experiment, parent trees factor was nested in the population sources. The result showed that population sources and parent trees significantly affected the parameters measured, i.e. height and stem diameter. Pendopo and Carita were the best two populations in terms of height (1,612 m and 1,597 m, respectively and stem diameter (2,567 cm and 2,686 cm, respectively. The best ten parent trees for height were parent trees number 13 (1.884 m, 16 (1.808 m, 17 (1.773 m, 8 (1.688 m, 6 (1.684 m, 15 (1.682 m, 20 (1.677 m, 36 (1.652 m, 18 (1.652 m and 14 (1.630 m. The best ten of parent trees for stem diameter were parent trees number 16 (3.171 cm, 7 (3.116 cm, 13 (3.105 cm, 8 (3.027 cm, 36 (3.022 cm, 27 (2.974 cm, 15 (2.925 cm, 30 (2.787 cm, 6 (2.766 cm and 18 (2.757 cm.

  7. POPULATION AND MICROHABITAT OF Gonystylus bancanus (Miq. Kurz IN DANAU PULAU BESAR-DANAU BAWAH WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Wahyu C. Kusuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus is one of the major timber species that facing high exploitation in Indonesia. This species can only be found on a specific peat swamp habitat, thus it confines its distribution. Information on its current population and microhabitat characteristics is relatively limited. Here, we investigated natural population and microhabitat of ramin in a peat swamp area in Riau Province using  random transects consist of 46 (100m2 sampling plots. Forty-eight individuals of ramin were found in which 46 of these belonged to G. bancanus, while the other two were different species. The estimated population density of ramin in this area was 7.18±2.75 individuals/ha i.e there were approximately seven individuals in each one-ha area of study. The population structure of ramin showed a J-shaped curve bearing many large old trees with few saplings without any seedlings. The microhabitat was investigated using the Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA and Canonical Analysis, generating two significant variables that discriminated three groups of the population.

  8. Phosphate Solubilizing and Antifungal Activity of Root Endophyte Isolated from Shorea leprosula Miq. and Shoreal selanica (DC Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are fungi that lives within plant tissues without causing apparent disease. It is also suggested that these fungi have ability to enhance plant growth and plant resistancy against pest and disease. This research is a preliminary study about root fungal endophytes in dipterocarp since there are lack research concerning about this study focus. We examined root fungal endophyte isolated from seedling of Shorea leprosula and Shorea selanica taken from Dramaga Experimental Forest, Bogor. Furthermore, we also tried to find out the fungal potential ability to solubilize phosphate and suppres fungal pathogen by in vitro assay. Surface sterilization method was used to isolated fungal endophytes from root tissues. Trichoderma spirale, Velsalceae sp., Melanconiela ellisii, Chaetosphaeria callimorpha, and Trichoderma asperellum were isolated during this study. These fungi appear to have specific association between fungal species and host plant, but no evidence of fungal order-level specificiation in S. leprosula and S. selanica. In vitro test also suggested that root fungal endophyte Trichoderma spirale and Melanconiella elisii have potential ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate. In addition, this result also present that root fungal endophyte T. spirale and T. asperellum have the potential to inhibit pathogen fungi Fusarium sp.

  9. Drug: D06909 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available data rhizome Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06909 Aralia rhizome (JP16)... Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Antirheumatic drugs D0690...9 Araliae cardatae rhizoma; Dokkatsu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) D06909 Aralia rhizome PubChem: 51091251 ...

  10. Review of nutrient source studies on Gastrodia elata Bl.growth up%天麻生长发育的营养研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海瀛; 梁宗锁; 王渭玲

    2004-01-01

    从天麻种子萌发、营养生长及生殖阶段的营养和第二营养等方面总结了天麻营养的研究进展.结果认为,天麻种子萌发时所需营养主要靠消化侵入的紫萁小菇等萌发菌的菌丝,其次是消耗自身储存的营养物质和吸收周围溶液中的养分;营养生长时所需营养主要靠同化蜜环菌的菌丝提供;生殖发育时所需营养则依靠块茎本身所积累的大量碳水化合物.天麻的第二营养来源是天麻营养生长和生殖生长阶段均可利用的周围环境中的有机和无机营养物质.土壤中的氮、磷、钾不论是直接进入天麻块茎,或是通过蜜环菌间接进入天麻,都构成了天麻的第二营养来源,必然影响到天麻的生理活动.

  11. Study on Germination Rate of Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq.)Jacks%野生中药材资源钩藤种子发芽研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 刘作易; 贺定祥; 刘藜

    2008-01-01

    [Object] The research aimed to find out seed germination conditions and regulations. [Method] Seeds were soaked by clear water and 4 chemical agents of different concentrations (NaHCO3, KHCO3, K2CO3, NaClO) then conducted germination test in illumination box. [Result] Seed germination number and absolute germination rate (above 80%) in water treatment group was obviously higher than other treatments. [Conclusion] No dormancy phenomenon in mature embryo and no inhibition in seed coat, so conventional moist treatment can induct seed germination.

  12. Genome Sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum Phage PPWS1, Isolated from Japanese Horseradish [Eutrema japonicum (Miq.) Koidz] Showing Soft-Rot Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hisae; Kashihara, Misako; Horiike, Tokumasa; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Netsu, Osamu; Tsuyumu, Shinji

    2016-04-21

    ITALIC! Pectobacterium carotovorumsubsp. ITALIC! carotovorumand its lytic bacteriophage PPWS1 were isolated from a Japanese horseradish rhizome with soft rot. Sequencing of the phage genomic DNA suggested that PPWS1 is a new species of the family ITALIC! Podoviridaeand has high similarity to the bacteriophage Peat1 infectious to ITALIC! P. atrosepticum.

  13. Caracterização química da laranjinha-de-pacu (Pouteria Glomerata) (MIQ.) RADLQ.) e elaboração de sorvete

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Frutos nativos podem ser utilizadas para o consumo in natura ou para a produção de doces, geleias, sucos, licores e sorvetes. Características químicas e nutricionais são ferramentas básicas para a formulação de novos produtos. A laranjinha-de-pacu contém vitaminas e minerais além de apresentar ácido tartárico, málico e pectina, sendo boa formadora de gel, favorecendo o preparo de geleias, sucos, doces e sorvetes. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar físico-quimicamente a laranjin...

  14. 榕树与黄葛榕%Ficus microcarpa L.f.、 Ficus virens Ait.var. sublanceolata (Miq.) Corner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈定如; 王缺

    2007-01-01

    @@ 榕树(细叶榕、小叶榕、正榕)桑科 Ficus microcarpa L.f. 常绿乔木,高15~25 m.树皮灰褐色,幼枝具托叶环痕;有乳汁;有气根,细长悬垂,或形成大根攀附其干或直入土中成为支柱根.树冠卵球形或伞状扁球形.

  15. Antifungal Activity and Nail Permeation of Nail Lacquer Containing Piper regnellii (Miq. C. CD. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae Leave Extracts and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mayumi Koroishi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that cause cutaneous fungal infections because they use keratin as a nutrient source. For this study the antidermatophyte activity of the extracts and derivates from leaves of Piper regnellii was analyzed. From the dichloromethane extract (EBD neolignans such as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were obtained, and it was submitted to fractionation to remove the green residue, designated as the chloroform fraction (FF. Extracts, chloroform fraction and compounds were tested against Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The chloroform fraction was incorporated to nail lacquer that was analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy, in vitro assay and scanning electronic microscopy. For antifungal activity in solid medium the dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction were used. The compounds eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were less active than the dichloromethane extract against T. rubrum. EBD and FF showed moderate activity in hyphal growth inhibition in solid medium and EBD did not link to ergosterol. Nail lacquer containing the chloroform fraction showed good penetration through the nail as determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy. From in vitro studies it was observed that nail lacquer concentrations above 20 mg/mL prevented the growth of fungi, but concentrations up to 2.5 inhibited the growth. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the in vitro nail lacquer activity results. The specie P. regnellii showed great antifungal activity against T. rubrum, and nail lacquer containing its chloroform fraction has great potential to treat onychomycosis caused by these microorganisms.

  16. Insecticidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Peperomia borbonensis Miq. (Piperaceae) and its major components against the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorla, Emmanuelle; Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe

    2017-03-08

    The essential oil from leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC50 ) and 90% (LC90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC50 was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm² and the LC90 was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm² for the EO. The median lethal time (LT50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT50 = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT50 = 127± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. 不同激素组合对九眼独活嫩叶愈伤组织诱导的影响%Influence of Different Hormone Combinations on the Leaves Callus Induction of Aralia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向鸿; 侯大斌; 赵纳

    2010-01-01

    以野生药用植物九眼独活的幼嫩叶片为材料,研究2,4-D 分别与KT,6-BA的不同组合对九眼独活愈伤组织诱导的影响.结果表明:KT和6-BA会明显降低九眼独活愈伤组织诱导频率,对愈伤组织的生长有明显的抑制作用,但能降低愈伤组织的褐化程度;低浓度的2,4-D在愈伤组织诱导中起着重要作用,并能获得生长状态好的愈伤组织,通过筛选获得诱导九眼独活愈伤组织的最适培养基,即MS+2,4-D 0.2 mg/L.

  18. DNA isolation, optimization of ISSR-PCR system and primers screening of Aralia cordata Thunb%九眼独活基因组DNA提取、ISSR反应体系优化及引物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 侯大斌; 徐敏; 刘向鸿

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨九眼独活基因组DNA提取方法 、ISSR反应体系优化及引物筛选,为研究九眼独活居群遗传多样性及原药材DNA鉴定奠定基础.方法 采用改良的CTAB法与常规CTAB法对九眼独活的基因组进行提取,通过紫外、电泳、PCR-ISSR检测方法 进行比较.结果实验表明,改良的CTAB法得到的DNA浓度和纯度较高,并可很好地应用于ISSR分子标记分析;以Mg2+、dNTP、引物和聚合酶建立L9(34)正交设计,并同时考察退火温度和模板浓度,建立适宜的25 μL ISSR-PCR体系为:模板 30 ng,Mg2+ 3.5 mmol·L-1,dNTP 0.6 mmol·L-1,引物0.4 μmol·L-1,Taq酶1 U.结论 以此体系为基础进行引物筛选,在40条ISSR引物中筛选出13 条扩增条带清晰、多态性较高、重复性好的引物.

  19. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations of the Mountain Creek Area, North Central Texas. Volume 2. Historic Farming on the Hogwallow Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Carya illinoensis Wangh. Pecan .6 4.2 Carya spp. Hickory 1.1 Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash Ulnus rubra Muhl. Slippery Elm Zanthoxylum clava-heralis L...Cercis canadensis L. Redbud .6 Juglans spp. Walnut 1.6 Carya illinoensis Wangh. Pecan .9 4.8 1.6 4.8 Carya spp. Hickory Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash...Walnut 3.4 2.1 Carya illinoenis Wangh. Pecan 1.2 10.2 3.6 4.2 5.7 1.4 7.1 Carya spp. Hickory 2.2 Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash Ulnus rubra Muhl

  20. Propagação vegetativa de plantas de pariparoba [Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq.] em diferentes substratos e número de nós das estacas Vegetative propagation of pariparoba plants [Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq.] on different substrates and number of nodes per cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Mattana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP de Botucatu, durante o período de agosto a dezembro de 2006. O experimento constou de dois tipos de estacas, com um e dois nós, e três diferentes substratos: areia fina, solo (Latossolo Vermelho distrófico e um mix (solo + esterco bovino + substrato comercial + vermiculita na proporção 3:1:1:1. O delineamento experimental foi um fatorial 2 x 3 com quatro repetições em blocos inteiramente casualizados. Foram analisadas as variáveis biométricas: porcentagem de sobrevivência de plantas, número e comprimento de folhas, massa fresca e seca de folhas e raízes. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos, à Análise de Variância e as médias ao teste de Tukey com probabilidade de 5%. As estacas com um nó apresentaram maior porcentagem de sobrevivência de plantas quando comparadas com as com dois nós e, as estacas propagadas no substrato "mix", apresentaram maiores valores comprimento de folhas, massa fresca e seca de folhas e raízes. Portanto, recomenda-se propagar estacas de P. umbellata com um nó em um substrato nas proporções 3:1:1:1 (v/v de solo + esterco bovino + substrato comercial + vermiculita.This experiment was carried out at the Department of Plant Production, College of Agronomical Sciences, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, from August to December 2006. The experiment included two types of cuttings, with one and two nodes, and three different substrates: fine sand, soil (Dystrophic Red Latosol and a mix (soil + cattle manure + commercial substrate + vermiculite, at the proportion 3:1:1:1. The experimental design was in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with four replicates in completely randomized blocks. The following biometric variables were analyzed: percentage of plant survival, leaf number and length, besides leaf and root dry and fresh mass. The obtained results were subjected to Analysis of Variance and the means to Tukey's test with 5% probability. Cuttings with one node had higher percentage of plant survival, compared to those presenting two nodes, and cuttings propagated on the mix substrate had higher values of leaf length, and leaf and root dry and fresh mass. Therefore, P. umbellata cuttings with one node are recommended to be propagated on a substrate with the proportions 3:1:1:1 of soil + cattle manure + commercial substrate + vermiculite.

  1. Avaliação por análise fatorial das condições da extração do 4-nerolidilcatecol de Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq. Evaluation of extraction conditions of 4-nerolidylchatecol from Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq. using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peky Noriega

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a influência dos fatores (1 tempo: 10 e 40 minutos; (2 tamanho de partícula: 840 e 420 mm; (3 hidromódulo: 1:50 e 1:100 e (4 temperatura: 40 e 60 °C na extração do 4-nerolidilcatecol, (4-NC mediante planejamento fatorial "2(4" em que quatro variáveis foram estudadas em dois níveis (máximo e mínimo. O método de extração foi maceração e a quantificação do 4-nerolidilcatecol foi realizada por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiência (CLAE com detetor eletroquímico. Os resultados da análise fatorial indicam que o fator principal que favorece a extração do princípio ativo é o tamanho de partícula [efeito (2: 12,2086]. Diminuindo o tamanho de partícula aumenta três vezes a quantidade de 4-nerolidilcatecol extraída, enquanto o tempo de maceração [efeito (1: -0,64198], hidromódulo [efeito (3: 1,069804] e temperatura [efeito (4: -0,64198] não influenciam de forma significativa a extração. As interações de dois fatores: (2:3 tamanho:hidromódulo: 1,181142; (2:1 tamanho:tempo: 0,9435065 e (2:4 tamanho:temperatura: 0,0817575 mostraram que apesar do fator tamanho(2 ter favorecido o processo, quando combinado com os demais fatores, não aumenta a eficiência da extração. A metodologia de otimização mediante análise fatorial aplicada ao processo de extração do 4-nerolidilcatecol demonstra a importância do estudo das interações e não de cada fator isolado.The influence of factors: (1 time, 10 and 40 minutes, (2 particle size, 840 and 420 mm; (3 hydromodule, 1:50 and 1:100, and (4 temperature, 40 and 60 °C, in the extraction of 4-nerolidylcathecol (4-NC from the roots of P. umbellata using factorial design "2(4" was studied in two levels (maximal and minimal. The extraction method was maceration and the measurement of 4-NC was by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The results of the factorial analysis indicated that the main factor that increases the extraction of the active principle is particle size [effect (2: 12.2086]. The reduction of the particle size (mesh 60 increases threefold the amount of 4-nerolidylchatecol in the extract, while the time of maceration [effect (1: -0.64198], hydromodule [effect (3: 1.069804] and temperature [effect (4: -0.64198] practically do not influence the extraction. Interaction between two factors (2:3 size-hydromodule 1.181142, (2:1 size-time 0.9435065 and (2:4 size-temperature 0.0817575, showed that although the main factor size (2 increases the efficiency of the process, when one of the other three factors was taken together the amount of 4-NC extracted was not significantly increased. The technique of optimization using factorial analysis to investigate the extraction of 4-nerolylilchatecol showed to be useful to notice the interactions between factors and not only the effect of each isolated factor.

  2. Constituintes químicos de Ottonia corcovadensis Miq. da floresta Amazônica: atribuição dos deslocamentos químicos dos átomos de hidrogênio e carbono Chemical constituents of Ottonia corcovadensis Miq. from Amazon forest: ¹h and 13c chemical shift assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir A. Facundo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In an ethanolic extract of leaves of Ottonia corcovadensis (Piperaceae were identified sixteen terpenoids of essential oil and the three flavonoids 3',4',5,5',7-pentamethoxyflavone (1, 3',4',5,7-tetramethoxyflavone (2 and 5-hydroxy-3',4',5',7-tetramethoxyflavone (3 and cafeic acid (4. Two amides (5 and 6 were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the roots. The structures were established by spectral analysis, meanly NMR (1D and 2D and mass spectra. Extensive NMR analysis was also used to complete ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignments of the flavonoids and amides. The components of the essential oil were identified by computer library search, retention indices and visual interpretation of mass spectra.

  3. Influences of Armillariella mellea on asexual reproduction of Gastrodia elata·f·glauca in Ganzi Prefecture%蜜环菌对甘孜州野生乌天麻无性繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学强

    2011-01-01

    研究蜜环菌不同菌株和不同伴播方式对甘孜州野生乌天麻无性繁殖的影响,结果表明:不同蜜环菌株对野生乌天麻无性繁殖的产量和箭麻折干率的影响有极显著差异,并且蜜环菌株与乌天麻类型之间有极显著互作效应,蜜环菌效应强弱还与自身状况关系紧密.

  4. Experimental Research on Effect of Preparations of Compound Rhizoma Gastrodiae Elatae on Serum Neurotransmitter%复方天麻制剂对血清神经递质影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡一冰; 张运发; 邱德文; 许建阳

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨复方天麻制剂镇痛的作用机制.方法:应用高效液相色谱法-荧光检测法测定该方对血清吲哚类神经递质及其代谢产物的影响.结果:疼痛模型组小鼠血清5-HTP(5-羟色氨酸)、5-HIAA(5-羟吲哚乙酸)含量升高,与正常对照组对比有显著性差异.经复方天麻制剂治疗后血清5-HTP、5-HIAA含量降低,与模型组对比有显著性差异.结论:复方天麻制剂通过降低血清吲哚类神经递质含量达到镇痛作用.

  5. Notes on Malay Compositae II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1947-01-01

    The names Blumea intermedia Koster (syn. Bl. acutata DC. var. ß) and Blumea floresiana (Schultz-Bip.) Boerl. must be kept upright. Blumea humifusa (Miq.) Clarke var. monochasialis Koster has to be changed into Blumea tenella DC. var. monochasialis (Koster) Koster, for Blumea humifusa (Miq.) Clarke i

  6. Efeitos de diferentes tempos de extração no teor e composição química do óleo essencial de folhas de pariparoba [Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. MATTANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a influência de diferentes tempos de extração no teor e composição química do óleo essencial da espécie Pothomorphe umbellata. Folhas de pariparoba foram coletadas em Cajamar - SP, no mês de junho de 2006. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tempos de extração (90, 120, 150, 180, 210 e 240 minutos e 4 repetições. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação e a análise química em CG-EM. O tempo de 180 minutos proporcionou maior rendimento do óleo essencial (0,42%, enquanto a composição química não foi influenciada pelos diferentes tempos de destilação. As principais substâncias identificadas foram: D-germacreno (65,5%, alfa-selineno (9,7%, trans-cariofileno (7,5%, e espatulenol (6,58%. Conclui-se que o tempo de extração afeta diretamente o rendimento e a proporção das substâncias químicas, recomendando-se a extração em até 180 minutos.

  7. 几种主要有机复合(混)肥对太子参产量的影响%Effects of Several Major Organic Compound (Mixed) Fertilizer on the Yield of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余彬情; 陈建祥; 王忠平; 左群; 杨秀全; 李佳林

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To study effects of several main organic compound (mixed) fertilizer on the yield of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. [ Method] With chemical compound mixed fertilizer as control, effects of liquid bacteria fertilizer, peat moss bacteria fertilizer, food processing tail slag fertih'zer, peatmoss bacteria fertilizer + chemical compound fertilizer on yield of P. heterophylla were studied. [ Result] Different fertilizers all have effects on plant height of P. heterophylla with the range of 0.3 - 1. 8 cm; different fertilizers has no significant effects on single earthnut with the variation range of 0.47 - 1.24 cm, width varied between 0.27 —0.41 cm, the biggest difference of average length is no more than 1.3 cm; the yield by treatments of peat moss bacteria fertilizer, liquid bacteria fertilizer, food processing tail slag fertilizer, peat moss bacteria fertilizer + chemical compound fertilizer is higher than in control group, T1 is the highest; pH value all improved except for T1, T2 treatment. [Conclusion] In Shibing County and similar eco-envirenment, peat moss bacteria fertilizer can increase the yield compared with other brands.%[目的]研究几种主要有机复合(混)肥对太子参产量的影响.[方法]以化学复混肥为对照,研究药渣菌肥、草炭菌肥、食品加工尾渣肥料、草炭菌肥+化学复混肥对太子参产量的影响.[结果]不同肥料处理对太子参各处理间株高均有影响,变幅在0.3 ~1.8 cm;不同肥料处理对太子参单条块根个体影响不大,各处理间块根的平均长度变幅在0.47 ~1.24 cm,粗度变幅在0.27~0.41 cm,块根平均长度最大差异不足1.3 cm;草炭菌肥、施药渣菌肥、食品加工尾渣肥料和草炭菌肥+化学复混肥后的产量比对照(施用化学复混肥)高,产量以T1最高;T、T2处理的pH值较基础土样略有降低外,其他处理的pH值均有所提高.[结论]在施秉县及其类似生态环境下,施用草炭菌肥对太子参的产量较其他品牌的肥料有一定程度的增产增效作用.

  8. 虎杖金银花联用抗Ⅰ型疱疹病毒药效分析%Effects analysis of antiherpes simplex virus type-1 with combination of Rhizoma polygoni cusp idati and Lonicerahypoglauca Miq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志洁

    1999-01-01

    目的:HSV-1可引起多种疾病,ACV(阿昔洛韦)治疗HSV-1感染效果虽好,但易出现耐药毒株.新药Cidofovir对ACV耐药毒株效果好,毒性也大.HSV疫苗研究主要针对生殖道疱疹,效果不好.为了解决这些问题,研制新的抗HSV中药方剂的最佳配比,我们进行了此项研究.方法:以ACV为阳性对照,采用空斑减数试验,观察了虎杖金银花单用及联用抗HSV-1F株及HS-1株的药效,并且用中效作用原理对联用药效进行了分析.结果:在HEp-2细胞系统中,当虎杖/金银花是1(ED50)虎杖/2(ED50)金银花时,对F株及HS-1株有直接杀灭及感染的阻断作用,以及对F株及HS-1株增殖有抑制作用,当空斑减数率从20%~90%时,CI<1,协同作用极为明显,这是首选联用比.结论:虎杖与金银花以1(ED50)虎杖/2(ED50)金银花联用,对F株的治疗指数(TI)为ACV的4 607,287和425倍;对HS-1株TI为ACV的548,393和509倍.我们认为对于抗HSV-1而言,这是有利的药物联用组合.

  9. Morfoanatomia foliar de Ficus subg. Urostigma (Gasp.) Miq. (Moraceae)de ocorrência na Paraíba e revisão etnomedicinal de Ficus L. para o Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Nathalia Diniz

    2012-01-01

    Ficus L., com cerca de 750 espécies, é o mais rico da família Moraceae, com ampla distribuição nas regiões tropicais do mundo. O gênero caracteriza-se por possuir plantas lactescentes, hábito arbóreo, arbustivo e lianas, muitas vezes hemiepífitas crescendo em ramos de árvores ou nas axilas das folhas de palmeiras. No Brasil, ocorrem cerca de 100 espécies de Ficus, popularmente conhecidas como figueiras e/ou gameleiras , muitas das quais aproveitadas como fontes de produtos têxteis, aliment...

  10. Taksonomic study on Micromelum Blume (Rutaceae in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAN UJI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic study on Micromelum Blume was conducted at Herbarium Bogoriense (BO and Kew Herbarium (K and using 84 collections number of herbarium specimen. This research used descriptive method based on morphological characters. Terminology by Stearn (1983 was used, whereas the revision method as described by Rifai (1976 and Vogel (1987 were used. Based on this study were produced two species only of Micromelum respectively which occurred in Indonesia. They were Micromelum diversifolium Miq. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. M. diversifolium had two varieties, i.e. M. diversifolium Miq. var. diversifolium and M. diversifolium Miq. var. cuneata Miq. Whereas M. minutum had three varieties, i.e. M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. var. minutum, M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. tomentosum Tan. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. villosum Tan. New record specimen collections of M. diversifolium from Biak Island (Papua was reported also.

  11. Analisis Perbandingan Kadar Kalium Pada Daun Kumis Kucing, Daun Pegagan Dan Daun Salam Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lusi Ayulita

    2015-01-01

    The Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq, Centella asiatica (L) Urb and Syzygium Polyanthum (Wight) Walp Leaves empirically has been adopted by local community for treatment of hypertension in Tanah Jawa district Simalungun. These three herbals are recognized healing to hypertension patients mainly to stabilize mineral potassium in body. The plant has own group, since Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq into lamiaceae, Centella asiatica (L) Urb into Apiaceae and Syzygium Polyanthum (Wight) Walp in...

  12. Measuring Visual Function Using the MultiQuity System: Comparison with an Established Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Smolarek-Kasprzak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare measures of visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS from the Thompson Xpert 2000 and MultiQuity (MiQ devices. Methods. Corrected distance VA (CDVA and CS were measured in the right eye of 73 subjects, on an established system (Thompson Xpert and a novel system (MiQ 720. Regression was used to convert MiQ scores into the Thompson scale. Agreement between the converted MiQ and Thompson scores was investigated using standard agreement indices. Test-retest variability for both devices was also investigated, for a separate sample of 24 subjects. Results. For CDVA, agreement was strong between the MiQ and Thomson devices (accuracy = 0.993, precision = 0.889, CCC = 0.883. For CS, agreement was also strong (accuracy = 0.996, precision = 0.911, CCC = 0.907. Agreement was unaffected by demographic variables or by presence/absence of ocular pathology. Test-retest agreement indices for both devices were excellent: in the range 0.88–0.96 for CDVA and in the range 0.90–0.98 for CS. Conclusion. MiQ measurements exhibit strong agreement with corresponding Thomson measurements, and test-retest results are good for both devices. Agreement between the two devices is unaffected by age or ocular pathology.

  13. Drug: D09079 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09079 Formula, Drug Dokkatsukakkonto Pueraria root [DR:D06693], Ephedra herb [DR:D...e in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for dampness Antirheumatic formulas D09079 Dokkatsukakkonto PubChem: 96025760 ... ...za [DR:D04365], Araliae cardatae rhizoma [DR:D06909], Rehmannia root [DR:D06736] Traditional Chinese Medicin

  14. Effects of electroacupuncture combined with polysaccharide of Gastrodia elata Blume on the expressions of Nestin and brain derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal CA3 region of cerebral ischemia rats%电针联合天麻多糖对脑缺血大鼠海马CA3区Nesin、BDNF表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪化春; 吴锋; 丁见; 熊克仁

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察电针联合天麻多糖对脑缺血大鼠海马CA3区巢蛋白(Nestin)和脑源性神经营养因子(brain derivedneurotrophic factor,BDNF)表达的影响.方法 将40只SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组、电针组、天麻多糖组和针药结合组,每组8只.以单侧大脑中动脉栓塞法制备脑缺血模型.造模后2w,天麻多糖组和针药结合组大鼠给予天麻多糖100mg/kg灌胃,每天1次,连续2w;电针组和针药结合组大鼠给予“百会”“足三里”穴电针刺激,持续30 min,每天1次,连续2w.采用免疫组织化学染色法结合图像分析检测海马CA3区Nestin和BDNF的表达.结果 与正常对照组比较,模型组缺血侧海马CA3区Nestin和BDNF阳性表达增加(P<0.05);与模型组比较,电针组、天麻多糖组和针药结合组缺血侧海马CA3区Nestin和BDNF阳性表达显著增加(P<0.05);针药结合组阳性表达显著多于电针组或天麻多糖组(P<0.05).结论 电针与天麻多糖结合可显著增加脑缺血大鼠缺血侧海马CA3区Nestin和BDNF的表达,促进内源性神经干细胞激活,且作用优于单用电针或天麻多糖.

  15. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação das atividades trombolítica e citotóxica de Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Urticaceae, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Dutra GOMES1 ; Rafael Destefani FAITANIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia hololeuca, Lippia alba, e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium são espécies vegetais de ocorrência natural no Brasil, características de regiões de Mata Atlântica e, dentro de suas finalidades medicinais, estão incluídas ação anti-hipertensiva, digestiva e no tratamento de malária. Neste estudo, foram avaliados o perfil fitoquímico e as atividades citotóxica e trombolítica do extrato etanólico das folhas destas espécies vegetais. O perfil químico dos extratos foi obtido por meio de ensaios fitoquímicos clássicos, a fim de identificar as classes químicas presentes. A toxicidade preliminar foi avaliada frente Artemia salina e a atividade trombolítica foi determinada in vitro a partir da lise de coágulo de sangue humano. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de alcaloides e flavonoides nos três extratos investigados. Saponinas, triterpenos e naftoquinonas foram detectados apenas em C. hololeuca. Essa não demonstrou toxicidade frente Artemia salina (DL50 >1000 ppm, enquanto Z. rhoifolium apresentou DL50 igual a 719,44 ppm e L. alba <250 ppm, o que indica atenção quanto à segurança no uso desta planta medicinal. A atividade trombolítica de L. alba e C. hololeuca foi de 6,43 ±2,08 e 9,64 ±1,83 %, respectivamente, mostrando baixa atividade. Por sua vez, Z. rhoifolium alcançou lise de 24,71 ±10,52 %, indicando promissora atividade (p <0,001. A atividade trombolítica de Z. rhoifolium justifica novos estudos, a fim de investigar os componentes responsáveis pela atividade. Perante a literatura, este é o primeiro relato da avaliação da atividade trombolítica destas espécies vegetais. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho contribuem para o conhecimento químico-biológico das respectivas espécies.

  16. Machine Intelligence Quotient as a Complex Fuzzy Numeral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. I. Ulinwa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available An ongoing research shows that machine intelligence quotient (MIQ is an integrated complex numeral from three standard measures and transformable within the plane and other coordinates. With distinctive scales, technical, personal, and legislative, the multiple perspectives inquiring system (TOP is used in calibrating, measuring, and interpreting the quotient. Given the homogeny of the linguistic Choquet fuzzy integral and linguistic complex fuzzy set theorems, on which the considered machine intelligence measurement is based, a new MIQ calculus is presented for consideration. The tenets are expected to withstand technological advancement and human interpretation.

  17. AcEST: DK961788 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f2 OS=Oenothera elata subsp. hook... 44 6e-04 sp|P31569|YCF2_OENVI Protein ycf2 (Fragment) OS=Oenothera villa...Protein ycf2 (Fragment) OS=Oenothera villaricae GN=ycf2 PE=3 SV=1 Length = 630 Score = 43.5 bits (101), Expe

  18. Antifungal Activity of Coumarin Mammeisin Isolated from Species of the Kielmeyera Genre (Family: Clusiaceae or Guttiferae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcio Cassemiro Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin mammeisin isolated from Kielmeyera elata was evaluated for its toxicity and antifungal activities. The toxicity of mammeisin was investigated by utilizing the Artemia salina methodology to determine its LD50 value. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of fungi Candida sp. was assessed for mammeisin, presenting equivalent activity to ketoconazole but displaying better results than fluconazole.

  19. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Wang, Chaoyuan [College of Life Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Su, Hanwen, E-mail: suhanwen-1@163.com [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xiang, Meixian, E-mail: xiangmeixian99@163.com [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  20. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae–Papilionoideae). 9. The genus Paraderris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Paraderris (Miq.) Geesink is discussed, mainly for the Malesian area. Two new species P. luzoniense and P. ornithocephalus are described. A key to the Malesian species is given. All currently recognized species are enumerated. All obligatory new combinations have been made.

  1. The Effect of Movement Imagery Training on Learning Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…

  2. Notes on the Marantaceae of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker-Verhoff, A.M.E.; Jonker, F.P.

    1956-01-01

    The list of Marantaceae published by PULLE (1906) comprises 20 species belonging to 6 genera, the largest genus being Calathea with 8 species. It was found, however, that one of the species does not belong to the family: investigation of the type of Calathea strobilifera (Miq.) Koern., viz. Kegel 14

  3. A New Benzofuran Derivative from the Bark of Mulberry Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jun DAI; Zhi Bo MA; Shuai LI; Ruo Yun CHEN; De Quan YU

    2004-01-01

    From the EtOH extract of the barks of Morus macroura Miq, a new benzofuran derivative, macrourin D 1, together with four known benzofuran derivatives, macrourin B 2, 2-(3, 5-dihydroxyphenyl)-5, 6-dihydroxybenzofuran 3, moracin M 4, and mulberroside C 5 were isolated, and their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and chemical correlation with known compounds.

  4. A revision of Mischocarpus (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Mischocarpus Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 238, nom. cons.; Rumphia 3 (1849) 166; Radlk., Pfl. R. Heft 98 (1933) 1288—1310. — Cupania § Mischocarpus Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. I, 2 (1859) 566. — Type: M. sundaicus Bl. Pedicellia Lour., Fl. Coch. (1790) 655, nom. rejic. (see under dubious names). — Type: P. oppositi

  5. Three new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from the Guianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Callejas Posada, R.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Piper from the Guianas and adjacent areas are described: Piper aulacospermum Callejas, P. ciliomarginatum Görts & Christenh. and P. remotinervium Görts. The differences between P. aulacospermum and P. bartlingianum (Miq.) C.DC., both belonging to subg. Ottonia, are given as well

  6. Preliminary analysis of productivity of fruiting fungi on Strzeleckie meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sadowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis demonstrated that the fresh ahd dry weight as well as the ash content of fungal fruit bodies collected on a forest-surrounded unmown meadow (Stellario-Deschampsietum Freitag 1957 and Caricetum elatae W.Koch 1926 were lower than the same values for a plot of exploited mown meadow and higher than on an exploited unmown meadow (Arrhenatheretum medioeuropaeum (Br.-Bl. Oberd. 1952.

  7. The DIVAD Archaeological Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Jarillas as are plant species such as lechuguilla ( Agave lechuguilla), sotol (Dasylirion wheeleri), and yucca (Yucca elata). Otero Mesa lies 8 km east of...variety of succulents, desert willows (Chilopis linearis), mule deer, and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana ). The Sacramento Mountains are 25 to 30 km...absent I : Mamtala I A~mniuv Cetral cemiral ram. j DaBa j lmJya _ __ Lt SUmm _ Water + +- Deer .... Rabbits + + + Mesquite ? + + + Cacti ? _? - Agave

  8. Leaf anatomy and histochemistry of three species of Ficus sect. Americanae supported by light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Nathalia Diniz; Coelho, Victor Peçanha M; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Agra, Maria de Fátima

    2014-02-01

    In this work the leaf anatomy of three species of Ficus section Americanae (Miq.) Miq. from Brazil, whose leaves and latex are used in folk medicine is reported. The work was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize these species and to evaluate their taxonomic significance, and also contribute to the quality control of their ethnodrugs. The three species (Ficus cyclophylla, Ficus elliotiana, and Ficus caatingae) showed hypostomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, straight epidermal cell outlines, and a dorsiventral mesophyll. Some micro-morphological characters such as density and distribution of epicuticular waxes, glandular trichomes, the length and width of stomata, as well as the palisade of mesophyll and petiole outlines proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation of species. These may contribute as additional support for the taxonomy of the section and for the quality control of their ethnodrugs.

  9. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine.

  10. Dendrophthoe pentandra methanolic leaf extract increases progesterone levels in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuardi Mochamad; Bambang Hermanto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Human infertiliy cases in Indonesia have tended to increase at about 2-5% annually since 2000. Many tropical plants in Indonesia are potential sources of novel anti-infertility compounds, e.g. Dendrophthoe pentandra L. Miq. (benalu duku), a parasitic plant growing on Lansium domesticum. The objective of this study was to identify the effect of crude methanolic Dendrophthoe pentandra leaf extract on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone levels in female rats. ...

  11. Phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella), the main edible non-timber product from native Patagonian forests of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pildain, María B; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Morchella species are edible fungi in high demand and therefore command high prices in world markets. Phenotypic-based identification at the species-level remains inadequate because of their complex life cycles, minor differences and plasticity of morphological characteristics between species, and the lack of agreement between scientific and common names. In Patagonia-Argentina, morels are associated with native forests of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cordilleran or Chilean cypress) and Nothofagus antarctica (ñire) and several exotic conifers that were introduced from western North America. Little is known about their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other species in the genus. This work focused on the identification of collections of Morchella from Patagonia and their phylogenetic relationships with other species from the Northern Hemisphere. The comparison was made by analysis of DNA sequences obtained from four loci: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial RNA polymerase I gene (RPB1) for the complete collection; and ITS, RPB1, RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), and translation elongation factor (EF1-α) for the species-rich Elata Subclade. Analyses of individual and combined data sets revealed that Patagonian morels belong to the Elata Clade and comprised three strongly supported species-level lineages from both Patagonian native forest, and exotic trees introduced from western North America. One lineage was identified as Morchella frustrata phylogenetic species Mel-2, which is known from the USA and Canada. The second lineage, which appeared to be 'fire-adapted', was identified as Morchella septimelata phylogenetic species (Mel-7), which is also known from the USA. This species was collected from burned native forests mainly composed of A. chilensis and N. antarctica but also Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Blanco, which is native to western North America. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the third species from

  12. Study on the interaction of 6-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-6H-indolo [2,3-b]quinoxaline hydrochloride with human serum albumin by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, A.; Leonenko, I.; Scrypynets, Yu; Maltsev, G.; Antonovich, V.

    2016-09-01

    Under physiological conditions, in vitro interaction between the bio-active substance 6-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline hydrochloride (MIQ) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated at an excitation wavelength 260 nm and at different temperatures (298 K, 308 K and 313 K) by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. From spectral analysis, MIQ showed a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant is estimated asK A   =  2.55  ×  10-4 l · mol-1 at 298 K. Based on the thermodynamic parameters evaluated from the van ’t Hoff equation, the enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were derived to be negative values. A value of 2.37 nm for the average distance r between MIQ (acceptor) and tryptophan residues of HSA (donor) was derived from the fluorescence resonance energy transfer. UV/vis absorption spectra were used to confirm the quenching mechanism.

  13. Review on tissue culture of A ralia plants%楤木属植物组织培养研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程莹; 李根有; 夏国华; 黄晌决; 黄宇锋

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the main research progress on tissue culture of Aralia. The explants, medium and plant growth regulators (PCRs) have important impacts on Aralia's callus culture, adventitious bud and somatic embryogenesis. Leaf blade, leaf stalk, young stem, apical bud, cotyledon and inflorescence can all be used as explants in primary culture. Leaf blade and young stem are the most commonly used explants. Aralia is usually cultured in solid media and liquid media. Liquid media is commonly used for somatic embryos culture. MS (Murashige-Skoog) is a common basic medium for in vitro culture. The types, concentrations of PCRs, and their combinations in the medium are key factors for Aralia in vitro culture. Thereinto, auxin is the main factor for callus induction, ABA is used for synchronization for somatic embryogenesis. Rooting is easy to plantlets in vitro and plantlets adapted well to cultural substrate under normal acclimatization and transplants. Research on molecular regulation of somatic embryogenesis of Aralia is still in a preliminary stage. [Ch, 1 tab, 26 ref.]%阐述了国内外楤木属A ralia植物组织培养研究的现状与进展.外植体、培养基、植物生长调节物质对楤木属植物愈合组织、不定芽和体细胞胚诱导均产生重要影响,叶片、叶柄、嫩茎、顶芽、子叶、花序等均可用作初代培养的外植体,其中叶片和嫩茎是最常用的外植体;培养方式有固体培养和液体培养,其中液体培养通常用于体细胞胚的培养;MS(Murashige and Skoog)是最常用的基本培养基,培养基中植物生长调节剂种类、浓度及其配比是楤木属植物离体培养成功与否的关键因素,其中生长素对愈合组织诱导起到主要作用,脱落酸(ABA)可以有效调控体细胞胚同步化;楤木属植物生根容易,采用常规的炼苗移栽,成活率较高.楤木属植物体细胞胚胎发生调控的分子机制的研究尚处于初步阶段.

  14. The reliability and validity study of the Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire in individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Moghadas Tabrizi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Motor imagery (MI has been recently considered as an adjunct to physical rehabilitation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It is necessary to assess MI abilities and benefits in patients with MS by using a reliable tool. The Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ was recently developed to assess MI ability in patients with stroke and other disabilities. Considering the different underlying pathologies, the present study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of the KVIQ in MS patients. METHOD: Fifteen MS patients were assessed using the KVIQ in 2 sessions (5-14days apart by the same examiner. In the second session, the participants also completed a revised MI questionnaire (MIQ-R as the gold standard. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs were measured to determine test-retest reliability. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to assess concurrent validity with the MIQ-R. Furthermore, the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and factorial structure of the KVIQ were studied. RESULTS: The test-retest reliability for the KVIQ was good (ICCs: total KVIQ=0.89, visual KVIQ=0.85, and kinesthetic KVIQ=0.93, and the concurrent validity between the KVIQ and MIQ-R was good (r=0.79. The KVIQ had good internal consistency, with high Cronbach's alpha (alpha=0.84. Factorial analysis showed the bi-factorial structure of the KVIQ, which was explained by visual=57.6% and kinesthetic=32.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study revealed that the KVIQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing MI in MS patients.

  15. Chemical constituents from the root of Croton lachynocarpus%毛果巴豆根的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Eleven compounds were isolated from the root of Croton lachynocarpus .They were identified as 3-acetoxy-erythrodiol(1 ),3-acetoxy-oleanoic acid (2 ),ilexgenin A (3 ),(24S)-24-ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6β-triol (4 ),dibutyl phthalate(5),diisobutyl phthalate(6),phthalic acid butyl isobutyl ester(7),Aralia cerebroside(8),ursolic acid(9),β-sitosterol(10)and daucosterol(11)on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses.All the compounds were firstly isolated from this plant.%对大戟科巴豆属植物毛果巴豆的根进行化学成分研究,并利用多种色谱方法分离得到11个化合物,根据理化性质和波谱学手段鉴定了结构。它们分别是3-乙酰高根二醇(1),3-乙酰齐墩果酸(2),ilexgenin A (3),(24S)-24-ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6β-triol(4),邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(5),邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(6),邻苯二甲酸正丁异丁酯(7),Aralia cerebroside(8),熊果酸(9),β-谷甾醇(10),胡萝卜苷(11)。所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到。

  16. Novas espécies e notas sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Pará e do nordeste do Brasil New species and notes on Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from Pará and Brazilian norteastern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on material collected by P. Jauffert in Pará and by L. Ianuzzi in Alagoas and Sergipe, four new species are described: Temnopis fasciata sp. nov. (Oemini and Dihammaphoroides jaufferti sp. nov. (Cleomenini from Pará. This species breads in branches of Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens (Miq. J. W. Grimes, Fabaceae. Adetus tuberosus sp. nov. (Apomecynini and Mimasyngenes lucianae sp. nov. (Desmiphorini from Alagoas. New records and notes are provided for Neocompsa serrana (Martins, 1962 and Rhopalophora occipitalis Chevrolat, 1859.

  17. Substratos renováveis na produção de mudas de Ficus enormis proveniente de jardim clonal

    OpenAIRE

    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso; Carlos André Stuepp; Antonio Aparecido Carpanezzi; Ivar Wendling; Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas; Henrique Soares Koehler

    2017-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar substratos renováveis à base de casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC) e fibra de coco (FC) sobre o enraizamento e qualidade final de mudas de Ficus enormis Mart. ex Miq. via estaquia caulinar de plantas provenientes de jardim clonal. Foram avaliados seis substratos: comercial (controle), composto por casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC), fibra de coco (FC) e vermiculita (S1); 100% FC (S2); 100% CAC (S3); 50% FC e 50% CAC (S4); 30% (FC) e 70% CAC (S5); 70% FC e 30% CAC (S6). O subs...

  18. Flora Polínica da Reserva do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (São Paulo, Brasil). Família: Urticaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa,Angela Maria da Silva; Ferreira,Lucileide Garces; Ribeiro,Vanessa Betyna da Silva; Gaglioti,André Luiz; Romaniuc Neto,Sergio; Guido,Barbara Melissa de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO No presente trabalho foram estudados os grãos de pólen de 11 espécies pertencentes à família Urticaceae (Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw., Cecropia glaziovii (Snethl), C. hololeuca (Miq), C. pachystachya Trécul, Coussapoa microcarpa ( Shott) Rizzini, Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew, Phenax sonneratti (Poir.) Wedd., Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm., Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd., U. caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb., U. nitida (Vell.) Brack). Para todos os táxons estudados, são apresentadas des...

  19. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants.

  20. Chromosomal Studies on Seven Species of Indigofera L.%七种木蓝属植物的染色体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑霞; 高信芬; 徐波; 涂卫国

    2011-01-01

    本文采用根尖压片法对豆科( Leguminosae)木蓝属(Indigofera L)植物的7个种:多花木蓝(tndigofera amblyantha Craib)、河北木蓝(I.bungeana Walp.)、滇木蓝(1.delavayi Franch.)、腺毛木蓝(I.scabrida Dunn)、四川木蓝(I.szechuensis Craib)、刺序木蓝(I.silvestrii Pamp.)、尖叶木蓝(I.zollingeriana Miq.)的染色体数目和核型进行了研究.结果表明:除了尖叶木蓝染色体数目为2n =4x =32(四倍体)外,其余6种木蓝的染色体数目均为2n =2x =16(二倍体).尖叶木蓝和刺序木蓝核型分类为2A型,其余5种木蓝的核型均为1A型.种间核型差异很小.供试种主要包含中部着丝点区染色体.滇木蓝、腺毛木蓝、刺序本蓝、四川木蓝和尖叶术蓝的核型分析为首次报道.%The chromosome number and karyotype of seven species of Indigofera L. Were studied by applying the root tip squash technique. Results show that six species were diploid (2n=2×=16) .while Indigofera zollingeriana Miq. Was tetraploid (2n=2×=32). The karyo-types of I. Zollingeriana Miq. And /. Silvestrii Pamp. Belonged to 2A, while the others were 1A. The karyological difference between species was small. Most chromosomes in the tested seven species were metacentric. The karyomorphology of I. Delavayi Franch,I. Scabrida Dunn,I. Silvestrii Pamp,I.szechuensis Craib and I. Zollingeriana Miq. Are reported here for the first time.

  1. Systems pharmacology to decipher the combinational anti-migraine effects of Tianshu formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Jingxiao; Zhang, Lilei; Chen, Xuetong; Pan, Yanqiu; Chen, Su-Shing; Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Yang, Ling; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-11-01

    Migraine is the most common neurovascular disorder that imparts a considerable burden to health care system around the world. However, currently there are still no effective and widely applicable pharmacotherapies for migraine patients. Herbal formulae, characterized as multiple herbs, constituents and targets, have been acknowledged with clinical effects in treating migraine, which attract more and more researchers' attention although their exact molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this work, a novel systems pharmacology-based method which integrates pharmacokinetic filtering, target fishing and network analysis was developed and exemplified by a probe, i.e. Tianshu formula, a widely clinically used anti-migraine herbal formula in China which comprises of Rhizoma chuanxiong and Gastrodia elata. The results exhibit that 20 active ingredients of Tianshu formula possess favorable pharmacokinetic profiles, which have interactions with 48 migraine-related targets to provide potential synergistic therapeutic effects. Additionally, from systematic analysis, we speculate that R. chuanxiong as the monarch herb mediates the major targets like PTGS2, ESR1, NOS2, HTR1B and NOS3 to regulate the vascular and nervous systems, as well as the inflammation and pain-related pathways to benefit migraine patients. Meanwhile, as an adjuvant herb, G. elata may not only assist the monarch herb to improve the outcome of migraine patients, but also regulate multiple targets like ABAT, HTR1D, ALOX15 and KCND3 to modify migraine accompanying symptoms like vomiting, vertigo and gastrointestinal disorders.

  2. Effects of Extraction Method and Tissues on the Quality of Genomic DNA in Fritillaria thunbergii%提取方法与部位对浙贝母基因组DNA提取质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 王晓飞; 金晓霞; 王忠华

    2011-01-01

    探讨了改良CTAB法、SDS法、高盐低pH法和试剂盒法对浙贝母(Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.)基因组DNA的提取效果.综合比较了各方法提取的DNA浓度、纯度、完整性,结果表明高盐低pH法是比较适合浙贝母新鲜叶片基因组DNA提取的方法.比较了分别以叶片和鳞茎为材料提取的DNA质量,发现以新鲜叶片为材料提取的DNA浓度和纯度较高,更适合用于提取浙贝母基因组DNA.%Modified CTAB method, high salt low pH method, SDS method and DNA Mini-prep kit method were used to extract genomic DNA from Fritlllaria thunbergii Miq. Comprehensive comparison of the concentration, purity and integrity of ge-nomic DNA extracted by various methods showed that high salt low pH method was the suitable method for extracting DNA from F. Thunbergii. Comparison between the DNA extracted from fresh leaves and bulb revealed that DNA obtained from fresh leaves was with higher concentration and purity, thus fresh leaves were better materials for DNA extraction of F. Thunbergii.

  3. 国产玉叶金花属(茜草科)的三个新异名%Three new synonyms in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小芳; 张奠湘

    2006-01-01

    The taxonomic status of two species and one form of the genus Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) from China is clarified: M. inflata Hsue & H. Wu, M. anomala Li and M. pubescens Ait. f. forma clematidiflora Chun ex Hsue & H. Wu are reduced to synonyms of M. hirsutula Miq., M. esquirolii Lévl. and M. pubescens Ait. f. respectively.%澄清了中国产玉叶金花属Mussaenda 2种1变型的分类学位置, 分别将胀管玉叶金花M. inflata Hsue & H. Wu、异形玉叶金花M. anomala Li和灵仙玉叶金花M. pubescens Ait. f. forma clematidiflora Chun ex Hsue & H. Wu作为粗毛玉叶金花M. hirsutula Miq.、大叶白纸扇M. esquirolii Lévl.和玉叶金花M. pubescens Ait. f.的新异名处理.

  4. Mechanistic studies of the transport of peimine in the Caco-2 cell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for its expectorant, antitussive, antiinflammatory and analgesic properties. Moreover, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that F. thunbergii Miq. has efficacy in the treatment of leukemia and cancers of the liver and cervix. Although the alkaloid, peimine, is largely responsible for these pharmacological effects, it has very low oral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption of peimine in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Having demonstrated that peimine is non-toxic to Caco-2 cells at concentrations <200 μmol/L, the effect of peimine concentration, pH, temperature, efflux transport protein inhibitors and EDTA-Na2 on peimine transport were studied. The results show that peimine transport is concentration-dependent; that at pH 6.0 and 7.4, the Papp(AP-BL of peimine is not significantly different but the Papp(BL-AP is; that both Papp(AP-BL and Papp(BL-AP at 4 °C are significantly higher than their corresponding values at 37 °C; that the P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, increase absorption of peimine; and that EDTA-Na2 has no discernible effect. In summary, the results demonstrate that the intestinal absorption of peimine across Caco-2 cell monolayers involves active transport and that peimine is a substrate of P-gp.

  5. Evolutionary Relationships of Araliaceae in the Malesian Region: a Preliminary Analysis%东南亚地区五加科植物进化关系的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文军; 朱昱苹; Chunghee LEE; Elizabeth WIDJAJA; LENG Guan Saw

    2008-01-01

    We employ the nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences to assess the evolutionary relationships of Araliaceae in the Malesian region. Malesian Araliaceae consist of 14 genera and about 500 species. Our analysis suggests a diffuse origin of Araliaceae taxa, with many genera belong to the Asian palmate clade or the tribe Hedereae. The Malesian endemic Harmsiopanax is morphologically unique and its phylogenetic position is not well resolved at present. Several morphologically diverse species of Brassaiopsis perhaps have a relatively recent origin in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, as suggested by their monophyly as well as their low ITS sequence divergence. Wardenia is not supported as W. simplex ( = B. simplex) is nested within Brassaiopsis. The Malayan region is important for the development of Schefflera, and available evidence suggests that Scheffera in the region forms a clade with the Heptapleurum group. Dendropanax lancifolius does not form a clade with the core group of Dendropanax, and its status needs to be further analyzed. Macropanax maingayi was considered to be a highly distinct member comprising the monotypic genus Hederopsis. Our analysis clearly places it in Macropanax. Aralia merrillii was once considered to be the sole member of the genus Acanthophora because of its unusual climbing habit. The ITS data support its placement in Aralia. Our expanded sampling of ArthrophyUum continues to support its monophyly. Osmoxylon has a primary distribution in the Malesian region and it is a hylogenetically isolated member of Araliaceae.%东南亚五加科包含14个属约500种,本文应用ITS片段对该区五加科植物的进化关系作了初步研究.研究显示该地区五加科植物具有复杂的起源,很多属属于亚洲掌状复叶类群或Hedereae族的一支中.该区特有类群Harmsiopanax形态上非常特殊,但其系统位置尚未不明朗.在Brassaiopsis属中,有几种形态差异较大的种,但它们属同一单系,加之各种问ITS序列差

  6. 环境因素对大棚温室无土草坪生产的影响研究%Impacts of environmental factors on the production of non-soil turf in green house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥荣; 包静晖

    2002-01-01

    以冷季型草种高羊茅(Festuca elata Keng)为材料,研究光、温、湿度、基质肥水条件以及植物生长素对大棚温室草坪生产的影响结果表明,温度宜控制在15~25℃,且昼夜应保持一定温差;湿度宜在40%~60%间,为促进根系生长应控制在50%~60%间;光照应保持在1.5万lx以上;适当施肥补充养分和运用植物生长素可作为环境微调措施,有利于提高草坪质量和快速成卷.

  7. ELISA法筛选抗新孢子虫中药的研究%Screening of Chinese Medicine Resisting Neospora caninum with ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔琳; 鞠玉琳

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to screen the Chinese medicines with good resistance to Neospora caninum. [Method] Healthy Kunming mice pretreated with methylprednisolone for the purpose of immunity decrease were randomly divided into 15 groups, and each mouse was intraperitoneally inoculated with 1.0 ×104 N. caninum. Four hours later, the mice were gavaged with various Chinese medicines. Seven days post-administration, eyeball blood sampling was conducted and the serum was used for antibody level detection with ELISA method. [Result] Four among the 15 Chinese medicines showed lower antibody positive rates. [Conclusion] Scutellaria baicalensis, Stemona sessilifolia, Gastrodia elata and Coptis chinensis could enhance the immunity level of mice infected by N. caninum.

  8. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  9. De novo biosynthesis of Gastrodin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanfen; Yin, Hua; Bi, Huiping; Zhuang, Yibin; Liu, Tao; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-05-01

    Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the key ingredient of Gastrodia elata, a notable herbal plant that has been used to treat various conditions in oriental countries for centuries. Gastrodin is extensively used clinically for its sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties in China. Gastrodin is usually produced by plant extraction or chemical synthesis, which has many disadvantages. Herein, we report unprecedented microbial synthesis of gastrodin via an artificial pathway. A Nocardia carboxylic acid reductase, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and a Rhodiola glycosyltransferase UGT73B6 transformed 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, an intermediate of ubiquinone biosynthesis, into gastrodin in Escherichia coli. Pathway genes were overexpressed to enhance metabolic flux toward precursor 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. Furthermore, the catalytic properties of the UGT73B6 toward phenolic alcohols were improved through directed evolution. The finally engineered strain produced 545mgl(-1) gastrodin in 48h. This work creates a new route to produce gastrodin, instead of plant extractions and chemical synthesis.

  10. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative to other regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Hatira; Büyükalaca, Saadet; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published surveys of 10 Turkish provinces and the northern hemisphere in which DNA sequence data from 247 and 562 collections respectively were analyzed phylogenetically. Herein we report on phylogenetic analyses of 243 additional collections made in spring 2009 and 2010 from eight additional provinces in the Aegean, Black Sea, central Anatolia, eastern Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Our analysis revealed that five species within the Esculenta clade (yellow morels) and 15 species within the Elata clade (black morels) were present in Turkey. Our preliminary results also indicate that M. anatolica, recently described from a collection in Muğla province in the Aegean region of Turkey, is a closely related sister of M. rufobrunnea; these two species comprise a separate evolutionary lineage from the Esculenta and Elata clades. Nine species of Morchella currently are known only from Turkey, four species were present in Turkey and other European countries and seven species might have been introduced to Turkey anthropogenically. Three of the putatively exotic species in Turkey appear to be endemic to western North America; they are nested within a clade of fire-adapted morels that dates to the late Oligocene, 25 000 000 y ago. Our results indicate that there are roughly twice as many Morchella species in Turkey compared with the other regions of Europe sampled. Knowledge of Morchella species diversity and their biogeographic distribution are crucial for formulating informed conservation policies directed at preventing species loss and ensuring that annual morel harvests are sustainable and ecologically sound.

  11. 崇明东滩硅藻植物初报%Preliminary Studies on Diatoms from Chongming East Beach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪; 吴波; 刘妍; 尤庆敏; 王全喜

    2011-01-01

    We investigated 110 diatom taxa (including 105 species, 5 varieties) from Chong-ming East Beach, which belonged to 52 genera and 7 families. Among these, 7 species and 1 variety were new records in China, specifically, Cyclotella plitvicensis Hust., Pleurosira minor Metz., L.-B. & Garc.-Rodr., Eunotia minor (Kutz.) Grun., Achnanthes elata (Leud.-Fortm.) Gandhi, Pinnularia flexuosa Kram., Pinnularia subgibba var. Sublinearis Walth. & Massach., Navicula normaloides Choln., and Nitzschia pellucida Grun. The characteristics of the diatoms ecological distribution are discussed.%报道了2008年3月采自崇明东滩的硅藻植物共110个分类单位,包括105种5变种,隶属于2纲7目52属,其中7种1变种为中国新纪录:星形小环藻Cyclotella plitvicensis Hust.、较小侧链藻Pleurosira minor Metz.,L.-B.&Garc.-Rodr.、较小短缝藻Eunotia minor (Kütz.) Grun.、狭长曲壳藻Achnanthes elata(Leud.-Fortm.)Gandhi、弯曲羽纹藻Pinnularia flexuosa Kram.、近弯羽纹藻近线性变种Pinnularia subgibba var.sublinearis Walth.&Massach.、常态舟形藻Navicula normaloides Choln和透明菱形藻Nitzschia pellucida Grun..对崇明东滩硅藻的种类分布、生态特征进行了分析.

  12. 皂角刺及其伪品同属植物棘刺的理化鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周日宝; 石国强

    1999-01-01

    @@ 皂角刺属常用中药,来源于豆科Leguminosae)皂荚属(Gleditsia)植物皂荚(G.sinensis Lam.)的干燥棘刺,调查研究发现,在皂角刺原药材或饮片中常混杂有同属植物山皂荚(G.japonica Miq.)、华南皂荚(G.fera (Lour.)Merr.)、绒毛皂荚(G.vestita Chan et Hou ex B.G.Li)和滇皂荚(G.delavayi Franch.)的棘刺,类似的报道也较多[1,2].为此,笔者对皂角刺及其同属植物棘刺的混伪品进行了薄层层析和紫外吸收光谱的鉴别研究,现将结果报告如下.

  13. Estimativa por infravermelho da concentração da unidade estrutural b-O-4 em ligninas de angiospermas tropicais Infrared estimates of the concentration of the b-o-4 structural unit in lignins of tropical angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber dos Santos Abreu

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Five Björkman lignins, codified as AM, LL, GG, PP and AP, were isolated from wood species of Aspidosperma macrocarpum Mart., Lophanthera lactescens Ducke, Gallesia gorazema (Vell. Miq., Peltogyne paniculata Bth. and Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg., respectively. Analyses of the lignins were carried out by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy using an experimental technique, Diffusely Reflected Infrared Fourier Transformed (DRIFT, admitting in the original spectra a band at 1500 cm-1 as an internal reference. Application of a deconvolution technique made possible to estimate the percentage per mol of b-O-4 unit content around 65.5% to AM, 68.0% to LL, 71.0% to GG. 73.4% to PP and 75.0% to AP, toward AM

  14. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites

  15. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O.  & DUYFJES, BRIGITTA E.E. 2004. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia. Reinwardtia 12(2:129 – 133. — Kedrostis (Cucurbitaceae occurs in Africa and Madagascar and comprises 4 (5 species in Asia. Of these 2 species are found in India and Sri Lanka and 2 (3 species in western Malesia. One Malesian species is for the first time included in Kedrostis here, Kedrostis bennettii (Miq. W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, and one species is described as new here, Kedrostis hirta W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. One more Malesian species is insufficiently known to be formally described.  Keywords: Kedrostis, Cucurbitaceae, SE Asia, taxonomy

  16. Selection of mercury accumulator plants for gold mine tailing contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Muddarisna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation, which is more efficient with less side effects than conventional physical and chemical methods, is increasing in popularity as a remediation system. This paper provides a brief overview of developments in research and application of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailings containing mercury. Lindernia crustacea L., Digitaria radicosa Presl. Miq., Zingiber purpurium L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg., Cyperus kyllingia Endl., and Caladium bicolor Vent., that were selected for this study were planted in the planting media consisting of soil (70% and tailings (30% for 9 weeks. The results showed that after 9 weeks of planting, Paspalum conjugatum had growth rate, biomass production, Hg accumulation, and ratio of shoot Hg : root Hg higher than those of other plant species tested, both in the media consisted of amalgamation and cyanidation tailings. It can thus be concluded that Paspalum conjugatum is potential plant species for remediating mercury-contaminated soil.

  17. Substratos renováveis na produção de mudas de Ficus enormis proveniente de jardim clonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar substratos renováveis à base de casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC e fibra de coco (FC sobre o enraizamento e qualidade final de mudas de Ficus enormis Mart. ex Miq. via estaquia caulinar de plantas provenientes de jardim clonal. Foram avaliados seis substratos: comercial (controle, composto por casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC, fibra de coco (FC e vermiculita (S1; 100% FC (S2; 100% CAC (S3; 50% FC e 50% CAC (S4; 30% (FC e 70% CAC (S5; 70% FC e 30% CAC (S6. O substrato comercial (S1 e as composições com maior proporção de FC apresentam qualificação superior para a produção de mudas de F. enormis.

  18. Hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activities from Devil’s Club Oplopanax horridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi; Du, Guang-Jian; Qi, Lian-Wen; Williams, Stainley; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Devil’s Club Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq. is a widely used folk medicine in the Pacific Northwest such as Alaska and British Columbia for treating a variety of ailments including arthritis, cold, fever, infections, diabetes and cancer. Aim of the study To investigate hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activity from Devil’s Club O. horridus. Materials and methods The root bark of O. horridus (Sm.) Miq was isolated by chromatographic techniques. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and comparison with published data. The anti-proliferation of isolated hydrophobic constituents in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human colon cancer SW-480 and HCT-116 cells were tested. The potential mechanism of anti-proliferation was also investigated using cell cycle and apoptosis assays. Results and discussion Six compounds were isolated and structurally identified as 9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol, 1-acetate (1), oplopandiol acetate (2), falcarindiol (3), oplopandiol (4), trans-nerolidol (5) and t-cadinol (6). These compounds showed potential anticancer activities on human breast cancer and colon cancer cells, of which compound 3 possesses the strongest activity. Further cell cycle and apoptosis test by flow cytometry showed the polyacetylenes 1–4 induced HCT-116 cell arresting in G2/M phase and inhibited proliferation by the induction of apoptosis at both earlier and later stage. Conclusion These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of O. horridus as well as some of the isolated compounds in the treatment of cancer. PMID:20723598

  19. INVESTIGATION ON PLANT RESOURCES OF UNCARIA SCHREBER IN GUANGXI AND FOLK APPLICATION IN ZHUANG AND YAO%广西钩藤属植物资源及壮、瑶民间应用的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞松; 朱意麟; 严克俭

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific basis for protection, cultivation, development and utilization of Uncaria Schreber resources. Methods: Investigation on Uncaria Schreber resources and medication experience of Zhuang and Yao in Guangxi by ways of field survey, collection and identification of the specimens and reviewing literature. Results: There were 10 species of Uncaria Schreber in Guangxi, which accounted for 83. 33% of Uncaria Schreber in China. Among them, Uncaria macrophylla Wall. , U. Sessilifructus Roxb. , U. Rhynchophylla (Miq. ) Miq. Ex Havil. , U. Hirsuta Havil. , U. Sandens (Sm. ) Hutch, and U. Rhynchophylloides How were the preponderant species. Conclusion: With rich resources, many varieties, awide distribution and its own feature of folk application in Zhuang and Yao, the resources in Uncaria Schreber of Guangxi should be protected and utilized strongly.%目的:为钩藤属植物资源保护、栽培和开发利用提供科学依据.方法:采用实地调查、标本采集鉴定、文献资料查阅相结合的方法,对广西钩藤属植物资源和壮瑶民间的用药经验进行调查.结果:广西有钩藤属植物10种,占国内钩藤属种类的83.33%,其中以大叶钩藤、无柄果钩藤、钩藤、毛钩藤、攀茎钩藤、侯钩藤等为优势品种;壮、瑶民间使用钩藤内涵丰富.结论:广西钩藤属植物资源丰富,品种多,分布广,壮、瑶民间应用钩藤资源独具特色,应该加强保护和进一步开发利用.

  20. The addition of functional task-oriented mental practice to conventional physical therapy improves motor skills in daily functions after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. Santos-Couto-Paz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mental practice (MP is a cognitive strategy which may improve the acquisition of motor skills and functional performance of athletes and individuals with neurological injuries. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an individualized, specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional physical therapy (PT, promoted better learning of motor skills in daily functions in individuals with chronic stroke (13±6.5 months post-stroke. METHOD: Nine individuals with stable mild and moderate upper limb impairments participated, by employing an A1-B-A2 single-case design. Phases A1 and A2 included one month of conventional PT, and phase B the addition of MP training to PT. The motor activity log (MAL-Brazil was used to assess the amount of use (AOU and quality of movement (QOM of the paretic upper limb; the revised motor imagery questionnaire (MIQ-RS to assess the abilities in kinesthetic and visual motor imagery; the Minnesota manual dexterity test to assess manual dexterity; and gait speed to assess mobility. RESULTS: After phase A1, no significant changes were observed for any of the outcome measures. However, after phase B, significant improvements were observed for the MAL, AOU and QOM scores (p<0.0001, and MIQ-RS kinesthetic and visual scores (p=0.003; p=0.007, respectively. The significant gains in manual dexterity (p=0.002 and gait speed (p=0.019 were maintained after phase A2. CONCLUSIONS: Specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional PT, led to improvements in motor imagery abilities combined with increases in the AOU and QOM in daily functions, manual dexterity, and gait speed.

  1. 江苏省维管植物分布新记录(三)%New records of vascular plants in Jiangsu Province ( Ⅲ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶康; 刘启新; 邓懋彬; 褚晓芳

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: According to plant investigation result in Yixing and Liyang of Jiangsu Province, ten species, one subspecies and one variety belonging to eleven genera of ten families are reported as new records in Jiangsu Province, viz. Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Schisandra arisanensis Hayata subsp. viridis (A. C. Smith) R. M. K. Saunders, Broussonetia kaempferi Sieb. var. australis Suzuki, Laportea cuspidate (Wedd.) Friis, Oreocnide frutescens (Thunb.) Miq., Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana (A. Camus) Y. S. Hsu et H. W. Jen, Achyranthes longifolia (Makino) Makino, Eurya alata Kobuski, Hyperwum seniavinii Maxim., Viola palrinii DC. ex Ging., V. violacea Makino and Vaccinium trichocladum Merr. et Met. And Oreocnide Miq. is a new record genus in Jiangsu Province. Some of them are simply analyzed on resources, flora and distribution.%结合《江苏植物志》(增订版)的修订,作者对江苏境内植物做了补充调查并发现了一些江苏省分布新记录.续前文[1-2],本文报道了分布于宜溧山地的部分江苏新记录属和新记录种,共计有10种1亚种1变种,隶属10个科11个属,其中有新记录属1个.另外,从植物资源利用、植物区系及分布范围等方面对部分种类进行了简要分析.凭证标本均保存于江苏省·中国科学院植物研究所标本馆(NAS).

  2. Evolução do uso e valorização das espécies madeiráveis da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Alto-Uruguai, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species identification and their market value and price evolution since the colonization time of the remnants of the Brazilian Semi-Evergreen Forest (Floresta Estacional Decidual do Rio Uruguai for potential timber production was assessed through 41 questionnaires, applied to timbermen and settlers from the surrounding region. The diversity of species for timber production commonly known by the people reached 63. From the 15 predominant species is relevant to mention Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana and Peltophorum dubium. The species with the highest commercial value were: Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Data from the interviews suggest that several species from the Lauraceae family and Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum had an increment in use and commercial value during the last 15 years. Changing in the commercial value of a species was pointed out as due not only to the timber quality but also to the amount of the timber availability. Overall, it was detected that the species values changed across time and that the timber industry found several ways to adapt to the demands of forest products.

  3. Antimycobacterial screening of traditional medicinal plants using the microplate resazurin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Lee, Timothy D G; Moore, Jill; Manning, Tracy; Kunimoto, Dennis; LeBlanc, Darren; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

    2010-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains have rapidly become a global health concern. North American First Nations communities have used traditional medicines for generations to treat many pulmonary infections. In this study, we evaluated the antimycobacterial activity of 5 medicinal plants traditionally used as general therapeutics for pulmonary illnesses and specifically as treatments for tuberculosis. Aqueous extracts of Aralia nudicaulis, Symplocarpus foetidus, Heracleum maximum, Juniperus communis, and Acorus calamus were screened for antimycobacterial activity against Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Mycobacterium avium, and M. tuberculosis H37Ra using the colorimetric microplate resazurin assay. Extracts of Acorus calamus and H. maximum root demonstrated significant antimycobacterial activity comparable to that of the rifampin control (2 microg/mL). Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of these 2 extracts using the MTT assay also showed that the extracts were less toxic to 3 human cell lines than was the DMSO positive control. This study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of the roots of H. maximum and Acorus calamus possess strong in vitro antimycobacterial activity, validates traditional knowledge, and provides potential for the development of urgently needed novel antituberculous therapeutics.

  4. Cadmium distribution in forest ecosystems irrigated with treated municipal waste water and sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidle, R.C.; Sopper, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Treated municipal waste water was irrigated in an abandoned old field area from 1964 to 1974 and in a mixed hardwood area (old gamelands) from 1964 to 1974. Total applications of Cd in the old field and old gamelands areas were 0.47 and 0.61 kg/ha, respectively. White spruce (Picea glauca Moench Voss.) and wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana Duchesne) foilage sampled from the old field showed no increase in Cd concentrations due to effluent irrigation, while goldenrod (Solidago sp. Ait.) had lower Cd levels in the treated area than in the unirrigated control area. Foilage sampled from red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), and wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.), in the old gamelands, showed no increase in Cd as a result of waste water irrigation. Soil Cd levels were not significantly affected by waste water irrigation in either area, except for the increase in soil Cd in the 0 to 5 cm depth of the old gamelands. The Cd/Zn ratios of the vegetation foilage were not significantly different between the treated and control areas.

  5. Comparison of mineral element content in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains%秦岭产9种野菜中矿质元素含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟君; 张九东; 陶贵荣; 杜喜春

    2012-01-01

    Contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in Cardamine macrophylla var. macrophylla Willd., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum ( Desv.) Underw. ex Heller, Aralia chinensis L., Osmunda japonica Thunb., Vitex trifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Lycium chinense Miller and Cichorium intybus L. from Qinling Mountains were determined, and compared to average contents of those mineral elements in cultivation foliage vegetables. The results show that contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in nine wild vegetables are 2. 90-14.20,0.5-3.6, 2.7-14.3,4.5-50.6, 141.9-4 646.0,106.3-643.9, 2 029.8-8 583.5, 295.3-1 136.0 and 3 870.0-14 011. 9 μg · g-1 , respectively. In which, Fe content in C. intybus, Ca content in V. trifolia, Mg and K contents in C. album, Zn and Mn contents in A. chinensis and Cu, N and P contents in 0. japonica all are the highest. Average contents of Ca, N, Fe and K in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains all have very obvious difference with those in cultivation foliage vegetables, but differences in average contents of Cu, Mg and P among them are relatively small.

  6. 高速公路边坡植物群落物种多样性%Species Diversity of Plant Community on Highway Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王太平; 杨晓明

    2012-01-01

    运用区组试验设计,于沪陕高速公路信阳至南阳段4种路基边坡建立了28个植物群落观测试验小区.在测定相关指标的基础上,对不同土壤类型边坡物种多样性指标进行了比较分析,同时研究了路基边坡物种多样性与植被因子的相关性.结果表明:“紫穗槐+狗牙根+高羊茅”群落和“胡枝子+狗牙根+高羊茅”群落的物种多样性指数、丰富度指数及均匀度指数较高;物种多样性指标之间相关性显著;多样性指数、丰富度指数、均匀度指数与地上生物量相关性较强,与高度、盖度、保土作用系数相关性较差;植被保土作用系数与植被覆盖度密切相关,与植株高度的相关性显著.%According to group test planning, 28 plots of plant communities were established along the road slope of Hushaan Highway between Xinyang and Nanyang . Species diversity indices of the plants growing the slopes with different soil types were compared. Relationship between vegetation factors and species diversity was studied. The results showed that the correlations among the Shannon Weiner index, Margalef index and Pielou index of two communities were relatively higher: Amorpha fruticosa+ Cynodon dactylon+Festuca elata community,and Les-pedeza bicolor+C. dactylon+ Festuca elata community. A significant relationship was observed among species diversity indexes. The Shannon Weiner index, margalef index and pielou index were related remarkly with aboveground biomass, while there was a poor correlation between species diversity indices and the vegetation height, the vegetation coverage and the coefficient of soil conservation. The coefficient of soil conservation was closely related to the vegetation coverage, and remarkable correlated to the vegetation height.

  7. Análise da estrutura da comunidade de diatomáceas (Bacillariophyceae em duas estações do sistema Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Lobo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Através da análise da composição específica e da diversidade da comunidade de diatomáceas, em duas estações do sistema Guaíba (RS, Brasil, nos meses de setembro e novembro de 1975, foi encontrada uma diferença significativa na estrutura dessa comunidade. Essa diferença deve-se, provavelmente, à presença exclusiva de Achnanthes inflata (Kütz. Grun. var. elata (Leud. - Fort.Hust., A. lanceolata (Bréb.Grun. var. lanceolata, Cocconeis placentula Ehr., Cyclotella meneghiniana Kütz., Cymbella minuta Hilse ex Rabh., Aulacosira distans (Ehr. Sim., Navicula mutica Kütz., Surirella robusta Ehr. var. splendida (Ehr. Van Heurck, Synedra ulna (Nitz.Ehr., espécies abundantes, que refletem características ambientais distintas, pelo fato de apresentarem uma diferenciação em suas tolerâncias ecológicas. Foram identificados um total de 114 táxons, 57 a níveis específicos e infra-específicos, dentre os quais 14 constituem-se em primeira referência para o Guaíba e quatro são citações novas para o Estado.Through the analysis of specific composition and diversity of diatom community, in two sampling areas of the Guaíba system (RS, Brasil in September and October 1975, a meaningful difference in the structure of that community was found. Such difference is probably due to exclusive presence of Achnanthes inflata (Kütz.Grun. var. elata (Leud. - Fort.Hust., A. lanceolata(Bréb.Grun. var. lanceolata, Cocconeis placentula Ehr., Cyclotella meneghiniana Kütz., Cymbella minuta Hilse ex Rabh., and of Aulacosira distans(Ehr. Sim., Navicula mutica Kütz., Surirella robusta Ehr. var. splendida (Ehr.Van Heurck, Synedra ulna(Nitz.Ehr., abundant species which reflect different environmental characteristics because of their different ecological tolerances. A total of 114 taxa have been identified; 57 of them to specific and infraespecific levels, 14 of which mentioned for the first time in the Guaíba system and 4 for the first time in the state.

  8. Rhizome morphology and flowering characteristic of 5 species Curcuma plants%5种姜黄属植物的根茎形态及其相关特性与开花特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈荔荔; 许丽珍; 吕锦权; 盛爱武; 刘念

    2014-01-01

    对5种姜黄属( Curcuma L.)植物根茎的形态及其贮藏期根茎的相关特性与人工栽培条件下的开花特性进行了研究.结果表明,可直接用肉眼分辨南岭莪术( Curcuma kwangsiensis var.naulingensis)、广西莪术( C. kwangsiensis),而南昆山莪术(C.nankunshanensis)、郁金(C.aromatica)、大莪术(C.elata)则需切开根茎通过颜色分辨;在整个栽培过程中,水培条件下姜黄属植物的开花率优于土培;南岭莪术开花率最高,且其根茎内蛋白质浓度最高;南昆山莪术的花期最长;而郁金、大莪术只展叶不开花.5种姜黄属植物根茎随着冷藏时间的增加,根茎质量、长度、直径、蛋白质浓度均随之减小.%Rhizome morphology and correlation property in storage period , and the flowering characteris-tic at artificial conditions of 5 species Curcuma plants were studied .The results showed that Curcuma kwangsiensis var.naulingensis and C.kwangsiensis could be distinguished by naked eyes , and that C.nankunshanensis, C.aromatica and C.elata must be distinguished by cutting the rhizomes through the colour.In the whole process of cultivation , the percentage of flowering of Curcuma plants under water culture was higher than that under soil culture , with the highest percentage of C.kwangsiensis var.naulingensis and the highest protein content in its rhizomes .The flowering period of C.nankun-shanensis was longest.C.aromatica and C.elata only leafed with no flower .The weight, length, diame-ter, protein content of the rhizomes of 5 species Curcuma plants were reduced with the increase of storage time.

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of landscape exploitation and application of wild tree and shrub resources in Mount Yuntai of Jiangsu Province%云台山野生乔灌木资源园林开发利用综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁彦芬; 张佳平

    2012-01-01

    不同野生观赏植物的利用前景良莠不齐,利用综合评价,可使园林开发利用的目的更明确,重点突出,避免无序、任意的选择.选取连云港云台山的80种野生乔木和灌木作为研究对象,采用层次分析法(AHP),建立了包括适应能力、观赏价值和开发价值的3个评价准则层和13个评价因子的评价体系.对其园林开发利用前景进行了综合评价,特别关注树种的生态和美化效用,并获得评价值的排序结果;白木乌桕Sapium japonicum,单叶蔓荆Vitex trifolia var.simplicifolia和大叶胡颓子Elaeagnus macrophylla等25种乔灌木为第1等级资源,多具备各类抗性和较高观赏价值,且多含当地珍稀濒危植物和具备较高科研价值及文化意义的名木古树;社梨Pyrus betulaefolia,茶条槭Acer ginnala和紫金牛Ardisia japonica等25种乔灌木,以及尾叶樱桃Prunus dielsiana,糠椴Tilia mandshurica和楤木Aralia chinensis等30种乔灌木,分别为第2和第3等级资源.通过综合评价.可为云台山及气候型相近地区的野生观赏乔灌木资源的开发利用提供参考.%The application prospect of different wild ornamental plants varies greatly. Comprehensive evaluation can provide clear goals and prominent keys on the landscape exploitation and application avoiding unordered and random selection. A synthetical assessment was established to evaluate the potential on landscape exploitation and application of 80 wild trees and shrubs in Mount Yuntai of Lianyungang based on the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which included adaptability, ornamental value, and exploitation value as criterion layers and 13 evaluation factors, especially concerning ecological functions and beautification benefits. Sequence was obtained: 25 species, such as Sapium japonicum, Vitex trifolia var. simplicifolia, Elaeagnus macrophylla, ect, were divided into the first level, most of which have stronger adaptabilities, special ecological

  10. Neutralization of acidic raindrops on leaves of agricultural crop and boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Adams, C.M.; Gaber, B.A.

    1986-10-01

    The abilities of foliage of selected agricultural crop and native boreal forest species to neutralize acidic raindrops were compared. The species differed widely in their responses. Neutralization was influenced to a large extent by leaf wettability and was poorly related with species' susceptibility to foliar injury from acid rain sprayings. Little neutralization of pH 3.0 droplets occurred on very waxy leaves, e.g. cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), due to the small contact area between the leaf surface and raindrops. In contrast, on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves, which are pubescent and easily wettable, neutralization was considerable. For all agricultural crop species examined, the pH of droplets drying on cotyledons was consistently higher than on the leaves. The pH values of raindrops were also higher when the foliage was injured by the acid rain, probably due to leakage of cellular contents. Among boreal forest species examined, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) was particularly good at neutralizing natural acid rain, increasing the pH from 3.9 to 6.6 after 9 hr of foliar contact, while the response of other boreal species ranged from a final pH of 4.8 to 5.7 under the same conditions. Simulated raindrops on wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.) were never neutralized but increased in acidity as they evaporated. Chemical analyses of droplets collected from foliage showed calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) to be the major cations entering the neutralized droplets. Neutralization of acidic raindrops appears to occur through two processes; solubilization of alkaline dusts and exudates on the leaf surface, and ion exchange removal of H/sup +/ by the foliage. 14 references.

  11. Neutralization of acidic raindrops on leaves of agricultural crop and boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Adams, C.M.; Gaber, B.A.

    1986-11-01

    The abilities of foliage of selected agricultural crop and native boreal forest species to neutralize acidic raindrops were compared. The species differed widely in their responses. Neutralization was influenced to a large extent by leaf wettability and was poorly related with species' susceptibility to foliar injury from acid rain sprayings. Little neutralization of pH 3.0 droplets occurred on very waxy leaves, e.g. cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), due to the small contact area between the leaf surface and raindrops. In contrast, on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves, which are pubescent and easily wettable, neutralization was considerable. For all agricultural crop species examined, the pH of droplets drying on cotyledons was consistently higher than on the leaves. The pH values of raindrops were also higher when the foliage was injured by the acid rain, probably due to leakage of cellular contents. Among boreal forest species examined, bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) was particularly good at neutralizing natural acid rain, increasing the pH from 3.9 to 6.6 after 9 hr of foliar contact, while the response of other boreal species ranged from a final pH of 4.8 to 5.7 under the same conditions. Simulated raindrops on wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.) were never neutralized but increased in acidity as they evaporated. Chemical analyses of droplets collected from foliage showed calcium and potassium to be the major cations entering the neutralized droplets. Neutralization of acidic raindrops appears to occur through two processes: solubilization of alkaline dusts and exudates on the leaf surface, and ion exchange removal of H/sup +/ by the foliage. 14 refs.

  12. Phylogeny of Panax using chloroplast trnC-trnD intergenic region and the utility of trnC-trnD in interspecific studies of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunghee; Wen, Jun

    2004-06-01

    Sequences of the chloroplast trnC-trnD region and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained for all species of Panax L. (the ginseng plant genus, Araliaceae) to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. The trnC-trnD phylogeny is congruent with the ITS phylogeny for the diploid taxa of Panax. This study is the first use of the trnC-trnD sequence data for phylogenetic analysis at the interspecific level. We evaluated this DNA region for its phylogenetic utility at the lower taxonomic level for flowering plants. The trnC-trnD region includes the trnC-petN intergenic spacer, the petN gene, the petN-psbM intergenic spacer, the psbM gene, and the psbM-trnD intergenic spacer. The petN and psbM genes are small, 90 and 104-114 bp across angiosperms, respectively, and have conserved sequences. We have designed universal amplification and sequencing primers within these two genes. Using these primers, we have successfully amplified the entire trnC-trnD region for a diversity of flowering plant groups, including Aralia L. (Araliaceae), Calycanthus L. (Calycanthaceae), Corylus L. (Betulaceae), Hamamelis L. (Hamamelidaceae), Hydrocotyle L. (Apiaceae), Illigera Blume (Hernandiaceae), Nelumbo Adans. (Nelumbonaceae), Nolana L. ex L.f. (Solanaceae), Prunus L. (Rosaceae), and Staphylea L. (Staphyleaceae). In Panax, the trnC-trnD region provides a similar number of informative phylogenetic characters as the ITS regions and a slightly higher number of informative characters than the chloroplast ndhF gene. We thus demonstrate the utility of the trnC-trnD region for lower-level phylogenetic studies in flowering plants.

  13. Complete sequencing of five araliaceae chloroplast genomes and the phylogenetic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ginseng family (Araliaceae includes a number of economically important plant species. Previously phylogenetic studies circumscribed three major clades within the core ginseng plant family, yet the internal relationships of each major group have been poorly resolved perhaps due to rapid radiation of these lineages. Recent studies have shown that phyogenomics based on chloroplast genomes provides a viable way to resolve complex relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the complete nucleotide sequences of five Araliaceae chloroplast genomes using next-generation sequencing technology. The five chloroplast genomes are 156,333-156,459 bp in length including a pair of inverted repeats (25,551-26,108 bp separated by the large single-copy (86,028-86,566 bp and small single-copy (18,021-19,117 bp regions. Each chloroplast genome contains the same 114 unique genes consisting of 30 transfer RNA genes, four ribosomal RNA genes, and 80 protein coding genes. Gene size, content, and order, AT content, and IR/SC boundary structure are similar among all Araliaceae chloroplast genomes. A total of 140 repeats were identified in the five chloroplast genomes with palindromic repeat as the most common type. Phylogenomic analyses using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on the complete chloroplast genomes strongly supported the monophyly of the Asian Palmate group and the Aralia-Panax group. Furthermore, the relationships among the sampled taxa within the Asian Palmate group were well resolved. Twenty-six DNA markers with the percentage of variable sites higher than 5% were identified, which may be useful for phylogenetic studies of Araliaceae. CONCLUSION: The chloroplast genomes of Araliaceae are highly conserved in all aspects of genome features. The large-scale phylogenomic data based on the complete chloroplast DNA sequences is shown to be effective for the phylogenetic reconstruction of Araliaceae.

  14. Considerações taxonômicas e novas combinações em Ardisia Swartz (Myrsinaceae do sudeste do Brasil Taxonomic considerations and new combinations in Ardisia Swartz (Myrsinaceae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Bernacci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Os tipos de placentação e de pré-floração têm sido utilizados para a distinção dos gêneros Ardisia Swartz, ao qual tem sido atribuído placentação plurisseriada e pré-floração imbricada ou quincuncial, e Stylogyne A.DC., ao qual tem sido atribuído placentação unisseriada e pré-floração contorta. Entretanto, a análise de dez espécies destes gêneros revelou a inconsistência destes caracteres. Também foi constatada a impossibilidade de observar diferenças no tipo de placentação em espécimes com poucos óvulos. Propõe-se, portanto, o restabelecimento da circunscrição de Ardisia, incluindo o gênero Stylogyne, conforme adotado por Miquel, em 1856 e Handro, em 1969. Desta forma, Ardisia ambigua Mart. é o nome válido para S. ambigua (Mart. Mez e Ardisia martiana Miq. o é para S. laevigata (Mart. Mez. Duas novas combinações são necessárias: Ardisia depauperata (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli e Ardisia warmingii (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli.Placentation and aestivation have traditionally been used as diagnostic features to separate the genera Ardisia Swartz and Stylogyne A.DC. While Ardisia has pluriseriate placentation and imbricate or quincuncial aestivation, Stylogyne has uniseriate placentation and contorted aestivation. However, careful examination of ten species of these genera revealed the inconsistency of these characters in the distinction of the two genera. Also, we noticed the impossibility of observation of placentation types in few-ovuled specimens. Therefore, we propose the re-establishment of the circumscription of Ardisia adopted by Miquel, in 1856, and Handro, in 1969 which includes the genus Stylogyne. In this way Ardisia ambigua Mart. is the valid name for S. ambigua (Mart. Mez as Ardisia martiana Miq. is for S. laevigata (Mart. Mez. Two new combinations are necessary: Ardisia depauperata (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli and Ardisia warmingii (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli.

  15. Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.

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    Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2014-01-01

    In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII = (Fm(') -F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in

  16. Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de epífitos vasculares sobre figueiras isoladas no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Gonçalves Cezar Neubert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com epífitos vasculares no Brasil normalmente não consideram árvores isoladas em áreas antropizadas, as quais permitem o estabelecimento e preservação de uma porção representativa da flora epifítica original. Neste trabalho, enfoca-se a composição florística dos epífitos vasculares em espécimes isolados de Ficus organensis (Miq. Miq. no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. A área de estudo fica situada no entorno da cidade de Terra de Areia (29°35' S e 50°04' W, com clima subtropical úmido (Cfa. Sessenta árvores foram inventariadas. Foram encontradas 77 espécies, 33 gêneros e 10 famílias. A família Orchidaceae e o gênero Tillandsia L. apresentaram os maiores números de espécies. A categoria ecológica mais diversificada foi a dos holoepífitos, com 69 espécies, a maioria delas apresentando a suculência como adaptação para o estresse hídrico. A proporção de espécies anemocóricas (51 foi praticamente o dobro das zoocóricas (26. A percentagem das espécies epifíticas, em relação à flora epifítica regional, foi de 30,8%. A proporção de Orchidaceae foi relativamente menor, provavelmente devido a maiores exigências em relação aos hábitats florestais originais. A família com maior importância fisionômica foi Bromeliaceae. O predomínio das espécies anemocóricas sobre as zoocóricas, nas árvores amostradas, é menor do que em áreas com florestas preservadas.

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy template for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Ma, Xiuli; Xie, Hongkai; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-11-14

    Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves have been prepared. Two dummy template molecule with similar structural skeleton to GAs, 6-methoxysalicylic acid (MOSA, DT-1) and 6-hexadecyloxysalicylic acid (HOSA, DT-2), have been designed and synthesized. The performance of the DMIPs and NIPs were evaluated including selective recognition capacity, adsorption isotherm, and adsorption kinetics. The selective recognition capacity of the three GAs with four analogues on the sorbents illustrated that the DMIPs sorbents have high specificity for GAs. An efficient method based on DMIP-HOSA coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The method showed excellent recoveries (82.5-88.7%) and precision (RSD 0.5-2.6%, n=5) for licorice extracts, Gastrodia elata extracts and pepper extracts spiked at three concentration levels each (50, 100, 200 μg mL(-1)). The results indicated that GAs and standardized Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts could be obtained simultaneously through the DMIP-SPE.

  18. Underutilised legumes: potential sources for low-cost protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, D; Niranjan, A; Tewari, S K; Pushpangadan, P

    2001-07-01

    Seeds of 104 leguminous species belonging to 17 genera were analysed for their protein contents. The promising ones were investigated for fibre, carbohydrate, ash, oil, fatty acids, amino acid profile and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA). The variation of fibre contents was 4.1-8.9%, carbohydrate 18.4-49.2%, ash 1.8-7.2%, TIA 48.7-87.5 mg/g, oil 1.3-19.8% and protein 11.0-51.6%. The protein content (41-45%) in Acacia mellifera (41.6%), Albizzia lebbek (43.6%), Bauhinia triandra (42.7%), Lathyrus odoratus (42.8%), Parkinsonia aculeata (41.6%), Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (41.9%), Sesbania paludosa (41.2%) and S. sesban (43.8%) was in close proximity to soybean (42.8%), whereas Bauhinia retusa (51.6%), B. variegata (46.5%), Delonix elata (48.7%) and Gliricidia maculata (46.3%) showed higher percentages of protein than soybean. The essential amino acid composition of some of the seed proteins was reasonably well balanced (lysine up to 7.6%). The seeds of Bauhinia retusa (18.6%), B. triandra (16.5%), B. variegata (17.3%), Gliricidia maculata (16.2%), Parkia biglandulosa (18.9%) and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (19.8%) had a good amount of oil, comparable to soybean (18-22%). The fatty acid composition of some genera/species was quite promising with high amount of unsaturated fatty acids.

  19. Tianma modulates proteins with various neuro-regenerative modalities in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Umamaheswari; Manavalan, Arulmani; Sundaramurthi, Husvinee; Sze, Siu Kwan; Feng, Zhi Wei; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Heese, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    Tianma (Rhizoma gastrodiae) is the dried rhizome of the plant Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae family). As a medicinal herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) its functions are to control convulsions, pain, headache, dizziness, vertigo, seizure, epilepsy and others. In addition, tianma is frequently used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders though the mechanism of action is widely unknown. Accordingly, this study was designed to examine the effects of tianma on the proteome metabolism in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells to explore its specific effects on neuronal signaling pathways. Using an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation)-based proteomics research approach, we identified 2390 modulated proteins, out of which 406 were found to be altered by tianma in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Based on the observed data, we hypothesize that tianma promotes neuro-regenerative signaling cascades by controlling chaperone/proteasomal degradation pathways (e.g. CALR, FKBP3/4, HSP70/90) and mobilizing neuro-protective genes (such as AIP5) as well as modulating other proteins (RTN1/4, NCAM, PACSIN2, and PDLIM1/5) with various regenerative modalities and capacities related to neuro-synaptic plasticity.

  20. Silicified structures affect leaf optical properties in grasses and sedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, Katja; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Gaberščik, Alenka

    2014-01-05

    Silicon (Si) is an important structural element that can accumulate at high concentrations in grasses and sedges, and therefore Si structures might affect the optical properties of the leaves. To better understand the role of Si in light/leaf interactions in species rich in Si, we examined the total Si and silica phytoliths, the biochemical and morphological leaf properties, and the reflectance and transmittance spectra in grasses (Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia cespitosa) and sedge (Carex elata). We show that these grasses contain >1% phytoliths per dry mass, while the sedge contains only 0.4%. The data reveal the variable leaf structures of these species and significant differences in the amount of Si and phytoliths between developing and mature leaves within each species and between grasses and sedge, with little difference seen among the grass species. Redundancy analysis shows the significant roles of the different near-surface silicified leaf structures (e.g., prickle hairs, cuticle, epidermis), phytoliths and Si contents, which explain the majority of the reflectance and transmittance spectra variability. The amount of explained variance differs between mature and developing leaves. The transmittance spectra are also significantly affected by chlorophyll a content and calcium levels in the leaf tissue.

  1. Natural antioxidants may prevent posttraumatic epilepsy: a proposal based on experimental animal studies.

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    Mori A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Head injury or hemorrhagic cortical infarction results in extravasation of blood and breakdown of red blood cells and hemoglobin. Iron liberated from hemoglobin, and hemoglobin itself, are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS. ROS and RNS have been demonstrated to be involved in the mechanism of seizures induced by iron ions in the rat brain, an experimental animal model for posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE. ROS are responsible for the induction for peroxidation of neural lipids, i.e., an injury of neuronal membranes, and also could induce disorders in the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Antioxidants, such as a phosphate diester of vitamin E and C (EPC-K1 and antiepileptic zonisamide, have been known to prevent the epileptogenic focus formation, or to attenuate seizure activities in the iron-injected rat brain. Natural antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol, and condensed tannins, including (--epigallocatechin and (--epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, adenosine and its derivative, melatonin, uyaku (Lindera Strychnifolia, fermented papaya preparations, Gastrodia elata BI., and Guilingji, have been demonstrated to scavenge ROS and/or RNS and to be prophylactic for the occurrence of epileptic discharge in the iron-injected rat brain.

  2. THE SYSTEM AND CONSPECTUS OF THE GENUS PEDICULARIS (OROBANCHACEAE OF ALTAY MOUNTAINS AND TIAN SHAN

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    P. A. Kosachev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The system and conspectus of the genus Pedicularis L. (Orobanchaceae of Altai and Tien Shan is presented. The system is based of molecular genetic studies of the genus (Ree, 2005; Tkach et al., 2014; own data and is represented by series that are grouped into sections. The building of the higher taxonomic categories is not possible at the moment due to the para- or polyphyletic origin genus of weak support for clads in the phylogenetic tree. Conspectus includes 61 species of the 32 series and 7 sections. 16 species and 1 subspecies of endemic for the territory of the Altai and Tien Shan. For the first time described in one section and 10 series. Three sections published of the lectotypes: Schizocalyx Li, Botryantha Li, Rhizophyllum Li. Clarified the amount and distribution of species, series, sections. Displaying Altai and Tien Shan origin some series (ser. Abrotanifoliae, Amoenae, Achilleifolia, Uliginosae, Physocalyces, Macrochilae, Platyrhynchae, the Tien-Shan (Semenowianae, Pycnanthae, Maximowiczianae, Pubiflorae, Altai (Brachystaches, Elatae.

  3. Parishin C's prevention of Aβ 1-42-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation is related to NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Weiping; Feng, Nan; Wang, Ling; Shi, Jiangong; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2016-05-01

    The rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE), a herb medicine, has been used for treatment of neuronal disorders in Eastern Asia for hundreds of years. Parishin C is a major ingredient of GE. In this study, the i.c.v. injection of soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers model of LTP injury was used. We investigated the effects of parishin C on the improvement of LTP in soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomer-injected rats and the underlying electrophysiological mechanisms. Parishin C (i.p. or i.c.v.) significantly ameliorated LTP impairment induced by i.c.v. injection of soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers. In cultured hippocampal neurons, soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers significantly inhibited NMDAR currents while not affecting AMPAR currents and voltage-dependent currents. Pretreatment with parishin C protected NMDA receptor currents from the damage induced by Aβ. In summary, parishin C improved LTP deficits induced by soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers. The protection by parishin C against Aβ-induced LTP damage might be related to NMDA receptors.

  4. Two new species of Riccardia (Aneuraceae, Marchantiophyta from Eastern Himalaya, India with notes on the genus in Sikkim

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    Devendra SINGH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Riccardia Gray is represented in Sikkim by 10 species, including R. lachungensis D.Singh & D.K.Singh and R. udarii D.Singh & D.K.Singh described here as new from North and South district respectively. R. lachungensis is characterized by 9–10 mm long, 0.25–0.35 mm wide plants with usually bipinnate or sometimes tripinnately branched thalli with mamillate–papillate dorsal and ventral epidermal cells, mucilage papillae scattered on ventral surface of thallus, main thalli 10–12 cells thick in the middle with unistratose alar portion 1-celled, and the absence of gemmae. Whereas, R. udarii is distinct in dichotomously branched thalli with distinct midrib, or sometimes indistinct in apical portion, main thalli 6–8 (–9 cells thick in the middle in transverse section, unistratose alar portion of wing 4–9 cells wide and often presence of pigmented cells in the thallus. Sporophytic details in R. elata (Steph. Schiffn. are provided for the first time and R. levieri Schiffn. is newly recorded from the State of Sikkim. Riccardia cardotii (Steph. Pande & K.P.Srivast., earlier reported from the State by several workers, has been excluded from the Riccardia flora of Sikkim.

  5. Alleviation effect of gibberellin A3 on antagonism of manganese to glyphosate%赤霉素缓解Mn2+对草甘膦拮抗效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茹; 李桂俊; 李小艳; 夏凯

    2014-01-01

    为探索能够减轻或消除 Mn2+对草甘膦拮抗效应的方法,以高羊茅为试材,将赤霉素( GA3)与草甘膦和硫酸锰( Mn2+质量分数为0�1%)混用,研究了赤霉素对Mn2+降低草甘膦药效的缓解作用。结果表明:赤霉素+草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组高羊茅比同剂量草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组叶色更黄,萎蔫更严重,与同剂量草甘膦单剂处理组比较接近,其中加入50 mg/L 赤霉素处理组缓解草甘膦拮抗效应的效果最好。赤霉素+草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组高羊茅的干、鲜重及叶绿素含量均低于草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组,而丙二醛和莽草酸含量均明显高于草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组。处理后第6天,赤霉素+草甘膦+硫酸锰组莽草酸含量分别比草甘膦+硫酸锰组增加了49.8%(加入50 mg/L 赤霉素)和28.8%(加入30 mg/L 赤霉素),差异显著;处理后第2天,赤霉素+草甘膦+硫酸锰组丙二醛含量分别比草甘膦+硫酸锰组增加了54.1%(加入50 mg/L 赤霉素)和52.9%(加入30 mg/L 赤霉素),差异显著。研究表明,将赤霉素与锰肥和草甘膦混合喷施,将有可能在一定程度上缓解Mn2+对草甘膦的拮抗效应,保证草甘膦的除草效果。%MnSO4 , applied as a foliar fertilizer in tank mixtures with glyphosate, may antagonize the control efficacy of glyphosate. So it is very important to find out a way to relieve or eliminate the antagonistic effect of manganese to glyphosate. The purpose of present study is to investigated the relieving effect of gibberellin A3 ( GA3 ) on antagonism of manganese to glyphosate in Festuca elata by spraying mixture of glyphosate and manganese and GA3 . The results indicated that spraying GA3 in tank mixtures with glyphosate and manganese could make the leaf color of Festuca elata more yellow and increase the leaf wilting to some extent when compared with that spraying the

  6. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

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    Pornwiwan Pothasin

    Full Text Available Fig trees (Ficus are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1 calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2 measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  7. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  8. Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of the leaves of Glochidion hypoleucum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Kitphati, Worawan; Mangmool, Supachoke; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

    2015-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of Glochidion hypoleucum (Miq.) Boerl leaves led to the isolation of five polyphenolic compounds, methyl gallate, gallic acid, apigenin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (vitexin), luteolin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (orientin), and luteolin-6-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoorientin). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectroscopic (NMR, UV-Vis, IR) and mass spectrometric techniques. The antioxidative properties of the methanol extract and isolated polyphenols were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for radical scavenging activity and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) to measure the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). With the exception of vitexin, the crude methanol extract and the polyphenolic compounds inhibited DPPH radicals with IC50 values ranging from 2.46 ± 0.05 to 40.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL. In addition, the crude methanol extract attenuated H202-induced intracellular ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in HEK-293 cells. Gallic acid and isoorientin significantly reduced the ROS level in HEK-293 cells at a concentration of 20 μM.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract from Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark in animal models

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    Kodangala Subraya Chandrashekar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthocephalus cadamba (ReboxMiq. (Rubiaceae is widely distributed throughout the greater part of India, especially at low levels in wet place. Traditionally the bark is used as tonic, febrifuge and to reduce the pain and inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract obtained from  Anthocephalus cadamba  aerial parts, MEAC, were investigated in this study. Design and methods: The effects of MEAC on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan, dextran and mediators (histamine and serotonin induced paw edema and cotton pallet-induced granuloma, respectively. The anti-edema effect of MEAC was compared with 10 mg/kg of indomethacin orally. Results: The results suggested that MEAC possess potent anti-inflammatory activity. The acute inflammatory model showed that all the doses of MEAC effectively suppressed the edema produced by histamine, so it may be suggested that its anti-inflammatory activity is possibly backed by its antihistaminic activity. In chronic inflammatory model the effect may be due to the cellular migration to injured sites and accumulation of collagen and mucopolysaccharide. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, it may be inferred that  Anthocephalus cadamba  is an anti-inflammatory agent and the results are in agreement with its traditional use.

  10. 浙江省6种新记录植物%Six newly recorded plant species in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽春; 陈征海; 马丹丹; 林海伦; 李修鹏; 李根有

    2016-01-01

    报道了发现于浙江宁波的6种新记录植物,隶属于6科6属,它们分别是心脏叶瓶尔小草(Ophioglossum reticulatum Linn.)(瓶尔小草科Ophioglossaceae)、银花苋(Gomphrena celosioides Mart.)(苋科Amaranthaceae)、中华萍蓬草(Nuphar sinensis Hand.-Mazz.)(睡莲科Nymphaeaceae)、白花水八角(Gratiola japonica Miq.)(玄参科Scrophulariaceae)、三叶绞股蓝(Gynostemma laxum(Wallich) Cogniaux)(葫芦科Cucurbitaceae)和乳白石蒜(Lycoris albiflora Koidz.)(石蒜科Amaryllidaceae);其中水八角属Gratiola Linn.为浙江新记录属.它们在浙江省的发现丰富了浙江省植物区系的内容,同时也为其在中国的地理分布研究提供了基础资料.

  11. Activity of the Extracts and Neolignans from Piper regnellii against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil to treat infectious diseases. The extracts obtained of the leaves from P. regnellii were investigated for their antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The ethyl acetate extract presented a good activity against MRSA, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of 16 μg/mL. Based on this finding, the ethyl acetate extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into nine fractions. The hexane fraction was active against MRSA (MIC at 4 μg/mL. Further column chromatography separation of the hexane fraction afforded the pure compound eupomatenoid-5. The structure of the compound was established by spectral data (1H and 13C NMR HSQC, HMBC, gNOE, IR and MS. Eupomatenoid-5 was the only compound active on the bacterium. The antibacterial property of P. regnellii extract provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. The active compound eupomatenoid-5 should be further studied in animal models to verify in vivo efficacy and toxicity.

  12. Leaf size indices and structure of the peat swamp forest

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    L.G. Aribal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size indices of the tree species in the peatland of Agusan del Sur in Mindanao in Philippines was examined to deduce the variation of forest structure and observed forest zonation.  Using raunkiaer and webb’s leaf size classification, the leaf morphometrics of seven tree species consistently found on the established sampling plots were determined.  The species includes Ternstroemia philippinensis Merr., Polyscias aherniana Merr. Lowry and G.M. Plunkett, Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque, Fagraea racemosa Jack, Ilex cymosa Blume, Syzygium tenuirame (Miq. Merr. and Tristaniopsis micrantha Merr. Peter G.Wilson and J.T.Waterh.The LSI were correlated against the variables of the peat physico-chemical properties (such as bulk density, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, pH; water (pH, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate; and leaf tissue elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  Result showed a decreasing leaf size indices and a three leaf size category consisting of mesophyllous, mesophyllous-notophyllous and microphyllous were observed which corresponds to the structure of vegetation i.e., from the tall-pole forest having the biggest average leaf area of 6,142.29 mm2 to the pygmy forest with average leaf area of 1,670.10 mm2.  Such decreased leaf size indices were strongly correlated to soil nitrogen, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, phosphate in water, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant tissue.

  13. Pentatomids associated with different forest species in Itaara, RS, Brazil

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    Ervandil Corrêa Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the pentatomid fauna associated with the canopy of different native species during the period from September 2005 to September 2006. Insects were collected from among nine botanical species: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. (cambará, Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira, Acca selowiana (Berg Burret (goiaba-da-serra, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá, Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo, Micanea cinerascens Miq. (passiquinho, Calliandra brevipes Bhent. (caliandra, and Schinus molle L. (aroeira located at Rodolfo da Costa Dam in Itaara, RS, Brazil. Samples were taken every two weeks with a conical funnel made of tin plate (2mm, 70cm in diameter at the rim and 63cm in height. One sample per botanical species for each sampling date was taken, by shaking the branches, ten times over the funnel. Samples were sent to the Entomology Laboratory of the Crop Protection Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, where the material was analyzed. A total of nine Pentatomidae species were identified. Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 was the species of highest ocurrence followed by Thyanta humilis (Bergroth, 1891. The botanical species S. mauritianum presented the greatest number of Pentatomidae species, with an occurrence of 26.9%.

  14. Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation.

  15. Inhibitory effects of Rubi Fructus extracts on hepatic steatosis development in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Mi Kyung; Choi, Hye Ran; Cho, Jin Sook; Cho, Soo Min; Ha, Ki Chan; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Ryu, Hee-Young; Lee, Young-Ik

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the potential effects of the unripened dried fruit of Rubus coreanus Miq., Rubi Fructus (RF), on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia. Rubi Fructus extract (RFex) fed mice demonstrated a reduced body weight and adipose tissue weight. RFex fed mice also demonstrated decreased aminotransferase levels, lipid contents [triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)], leptin content and increased high‑density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL‑C) contents in the plasma. These effects were accompanied by a decreased expression of lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, liver X receptor, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl‑CoA carboxylase, cluster of differentiation 36, lipoprotein lipase and decreased lipogenic enzyme FAS and 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutamyl coenzyme reductase enzyme activities, while elevating carnitine palmitoyltrasferase-1 activity. Based on these results, the present study hypothesized that the inhibitory effect on hepatic steatosis of RFex is the result of the suppression of lipid synthesis in mice fed with HFD, suggesting that RFex may be beneficial in preventing hepatic steatosis and liver lipotoxicity.

  16. STRUKTUR SEKRETORI TANAMAN BAHAN RAMUAN OBAT DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorly

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical structure of medicinal plants wich are used in diabetic therapy is not yet completely identified. This research was conducted to study the structure of their secretory tissues. Observation of anatomical structure of leaves was done by making paradermal and transversal sections, while observation of anatomical structure of stem, fruits, and rhizomes were performed by making transversal sections. Microscopic observation found several types os secretory structure in plant organs observed. Glandular hairs were found in kiurat (Plantago mayor L. leaves, sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f Wallich ex Nees leaves, and kumis kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume Miq. leaves; lithocysts cell were found in sambiloto leaves; oil cavity/cells were found in salam (Syzygium polyanthim (Wight Walp. leaves, jambu (Psidium guajava L. leaves, lada (Piper nigrum L. fruits, and jahe (Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes; idioblast cells wich contained starch grains were found in brotowali (Tinospora crispa (L. Miers stems, lada fruits, and jahe rhizomes; and latex cells were found in brotowali stems.

  17. Identification of Some Piper Crude Drugs Based on Fourier Transform Inf rared Spectrometry%傅里叶红外光谱法鉴别部分胡椒属生药的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晔; 张庆伟; 罗学军; 李佩孚; 宋亨; 张伯礼

    2014-01-01

    利用共有峰率和变异峰率双指标,以胡椒属七种药用植物的红外指纹图谱为依据,计算出所测样品的共有峰率和变异峰率。建立了胡椒属七种药用植物共有峰率和变异峰率双指标序列,结果揭示了胡椒属七种药用植物的亲缘关系。中药海风藤与石南藤、大叶蒟根茎的共有峰率均在77%以上,变异峰率均在30%以下,此三种胡椒属药用植物亲缘关系较近;海风藤与胡椒根茎、十八症根的共有峰率在61%左右,亲缘关系稍远;海风藤与蒌叶根茎的共有峰率仅为44%。亲缘关系较远。利用红外二阶导数谱图,可以鉴别中药海风藤及其伪品石南藤、十八症根、大叶蒟根茎、胡椒根茎等品种。傅里叶红外光谱法可以对样品进行无损处理,不需要对药材进行复杂的提取分离过程即可提供化合物的官能团、类别、氢键等信息。该法能从整体水平分析谱图特征峰,具有分析速度快,重现性好,非破坏性和样品量小,制样简单,专属性强,节约成本,保护环境等优点。可以解决中药海风藤因资源短缺,伪品较多,鉴别困难等问题,也可为临床用药的安全、有效提供保障。傅里叶红外光谱法为胡椒属药用植物亲缘关系的探讨和真伪鉴别提供了一种新方法。符合中药向综合分析和整体分析发展的趋势。%The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Pip-er .The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established ,which showed the sibship of the medic-inal plants .The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi ,Piper wallichii (Miq .) Hand .-Mazz .Piper laetispicum (C .DC .) was greater than 77% ,and the variant peak ratio was less than 30% .The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs .The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi

  18. Eriophyes species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) inhabiting lime trees (Tilia spp.: Tiliaceae)--supplementary description and morphological variability related to host plants and female forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soika, Grazyna; Kozak, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Three poorly known species of the subfamily Eriophyinae living on Tilia spp. (Tiliaceae) are illustrated and supplementary descriptions are provided. Two of them, Eriophyes exilis (Nalepa 1892) and Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa 1918), were recorded both in vein angle galls on leaves of Tilia platyphyllos Scop. and in erinea on leaves of Tilia tomentosa Moench, Tilia americana L. 'Moltkei', Tilia americana var. heterophylla (Vent.) Loudon, Tilia cordata Mill., Tiliajaponica (Miq.) Simonk., Tilia petiolaris DC. and Tilia zamoyskiana Wr6bl. The third species, Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa 1890, was found in nail galls on leaves of T platyphyllos, T americana and T. cordata. All of these Eriophyes species showed noticeable morphological differences between protogyne and deutogyne females in terms of the number of dorsal annuli, location of setae d, length of setae e and 3a, distance between tubercles 3a and the length and pattern of the prodorsal shield. Based on a comparative morphological analysis of this original data with that published by A. Nalepa, new synonyms for the following species are proposed: Erophyes exilis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes leiosoma Nalepa syn. nov.; Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes tiliaceus Nalepa syn. nov., Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa = Eriophyes rudis Nalepa syn. nov. = Eriophyes tomentosae Nalepa syn. nov. A key to all studied Eriophyes species living on lime trees is included.

  19. Preparation of pellets containing Pothomorphe umbellata extracts by extrusion-spheronization: improvement of 4-nerolidylcatechol photostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. de Araújo-Júnior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq., Piperaceae, has been extensively used in Brazilian folk medicine and it is well known for its strong antioxidant properties. However, its main active constituent, 4-nerolydilcatechol (4-NC, is sensitive to ultraviolet and visible light, which can limit the use of intermediate and final herbal preparations of this species. In the present work, coated multiparticulate solid dosage forms of P. umbellata were obtained with the purpose of increasing the stability of 4-NC. P. umbellata extract was used as a wetting liquid for the preparation of pellets by extrusion-spheronization. Pellets were coated in a fluidized bed by three different polymers (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, polyvynilpirrolidone K-30 (PVP-K30, and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft-copolymer (PVAPEG. 4-NC photostability was evaluated by an accelerated photostability protocol. Pellets showed a narrow size distribution and low friability. 4-NC photodegradation followed a second order degradation kinetics with similar k values for the percolate, uncoated pellets and HPMC coated pellets. Photoprotection was higher in pellets coated with PVP-K30 and PVA-PEG. PVA-PEG coated pellets with 6 and 9% weight gain resulted in a final concentration of 4-NC approximately cinco times higher than uncoated pellets or liquid extracts, suggesting the potential of this formulation as a multiparticulate solid dosage form for P. umbellata extracts.

  20. Preparation of pellets containing Pothomorphe umbellata extracts by extrusion-spheronization: improvement of 4-nerolidylcatechol photostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. de Araújo-Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq., Piperaceae, has been extensively used in Brazilian folk medicine and it is well known for its strong antioxidant properties. However, its main active constituent, 4-nerolydilcatechol (4-NC, is sensitive to ultraviolet and visible light, which can limit the use of intermediate and final herbal preparations of this species. In the present work, coated multiparticulate solid dosage forms of P. umbellata were obtained with the purpose of increasing the stability of 4-NC. P. umbellata extract was used as a wetting liquid for the preparation of pellets by extrusion-spheronization. Pellets were coated in a fluidized bed by three different polymers (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, polyvynilpirrolidone K-30 (PVP-K30, and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft-copolymer (PVAPEG. 4-NC photostability was evaluated by an accelerated photostability protocol. Pellets showed a narrow size distribution and low friability. 4-NC photodegradation followed a second order degradation kinetics with similar k values for the percolate, uncoated pellets and HPMC coated pellets. Photoprotection was higher in pellets coated with PVP-K30 and PVA-PEG. PVA-PEG coated pellets with 6 and 9% weight gain resulted in a final concentration of 4-NC approximately cinco times higher than uncoated pellets or liquid extracts, suggesting the potential of this formulation as a multiparticulate solid dosage form for P. umbellata extracts.

  1. Screening of endophytic fungi having ability for antioxidative and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activities isolated from Taxus sumatrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, N; Tachibana, S; Kardono, L B S; Sukiman, H

    2011-11-15

    Endophytic microbes are considered as an important source of natural products. They show antibiotic, anticancer, antioxidative and antidiabetic activities. Therefore, there are many reports on the isolation and bioactivity screening of endophytic fungi from various plants including Taxus species. Taxus sumatrana (Miq.) de Laub is found in Indonesia. The objective of this study is to conduct an in vitro screening of 14 endophytic fungi isolated from Taxus sumatrana having antioxidative and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activities. Each endophytic fungus was cultured for 7 days and the fungal mycelium and medium were extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate, respectively, to produce each extract. The antioxidative activity of each extract was tested by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and beta-carotene bleaching assays, whereas antidiabetic activity was tested based on alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity. The screening results showed that fungal mycelia of TSC 13 had the best alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity and TSC 24 had the best antioxidative activity. Isolation of bioactive compounds from TSC 13 and TSC 24 is being conducted. This is the first report that endophytic fungi isolated from T. sumatrana exhibited anti alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and anti oxidative activities.

  2. Toxic Effects of Lanthanum, Cerium, Chromium and Zinc on Potamogeton Malaianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xue; Shi Guoxin; Xu Qinsong; Wang Chuntao

    2005-01-01

    The toxic effects of rare earth elements such as lanthanum, cerium and heavy metal elements such as chromium, zinc on Potamogeton malaianus Miq. were studied. The results show that the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein increase to a certain degree and then decrease under La3+, Ce3+, Zn2+ stress, while there is a constantly dropping tendency under Cr6+ stress. The four ions have different effects on protective enzyme systems of Potamogeton malaianus. They can induce rises of the activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxides (POD) at lower concentration, however, with the increase of ions concentration, the activities decline. The change of SOD activity is exactly opposite to that of CAT and POD activity. It falls at first and rises later. An increasing tendency of MDA content appears with the increasing concentration. The toxicities of La3+, Zn2+, Ce3+ and Cr6+ become more serious in the order. The lethal concentration of Cr6+ to Potamogeton malaianus ranges from 0.5 to 1 mg·L-1, that of Ce3+ and Zn2+ ranges from 3 to 5 mg·L-1, and that of La3+ ranges from 7 to 10 mg·L-1. The toxic mechanism of La3+ and Ce3+ is similar to that of Cr6+ and Zn2+.

  3. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  4. Mercury and Cyanide Contaminations in Gold Mine Environment and Possible Solution of Cleaning Up by Using Phytoextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with heavy metals, mainly mercury and cyanide (CN due to small scale of public mines and large scale of industrial mines have been in concern to residents around the area. Surveys of heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments, such as rivers and paddy fields over two gold mine areas in West Jawa were conducted and possible solution of using indigenous plants for phytoremediation was studied. The results showed that most of the rivers and other aquatic environments were affected by gold mine activities. Rivers, ponds, and paddy fields around illegal public mines were mostly contaminated by mercury in considerably high levels, such as paddy fields in two locations (Nunggul and Leuwijamang, Pongkor were contaminated up to 22.68 and 7.73 ppm of Hg, respectively. Whereas rivers located around large scale industrial mines were contaminated by CN. Possible solution of cleaning up by using green technology of phytoremediation was examined. Some plant species grew in the contaminated sites showed high tolerance and potentially effective in accumulating cyanide or mercury in their roots and above ground portions. Lindernia crustacea (L. F.M., Digitaria radicosa (Presl Miq, Paspalum conjugatum, Cyperus kyllingia accumulated 89.13, 50.93, 1.78, and 0.77 ppm of Hg, respectively. Whereas, Paspalum conjugatum, Cyperus kyllingia accumulated 16.52 and 33. 16 ppm of CN respectively.

  5. 河源市桂山野生姜科花卉多样性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育声; 钟平生; 温汉都

    2015-01-01

    通过调查河源桂山山脉和福礤地区的野生姜科植物,为城市园林绿化建设开发和利用姜科植物提供参考.本文共鉴定野生姜科植物4属8种,分别是大高良姜(Alpinia galanga Swartz)、草豆蔻(Alpinia katsumadai Hayata)、益智(Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.)、艳山姜(Alpinia zerumbet Smith et Burtt)、姜黄(Curcuma longa L.)、郁金(Curcuma aromatica Salisb.)、闭鞘姜(Costus speciosus Smith)、姜花(Hedychium coronarium Koenig).从物种数量来看,优势种是草豆蔻(Alpinia katsumadai Hayata) 23.1%,劣势种是姜黄(Curcuma longa L.)4.9%.该地区姜科植物的多样性指数为1.99,均匀度指数为0.23.

  6. Effect of cyclodextrins on the photophysics of three indoloquinoline derivatives: an intriguing fluorometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prasun; Jaffer, Syed S; Purkayastha, Pradipta

    2011-03-10

    Effect of cyclodextrin encapsulation on the photophysics of three indoloquinoline derivatives, namely, 5-methyl-5H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline (MIQ), 8-chloro-5-methyl-5H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline (CMIQ), and 2,8-dichloro-5-methyl-5H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline (DCMIQ), has been studied using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The three compounds, which are basically cryptosanguinolentines, exist mainly in their zwitterionic forms in the excited state. Appreciable emission from the π-π* state can be observed on excitation of the compounds at a specific wavelength. The existence of zwitterions in the excited state leads to mutual interaction to form dimers triggered by the presence of the hydrophobic nanocavities of cyclodextrins (CDs) through Coulombic interaction. This is evidenced by steady state fluorescence measurements and treating the fluorophores with CDs of different cavity space. The photophysical behavior of the compounds gets dramatically modulated when they are treated with α-, β-, and γ-CD hosts. Presence of chloro substituent/s on the parent molecule and the extent of encapsulation by CDs of different dimensions exhibit enormous alterations in the fluorescence characteristics of the compounds. Solvation of the chromophoric moiety by water molecules deviates in character due to the guest-host interaction. Trapped water molecules inside the bigger cavity of γ-CD seem to play a vital role in quenching the fluorescence of the zwitterions of the molecules.

  7. Further discoveries in the ever-expanding genus Begonia (Begoniaceae: fifteen new species from Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen new species of Begonia L. from Sumatra are described and illustrated, in Begonia sect. Bracteibegonia (B. beludruvenea M.Hughes sp. nov. and B. jackiana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Petermannia (B. harauensis Girm. sp. nov., B. sect. Platycentrum (B. leuserensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Reichenheimia (B. fluvialis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. halabanensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. karangputihensis Girm. sp. nov., B. kemumuensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. korthalsiana Miq. ex M.Hughes sp. nov., B. kudoensis Girm. sp. nov., B. lilliputana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. olivacea Ardi sp. nov., B. raoensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. simolapensis Ardi sp. nov. and B. sect. Sphenanthera (B. pseudoscottii Girm. sp. nov.. Using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria, 6 are considered to be Least Concern, 5 Vulnerable and 4 Data Deficient. A key to 58 of the 63 currently accepted Begonia species in Sumatra is provided.

  8. Protective effects of isorhynchophylline on cardiac arrhythmias in rats and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Runtao; Dong, Guo; Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Xu; Fu, Songbin; Yang, Shusen

    2011-09-01

    As one important constituent extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine, Uncaria Rhynchophylla Miq Jacks, isorhynchophylline has been used to treat hypertension, epilepsy, headache, and other illnesses. Whether isorhynchophylline protects hearts against cardiac arrhythmias is still incompletely investigated. This study was therefore aimed to examine the preventive effects of isorhynchophylline on heart arrhythmias in guinea pigs and rats and then explore their electrophysiological mechanisms. In vivo, ouabain and calcium chloride were used to establish experimental arrhythmic models in guinea pigs and rats. In vitro, the whole-cell patch-lamp technique was used to study the effect of isorhynchophylline on action potential duration and calcium channels in acutely isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes. The dose of ouabain required to induce cardiac arrhythmias was much larger in guinea pigs administered with isorhynchophylline. Additionally, the onset time of cardiac arrhythmias induced by calcium chloride was prolonged, and the duration was shortened in rats pretreated with isorhynchophylline. The further study showed that isorhynchophylline could significantly decrease action potential duration and inhibit calcium currents in isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, isorhynchophylline played a remarkably preventive role in cardiac arrhythmias through the inhibition of calcium currents in rats and guinea pigs.

  9. Use of video observation and motor imagery on jumping performance in national rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Claudia; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Tsopani, Despina; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a mental training protocol could improve gymnastic jumping performance. Seventy-two rhythmic gymnasts were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. At baseline, experimental group completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Revised (MIQ-R) to assess the gymnast ability to generate movement imagery. A repeated measures design was used to compare two different types of training aimed at improving jumping performance: (a) video observation and PETTLEP mental training associated with physical practice, for the experimental group, and (b) physical practice alone for the control group. Before and after six weeks of training, their jumping performance was measured using the Hopping Test (HT), Drop Jump (DJ), and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ). Results revealed differences between jumping parameters F(1,71)=11.957; p<.01, and between groups F(1,71)=10.620; p<.01. In the experimental group there were significant correlations between imagery ability and the post-training Flight Time of the HT, r(34)=-.295, p<.05 and the DJ, r(34)=-.297, p<.05. The application of the protocol described herein was shown to improve jumping performance, thereby preserving the elite athlete's energy for other tasks.

  10. 琴叶风吹楠(肉豆蔻科)分类学位置再研究%Taxonomic Position of Horsfieldia pandurifolia Hu(Myristicaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴裕; 毛常丽; 张凤良; 杨晓玲; 曾建生; 段安安

    2015-01-01

    琴叶风吹楠(Horsfieldia pandurifolia Hu)自1963年命名发表以来,其分类学位置一直存在争议.本文以中国野生肉豆蔻科(Myristicaceae)11个种为材料,从形态学、油脂化学和分子遗传学方面对琴叶风吹楠分类学位置进行研究.结果表明,琴叶风吹楠与H.macrocoma ssp.prainii的形态特征高度一致,与中国风吹楠属其它类群,以及红光树属和肉豆蔻属植物在形态学和油脂化学方面存在决定性差别,在分子遗传学方面存在较大差异.支持将H.pandurifolia并入H.macrocoma ssp.prainii,以H.macrocoma为模式种建立Endocomia属,琴叶风吹楠的学名变更为Endocomia macrocoma(Miq.) de Wilde ssp.prainii(King) de Wilde.

  11. DIVERSITY OF PLANT COMMUNITIES IN SECONDARY SUCCESSION OF IMPERATA GRASSLANDS IN SAMBOJA LESTARI, EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Yassir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of  Imperata grassland areas is becoming increasingly important, both to create new secondary forest and to recover the original biodiversity. The diversity of  plant communities in secondary succession of  Imperata grasslands was studied using 45 subplots of  9 linear transects (10 m x 100 m. Data was collected and all stems over 10 cm dbh were identified, the Importance Values Index (IVI for all trees were calculated, saplings and seedlings were counted  and analysed, and soil samples were taken and analysed. Results showed that  after more than 10 years of  regeneration, 65 families were encountered consisting of  164 species, which were dominated by Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham, Vitex pinnata L., Macaranga gigantea (Reichb.f. & Zoll. Muell.Arg., Symplocos crassipes C.B. Clarke, Artocarpus odoratissimus Miq., and Bridelia glauca Blume. The effects of  regeneration, from Imperata grassland to secondary forest, on soil were the strongest in the A-horizon where an increase in carbon, N content, and pH were observed. Our result shows that Imperata grasslands appear to be permanent because of  frequent fires and human interferences and so far few efforts have been made to promote sustainable rehabilitation. If  protected from fire and other disturbances, such as shifting cultivation, Imperata grassland will grow and develop into secondary forest.

  12. 几种植物对土壤中阿特拉津的吸收富集特征及去除效率研究%Uptake and Removal Efficiency of Atrazine in Soil by Several Weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建军; 李明锐; 张坤; 李元

    2014-01-01

    , enrichment and transfer of atrazine to some extents. The enrichment co-efficient and transfer coefficient of P. hydridum was the highest, which were 0.54 and 2.81, respectively, followed by those of S. arundi-naceum and F. elata. In sum, P. hydridum, S. arundinaceum and F. elata could be recommended for restoring atrazine contaminated soils.

  13. Effects of a windthrow disturbance on the carbon balance of a broadleaf deciduous forest in Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yamanoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon balance, with most being in a carbon sequestration stage. The net carbon releases that occur result from forest disturbance, and windthrow is a typical disturbance event affecting the forest carbon balance in eastern Asia. The CO2 flux has been measured using the eddy covariance method in a deciduous broadleaf forest (Japanese white birch, Japanese oak, and castor aralia in Hokkaido, where incidental damage by the strong Typhoon Songda in 2004 occurred. We also used the biometrical method to demonstrate the CO2 flux within the forest in detail. Damaged trees amounted to 40 % of all trees, and they remained on site where they were not extracted by forest management. Gross primary production (GPP, ecosystem respiration (Re, and net ecosystem production were 1350, 975, and 375 g C m−2 yr−1 before the disturbance and 1262, 1359, and −97 g C m−2 yr−1 2 years after the disturbance, respectively. Before the disturbance, the forest was an evident carbon sink, and it subsequently transformed into a net carbon source. Because of increased light intensity at the forest floor, the leaf area index and biomass of the undergrowth (Sasa kurilensis and S. senanensis increased by factors of 2.4 and 1.7, respectively, in 3 years subsequent to the disturbance. The photosynthesis of Sasa increased rapidly and contributed to the total GPP after the disturbance. The annual GPP only decreased by 6 % just after the disturbance. On the other hand, the annual Re increased by 39 % mainly because of the decomposition of residual coarse-wood debris. The carbon balance after the disturbance was controlled by the new growth and the decomposition of residues. The forest management, which resulted in the dead trees remaining at the study site, strongly affected the carbon balance over the years. When comparing the carbon uptake efficiency at the study site with that at others, including those with various kinds

  14. Pharmacokinetic study of calenduloside E and its active metabolite oleanolic acid in beagle dog using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meiyun; Yang, Yan; Sun, Yantong; Cheng, Longmei; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Huibo; Fawcett, J Paul; Sun, Xiaobo; Gu, Jingkai

    2014-03-01

    Aralia mandshrica is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine from Northeast China commonly used to treat digestive, circulatory and immune system disorders. Calenduloside E is one of its bioactive components currently under evaluation as a pure drug. In this study, a highly sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantitation of calenduloside E and its active metabolite oleanolic acid in beagle dog plasma has been developed and validated. Samples containing the ammonium salt of simvastatin acid as internal standard (IS) were purified by solid phase extraction and separated on a SUPELCO Ascentis-C18 column (50mm×4.6mm i.d., 5μm) using gradient elution with 0.35% formic acid and acetonitrile. Analytes and IS were detected in a cycle time of 5min after ionization in the negative ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring of the precursor-to-product ion transitions at m/z 631.4→455.4 and m/z 435.4→319.0 for calenduloside E and IS respectively and by single ion monitoring of the ion at m/z 455.4 for oleanolic acid. The method was linear over the concentration range 0.4-100ng/mL for both analytes using 0.5mL plasma. Inter- and intra-day precisions were both beagle dogs were given oral doses of calenduloside E (1.05, 2.10 and 4.20mg/kg) and an intravenous injection of 2.10mg/kg. The absolute bioavailability of calenduloside E was only 0.58%. Area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-t)) for the oral doses of calenduloside E was approximately dose proportional while other PK parameters (t1/2, Tmax and MRT) showed no significant differences among the three doses (P>0.05). The PK data provide a useful platform on which to base future clinical studies of calenduloside E.

  15. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  16. Neighborhood structure influences the convergence in light capture efficiency and carbon gain: an architectural approach for cloud forest shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Q, J Antonio; Cordero S, Roberto A

    2016-06-01

    Although plant competition is recognized as a fundamental factor that limits survival and species coexistence, its relative importance on light capture efficiency and carbon gain is not well understood. Here, we propose a new framework to explain the effects of neighborhood structures and light availability on plant attributes and their effect on plant performance in two understory shade-tolerant species (Palicourea padifolia (Roem. & Schult.) C.M. Taylor & Lorence and Psychotria elata (Swartz)) within two successional stages of a cloud forest in Costa Rica. Features of plant neighborhood physical structure and light availability, estimated by hemispherical photographs, were used to characterize the plant competition. Plant architecture, leaf attributes and gas exchange parameters extracted from the light-response curve were used as functional plant attributes, while an index of light capture efficiency (silhouette to total area ratio, averaged over all viewing angles, STAR) and carbon gain were used as indicators of plant performance. This framework is based in a partial least square Path model, which suggests that changes in plant performance in both species were affected in two ways: (i) increasing size and decreasing distance of neighbors cause changes in plant architecture (higher crown density and greater leaf dispersion), which contribute to lower STAR and subsequently lower carbon gain; and (ii) reductions in light availability caused by the neighbors also decrease plant carbon gain. The effect of neighbors on STAR and carbon gain were similar for the two forests sites, which were at different stages of succession, suggesting that the architectural changes of the two understory species reflect functional convergence in response to plant competition. Because STAR and carbon gain are variables that depend on multiple plant attributes and environmental characteristics, we suggest that changes in these features can be used as a whole-plant response approach to

  17. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  18. 基于层次分析法对姜黄属植物的观赏应用综合评价%Ornamental evaluation of Curcuma based on analytic hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽珍; 吴永辉; 岳保超; 刘念

    2015-01-01

    运用层次分析法对姜黄属(CurcumaL.)植物的10个种12份材料进行了鲜切花应用、盆栽观花应用、盆栽观叶应用与地栽应用等方面的观赏特性综合评价,并对就该12份材料的株高、花梗长度、花梗粗度、花序长度、花序直径等28个单项指标进行了综合考察评分,按评分标准计算其综合得分.结果显示,在姜黄属植物的观赏应用上,上部苞片先端颜色与花序直径是较为重要的评价指标;在观赏应用综合评价上,等级为I的有大莪术(C.elata)、春秋姜黄(C.attenuata)的顶生花与侧生花、南昆山莪术(C.nankunshanensis)的顶生花与侧生花、顶花莪术(C.yunnanensis),其中大莪术得分最高,是开发应用的首选种类.南岭莪术(C.kwangsiensis var.nanlingensis、姜黄(C.longa、红艳郁金(C.rubescens)、Curcuma sp.1、Curcuma sp.2被评定为等级Ⅱ,Curcuma sp.2、姜黄较其他得分高.郁金因其花色淡,花梗长度短,开花率低等因素,总体得分明显落后其他种,被评定为等级Ⅲ.

  19. Gastrodin suppresses BACE1 expression under oxidative stress condition via inhibition of the PKR/eIF2α pathway in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J-S; Zhou, S-F; Wang, Q; Guo, J-N; Liang, H-M; Deng, J-B; He, W-Y

    2016-06-14

    The expression of β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is increased in the brain of late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and oxidative stress may be the potential cause of this event. The phenolic glucoside gastrodin (Gas), a main component of a Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has been demonstrated to display antioxidant activity and suppresses BACE1 expression. However, the mechanisms by which Gas suppresses BACE1 expression are not clear. Morris water maze test was performed to assess the effect of Gas treatment on memory impairments in Tg2576 mice. The level of oxidative stress in the brain of Tg2576 mice was determined by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS. In vivo and in vitro, we detected the expression levels of BACE1, pPKRThr446, PKR, pPERKThr981, PERK, peIF2αSer51, and eIF2α using western blot analysis. We found that Gas improved learning and memory abilities of Tg2576 transgenic mice and attenuated intracellular oxidative stress in hippocampi of Tg2576 mice. We discovered that the expression levels of BACE1, activated PKR (pPKRThr446) and activated eIF2α (peIF2αSer51) were elevated in the brains of Tg2576 mice and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, peptide PKR inhibitor (PRI) and Gas down-regulated BACE1 expression in Tg2576 mice and H2O2-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting activation of PKR and eIF2α. Gas alleviates memory deficits in mice and suppresses BACE1 expression by inhibiting the protein kinase/Eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (PKR/eIF2α) pathway. The research suggested that Gas may develop as an drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. 北细辛及其近缘植物叶片显微结构比较研究%Comparative Study on Leaf Microstructure of Asarum heterotropoides Fr .Schmidt var .Mandshuricum (Maxim .)Kitag .and its Relative Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳艳飞; 于营; 邢丽伟; 邵财; 朴向民; 张佳琪; 郭靖

    2016-01-01

    采用常规石蜡切片法和无色指甲油印痕法对北细辛及其近缘植物叶片解剖结构进行比较研究。结果表明,北细辛及其近缘植物在叶片表皮细胞大小及排列方式、栅栏组织、叶肉细胞形态及排列方式和叶片表皮气孔密度等方面存在差异。北细辛叶片栅栏组织由1层柱状细胞组成;汉城细辛和华细辛叶片栅栏组织均由2层柱状细胞组成;尾花细辛和花叶尾花细辛叶片栅栏组织由1层柱状细胞组成,但其细胞较小且排列疏松;青城细辛、川滇细辛和长毛细辛栅栏组织分化不明显。北细辛、汉城细辛和华细辛叶肉细胞叶绿体小而密,青城细辛和长毛细辛叶肉细胞叶绿体较大,川滇细辛和尾花细辛叶肉细胞叶绿体较小,青城细辛、长毛细辛、川滇细辛和花叶尾花细辛叶肉细胞叶绿体数量较少且主要分布于叶肉组织上层细胞,叶肉细胞中叶绿体间的差异也可为细辛属植物分类鉴别提供参考。%Leaf microstructure of Asarum heterotropoides Fr .Schmidt var .mandshuricum and its relative species were studied using paraffin method and colorless nail polish imprint method .The results showed that the leaf microstructure of A .heterotropoides var .mandshuricum and its relative species had a difference in the epidermal cell size and arrangement ,palisade tissue ,mesophyll cell morphology and arrangement ,and the leaf stoma density .Leaf palisade tissues of A .heterotropoides var .mandshuricum were composed of a layer of columnar cells ,but A .sieboldii Miq f .seoulense and A .sieboldii Miq were composed of two layers of columnar cells .Leaf palisade tissues of A .caudigerum Hance var .caudi-gerum and A .caudigerum Hance var .cardiophyllum were composed of a layer of columnar cells which were small and loose .A .splendens ,A . delavayi and A .pulchellum had no significant difference of palisade tissue .Chloroplasts in mesophyll cells of A

  1. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  2. 45S rDNA在多种植物中期染色体上的定位%Physical Mapping of 45S rDNA on Metaphase Chromosomes in Several Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 陈成彬; 李秀兰; 陈瑞阳; 宋文芹

    2006-01-01

    应用荧光原位杂交技术首次确定了日本小檗(Berberis thunbergii DC)、车前(Plantago major L.)、野芹菜(Sanicula lamelligera Hance)、荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)、槭树(Acer buergerianum Miq.)、天目琼花(Viburnum sargentii Koehne.)、丹参(Salvia miltorrhiza Bunge.)、榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)中45S rDNA在中期染色体上的位置.根据rDNA的位点数和位置的变化,分为四种类型:①在日本小檗、车前和野芹菜中,荧光信号正好位于随体染色体的次缢痕或端部;②荔枝和槭树,分别有1对和3对染色体具随体,但荧光原位杂交却检测到3对和5对染色体上具有杂交信号;③天目琼花,具有4对随体染色体,但仅在其中一对随体上显示了杂交信号;④在丹参和榆树中,有的杂交信号位于着丝粒部位或长臂的末端,杂交信号的数目成奇数.黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)的染色体45S rDNA信号正好位于6条染色体的着丝粒部位,这与Dal-Hoe和Hoshi等人的结果是一致的.上述结果表明:45S rDNA可以作为染色体的一个识别指标,对识别染色体的个体性具有一定的参考价值.另外还对45S rDNA位点分布的多态性进行了讨论.%The genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes has been determined for the first time by fluo rescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Berberis thunbergii DC. , Plantago major L. , Sanicula lamelligera Hance, Litchi chinensis Sonn. , Acer buergerianum Miq. , Viburnum sargentii Koehne. , Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. , and Ulmus pumila L.. These species could be divided into four groups based on the difference on the number and sites of their rDNA loci: the fluorescence signals lay in the secondary constrictions or the terminal regions of SAT-chromosomes in B. thunbergii, P. major, and S. lamelligera; 3 and 5 pairs of signals were de tected in L. chinensis and A. buergerianum, respectively which had 1 and 3 pairs of satellites respectively ; there were 4 pairs of SAT-chromosomes in V

  3. Avaliação de defeitos no processo de fabricação de lamelas para pisos de madeira engenheirados com uso de ferramentas de controle de qualidade Evaluation of the production process of lamella for engineered wood floor using quality control instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Coletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os defeitos das lamelas são responsáveis em grande parte pelo retrabalho, perdas e diminuição da qualidade do piso acabado. Esses defeitos geram aumento de custos de produção sendo um fator muito importante para o processo de fabricação de pisos de madeira. Este trabalho tem por objetivos classificar e quantificar os defeitos ocorrentes na produção de lamelas, buscar causas, propor soluções e melhorias através da aplicação de ferramentas de qualidade como: “Brainstorming", “ Diagrama de Pareto", “Diagrama de Ishikawa" e 5W2H . Foram amostrados 1598,47 m² de lamelas das seguintes espécies: Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms e timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq com as seguintes dimensões: espessuras (2,5mm e 3,5mm, larguras (76,2mm, 82,5mm e 127mm, comprimentos (450mm a 1.200mm. O defeito mais freqüente encontrado na produção de lamelas foi a marca de serra (31%, seguido de corte da madeira feito pelo fornecedor (23% e falta de instrução de trabalho (15%. As principais causas dos defeitos de marca de serra são devidas aos problemas de manutenção de serras da empresa fornecedora de madeira.Lamella defects are responsible in large part for rework losses and decrease in the quality of the finished floor. These defects increase costs, a very important factor in the process wood floor production. This work aimed to quantify and classify the common defects occurring in the lamella production, find out causes and propose solutions and improvements using the tools “Brainstorming", “Pareto Diagram", “Ishibawa Diagram", and 5W2H. 1598,47 square meters of lamella of the species Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, Amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, Cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms and Timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq were sampled with the following dimensions: thickness (2.5mm and 3.5mm, width (76,2mm, 82,5mm and 127mm, lenght

  4. Antifatigue and increasing exercise performance of Actinidia arguta crude alkaloids in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc. Planch. ex. Miq. is one of the most recently domesticated fruit species with increasing commercial production worldwide. It is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used to reduce blood glucose and treat atopic dermatitis. In addition, it possesses antioxidant, anticancer, and antiallergic properties. In this study, we investigated the physical antifatigue and exercise performance effects of A. arguta crude alkaloids (AACA extracted with 70% ethanol. Four groups of male Kunming mice (n = 16 were orally administered AACA at doses of 0 mg/kg/d (vehicle, 50 mg/kg/d (AACA-50, 100 mg/kg/d (AACA-100, or 200 mg/kg/d (AACA-200 for 28 days. The effect of AACA treatment on exercise performance was studied using the forelimb grip strength experiment and by the measurement of the weight-loaded swimming time. The antifatigue effect is evaluated based on fatigue-associated biochemical parameters, hepatic and muscular glycogen levels, and changes in the morphology of transverse and longitudinal sections of skeletal muscle. The results showed that AACA could elevate the endurance and grip strength in mice. The exhaustive swimming time of the AACA-50, AACA-100, and AACA-200 groups was significantly (p < 0.05 increased compared with the vehicle. The swimming time of the AACA-100 group was the longest among all groups studied. Mice in the AACA-treated groups had decreased levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase after a physical challenge compared with the vehicle group. The tissue glycogen, an important energy source during exercise, significantly increased with AACA. The morphology of transverse and longitudinal sections of skeletal muscle did not change in the vehicle group. Overall, these findings suggest that AACA possesses antifatigue effects and increases exercise performance in mice. Therefore, A. arguta may be developed as an antifatigue dietary supplement in the category of functional foods.

  5. Effect of Imagery Practice Program on Imagery Ability in Thailand Adolescent Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raweewat Rattanakoses

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the imagery program in Thai Sport School Cyclist-Students. The experiment was designed in duration of 10 weeks at Lampang Sport School, Thailand. Samples consisted of 66 cyclist-students through random purposive sampling, of male (46 and female (20. They were separated into two groups of experiment (33 and control (33. The questionnaire MIQ-R (Moment Imagery Questionnaire consists of 8 items of kinesthetic (KI and visual (VI to evaluate the imagery ability. Program imagery was adapted from Hogg (2002, Hall (2008. Before starting the study, researcher administered a test to see the reliability of the questionnaire: Reliability for imagery ability=.57. The finding showed that the experiment group consisted of male, (Mean=15.5622, SD=15.5530, female (Mean=15.1000, SD=1.10050. Control Group male (Mean=15.4783, SD=1.64785, female (15.3000, SD=1.15900. There was an increase in visual imagery (VI scores across the three different periods where Multivariate results indicated statistically significant F (2, 63 =4.212, p-value=.019 (p<.05, eta square=.118 (11.8% large effect at pre-test, post-test 1 and post-test 2 (Experiment and Control group. Kinesthetic imagery (KI scores increased across the three different periods where Multivariate results indicated statistically significant F (2, 63 =.879, p-value=.017 (p<.05, eta square=.121 (12.1% large effect at pre-test, post-test 1 and post-test 2 (Experiment and Control group. This research suggested that the imagery program does improve mental skills of Thailand adolescent cyclists in visual and kinesthetic imagery ability.

  6. PRELIMINARY REVISIONS OF SOME GENERA OF MALAYSIAN PAPILIONACEAE II

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    MS van Meeuwen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The revisions or notes have been prepared by Miss M. S. van Meeuwen, except for those of Pseudarthria and Sophora by C. G. G. J. van Steenis, and Tephrosia by J. Stemmerik. In Alysicarpus 4 species are distinguished in Malaysia; a key, synonymy, and discussion are given.Lourea Desv., being a homonym, has, according to Dr. Bakhuizen van den Brink, to be replaced by Christia; a key and discussion is given of 4 Malaysian species; 5 new combinations are proposed. Under Desmodium the variability of D. heterocarpon (L. DC. and its full synonymy are discussed; one new variety is proposed; an enumeration of specimens of both varieties is given. D. ormooarpoides DC. and D. zonatum Miq. are two sharply distinct species which have been confused in the past; a key, synonyms, discussion, and enumeration of specimens ;; j are provided. The discrimination of D. sequax Wall, and D. viegaphyllum Zoll. is discussed and their synonymy given; specimens have been enumerated. Distribution is given of D. scorpiurus (Sw. Desv. and D. tor-tuosum (Sw.   DC. Psoraleai is revised for Malaysia where 4 species are recorded and keyed out; a fifth species must remain dubious, as the type could not be traced in the Paris Herbarium. Of Pseudarthria only one species occurs in Malaysia; its synonymy and distribution is given.Sophora longipes Merr.; an endemic species from the Philippines, is recorded for Timor. Of Tephro&ia maculata M. & P., from Papua, the synonymy is given and specimens enumerated; T. brachystachys Laut. & K. Seh. is reduced. Notes and distribution are given of T. zollingeri Backer. For T. mollie . Val., a later homonym, the new name T. papuana is proposed.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with a description of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.

  8. Ecophysiology of Cecropia schreberiana saplings in two wind regimes in an elfin cloud forest: growth, gas exchange, architecture and stem biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Roberto A.

    1999-03-01

    The hypothesis that the short, stunted development of elfin cloud forest trees is influenced by strong winds was tested by studying growth, gas exchange and biomechanics of potted saplings of Cecropia schreberiana Miq. ex. C. peltata L. (Cecropiaceae) exposed to two natural wind regimes (exposed and protected) at high elevation sites in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. The wind-exposure treatment produced several thigmomorphogenetic responses, including reductions in plant stature and crown area, changes in allocation patterns, and increased root to shoot ratio, leaf abrasion and leaf epinasty. Wind-exposure decreased maximum photosynthetic rate and respiration on an area basis, but not on a leaf-mass basis. Wind-exposed plants had lower apparent quantum yields, and higher light compensation points than wind-protected plants. Photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency was lower in wind-exposed plants, but such plants had higher leaf nitrogen concentration than wind-protected plants. There were no effects of treatments on stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water-use efficiency. Stems of wind-exposed plants had lower second moment of area, apparent modulus of elasticity, flexural stiffness and stem density, but higher water content than wind-protected plants. Tissue-density-specific stiffness and the calculated critical height were not affected by the treatments. Wind-exposed plants were biomechanically less predisposed to bending and failing under their own weight than wind-protected plants because their safety factors were smaller, indicating that maintenance of an ontogenetically less developed structure enables plants to cope with wind loading. Windward trees showed a lower scaling component of the allometric relationship between diameter and height than leeward trees.

  9. Ethnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park

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    Dwi Mairida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Suku Anak Dalam (SAD, a tribal in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park (TNBD has knowledge for utilizing rattans. This research attempts to investigate the species of rattans utilized and to analyze the local wisdom of Suku Anak Dalam(SAD community.The data was collected by doing an interview the informants consisting of temenggung (head of the tribe, jenang (the liaison between the villagers and anak dalam, rattans gatherers, induk (mother and hand maker. Then, the researcher observed active participation (following the SAD activity in utilizing rattans.The interview was conducted based on the appropriate time with qualitative condition and situation. The result showed 12 (twelve species of rattan utilized by the SAD community, Calamus ornatus (Blume, Calamus caesius( Blume, Calamus flabellatus (Becc., Calamus manan(Miq., Calamus csipionum (Lour., Calamus javensis(Blume, Calamus axilliaris(Becc., Calamus sp., Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. Mart., Daemonorops draco(Willd. Blume, Daemonorops verticiliaris(Griff. Mart., and Korthalsiaechinometra(Becc.The eight species were utilized as ambung, penampilan, and tekalo handicraft. One type for rituals, ropes, clotheslines, dye, durian lempok cakes preservatives (Durio spp.,and the species for the food for pregnant mothers (‘ngidam’, and the three species for medicine. The implication of this research gave a documentation for the government to formulate and to make an authority of TNB forest conservation and to protect the culture of SAD community in the form of rattans inventarization and local wisdom of SAD community in utilizing the species of rattans.How to CiteMairida, D., Muhadiono, M., & Hilwan, I. (2016. Etnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1 64-70.

  10. 湖南的新记录植物(六)%Some newly recorded plants from Hunan Province of China(Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文新; 刘克明; 蔡秀珍; 田建平; 胡光万

    2004-01-01

    报道了湖南植物分布新记录,其中新记录属2个,即假木豆属(Dendrolobium(Wight et Arn.) Benth.)和排钱树属(Phyllodium Desv.);新记录种20个,即鹰爪花(Artabotrys hexapetalus (Linn. f.) Bhandari)、岩生碎米荠(Cardamine calcicola W. W. Smith.)、山芥碎米荠( Cardamine griffithii Hook. f. et Thons.)、白花碎米荠(Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz)、紫彩绣球(Hydrangea sargentiana Rehd.)、狭叶黄檀(Dalbergia stenophylla Prain)、假木豆(Dendrolobium triangulare (Retz.) Schindl.)、排钱树(Phyllodium pulchellum (L. ) Desv.)、华野豌豆(Vicia chinensis Franch.)、绿萼凤仙花(Impatiens chlorosepala Hand.-Mazz.)、岩谷杜鹃(Rhododendron rupivalleculatum Tam.)、革叶铁榄(Sinosideroxylon wightianum (Hook. et Arn.) Aubr.)、宁波木犀(Osmanthus cooperi Hemsl.)、天人草(Comanthosphace japonica (Miq.) S. Moore)、华南野靛棵(Mananthes austrosinensis (H. S. Lo) C. Y. Wu et C. C. Hu)、东亚磨芋(Amorphophallus kiusianus (Makino) Makino)、齿唇兰(Anoectochilus lanceolatus Lindl.)、圆叶石豆兰(Bulbophyllum drymoglossum Maxim. ex Okubo)、毛杓兰(Cypripedium franchetii E. H. Wilson)、绿花斑叶兰(Goodyyera viridiflora (Bl.) Bl.);新记录变种1个,即异果崖豆藤(Millettia dielsiana Harms var. heterocarpa (Chun ex T. Chen)Z. Wei).

  11. Antioxidant activity and identification of bioactive compounds from leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhu Chandel; Upendra Sharma; Neeraj Kumar; Bikram Singh; Satwinderjeet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of different extract/fractions of Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) (Roxb.) Miq. (Rubiaceae) and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: The extract/fractions were screened for antioxidant activity using various in vitro assays viz. DPPH assay, ABTS assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and plasmid DNA nicking assay. Total phenolic content of extract/fractions was determined by colorimetric method. An ultra-performance LC-electrospray-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was used to analyse the active constituents of extract/fractions of A. cadamba. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction was found to be most active fraction in all the assays as compared to other extract/fractions. The IC50 value of ethyl acetate fraction (ETAC fraction) was 21.24 μg/mL, 1.12 μg/mL, 9.68 μg/mL and 57.81 μg/mL in DPPH assay, ABTS assay, reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging assay respectively. All the extract/fractions also showed the potential to protect the plasmid DNA (pBR322) against the attack of hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton’s reagent. The bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, by comparing the mass and λmax with literature values. Conclusions: The potential of the extract/fractions to scavenge different free radicals in different systems indicated that they may be useful therapeutic agents for treating radical-related pathologic damage.

  12. The potency of Bukit Tapak forest as means for traditional ceremony, environmental conservation, and education

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    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bukit Tapak (1903 m the natural reserve of Batukau I (816.4 ha is one of three natural reserve area of Batukau (1762.8 ha, 1974. Located at the tourism object of Bedugul, the eastern part boundaries to the Botanic Garden Eka Karya-LIPI (154.5 ha, 1959 and settlement of Candikuning area (1152 family, 4475 persons and near the three lakes of the water resources of Bali; Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan lake. The special plants; cemara geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., cemara pandak (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub., nyabah (Pinanga arinasaensis J.R. Witono, paku kidang (Dicksonia blumei Planch., and purnajiwa (Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benth.. The pioneer plant of the hill is cemara geseng and the endemic is cemara pandak. The plant of needle leaves that basically the existence of Bali Botanical Garden as the conservation ex situ flora of noodle leaves especially at the eastern Indonesian area. Nyabah, which is supposed to be the new kind of palm named Arinasa, driven from the staff name who is the pioneer of the conservation. Paku kidang is rare. There are ethnobotany plants of ritual ceremony such as: kayu tulak (Schefflera sp., kayu tulung (Brasaia sp., penjalin (Calamus sp., paku pidpid (Nephrolepis sp., trijata (Medinilla speciosa (Blume ex Mart. Blume, etc. Balinese people believe that forest is holly and sacred. But because of the existence of Pura Teratai Bang (16 century at the slope, moslem cemetery (found in 1938 at the peak, and other needs (climbing, food, medicine, etc., it can not be avoided the entrances of people that caused the forest is damaged. The forest reservation needs the approach to the local people, so the solution are morally and integration. The use of the forest which is potential as the environment education facilities conservation and other alternatives such as: horticulture, the improvement of the people economy discussed here to be the input for the forest conservation wisely and continuously.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  14. De Novo Sequencing and Assembly Analysis of the Pseudostellaria heterophylla Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhen, Wei; Long, Dengkai; Ding, Ling; Gong, Anhui; Xiao, Chenghong; Jiang, Weike; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax is a mild tonic herb widely cultivated in the Southern part of China. The tuberous roots of P. heterophylla accumulate high levels of secondary metabolism products of medicinal value such as saponins, flavonoids, and isoquinoline alkaloids. Despite numerous studies on the pharmacological importance and purification of these compounds in P. heterophylla, their biosynthesis is not well understood. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform to sequence the RNA from flowers, leaves, stem, root cortex and xylem tissues of P. heterophylla. We obtained 616,413,316 clean reads that we assembled into 127, 334 unique sequences with an N50 length of 951 bp. Among these unigenes, 53,184 unigenes (41.76%) were annotated in a public database and 39, 795 unigenes were assigned to 356 KEGG pathways; 23,714 unigenes (8.82%) had high homology with the genes from Beta vulgaris. We discovered 32, 095 DEGs in different tissues and performed GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. The most enriched KEGG pathway of secondary metabolism showed up-regulated expression in tuberous roots as compared with the ground parts of P. heterophylla. Moreover, we identified 72 candidate genes involved in triterpenoids saponins biosynthesis in P. heterophylla. The expression profiles of 11 candidate unigenes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Our study established a global transcriptome database of P. heterophylla for gene identification and regulation. We also identified the candidate unigenes involved in triterpenoids saponins biosynthesis. Our results provide an invaluable resource for the secondary metabolites and physiological processes in different tissues of P. heterophylla. PMID:27764127

  15. The Effectiveness of Choice Theory by Grouping Method on Increasing Self-Differentiation and Intimacy of Married Students

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    Monireh Shariatzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marriage and choice of spouse is one of the most important events of human life which affect not only the physical but also mental health of the individual. It is certain that any problem that arises in the family, the losses will concern the total structure and cultural value system of the society. Unfortunately, young couples do not allocate particular time and energy to preparedness to establish relationship and consequently experience the considerable amount of conflict in early years of marital life. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of choice theory education on increasing self-differentiation and intimacy in married couples. Methods: In this interventional study, 30 married couples of students (n=60 were selected and allocated randomly to case (15 couples and control (15 couples groups. Differentiation of Self-Inventory (DSI and Marital Intimacy (MIQ questionnaires were completed by students. The control group received no training. Intervention included 10 sessions of choice theory education. Results: results showed that choice theory education by grouping method is effective in increasing the self-differentiation of married students, in which the mean score of self-differentiation in case group increased from 170.2±19.2 to 191.8±10.1. Also, the effect of intervention on increasing the couples’ marital intimacy was not significant. Conclusion: Result of this research confirmed the effectiveness of choice theory education in increasing the self- differentiation, so regarding the cultural and social transition and also the increasing need of incipient married youth, it is recommended that education of these skills will be concerned in the academic and training centers.

  16. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  17. Quantitative determination of salvinorin A, a natural hallucinogen with abuse liability, in Internet-available Salvia divinorum and endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan

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    Po-Xiang Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recreational use of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae, a herbal drug that contains a hallucinogenic ingredient, salvinorin A, has become a new phenomenon among young drug users. In Taiwan, as in many other countries, dry leaves of S. divinorum and its related concentrated extract products are available via the Internet. Besides S. divinorum, there are many endemic Salvia species whose salvinorin A content is yet unknown. To understand the abuse liability of these products, the aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salvinorin A in endemic Salvia species and Internet-available salvinorin A-related products. Samples of S. divinorum were purchased via the Internet and samples of eight endemic species of Salvia were collected in Taiwan, including S. arisanensis Hayata, S. coccinea Juss. ex Murr, S. hayatana Makino ex Hayata, S. japonica Thumb. ex Murr, S. nipponica Miq. Var. formosana (Hayata Kudo, S. scapiformis Hance, S. tashiroi Hayata. Icon. PI. Formosan, and S. keitaoensis Hayata. The content of salvinorin A was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Salvinorin A was extracted from the dry leaves of S. divinorum and endemic species of Salvia with methanol and analyzed on a C-18 column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile–water. Salvinorin A was detected in S. divinorum, but not in the endemic Salvia species of Taiwan. Therefore, endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan may not possess hallucinogenic potential. However, the potential harm from S. divinorum available via the Internet should be thoroughly assessed in Taiwan, and control measures similar to those implemented in many other countries should be considered.

  18. The botanical legacy of Thomas Hardwicke’s journey to Srinagar in 1796

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    Ian M. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1796, Thomas Hardwicke travelled through northern India between what is now Fatehgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Srinagar in Uttarakhand. Hardwicke collected and described plants encountered and had many of the plants illustrated from life. He published an account of the journey in 1799 including a list of plant species. I review the names validated in the original paper, and also those published subsequently by Sir James Edward Smith and William Roxburgh based partly or wholly on the material or drawings acquired by Hardwicke on the journey to Srinagar. The large collection of Hardwicke plant drawings now held in the British Library, and a smaller set in the Botany Library of the Natural History Museum, are considered in relation to the application and typification of plant names related to Hardwicke’s botanical exploration in India. The names of seven plant species were validly published in the 1799 paper (Androsace rotundifolia Hardw., Ficus laminosa Hardw., Justicia thyrsiformis Roxb. ex Hardw., Linum trigynum Roxb. ex Hardw., Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw., Salvia integrifolia Roxb. ex Hardw. and Volkameria bicolor Hardw., plus one new combination (Echites antidysentericus (L. Roxb. ex Hardw.. As concluded by Britten more than a century ago, Ficus laminosa is the correct name for the fig variously referred to F. saemocarpa Miq. or F. squamosa Roxb. Smith based Rhododendron arboreum Sm. and Bignonia undulata Sm. on Hardwicke plants. At least a dozen Roxburgh names, including Crataegus integrifolia Roxb., Gardenia tetrasperma Roxb. and Morus serrata Roxb., are based, at least partly, on Hardwicke’s collections. In total, 23 names are lectotypified here and one neotype is designated.

  19. 细柱五加皮化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向前; 陆昌洙; 张承烨

    2004-01-01

    目的系统地研究五加属植物细柱五加皮Acanthopanax gracilistylus 的化学成分.方法用热甲醇分别对细柱五加皮的根进行提取后,采用Diaion HP-20P,Chromatorex ODS,Sephadex LH-20和硅胶色谱进行分离纯化,通过光谱分析以及直接和标准品对照进行结构确认.结果从根皮中得到二萜类等6 个化合物:五加酸(Ⅰ),异贝壳杉烯酸(Ⅱ),l-芝麻素(Ⅲ),豆甾醇(Ⅳ),β-谷甾醇(Ⅴ)和刺五加苷B(Ⅵ).结论化合物Ⅰ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Object To study the chemical constituents of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith as the purpose of study continually on plants of Acanthopanax (Decne. et Planch.) Miq. Methods The leaves, roots, and stem barks of A. gracilistylus were extracted with hot MeOH and steam distillation respectively, and then, separated and purified by column chromatographies on Diaion HP-20P, Chromatorex ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel. All compounds were identified on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis including GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR, or comparison with the reported data. Results Six compounds were obtained from the roots of A. gracilistylus. They are (-)-pimara-9 (11), 15-dien-19-oic acid (Ⅰ), (-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (Ⅱ), d-sesamin (Ⅲ), stigmasterol (Ⅳ), β-sitosterol (Ⅴ), and eleutheroside B (Ⅵ). Conclusion Compounds Ⅰ, Ⅳ, and Ⅴ are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  20. Biochemical Status of Stock Plants and Their Annual Sprouts as a Crucial Key for Successful Adventitious Root Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor OSTERC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leafy cuttings of Prunus subhirtella Miq. ‘Autumnalis’ were harvested from mature, semi-mature and juvenile stock plants at four dates during the vegetative period 2011 (on 16th of May, on 30th of May, on 20th of June and on 11th of July and their auxin levels (IAA, IAA-Asp and sugar content (glucose, sucrose, sorbitol were quantified. The IAA and IAA-Asp contents in cutting bases increased over the vegetative period, whereby aspartate values were higher than IAA values. The IAA-Asp values ranged from 6.3 µg g-1 to 22.7 µg g-1 FW and reached two great peaks on 30th of May and on 11th of July. The IAA values ranged from 0.29 µg g-1 to 4.51 µg g-1 FW, reaching a small fall on 20th of June. Significantly higher levels of IAA and IAA-Asp were measured at the base of mature cuttings compared to cuttings of semi-mature and juvenile origin, when the cuttings were harvested on 30th of May and on 11th of July. On the other hand, mature leafy cuttings accumulated significantly less fructose and glucose in their root emergence zone (16.3 g kg-1 DW, 45.2 g kg-1 DW compared to semi-mature cuttings (26.4 g kg-1 DW, 62.5 g kg-1 DW and juvenile cuttings (27.3 g kg-1 DW, 73.9 g kg-1 DW. All measured rooting parameters (rooting success, number of main roots and root length were significantly improved when cuttings of a more juvenile origin (semi-mature and juvenile were used.

  1. New species of the genus Castanopsis from Hainan%海南锥栗属新植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符国瑷

    2001-01-01

    @@1. 五指山锥别名:山白锥(五指山)新种图版Ⅰ-A Castanopsis wuzhishangensis G. A. Fu sp. nov. Species affinis Castanopsi carlesii(Hemsl.)Hayata var. spinulosa,a qua folia crasoribus et duroribus differf. Etiam affinis C.Echinocarpae Miq.var.seninudae,sed folia minoribus,tantum 5.5~10.5 cm longa,1.5~2.8 cm lata differt. Arbor,usque ad 19 m alta,trunco 26~32 cm diam.,ramulis nigro-fuscis,glabris. Folia coriacea,oblonga vel longo-elliptica,5.5~10.5 cm longa,1.5~2.8 cm lata,apice caudato-acuminata,basi cuneata vel late cuneata,supra in sicco viridis,glabra,subtus ferrugineo-lepidota,margine apicem remote serrulata,supra costa impressa,nerris lateralibus utrinqe 10~11,subtus conspicuis prominulis,petioli cir. 7 mm longi.Inflorescentiae spicatae;flores♂:calycis obovatis,6-partitis,staminibus 10~13,filamentis 3.5~4 mm longis;flores♀:involucra flore uno vel dou amplecantia; ovario 3-loculo,stylis vulgo 3,rare 2.Infructescentia spicata 5.5~14 cm longa,solitaria vel 2~3 in ramulis disposita,nuculis globosis,apice triangulatis,cupulae cum spinis usque ad 13~20 mm diam.,spinis 2~5 mm longis,puberulis,cicatrice 9 mm longa,6 mm lata.

  2. An Evaluation of Allelopathy in the Toxic Grassland Weed,Aconitum leucostomum%草原毒害草白喉乌头的化感作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彩霞; 彭瑞娟; 邰凤姣; 张弛; 邵华

    2015-01-01

    采用培养皿滤纸法,研究白喉乌头根、茎、叶的粉末,三氯甲烷提取物及水提取物在不同浓度下(0.01、0.02、0.05、0.10 g/mL)对受体植物高羊茅、草地早熟禾、垂穗披碱草和蒲公英幼苗生长的影响。结果表明,白喉乌头根、茎、叶的不同处理对受体植物的根长和苗高均具有抑制作用,其中三氯甲烷提取物的作用最弱,粉末次之,水提取物的抑制作用最强,说明其主效化感物质为水溶性化合物。白喉乌头各部位的化感作用强度无本质差异,表明其化感物质在植株各部位均有分布。%The allelopathic effect of powdered and chloroform and aqueous extracts from the root,stem and leaves of Aconi-tum leucostomum at 0.01,0.02,0.05,and 0.10 g/mL on the receptor plants,Festuca elata,Poa pratensis,Elymus nutans and Taraxacum officinale were studied with the culture dish method.Allelochemicals from the root,stem and leaves of A. leucostomum inhibited root and seedling height of receptor plants.The lowest biological activity was observed with the chloroform extract,that of the powder was intermediate,and the aqueous extract was the most active,indicating that water -soluble compounds were the major allelochemicals of A.leucostomum.There was no difference in activity among plant parts of A.leucostomum,implying that its major allelochemicals are distributed throughout the plant.

  3. Phenolic Acids Detection in Soil of Pinus massoniana Forest and Its Effect on Shrub and Grass Germination%马尾松林土壤酚酸类物质检测及其对灌草萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨奕如; 丁健桦; 张桃林; 王兴祥

    2013-01-01

    The compositions of phenolic acids in soil of waste grassland,Pinus massoniana forest and Schima superba forest were determined by extraction electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS),and the effects of phenolic acids on seed germination and seedling growth were also studied.The results indicated that rosin compounds was not observed in the soil of waste grassland and Schima superba forest,while the concentration of rosin compounds in soil of Pinus massoniana forest generally reached to 10-100 mg/kg.The germination energy was not significantly different between the control and the concentration of rosin compounds in the soils below 12 mg/kg treatments.When the concentration of rosin compounds in soils was over 25 mg/kg,the germination energy of Lolium perenne,Bothriochloa ischaemum,Festuca elata and Leucaena leucocephala significantly decreased.The germination rate ofLeucaena leucocephala was significantly lower than control at high concentration of rosin.%利用电喷雾萃取电离质谱(EESI-MS)测定荒草地、马尾松和木荷纯林地土壤酚酸类物质组成,模拟研究了其对几种灌草种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,荒草地、木荷林土壤没有检测到松香类物质,而马尾松林土壤松香类物质浓度一般为10~ 100 mg/kg.当土壤松香类物质浓度<12 mg/kg时,灌草发芽势与对照接近;松香浓度≥25 mg/kg时,黑麦草、白羊草、高羊茅和银合欢灌草发芽势显著低于对照.高浓度松香处理下,银合欢发芽率显著低于对照.

  4. Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatira TAŞKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

  5. AIRSAR studies of woody shrub density in semiarid rangeland: Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H.B.; Schaber, G.S.; Breed, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data to assess woody shrub density in a semiarid site where the vegetation consists primarily of varied mixtures of herbaceous vegetation and shrubs. AIRSAR data and field observations of vegetation cover and growth form-composition were obtained for 59 sites in the Jornada del Muerto plain in southern New Mexico. Radar signature measures examined were C-, L- and P-band backscattering coefficients (??0) for HH, HV and W polarizations, ratios of ??0HH and ??0HV to ??0VV, and the HH-VV polarization phase difference and correlation coefficient. The most effective measure for estimation of shrub density was L-band ??0HV, which distinguished among shrub density classes with no misclassification. Sensitivity of this measure to small amounts of shrub cover was indicated by successful separation of sites with Jornada del Muerto plain in southern New Mexico. Radar signature measures examined were C-, L- and P-band backscattering coefficients (??0) for HH, HV and VV polarizations, ratios of ??0HH and ??0HV to ??0VV, and the HH-VV polarization phase difference and correlation coefficient. The most effective measure for estimation of shrub density was L-band ??0HV, which distinguished among shrub density classes with no misclassification. Sensitivity of this measure to small amounts of shrub cover was indicated by successful separation of sites with <1% shrub cover from sites with 1-5% cover. Separability of shrub density classes was generally least for C-band signature measures. A distinctive radar signature was exhibited by dense stands of Yucca elata, a semitreelike plant with uniformly thick (???10 cm diameter) fibrous stems. Yucca sites were distinguished from others by their high P-band ??0HV relative to L-band ??0HV. The results are largely explained by the greater sensitivity of longer wavelengths to larger canopy structural elements. L-band ??0HV and other measures responsive to

  6. Gastrodin prevents steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rats by anti-apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Huifeng; Yang Erping; Peng Hao; Li Jianping; Chen Sen; Zhou Jianlin; Fang Hongsong

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrodin,as one of the major components extracted from the Chinese herb Gastrodia elata BI.,has many biologic effects,one of which is anti-apoptosis.Apoptosis is considered to be one of the pathogenetic mechanisms in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).Therefore,we performed this study to investigate whether gastrodin has the potential to prevent steroid-induced ONFH.Methods All 18 male adult Wistar rats were divided equally into three groups:the steroid group,the gastrodin+steroid group,and the control group.Osteonecrosis was induced by low-dose lipopolysaccharide and subsequent high-dose methylprednisolone.Histomorphometric method was used to determine the incidence of osteonecrosis.Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to detect apoptotic index of osteocytes and osteoblasts.Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expression of Bax,Bcl-2,and Caspase-3.Fisher's exact probability test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Turkey's post hoc test were used to examine significant differences between groups.Results The incidence of osteonecrosis in the gastrodin+steroid group (16.7%) was significantly lower than that in the steroid group (83.3%).According to TUNEL assay,the apoptotic indices in the steroid group,the gastrodin+steroid group,and the control group were 91.1%,27.1%,and 5.4%,respectively,and the differences were significant between groups.Compared with the control group and the gastrodin+steroid group,the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly higher in the steroid group,but the Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly lower.Conclusion Gastrodin could prevent steroid-induced ONFH by anti-apoptosis.

  7. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  8. 几种观赏型沉水植物对富营养化蓝绿藻类的抑制作用%Allelopathic effects of three ornamental submerged macrophytes on five eutrophic algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤仲恩; 种云霄; 朱文玲; 吴启堂

    2007-01-01

    一些大型沉水植物种类的存在对"水华"藻类的生长具有抑制作用,其主要机制是水生高等植物不仅与藻类竞争营养、光照和生长空间等生态资源,而且还可以向水中分泌具有抑制藻类生长的化感物质.通过连续滴加种植水的方式研究了3种观赏型沉水植物矮慈菇(Sagittaria pygmaea Miq)、杉叶藻(Hippuris vulgaris.)、石龙尾(Limnophila heterophylla)对5种富营养化淡水藻, 蓝藻:铜绿微囊藻(Microcystis aerugnasa)、纤维席藻(Phormidium tenue);绿藻:衣藻(Chlamy domonas sajao)、四尾栅藻(Scenedesmus quaclricauda)、小球藻(Chlorella pyrenoidosa)的抑制作用.研究结果表明:(1)矮慈菇种植水对铜绿微囊藻、四尾栅藻、纤维席藻的生长没有影响,对小球藻的生长具有促进作用,对衣藻的生长具有明显的抑制作用;(2)杉叶藻种植水小球藻、衣藻和纤维席藻的生长没有影响,对四尾栅藻的生长具有促进作用,对铜绿微囊藻生长具有明显的抑制作用;(3)石龙尾种植水对小球藻、四尾栅藻、纤维席藻都具有明显的抑制作用,对铜绿微囊藻的生长没有影响,对衣藻的生长具有促进作用.3种沉水植物中,石龙尾的抑藻能力最强,矮慈菇和杉叶藻次之,石龙尾的化感抑藻效应更具有广谱性,在富营养化水体中与蓝绿藻类的竞争更具有优势,比较适用于改善城市景观水体水环境质量.

  9. 21种野菜抗氧化性的分析比较%Comparative Analysis on Antioxidant Activity of 21 Species of Wild Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤英; 李润丰; 肖月娟; 刘素稳

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from edible portion of 21 species of wild vegetables in east Hebei province were determined using DPPH free radical scavenging method to compare the antioxidant activities of different wild vegetables,and the correlation between antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and flavones was analyzed. The results showed that wild vegetables was good source of polyphenols and flavones, and had higher antioxidant activity, among them, Toona sinensis, Sonchus brachyotus DC. and Rumex patientia Linn had higher antioxidant activity followed by Lycium barbarum L., Gypsophila oldhamina Miq, Lepidium apetalum, Cirsium setosum, Kochia scoparia (L.), Salsola collina pall, Herba portulacae, Radix Rehmanniae and Amaranthus mangostanus; correlation between antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and flavones was not significant.(the correlative coefficients were 0.146 and 0.007 respectively); short time blanch treatment increased the antioxidant activity of wild vegetables.%为比较不同野菜的抗氧化活性,采用DPPH法对冀东地区21种野菜可食部位水提取液的抗氧化活性进行比较研究,分析其抗氧化活性和多酚、黄酮含量之间的相关性.结果表明:野菜中多酚和黄酮类物质含量丰富,具有较强的抗氧化活性,其中抗氧化较强的野菜有香椿、长裂苦苣菜、巴天酸模,其次为枸杞叶、霞革、独行菜、刺儿菜、地肤、猪毛菜、马齿苋、地黄、苋菜.野菜抗氧化活性和多酚、黄酮含量之间的相关性不显著(r分别为0.146、0.007).野菜经短时热烫处理,其抗氧化活性增强.

  10. Application of Major Tree Species for the CAST Stereoscopic Landscape Demonstration Project%重庆市科学技术研究院立体景观示范工程主要树种应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正春; 蒋新星; 蒋海艳; 杨乐彬; 周飞; 卢存辉

    2012-01-01

    Based on the construction of CAST ( Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology) urban landscape forest and application of stereoscopic landscapes, Ginkgo biloba L. , Ficus virent Ait. Var. Sublanceolaia (Miq. ) Corner, Cinnamomum camphora and Magnolia Uliflo-ra were selected as major tree species and stereoscopic landscaping plants for the "CAST Stereoscopic Landscape Demonstration Project". Through investigating landscapes and functions of all these species in the urban landscaping, stereoscopic plant landscapes of the CAST project were analyzed, application of these tree species in the stereoscopic landscapes summarized, and representativeness of these species in the CAST project concluded. Finally, deficiencies of tree species in the CAST project, their maintenance and management were analyzed to ensure the reasonable application of tree species, and to provide references for the construction of urban landscape forest and popularization of stereoscopic landscapes.%基于“重科院立体景观示范工程”科研项目的实施,在重庆市科学技术研究院城市景观林建设以及立体景观造景的基础上,拟选出以银杏、黄葛树、香樟、紫玉兰等作为“重科院立体景观示范工程”的主要树种和立体配景植物.介绍了各树种在城市造景中的景观效果和生态功能,分析了重庆科学技术研究院的植物立体景观,总结了各树种在立体景观中的运用,认为以上树种在“重科院立体景观示范工程”中具有代表性意义.最后总结了重庆市科学技术研究院各树种立体景观的不足之处以及各树种的养护管理情况,以期使各树种的应用能更加合理,并有助于其在城市景观林建设以及立体景观造景中的推广.

  11. A flora melitófila de uma área de dunas com vegetação de caatinga, Estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil The bee flora of caatinga vegetation on sand dunes in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tereza Araújo Rodarte

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As espécies melitófilas de uma área de caatinga foram caracterizadas quanto à morfologia e recursos florais, floração e abelhas visitantes. As coletas foram realizadas, durante quatro dias consecutivos, em fevereiro, abril, junho, agosto, outubro e dezembro/2000 (10º47'37'S e 42º49'25'W. A área foi percorrida das 06:00 às 17:00 h, seguindo dois transectos paralelos (com 450 m × 100 m e 550 m × 100 m e distando 50 m entre si, abrangendo 10 ha. As 42 espécies melitófilas identificadas (55% da flora local foram visitadas por 2.924 indivíduos de 41 espécies abelhas. As famílias Caesalpiniaceae e Malpighiaceae foram as mais visitadas. As espécies predominantemente visitadas por 35 espécies de abelhas, correspondendo a 78% do total de indivíduos foram: Byrsonima blanchetiana Miq., Copaifera coriacea Mart., Senna macranthera, Peltogyne pauciflora Benth., Senna gardneri (Benth. H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Serjania comata, Mouriri pusa (Gardner, Jatropha mutabilis (Pohl. Baill., Maytenus rigida Mart. e Turnera calyptrocarpa Urb. (24% da flora apícola. A produção de flores dessas espécies representou 95% do total. Em geral, os aspectos básicos da morfologia floral das espécies: pequenas, dispostas em inflorescências, zigomorfas, de cores alva e rosa, monoclinas e com deiscência longitudinal das anteras, não diferiram em relação à flora local, corroborando o seu caráter generalista. O predomínio de interações generalistas deve-se à abundância local de abelhas eussociais nativas (Meliponinae e Apis mellifera. Embora a produção de flores tenha sido maior na estação chuvosa, as abelhas foram mais abundantes no período seco, indicando que o recurso não limitou a atividade das abelhas. As plantas do estrato arbustivo e herbáceo floresceram mais intensamente no período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente, gerando um grau de compartimentalização no padrão de uso dos recursos pelas abelhas. Esse padrão pode favorecer a

  12. Position-dependent Shoot Production of Two Subtropical Fig Tree Species Following Crown Damage%两种亚热带榕属乔木植冠损伤后的位置依赖性枝发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾波; 钟章成; 张小萍

    2004-01-01

    三峡库区需要大量植株用于三峡工程所涉及的诸多建设(如铁路、公路、建筑)之后的植被恢复和绿化.由于具有优美树冠和耐瘠薄土壤的能力,榕(Ficus microcarpa L.)和黄桷树(Fvirens Ait.var.sublanceolata(Miq.)Cornor) 在三峡库区作为绿化和行道树木大量栽植.在三峡库区,这两种树种苗木的培育主要通过切枝扦插的方式进行.大量切枝损伤植株植冠并且使叶组织数量减少,对植株生长有很大影响.植株生长与植株的枝发生格局有很大关系,为明确植冠损伤对植株生长的可能影响,对榕和黄桷树植冠损伤后的枝发生进行了研究.实验发现,切枝造成的植冠损伤对榕和黄桷树植株侧枝上的枝发生没有影响,不同损伤强度之间和不同损伤发生时间之间都不存在明显的差异.但是,植冠损伤后,榕和黄桷树植株主茎上的枝发生是位置依赖性的.植冠损伤不影响榕和黄桷树植株损伤处理后新生主茎段和具侧枝主茎段上的枝发生,却促进了损伤处理后裸露主茎段上的枝发生,并且裸露主茎段上枝发生的数量和密度随植冠损伤强度的升高而增大.此外,实验结果表明,秋季植冠损伤植株裸露主茎段上的枝发生要高于春季植冠损伤植株裸露主茎段上的枝发生;在榕和黄桷树的枝发生中,仅有裸露主茎段上增强的枝发生会促进植冠损伤植株对叶组织的生物量投资并有利于受损植株的恢复和生长.%In Three Gorges reservoir region, a great many of trees are needed for vegetation restoration and land greening following the massive constructions (e.g. Construction of roads, highways, buildings) associated with the great dam project at Three Gorges of Yangtze River. Ficus microcarpa L. And F. virens Ait. Var. Sublanceolata (Miq.) Cornor (Moraceae) are chosen and widely planted in this region as ornamental trees and/or shade trees due to their shapely crowns and ability of

  13. 天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床观察%Treatment of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint sertraline on premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣志华; 刘宝山

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床疗效。方法:将100例早泄患者随机分为单用组和联合组,各50例。单用组予口服舍曲林,每日睡前服用50mg,1次/d;若预计当日发生性生活,则在性生活前4~6h 服用50mg。联合组:在上述治疗的同时,给予口服天麻钩藤饮(天麻、钩藤、石决明、栀子等)加减方药,1剂/d,早晚服用。上述两组均治疗4周。对比观察两组治疗前、治疗后的阴道内射精潜伏时间(intravaginal ejaculationg latency time,IELT)、配偶性生活满意度评分及临床总有效率。结果:单用组有效率为59.18%,联合组总有效率79.07%,两组总疗效比较,有统计学差异(P <0.05),联合组射精潜伏期时间,改善患者及性伴侣的性生活满意度方面优于单用组(P <0.05)。结论:天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄疗效明确,为治疗早泄的一种可行性治疗方法。%Objectives:To observe the clinical curative effect of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint ser-traline in the treatment of premature ejaculation.Methods:100 premature ejaculation patients were randomly divid-ed into control group and observation group,50 cases in each group.The control group received oral sertraline,50 mg daily before bedtime,1 time /day;If sex was expected on the day,50 mg sertraline should be taken 4 ~6 hours before sex.On the basis of the treatment above,observation group received oral gastrodia and uncaria decoction (gastrodia elata,uncaria,haliotis,gardenia,etc.)at the same time,once a day in the morning or evening.The a-bove two groups received the treatment for 4 weeks.Vagina ejaculation latency time (intravaginal ejaculationg laten-cy time,IELT),spouses sexual satisfaction score and clinical total effective rate of two groups before and after the treatment were compared.Results:The total effective rate of control group and observation

  14. Simultaneous determination of gastrodin and puerarin in rat plasma by HPLC and the application to their interaction on pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Dai, Jundong; Huang, Zhenlin; Du, Qinghua; Lin, Jiahao; Wang, Yurong

    2013-02-01

    Gastrodin (Gas) and puerarin (Pur) are bioactive substances derived from traditional Chinese medicine Gastrodia elata and Radix Puerariae, respectively, which were often used together in Chinese clinical prescriptions. Their injections were used in combined way for treatment of some cardiocerebrovascular diseases in clinic, especially for vertigo due to vertebrobasilar ischemia. In this paper, interaction of gastrodin and puerarin in rat plasma pharmacokinetics via intragastic (i.g.)/intravenous (i.v.) administration was investigated. A reliable HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of Gas and Pur in rat plasma with a linear range of 0.101-101 μg/mL for Gas and 0.0500-5.98 μg/mL for Pur (r(2)>0.993). The LLOQ, LOD of Gas and Pur were determined to be 0.101, 0.0486 μg/mL, and 0.05, 0.0245 μg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision were all less than 12.0%, whilst the accuracy were all within 96.4±6.00%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the analytes in rats after i.g./i.v. administration of Gas and Pur alone or combined with each other (i.g.: 40 mg/kg Gas, 400 mg/kg Pur; i.v.: 20 mg/kg Gas, 20 mg/kg Pur). Blood samples were collected from retinal vein plexus of rats at predetermined time points and plasma containing the internal standard tyrosol (IS) were precipitated by methanol and chromatography was carried out on a C(18) column with a gradient mobile phase of ACN-H(2)O with 0.05% phosphoric acid as a modifier. The pharmacokinetic profiles of combined administration were found to be distinct from those of given alone. The C(max), T(max), T(1/2), MRT of Gas administrated alone or combined with Pur via i.g. were 21.7 μg/mL, 0.250 h, 2.81 h, 0.830 h and 18.4 μg/mL, 0.550 h, 0.970 h, 1.37 h, respectively, of Pur administrated alone or combined with Gas via i.g. were 0.490 μg/mL, 1.95 h, 1.33 h, 2.10 h and 2.01 μg/mL, 0.570 h, 4.00 h, 5.10 h, respectively. The relative oral

  15. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Hypertension with Syndrome Differentiation%辨证治疗高血压病临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of syndrome differentiation in the treatment of hypertension. Methods:260 patients of hypertension were divided into 5 syndromes. The syndrome of ascendan hyperactivity of liver yang (98 cases) was treated by clearing liver-fire and suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding,with Longdan Xiegan decoction and Tianma Gouteng yin. ( Composion:Getian 10 g,Gardenia 10 g,Skullcap 12 g,Gastrodia elata 20 g,Uncaria rhynchophylla 15 g,Raw abalone shell 20 g,Chuan cattle paint 20 g, Eucommia ulmoides oliv 15 g,Tuber fleeceflower stem 30 g,Glycyrrhizae 5 g). The syndrome of liver -kidney yin deficiency(102 cases) was treated by nourishing liver and kidney and suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding, with Qiju dihuang pills( Composion: The fruit of Chinese woliberry 20 g,Radix rehmanniae preparata 25 g,Chinese yam 30 g,The peony bark 10 g,Chrysanthemum 15 g, Crude dragonbone 20 g,Raw oyster shell20 g,Eucommia ulmoides oliv 15 g,Chuan cattle paint 15 g,Parasitic loranthus 20 g,Glycyrrhi-zae 6 g). The syndrome of phlegm-dampness internal exuberance(20 cases) was treated by expelling phlegm and resolving dampness and upraising purity and descend turbidness,with modified Banxia Baizhu Tianma decoction (Composion: Processed rhizoma Pinelliae 12 g,Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae 15 g,Gastrodia elata 10 g,Rhizoma acori graminei 10 g, Poly gala tenuifolia 12 g,Radix curcumae 15 g,Pericarpium citri reticulatae 12 g,Bamboo shavings 15 g,Poria cocos 20 g,Semen coicis 15 g,Glycyrrhizae 6 g). The syndrome of static blood stasis in the interior( 15 cases) was treated by benifiting qi for nourishing blood and expelling blood stasis and dredging collaterals,with Xuefu Zhuyu decoction and Buyang Huanwu decoction. (Composion: Radix bupleuri 10 g, Astragalus mongholicus 20 g, Angelica sinensis 12 g,Iigusticum chuanxiong Hort 9 g,Peach seed 9 g,Red flower 9 g,Earthwarm 20 g,Chuan cattle paint 20 g,Teasel 20 g,Eucommia ulmoides oliv 12 g

  16. 缙云山自然保护区常见菊科植物花粉形态特征分析%Study on Pollen Morphology of Compositae in Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德怀; 韩晓丽; 孙爱芝; 代然然; 郭洪亮

    2013-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 17 compositae plants from Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve in Chongqing Municipality are observed and analyzed under light microscope (LM). The results show that the pollen grains are radially symmetrical, spherical or subsphaeroidal in shape, and the polar view is 3-labed-rounded. They all have 3 colporates. By their pollen morphological features, the 17 species are divided into 4 types. (1) The pollen has big reticulation veins. The representative plants are in three genera: Yoμngia japonica ( L. ) DC, Ixeris polycephala Cass, Paraprenanthes heptantha Shih et D. J. Liou and P. sororia (Miq. ) Shih. (2) The pollen is characterized by sharp, dense and long spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Bidens Pilosa L. , Galinsoga parviflora Cav. , Siegesbeckia orientaiis L. and Bidens tripartite L. (3) Its main characteristics are that the base of spine is swelling and the spine is blunt. The representative plants are in four genera: Sinosenecio oldhamiaus (Maxim.) B. Nord, Senecio scandens Buch. -Ham, Blumea megacephala (Randeria)Chang et Tseng and Kalimeris indica (L. ) Sch. -Bip. (4)This type is characterized by sparse, short, and uniform spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Vernonia cumingiana Diels, Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth. ) S. Moore (Gynura crepidioides Benth) , Eclip-ta prostrate L. and Gnaphaliμm of fine D. Don. Pollen morphology is different between different plants, but plants with similar pollen morphology can come from different tribes-genera.%应用光学显微镜对缙云山自然保护区17种常见菊科植物的花粉形态进行了观察和分析,结果显示花粉粒均为辐射对称,大多为近球形-长球形,萌发孔均为三孔沟,极面观为三裂圆形.根据花粉形态特征分析,17种菊科植物花粉类型可分为4大类:①花粉形态以粗大网状纹饰为主要特征,以黄鹤菜、苦荬菜、雷山假福王草、假福王草植物为代表;②花粉形态以刺

  17. 巢湖沉水植物现状(2010年)及其与环境因子的关系%Status of submerged macrophytes and its relationship with environmental factors in Lake Chaohu ,2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳芹; 陈开宁

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of submerged macrophytes and its relational environmental factors in June, 2010, Lake Chaohu, this paper analyzed the characteristics of submerged macrophyte community and distribution, discussed the relationship between submerged macrophytes and environmental factors with redundancy analysis. The results showed that there were 6 submerged macrophyte species in 5 families, 4 genera. Total biomass of submerged macrophytes was about 8077.8t and their total distribution area was just 1.54% of the whole lake area. Potarnogeton malaianus was the dominant species, which occupied 90.7% of the total distribution area of submerged macrophytes. Ceratophyllum demersura Linn. , Myriophyllurn spicatum Lian. and Hydrilla verticillata( Linn. f. ) Royle appeared rarely and had been at the verge of extinction. Monte Carlo test results showed that the correlation between TP, PO34 - -P, COD, SD, depth of water and the distribution of submerged macrophyte community was significant, however, TN had no significant effect, which suggesting that the distribution of submerged macrophyte community was more limited by P than N. The results also showed that the correlation between TN and TP of sediment and the distribution of submerged macrophyte community were not significant, while the influence of sediment TOC on the distribution of submerged macrophyte community was significant.%在对巢湖2010年沉水植物和环境因子调查的基础上,分析了巢湖沉水植物群落特征、分布规律,应用冗余分析探讨了沉水植物与环境因子之间的关系.结果表明,现场观测到的沉水植物共计4科5属6种,全湖生物量约为8077.8t,分布面积仅占巢湖总面积的1.54%.其中马来眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus Miq.)分布面积占沉水植物分布总面积的90.7%,是巢湖沉水植物中绝对优势种.金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum Linn.)、穗花狐尾藻(Myriophyllum spicatum Linn.)和轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata

  18. Chemical constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus%刺五加的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚婧如; 王书芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 对刺五加Acanthopanax senticosus的化学成分进行研究.方法 刺五加药材用75%乙醇提取,依次用石油醚、醋酸乙酯萃取,对醋酸乙酯部分采用硅胶柱色谱、反相制备色谱等技术进行分离,根据波谱学数据(MS、1H-NMR、13C-NMR)进行化合物的结构鉴定.结果 从醋酸乙酯部分分离得到19个化合物,分别鉴定为槲皮素(1)、槲皮苷(2)、山柰酚(3)、金丝桃苷(4)、芦丁(5)、金合欢素(6)、大豆苷(7)、3′-甲氧基大豆苷(8)、葛根素(9)、3′-甲氧基葛根素(10)、4′-甲氧基葛根素(11)、丁香醛(12)、丁香酸(13)、紫丁香酸葡萄糖苷(14)、异嗪皮啶(15)、2,3-二(3′,4 ′-二甲氧基苄基)-2-丁烯-4-内酯(16)、l-芝麻酯素(17)、methylpluviatolide (18)、4′-羟基-2′-甲氧基肉桂醛(19).结论 化合物6~11、14、16、18、19为首次从该属植物中分离得到.%Objective To study the chemical constituents of Acanthopanax senticosus. Methods A. senticosus was extracted with 75% EtOH and separated with petroleum ether and EtOAc, successively. The EtOAc-soluble fraction was isolated by column chromatography and RP-preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic method (MS, 'H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). Results Nineteen compounds were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of A. senticosus and identified as quercetin (1), quercitrin (2), kaempferol (3), hyperoside (4), rutin (5), acacetin (6), daidzin (7), 3'-methoxydaidzin (8), puerarin (9), 3'-methoxypuerarin (10), 4'-methoxypuerarin (11), syringaldehyde (12), syringic acid (13), glucosyringic acid (14), isofraxidin (15), 2, 3-di(3', 4'-methyl-endioxy-benzyl)-2-buten-4-olide (16), l-sesamin (17), methylpluviatolide (18), and 4'-hydroxy-2'-methoxycinnamaldehyde (19). Conclusion Compounds 6-1,14,16,18, and 19 are isolated from the plants in Acanthopanax (Deche et Planch.) Miq. For the first time.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in different forest tree species of Hazarikhil forest of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.Dhar; M.A.U.Mridha

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity ofarbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and AM fungal spores were studied in the roots and rhizosphere soils of Acacia catechu (L.f).Wild.,A.mangium Willd,Anthocephala cadamba Miq.,Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.,Chickrassia tabularis A.Juss.,Swietenia macrophylla King.,Tectona grandis L.from plantations; Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.,A.falcataria L.,Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.,Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker.,Hydnocarpus kurzii (King.)Warb.,Heynea trijuga Roxb.,Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.,Messua ferrea Linn.,Podocarpus nerifolia Don.,Swintonia floribunda Griff.,Syzygium fruticosum (Roxb.) DC.,S.grandis (Wt.) Wal.from forest and nursery seedlings of A.polystachya,A.chaplasha,Gmelina arborea Roxb.and S.cuminii (L.) Skeels from Hazarikhil forest,Chittagong of Bangladesh.Roots were stained in aniline blue and rhizosphere soils were assessed by wet sieving and decanting methods.The range of AM colonization varied significantly from 10%-73% in the plantations samples.Maximum colonization was observed in A.mangium (73%) and minimum colonization was observed in C tabularis (10%).Vesicular colonization was recorded 15%-67% in five plantation tree species.The highest was in A.cadamba (67%) and the lowest was in T.grandis; A.chaplasha and C tabularis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was recorded 12%-60% in four plantation tree species.The highest was in A.mangium (60%) and the lowest was in A.cadamba.Roots of Artocarpus chaplasha,C tabularis and T.grandis showed no arbuscular colonization.Among 12 forest tree species,nine tree species showed AM colonization.The highest was in A.falcataria (62%) and the lowest was in S.fruticosum (10%).Significant variation in vesicular colonization was recorded in seven forest tree species.The highest was in H.trijuga (52%) and the lowest was in L.speciosa (18%).Hydnocarpus kurzii,M.ferrea,P.nerifolia S.fruticosum and S.grandis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was

  20. 香港大榄郊野公园的植物组成与植被数量分类%Floristic Composition and Quantitative Classification in Tai Lam Country Park,Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾绮微; 李海生; 陈桂珠; 叶创兴; 黄颂诗; 黄超弘

    2008-01-01

    通过对香港大榄郊野公园森林群落的样地调查,利用组平均法和除趋势对应分析两种方法,对样方进行聚类与排序分析.把35个样地划分为11个植被类型,森林群落可划分为台湾相思(Acacia confusa Merr.)林、红胶木(Lophostemon confertus (R. Br.) Peter G. Wilson ex J. T. Waterh.)林、木荷(Schima superba Gardner ex Champ.)林、柠檬桉(Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.)林、湿地松+鸭脚木(Pinus elliottii Engelm.+ Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms.)林、土沉香(Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Spreng.)林、毛叶桉(Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell.)林; 灌木群落分为山油柑+越南叶下珠(Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq.+ Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.)矮树灌丛、豺皮樟+桃金娘(Litsea rotoundifolia (Nees) Hemsl. var. oblongifolia (Nees) C. K. Allen+Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Alton) Hassk.)矮树灌丛、大头茶(Gordonia axillaris (Roxb. ex Ker Gawl.) D. Dietr.)矮树灌丛、桃金娘+芒萁(Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Alton) Hassk.+Dicranopteris dichotoma (Thunb.) Bernh.)灌草丛.DCA排序结果反映海拔高度与各个森林群落的分布格局和物种组成关系不大,而环境湿度是影响森林群落物种组成的主要因素.多样性分析结果显示,台湾相思林和土沉香林多样性指数最高,说明台湾相思林逐渐向次生林演变,除了红胶木林和少数郁闭度低的台湾相思林中有强阳生性树种外,大部分人工林下植物以阳生性稍耐阴的树种为主.调查结果显示,大榄郊野公园植物生长条件东部优于西部,西部的物种丰富度和多样性指数较低,主要以人工林和灌丛为主,加上山火频繁发生,导致长期处于先锋阶段.

  1. Las practicas de enseñanza superior en la Universidad Federal del Para/Brasil: A nálisis y propuesta de mejora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Estela Amaral de OLIVEIRA

    2009-11-01

    donné aux études réalisés dans les autres orbites de la connaissance, considérées plus élevé, en ce qui concerne à l'hiérarchie académiqLie. Peut-être, cette réalité se justifie, à cause du discrédit de la société brésilienne, où l'éducation n'est pas priorisé dans le cadre des planifications gouvernementaux. L'objet d'étude de cette recherche fût l'enseignement au Centre d'Éducation de l'Université Fédéral du Pará (UFPA, realité démontrée selon diférents point de vue, et également, selon diverses façons d'expression. Cet étude essaie d'aller au-delà d'une pratiqLie descriptif, pour adopter Line perspective de collaboration avec la communauté académique, en cherchant des proposicions de perfectionnement. C'est la première approche au sujet, cést un point de départ pour que des nouvelles réflexions et des approfondissements soient réalisés. Ce n'est pas Lin étude conclu, composé par des proposicions dogmatiqLies. C'est, avant tout, une proposition transitoire et ouvert.

  2. 气候变化对我国7种植物潜在分布的影响%The potential effects of climate change on the distributions of 7 plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建国

    2011-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the distributions of Falsepistache (Tapiscia sinensis), Black Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), Wakerobin(Trillium tschonoskii),Field Circaeaster(Circaesaster agrestis) ,Gastrodia (Gastro-dia elata),Beauty Bush(Kolkwitzia amabilis)and Flous Taiwania(Taiwania flousiana)in China were analyzed using the CART( classification and regression tree) model and climate change scenarios of A2 and B2. The results showed that climate change in China would cause an increase in the current distribution of Falsepistache,and it would cause a decrease in current distribution of other plants. The new distribution or total distribution region of Beauty Bush, Wakerobin or Falsepistache would increase, while Field Circaeaster or Black Crowberry would decrease,and that of Gastrodia or Flous Taiwania would increase from periods of 1991 - 2020 to periods of 2051-2080,then they would decrease,and they were higher in A2 scenario than that in B2 Scenario. New suitable regions of these plants would expand towards high altitude regions or latitude regions. And the distribution regions of Gastrodia would mainly expand towards high altitude regions,while Flous Taiwania ,Beauty Bush,Field Circaeaster or Gastrodia would expand towards high altitude regions or latitude regions, and Falsepistache would expand towards high altitude regions or northeast latitude regions,while Black Crowberry would expand towards high altitude regions or latitude regions,and the distribution regions of that would lost from periods of 2051 - 2080 to periods of 2081 - 2100. Additionally,under climate change,changing in current distribution,new distribution or total distribution region of the plants did not con-sistently change with changing in annual mean air temperature or precipitation in China,and the changing in current distribution,new distribution or total distribution region of some plants were poor related with changing in annual mean air temperature or precipitation in China. And the

  3. 陕南秦巴山区栎类资源消长分析%Growth and Decline Analysis about Oak Resources in Qinba Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄学渊; 张文辉; 郭敏; 张剑南

    2014-01-01

    Growth and decline of oak resources in Qinba Mountains were analyzed based on the forest resource survey data of oak resources in three areas within Shaanxi,such as Hanzhong,Ankang and Shangluo in 2009 and the oak consumption statistics from a variety of data in forestry sectors,combined with typical investigation,to further verify the relevant statistical data.The results showed that:1) young and middle-aged oak forests occupied significant ratios both in area and accumulation volume.The net growth of oak accumulation was 5.09 %,higher than those in northern Shaanxi and the average level of the province.Based on these numbers,the net annual growth of oak resource accumulation in Qinba Mountains would be 63.26 × 104 m3.2) The utilization approaches of oak resources were mainly in the forms of the production of crude drugs (such as Gastrodia elata,Polyporus umbellatus),accounting for 35.4% of total oak resource accumulation,edible fungi (23.8%),and firewood for daily life of the local residents (40.8%).The traditional charcoal production,used to be the main sector for the consumption of oak resources had been distinguished due to government policy.Oak resources for furniture making and construction material,as well as small diameter timber production accounted small amount.3) During 2009-2011,taking off the amount of consumption,the annual net increase of the oak accumulation was 33.26 × 104 m3.4) Currently,the annual growth of oak resources was mainly due to the full implementation of the national "Natural Forest Protection" projects.In the future,the key points of oak resource protection would be to continue to maintain the advantage of "Natural Forest Protection" projects.The principle of exchanging maximum profit with minimum consumption should be followed to improve the utilization efficiency of oak resources,such as to train farmers how to use oak resources for the production of crude drugs and edible fungi.According to close-to-nature forest

  4. Symbiotic seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii Griff. ex Lindl%大雪兰种子的共生培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭仕坛; 伍建榕; 胡隽; 杨宏光; 陆露; 刘芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to screen mycorrhiza fungus that can promote the seed germination and form the symbiosis with Cymbidium mastersii Griff. ex Lindl and scale produce high quality seedling, we first symbiosis cultivated seeds with different fungi in the medium of cortices symbiotic culture, then measured the biomass of seedlings, re - separation of fungus strain, studied the 3D hypha net by using the optical microscope and electron microscope, and determined the seed vitality with TFC method. The results showed that strain CLB111 and MLX102 that were separated from roots of Cymbidium goeringii Rchb. f. and C. Sinense Willd can promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii. The differences of germination rates between treatments with strain symbiosises and control were significant. Re - separations from the culture medium confirmed the strains in symbiosis roots were the same as the inoculated strains. The optical microscope and electron microscope observation found that many fungus hypha infected into embryo cell and formed the 3D hypha net, and the embryo started differentiation. TFC measurement showed that the Seed had high vitality. No strain was found by re - separation from culture medium, no hy- pha was observed and very low vitality under control treatment. Thus, It can be concluded that strain CLB111 and MLX102 can form the symbiosis and promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii. The experiments found the fungus Cymbidium separated from adult orchids and the fungus that promote the seed germination were the same strains in mastersii. This phenomenon was different from the C, astrodia elata Blume. It was also confirmed that funguses that can form symbiosis with and promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii were not abso- lutely specific. Under certain condition, different strains can significantly promote germination of one orchid species. It may need further investigation to verify the differences under different ecological conditions.%为

  5. Investigation,Protection and Utilization of Wild Chinese Kiwi Resource in Longnan, Gansu%甘肃陇南中华猕猴桃资源调查及其保护开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰

    2015-01-01

    Gansu province is located in the inland of China′s northwest, with E93. 5° -E108. 5° and N33°-N43°, situated at the junction of the Qinling mountainous area, the Loess Plateau, Inner Mongo-lia Plateau and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Gansu is one of provinces rich in wild plant resources, espe-cially wild kiwi germplasm resources. There are 9 species and subspecies of kiwi distributed in Gansu, such as Actinidia chinensis, A. kolomikta, A. melanandra ,A. polygama Miq. ,A. arguta,etc. . Due to differences in longitude, altitude and climate, generally, kiwi distributed areas can be divided into two regions. One is rich resource region, which include more than 40 townships such as Bikou, Luotang Yangba, Songping, Jialing etc. in the southeast of Huixian, Wenxian, Chengxian Wudu and Kangxian counties. The other one is decentral resources region, including Tianshui, Liangdang, Xihe, Lixian and the northwest of Huicheng Basin, scattered in the secondary forest. Over the years, with the development of industry and agriculture and the irrational exploitation of natural resources by human being, the habi-tats of agricultural wild plants have seriously been threatened. Based on the data got by resulting, collec-ting and field survey, the paper analyzed and discussed the status of wild kiwi resource in Gansu province and the extent of the damage by human being, introduced the wild kiwi resource distribution profile in Gansu province, and evaluated the protection site of wild kiwi established, finally proposed the measures of Gansu province wild kiwi protection, development and utilization.%甘肃省位于中国西北,深居内陆,东经93.5°~108.5°、北纬33°~43°,面积42万km2。地处秦岭山地、黄土高原、蒙新高原和青藏高原的接触地区,是国内野生植物资源种类比较丰富的省份之一。甘肃野生猕猴桃种质资源丰富,现有中华猕猴桃、狗枣猕猴桃、黑蕊猕猴桃、葛枣猕猴桃、软枣猕猴桃等10