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Sample records for aralia elata miq

  1. A New Dammarane-type Triterpene Saponin from the Root of Aralia elata

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    Wu Xiaopeng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new dammarane-type triterpene glycoside (1 and compounds Ginsenoside F 5 (2 , Ginsenoside F 3 (3, Ginsenoside F 2 (4 , Ginsenoside Rg 2 (5 were isolated from the root of Aralia elata Seem.. The new compound was established as 12-oxo-3β, 6α, 20 (S-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-β- D -gluco pranos yl (1→2 β- D -glucopyranoside . All the structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral and chemical evidence.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Saponin-Producing Fungal Endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China

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    Yuhua Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres, and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL. According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  3. 龙牙缓释片释放度测定及体外释药机制研究%Determination of release rates of Aralia Elata sustained-release tablets and drug-releasing mechanism in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大忠; 刘磊; 王海龙; 李强

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied on determination of the release rates of the Aralia Elata sustained-release tablets in vitro, and the drug-releasing mechanism in vitro. The determination wavelength of oleanolic acid which was the composition in sustained-release tablets of Aralia Elata was 210 nm, and oleanolic acid showed fine linear relationship between 0. 21 ~5. 12 (μg (r = 0. 999 9). The drug released pattern in vitro consistents with Higuchi equation. The releasing mechanism of the Aralia Elata sustained-release tablets was the synergistic effect of drug diffusion and skeleton dissolution.%测定龙牙缓释片体外释放度,考察体外释药机制.采用HPLC测定龙牙缓释片的释放度,并对其进行释药机制研究.龙牙缓释片中的成分齐墩果酸HPLC测定波长为210 nm,齐墩果酸在0.21~5.12 μg之间呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 9).药物体外释药模式符合Higuich方程.龙牙缓释片的释药机理为药物扩散和骨架溶蚀的协同作用.

  4. Cultivation techniques of Aralia elata planted for edible and medicinal purposes%龙芽楤木食药兼用林的培育技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 沈海龙

    2011-01-01

    The one-year-old container seedlings in Aralia elata were used in this planting experiment to explore the cultivation techniques of A. Elata planted for edible and medicinal purposes. The results showed that the planting density had no obvious effects on the growth of A. Elata seedling height and collar diameter. The fresh mass of stems and roots and the dry mass of root bark could reach 88. 9 g, 299. 7 g and 53. 3 g, respectively, and the root bark ratio could reach 69. 06% in the planting year. The lateral buds of seedlings after cutting treatment could ger minate completely over winter, and form new stems. However, the death rate of the terminal buds of untreated seedlings was very high, which was about 31. 53%. When the stems were cut in mid November for buds growth in water, the buds would have a low germination rate. When the stem length was more than 50 cm, the buds would germinate difficultly, but the germination rate of buds would relatively higher when the stem length was less than 50 cm.%为了探寻食药兼用龙芽楤木的培育技术,以有效开发与合理利用这一野生植物资源,以1年生龙芽楤木容器苗为试材进行了人工栽培试验.结果表明:栽植密度对龙芽楤木苗木当年高生长和地径生长没有明显的影响.栽植当年,龙芽楤木单株苗木地上部分(茎干)的鲜质量为88.9 g,根系鲜质量达到299.7 g,单株根皮干质量达到了53.3g,根皮出皮率可达69.06%.采用平茬处理的植株,越冬后根桩上的侧芽能够完全萌发,形成新的茎干;采用原地越冬处理的植株其顶芽死亡率较高,达到了31.53%.还对11月中旬采条的植株直接进行了水培生产,其嫩芽的萌发率较低;水培时茎段过长(超过50 cm)则芽不易萌发,茎段较短(小于50 cm)时芽的萌发率相对较高.

  5. Research Progress in Reproduction Techniques and Pharmacological Active Components of Aralia elata%龙牙楤木繁育技术与药理活性成分的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐明明; 李紫薇; 阎秀峰; 王洋; 蔺吉祥

    2015-01-01

    少,今后需要进一步研究。针对现有研究不足,今后研究中应关注如何利用分子生物学手段阐述龙牙楤木种子的休眠机理、龙牙楤木重要活性物质合成途径以及抗癌机制。另外,还需进一步利用代谢组学与指纹图谱技术更全面地对龙牙楤木资源进行评价与鉴定。%Aralia elata is a perennial woody plant which belongs to the Araliaceae. It is distributed widely in the Northeast of China and has great medicinal and edible values. It is also considered as an economic plant. In recent years, understory forest economy represented by growing woody plants as vegetables has become one of the important models of contemporary forestry development. A. elata was given extensive attention because of its high nutritional and pharmacological values. However,its chemical composition and pharmacological activity are still unclear. Meanwhile,serious destruction of A. elata resources due to over harvesting,it is very important to explore high-efficiency reproduction and cultivation techniques. This paper tries to review progresses in reproduction and cultivation techniques,chemical composition and pharmacological activity of A. elata in order to provide a scientific basis for the exploitation and development of A. elata resources. Current status and development trends of A. elata were reviewed in terms of reproduction and cultivation techniques,chemical composition and pharmacological activity. The reproduction model of A. elata can be divided into two types,respectively seed propagation and asexual reproduction. In general,stratification treatment is needed before seed sowing due to the deep dormancy of A. elata. In addition,gibberellins application and high-low changing temperature pregermination can also improve the germination of this species to some extent. Root segment propagation is the main reproduction method of A. elata. Root length had a significant effect on the rooting rate and seedling

  6. Environ: E00216 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00216 Aralia elata root bark (non-JP) Araliae cortex Crude drug Aralia elata [TAX:...82095] Same as: D09226 Araliaceae (ginseng family) Aralia elata root bark; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ...

  7. Aralia elata and antiaging%龙芽楤木与衰老

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 牛松青; 王伟

    2006-01-01

    @@ 随着社会的进步,人类文明的提高,人们越来越关注自己的生活质量,延缓衰老和延长寿命是每个人的愿望.天然药品和植物因其无污染、无副作用,可以作为一种保健食品,被当今人们所重视.

  8. Environ: E00500 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00500 Aralia elata bark, tree, and root bark Araliae cortex, lignum et radicis cor...eae (ginseng family) Aralia elata bark, tree, and root bark (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: a...sterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) E00500 Aralia elata bark, tree, and root bark ...

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Heartwood Extract of Pterospermum Celebicum Miq.

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuki, Asnah; Noor, Alfian; Soekamto, Nunuk; Harlim, Tjodi

    2014-01-01

    Tumbuhan Pterospermum celebicum Miq. tumbuh endemik digunung Loka Bantaeng Sulawesi Selatan. Penduduk sekitarnya telah menggunakan sebagai obat gatal dan obat gigi. Penelitian telah dilakukan terhadap ekstrak kayu batang Pterospermum celebicum Miq. yang dibuat secara maserasi ultrasonic. Maserasi dilakukan dengan pelarut n-heksana, kloroform dan etil asetat. Uji aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode diffusi agar menggunakan bakteri Shigella dysenteri, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus ...

  10. Test of Dihidroisocoumarin Activity Against Murine Leukemia Cells P-388 From the Stem Bark Extract of Shorea Singkawang (Miq .Miq

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    Yusnelti Yusnelti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Has succeeded in isoalsi elegat acid compounds from the stem bark of dichloromethane fraction  Shorea Singkawang (Miq .Miq and identified as dihidroisocoumarin or bergenin, based on the data of UV spectroscopy, IR, GC-MS and 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR, and. This compound is a derivative elegat acid that was first discovered in this plant, bioassay cytotoxic activity using P-388 cells. With the value of IC50 = 25, 33 lm / mL.

  11. The identity of the genus Austrobuxus Miq. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1964-01-01

    During a geographical survey of the genus Buxus in Malaysia I came across the name Buxus nitidus (Miq.) Hall. ƒ. Med. Rijksherb. n. 37 (1918) 16. This is based on a plant from Sumatra, collected by Teysmann (HB 769) on the coast of Sibolga, and described by Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 444—44

  12. Therapeutic potential of Gastrodia elata Blume for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Biao Huang; Soo-Hyun Park; Eun-Ock Park; Eun-Kyung Choi; Young-Chul Chung; Tong Zhao; Sushma Shrestha Muna; Hong-Mei Jin; Jong-Il Park; Kyu-Sik Jo; Bo-Hee Lee; Soo-Wan Chae; Sun-Young Kim

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the Chinese herb Gastrodia elata Blume can protect against amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ)-induced cell death. To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of Gastrodia elata Blume on Alzheimer's disease, we established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by injecting Aβ25 35 into bilateral hippocampi. These rats were intragastrically administered 500 or 1 000 mg/kg Gastrodia elata Blume per day for 52 consecutive days. Morris water maze tests showed that Gastrodia elata Blume treatment significantly improved the spatial memory of Alzheimer's disease rats. Congo red staining revealed that Gastrodia elata Blume significantly reduced the number of amyloid deposits in the hippocampus of these rats. Western blot analysis showed that choline acetyltransferase expression in the medial septum and hippocampus was significantly increased by the treatment of Gastrodia elata Blume, while Ellman method showed significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in all three regions (prefrontal cortex, medial septum and hippocampus). These findings suggest that long-term administration of Gastrodia elata Blume has therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Systematic Exploration of an Efficient Amino Acid Substitution Matrix: MIQS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomii, Kentaro; Yamada, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid sequence comparisons to find similarities between proteins are fundamental sequence information analyses for inferring protein structure and function. In this study, we improve amino acid substitution matrices to identify distantly related proteins. We systematically sampled and benchmarked substitution matrices generated from the principal component analysis (PCA) subspace based on a set of typical existing matrices. Based on the benchmark results, we identified a region of highly sensitive matrices in the PCA subspace using kernel density estimation (KDE). Using the PCA subspace, we were able to deduce a novel sensitive matrix, called MIQS, which shows better detection performance for detecting distantly related proteins than those of existing matrices. This approach to derive an efficient amino acid substitution matrix might influence many fields of protein sequence analysis. MIQS is available at http://csas.cbrc.jp/Ssearch/ . PMID:27115635

  14. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITIES OF DELONIX ELATA BARK EXTRACTS

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    G. Murugananthan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delonix elata (D. elata, has long been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of arthritis pain. In the present study an attempt was made to study the effect of D. elata barks for its anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effect in animal models. Barks were subjected for extraction with pet. ether, chloroform and 40% hydroalcohol successively and evaporated under rotary evaporator to get the concentrated extract. All the extracts were subjected for acute oral toxicity studies in rats and found to be safe up to the dose of 5g/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet induced granuloma method, the hydro alcohol extract of D. elata barks showed significant protection against the inflammation. In Complete Freund’s Adjuvant induced arthritis model also the hydro alcohol exhibited significant protection on day 7 onwards.

  15. Gastrodia elata Ameliorates High-Fructose Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism and Endothelial Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Min Chul Kho; Yun Jung Lee; Jeong Dan Cha; Kyung Min Choi; Dae Gill Kang; Ho Sub Lee

    2014-01-01

    Overconsumption of fructose results in dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance, which have documented correlation with metabolic syndrome. Gastrodia elata, a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and antidiabetes activities. Thus, this study examined whether ethanol extract of Gastrodia elata Blume (EGB) attenuate lipid metabolism and endothelial dysfunction in a high-fructose (HF) diet animal model. Rats were fed the 65% HF diet with/...

  16. Adulticidal efficacy of Delonix elata against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the adulticidal activity and toxicity of different solvent crude extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata) against filariasis vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol leaf and seed extracts of D. elata were assayed for their toxicity against vector mosquitoCx. quinquefasciatus. Bioassay was carried out by WHO method for determination of adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Results: All extracts showed moderate adulticidal effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of D. elata leaf against the adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values at 197.28 and 347.45mg/L, respectively.Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity of D. elata plant extracts against filariasis vector mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  17. Adulticidal efficacy of Delonix elata against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the adulticidal activity and toxicity of different solvent crude extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata against filariasis vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol leaf and seed extracts of D. elata were assayed for their toxicity against vector mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus. Bioassay was carried out by WHO method for determination of adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Results: All extracts showed moderate adulticidal effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of D. elata leaf against the adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values at 197.28 and 347.45mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity of D. elata plant extracts against filariasis vector mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  18. Ecology and management of Pericopsis elata (Harms Meeuwen (Fabaceae populations: a review

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    Bourland, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae is a valuable timber species occurring in moist semi-deciduous African forests. While it is at present substantially reduced, the tree's natural distribution previously covered several distinct areas from Côte d'Ivoire to the Democratic Republic of Congo. This species has been logged since the second half of the 20th century. Because it suffers from a lack of regeneration, P. elata is now included in CITES Appendix II and is recorded as "Endangered A1cd" on the IUCN Red List. As with other long-lived light-demanding species, the survival of P. elata may have been favored by important disturbances that occurred in the Congo Basin during the last millennia. While both international trade and industrial uses of the wood of P. elata are well documented, information about its ecology are very sparse or contradictory, and even absent in some cases (e.g., regarding its effective flowering diameter. Furthermore, data describing the management of P. elata are scarce, including potential solutions to compensate for the deficit of natural regeneration. Along the same lines, genetic studies still remain at an early stage and only vague hypotheses have been offered to explain the origins of the tree's populations. We emphasize the need for new research on those topics. Further studies would be useful in deciding whether P. elata populations can continue to be logged without the species being threatened with extinction. Finally, such research needs to target effective and inexpensive management procedures that could secure the future of the species in a logging context.

  19. STRUCTURES OF TWO NEW BENZOFURAN DERIVATIVES FROM THE BARK OF MULBERRY TREE (MORUS MACROURA MIQ.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG-GUO SUN; RUO-YUN CHEN; DE-QUAN YU

    2001-01-01

    Two new benzofuran derivatives, macrourins A (1) and B (2), together with two known stilbene derivatives, were isolated from the barks of Morus macroura Miq. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic evidence.

  20. Taxonomic revision of the tropical African group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae, Cyperaceae

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    Escudero, Marcial

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical African monophyletic group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae is distributed in continental tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene archipelago, and Bioko Island (32 km off the coast of West Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. The first monographic treatment of this Carex group, as well as of the tribe Cariceae, was published by Kükenthal (as sect. Elatae Kük.. Recently, the first molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA phylogeny of Carex sect. Elatae has been published, which also included the species of sect. Spirostachyae. In the resulting consensus trees, most species of sect. Elatae were embedded within core Spirostachyae and so this section was joined with sect. Spirostachyae as subsect. Elatae. Within subsect. Elatae, several groups were described, one of which was termed the “tropical African group”. Here we present a taxonomic revision of this group, based on more than 280 vouchers from 29 herbaria as well as in field trips in Tropical Africa. In the revision, we recognise 12 species (16 taxa within the tropical African group, and so have somewhat modified our previous view, in which 10 species, 12 taxa were listed. One new species from Tanzania is included in this treatment, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Several combinations are made, C. cyrtosaccus is treated as a synonym of C. vallis-rosetto and, finally, the binomial C. greenwayi has been recognised.Las especies de la subsección Elatae (sección Spirostachyae del género Carex que se distribuyen por África tropical continental, Madagascar, el archipiélago de las Mascareñas y la isla de Bioko (a 32 km del litoral de África occidental, en el golfo de Guinea forman un grupo monofilético. El primer tratamiento taxonómico de este grupo de cárices, así como de la tribu Cariceae en su conjunto, fue elaborado por Kükenthal (sección Elatae Kük.; recientemente, se ha publicado el primer estudio de filogenia molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA de los táxones de este grupo

  1. How Tightly Linked Are Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae Patches to Anthropogenic Disturbances in Southeastern Cameroon?

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    Nils Bourland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While most past studies have emphasized the relationships between specific forest stands and edaphic factors, recent observations in Central African moist forests suggested that an increase of slash-and-burn agriculture since 3000–2000 BP (Before Present could be the main driver of the persistence of light-demanding tree species. In order to examine anthropogenic factors in the persistence of such populations, our study focused on Pericopsis elata, an endangered clustered timber species. We used a multidisciplinary approach comprised of botanical, anthracological and archaeobotanical investigations to compare P. elata patches with surrounding stands of mixed forest vegetation (“out-zones”. Charcoal samples were found in both zones, but were significantly more abundant in the soils of patches. Eleven groups of taxa were identified from the charcoals, most of them also present in the current vegetation. Potsherds were detected only inside P. elata patches and at different soil depths, suggesting a long human presence from at least 2150 to 195 BP, as revealed by our charcoal radiocarbon dating. We conclude that current P. elata patches most likely result from shifting cultivation that occurred ca. two centuries ago. The implications of our findings for the dynamics and management of light-demanding tree species are discussed.

  2. Estruturas de Reprodução de Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. (Piperaceae = Reproductive structures of Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. (Piperaceae

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    Jonathas Henrique Georg de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. trata-se de espécie herbácea que também ocorre em remanescentes florestais de Maringá, Brasil. Os órgãos reprodutivos e o caule dessa espécie são objetos do presente estudo. O material botânico fresco e fixado em FAA 50/FPA 50 foi seccionado em micrótomo de rotação, segundo técnicas usuais. O eixo da inflorescência tem estrutura polistélica. As brácteas são peltadas com mesofilo homogêneo. O gineceu é unicarpelar, com estigma bilobado, estilete sólido, ovário de estrutura simples e óvulo reto,crassinucelado e unitegumentado. A parede da antera apresenta epiderme, endotécio, uma camada média e tapete secretor uninucleado. O fruto é uma baga e a semente é perispérmica. Essa planta reproduz-se vegetativamente mediante estolão.Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. is a herbaceous species that occurs in forest remnants in Maringá, Brazil, among other places. The stem and reproductive organs of this species are the objects of the present study. Samples of botanical material (fresh or fixed in FAA50/FPA 50 were cut using a rotation microtome, in accordance with usual practice. The spike axis features a polystelic structure. Bracts are peltate with a homogeneous mesophyll. The gynoecium is monocarpous, has a stigma with two lobes, solid style, ovary with simple structure and an atropous, crassinucellate and unitegmic ovule. The anther wall consists of epidermis, endothecium, one middle layer and a uninucleate secretory tapetum. The fruit is a berry and its seed is perispermic. This plant reproduces vegetatively by stolon.

  3. Mosquito adulticidal properties of Delonix elata (Family:Fabaceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the adulticidal activity of hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata) against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods:The bioassay was conducted in an experimental kit consisting of two cylindrical plastic tubes both measuring 125 mm×44 mm following the WHO method;mortality of the mosquitoes was recorded after 24 h. Results:The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of D. elata against Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 162.87 and 309.32 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions:From this result, it can be concluded the crude extract of D. elata was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  4. Anti-hepatoma activity and mechanism of ursolic acid and its derivatives isolated from Aralia decaisneana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Tian; Geng Lin; Rui-Xia Zheng; Feng Huang; Meng-Su Yang; Pei-Gen Xiao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor activity of ursolic acid (UA) and its derivatives isolated from Aralia decaisneana on hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro andin vivo.METHODS: In vivo cytotoxicity was first screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, DNA ladder, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot and real time PCR were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of UA. Implanted mouse hepatoma H22 was used to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect of UA in vivo.RESULTS: UA could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 and its drug-resistance strain, R-HepG2 cells,but had no inhibitory effect on primarily cultured normal mouse hepatocytes whereas all the six derivatives of UA could not inhibit the growth of all tested cell lines. Further study on mechanism demonstrated that apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest were involved in the cytotoxicity and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP). Downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) protein and upregulation of heat shock protein (HSP) 105 mRNA correlated to the apoptosis of HepG2cells treated with UA. In addition, UA also could inhibit the growth of H22 hepatoma in vivo.CONCLUSION: UA is a promising anti-tumor agent, but further work needs to be done to improve its solubility.

  5. 天麻种子与小菇属真菌共生萌发的研究%SYMBIOTIC GERMINATION BETWEEN GASTRODIA ELATA AND FUNGAL SPECIES OF MYCENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锦堂; 郭顺星; 范黎; 娜仁

    2001-01-01

    Four fungal species of Mycena were identificated from the strains isolated from the protocorm and roots of Orchidaceae species.M. osmundicola was isolated from the proocorm of G.elata, M. orchidicola, M.dendrobii and M. anoectochila respectively separated from the roots of Cymbidium sinense, Dendrobium candidum and Anoectochilus roxburghii. The symbiotic germination test beteen G. Elata seeds and the above fungal species demonstrated that these fungal species can stimulate the seed germination, which means the species of Mycena may be the key mycorrhizal fungi of G elata, because there were no reports about the other fungal species which stimulate G.elata seed germination. Besides G. elata, the above species of Mycena also distributed the roots of the other orchids.

  6. Triterpenoids from n-hexane extract of Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. stem bark

    OpenAIRE

    Atiek Soemiati

    2005-01-01

    Chromatographic separation of n-hexane extract of dried Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. stem bark (Cluciaceae) furnished two triterpenoids, identified as 3oxo-7,24-euphadien-26oic acid (1), 3β-hydroxy-7,24-euphadien-26 oic acid (2). The structure of compounds were determined by using UV-vis, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  7. Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of bark ofFicus arnottiana Miq. (M)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Yogesh Kumar; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To develop a novel standardization technique, which can pave the way for rapid determination of different phytoconstitutents ofFicus arnottiana(F. arnottiana).Miq.(Moraceae). From extensive literature survey it was revealed that no reports were available on, standardization parameters ofF. arnottianaMiq.Methods:Phytochemical test,TLC analysis, foreign matter, Ash values, swelling index, foaming index, fluorescence analysis, determination of pH, extractive value, moisture content, microbiological analysis and crude fibre content were performed in the present investigation for the quality control of the drug.Results:Thus it was thought worthwhile to explore this endangered plant on the basis of its standardization parameters.Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, flavanoids and tannins were found to be present inF. arnottianaMiq. extracts. Ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water insoluble ash value, pH determination,Swelling index, foaming index and loss on drying were found to be2.44%w/w,0.32%w/w,1.93%w/w,8.29,(3.50±0.23),1 cm,11.6%w/w.The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug.Conclusion:These physicochemical data and phytochemical analysis of different extracts ofF. arnottianaMiq is useful for further studies for pharmacological screening. In future this study will be helpful for qualitative & quantitative analysis of phytoconstitutes for isolation of newer molecule fromF. arnottianaMiq.

  8. Study on Pollution-free Prevention and Control Technology of Bud Rot in Gastrodia elata%天麻芽腐病无公害防控技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余昌俊; 王绍柏

    2011-01-01

    2 cultivated species of Gastrodia elata Bl., G. elata Bl. F. elata and G. elata Bl. F. glauca S.Chow were inoculated Fusarium oxysporum Schl. To study the occurrence regularity and control technology of bud rot in G. Elata. By production practice, a conclusion that comprehensive pollution-free prevention and control technology mainly use agricultural control combining with biological control and chemical control should be used to control bud rot in G. elata was achieved.%为探索天麻芽腐病及其防治,试验采用2个天麻(Gastrodia elata Bl.)栽培种红天麻(Gastrodia elata Bl.f.elata)、乌天麻(Gastrodia elata Bl.f.glauca S.Chow)接种箭麻尖镰孢霉(Fusarium oxysporum Schl.),研究天麻芽腐病的发病规律及防控技术.结合生产实践,总结出运用农业防治法、生物防治法和化学防治法相结合,以农业防治法为主的天麻芽腐病无公害综合防控技术.

  9. Effect of Aralia Elata on DNA Damage of Lymphocyte in Blood of Mouses After Exhaustive Exercise%辽东楤木对一次力竭小鼠血淋巴细胞DNA损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孟红; 李淑平; 杜晓萍

    2010-01-01

    目的:急性运动可引起氧自由基产生增加,从而导致机体一系列病理损伤.通过给小鼠补充辽东楤木根皮提取物,5周后进行急性一次力竭运动,观察运动源性自由基对血淋巴细胞DNA的损伤情况以及血清丙二醛(MDA)含量、血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活性的变化,探讨辽东楤木对一次性力竭性运.动后机体自由基代谢的影响.方法:昆明种小鼠64只,随机分为四组:正常对照组(NC组)16只、运动对照组(EC组)16只、运动+辽东楤木组(EA组)16只,运动+人参组(EP组)16只、除正常对照组外,其他各组小鼠于最后一次灌胃后,次日晨进行一次力竭游泳运动后,取样.采用单细胞凝胶电泳法、硫代巴比妥酸法、黄嘌呤氧化酶法和二硫代二硝基苯甲酸法分别测定血液淋巴细胞DNA的损伤、血清MDA的含量、血清SOD和GSH-Px的活性.结果:(1)与NC组相比,EC组大鼠血清MDA含量显著增加(P<0.01),血清SOD和GSH-Px活性显著下降(P<0.01).与EC组相比,EA组大鼠血清MDA含量显著下降(P<0.01),血清SOD和GSH-Px活性显著增高(P<0.01);EP组大鼠血清MDA含量显著下降(P<0.01),血清SOD和GSH-Px活性显著增高(P<0.01).(2)与NC组相比,EC组大鼠血液淋巴细胞尾长(Tail length)、尾矩(Tail moment)及椭圆矩(Olive moment)显著增加(P<0.01).与EC组相比,EA组大鼠血液淋巴细胞Tail length、Tail moment、Olive moment显著降低(P<0.01);EP组大鼠血液淋巴细胞尾长、尾短和椭圆矩显著降低(P<0.01).结论:1)辽东楤木可以提高小鼠血清SOD、GSH-Px的活性,降低血清MDA的含量,减少OH·等对DNA的直接损伤.2)辽东楤木对一次力竭运动导致的小鼠血液淋巴细胞DNA的损伤具有保护作用,与人参的作用效果相类似.

  10. Studies on the Methods to Identify of Aralia taibaiensis by TLC%太白楤木薄层色谱鉴别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师延琼; 王幸; 覃鸿恩; 崔春利; 郭东艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the identification method of Aralia taibaiensis by TLC. Methods Aralia taibaiensis TLC conditions were optimized by different sample preparation methods, point-like volume, expand the system. ResμLt The optimum chromatographic conditions were as follows: developing solvent (chloroform: ethyl acetate: methanol: water = 15:40:22:10), developing distance 15 cm, temperature 15 ℃, humidity from 30% to 50%, colour-display methods (10% suLfuric acid in ethanol, 105°C for 4 minutes, under 365nm UV light). Conclusion Aralia taibaiensis TLC spots were clear under the above chromatographic conditions which coμLd identify Aralia taibaiensis effectively.%目的 建立太白楤木根皮的薄层色谱鉴别方法.方法 通过对不同制样方法、点样量、展开系统、展距的比较,优化太白楤木根皮的薄层色谱条件.结果 最佳色谱条件为:展开剂∶氯仿∶乙酸乙酯∶甲醇∶水=15∶40∶ 22∶10;展距:15cm;温度:15℃左右;湿度:30%~50%;显色方法:10%硫酸乙醇溶液,105℃加热4min,置紫外光灯(365 nm)下检视.结论 在上述色谱条件下,太白楤木根皮的薄层色谱斑点清晰,信息量较大,且专属性强、重现性好,能有效鉴别太白楤木.

  11. Saponins from Aralia taibaiensis Attenuate D-Galactose-Induced Aging in Rats by Activating FOXO3a and Nrf2 Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to the aging process. In our previous studies, we found that the saponins from Aralia taibaiensis have potent antioxidant activity, suggesting the potential protective activity on the aging. However, the protective effect of the saponins and the possible underlying molecular mechanism remain unknown. In the present study, we employed a D-galactose-induced aging rat model to investigate the protective effect of the saponins. We found that D-gal...

  12. Seed germination and seedling growth of ramin (Gonystylus bancanus Miq.) on various growing media

    OpenAIRE

    DJADJA SITI HAZAR HOESEN; WITJAKSONO; NING WIKAN UTAMI

    2006-01-01

    A study on seed germination and seedling growth of ramin (Gonystylus bancanus Miq.) was conducted at a green house, Treub Laboratory, Botany Department, Research Center for Biology- LIPI, Bogor. This study was to know the effect of growth media on the germination and growth of ramin. A Completely Randomized Designed with 13 treatments and 4 replications was used in this study. Thirteen compositions of growth media used were soil, compost, cocopeat, mixture of soil and compost (1:1; 1:3), soil...

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Karoline Kirchner; Alberto Wisniewski Jr; Alexandre Bella Cruz; Maique W. Biavatti; Netz, Daisy J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, is an endemic species of Brazil, locally known as "cidrão". Although H. brasiliense is popularly used as sedative, chemical constituents of this species remains uncharacterized. This work presents the essential oil composition, obtained by distillation of the fresh leaves and from a stored sample for three months, analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The inhibitory effects of essential oil were tested by the agar dilution method against six bacterial speci...

  14. Potential Activity And Toxicity Of Methanol Extract Stem Bark Banyuru (Pterospermum Celebicum Miq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuki, Agus

    2015-01-01

    Banyuru (Pterospermum celebicum, Miq.) is one of the specific plant, a stem bark that has the potential to be developed as a source of antibacterial drugs. Research of antibacterial activity and toxicity of methanol extract Banyuru aims to determine the antibacterial activity and the level of toxicity to Artemia Salina. The method used to test the antibacterial activity is the agar diffusion method and the method used to test the toxicity Brine Shrimp Lethaly Test (BSLT). Banyuru stem bark (...

  15. Triterpenoids from n-hexane extract of Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiek Soemiati

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of n-hexane extract of dried Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. stem bark (Cluciaceae furnished two triterpenoids, identified as 3oxo-7,24-euphadien-26oic acid (1, 3β-hydroxy-7,24-euphadien-26 oic acid (2. The structure of compounds were determined by using UV-vis, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  16. Gastrodia elata Ameliorates High-Fructose Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism and Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chul Kho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of fructose results in dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance, which have documented correlation with metabolic syndrome. Gastrodia elata, a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and antidiabetes activities. Thus, this study examined whether ethanol extract of Gastrodia elata Blume (EGB attenuate lipid metabolism and endothelial dysfunction in a high-fructose (HF diet animal model. Rats were fed the 65% HF diet with/without EGB 100 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Treatment with EGB significantly suppressed the increments of epididymal fat weight, blood pressure, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol levels, and oral glucose tolerance, respectively. In addition, EGB markedly prevented increase of adipocyte size and hepatic accumulation of triglycerides. EGB ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. Moreover, EGB significantly recovered the impairment of vasorelaxation to acetylcholine and levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression and induced markedly upregulation of phosphorylation AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα in the liver, muscle, and fat. These results indicate that EGB ameliorates dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance as well as impaired vascular endothelial function in HF diet rats. Taken together, EGB may be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome.

  17. Preparative purification of plasmin activity stimulating phenolic derivatives from Gastrodia elata using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Jeeyoung; Park, Soyoung; Ryou, Chongsuk; Kim, Chul Young

    2016-06-01

    Gastrodia rhizome, a dried and steamed tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan for the treatment of neurological and nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, vertigo and convulsive illnesses. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of G. elata stimulated plasmin activity. The active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system, composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:4:6, v/v) followed by semi-preparative HPLC purification to separate active compounds and the water fraction was purified by Diaion HP-20 resin and semi-preparative HPLC. In ethyl acetate extract, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4), 4,4'-oxybis(methylene)diphenol (5) and 4,4'-methylenediphenol (6) were obtained with high purities. Parishin (7) and parishin B (8) were isolated from water extract. Among isolated compounds, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3) and 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4) significantly stimulated plasmin activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Dendrochronological Potential in a Semi-Deciduous Rainforest: The Case of Pericopsis elata in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike De Ridder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-lived pioneer species Pericopsis elata is one of the rare tropical timbers on the list of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species, supporting the need for accurate and reliable growth data. In one planted and one natural forest in the Democratic Republic of Congo, respectively four and 37 Pericopsis stem disks were collected. The tree-ring series of planted trees were used to confirm annual tree-ring formation. For the natural forest, a tree-ring chronology with 24 stem disks ranged from 1852 up to 2008. This chronology was compared with time-series of local precipitation, resulting in a significant correlation with the second half of the rainy season (September–November. This seasonal precipitation was related with sea surface temperatures of the West Indian Ocean. Higher precipitation during El Niño years corresponded with higher tree-ring indices but differences were not significant. In addition, pointer years were rare and did not have a consistent link with extreme climatic conditions. The existence of annual tree rings encourages further tree-ring analyses of P. elata and other flagship timber species in order to further document climate-growth responses and to provide the long-term framework that is needed for sustainable management planning.

  19. Fingerprint chromatogram analysis of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax root by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Chen, Junhui; Chen, Bo; Lee, Frank Sen-Chun; Wang, Xiaoru

    2006-09-01

    A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the fingerprinting of extracts from the root of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax. HPLC with gradient elution was performed on an authentic reference standard of powdered P. heterophylla (Miq.) Pax root and 11 plant samples of the root were collected from different geographic locations. The HPLC chromatograms have been standardized through the selection and identification of reference peaks and the normalization of retention times and peak intensities of all the common peaks. The standardized HPLC fingerprints show high stability and reproducibility, and thus can be used effectively for the screening analysis or quality assessment of the root or its derived products. Similarity index calculations based on cosine angle values or correlation methods have been performed on the HPLC fingerprints. As a group, the fingerprints of the P. heterophylla (Miq.) Pax samples studied are highly correlated with closely similar fingerprints. Within the group, the samples can be further divided into subgroups based on hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Sample grouping based on HCA coincides nicely with those based on the geographical origins of the samples. The HPLC fingerprinting techniques thus have high potential in authentication or source-tracing types of applications.

  20. The Structure and Antifungal Functions of Vegetative Propagation Corm of Gastrodia elata%天麻的营养繁殖茎及其抑菌功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锦堂; 兰进

    2001-01-01

    天麻(Gastrodia elata Bl.)与蜜环菌(Armilla riamellea (Vahl.ex Fr.)Quel.)营共生生活,在正常情况下蜜环菌只侵染种麻及分化生长出的营养繁殖茎的表皮、皮层及大型细胞层。种麻的大型细胞层及营养繁殖茎隔离区的空腔细胞层和木栓细胞层,都是种麻与新生麻的防御结构,它们保护新生麻不遭蜜环菌病理侵染而正常生长。冬季,天麻进入冬眠期,隔离区的木栓细胞层形成断裂层,此层细胞是新生麻能够安全越冬的最后一道防御结构。%The growth of Gastrodia elata Bl. and Armillaria mellea (Vahl. exFr.) Quel. shares a special symbiotic relation. In general, A. mellea invades the G. elata, the epidermal cells, the cortical cells and the large cells of the growing vegetative propagation corm of G. elata. The empty cavity cells, the cork cells of the isolation in the vegetative propagation corms and the large cells of G. elata were the defensive structure, protecting the new G. elata from pathological invasion by A. mellea. In winter, G. elata enters the stage of hibernation. The faulting layer derived from the cork cells of the isolation was the last defensive structure by which new G. elata could safely live through the winter.

  1. Study on Gastrodia elata Brown Rot%天麻褐腐病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大椿; 秦亚平; 秦锋

    2002-01-01

    天麻(Gastrodia elata)球茎变褐腐烂是近年发生的新病害,病球茎率达42.1%.经病原分离鉴定,是由灰葡萄孢(Botrytis cinerea Pers.ex Fr.)所引起.通过室内毒力测定,多菌灵和快宁对该菌EC50分别为66×10-4 mg*mL-1和68×10-4 mg*mL-1.讨论了病害流行的原因,并提出了防治方法.

  2. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FRACTIONS OF DELONIX ELATA BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabbithi Sathya Chethan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of bark of Delonix elata. Antibacterial activity of various fractions obtained from methanolic extract (PE, DM , EA, MR of bark were carried out against three Gram positive bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Enterococus faceialis and three Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebesiela. The antifungal activity of the fractions was evaluated on two common pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Cryptcocus neoframens. The testing was done by the disc diffusion method. Zones of inhibition of fractions were compared with that of standard Amikacin for antibacterial activity and Ketoconazole for antifungal activity. The EA and MR fractions showed significant antibacterial activity but did not exhibit anti-fungal activities comparable with that of standard against the organisms tested.

  3. Mycorrhizal Formation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Hair Roots of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya

    2016-06-25

    The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species. PMID:27297892

  4. Mycorrhizal Formation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Hair Roots of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species. PMID:27297892

  5. 草本龙芽中黄酮的分离及其结构鉴定%Isolation and structural identification of flavonoids from Aralia continentalis. Kitagawa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居维艳; 李秉超

    2012-01-01

    从草本龙芽中提取、分离黄酮类化合物。利用乙醇萃取、大孔树脂精制、聚酰胺柱层析分离纯化得到一种黄酮类化合物,结合颜色反应、紫外吸收光谱(UV)、红外光谱(IR)、核磁共振氢谱(1H-NMR)、核磁共振碳谱(13C-NMR)鉴定其结构。从草本龙芽中提取得到这种黄酮类化合物鉴定为3,5,7,3’,4’-五羟基黄酮醇,即槲皮素。%The fiavonoids from Aralia continentalis. Kitagawa was isolated and identified. Various techniques such as solvent extraction,macroporous resin and polyamide column chromatography were used to isolate and purify the flavonoids. The structure of the flavonoids purified had been identified by characteristic qualitative reactions and spectrographic data from ultraviolet spectrum (UV), infrared spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance(1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). The flavonoid exacted from Aralia continentalis. Kitagawa was identified as quercetin 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone.

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, is an endemic species of Brazil, locally known as "cidrão". Although H. brasiliense is popularly used as sedative, chemical constituents of this species remains uncharacterized. This work presents the essential oil composition, obtained by distillation of the fresh leaves and from a stored sample for three months, analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The inhibitory effects of essential oil were tested by the agar dilution method against six bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus. In addition, six fungal species (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were included. Among the determined constituents, α-terpineol (10.2%, curzerene (8.9%, pinocarvone (8.4% and β-thujene (7.1% were found as the main components. The essential oil has only low activity against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, is remarkable active against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi with MIC values ranging from 0.125 to 2.5% (v/v.Óleo essencial de Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae: composição e atividade antimicrobiana. Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq. Chloranthaceae, é uma espécie endêmica no Brasil, conhecida como "cidrão". Embora H. brasiliense seja utilizada como calmante na medicina popular, não foi ainda caracterizada quanto aos constituintes químicos. Este trabalho apresenta a composição do óleo essencial, obtido pela destilação de folhas frescas e de amostra de óleo essencial armazenada por três meses, analisadas por GC-FID e CG-MS. Os efeitos inibitórios do óleo essencial foram testados pelo método da diluição em agar, contra seis espécies de bactérias (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e S. saprophyticus. Adicionalmente, seis espécies de fungos (Candida albicans

  7. The Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS Is a Reliable and Valid Tool for Evaluating Motor Imagery in Stroke Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Butler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental imagery can improve motor performance in stroke populations when combined with physical therapy. Valid and reliable instruments to evaluate the imagery ability of stroke survivors are needed to maximize the benefits of mental imagery therapy. The purposes of this study were to: examine and compare the test-retest intra-rate reliability of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS in stroke survivors and able-bodied controls, examine internal consistency of the visual and kinesthetic items of the MIQ-RS, determine if the MIQ-RS includes both the visual and kinesthetic dimensions of mental imagery, correlate impairment and motor imagery scores, and investigate the criterion validity of the MIQ-RS in stroke survivors by comparing the results to the KVIQ-10. Test-retest analysis indicated good levels of reliability (ICC range: .83–.99 and internal consistency (Cronbach α: .95–.98 of the visual and kinesthetic subscales in both groups. The two-factor structure of the MIQ-RS was supported by factor analysis, with the visual and kinesthetic components accounting for 88.6% and 83.4% of the total variance in the able-bodied and stroke groups, respectively. The MIQ-RS is a valid and reliable instrument in the stroke population examined and able-bodied populations and therefore useful as an outcome measure for motor imagery ability.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Delonix elata leaf broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiya, C. K.; Akilandeswari, S.

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles from plant sources has proved to be an effective and alternative method for the novel production of nanoparticles. This paper reports the bioreduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticle by the leaf extract of Delonix elata. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). In addition the size of the NPs was calculated by using Malvern Zetasizer and the stability by zeta potential. UV-vis spectra show the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 432 nm. This reveals the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) into silver (Ag°) and indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). SEM analysis revealed the spherical shape of the particles with sizes in the range of 35-45 nm and EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of silver along with other elements in the plant metabolite. The XRD analysis showed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature and have face-centered cubic structure. FT-IR spectra show the existence of biomolecules responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate. The size of the AgNPs estimated from particle size distribution curve shows the 70 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs was found to be -18 mV, indicating the dispersion and stability.

  9. Antimicrobial and allelopathic potential of the amides isolated from the roots of Ottonia martiana miq., piperaceae; Potencial antimicrobiano e alelopatico das amidas isoladas do extrato das raizes de Ottonia martiana Miq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunico, Miriam Machado; Dias, Josiane G.; Miguel, Marilis D.; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: obdulio@ufpr.br; Auer, Celso Garcia [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, EMBRAPA-Floresta, Colombo, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Cocco, Lilian C.; Lopes, Andre R.; Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Monache, Franco Delle [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia

    2006-07-15

    Two amides, piperovatine and isopiperlonguminine, were isolated from the roots of Ottonia martiana Miq., a herbaceous shrub commonly used in folk medicine in the treatment of toothache. The crude extract (CE) and isolated compounds were submitted to bioautography and allelopathic assay. The bioautograms allowed the detection of compounds with antibacterial activity and the identification of the bioactive substance piperovatine. The CE and amides exhibited an allelopathic effect on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedling growth but did not affect the seeds' germinability. (author)

  10. Preliminary Study on Cuttage of Aralia chinensis and Acanthopanax gracilistylus%楤木和五加的扦插繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕玉; 郭凤根; 张应华; 张丽梅

    2000-01-01

    @@ 楤木(Aralia chinensis Linn)又名刺苞菜、刺老苞、树头菜,五加(Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith)又名刺五加、五加皮、五叶路刺或戈哈(哈尼语),两者都是属于五加科(Araliaceae)的落叶灌木[1],根皮可入药,嫩芽和嫩茎叶可供食用,且营养丰富,味美可口,在市场上供不应求,是极有发展前途的野生木本蔬菜.为了大量繁殖这两种木本蔬菜供应市场,合理利用和保护野生资源,笔者开展了楤木和五加的扦插繁殖研究.

  11. Rapid Authentication of the Herbal Medicine Plant Species Aralia continentalis Kitag. and Angelica biserrata C.Q. Yuan and R.H. Shan Using ITS2 Sequences and Multiplex-SCAR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wook Jin; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Yang, Sungyu; Han, Kyeong Suk; Choi, Goya; Lee, A Yeong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of the plant species that are present in herbal medicines is important for quality control. Although the dried roots of Aralia continentalis (Araliae Continentalis Radix) and Angelica biserrata (Angelicae Pubescentis Radix) are used in the same traditional medicine, namely Dok-Hwal in Korean and Du-Huo in Chinese, the medicines are described differently in the national pharmacopeia. Further confusion arises from the distribution of dried Levisticum officinale and Heracleum moellendorffii roots as the same medicine. Medicinal ingredients from all four plants are morphologically similar, and discrimination is difficult using conventional methods. Molecular identification methods offer rapidity and accuracy. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) was sequenced in all four plant species, and the sequences were used to design species-specific primers. Primers for each species were then combined to allow sample analysis in a single PCR reaction. Commercial herbal medicine samples were obtained from Korea and China and analyzed using the multiplex assay. The assay successfully identified authentic medicines and also identified inauthentic or adulterated samples. The multiplex assay will be a useful tool for identification of authentic Araliae Continentalis Radix and/or Angelicae Pubescentis Radix preparations in Korea and China. PMID:26938512

  12. Rapid Authentication of the Herbal Medicine Plant Species Aralia continentalis Kitag. and Angelica biserrata C.Q. Yuan and R.H. Shan Using ITS2 Sequences and Multiplex-SCAR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of the plant species that are present in herbal medicines is important for quality control. Although the dried roots of Aralia continentalis (Araliae Continentalis Radix and Angelica biserrata (Angelicae Pubescentis Radix are used in the same traditional medicine, namely Dok-Hwal in Korean and Du-Huo in Chinese, the medicines are described differently in the national pharmacopeia. Further confusion arises from the distribution of dried Levisticum officinale and Heracleum moellendorffii roots as the same medicine. Medicinal ingredients from all four plants are morphologically similar, and discrimination is difficult using conventional methods. Molecular identification methods offer rapidity and accuracy. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA was sequenced in all four plant species, and the sequences were used to design species-specific primers. Primers for each species were then combined to allow sample analysis in a single PCR reaction. Commercial herbal medicine samples were obtained from Korea and China and analyzed using the multiplex assay. The assay successfully identified authentic medicines and also identified inauthentic or adulterated samples. The multiplex assay will be a useful tool for identification of authentic Araliae Continentalis Radix and/or Angelicae Pubescentis Radix preparations in Korea and China.

  13. Inhibition of Struvite Crystal Growth in the Presence of Herbal Extract Orthosiphon Aristatus BL.MIQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muryanto Stefanus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of urinary stones is a serious problem worldwide. Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O is known as one of the main components of the stones. Traditionally, herbal extracts treatment is recommended. This paper discussestheeffects of Orthosiphon aristatus Bl.Miq leaves extract (OA on struvite crystals grown by diffusion gel method. After three weeks the crystals were separated from thegel, air dried and stored for characterisation. The crystals exhibit different morphologiesdepending upon the location of growth. It was found that OA caused the crystals to have noticeable surface defects, discolorisation and fragmentation. Also, OA (upto 5.0% decreased the growth rate. XRD analysis confirms struvite crystallinity. Pure crystals and those grown with OA showed identical XRD pattern, indicating that the crystalline nature may be unaffected. For crystals with OA, FTIR spectrum shifted to higher wave numbers, implying that the various organic compounds in OA might be absorbed on the crystal surface. TG-DTA studies showed similar thermal behaviour for both pure crystals and those with OA. However, the later revealed lowerendothermic temperature, indicating lower thermal stability. Fragmentationand lower thermal stability of struviteindicatedthat OA was a potent inhibitor of struvite and could be effective for urinary stone treatment.

  14. Identification of species within Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch.(Vitaceae) based on DNA barcoding techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Miao FU; Wei-Mei JIANG; Cheng-Xin FU

    2011-01-01

    Many species of Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch. (Vitaceae) have long been used as medicinal plants in China, and some are endangered due to overexploitation. Although adulterants are often added to traditional Chinese medicines, there is no reliable or practical method for identifying them. In this study, we used four markers (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) as DNA barcodes to test their ability to distinguish species of Tetrastigma. The results indicated that the best barcode was ITS, which showed significant inter-specific genetic variability, and thus its potential as a DNA barcode for identifying Tetrastigma. Multiple loci provided a greater ability to distinguish species than single loci. We recommend using the combined rbcL+matK+ITS barcode for the genus. Phylogenetic trees from each barcode were compared. Analyses using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean discriminated an equal or greater percentage of resolvable species than did neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, or maximum parsimony analyses. Additionally, five medicinal species of Tetrastigma, especially T. Hemsleyanum, could be identified precisely using DNA barcoding.

  15. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  16. Development of Silky Chicken-Gastrodia Elata Blume Oral Solution%乌鸡天麻口服液的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田洋; 史崇颖; 穆颖超; 杨兰兰; 肖蓉

    2015-01-01

    The Silky Chicken and Gastrodia Elata Blume as raw material , Silky Chicken-Gastrodia Elata Blume Nutrient Solution were successfully developed , combined with the scientific compatibility of Gastrodia Elata Blume extract and Silky Chicken hydrolysates, and added to honey, citric acid, protein sugar. By single factor test and orthogonal test, the best formula of oral liquid was as follows: oral liquid consisted of 19 mL Gastrodia Elata Blume extract, 68 mL Silky Chicken hydrolysate, 6 % honey, 0.15 % citric acid, 0.075 %protein sugar in one hundred milliliter. Silky Chicken-Gastrodia Elata Blume Nutrient Solution was clear brown liquid, with Gastrodia Elata Blume unique flavor and the fragrance of the chicken, sweet, no odor, and high nutritional value, which conformed to the product quality standard, after 80℃, 10 min sterilization.%以乌鸡和天麻为原料,制备天麻提取液和乌鸡酶解液,两者科学配伍并添加蜂蜜、柠檬酸、蛋白糖辅料,研制了乌鸡天麻口服液。通过单因素试验及正交试验确定口服液的最佳配方:天麻提取液19 mL/100 mL、乌鸡水解液68 mL/100 mL、蜂蜜添加量6%、柠檬酸添加量0.15%、蛋白糖添加量0.075%。乌鸡天麻口服液为澄清透明的棕褐色液体,具有天麻独特的风味和鸡肉的香味,酸甜适口,无异味,营养价值高,经80℃,10 min灭菌后,符合产品质量标准。

  17. The Growth and Elongation of Protocorm of Gastodia elata%天麻地下块茎的生长及延长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong In Pyo; Chang Kwang Joon; Lee Tae Soo; Shim Jae Ouk; Lee Min Woong

    2004-01-01

    Gastrodia elata Blume is a medicinal plant and widely distributed in Korea, China and Japan. The dried tuber of G.elata have been used as traditional herbal medicines for curing human diseases. Here, we reported the observation of developing procedure of the tuber formation from protocorn in small glass and in field conditions.%天麻是广泛分布于韩国,中国和日本的药用与真菌共生的植物,它的块茎可以作为中草药医治多种人体病害.本文观察了天麻块茎原基在三角瓶中和室外土壤中生长和延长的过程.

  18. Seed germination and seedling growth of ramin (Gonystylus bancanus Miq. on various growing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJADJA SITI HAZAR HOESEN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on seed germination and seedling growth of ramin (Gonystylus bancanus Miq. was conducted at a green house, Treub Laboratory, Botany Department, Research Center for Biology- LIPI, Bogor. This study was to know the effect of growth media on the germination and growth of ramin. A Completely Randomized Designed with 13 treatments and 4 replications was used in this study. Thirteen compositions of growth media used were soil, compost, cocopeat, mixture of soil and compost (1:1; 1:3, soil, compost and cocopeat (1:1:1; soil, compost, cocopeat and goat manure (1:1:1:1; soil and cocopeat (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; compost and cocopeat (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; compost and husk of rice. The result showed that the highest germination percentage was 95% obtained on the cocopeat media, while on control (soil was 55%. The highest germination value was 6.67 obtained from the mixture media of soil+compost = 1:3 and the lowest was 1.87 from the control. There was variation of leaf shape observed until 60 days after planting. Some compositions of suggested media for seed germination and seedling growth of ramin were cocopeat, mixture of compost+cocopeat (1:1; 1:2 and 1:3, compost and the mixture of soi+compost (1:2 and 1:3 respectively. Generally, germination and growth of ramin seem not to be restricted on growth media with special pH.

  19. The Aqueous Extract of Rhizome of Gastrodia elata Protected Drosophila and PC12 Cells against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fai Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE aqueous extract on beta-amyloid(Aβ-induced toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic Drosophila mutants with Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in pan-neuron and ommatidia were used to determine the efficacy of GE. The antiapoptotic and antioxidative mechanisms of GE were also studied in Aβ-treated pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that GE (5 mg/g Drosophila media-treated Drosophila possessed a longer lifespan, better locomotor function, and less-degenerated ommatidia when compared with the Aβ-expressing control (all P<0.05. In vitro studies illustrated that GE increased the cell viability of Aβ-treated PC12 cells in dose-dependent manner, probably through attenuation of Aβ-induced oxidative and apoptotic stress. GE also significantly upregulated the enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to the decrease of reactive oxidation species production and apoptotic marker caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, our current data presented the first evidence that the aqueous extract of GE was capable of reducing the Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, possibly through inhibition of apoptosis and reduction of oxidative stress. GE aqueous extract could be developed as a promising herbal agent for neuroprotection and novel adjuvant therapies for Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Glehnia littoralis F.Schmidt ex Miq. (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Oh Lee, Hyun; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Soonok; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq is an oriental medicinal herb belonging to Apiaceae family, and its dried roots and rhizomes are known to show various pharmacological effects. The complete chlorplast genome of G. littoralis was generated by de novo assembly using whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of G. littoralis was 147 467 bp in length and divided into four distinct regions: large single copy region (93 493 bp), small single copy region (17 546 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat regions (18 214 bp). A total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes were predicted and accounted for 57.1% of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that G. littoralis is an herbal species closely related to Ledebouriella seseloides, an herbal medicinal plant. PMID:26367483

  1. 红天麻箭麻发育进程中天麻素和多糖含量的变化规律研究%The Experimental Study on the Developmental Processes and the Relevance of the Contents of Gastrodin and Gastrodia Polysaccharides of Gastrodia elata Bl.f.elata's Sprouted Tuber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒伟; 张兴国; 程方叙; 陈雷; 杨言琛

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究红天麻箭麻在不同发育阶段的天麻素和天麻多糖含量的相关性规律,确定其品质特征,为红天麻GAP质量控制提供科学依据.[方法]在川天麻主产区采集传统主流红天麻品系箭麻块茎样品,在原产地室内采用原位动态沙藏法贮藏箭麻;在采样后沙藏10、80、95、175和220 d分别采集天麻块茎样品,采用高效液相色谱法和苯酚-硫酸比色法分别测定天麻素含量和天麻多糖含量,并运用SPSS17.0版统计软件分析在红天麻箭麻不同发育阶段进程中天麻素和天麻多糖含量的相关性规律.[结果]川产红天麻箭麻块茎的天麻素和天麻多糖的平均含量分别为0.36%和8.17%;随着天麻沙藏休眠期-萌动期-抽茎开花-果实成熟至腐烂发育阶段进程增加,红天麻箭麻块茎的天麻素和天麻多糖含量下降,且呈极显著的负相关(P <0.001),其回归方程分别为:天麻素y1=-2E-08x3-1E-06x2-0.0001x +0.365(R2 =0.996),天麻多糖y2=-5E 07x3-1E-06x2-0.008x +8.267(R2 =0.996).[结论]红天麻箭麻品质较优良,其块茎沙藏发育进程和品质下降密切相关,开花后空心和腐烂的红天麻块茎不宜作药用和制药原料.%[ Objective ] By studying the relevance on the contents of gastrodin and gastrodia polysaccharides from Gastrodia elata Bl. f. elata' s sprouted tubers in varied developmental stages, determine its quality characteristics, and provide a scientific basis for quality control of red Gastrodia GAP. [ Method ] The sprouted tuber samples from traditional mainstream Gastrodia elata Bl. f. elata in the main producing areas of the Sichuan Gastrodia and that stored in situ dynamic sand in contury of origins indoor were collected, then stored in sand 10 d, 80 d, 95 d, 175 d, 220 d. Measuring the content of gastrodin by HPLC and the content of gastrodia polysaccharides by phenol-sulfuric acid method; Using the SPSS17.0 statistical software to study the relevance on the

  2. 全天麻咀嚼胶体外释放度的测定%In vitro dissolution of gastrodine in Gastrodia elata chewing gums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 谌介秀; 万军

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价全天麻咀嚼胶的体外释放情况。方法以人工唾液为介质,采用高效液相色谱法测定全天麻咀嚼胶中天麻素的质量分数,采用咀嚼释放度测定仪(自制)检测咀嚼胶体外释放度,检测波长为220 nm,介质体积为40 mL。结果天麻素在0.042~0.378μg范围内线性良好,平均回收率为99.18%, RSD为2.40%;全天麻咀嚼胶在8 min左右,天麻素释放达90.0%以上。结论全天麻咀嚼胶中天麻素释放迅速,可作为一种新型的降血压及治疗头痛的中药制剂进一步开发。%Objective To evaluate the in vitro dissolution of gastrodine chewing gum. Method The content of gastrodine in Gastrodia elata chewing gum was determined by HPLC and the dissolution of gastrodine was studied with a specialized release-measuring apparatus made-self in 40 mL artificial saliva at the detection wavelength of 420 nm. Result The linear range of gastrodine was from 0. 042 to 0. 378 μg and the average recovery was 99.18% with a RSD of 2.40%.Approximately 90.0% of the gastrodine contained in Gastrodia elata chewing gums was released in about 8 min. Conclusion Gastrodia elata chewing gum is a fast-released preparations and suitable for lowering blood pressure and treating headaches.

  3. Analysis on Volatile Constituents of Aralia cordata Thunb.from Different Places%不同产地九眼独活挥发油成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲兰香; 唐天君; 袁小红; 侯大斌; 王博

    2010-01-01

    [目的]明确四川省青川县和茂县产九眼独活(Aralia cordata Thunb.)根挥发油成分的组成及差异.[方法]用水蒸气蒸馏法提取青川县和茂县产九眼独活根挥发油,用GC-MS法分析和鉴定其成分.[结果]分别从青川县和茂县产九眼独活根中鉴定出了59、36种成分,分别占其精油总量的57.150%、45.867%.青川县产九眼独活根挥发油中的主要成分有α-没药醇(4.093%)、海松醛(18.857%)、sclarene(6.750%)、松香酸(3.900%)、13β-methyl-13-vinyl-7-en-3-one-podocarp(4.238%)等;茂县产九眼独活根挥发油中的主要成分有α-没药醇(2.502%)、海松醛(10.732%)、[1R-(1R*,3E,)]-3,7-dien-12-ol,4,8,12,15,15-pentamethyl-bicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca(10.209%)、海松酸(12.305%)等.[结论]青川县和茂县产九眼独活根挥发油的主要成分存在一定的差异,这为不同地区九眼独活商品的质量控制提供了参考标准.

  4. Parishin from Gastrodia elata Extends the Lifespan of Yeast via Regulation of Sir2/Uth1/TOR Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanfei; Sun, Yujuan; Weng, Yufang; Matsuura, Akira; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Parishin is a phenolic glucoside isolated from Gastrodia elata, which is an important traditional Chinese medicine; this glucoside significantly extended the replicative lifespan of K6001 yeast at 3, 10, and 30 μM. To clarify its mechanism of action, assessment of oxidative stress resistance, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, replicative lifespans of sod1, sod2, uth1, and skn7 yeast mutants, and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analysis were conducted. The significant increase of cell survival rate in oxidative stress condition was observed in parishin-treated groups. Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) gene expression and SOD activity were significantly increased after treating parishin in normal condition. Meanwhile, the levels of ROS and MDA in yeast were significantly decreased. The replicative lifespans of sod1, sod2, uth1, and skn7 mutants of K6001 yeast were not affected by parishin. We also found that parishin could decrease the gene expression of TORC1, ribosomal protein S26A (RPS26A), and ribosomal protein L9A (RPL9A) in the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway. Gene expression levels of RPS26A and RPL9A in uth1, as well as in uth1, sir2 double mutants, were significantly lower than those of the control group. Besides, TORC1 gene expression in uth1 mutant of K6001 yeast was inhibited significantly. These results suggested that parishin exhibited antiaging effects via regulation of Sir2/Uth1/TOR signaling pathway. PMID:27429709

  5. Parishin from Gastrodia elata Extends the Lifespan of Yeast via Regulation of Sir2/Uth1/TOR Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parishin is a phenolic glucoside isolated from Gastrodia elata, which is an important traditional Chinese medicine; this glucoside significantly extended the replicative lifespan of K6001 yeast at 3, 10, and 30 μM. To clarify its mechanism of action, assessment of oxidative stress resistance, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reactive oxygen species (ROS assays, replicative lifespans of sod1, sod2, uth1, and skn7 yeast mutants, and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR analysis were conducted. The significant increase of cell survival rate in oxidative stress condition was observed in parishin-treated groups. Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2 gene expression and SOD activity were significantly increased after treating parishin in normal condition. Meanwhile, the levels of ROS and MDA in yeast were significantly decreased. The replicative lifespans of sod1, sod2, uth1, and skn7 mutants of K6001 yeast were not affected by parishin. We also found that parishin could decrease the gene expression of TORC1, ribosomal protein S26A (RPS26A, and ribosomal protein L9A (RPL9A in the target of rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway. Gene expression levels of RPS26A and RPL9A in uth1, as well as in uth1, sir2 double mutants, were significantly lower than those of the control group. Besides, TORC1 gene expression in uth1 mutant of K6001 yeast was inhibited significantly. These results suggested that parishin exhibited antiaging effects via regulation of Sir2/Uth1/TOR signaling pathway.

  6. Influences of Different Habitats on Asexual Propagation of Wild Gastrodia elata f. glauca being Domesticated in Ganzi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiang XIE

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The influences of different habitats on asexual propagation of wild Geg (abbreviation for Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. Chow) being domesticat-ed in Ganzi prefecture was studied. [Method] The research trial was carried out in the fol owing three kinds of habitats at the same time: the plastic greenhouses, the birch forest of shady slope and the shrubbery of sunny slope, and the results were analyzed with group data average hypothesis test method. [Result] The overal tuber (the juvenile tuber, the immature tuber and the mature tuber) yield and the mature tuber yield were both very significantly higher in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and respectively reached 9.52 and 6.70 kg/m2; the ma-ture tuber drying rate was dramatical y or very dramatical y lower in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and was 23.84%; the stabilities of the overal tuber yield, the mature tuber yield and the drying rate were al re-duced in the order of greenhouses, birch forest and shrubbery; and the dry mature tuber yield of the plastic greenhouses was the highest in the three kinds of habi-tats, and was 1.60 kg/m2. [Conclusion] A good habitat had to be created or chosen in the domesticating cultivation of the wild Geg in Ganzi prefecture. The preferred choice was the plastic greenhouse, the alternative one was the deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope. The imitating wild planting of the wild Geg should be done in the warm moist deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope.

  7. Cloning and prokaryotic expressing of AeFPS gene: a key enzyme of triterpene saponins biosynthesis in Aralia elata%龙牙楤木三萜皂苷合成途径关键酶AeFPS基因的克隆及原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春彦; 成慧; 贾冬梅; 邹宏达; 原亚萍; 吴颖

    2011-01-01

    目的 克隆龙牙楤木法呢二磷酸合成酶(AeFPS)基因并进行原核表达.方法 以龙牙楤木为材料,采用RT-PCR方法,设计特异引物,克隆AeFPS基因,并将该基因定向插入Sca Ⅰ/BamH Ⅰ切开的原核表达载体pET-28a上,转化大肠杆菌BL21,于28℃,IPTG诱导5h,经SDS-PAGE电泳分析,检测出明显的差异条带,Western blotting进一步检测其为目的基因.结果 克隆到AeFPS基因cDNA全长为1040bp,含有1029 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码342个氨基酸,GenBank登录号为HM219226.1.成功构建了原核表达质粒pET28a/AeFPS、AeFPS蛋白在BL21中高度表达,SDS-PAGE和Western blotting鉴定了目标蛋白.结论 首次获得了AeFPS基因,并将其连入原核载体中成功表达,为研究AeFPS蛋白的活性及生化功能奠定了基础.%Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge; heat stress; cDNA-AFLP; transcriptomes; RT-PCR

  8. 长白楤木嫩芽中刺龙芽皂苷C的分离纯化及结构鉴定%Separation and Structural Identification of Congmuyanoside C from Young Sprouts of Aralia continentalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯颖; 潘旋; 孟宪军; 李天来; 刘欣

    2011-01-01

    A saponin monomer was obtained from the young sprouts of Aralia continentalis through extraction with 70% aqueous ethanol solution,sequential purification by AB-8 macroporous resin adsorption,silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative HPLC separation.The compound was structurally identified by NMR spectroscopy as congmuyanoside C.%为了寻找长白楤木嫩芽中的皂苷活性单体,采用70%乙醇提取,AB-8大孔吸附树脂纯化,硅胶柱层析、凝胶柱层析和制备液相进行分离,利用NMR波谱法鉴定化合物的结构。结果分离得到一个皂苷单体,经鉴定为刺龙芽皂苷C。

  9. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and iron (II-dependent DNA damage by extracts of Pothomorphe peltata (L. Miq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Pothomorphe peltata (L. Miq. (Piperaceae are used locally as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and diuretic infusions and to treat external ulcers and local infections in several parts of the Peruvian, Bolivian and Brazilian Amazon region. The antioxidant activity of different extracts of P. peltata was studied using the hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence assay in liver homogenates, and the methanolic extract was found to have the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 = 4 µg/ml. Aqueous and dichloromethane extracts did not show antioxidant activity. The extracts were further evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS assay. Finally, an assay of DNA sugar damage induced by Fe (II salt was used to determine the capacity of the extracts to suppress the oxidative degradation of DNA. All the extracts showed antioxidant activity in the latter two bioassays. The methanolic extract showed the highest activity in reducing oxidative damage to DNA, with an IC50 = 5 µg/ml. Since this extract was highly effective in reducing chemiluminescence and DNA damage, and because the latter activity could be due to the presence of compounds that bind to DNA, DNA-binding activity was studied using the DNA-methyl green (DNA-MG bioassay. A 30% decrease in the initial absorbance of DNA-MG complex was observed in the methanolic extract at 1000 µg/ml, suggesting the presence of compounds that bind to genetic material. No DNA-binding activity was observed in the aqueous or dichloromethane extracts

  10. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants.

  11. Antitussive Activity of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq. Pax Extracts and Improvement in Lung Function via Adjustment of Multi-Cytokine Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq. Pax is one of the most widespread herbal and healthcare products in China. Extensive clinical use has shown that it has functions which “strengthens qi and generates saliva, moistens the lung and relieves cough”. The ethyl acetate fraction extracted from the roots of the plant Pseudostellaria heterophylla exhibited a dose-dependent antitussive effect between 100 to 500 mg/kg. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, the ethyl acetate fraction treatment markedly prolonged the cough latent period and reduced the number of coughs in a guinea pig model induced by citric acid. Fall lung airway resistance, rise in dynamic lung compliance, decreased serum levels of IL-8, GM-CSF, TNF-α, and ET-1 in rat model of stable phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by cigarette smoke exposure were also observed. These results suggest that ethyl acetate fraction has antitussive activity related to its improvement in lung function via attenuation of airway inflammation by adjustment of multi-cytokine levels.

  12. Antifungal activity of the extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck (Piperaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil to treat infectious diseases. The extracts obtained from the leaves of P. regnellii were investigated for their antifungal activities against the yeasts Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. The EtOAc extract presented a significant activity against Candida albicans with MIC at 125 μg mL-1, and a moderate activity against both C. krusei and C. parapsilosis with MIC at 500 μg mL-1. Candida tropicalis was not inhibited by this extract at concentrations as high as 1000 μg mL-1. Based on these findings, the EtOAc extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into nine fractions. The hexane and CHCl3 fractions showed varied levels of antifungal activity against all test yeasts. Further column chromatography separation of the hexane fraction afforded the pure compounds eupomatenoid-6, eupomatenoid-5, eupomatenoid-3 and conocarpan. The structure of the compounds was based on spectral data (1H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, gNOE, IR and MS). Conocarpan was the only active compound on the yeasts. The antifungal property of P. regnellii extract provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. (author)

  13. Study on the Quality Standard of Fresh Gastrodia elata Lyophilized Powder%鲜天麻冻干粉的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左爱萍; 王传方; 潘梅; 唐靖雯; 张丽艳; 吴浩

    2015-01-01

    目的:为建立鲜天麻冻干粉的质量标准提供参考。方法:采用薄层色谱(TLC)法对制剂中的天麻进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法测定制剂中天麻素的含量。色谱柱为Diamonsil C18,流动相为乙腈-0.05%磷酸(3∶97,V/V),流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为220 nm,柱温为25℃,进样量为10μl。结果:鲜天麻冻干粉的TLC图斑点清晰、分离度好。天麻素检测质量浓度线性范围为2.9~14.5μg/ml(r=0.9999);精密度、稳定性、重复性试验的RSD≤1.00%;加样回收率为98.07%~102.70%,RSD为1.74%(n=6)。结论:该方法操作简便、结果准确、重复性好,适用于鲜天麻冻干粉的质量控制。%OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for the establishment of quality standard for Fresh Gastrodia elata lyophilized powder. METHODS:TLC was conducted for the qualitative identification of G. elata in preparation,and HPLC was conducted for the content determination of gastrodin in preparation. The column was Diamonsil C18 with mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.05% phos-phoric acid(3∶97,V/V)at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min,detection wavelength was 220 nm,column temperature was 25 ℃ and vol-ume injection was 10 μl. RESULTS:TLC pots of Fresh G. elata lyophilized powder were clear and well-separated. The linear of gastrodin was 2.9-14.5 μg/ml(r=0.999 9);RSDs of precision,stability and reproducibility tests were no more than 1.00%;recov-ery was 98.07%-102.70%(RSD=1.74%,n=6). CONCLUSIONS:The method is simple,accurate and reproducible,and suitable for the quality control of Fresh G. elata lyophilized powder.

  14. Assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of stem bark extracts from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (dabai) against HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Alamin, Zafira Ayushah Zainul; Chan, Kok Meng

    2016-01-01

    Background Canarium odontophyllum Miq. is a plant species widely known as ‘dabai’ and can be vastly found in Sarawak. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of extracts from stem bark of C. odontophyllum against HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cell line. Method The IC50 values of the aqueous, methanol, and acetone extracts against HCT 116 cells as well as the acetone extract against human colon fibroblast cell line CCD-18co were determined using the MTT assay. ...

  15. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS-JENIS TANAMAN KOLEKSI DI KEBUN RAYA PURWODADI, BALI DAN CIBODAS YANG DISERANG BENALU Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. (LORANTHACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Botanic Garden represents an ecosystem area in which parasitic plants such as mistletoes are also incorporated. Mistletoe of Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. (Loranthaceae was a parasite of various plants cultivated in Botanic Gardens of Purwodadi, Bali, and Cibodas. The mistletoe attacked 143 host species which included in 48 plant families in those three Botanic Gardens. The most attacked host plants were belong to family Moraceae, especially Ficus spp., following by members of Myrtaceae, especially Syzygium spp. The ability to become parasite of various plants species assured that mistletoe of D. pentandra did not chosen certain host plants. The parasitic study of mistletoe D. pentandra is also reported in this paper.

  16. Simultaneous Qualitative Assessment and Quantitative Analysis of Metabolites (Phenolics, Nucleosides and Amino Acids) from the Roots of Fresh Gastrodia elata Using UPLC-ESI-Triple Quadrupole Ion MS and ESI- Linear Ion Trap High-Resolution MS

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Chen; Jun Qiu Liu; Hui Xiao; Jun Zhang; An Liu

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive, effective and optimized method, based on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with ESI-triple quadrupole ion MS and ESI-linear ion trap high-resolution MS, has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative and qualitative determination of phenolics, nucleosides and amino acids in the roots of fresh Gastrodia elata. Optimization of the analytical method provided higher separation efficiency and better peak resolution for the targeted compounds. The simultaneou...

  17. Versión Española del Cuestionario-Revisado de Imagen del Movimiento (MIQ-R: Validación y propiedades psicométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación deseábamos saber los factores que tenía la versión española del Cuestionario-Revisado de Imagen del Movimiento (MIQ-R, y cómo se distribuían los ítems. También deseábamos conocer la consistencia interna y cómo correlacionaba con otras medidas de habilidad de imagen. Para ello aplicamos la versión española del MIQ-R a una muestra de 201 estudiantes universitarios, y encontramos, mediante análisis factorial, que el cuestionario consta de dos factores, que juntos explican el 66.11% de la varianza total. Estos dos factores corresponden a la subescala visual y a la subescala cinestésica. La consistencia del test fue satisfactoria, tanto la consistencia de la puntuación total del test, como la de cada una de las dos subescalas. El MIQ-R correlacionó -.34 con el Cuestionario de Viveza de Imagen del Movimiento (VMIQ, y -.26 con el Cuestionario de Viveza de Imagen Visual (VVIQ. La versión española del MIQ-R se considera una buena medida de imagen del movimiento.

  18. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored.

  19. Extraction of Genome DNA from Medicinal Materials of Pseudostellaria heterophylla(Miq.)Pax ex Pax et Hoffm.%太子参药材总DNA提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓多; 王晓玲; 王晓丽

    2012-01-01

    [目的]从太子参干药材中快速提取高质量基因组DNA.[方法]采用CTAB法和SDS法2种方法提取药材太子参干燥块根总DNA,并用紫外分光光度计和琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测.[结果]2种不同的提取方法均可从太子参中提取到一定纯度的DNA,其中CTAB法提取DNA的A260/A280> 1.9,纯度和产率较高,蛋白质、多糖、RNA等杂志去除较为彻底.[结论]利用CTAB法可从太子参干药材中能快速提取到高质量DNA.%[Objective] To extract high quality DNA from medicinal materials of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq. )Pax ex Pax et Hoffm.. [ Method] CTAB and SDS were used to extract DNA, the obtained DNA was examined with ultraviolet spectrophotometer and agarose gel electro-phoresis. [ Result] The purity of the extracted DNA was very high with A260/A28O > 1. 9 by the CTAB method, and the protein, polysaccharose and RNA were eliminated completely. [Conclusion] The CTAB method was suitable for extracting DNA from medicinal materials of Pseudostellaria heterophylla(Miq. )Pax ex Pax et Hoffm..

  20. Screening of Active Compounds from Gastrodia elata Blume for Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxation%云南昭通天麻松弛血管平滑肌活性成分的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维明; 杨莲; 李秀芳; 林青; 李国花; 魏文彬

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the vascular smooth muscle relaxation effect and explicit the material base of Gastrodia elata Blume. Method:Tension recording for rat isolated aortic artery was used to study the effect of vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Column chromatography and mass spectrography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry were used to isolate and identify the active compounds of G. elata Blume. Result: G. elata Blume.could significantly inhibit the smooth muscle constriction of isolated aortic artery induced by KCI. Five esterified phenolic compounds ( Ⅰ-Ⅴ ) were isolated from G. elata Blume, such as p-hydroxybenz aldehyde ( Ⅰ ); phydroxybenzyl methylether ( Ⅱ ); p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol ( Ⅲ ); 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl methane ( Ⅳ ); 4,4'-dihydroxydibenzyl ether( Ⅴ ). The results showed that the vascular smooth muscle relaxation effects were the result of the role of five compounds. Conclusion: The five esterified phenolic compounds ( Ⅰ - Ⅴ ) from G. elata Blume.play a combined role for vascular smooth muscle relaxation.%目的:观察天麻血管平滑肌松弛作用,明确其作用物质基础.方法:采用大鼠离体胸主动脉环灌流实验方法,对天麻血管平滑肌松弛作用进行考察,采用柱色谱法、光谱法(MS,NMR)对其活性成分进行了分离鉴定.结果:天麻能够显著抑制KCl引起的大鼠胸主动脉环收缩,从天麻乙酸乙酯提取物中分离并鉴定了5个酯溶性酚性成分(Ⅰ~Ⅴ):对羟基苯甲醛(Ⅰ)、对羟苄基甲醚(Ⅱ)、对羟基苯甲醇(Ⅲ)、4,4'-二羟基二苯基甲烷(Ⅳ),4,4-二羟基二苄醚(Ⅴ),明确了天麻的血管平滑肌松弛作用是这5个成分共同作用的结果.结论:天麻具有显著的血管平滑肌松弛作用,其作用主要由5个酯溶性酚性成分共同发挥.

  1. Atividade antileishmania do extrato hidroalcoólico e de frações obtidas de folhas de Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck Antileishmanial activity of hydroalcoholic extract and fractions obtained from leaves of Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Celso V.; Adriana O Santos; Michele C. Vendrametto; Patrícia S. Luize; Dias Filho, Benedito P; Diógenes A.G. Cortez; Tânia Ueda-Nakamura

    2006-01-01

    A atividade biológica do extrato bruto e as várias frações obtidas de folhas de Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck foi avaliada em Leishmania amazonensis. Este estudo incluiu o processo de extração e o fracionamento biomonitorado pelo método de cromatografia de adsorção. Um aumento progressivo no efeito antileishmania foi observado durante o processo de purificação. O extrato hidroalcoólico solúvel em água (EBA) apresentou concentração inibitória 50% (IC50) igual a 1...

  2. 林下种植的天麻质量分析与评价%Quantity Analysis and Assessment of Gastrodia elata Planted under the Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月文; 曾小英; 李在军; 代保忠; 张小梅; 杨荣平

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analysis and evaluate the quality of Gastrodia elata BI. planted under the forest of Qiyao Mountain of Chongqing City. [ Method] According to the standards in Chinese Pharmacopeia, the moisture content, total ash content, and extracts content of G. data planted under the forest of Qiyao Mountain of Chongqing City by microscope and thin layer identification. At the same time, the gastrodin content was delected by high performance liquid chromatography. And the quality of G. elata was evaluated. [ Result] A small amount of needle crystal of calcium oxalate was detected in sample powder. The moisture content was 8.90% ; total ash content was 3. 81% ; extracts content was 15.49% , which all accorded with the standards in Chinese Pharmacopeia. The gastrodin content in crude sample was 0. 162% ; after steaming, the gastrodin content reached 0.534%. [ Conclusion] Gastrodin content after steaming in Qiyao Mountain of Chongqing City accorded with the standards in Chinese Pharmacopeia.%[目的]对重庆七跃山林下种植的天麻质量进行分析与评价.[方法]采用药典标准以及显微和薄层鉴别方法,对重庆七跃山林下种植天麻的水分、总灰分和浸出物含量进行测定,同时采用高效液相色谱法测定天麻中天麻素含量,并对天麻的质量进行评价.[结果]样品粉末中检测出较少量的草酸钙针晶,水分含量为8.90%、总灰分为3.81%、浸出物为15.49%,均符合药典规定.生品中天麻素的含量为0.162%,经过蒸制后天麻素的含量为0.534%.[结论]重庆七跃山林下种植的天麻经蒸制后天麻素的含量符合药典规定要求.

  3. Chemical constituents of the leaves of Uncaria rhynchophylla ( Miq. ) Jacks.%钩藤叶化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪冰; 袁丹; 马斌; 谢媛媛; 殷军; 鹿野美弘

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究茜草科植物钩藤Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq.)Jacks.叶的化学成分.方法 用多种色谱方法和重结晶法进行分离和纯化,经理化、光谱和色谱分析等方法鉴定结构.结果从钩藤叶中分离得到5个化合物,鉴定为喜果苷(vincoside lactam,Ⅰ)、异去氢钩藤碱(isocorynoxeine,Ⅱ)、异钩藤碱(isorhynchophylline,Ⅲ)、去氢钩藤碱(corynoxeine,Ⅵ)、钩藤碱(rhynchophylline,Ⅴ).结论化合物Ⅲ为首次从钩藤叶中分离得到,通过2D-NMR技术完善了化合物Ⅲ的核磁数据.

  4. A strategy for the separation of diterpenoid isomers from the root of Aralia continentalis by countercurrent chromatography: The distribution ratio as a substitute for the partition coefficient and a three-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Jin; Song, Kwang Ho; Choi, Wonmin; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-08-01

    Aralia continentalis (Araliaceae) is widely used as a medicinal plant in East Asia. Previous studies have indicated that diterpenoid isomers (kaurenoic acid, continentalic acid, and ent-continentalic acid) are the major bioactive compounds of this plant. A new strategy was developed to alleviate difficulties in the separation of these isomers from this plant. A three-phase solvent system was applied to separate the isomers, and furthermore, the distribution ratio (Kc) was introduced as a substitute for the partition coefficient (KD). For compounds exhibiting a single equilibrium, their distributions in two immiscible phases were only affected by the partition coefficient of each solute. However, compounds that have a dissociating functional group (e.g., -COOH) are involved in two types of equilibrium in the two-phase system. In this case, the partitioning behaviors of the solutes are greatly affected by the pH of the solution. A mathematical prediction was applied for adjusting the solutions to the proper pH values. To prevent non-used phase (medium phase) waste, both the stationary phase (upper phase) and mobile phase (lower phase) were prepared on-demand without pre-saturation with the application of (1)H NMR. Each fraction obtained was collected and dried, yielding the following diterpenoid isomers from the 50mg injected sample: kaurenoic acid (19.7mg, yield: 39%) and ent-continentalic acid (21.3mg, yield: 42%).

  5. Determination of the levels of two types of neurotransmitter and the anti-migraine effects of different dose-ratios of Ligusticum chuanxiong and Gastrodia elata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC–Gastrodia elata (GE compatibility is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of migraine. It has been shown that the changes of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system are closely related to the pathogenesis of migraine; whether LC–GE compatibility might affect the neurotransmitters in migraine rats has not yet been studied. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector methods for quantification of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and excitatory amino acids (EAAs in rat brain were developed. The 5-HT was measured directly, while EAAs were determined by using dansyl chloride as precolumn derivative reagent. The validation of the methods, including selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recoveries, and stability were carried out and demonstrated to meet the requirements of quantitative analysis. Compared with the model group, the expression of 5-HT in migraine rat brain was enhanced from 30 minutes to 120 minutes and glutamate (L-Glu was suppressed from 30 minutes to 60 minutes in an LC–GE (4:3 group compared with the model group (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively. These findings showed that the analytical methods were simple, sensitive, selective, and low cost, and LC–GE 4:3 compatibility could have better efficacy for treating migraine through upregulating 5-HT levels and downregulating L-Glu levels.

  6. Chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile analysis of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlan; Wang, Li; Liu, Xinxin; Cheng, Mengchun; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-02-01

    The chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of traditional Chinese medicine is very complicated and has been a great challenge. In the present study, chemical fingerprint of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata (EtAcGE) and metabolic profile of rat plasma sample after intragastric administration of EtAcGE (2.5g/kg) were investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). A total of 38 chemical constituents of EtAcGE were identified by comparing their retention time, accurate molecular mass and characteristic fragment ions with those of references, or tentatively characterized by comparing molecular formula, fragment ions with that of known compound or information available in literature. And 40 compounds were detected in dosed rat plasma sample, including 16 prototypes and 24 metabolites underwent metabolic process of glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfation, methylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation or mixed modes. The metabolic "soft spots" was hydroxyl or carboxy group. This is the first research for chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of EtAcGE, which lay a foundation for the further investigation of EtAcGE.

  7. Global profiling and rapid matching of natural products using diagnostic product ion network and in silico analogue database: Gastrodia elata as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chang-Jiang-Sheng; Zha, Liangping; Liu, Da-Hui; Kang, Liping; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Nan, Tie-Gui; Yang, Jian; Li, Fajie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-07-22

    Rapid discovery of novel compounds of a traditional herbal medicine is of vital significance for pharmaceutical industry and plant metabolic pathway analysis. However, discovery of unknown or trace natural products is an ongoing challenge. This study presents a universal targeted data-independent acquisition and mining strategy to globally profile and effectively match novel natural product analogues from an herbal extract. The famous medical plant Gastrodia elata was selected as an example. This strategy consists of three steps: (i) acquisition of accurate parent and adduct ions (PAIs) and the product ions data of all eluting compounds by untargeted full-scan MS(E) mode; (ii) rapid compound screening using diagnostic product ions (DPIs) network and in silico analogue database with SUMPRODUCT function to find novel candidates; and (iii) identification and isomerism discrimination of multiple types of compounds using ClogP and ions fragment behavior analyses. Using above data mining methods, a total of 152 compounds were characterized, and 70 were discovered for the first time, including series of phospholipids and novel gastroxyl derivatives. Furthermore, a number of gastronucleosides and phase II metabolites of gastrodin and parishins were discovered, including glutathionylated, cysteinylglycinated and cysteinated compounds, and phosphatidylserine analogues. This study extended the application of classical DPIs filter strategy and developed a structure-based screening approach with the potential for significant increase of efficiency for discovery and identification of trace novel natural products.

  8. Global profiling and rapid matching of natural products using diagnostic product ion network and in silico analogue database: Gastrodia elata as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chang-Jiang-Sheng; Zha, Liangping; Liu, Da-Hui; Kang, Liping; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Nan, Tie-Gui; Yang, Jian; Li, Fajie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-07-22

    Rapid discovery of novel compounds of a traditional herbal medicine is of vital significance for pharmaceutical industry and plant metabolic pathway analysis. However, discovery of unknown or trace natural products is an ongoing challenge. This study presents a universal targeted data-independent acquisition and mining strategy to globally profile and effectively match novel natural product analogues from an herbal extract. The famous medical plant Gastrodia elata was selected as an example. This strategy consists of three steps: (i) acquisition of accurate parent and adduct ions (PAIs) and the product ions data of all eluting compounds by untargeted full-scan MS(E) mode; (ii) rapid compound screening using diagnostic product ions (DPIs) network and in silico analogue database with SUMPRODUCT function to find novel candidates; and (iii) identification and isomerism discrimination of multiple types of compounds using ClogP and ions fragment behavior analyses. Using above data mining methods, a total of 152 compounds were characterized, and 70 were discovered for the first time, including series of phospholipids and novel gastroxyl derivatives. Furthermore, a number of gastronucleosides and phase II metabolites of gastrodin and parishins were discovered, including glutathionylated, cysteinylglycinated and cysteinated compounds, and phosphatidylserine analogues. This study extended the application of classical DPIs filter strategy and developed a structure-based screening approach with the potential for significant increase of efficiency for discovery and identification of trace novel natural products. PMID:27318507

  9. Specific targeted quantification combined with non-targeted metabolite profiling for quality evaluation of Gastrodia elata tubers from different geographical origins and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Fan, Ya-Xi; Jin, Can-Can; Wang, Fei; Xin, Gui-Zhong; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2016-06-10

    Gastrodia elata tuber (GET) has been widely used as a famous herbal medicine in China and other East Asian countries. In this work, we developed a comprehensive strategy integrating targeted and non-targeted analyses for quality evaluation and discrimination of GET from different geographical origins and cultivars. Firstly, 43 batches of GET samples of five cultivars from three regions in China were efficiently quantified by a "single standard to determine multi-components" (SSDMC) method. Six marker compounds were simultaneously determined within 11min using gastrodin as the internal standard. It showed that samples from different regions and cultivars could not be differentiated by the contents of six marker compounds. Secondly, a non-targeted metabolite profiling analysis was performed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). Samples from different geographical origins and cultivars were clearly discriminated by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). 147 discriminant ions contributing to the group separation were selected from 1194 aligned variables. Furthermore, based on the relative intensities of discriminant ions, support vector machines (SVM) was employed to predict the geographical origins of GET. The obtained SVM model showed excellent prediction performance with an average prediction accuracy of 100%. These results demonstrated that the UHPLC-QTOF/MS-based non-targeted metabolite profiling analysis, as a vital supplement to targeted analysis, can be used to discriminate the geographical origins and cultivars of GET. PMID:27157425

  10. Chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile analysis of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlan; Wang, Li; Liu, Xinxin; Cheng, Mengchun; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-02-01

    The chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of traditional Chinese medicine is very complicated and has been a great challenge. In the present study, chemical fingerprint of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata (EtAcGE) and metabolic profile of rat plasma sample after intragastric administration of EtAcGE (2.5g/kg) were investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). A total of 38 chemical constituents of EtAcGE were identified by comparing their retention time, accurate molecular mass and characteristic fragment ions with those of references, or tentatively characterized by comparing molecular formula, fragment ions with that of known compound or information available in literature. And 40 compounds were detected in dosed rat plasma sample, including 16 prototypes and 24 metabolites underwent metabolic process of glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfation, methylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation or mixed modes. The metabolic "soft spots" was hydroxyl or carboxy group. This is the first research for chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of EtAcGE, which lay a foundation for the further investigation of EtAcGE. PMID:26621783

  11. Assessment of acute and subchronic oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq (Pariparoba Avaliação da toxidade oral aguda e subcrônica de extrato etanólico de Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq. (Parapiroba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barros

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a high degree of concern regarding the secure use of plant extracts and, for this very reason, preclinical and clinic toxicological evaluation of these extracts are needed. With the aim to assure the quality and the safety of the extract and due to the scarcity of literature information about Pariparoba extract toxicity, our purpose was to investigate the acute and subchronic toxicity of the standardized ethanolic dried root extract of Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq. This extract was administered orally to adult swiss mice and wistar rats and the mutagenic potencial of the extract was also evaluated. The extract showed to be non toxic.Existe uma grande preocupação quanto ao uso seguro de extratos vegetais e, por esta razão, a necessidade de estudos toxicológicos pré-clínicos e clínicos destes extratos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar a toxicidade aguda e subcrônica do extrato hidroalcoólico liofilizado de Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq., administrado por via oral para animais de laboratório. O potencial mutagênico do extrato foi também avaliado pelo teste do micronúcleo. Os resultados dos estudos a curto e médio prazo demonstraram que o extrato não apresenta propriedades tóxicas.

  12. GC-MS Analysis of the Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extracts from Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq.)Miq. ex Havil%钩藤超临界CO2流体萃取物化学成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖彭莹

    2016-01-01

    Abstracts:The chemical constituents of the supercritical CO2 fluid extracts from Uncaria rhynchophylla ( Miq. ) Miq. ex Havil. were analyzed by GC-MS method. 65 components were identified from the extracts, accounting for 57. 34% of the total content. n-Hexadecanoic acid (6. 34%) and 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester (5. 96%) were the main constituents. The studies on the supercritical CO2 fluid extracts can lay the basis for the further elucidation of the chemical components of this plant.%采用超临界CO2流体萃取法提取钩藤的化学成分,应用气相色谱-质谱联用技术( GC-MS)对其分析鉴定,共确定了65个化学成分的结构,已鉴定成分相对含量之和占萃取物总量的57.34%,含量较高的成分有棕榈酸(6.34%)和甲氧基肉桂酸乙酯(5.96%)等;该超临界流体萃取物含有多种化学成分,对其进行的分析研究为进一步阐明钩藤的化学物质基础提供了相关依据。

  13. Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidóptera: Noctuidae) de los compuestos aislados de la parte aérea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. & Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Constanza Ávila Murillo; Luis Enrique Cuca Suarez; Jairo Alonso Cerón Salamanca

    2014-01-01

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. & Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were eluci...

  14. Simultaneous Qualitative Assessment and Quantitative Analysis of Metabolites (Phenolics, Nucleosides and Amino Acids from the Roots of Fresh Gastrodia elata Using UPLC-ESI-Triple Quadrupole Ion MS and ESI- Linear Ion Trap High-Resolution MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Chen

    Full Text Available A sensitive, effective and optimized method, based on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with ESI-triple quadrupole ion MS and ESI-linear ion trap high-resolution MS, has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative and qualitative determination of phenolics, nucleosides and amino acids in the roots of fresh Gastrodia elata. Optimization of the analytical method provided higher separation efficiency and better peak resolution for the targeted compounds. The simultaneous separation protocols were also optimized by routinely using accurate mass measurements, within 5 ppm error, for each molecular ion and the subsequent fragment ions. In total, 31 compounds, including 23 phenolics, two nucleosides, four amino acids, one gastrodin and one other compound were identified or tentatively characterized. Mono-substituted parishin glucoside (9, methoxy mono-substituted parishin (13, methyl parishin (26, p-hydroxybenzyl di-substituted parishin (29, and p-hydroxybenzyl parishin (31 were tentatively identified as new compounds. Principal metabolite content analysis and the composition of eight representative G. elata cultivars of various species indicated that geographic insulation was the main contributor to clustering.

  15. Simultaneous Qualitative Assessment and Quantitative Analysis of Metabolites (Phenolics, Nucleosides and Amino Acids) from the Roots of Fresh Gastrodia elata Using UPLC-ESI-Triple Quadrupole Ion MS and ESI- Linear Ion Trap High-Resolution MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Liu, Jun Qiu; Xiao, Hui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive, effective and optimized method, based on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with ESI-triple quadrupole ion MS and ESI-linear ion trap high-resolution MS, has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative and qualitative determination of phenolics, nucleosides and amino acids in the roots of fresh Gastrodia elata. Optimization of the analytical method provided higher separation efficiency and better peak resolution for the targeted compounds. The simultaneous separation protocols were also optimized by routinely using accurate mass measurements, within 5 ppm error, for each molecular ion and the subsequent fragment ions. In total, 31 compounds, including 23 phenolics, two nucleosides, four amino acids, one gastrodin and one other compound were identified or tentatively characterized. Mono-substituted parishin glucoside (9), methoxy mono-substituted parishin (13), methyl parishin (26), p-hydroxybenzyl di-substituted parishin (29), and p-hydroxybenzyl parishin (31) were tentatively identified as new compounds. Principal metabolite content analysis and the composition of eight representative G. elata cultivars of various species indicated that geographic insulation was the main contributor to clustering. PMID:26954012

  16. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae); Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) de los compuestos aislados de la parte aerea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca, E-mail: mcavilam@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Productos Naturales Vegetales, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron [Laboratorio de Biopesticidas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-05-15

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC{sub 50} 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  17. Neolignanas e análise do óleo essencial das folhas de Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck Neolignans and the analysis of the essential oil of Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Pessini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das folhas de Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck Piparaceae, coletadas no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, foi obtido por hidrodestilação. Uma análise preliminar por CG/EM e RMN 13C foi realizada. O b-mirceno (70% foi identificado como componente majoritário através da comparação dos espectros de massa e RMN 13C com dados da literatura. Quatro neolignanas foram isoladas do extrato hidroetanólico das folhas e identificadas: eupomatenóide-6, eupomatenóide-5, eupomatenóide-3 e conocarpano. As estruturas dessas substâncias foram estabelecidas por meio de estudos de RMN ¹H e 13C, ¹H x ¹H - COSY, HETCOR, HMBC, gNOE e EM.The essential oil of Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck Piparaceae leaves, which were collected at a tree farm named Horto de Plantas Medicinais of the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, was obtained by hydrodistillation. A preliminary analysis by GC/MS was carried out. b-mirceno (70% was identified as the main constituent by comparing MS and 13C NMR with the literature data. Four neolignans were isolated from the leaves and identified: eupomatenoid-6, eupomatenoid-5, eupomatenoid-3 and conocarpan. Their structures were established by extensive ¹H and 13C NMR, ¹H x ¹H - COSY, HETCOR, HMBC, gNOE and MS spectral studies.

  18. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq., Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb. and Blueberry Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Tsuda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.. The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.

  19. Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Total Alkaloids, Peimisine, Peimine and Peiminine from the Bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq, and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was used to extract total alkaloids, peimisine, peimine and peiminine from the bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA, ABTS radical scavenging activity (ABTS-RSA and ferric reducing capacity (FRAP assay. A central composite design (CCD with four variables and five levels was employed for optimization of process parameters, and response surface plots were constructed in accordance with a second order polynomial model. Under optimal conditions of 3.0 h, 60.4 °C, 26.5 MPa and 89.3% ethanol, the highest yields were predicted to be 3.8 mg/g for total alkaloids, 0.5 mg/g for peimisine, 1.3 mg/g for peimine and 1.3 mg/g for peiminine, and the antioxidant capacity of extracts displayed EC50, DPPH value of 5.5 mg/mL, EC50, ABTS value of 0.3 mg/mL and FRAP value of 118.2 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE/100 g.

  20. Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridah Hanim Shakirin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids. The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP or kernel oil (NK of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC. Total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise, thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs, and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Nanomaterials from Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq Wood Bark: an Organic Waste Material from Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to produce nanomaterials from renewable bio-based materials, like wood bark, has great potential to benefit the wood processing industry. To support this issue, we investigated the production of bio-based nanomaterials using conventional balls milling. Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba(Roxb. Miq wood bark (JWB, an organic waste material from a community forest was subjected to conventional balls milling for 96 h and was converted into bio-based nanomaterial. The morphology and particle size, chemical components, functional groups and crystallinity of the bio-based nanomaterial were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, scanning electron microscopy extended with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The particle-sizes obtained for the JWB bio-based nanomaterial were between 43 nm to 469 nm and the functional groups were detected as cellulose. The chemical components found were carbon, oxygen, chloride, potassium and calcium, except for the sample produced from sieve type T14, which did not contain chloride. The crystalline structure was calcium oxalate hydrate (C2CaO4.H2O with crystalline sizes 21 nm and 15 nm, produced from sieve types T14 and T200 respectively.

  2. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. PMID:27137366

  3. Alkaloids from Daphniphyllum macropodum Miq. and their bioactivities%交让木中生物碱成分及其生物活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海龙; 穆淑珍; 郝小江

    2012-01-01

    Five alkaloids were isolated from the chloroform part of ethanol extracts of Daphniphyllum macropo-dum Miq. Using classic phytochemistry techniques in the present work. They were identified as Daphnilactone (1) , Paxdaphnine B (2) , Methyl homosecodaphniphyllate (3) , Paxdaphnine A (4) and Daphnigraciline (5) by spectroscopic analysis methods including 1H - NMR, 13C - NMR, DEPT, and ESI - MS. The activities against Artemia Salina were evaluated, and compound 2 showed weak effect.%从虎皮楠属植物交让木(Daphniphyllum macropodum)乙醇提取物的氯仿萃取部分分离得到5个生物碱,采用核磁共振( 1H - NMR、13C- NMR、DEPT)和ESI - MS波谱解析技术对其结构进行鉴定,最终分别确定为Daphnilactone(1)、Paxdaphnine B(2)、Methyl homosecodaphniphyllate (3)、Paxdaphnine A(4)和Daphnigraciline (5).并检测了上述生物碱的杀卤虫活性,发现化合物2具有微弱的活性.

  4. Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks.%钩藤的组织培养与植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛堂芬; 刘作易; 贺定祥; 刘涛

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1植物名称钩藤[Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq.)Jacks.]. 2材料类别成熟种子. 3培养条件以B5为基本培养基.(1)种子萌发培养基:加活性炭和不加活性炭的B5(不含任何激素);(2)增殖培养基:B5+6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1(单位下同)+NAA 0.2+0.2%活性炭;(3)生根培养基:B5+NAA 0.5+0.2%活性炭.上述培养基均附加3%蔗糖和0.8%琼脂粉,pH 5.8.培养温度为(25±2)℃,光照时间12 h·d-1,光强为30~40μmol·m-2·s-1.

  5. The curative effects of gastrodia elata uncaria drink with acupuncture on treating patients with migraine%天麻钩藤饮加减配合针刺治疗偏头痛的临床效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭守香

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the curative effects of gastrodia elata uncaria drink with acupuncture on treating pa-tients with migraine·Methods 104 patients with migraine in our hospital from March 2008 to March 2012 were divided into the treatment group (n=52 ,treated with gastrodia elata uncaria drink with acupuncture) and control group (n=52 ,treated with conventional western medicine)· The curative effects of two groups were compared·Results The total effective rate was 92·3% (in the treatment group) or 76·9% (in the control group);The AS scores ,VRS score and pain relief duration of treat-ment group were better than these of control group·Conclusion Gastrodia elata uncaria drink with acupuncture has a very good curative effect on treating patients with migraine ,which is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨天麻钩藤饮加减配合针刺治疗偏头痛的临床效果。方法选择我院2008-03-2012-03收治的104例偏头痛患者作为研究对象,观察组52例患者采用天麻钩藤饮加减配合针刺进行治疗,对照组52例采用常规西医治疗措施,比较2组临床疗效。结果观察组总有效率为92·3%,对照组为76·9%,观察组总有效率明显高于对照组,组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0·05);观察组患者的VAS评分、VRS评分以及疼痛缓解持续时间等临床相关指标均较对照组明显改善,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0·05)。结论用天麻钩藤饮加减配合针刺治疗偏头痛具有十分显著的疗效,值得临床应用。

  6. 大孔吸附树脂纯化楤木总皂苷的工艺研究%Optimization technique in purification of araloside A from Aralia chinensis with macroporous resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 田吉; 何兵; 肖顺汉

    2011-01-01

    目的 筛选分离楤木总皂苷的最佳树脂,并对影响分离的各种因素进行系统研究,使分离工艺达到最优化.方法 采用静态与动态的吸附-解吸两种方法,以高效液相色谱法测定楤木皂苷A的量为评价指标,进行工艺筛选.结果 AB-8分离效果最好,其最佳工艺为药液质量浓度0.1 g/mL(相当于原生药)、上样量为6 BV(树脂床体积),以2.5 BV/h的吸附速率进行吸附,50%乙醇4 BV、2 BV/h进行洗脱效果最佳.经AB-8处理后的楤木皂苷A收率达30%,楤木总皂苷可达80%以上.结论 该方法简单可行,分离效果好,能满足于大生产的要求.%Objective To explore the optimal separation of the araloside A from Aralia chinensis by selecting appropriate macroporous resins and to systematically study the factors which affect the separation. Methods Static and dynamic adsoption-desorption methods were adopted and evaluated for separating efficiency by measuring the concentration ofaraloside A in A.chinensis with HPLC. Results Macroporous resin AB-8 had the best separating efficiency when the content in A. chinensis liquid was 0.1 g/mL equivalent to raw material. The volume of drug is 6 BV (resin bed volume) with the adsorption-power 2.5 BV/h and the volume of 50% ethanol as eluant 4 BV with desorption-power 2 BV/h. After the treatment of AB-8 resin, the purity of araloside A could reach 30% and total araloside to 80%. Conclusion This method is simple and feasible with good effect of separation, which can meet the industrial requirements.

  7. 刺叶苏铁EST序列中SSR信息分析%Analysis of SSR Information in EST Resource of Cycas rumphii Miq.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李加敏; 肖龙骞; 李青青

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the distribution pattern and compared the characters of EST-SSR,which were derived from a total of 21 997 ESTs of Cycas rumphii Miq.downloaded from the NCBI database.After removing redundant and poor quality sequences,13 640 non-redundant ESTs with 7 926 783 bp length were obtained,and 875 EST sequences,which accounted for 8.6% the total number of non-redundant ESTs,were detected to contain 1 176 SSRs.In these SSRs,the major repeat motifs included A/T,C/G,AC/GT,AG/CT,AT/AT,CG/CG,AAC/GTT,AAG/CTT,AAT/ATT,ACC/GGT,ACG/CGT,AGC/CTG,AGG/CCT,ATC/ATG,AAAT/ATTT,AAGG/CCTT,AATT/AATT,ACAT/ATGT and AAACCC/GGGTTT,and the major repeat types were mononucleotide,dinucleotide and trinucleotide,which were accounted for 99.1% of the total number of acquired SSRs.Among these repeats,A/T、AT/AT、AG/CT、AAG/CTT and AAT/ATT were the most frequent motifs,accounting for 41.7%,11.5%,11.9%,2.6% and 2.5%,respectively.The present study laid the foundation for the development and further use of EST-SSR markers in Cycas rumphii Miq..%基于NCBI数据库中刺叶苏铁的21 997条EST序列,统计分析了其EST-SSR的组成与分布特点。经过剔除冗余和低质量序列后,得到长度为7 926 783 bp的无冗余EST序列13 640条。在这些序列中共搜索出了875条EST序列含有1 176个SSR,出现频率为8.6%。这些SSR的主要重复基序有A/T,C/G,AC/GT,AG/CT,AT/AT,CG/CG,AAC/GTT,AAG/CTT,AAT/ATT,ACC/GGT,ACG/CGT,AGC/CTG,AGG/CCT,ATC/ATG,AAAT/ATTT,AAGG/CCTT,AATT/AATT,ACAT/ATGT和AAACCC/GGGTTT。一、二、三核苷酸重复类型是主体,三者共占总数的99.1%。A/T、AT/AT、AG/CT、AAG/CTT和AAT/ATT分别是其优势重复基元,分别占总数的41.7%、11.5%、11.9%、2.6%和2.5%。该研究为刺叶苏铁EST-SSR标记的开发与应用奠定了基础。

  8. Impact of the Compatibility of Gastrodia elata with Uncaria Ramulus Cum uncis on Liver Gene Expression in SHR Rats%天麻与钩藤配伍前后对SHR大鼠肝脏相关基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓倩; 王兴; 李莹; 袁琳; 张卫国

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究天麻与钩藤配伍前后对SHR大鼠肝脏相关基因表达的影响.方法:实验分为空白、天麻(2.3 ml)、天麻钩藤(2.7 ml)组,灌胃给药,每天1次,连续10d.末次给药后提取肾脏mRNA,与基因芯片进行杂交,经扫描、计算机软件分析后观察配伍前后基因表达的变化.结果:筛选出天麻与钩藤配伍前后在肝脏中的相关基因16个,主要集中在调控血脂代谢、炎症反应、G-蛋白偶联受体介导的信号通路以及胰岛素抵抗等方面.结论:天麻钩藤配伍后可增强天麻对肝脏的相关作用.%OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of the compatibility of Gastrodia elata with Uncaria Ramulus Cum uncis on liver gene expression in SHR rats. METHODS: SHR rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e. blank group, G. elata(2.3 ml) group, G. elata and Uncaria Ramulus Cum uncis(2.7 ml) group. They were given medicine intragastrically once a day for consecutive 10 days. The mRNA in the kidney of SHR rats was extracted after the last medication, and then was hybridized with gene chip. After computerized scanning and analyzing, the changes of gene expression were observed before and after compatibility. RESULTS: 16 target genes were selected before and after compatibility of G. elata with Uncaria Ramulus Cum uncis, in field of regulating lipid metabolism, inflammatory reaction, G-protein coupled receptor mediated signal channel and insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: It indicates that the related effects of G. elata on liver are strengthened after the compatibility.

  9. 天麻乙酸乙酯提取物对行为绝望小鼠的抗抑郁作用%Anti-depression Effect of EtoAc Extracts of Gastrodia elata in Mice with Behavioral Despair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓菲; 林青; 代蓉; 解宇环; 周宁娜

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究天麻乙酸乙酯提取物(EtoAc extracts of Gastrodia elata,EEG)的抗抑郁作用.方法:雄性小鼠随机分为空白对照组,氟西汀组(20 mg·kg-1),氯丙咪嗪组(20 mg·kg-1),EEG低、高剂量组(0.063,0.126 g·kg-1),每组连续ig给药7d后,观察小鼠在悬尾实验(tail suspension test,TST),强迫游泳实验(forced swimming test,FST)中不动时间的变化情况以及小鼠在开场实验中自主活动的变化情况.结果:EEG高剂量(0.126 g·kg-1)能明显缩短小鼠悬尾不动时间,EEG高、低剂量(0.126,0.063 g·kg-1)均能明显缩短小鼠强迫游泳不动时间.EEG高、低剂量对小鼠在开场实验中的自主活动次数没有明显影响.结论:天麻乙酸乙酯提取物对“行为绝望”小鼠有抗抑郁作用.%Objective: To investigate the antidepressant effect of EtoAc extracts of Gastrodia elata (EEG). Method: Male mice were randomly divided into control group, fluoxetine group (20 mg ? kg-1 ) , chlorimipramine group (20 mg ·kg-1)and EEG low, high dose groups (0.063, 0. 126 g ·kg-1). Different groups were intragastrically administrated corresponding medicine once per day for seven days. Then tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used to observe immobility time of mice. And open field test were applied to observe autonomic activity of mice. Result: Intragastric administration of EEG significantly reduced immobility time in both forced swimming test (0. 126, 0. 063 g ·kg-1 ) and tail suspension test (0. 126 g·kg-1) in mice. However, EEG did not affect the number of autonomic activitt of mice in the open-field test. Conclusion: The EEG shows an antidepressant-like effect in the despair animal models of depression in mice.

  10. Gastrodia Elata Uncaria Drink Auxiliary Treatment the Clinical Effect of the Treatment of Essential Hypertension%天麻钩藤饮辅助治疗原发性高血压的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆

    2016-01-01

    目的对天麻钩藤饮加减辅助治疗原发性高血压患者的疗效观察。方法选择我院2012年5月~2015年5月门诊74例原发性高血压患者,根据患者意愿及就诊时间将患者分为两组,每组37例,一组为实验组,一组为对照组,实验组患者常规治疗加天麻钩藤饮辅助进行治疗,对照组患者采用常规方式进行治疗,比较两组患者的治疗效果。结果实验组患者治疗效果显著的26例,治疗有效的9例,总有效率为94.6%;对照组患者治疗效果显著的15例,治疗有效的14例,总有效为78.4%,两组比较存在明显差异,﹥0.05。结论天麻钩藤饮辅助治疗原发性高血压患者效果非常显著,是一种有效的治疗方式。%Objective Auxiliary of gastrodia elata uncaria drink for treatment the curative effect observation of patients with essential hypertension (eh).Methods From May 2012 to May 2015 outpatient service 74 primary hypertension patients, according to the patient's will and clinical time divided the patients into two groups, each group of 37 cases, a group for experimental group, a group for the control group, experimental group patients with routine treatment plus rhizoma gastrodiae uncaria drink auxiliary treatment, control group were treated by conventional methods for treatment, compare the treatment effect of two groups of patients.Results The curative effect in patients with significant increases in 26 cases, effective treatment of 9 cases, the total effective rate was 94.6%;Treatment effect of 15 patients with the control group, the effective treatment of 14 cases, the total effective was 78.4%, there exists significant difference comparing the two groups, > 0.05).Conclusion Gastrodia elata uncaria drink auxiliary treatment effect is very significant, patients with essential hypertension (eh) is an effective way of treatment.

  11. Quality index method (QIM application on shef life estimation of skinned fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus kept in iceAplicação do método do índice de qualidade (MIQ para o estudo da vida útil de filés de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sem pele, armazenados em gelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Mikaelle de Paiva Soares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop the Quality Index Method (QIM for skinned fillets from farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and apply it in the establishment of its shelf life. The skinned fillets (120 g in average were kept in boxes with ice in the proportion of 1:1 (fillet:ice under average temperature of 0°C and stored at refrigeration chamber (4°C during 18 days. To evaluate the freshness during storage time sensory analysis (QIM and physicochemical (pH and TVB-N were performed every 72 hours from time zero, in triplicate. The maximum life of the Nile tilapia fillet in ice was estimated at 15 days. The MIQ was considered effective in evaluating the freshness of the Nile tilapia, since the sensory rejection by MIQ was determinant in the shelf life establishment. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver o Método do Índice de Qualidade (MIQ para filé sem pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, cultivada, e aplicá-lo no estabelecimento da sua vida útil. Os filés (média de 120 g cada foram mantidos em caixas com gelo na proporção de 1:1 (filé:gelo na temperatura média de 0°C e armazenados em câmaras de refrigeração (4°C por 18 dias. Para avaliar o frescor durante o armazenamento, realizaram-se análises sensoriais (MIQ e físico-químicas (pH e Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais a cada 72 horas, a partir do tempo zero, em triplicata. A vida útil máxima do filé sem pele de tilápia do Nilo, em gelo, foi estimada em 15 dias. O MIQ foi considerado eficiente na avaliação do frescor da tilápia do Nilo, já que a rejeição sensorial pelo MIQ foi determinante no estabelecimento da vida de prateleira.

  12. Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidóptera: Noctuidae de los compuestos aislados de la parte aérea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq. c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. & Yunck. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Constanza Ávila Murillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. & Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1, galangin (2, chrysin (5, 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6, pinostrobin (7; one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4; one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3; one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8; and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC 50 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively.

  13. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC50 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  14. Determination of Mg, Al, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb and Analysis of Constituents of Essential Oil in Alpinia Oxyphylla Miq%益智仁中Mg、Al、Fe、Zn、Cd、Pb含量及精油成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少东; 陈福北; 刘红星; 卢平; 聂坤梅

    2011-01-01

    文章以ICP-MS法测定益智仁中Mg、Al、Fe、Zn、Cd、Pb六种元素含量,并用水蒸汽法提取精油,通过气相一质谱(GC-MS)联用手段对精油的主要化学成分进行分析,以峰面积归一化法确定各组分的相对含量;结果从益智仁精油中分离出28个色谱峰,并鉴定了其中的25种成分,占精油总含量的94.08%,其主要成分依次为圆柚酮(15.51%)、γ-榄香烯(10.71%)、朱栾倍半萜(瓦伦烯)(8.69%)、α-芹子烯(6.71%)等,从元素测定来看Mg含量很高达6550μg/g,Pb含量很低,仅1.59μg/g。%The contents of 6 inorganic elements in Alpinia Oxyphylla Miq. Such as Mg, Al, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb were determined by ICP-MS, and the essential oil was extracted by steam distillation and analysised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 28 peaks were separated, of which 25 compounds were identified , accounted for 94.08% of the oil,with Nootkatone (15.51%),y-Selinene(10.71%),Valencene(8.69%), a-Selinene(6.71%)etc as the main ingredient. The results showed that the Alpinia Oxyphylla Miq. Is rich in elements Mg (6550 ug/g) and trace in Pb is poor (only 1.59 (xg/g).

  15. Chalcid wasps on Ficus virens Ait. var. sublanceolata ( Miq.) Corner in Fuzhou%福州大叶榕隐头果内榕小蜂的分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文珊; 陈友铃; 伍小刚; 张彦杰; 郑翠芳

    2012-01-01

    通过对福州两个样地大叶榕雄花期隐头果进行定时、定点采集,观察与鉴定,从546个花序果内共收集到榕小蜂33641头,隶属于小蜂总科中的7个科(亚科)7个属的11个种,其中传粉小蜂为榕小蜂科的Platyscapa coronata,其余10种非传粉小蜂分别隶属于隐针榕小蜂亚科Epichrysomallinae,金小蜂科Pteromalidae的锥尾榕小蜂亚科Otitesellinae和延腹榕小蜂亚科Sycoryctinae,广肩小蜂科Eurytomidae,刻腹小蜂科0rmyridae和姬小蜂科Eulophidae.传粉小蜂和非传粉小蜂的种类和数量呈现明显的季节性.冬-春季(12-翌年5月)榕果内小蜂的种类和数量较多,传粉榕小蜂是优势种;夏-秋季(6-11月间)小蜂种类和数量略少,Camarothorax bismasculinus 和Sycophila sp.1是优势种.在非传粉小蜂中,Camarothorax、Sycophila、Otiteslla、Sycoscapter 等4个属的榕小蜂为常见种,而Ormyrus和Aprostocetus等2个属的榕小蜂为偶见种.根据小蜂的形态特征制定大叶榕隐头果中榕小蜂种类检索表,本实验为榕小蜂分类、榕-蜂协同进化研究,以及非传粉小蜂对榕-蜂共生体系的影响等研究提供科学依据.%Ficus virens Ait. var. sublanceolata (Miq. ) Corner is a monoecious tree widely cultivated for ornamental purpose in Fuzhou. In order to study the wasp species of F. virens Ait. var. sublanceolata in Fuzhou, Fujian, male - phase syconia from two different sites were observed, collected and identified at regular intervals. A total of 33 ,641 fig wasps were collected from 546 syconia in different seasons. Eleven fig wasp species were found, which belong to Agaonidae, Epichrysomallinae, Otitesellinae, Sycoryctinae, Eurytomidae, Ormyridae and Eulophidae of Chalcidoidea, respectively. Among them, only Platyscapa coro-nata of Agaonidae served as a pollinating agent through active pollination. Male polymorphism was common in the non - pollinating fig wasps. The wasp community composition and structure differed

  16. Comparative Study Between Effects of Smilax sieboldii Miq., Clematis chinensis Osbeck.and C.hexapetala Pall.on Non-specific Immunity%粘鱼须威灵仙棉团铁线莲对非特异性免疫的影响比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of Smilax sieboldii Miq. , Clematis chinensis Osbeck. and C. hexapetala Pall, on non-specific immunity, and further determine the feasibility of Smilax sieboldii Miq. to be used as drug.Methods The carbon granules clearance test in mice and chicken red blood cell phagocytosis test were carried out to compare the effects. Results All of Smilax sieboldii Miq. , Clematis chinensis Osbeck. and C.hexapetala Pall,inhibited the phagocytic function of monocyte-macrophage and abdominal cavity macrophage in mice, and reduced non-specific immune function.Conclusion Smilax sieboldii Miq. can be used equivalently as Clematis chinensis Osbeck. for the treatment of rheumatism.%目的 比较粘鱼须、威灵仙、棉团铁线莲对非特异性免疫的影响,为粘鱼须能否作为威灵仙入药提供科学依据.方法 选择小鼠碳粒廓清法和腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬鸡红细胞法进行比较3种药物.结果 粘鱼须、威灵仙、棉团铁线莲均能抑制小鼠单核巨噬细胞和腹腔巨噬细胞的吞噬作用,降低机体非特异性免疫反应能力.结论 粘鱼须可以作为祛风湿药威灵仙使用.

  17. 粘鱼须威灵仙和棉团铁线莲对细胞免疫与体液免疫的影响比较%Comparing Study of the Effects of Smilax sieboldii Miq., Clematis chinensis Osbeck. and C. hexapetela Pall on Cellular Immunity and Humoral Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of Smilax sieboldii Miq. , Clematis chinensis Osbeck. and C. hexapetela Pall on cellular and humoral immunity, and further determine the feasibility of Smilax sieboldii Miq. to be used as a drug. Methods Three cellular immune indexes including the formation rate of erythrocyte rosette, amount of T cell subsets and effects on delayed type hypersensitivity; two humoral immnue ones including the number of plaque forming cell ( PFC) and amount of serum hemolysin were compared. Results All of Smilax sieboldii Miq. , Clematis chinensis Osbeck. and C. hexapetela Pall decoction were able to inhibit the activity of T-lymphocyte and reduce the humoral immune function. Conclusion Smilax sieboldii Miq. can be used equivalently as Clematis chinensis Osbeck. for the treatment of rheumatism.%目的 比较粘鱼须、威灵仙、棉团铁线莲对细胞免疫和体液免疫的影响,为粘鱼须作为威灵仙入药提供科学依据.方法 选择影响玫瑰花环形成、T细胞亚群数量、迟发型变态反应等3个细胞免疫的指标和影响抗体形成细胞数量、血清溶血素数量等2个体液免疫的指标进行比较.结果 粘鱼须、威灵仙、棉团铁线莲均能抑制T细胞功能,降低机体细胞免疫反应能力.结论 粘鱼须可以作为祛风湿药威灵仙使用.

  18. Atividade antileishmania do extrato hidroalcoólico e de frações obtidas de folhas de Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck Antileishmanial activity of hydroalcoholic extract and fractions obtained from leaves of Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso V. Nakamura

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica do extrato bruto e as várias frações obtidas de folhas de Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck foi avaliada em Leishmania amazonensis. Este estudo incluiu o processo de extração e o fracionamento biomonitorado pelo método de cromatografia de adsorção. Um aumento progressivo no efeito antileishmania foi observado durante o processo de purificação. O extrato hidroalcoólico solúvel em água (EBA apresentou concentração inibitória 50% (IC50 igual a 167 µg/mL enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico solúvel em acetato de etila (EBAcOEt mostrou um IC50 de 30 mg/mL sobre o crescimento de formas promastigotas após 48 h de cultivo. A fração hexano (FHex apresentou uma atividade antileishmania maior que o EBAcOEt com IC50 de 21,5 µg/mL. Análises de citotoxicidade indicaram que as concentrações tóxicas do EBA, EBAcOEt e das frações foram maiores para macrófagos J774G8 do que para os protozoários.Biological activity of the crude extract and several fractions obtained from Piper regnellii var. pallescens was assessed on Leishmania amazonensis. This study included the extraction process and bioassay-guided fractionation by the adsorption chromatography method. A progressive increase in the antileishmanial effect was observed in the course of the purification process. The hydroalcoholic extract water soluble (EBA had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 at 167 µg/mL whereas the hydroalcoholic extract acetate soluble (EBAcOEt showed an IC50 of 30 µg/mL against the growth of promastigote forms after 48 h of culturing. The hexan fraction (FHex showed an antileishmanial activity greater than EBAcOEt with IC50 at 21.5 µg/mL. Analysis of cytotoxicity indicated that the toxic concentrations of the EBA, EBAcOEt, and fractions were higher for J774G8 macrophages than for the protozoans.

  19. 天麻共生萌发菌栽培种生产工艺条件优化%Optimizing the Gastrodia elata Seed-germinating Strains Production Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立君; 段相程; 胡志芳; 李世辉; 赵艳娟; 师睿

    2016-01-01

    The best production process conditions for Gastrodia elata seed-germinating strain MY-001 were opti⁃mized. The results showed that the best liquid fermentation conditions were pressure of 0.020MPa,ermented liquid of brown sugar 10g/L,wheat bran 15g/L,peptone 1g/L. The number increasing ofhypha biomass over time accords with the Logisticgrowth model,the observations fit with the logistic equation fitting thehigher value(R2=97.7%),bio⁃mass tends to be stable after fermentation 144h. The optimum cultivation of the substrate were determined fagaceae plant leaves60%,broadleaf sawdust 30%,and wheat bran 10%.%经试验对天麻共生萌发菌MY-001的栽培种生产的工艺条件进行了优化,结果显示,既能降低生产成本又能提高生产效率的液体发酵条件为:液体菌种培养器的气压为0.020MPa,发酵液主要成分中红糖、麦麸和蛋白胨的最佳比例为红糖10g/L、麦麸15g/L、蛋白胨1g/L,萌发菌菌丝生物量随时间的变化符合逻辑斯蒂增长模型,其观测值与逻辑斯蒂方程拟合值的拟合度较高(R2=97.7%),发酵培养144h后生物量趋于稳定,栽培种基质最合适的比例为壳斗科植物树叶60%、阔叶树木屑30%和麦麸10%。

  20. Padronização e determinação da fotoestabilidade do extrato de folhas de Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq (pariparoba e avaliação da inibição in vitro de metaloproteinases 2 e 9 na pele Standardization and determination of photostability of leaf extracts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq (pariparoba and evaluation of the inhibition in vitro of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Leite Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das pesquisas realizadas até hoje sobre os efeitos benéficos da pariparoba (Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq foi feita com o extrato da raíz desta espécie, e o seu emprego em larga escala comprometeria a exploração sustentável deste insumo natural. Neste sentido o uso das folhas da pariparoba, ao invés de raízes pela indústria cosmética, não põe em risco a existência da espécie. Neste trabalho foi determinada a concentração de 4-nerolidilcatecol (4-NC de um extrato de folhas por metodologia analítica validada em nosso laboratório, cujo valor foi cerca de 30% menor que no extrato de raiz, obtido da mesma maneira. Na avaliação de fotoestabilidade do extrato de folhas, uma solução de 0,25 mg/mL não apresentou alterações significativas do perfil espectroscópico após 2 horas de exposição à radiação UVB, demonstrando sua estabilidade. Metaloproteinases (MMPs são endopeptidases dependentes de zinco, envolvidas na remodelagem da matriz extracelular (MEC, e importantes na formação das rugas típicas do fotoenvelhecimento cutâneo. Também avaliamos, por técnica de zimografia, a capacidade do extrato de folhas de P. umbellata de inibir a atividade de MMPs 2 e 9 in vitro de pele de camundongos sem pêlo. O extrato de folhas (0,1 mg/mL inibiu em 80% a atividade destas enzimas, conforme avaliação densitométrica.Most researches that have been done until today about the beneficial effects of pariparoba (Pothomorphe umbellata L. Miq have been done with root extract of this species, but the use in large scale would compromise the sustainable exploration of this natural resource. In this sense, the utilization of pariparoba leaves, substituting the roots, in the cosmetic industry does not put in risk the existence of the species. In this work the concentration of 4-nerolidylcathecol (4-NC in leaf extract was determined by the analytical methodology validated in our laboratory. The concentration of 4-NC in leaf extract

  1. Study on the Content Change of Glucose and Fructose in Different Solvents Extracts of Leaves of Lonicera Hypoglauca Miq%红腺忍冬叶不同溶剂提取物中葡萄糖和果糖的含量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鑫艳; 施思; 朱英

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To establish a method to determine the contents of glucase and fructose in extracts of leaves of Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. using HPLC-ELSD, and apply this method to study the content change of glucose and fructose in different solvents extracts in leaves of Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. [Methods] The chromatographic separation was achieved on Lichrospher NH2 column using a mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetonitrile and water(90:10) at a flow rate of 0.8mL·min-1 and the column temperature was 25℃.The ELSD drift tube temperature was set at 70℃ and the carrying gas was N2 and the flow rate of the gas was 1.6L·min-1. [Results] Glucose and fructose from extracts of the leaves of Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. could be wel separated, and the linearity ranges of glucose and fructose were shown at the concentration of 0.5840~1.168mg·mL-1 and 0.8256~1.8576mg·mL-1, the average recovery rate of glucose and fructose were 96.88%(RSD=1.11%) and 97.55%(RSD=1.15%), the stability of glucose and fructose was 2.12%and 0.38%, and the repeatability was 1.31% and 0.24%. Among the water extract,50% alcohol extract and 95% alcohol extract,the content of the glucose and fructose in the water extract was highest,which was 2.19mg·mL and 4.10mg·mL-1, the 50% alcohol extract was second, which was 1.13mg·mL-1 and 2.12mg·mL-1, and the 95% alcohol extract was lowest, which was 0.45mg·mL-1 and 0.65mg·mL-1.[Conclusion] The method is simple, accurate and has good repeatability, and can be used to determine the contents of glucose and fructose in the extract of leaves of Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. In this batch of leaves of Lonicera hypoglauca Miq., the contents of fructose and glucose were of water extract>50%ethanol extract>95%ethanol extract.%[目的]建立用HPLC-ELSD法测定红腺忍冬叶提取物中葡萄糖和果糖含量的方法,并应用此方法研究红腺忍冬叶不同溶剂提取物中葡萄糖和果糖含量的变化。[方法]采用Lichrospher NH2

  2. Analysis on chemical components of Yao medicine Piper boehmeriifolium (Miq.) Wall. ex C. DC. and Piper hancei Maxim. by GC-MS%瑶药大肠风与小肠风挥发油成分气相色谱-质谱联用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玲; 谢凤凤; 唐玉荣; 朱华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze volatile oil from the plants of Piper boehmeriifolium (Miq.) Wall. ex C. DC. and Piper hancei Maxim. Methods Volatile oils were exacted by the steam distillation (SD) method. HP-5 capillary column (30 mí0.25 mm, 0.25μm);temperature programming;Nitrogen as the carrier gas;Volume flow was 1.0 mL/min;detecror tem-pertature was 280℃; solvent delay time was 3 min; injection volume was 0.2 μL; split ratio was 100:1; the velocity of air was 300 mL/min; the velocity of N2 was 30 mL/min. Results The yield of volatile oil was high. Their ingredients were complicated, which were including 14 main cornmon chemical compositions, such as Caryophyllene, α-Caryophyllene, Spathulenol, (E)-Nerolidol, α-Cubebene and so on. The specific components of Piper boehmeriifolium (Miq.) Wall. ex C. DC. were (-)-β-Elemen, (+)-β-Selinene, 1, 5, 5-Trimethyl-6-methylene-cyclohexene. The con-tents were more then 14%; the specific components of Piper hancei Maxim. were (-)-Spathulenol and (E)-Nerolidol, the contents were more than 15%. Conclusion Main components are differences between Piper boehmeriifolium (Miq.) Wall. ex C. DC. and Piper hancei Maxim., it might be the basis for variety identification.%目的:采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术对大肠风与小肠风挥发油进行对比分析,为二者合理利用提供参考依据。方法水蒸气蒸馏提取挥发油。色谱柱为HP-5MS石英毛细管色谱柱(30 m×0.25 mm,0.25μm);程序升温;载气为氦气(He),体积流量为1.0 mL/min;检测器温度为280℃;溶剂延迟为3 min;进样量为0.2μL;分流比为100:1;空气流速为300 mL/min;尾吹气N2流速为30 mL/min。结果用水蒸气蒸馏法提取所得挥发油成分较复杂,大肠风与小肠风挥发油共有成分为石竹烯、α-石竹烯、斯巴醇、反式-橙花叔醇、α-荜澄茄油烯等14个,主要为烯烃类及醇类;大肠风特有成分为(-)-β-榄香烯、(+)-β-蛇床烯、1,5,5-

  3. Effect of Gastrodia elata on learning and memory abilities and synaptic transmission protein expression of hippocampus in model rats with Alzheimer's disease%天麻对阿尔茨海默病模型大鼠学习记忆和海马突触传递蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成祥林; 向明清; 汪华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of gastrodia elata on learning and memory abilities and synaptic transmission protein(P38,Ca2+ -CaMK Ⅱ α,CREB)expression of hippocampus in model rats with Alzheimer's disease(AD).Methods 24 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group,test group and intervention group.A dose of Aβ1-40 was injected into the hippocampus of rats on test group and intervention group,the control rats were injected with normal saline.When the models were successful,the rats of control group and test groups were given with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(50g/kg),the rats of intervention group were given with gastrodia elata powder( 50 g/kg),lasting 15 days,Morris water maze test was used for learning and memory abilities study.The expression of P38,Ca2+-CaMK Ⅱ α and CREB protein were detected by immunohistochemistry method.Results Behavioral tests showed the mean escape latencies and search time of test group were obviously increased than those of control group and intervention group,the percentage of search distance on test groups was less than that of control group and intervention group(P < 0.01 ).Immunohistochemistry results showed P38,Ca2+- CaMK Ⅱ α and CREB positive cells and optical density in hippocampus CA1 on test group were less than those of control group and intervention group ( all P < 0.01 ) ( P38:58.92 ± 10.82,0.208 ± 0.037 ; Ca2+-CaMK Ⅱ α:72.38 ± 14.67,0.174 ± 0.036 ; CREB:53.86 ±5.31,0.161 ±0.043 in test group;P38:87.32 ±9.56,0.371 ±0.046 ; Ca2+ -CaMK Ⅱ α:98.16 ± 16.29,0.283 ± 0.051 ; CREB:86.76 ± 7.73,0.356 ± 0.052 in intervention group; P38:102.54 ± 16.73,0.563 ± 0.078 ; Ca2 + -CaMK Ⅱ α:123.46 ± 17.65,0.436 ± 0.057 ; CREB:125.43 ±9.16,0.524 ± 0.057 in control group ).Conclusion Gastrodia elata can treat AD by increasing expression of P38,Ca2 + -CaMK Ⅱ α and CREB.%目的 探讨天麻对阿尔茨海默病大鼠学习记忆和海马突触传递蛋白( P38、Ca2+ -Ca

  4. 草石蚕发育过程中糖含量变化与相关酶活性的关系%Changes in Carbohydrates During Development of Chinese Artichoke (Stachys sieboldii Miq.) and Their Relationship with the Activities of Related Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祎; 张素勤; 耿广东

    2015-01-01

    研究草石蚕(Stachys sieboldii Miq.)发育过程中不同部位糖含量变化与相关酶活性的关系,了解草石蚕糖积累机制,为糖代谢的调控提供参考.结果表明:在草石蚕发育过程中,块茎中果糖、蔗糖和可溶性总糖含量均最高,茎秆中次之,叶中最少.草石蚕块茎中果糖和蔗糖含量在营养生长Ⅱ期(t2)急剧增加,膨大末Ⅰ期(t6)含量最高;总糖含量在整个发育过程中呈上升趋势,在膨大初Ⅱ期(t4)急剧提高,在膨大末Ⅱ期(t7)达到最大值.叶片中蔗糖与蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)和蔗糖合成酶(SS)呈显著正相关,与转化酶无显著相关;块茎中果糖和蔗糖分别与 SPS呈极显著正相关,与 SS呈显著正相关,与酸性转化酶(AI)呈显著负相关,与中性转化酶(NI)无显著相关,说明SPS ,SS和A I的共同作用是草石蚕块茎中糖积累的重要因子.%The variations in the contents of carbohydrates in developing Chinese artichoke (Stachys siebold‐ii Miq. ) plants were monitored and their relationship with the activities of related enzymes were investiga‐ted to understand the sugar accumulation mechanism of this plant species and provide reference for regula‐ting its sugar metabolism .Throughout the development of the plants ,the tubers had the highest contents of fructose ,sucrose and total soluble sugars ,followed in order by the stems and the leaves .The contents of fructose and sucrose in the tubers increased dramatically at the vegetative stageⅡ(t2 ) ,and reached the maximum at the late tuber development stageⅠ(t6 ) .Total sugar contents rose steadily ,with a sharp in‐crease at the early expansion stage Ⅱ(t4 )and arrived at its maximum at the late tuber development stageⅡ (t7 ) .The sucrose content in the leaves was found to be in a significant positive correlation with the activ‐ities of sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate

  5. Optimization of Extraction Process of Methyl Eugenol from Volatile Oil of Asarum Sieboldii Miq.by Ultrasound-assisted Extraction%超声辅助提取华细辛挥发油中甲基丁香酚工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳天贽; 袁泉

    2013-01-01

    采用内标法测定甲基丁香酚的含量,在单因素试验基础上设计正交试验,研究浸泡时间、料液比、提取温度、提取时间对超声辅助提取(UAE)华细辛挥发油中甲基丁香酚提取率的影响.结果表明:最佳提取条件为:浸泡时间3h,料液比1∶40(g/mL),提取温度60℃,提取时间40 min,经3次平行实验验证,此条件下的甲基丁香酚平均得率为0.661%,比正交实验任意组得率高,该超声辅助提取工艺稳定可靠.%In this study,the content of methyl eugenol from volatile oil of Asarum sieboldii Miq. was extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction and determined by spiking internal standard. Based on the results of single factor experiment, orthogonal tests were designed to optimize the extraction conditions, including immersion time, material-liquid ratio, extraction temperature and time. The results showed that the best extraction conditions were as follows;3 h as immersion time, 1 : 40 as material-liquid ratio,60℃as the extraction temperature,40 min as the extraction time,with 3 parallel experimental verifications. The yields of methyl eugenol extracted out under this condition were higher than any orthogonal group. The ultrasound-assisted extraction process was proved to be stable and reliable.

  6. Two new species of Tetrastigma (Miq. Planch. (Vitaceae from Thailand

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    Phongsakorn Kochaiphat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Tetrastigma from Thailand, T. calcicola Kochaiph. & Trias-Blasi sp. nov. and T. jaichagunii C.L.Li ex Kochaiph. & Trias-Blasi sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Tetrastigma calcicola sp. nov. is a slender climber restricted to the open areas on limestone mountains at high elevation in the northern part of Thailand. The other species, T. jaichagunii sp. nov., is similar to T. harmandii Planch., but differs from it by having more densely verrucose young branches, broader leaflets, 4-lobed thick discs, bigger globose berries and oblongoid seeds. This species occurs along streams or in forest margins in evergreen forest and it is widely distributed in several parts of Thailand.

  7. Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea leprosula Miq. cuttings, mycorrhizae and nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulyana Omon, R.

    2002-01-01

    "Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea leprosula cuttings, mycorrhizace and nutrients" discusses the mycorrhizal development in conditions of different dosage of NPK fertilizer, on different soil substrates and under different environmental conditions (controll

  8. Comportamento germinativo de sementes de diferentes cores de pariparoba [Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq.] Germinative behavior of Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq. seeds of different colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I Maia-Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Pothomorphe umbellata (Piperaceae, é uma espécie medicinal nativa do Brasil, utilizada na indústria de cosméticos e protetores de pele contra raios UVA e UVB. Com o intuito de gerar informações aplicadas à propagação da espécie, o presente trabalho relacionou a coloração e a massa de sementes de P. umbellata a seu comportamento germinativo. A coloração e a massa de sementes de P. umbellata foram características adequadas para avaliar a homogeneidade fisiológica, o vigor, o potencial e o comportamento germinativo. Assim, conclui-se que, embora de germinação lenta, as sementes de coloração preta e mais densa devem ser as escolhidas quando de coleta ou de processo seletivo.Pothomorphe umbellata (Piperaceae is a medicinal species native to Brazil, which has been used in the cosmetic industry and in products that protect the skin against UVA and UVB rays. To generate information applied to the species propagation, the present work related the coloration and the mass of P. umbellata seeds to their germinative behavior. The coloration and the mass of seeds of P. umbellata were characteristic appropriate to evaluate physiologic homogeneity, vigor, potential and germinative behavior. Thus, although of slow germination, seeds of black and denser coloration should be chosen during collection or selective process.

  9. Four new morel (Morchella) species in the Elata Subclade (sect. Distantes) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four Turkish Morchella species identified in published multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses are described here as new, using detailed macro- and microscopic data: M. mediterraneensis (Mel-27), M. fekeensis (Mel-28), M. magnispora (Mel-29), and M. conifericola (Mel-32). A distribution map of m...

  10. 刺老苞的营养成分测定%Determination of Nutritional Compositions in Aralia chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美娟; 李娜; 校彦赟; 张加研; 石卓功; 赵平

    2014-01-01

    为综合利用云南药食兼用的刺老苞,采用常规方法对云南省大关县栽培的刺老苞的营养成分进行测定。结果表明:刺老苞营养成分较为丰富,含有蛋白质4.22%,维生素 C 4.0 mg/100g,粗纤维0.86%,总糖0.51%;含有14种氨基酸,总量为3.23%,其中必需氨基酸6种,鲜味氨基酸2种和药效氨基酸9种,分别占总氨基酸的32.82%、40.25%和79.88%;含有10种人体必需的常量元素和微量元素,常量元素的分布规律为钾>磷>钙>镁>硫>钠,具有典型的高钾低钠特征。%To comprehensively utilize medicinal and edible A.chinensis,the nutritional compositions in fresh young stems and leaves of A.chinensis from Daguan County,Yunnan Province,were determined by conventional means.Results:A.chinensis contained rich nutritional components,including proteins (4.22%),vitamin C (4.0 mg/100 g),crude fibers (0.86%)and total sugars (0.51%).A.chinensis also contained rich amino acids (3.23%),in addition to ten mineral elements.In 14 kinds of amino acid,the contents of six essential amino acids,two umami amino acids and nine medicinal amino acids accounted for 32.82%,40.25% and 79.88% of total amino acids,respectively.The quantity order of major mineral elements was K>P>Ca>Mg>S>Na.The results indicated that A.chinensis was with typical features of high potassium and low sodium.

  11. Effects of light and temperature on seed germination in Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Cecropiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoi Simone

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Cecropia hololeuca were submitted to regimes of constant and alternating temperatures, associated with photoperiods of white light, "shade light" and continuous darkness under controlled conditions in laboratory. Seeds did not germinate at constant temperatures of 10°C to 20°C and above 35°C. Seeds only germinated in the darkness when the temperature was alternated. "Shade light" inhibited germination. We concluded that the regime of alternating temperatures suppressed the light effects on seed germination of this species.

  12. PENGARUH EKSTRAK METANOL KULIT BATANG TUMBUHAN Tristania sumatrana Miq. TERHADAP FERTILITAS MENCIT PUTIH

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    Asmaedy Samah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The antiferality effect of sibalusuah wood (Tristania sumatrana towards mice was evaluated. The substance was administered through gastric lavage tube in 3 different dosis I 525, 1050 and 2100 mg/kg b.w. during seven days before the mating period was conducted. On day 12 after gestation all the pregnant mice were killed after anaesthez with ether and the fetuses were withdrawn by laparotomy. The number of fetuses and the resorption occurences were noted to make account for the expected effect. The results showed that resorptions of fetuses have occurred, in all level of doses and increase with higher dose. No resorption occurred in controls.Also there were non pregnant mice in every dose given but not for the control group, which indicates that Ms preparation has an antiferality effect by prolonging estrogen cycle.

  13. Viability and Biochemical Content Changes in Seed Storage of Jabon Putih (Anthocephalus Cadamba (Roxb Miq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naning Yuniarti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed deterioration is the process of deteriorated seed in view of viability that changed the physiological and chemical content. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of moisture content and storage on viability and biochemical content of jabon putih seed. Completely Randomized Design was used for decreasing moisture content based on seed drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours, and Completely Randomized Factorial Design was used for the combination of moisture content (drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and room storage (ambient room, air-conditioned room, refrigerator. The results of this research are: (1 seed drying time and seed storage affected the change of seed viability and biochemical content, (2 seed drying time and seed storage influence significantly the value of moisture content, germination percentage, and biochemical content (lipid, carbohydrate, protein, (3 The longer time of seed drying and seed storage has decreased the seed moisture content, germination percentage, and the carbohydrate content, but it has increased the content of lipid and protein, and (4 the seeds were stored in refrigerator has better viability compared to dry cold storage and ambient room.

  14. Novel Microsatellite Markers Acquired from Rubus coreanus Miq. and Cross-Amplification in Other Rubus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-An Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rubus genus consists of more than 600 species that are distributed globally. Only a few Rubus species, including raspberries and blueberries, have been domesticated. Genetic diversity within and between Rubus species is an important resource for breeding programs. We developed genomic microsatellite markers using an SSR-enriched R. coreanus library to study the diversity of the Rubus species. Microsatellite motifs were discovered in 546 of 646 unique clones, and a dinucleotide repeat was the most frequent (75.3% type of repeat. From 97 microsatellite loci with reproducible amplicons, we acquired 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Rubus coreanus collection. The transferability values ranged from 59.8% to 84% across six Rubus species, and Rubus parvifolius had the highest transferability value (84%. The average number of alleles and the polymorphism information content were 5.7 and 0.541, respectively, in the R. coreanus collection. The diversity index of R. coreanus was similar to the values reported for other Rubus species. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on SSR profiles revealed that seven Rubus species could be allocated to three groups, and that R. coreanus was genetically close to Rubus crataegifolius (mountain berry. These new microsatellite markers might prove useful in studies of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among Rubus species.

  15. 天麻素药理作用研究进展%Gastrodia elata pharmacological activity research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵生

    2015-01-01

    Gastrodin is one of the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine Gastrodiae Rhizoma,with sedative and hypnotic effect and other therapeutic pharmacologicaleffects.The recentprogresses on pharmacolo-gicalactivities of Gastrodinwere summarized in order to provide references for further study and development.%天麻素是中药天麻的有效成分之一,具有较好的镇静和安眠作用。本研究在检索国内外相关文献的基础上,对天麻素药理作用的研究进展进行了综述。

  16. Isolation of a Gastrodia Antifungal Protein Gene from a Genomic Library of G. elata and Its Sequence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new genomic DNA encoding a member of Gastrodia antifungal protein family is isolated and sequenced.This gene contains a 510 bp open reading frame and 531 bp promoter region without introns.Sequence analysis indicates that a 28 amino acids signal peptide exists at the N-terminal.It shows high sequence homology with the mannose-binding lectinsfrom Epipactis hellebo-rine, Listera ovata and Cymbidium hybrid.A putative TATA box and transcription start site is dete cted in the promoter region.

  17. Avaliação do extrato etanólico de Ottonia martiana Miq. para o controle de duas doenças florestais Evaluation of Ottonia martiana Miq. alcoholic extract to control two forest diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Cunico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabólitos secundários presentes em plantas medicinais apresentam várias propriedades biológicas incluindo a atividade antifúngica. Esse estudo avaliou o potencial antifúngico da planta medicinal Ottonia martiana no controle da pinta-preta em erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis e do mofo-cinzento em eucalipto (Eucalyptus dunnii. Extrato etanólico (EBEtOH dos órgãos totais (raízes, caules, folhas e frutos foi preparado e testado na concentração de 1000 μg mL-1 contra os patógenos Cylindrocladium spathulatum (pinta-preta e Botrytis cinerea (mofo-cinzento. Bioensaios in vitro (germinação de esporos e bioautografia direta e in vivo (teste de patogenicidade em mudas mostraram que o EBEtOH reduziu o crescimento micelial dos patógenos testados e a germinação dos esporos de C. spathulatum e estimulou a germinação de esporos de B. cinerea. O teste de patogenicidade mostrou que o controle da pinta-preta em erva-mate e do mofo cinzento em eucalipto não é viável usando-se a concentração testada de EBEtOH de O. martiana. Na bioautografia direta, foram detectadas zonas de inibição de crescimento micelial dos fungos e que foram relacionadas com a presença de piperovatina.Secondary metabolites from medicinal plants have several biological properties, including antifungal activity. This study evaluated the antifungal potential of the medicinal plant Ottonia martiana to control maté leaf spot (Ilex paraguariensis and eucalypt gray mould (Eucalyptus dunnii. Ethanol extract (EBEtOH of the total parts (roots, stems, leaves and fruits was prepared at the concentration of 1000 μg mL-1 and tested against Cylindrocladium spathulatum (maté leaf spot and Botrytis cinerea (eucalypt gray mould. In vitro bioassays (spore germination and direct bioautography and in vivo bioassays (pathogenicity test in seedlings showed that EBEtOH reduced the mycelial growth of the tested pathogens and the germination of C. spathulatum spores and stimulated the germination of B. cinerea spores. The pathogenicity test showed that the control of maté leaf spot and eucalypt gray mould is not viable using the tested concentration of O. martiana EBEtOH. Zones of mycelial growth inhibition were detected in direct bioautography and were related to the presence of piperovatine.

  18. Study on Seed Quality Standard of Aralia cordata Thunb.%食用土当归种子质量标准探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 安家成; 朱昌叁

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立食用土当归的种子质量标准,并解决种子萌发问题.方法 对食用土当归种子进行检验,并设计对比试验探讨赤霉素、温度对种子萌发的影响.结果 食用土当归种子净度为74% ~91%,平均值为83.3%;含水量为8.2% ~10.4%,平均值为9.4%;千粒重为0.91 ~ 1.02g,平均值为0.97g;种子经300mg/L赤霉素12h浸泡后转15/25℃(15℃16h,25℃8h)变温条件下萌发,发芽率>75%,发芽势>40%,25d发芽结束;隔年种子发芽率显著下降.结论 食用土当归优质种子质量标准为发芽率≥75%,发芽势≥40%,千粒重≥0.95 g,种子净度≥80%,含水量≤10.5%,且籽粒饱满,大小均匀;种子经赤霉素浸泡后转变温条件下萌发可有效提高发芽率;陈种不宜作为生产用种.

  19. 栽培食用土当归根的化学成分研究%Research on Chemical Ingredients of the Root from Cultivar Aralia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭腾; 董小萍; 邓赟; 涂永勤; 李小年

    2005-01-01

    从栽培食用土当归根的乙醚部位分离得到8个化合物,经UV、IR、1H-NMR、13CNMR等鉴定为:栲利烯酸(kaur-16-en-19-oic acid)(Ⅰ)、十六烷酸(docosanoic)(Ⅱ)、二十二烷酸(hexadecanoic acid)(Ⅲ)、豆甾醇(stigmasterol)(Ⅳ)、16-甲酰基-15-烯-栲利烯酸(16-formyl-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid)(Ⅴ)、7-酮基海松酸(7-oxo-ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-0ic acid)(Ⅵ)、17-羟基-15-烯-栲利烯酸(17-Hydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-19-0ic acid)(Ⅶ)、β-谷甾醇(sitosterol)(Ⅷ),其中化合物Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  20. Identification of three saponins from leaves of Aralias elate%辽东楤木叶中3个皂苷的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 王志财; 郭明全; 陈燕萍; 马兴元

    2004-01-01

    目的对辽东楤木叶中分离得到的3个皂苷类化合物的结构进行鉴定.方法利用多级串联电喷雾质谱结合其它色谱方法对其结构进行分析.结果分别鉴定为辽东楤木皂苷Ⅴ、辽东楤木皂苷Ⅶ、辽东楤木皂苷Ⅹ.结论3个皂苷类化合物均为首次从该植物叶中得到.

  1. Antibacterial activity of extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessini Greisiele Lorena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the activity of the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Piper regnellii was tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The aqueous extractdisplayed a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of 1000 µg/ml. The ethyl acetate extract presented a good activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC and MBC at 15.62 µg/ml. In contrast to the relative low MICs for gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria were not inhibited by the extracts at concentrations < 1000 mg/ml. The ethyl acetate extract was fractionated on silica gel into nine fractions. The hexane and chloroform fractions were active against S. aureus (MIC at 3.9 µg/ml and B. subtilis (MIC at 3.9 and 7.8 µg/ml, respectively. Using bioactivity-directed fractionation, the hexane fraction was rechromatographed to yield the antimicrobial compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6identified as eupomatenoid-6, eupomatenoid-5, eupomatenoid-3, and conocarpan, respectively. The pure compounds 1 and 2 showed a good activity against S. aureus with MIC of 1.56 µg/ml and 3.12 µg/ml, respectively. Both compounds presented MIC of 3.12 µg/ml against B. subtilis. The pure compound 6 named as conocarpan was quite active against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC of 6.25 µg/ml. The antibacterial properties of P. regnellii justify its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds, contaminated through bacteria infections.

  2. Phosphate Solubilizing and Antifungal Activity of Root Endophyte Isolated from Shorea leprosula Miq. and Shoreal selanica (DC) Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Safinah Surya Hakim; Sri Wilarso Budi; Maman Turjaman

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are fungi that lives within plant tissues without causing apparent disease. It is also suggested that these fungi have ability to enhance plant growth and plant resistancy against pest and disease. This research is a preliminary study about root fungal endophytes in dipterocarp since there are lack research concerning about this study focus. We examined root fungal endophyte isolated from seedling of Shorea leprosula and Shorea selanica taken from Dramaga Experim...

  3. Phosphate Solubilizing and Antifungal Activity of Root Endophyte Isolated from Shorea leprosula Miq. and Shoreal selanica (DC Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are fungi that lives within plant tissues without causing apparent disease. It is also suggested that these fungi have ability to enhance plant growth and plant resistancy against pest and disease. This research is a preliminary study about root fungal endophytes in dipterocarp since there are lack research concerning about this study focus. We examined root fungal endophyte isolated from seedling of Shorea leprosula and Shorea selanica taken from Dramaga Experimental Forest, Bogor. Furthermore, we also tried to find out the fungal potential ability to solubilize phosphate and suppres fungal pathogen by in vitro assay. Surface sterilization method was used to isolated fungal endophytes from root tissues. Trichoderma spirale, Velsalceae sp., Melanconiela ellisii, Chaetosphaeria callimorpha, and Trichoderma asperellum were isolated during this study. These fungi appear to have specific association between fungal species and host plant, but no evidence of fungal order-level specificiation in S. leprosula and S. selanica. In vitro test also suggested that root fungal endophyte Trichoderma spirale and Melanconiella elisii have potential ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate. In addition, this result also present that root fungal endophyte T. spirale and T. asperellum have the potential to inhibit pathogen fungi Fusarium sp.

  4. Drug: D06909 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available data rhizome Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06909 Aralia rhizome (JP16)... Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Antirheumatic drugs D0690...9 Araliae cardatae rhizoma; Dokkatsu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) D06909 Aralia rhizome PubChem: 51091251 ...

  5. Leaf structural featuresof climbing figs (Ficus L., Moraceae Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhen V. Sosnovskyi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the data on leaf anatomy and surface ultrastructure in climbing figs of subgenus Synoecia (Miq. Miq. grown under protected cultivation conditions in botanical gardens in Ukraine.

  6. Kualitas Balok Laminasi dari Kayu Sengon (Paraserienthes falcataria (L) Nielsen) dan Kayu Meranti Merah (Shorea leprosula Miq.) dengan Perlakuan Jumlah Lapisan dan Berat Labur Perekat

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma, Ridho Anggara

    2015-01-01

    Glued laminated timber is a beam that composed of several board with the direction of parallel to fibers which bonded by adhesives. This study concerned to using sengon wood and meranti merah wood as alternative raw materials in producing glued laminated timber. The purpose of this study was to test the physical and mechanical properties of glued laminated timber and to evaluate the influence of the number of layers and glue spread of the glued laminated timber sengon and meranti merah. Treat...

  7. Simultaneous determination of five bioactive secolignans in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of Peperomia dindygulensis Miq. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-zhi; Liang, Jing-yu; Wen, Hong-mei; Shan, Chen-xiao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra fast performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five bioactive secolignans in Peperomia dindygulensis extract, including peperomin A, peperomin B, peperomin C, 4″-hydroxypeperomin B and 4″-hydroxypeperomin C in rat plasma. Arctigenin was used as the internal standard. The separation was performed on an Innovation™ Polar-RP C18 column by a gradient elution within a runtime of 7min. The mobile phase consisted of A (methanol) and B (0.1% formic acid in water) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was accomplished by using positive ion TurboIonSpray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all analytes over investigated range with all correlation coefficients greater than 0.9972. The lower limits of quantification were 1.1ng/mL for peperomin A, 1.24ng/mL for peperomin B, 1.02ng/mL for peperomin C, 1.91ng/mL for 4″-hydroxypeperomin B and 1.27ng/mL for 4″-hydroxypeperomin C. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) was within 15% and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -11.7% to 10.3%. This simple and sensitive method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of peperomin A, peperomin B, peperomin C, 4″-hydroxypeperomin B and 4″-hydroxypeperomin C in rat plasma after oral administration of P. dindygulensis extract. PMID:24295907

  8. 民族药波叶山蚂蝗的生药学研究%Pharmacognostical studies on Desmodrum sequax wall.E.D.Smuatum(miq)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦群辉; 左爱华; 杨晶; 郑晶晶

    2007-01-01

    目的:为民族药波叶山蚂蝗Desmodium sequax wall.的开发利用提供生药学资料,为该药材的深入研究奠定基础.方法:采用来源鉴定、性状鉴定、显微及理化鉴定的方法对波叶山蚂蝗进行生药学研究;结果:证明其主要化学成分为生物碱、油脂类、甾醇类、有机酸类、鞣质、还原性化合物等.其根组织特征维管束数轮,环状排列,木质部由少数导管和大量木纤维组成;可见草酸钙簇晶、方晶和砂晶.粉末特征与组织特征相符.结论:为指定药材质量标准,研究和开发利用该药资源提供理论依据.

  9. Allozyme Variation in the Three Extant Populations of the Narrowly Endemic Cycad Dioon angustifolium Miq. (Zamiaceae) from North-eastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ-ASTORGA, JORGE; Andrew P. Vovides; CRUZ-ANGON, ANDREA; OCTAVIO-AGUILAR, PABLO; Iglesias, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dioon angustifolium was considered within D. edule. Recent morphometric and allozyme studies on D. edule have shown that D. angustifolium has originated from geographic isolation and is therefore considered to be a separate species. This cycad is endemic to north-eastern Mexico and is known only from three populations in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain chain. Its populations are small when compared with its southern relative D. edule. In this study, genetic variati...

  10. Antifungal Activity and Nail Permeation of Nail Lacquer Containing Piper regnellii (Miq. C. CD. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae Leave Extracts and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mayumi Koroishi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that cause cutaneous fungal infections because they use keratin as a nutrient source. For this study the antidermatophyte activity of the extracts and derivates from leaves of Piper regnellii was analyzed. From the dichloromethane extract (EBD neolignans such as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were obtained, and it was submitted to fractionation to remove the green residue, designated as the chloroform fraction (FF. Extracts, chloroform fraction and compounds were tested against Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The chloroform fraction was incorporated to nail lacquer that was analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy, in vitro assay and scanning electronic microscopy. For antifungal activity in solid medium the dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction were used. The compounds eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were less active than the dichloromethane extract against T. rubrum. EBD and FF showed moderate activity in hyphal growth inhibition in solid medium and EBD did not link to ergosterol. Nail lacquer containing the chloroform fraction showed good penetration through the nail as determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy. From in vitro studies it was observed that nail lacquer concentrations above 20 mg/mL prevented the growth of fungi, but concentrations up to 2.5 inhibited the growth. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the in vitro nail lacquer activity results. The specie P. regnellii showed great antifungal activity against T. rubrum, and nail lacquer containing its chloroform fraction has great potential to treat onychomycosis caused by these microorganisms.

  11. Study on Germination Rate of Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq.)Jacks%野生中药材资源钩藤种子发芽研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 刘作易; 贺定祥; 刘藜

    2008-01-01

    [Object] The research aimed to find out seed germination conditions and regulations. [Method] Seeds were soaked by clear water and 4 chemical agents of different concentrations (NaHCO3, KHCO3, K2CO3, NaClO) then conducted germination test in illumination box. [Result] Seed germination number and absolute germination rate (above 80%) in water treatment group was obviously higher than other treatments. [Conclusion] No dormancy phenomenon in mature embryo and no inhibition in seed coat, so conventional moist treatment can induct seed germination.

  12. Study on Mixed Juice Drink of Aclinidia arguta and Aralia mamdshrica Processing Technology%软枣猕猴桃--龙牙楤木混合汁饮料加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 戴文娟

    2012-01-01

      A Study on mixed juice drink of Actinidia arguta and A ralia mandshrica Processing Technology ,carry on the discussion to the processing process of Protecting green and choiceing Stabilizer ,Study on product formula through the orthogonal experiment .Determine the optimum formula of Mixed juice drink ,the Mixed juice drink Processing Technology of Health Care of Good taste and High Stability .%  研究了软枣猕猴桃-龙牙楤木混合汁饮料加工工艺,对加工过程的护绿,稳定剂的选择等进行了探讨,并运用正交实验研究了产品的调配。结果,确定了最佳配方和加工工艺,可得到风味良好和稳定性高的山野果软枣猕猴桃,山野菜龙牙楤木混合汁保健饮料。

  13. 不同激素组合对九眼独活嫩叶愈伤组织诱导的影响%Influence of Different Hormone Combinations on the Leaves Callus Induction of Aralia cordata Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向鸿; 侯大斌; 赵纳

    2010-01-01

    以野生药用植物九眼独活的幼嫩叶片为材料,研究2,4-D 分别与KT,6-BA的不同组合对九眼独活愈伤组织诱导的影响.结果表明:KT和6-BA会明显降低九眼独活愈伤组织诱导频率,对愈伤组织的生长有明显的抑制作用,但能降低愈伤组织的褐化程度;低浓度的2,4-D在愈伤组织诱导中起着重要作用,并能获得生长状态好的愈伤组织,通过筛选获得诱导九眼独活愈伤组织的最适培养基,即MS+2,4-D 0.2 mg/L.

  14. DNA isolation, optimization of ISSR-PCR system and primers screening of Aralia cordata Thunb%九眼独活基因组DNA提取、ISSR反应体系优化及引物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 侯大斌; 徐敏; 刘向鸿

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨九眼独活基因组DNA提取方法 、ISSR反应体系优化及引物筛选,为研究九眼独活居群遗传多样性及原药材DNA鉴定奠定基础.方法 采用改良的CTAB法与常规CTAB法对九眼独活的基因组进行提取,通过紫外、电泳、PCR-ISSR检测方法 进行比较.结果实验表明,改良的CTAB法得到的DNA浓度和纯度较高,并可很好地应用于ISSR分子标记分析;以Mg2+、dNTP、引物和聚合酶建立L9(34)正交设计,并同时考察退火温度和模板浓度,建立适宜的25 μL ISSR-PCR体系为:模板 30 ng,Mg2+ 3.5 mmol·L-1,dNTP 0.6 mmol·L-1,引物0.4 μmol·L-1,Taq酶1 U.结论 以此体系为基础进行引物筛选,在40条ISSR引物中筛选出13 条扩增条带清晰、多态性较高、重复性好的引物.

  15. Ultrasonic Extraction and Composition Identification of Saponins from Aralia continentalis Leaves%超声波法提取长白楤木叶皂苷及其组分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯颖; 孙士慧; 赵琳娜; 范文丽

    2013-01-01

    在单因素试验的基础上,采用L9(34)正交试验设计对长白楤木叶皂苷的提取工艺进行优化.结果表明,最佳提取工艺参数为体积分数70%的乙醇为提取剂、提取剂用量50mL、超声波提取时间30min、超声波功率200W,提取率为26.78mg/g.富集提取后的皂苷,以HPD-100树脂纯化、硅胶柱层析、制备液相进行分离,获得一个皂苷单体,经核磁共振法鉴定为楤木叶皂苷A.

  16. Effect of media compositions on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, growth and fatty acid content in mycelium extracts of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 from Taxus Sumatrana (Miq.) de Laub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Tachibana, Sanro; Kardono, Leonardus B S

    2014-07-01

    The active α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 were found to be the unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids). These compounds have potential as antidiabetic agents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of various media composition on growth (mycelium dry weight) and the fatty acids content (μg mg(-1) mycelium DW) of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, the experiments were set up by varying the carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions and desaturase and fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the media. Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 grown on potato dextrose broth (PDB) was used as control. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were (range from 43.9 ± 2.5 to 88.6 ± 5.2%) at 10 μg mL(-1). This activity seemed to correlate with the unsaturated fatty acids content of the samples. Different sugars as carbon source experiment showed that xylose gave the highest growth (938.7 ± 141.6 mg). However, the highest fatty acids content was obtained from fructose medium which containing linoleic acid (38.8 ± 4.9 μ g mg(-1) DW). Soluble starch gave better growth (672.5 ± 62.3 mg) but very low fatty acids content (2.8 ± 0.1 μg mg(-1) DW) was obtained. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source. Fatty acids production was better as compared to beef extract and soytone. This is the first report of various media compositions on fatty acids content in Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:26035936

  17. 益智茎叶中黄酮类化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents of Flavones Part from the Stems and Leaves of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪福; 谭银丰; 王勇; 魏娜; 李永辉; 张俊清

    2014-01-01

    对益智茎叶中黄酮类化学成分进行研究,采用多种色谱方法进行分离纯化,运用多种谱学方法并结合理化性质对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定.结果从益智茎叶95%乙醇提取物中共分离得到11个黄酮类化合物,其中包括8个黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为:良姜素(izalpinin)(1)、杨芽黄素(tectochrysin)(2)、白杨素(chrysin) (3)、芹菜素(apigenin) (4)、刺槐素(acacetin)(5)、5-羟基4',7-二甲氧黄酮(5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone) (6)、山奈酚4'-O-甲醚(kaempferol-4'-O-methylether) (7)、5,7,4'-三甲氧基黄酮(5,7,4'-trime&oxyfla-vone)(8)和3个二氢黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为:乔松素(pinocembrin)(9)、球松素(pinostrobin)(10)和二氢山萘酚(dihydrokaempferol)(11).所有化合物均为首次从该植物茎叶中分离得到,其中化合物6、8和10为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  18. 几种主要有机复合(混)肥对太子参产量的影响%Effects of Several Major Organic Compound (Mixed) Fertilizer on the Yield of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余彬情; 陈建祥; 王忠平; 左群; 杨秀全; 李佳林

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To study effects of several main organic compound (mixed) fertilizer on the yield of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. [ Method] With chemical compound mixed fertilizer as control, effects of liquid bacteria fertilizer, peat moss bacteria fertilizer, food processing tail slag fertih'zer, peatmoss bacteria fertilizer + chemical compound fertilizer on yield of P. heterophylla were studied. [ Result] Different fertilizers all have effects on plant height of P. heterophylla with the range of 0.3 - 1. 8 cm; different fertilizers has no significant effects on single earthnut with the variation range of 0.47 - 1.24 cm, width varied between 0.27 —0.41 cm, the biggest difference of average length is no more than 1.3 cm; the yield by treatments of peat moss bacteria fertilizer, liquid bacteria fertilizer, food processing tail slag fertilizer, peat moss bacteria fertilizer + chemical compound fertilizer is higher than in control group, T1 is the highest; pH value all improved except for T1, T2 treatment. [Conclusion] In Shibing County and similar eco-envirenment, peat moss bacteria fertilizer can increase the yield compared with other brands.%[目的]研究几种主要有机复合(混)肥对太子参产量的影响.[方法]以化学复混肥为对照,研究药渣菌肥、草炭菌肥、食品加工尾渣肥料、草炭菌肥+化学复混肥对太子参产量的影响.[结果]不同肥料处理对太子参各处理间株高均有影响,变幅在0.3 ~1.8 cm;不同肥料处理对太子参单条块根个体影响不大,各处理间块根的平均长度变幅在0.47 ~1.24 cm,粗度变幅在0.27~0.41 cm,块根平均长度最大差异不足1.3 cm;草炭菌肥、施药渣菌肥、食品加工尾渣肥料和草炭菌肥+化学复混肥后的产量比对照(施用化学复混肥)高,产量以T1最高;T、T2处理的pH值较基础土样略有降低外,其他处理的pH值均有所提高.[结论]在施秉县及其类似生态环境下,施用草炭菌肥对太子参的产量较其他品牌的肥料有一定程度的增产增效作用.

  19. Species of Pleistodontes from the Australian continent (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Review of the Australian species of Pleistodontes Saunders (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae: fig insects), with description of new species Pleistodontes cuneatus (from Ficus leucotricha Miq.) and P. proximus (from F. platypoda A. Cunn. ex Miq.), both collected in E. Kimberley, W. Australia, and

  20. Drug: D09079 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09079 Formula, Drug Dokkatsukakkonto Pueraria root [DR:D06693], Ephedra herb [DR:D...e in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for dampness Antirheumatic formulas D09079 Dokkatsukakkonto PubChem: 96025760 ... ...za [DR:D04365], Araliae cardatae rhizoma [DR:D06909], Rehmannia root [DR:D06736] Traditional Chinese Medicin

  1. Taksonomic study on Micromelum Blume (Rutaceae in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAN UJI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic study on Micromelum Blume was conducted at Herbarium Bogoriense (BO and Kew Herbarium (K and using 84 collections number of herbarium specimen. This research used descriptive method based on morphological characters. Terminology by Stearn (1983 was used, whereas the revision method as described by Rifai (1976 and Vogel (1987 were used. Based on this study were produced two species only of Micromelum respectively which occurred in Indonesia. They were Micromelum diversifolium Miq. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. M. diversifolium had two varieties, i.e. M. diversifolium Miq. var. diversifolium and M. diversifolium Miq. var. cuneata Miq. Whereas M. minutum had three varieties, i.e. M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight. & Arn. var. minutum, M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. tomentosum Tan. and M. minutum (Forst. f. Wight & Arn. var. villosum Tan. New record specimen collections of M. diversifolium from Biak Island (Papua was reported also.

  2. Analisis Perbandingan Kadar Kalium Pada Daun Kumis Kucing, Daun Pegagan Dan Daun Salam Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lusi Ayulita

    2015-01-01

    The Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq, Centella asiatica (L) Urb and Syzygium Polyanthum (Wight) Walp Leaves empirically has been adopted by local community for treatment of hypertension in Tanah Jawa district Simalungun. These three herbals are recognized healing to hypertension patients mainly to stabilize mineral potassium in body. The plant has own group, since Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq into lamiaceae, Centella asiatica (L) Urb into Apiaceae and Syzygium Polyanthum (Wight) Walp in...

  3. Effects of Gastrodia Elata on the expression TH and DBH mRNA in hypothalamus and adrenal gland of rats%天麻对大鼠下丘脑及肾上腺酪氨酸羟化酶和多巴胺-β-羟化酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹红子; 池明花; 千永日

    2012-01-01

    目的:实验观察灌胃天麻水提取物对大鼠下丘脑和肾上腺组织酪氨酸羟化酶(TH)和多巴胺-β-羟化酶(DBH)遗传因子的表达影响,探讨天麻的镇静作用机制.方法:分别取不同剂量组(10、20、40、80mg/kg灌胃)和不同时间组(灌胃后2、4、6、8h)大鼠的下丘脑和肾上腺组织,通过逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)与相应对照组(生理盐水灌胃)比较TH及DBH遗传因子的表达.结果:3个剂量组 (20、40、80 mg/kg)大鼠下丘脑组织的TH及DBH遗传因子的表达与对照组相比均明显降低(为P<0.05,P<0.01,P<0.01).肾上腺组织的TH表达在4个剂量组(10、20、40、80 mg/kg)与对照组相比都明显降低(P<0.05,P<0.05,P<0.01,P<0.01);DBH表达在3个剂量组(20、40、80 mg/kg)与对照组相比都明显降低(P<0.05,P<0.01,P<0.01).天麻提取物灌胃(40mg/kg)4小时及6小时后,下丘脑及肾上腺组织的TH和DBH遗传因子的表达与对照组相比均明显降低(均为P<0.01).结论:天麻可降低下丘脑和肾上腺组织的酪氨酸羟化酶及多巴胺-β-羟化酶的活性.

  4. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação das atividades trombolítica e citotóxica de Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Urticaceae, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Dutra GOMES1 ; Rafael Destefani FAITANIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia hololeuca, Lippia alba, e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium são espécies vegetais de ocorrência natural no Brasil, características de regiões de Mata Atlântica e, dentro de suas finalidades medicinais, estão incluídas ação anti-hipertensiva, digestiva e no tratamento de malária. Neste estudo, foram avaliados o perfil fitoquímico e as atividades citotóxica e trombolítica do extrato etanólico das folhas destas espécies vegetais. O perfil químico dos extratos foi obtido por meio de ensaios fitoquímicos clássicos, a fim de identificar as classes químicas presentes. A toxicidade preliminar foi avaliada frente Artemia salina e a atividade trombolítica foi determinada in vitro a partir da lise de coágulo de sangue humano. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de alcaloides e flavonoides nos três extratos investigados. Saponinas, triterpenos e naftoquinonas foram detectados apenas em C. hololeuca. Essa não demonstrou toxicidade frente Artemia salina (DL50 >1000 ppm, enquanto Z. rhoifolium apresentou DL50 igual a 719,44 ppm e L. alba <250 ppm, o que indica atenção quanto à segurança no uso desta planta medicinal. A atividade trombolítica de L. alba e C. hololeuca foi de 6,43 ±2,08 e 9,64 ±1,83 %, respectivamente, mostrando baixa atividade. Por sua vez, Z. rhoifolium alcançou lise de 24,71 ±10,52 %, indicando promissora atividade (p <0,001. A atividade trombolítica de Z. rhoifolium justifica novos estudos, a fim de investigar os componentes responsáveis pela atividade. Perante a literatura, este é o primeiro relato da avaliação da atividade trombolítica destas espécies vegetais. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho contribuem para o conhecimento químico-biológico das respectivas espécies.

  5. Interventional effect of the water extract of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. fruit on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairements in rats%益智仁水提取物对东莨菪碱所致记忆获得障碍大鼠的干预效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇志红; 于新宇; 张晓利; 韩慧; 张伟; 汪永富

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察益智仁水提取物对东莨菪碱所致大鼠记忆获得障碍的改善效果.方法:实验于2005-03/04在大连大学医学院动物室和神经科学实验室完成.选择健康成年Sprague-Dawley纯种大鼠50只,在温度为(22±3)℃的环境中适应两天后,随机数字表法分成对照组、模型组、益智仁低剂量组(120mg/kg)、益智仁中剂量组(240mg/kg)、益智仁高剂量组(480mg/kg),每组10只,雌雄各半.益智仁低、中、高剂量组,每天分别灌胃120 mg/kg、240 mg/kg、480 mg/kg益智仁水提取物,对照组和模型组灌胃等量的生理盐水,连续给药21 d.末次给药后1 h采用Y迷宫进行学习记忆行为训练,训练前15 min模型组及益智仁低、中、高剂量组腹腔注射东莨菪碱1 mg/kg,对照组腹腔注射等体积生理盐水,每只动物每天训练20次,连续训练7 d,以正确反应率达到90%作为学会的标准,并记录各组的训练次数(达到学会标准所需的次数).行为实验结束后,立即麻醉后断头处死大鼠,在冰块上快速分离双侧海马,准确称重,按重量体积比加9倍生理盐水制成10%脑组织匀浆,2 000 r/min离心10min,采用乙酰胆碱酯酶测定试剂盒测定乙酰胆碱酯酶活性,采用双缩脲蛋白测定试剂盒测定海马脑蛋白含量,主要观察Y迷宫行为实验各组大鼠达标所需的训练次数、海马乙酰胆碱酯酶活力及海马脑蛋白含量.数据以x±s表示,组间比较采用t检验.结果:各实验组大鼠全部进入结果分析.①益智仁水提取物对东莨菪碱所致记忆障碍大鼠学习记忆能力的影响:益智仁低、中、高剂量组达标所需训练次数显著低于模型组[(58.6±15.0,55.0±13.8,67.6±8.7)次,(136.3±16.8)次,(P<0.01)],模型组大鼠达标所需训练次数显著高于对照组(P<0.01).②益智仁水提取物对东莨菪碱所致记忆障碍大鼠海马乙酰胆碱酯酶活力的影响:益智仁低剂量组和中剂量组海马乙酰胆碱酯酶活力显著低于模型组[(28.5±9.3,22.2±7.2)μkat/g,(47.2±18.8)μkat/g,(P<0.05)];模型组海马乙酰胆碱酯酶活力显著高于对照组(P<0.05).③益智仁水提取物对东莨菪碱所致记忆障碍大鼠海马脑蛋白含量的影响:与模型组相比,益智仁低剂量组、中剂量组脑蛋白含量显著增高(P<0.05);与对照组相比,模型组大鼠海马脑蛋白含量显著降低(P<0.05).结论:益智仁水提取物抑制乙酰胆碱酯酶活性,减少乙酰胆碱分解,提高海马脑蛋白含量,对东莨菪碱所致记忆获得障碍具有显著的改善作用.

  6. 益智仁乙醇提取物对东莨菪碱痴呆小鼠学习记忆的影响%Effects of Ethanol Extract of Fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. On Learning and Memory Ability in Scopolamine-induced Dementia Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李裕倩; 王英锋; 时小礼; 李天一; 张颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨益智仁40%乙醇提取物对东莨菪碱模型小鼠学习与记忆的影响.方法:雄性ICR小鼠,初筛后随机分组.连续灌胃20 d,第16 d开始采用Morris水迷宫法对各组小鼠的学习、记忆能力进行评价.结果:与空白组相比,腹腔注射4 mg/kg的氢溴酸东莨菪碱溶液可造出稳定、明显的痴呆模型.与模型组相比,益智仁乙醇提取物、毗拉西坦可以明显降低痴呆小鼠的潜伏期.结论:4 mg/kg的氢溴酸东莨菪碱注射液造模效果稳定、明显,4 g/kg益智仁乙醇提取物对东莨菪碱痴呆小鼠学习、记忆有明显的改善作用.

  7. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells

  8. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Wang, Chaoyuan [College of Life Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Su, Hanwen, E-mail: suhanwen-1@163.com [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xiang, Meixian, E-mail: xiangmeixian99@163.com [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  9. A revision of the genus Osmoxylon (Araliaceae) in Palau, including two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costion, Craig M; Plunkett, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Osmoxylon Miq. (Araliaceae) is revised for Palau, Micronesia including descriptions of two new taxa Osmoxylon leidichii Costion, sp. nov. and Osmoxylon ngardokense Costion, sp. nov. Full descriptions are provided for all four Palau species, along with diagnostic field keys. PMID:26884705

  10. Pollen waste and unrelated traits in a fig-fig wasp symbiosis : a new behaviour suggesting a host shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaloud, G; Bossu-Dupriez, N; Chevolot, M; Lasbleiz, C

    2005-01-01

    In a fig-fig wasp symbiosis, we have discovered that male fig pollinators (Alfonsiella fimbriata Waterston) bite into the dehiscent anthers of Ficus natalensis leprieuri Miq., thus scattering the pollen grains throughout the syconium. Female pollinators are the only ones to transfer pollen to conspe

  11. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae–Papilionoideae). 9. The genus Paraderris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Paraderris (Miq.) Geesink is discussed, mainly for the Malesian area. Two new species P. luzoniense and P. ornithocephalus are described. A key to the Malesian species is given. All currently recognized species are enumerated. All obligatory new combinations have been made.

  12. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 7: Ficus subgenus Urostigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The sections and subsections of Ficus subg. Urostigma are described and their Malesian species listed and keyed out. Two new species are established in the subgenus: F. kochummeniana and F. miqueliana. The combinations F. chrysolepis Miq. subsp. novoguineensis (Corner) C.C. Berg and F. crassiramea (

  13. The Intersection of Imagery Ability, Imagery Use, and Learning Style: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolles, Gina; Chatfield, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the intersection of the individual's imagery ability, imagery use in dance training and performance, and learning style. Thirty-four intermediate-level ballet and modern dance students at the University of Oregon completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-3 (LSI-3). The four…

  14. The Effect of Movement Imagery Training on Learning Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…

  15. Deilagaon, a new genus of Indo-Malayan and Papuan fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Introduction of the new genus Deilagaon with descriptions of new species chrysolepidis (type-species) from the Philippines (type-locality Luzon, ex Ficus chrysolepis Miq.), Celebes, New Guinea (ex F. novoguineensis Corner), Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Isis.; and annulatae from Thailand, Malaya (ex

  16. Psychometric qualities of a tetrad WAIS-III short form for use in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Hazel, T. van den; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reliability and validity of a Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-based Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - third edition (WAIS-III) short form (SF) in a sample of individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) (N=117; M-IQ=71.34; SDIQ=8.00, r

  17. Notes on the Marantaceae of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker-Verhoff, A.M.E.; Jonker, F.P.

    1956-01-01

    The list of Marantaceae published by PULLE (1906) comprises 20 species belonging to 6 genera, the largest genus being Calathea with 8 species. It was found, however, that one of the species does not belong to the family: investigation of the type of Calathea strobilifera (Miq.) Koern., viz. Kegel 14

  18. Salininema proteolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic rare actinomycete isolated from wetland soil, and emended description of the family Glycomycetaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikou, Mahdi Moshtaghi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Rasouli, Mehrnoush; Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Schumann, Peter; de la Haba, Rafael R; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-stain-positive actinobacterial strain, Miq-4T, was isolated from soil around Meighan wetland in the centre of Iran. Strain Miq-4T was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The isolate grew in the presence of 3–15 % (w/v) NaCl, at 20–40 °C and pH 6.0–11.0. The optimum NaCl, temperature and pH for growth were 7.0 %, 30 °C and 7.0–8.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Miq-4T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid and glucose and ribose as the whole-cell sugars. The polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Strain Miq-4T synthesized cellular fatty acids of anteiso- and iso-branched types, including anteiso-C17 : 0, anteiso- C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-9(H4). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and characteristic patterns of 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides revealed that strain Miq-4T belongs to the family Glycomycetaceae and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity with Haloglycomyces albus YIM 92370T (94.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain Miq-4T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Salininema proteoliyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is Miq-4T ( = IBRC-M 10908T = LMG 28391T). An emended description of the family Glycomycetaceae is also proposed in order to include features of the new genus. PMID:26219545

  19. Image Quality in Screening Mammography in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortality reduction through screening mammography (SMG) is possible only with examination of high image quality (IQ), which should be performed with acceptable patient breast radiation dose (BRD). Besides film processing control, equipment assessment with breast phantom and dosimetry, periodical external mammographic IQ assessment (MIQA) is needed, including image labelling (L), breast positioning (BP), exposure (EX) and artefacts (AR) assessment. The nationwide breast cancer screening program (NBSP) has been introduced in Croatia in 2006, and the MIQA is initiated as the first step in establishing quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) framework in breast imaging in Croatia. The current study was aimed: (1) to provide objective evidence about the technical MIQ in NBSP in Croatia, (2) to compare MIQ between different types of mammographic units (MUs), (3) to identify the common deficiencies, and (4) to propose corrective activities. Mammograms (MGs) for IQA were collected from a total of 84 MUs which participate in NBSP, which represents 70 % of all MUs nationwide: A total of 420 MG examinations were reviewed. Each MU was requested to submit ''what they consider to be their five best representative MGs, each one performed in one of five consecutive workdays''. Mean age of MG machines was 7.76 years (range 2 - 21), with no difference between four MU types. This very first study of MIQ in Croatia corroborated our intuitive impression of inadequate IQ, staff training and equipment in many MUs nationwide. As MIQ strongly influences BC detection rate, suboptimal QA/QC always carries a risk to compromise the success of NBSP. Deficiencies in SMG, especially in ID and BP reflect different level of competency of radiological staff in Croatia. Differences in MIQ in various MU types are determined by their organization, equipment, education, working habits and motivation. More efforts are needed to train both RTs and radiologists to implement and maintain QA/QC in their

  20. Preliminary analysis of productivity of fruiting fungi on Strzeleckie meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sadowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis demonstrated that the fresh ahd dry weight as well as the ash content of fungal fruit bodies collected on a forest-surrounded unmown meadow (Stellario-Deschampsietum Freitag 1957 and Caricetum elatae W.Koch 1926 were lower than the same values for a plot of exploited mown meadow and higher than on an exploited unmown meadow (Arrhenatheretum medioeuropaeum (Br.-Bl. Oberd. 1952.

  1. The contribution of cytogenetics and flow cytometry for understanding the karyotype evolution in three Dorstenia (Linnaeus, 1753) species (Moraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral-Silva, Paulo Marcos; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Praça-Fontes, Milene Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and for understanding the evolutionary history of different taxa. However, the chromosome number is the only karyotype aspect reported for the species of Dorstenia so far. In this study, the nuclear genome size of Dorstenia arifolia (Lamarck, 1786), Dorstenia bonijesu (Carauta & C. Valente, 1983) and Dorstenia elata (Hooker, 1840) was evaluated and their karyotype morphometry accomplished, with the aim of...

  2. Differential Performance between Two Timber Species in Forest Logging Gaps and in Plantations in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Fayolle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To develop silvicultural guidelines for high-value timber species of Central African moist forests, we assessed the performance of the pioneer Milicia excelsa (iroko, Moraceae, and of the non-pioneer light demander Pericopsis elata (assamela, Fabaceae in logging gaps and in plantations in highly degraded areas in south-eastern Cameroon. The survival and size of each seedling was regularly monitored in the silvicultural experiments. Differences in performance and allometry were tested between species in logging gaps and in plantations. The two species performance in logging gaps was significantly different from plantations and concurred with the expectations of the performance trade-off hypothesis but not with the expectations of species light requirements. The pioneer M. excelsa survived significantly better in logging gaps while the non-pioneer P. elata grew significantly faster in plantations. The high mortality and slow growth of M. excelsa in plantations is surprising for a pioneer species but could be explained by herbivory (attacks from a gall-making psyllid. Identifying high-value native timber species (i with good performance in plantations such as P. elata is of importance to restore degraded areas; and (ii with good performance in logging gaps such as M. excelsa is of importance to maintain timber resources and biodiversity in production forests.

  3. Leaf anatomy and histochemistry of three species of Ficus sect. Americanae supported by light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Nathalia Diniz; Coelho, Victor Peçanha M; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Agra, Maria de Fátima

    2014-02-01

    In this work the leaf anatomy of three species of Ficus section Americanae (Miq.) Miq. from Brazil, whose leaves and latex are used in folk medicine is reported. The work was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize these species and to evaluate their taxonomic significance, and also contribute to the quality control of their ethnodrugs. The three species (Ficus cyclophylla, Ficus elliotiana, and Ficus caatingae) showed hypostomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, straight epidermal cell outlines, and a dorsiventral mesophyll. Some micro-morphological characters such as density and distribution of epicuticular waxes, glandular trichomes, the length and width of stomata, as well as the palisade of mesophyll and petiole outlines proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation of species. These may contribute as additional support for the taxonomy of the section and for the quality control of their ethnodrugs.

  4. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25532337

  5. Antioxidant, inhibition of α-glucosidase and suppression of nitric oxide production in LPS-induced murine macrophages by different fractions of Actinidia arguta stem

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jaehak; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Mihae; Kim, Jaehun; Kim, Daeho; Kim, Sunpyo; Kim, Gur-Yoo; Kim, Songmun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    In traditional systems of medicine, fruits, leaves, and stems of Actinidia arguta (Sieb. et Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. have been used to treat various inflammatory diseases. The present study determined the proximate composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic potential of A. arguta stem. Phenolic composition of hot water extract and its sub-fractions was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent method. In vitro antioxidant activities of the samples were evaluated using 1,1-diphe...

  6. Morphology and anatomy of Justicia acuminatissima leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Christina S. Verdam; Débora T. Ohana; Maria Gracimar P. Araújo; Fernanda Guilhon-Simplicio; Maria Sílvia de Mendonça; Maria de M. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Justicia acuminatissima (Miq.) Bremek., Acanthaceae, is a subshrub found in northern Brazil, where it is widely used by the population of this region as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Despite this popular use, there is no pharmacognostical data to support the correct identification of this species. We therefore performed a morpho-anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this species, using well-known methods. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, green on the surfac...

  7. Study on the interaction of 6-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-6H-indolo [2,3-b]quinoxaline hydrochloride with human serum albumin by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, A.; Leonenko, I.; Scrypynets, Yu; Maltsev, G.; Antonovich, V.

    2016-09-01

    Under physiological conditions, in vitro interaction between the bio-active substance 6-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline hydrochloride (MIQ) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated at an excitation wavelength 260 nm and at different temperatures (298 K, 308 K and 313 K) by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. From spectral analysis, MIQ showed a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant is estimated asK A   =  2.55  ×  10-4 l · mol-1 at 298 K. Based on the thermodynamic parameters evaluated from the van ’t Hoff equation, the enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were derived to be negative values. A value of 2.37 nm for the average distance r between MIQ (acceptor) and tryptophan residues of HSA (donor) was derived from the fluorescence resonance energy transfer. UV/vis absorption spectra were used to confirm the quenching mechanism.

  8. Chemical constituents from the root of Croton lachynocarpus%毛果巴豆根的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Eleven compounds were isolated from the root of Croton lachynocarpus .They were identified as 3-acetoxy-erythrodiol(1 ),3-acetoxy-oleanoic acid (2 ),ilexgenin A (3 ),(24S)-24-ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6β-triol (4 ),dibutyl phthalate(5),diisobutyl phthalate(6),phthalic acid butyl isobutyl ester(7),Aralia cerebroside(8),ursolic acid(9),β-sitosterol(10)and daucosterol(11)on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses.All the compounds were firstly isolated from this plant.%对大戟科巴豆属植物毛果巴豆的根进行化学成分研究,并利用多种色谱方法分离得到11个化合物,根据理化性质和波谱学手段鉴定了结构。它们分别是3-乙酰高根二醇(1),3-乙酰齐墩果酸(2),ilexgenin A (3),(24S)-24-ethylcholesta-3β,5α,6β-triol(4),邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(5),邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(6),邻苯二甲酸正丁异丁酯(7),Aralia cerebroside(8),熊果酸(9),β-谷甾醇(10),胡萝卜苷(11)。所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到。

  9. Discovery of Highly Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitor, T1, with Significant Anti-Melanogenesis Ability by zebrafish in vivo Assay and Computational Molecular Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Wang-Chuan Chen; Tien-Sheng Tseng; Nai-Wan Hsiao; Yun-Lian Lin; Zhi-Hong Wen; Chin-Chuan Tsai; Yu-Ching Lee; Hui-Hsiung Lin; Keng-Chang Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is involved in melanin biosynthesis and the abnormal accumulation of melanin pigments leading to hyperpigmentation disorders that can be treated with depigmenting agents. A natural product T1, bis(4-hydroxybenzyl)sulfide, isolated from the Chinese herbal plant, Gastrodia elata, is a strong competitive inhibitor against mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 = 0.53 μM, Ki = 58 ± 6 nM), outperforms than kojic acid. The cell viability and melanin quantification assay demonstrate that 50 μM of T1 a...

  10. Allelopathic Potential of Invasive Plantago virginica on Four Lawn Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huatian; Zhou, Yumei; Chen, Yang; Wang, Quanxi; Jiang, Lifen; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-01-01

    Plantago virginica L. has invaded many lawn ecosystems in the Eastern part of China. The invasion has incurred an economic cost to remove them. In order to prevent the invasion, it is critical to understand the invasive mechanisms of this species. However, few studies have been conducted on the allelopathic mechanisms of its invasion. In this study, we examined allelopathic effects of P. virginica on germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of four widely used lawn species. We found extensive allelopathic potential of P. virginica on other lawn species, which varied with species and developmental stage. While most effects of the extracts of P. virginica were inhibitory, some variables in some species were promoted by the addition of the extracts. The extracts of P. virginica significantly inhibited seed germination of Agrostis matsumurae. While the overall differences in seed germination rate of Poa annua were significant among treatments, difference between control and any of the treatments was not significant. The height of seedlings of A. matsumurae and Cynodon dactylon was significantly lower under the treatments of adding extracts of P. virginica. In contrast, growth of seedlings of Festuca elata and P. annua did not show significant differences among treatments. The root length of A. matsumurae, C. dactylon and P. annua was suppressed by the extracts of P. virginica whereas root length of F. elata was not affected. Aboveground biomass of A. matsumurae and F. elata was significantly higher than control, except for F. elata at the concentration of 50mg/mL, whereas aboveground biomass of C. dactylon and P. annua was reduced at higher concentrations of the extracts. Except for A. matsumurae, root biomass of the other three lawn species declined under the treatments with the extracts of P. virginica. Our results revealed that P. virginica had allelopathic potential on four lawn species and supported the theory of "novel weapons hypothesis". Invasion by P

  11. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhaohui; Xie, Yuanyuan; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters C max and AUC0-∞ (P Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic "herb pair" has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

  12. Evaluation of Athrixia bush tea for cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, caffeine content and presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaw, L J; Steenkamp, V; Eloff, J N

    2007-03-01

    In South Africa, Athrixia phylicoides DC. (bush tea) is widely used as a beverage, cough remedy and purgative. The commercialization of this tea in a similar vein to rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), is being considered. Traditional infusions and decoctions, as well as water and ethanol extracts, were prepared and screened. A related species, Athrixia elata Sond. (daisy tea), was included in many of the assays as a comparison. Extracts of Athrixia phylicoides and Athrixia elata were tested for toxic effects to brine shrimp larvae and the Vero kidney cell line. In both assays, the traditional preparations and aqueous extracts had little effect, but the ethanol extracts were relatively toxic. Antioxidant activity comparable to that found in rooibos was established. No detectable levels of caffeine were present in the Athrixia extracts following analysis using TLC and I/HCl spray reagent. Neither screening using spectrophotometry nor confirmation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed evidence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Athrixia phylicoides. Although a wider range of studies needs to be conducted prior to commercialization, these results support the development of bush tea as a healthy alternative to caffeine-containing beverages. PMID:17045437

  13. Discovery of Highly Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitor, T1, with Significant Anti-Melanogenesis Ability by zebrafish in vivo Assay and Computational Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wang-Chuan; Tseng, Tien-Sheng; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Lin, Yun-Lian; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lee, Yu-Ching; Lin, Hui-Hsiung; Tsai, Keng-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is involved in melanin biosynthesis and the abnormal accumulation of melanin pigments leading to hyperpigmentation disorders that can be treated with depigmenting agents. A natural product T1, bis(4-hydroxybenzyl)sulfide, isolated from the Chinese herbal plant, Gastrodia elata, is a strong competitive inhibitor against mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 = 0.53 μM, Ki = 58 +/- 6 nM), outperforms than kojic acid. The cell viability and melanin quantification assay demonstrate that 50 μM of T1 apparently attenuates 20% melanin content of human normal melanocytes without significant cell toxicity. Moreover, the zebrafish in vivo assay reveals that T1 effectively reduces melanogenesis with no adverse side effects. The acute oral toxicity study evidently confirms that T1 molecule is free of discernable cytotoxicity in mice. Furthermore, the molecular modeling demonstrates that the sulfur atom of T1 coordinating with the copper ions in the active site of tyrosinase is essential for mushroom tyrosinase inhibition and the ability of diminishing the human melanin synthesis. These results evident that T1 isolated from Gastrodia elata is a promising candidate in developing pharmacological and cosmetic agents of great potency in skin-whitening.

  14. The contribution of cytogenetics and flow cytometry for understanding the karyotype evolution in three Dorstenia (Linnaeus, 1753) species (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Silva, Paulo Marcos; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Praça-Fontes, Milene Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and for understanding the evolutionary history of different taxa. However, the chromosome number is the only karyotype aspect reported for the species of Dorstenia so far. In this study, the nuclear genome size of Dorstenia arifolia (Lamarck, 1786), Dorstenia bonijesu (Carauta & C. Valente, 1983) and Dorstenia elata (Hooker, 1840) was evaluated and their karyotype morphometry accomplished, with the aim of verifying the potential of those parameters to understand evolutionary issues. Mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 3.49 picograms (pg) for Dorstenia elata to 2C = 5.47 pg for Dorstenia arifolia, a variation of ± 1.98 pg. Even though showing a marked difference in 2C value, the three species exhibited the same 2n = 32. Corroborating the flow cytometry data, differences in chromosome morphology were found among the karyotypes of the species investigated. Based on this and the only phylogeny proposed for Dorstenia thus far, structural rearrangements are related to the karyotype variations among the three species. Besides, the karyological analysis suggests a polyploid origin of the Dorstenia species studied here.

  15. Systems pharmacology to decipher the combinational anti-migraine effects of Tianshu formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Jingxiao; Zhang, Lilei; Chen, Xuetong; Pan, Yanqiu; Chen, Su-Shing; Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Yang, Ling; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-11-01

    Migraine is the most common neurovascular disorder that imparts a considerable burden to health care system around the world. However, currently there are still no effective and widely applicable pharmacotherapies for migraine patients. Herbal formulae, characterized as multiple herbs, constituents and targets, have been acknowledged with clinical effects in treating migraine, which attract more and more researchers' attention although their exact molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this work, a novel systems pharmacology-based method which integrates pharmacokinetic filtering, target fishing and network analysis was developed and exemplified by a probe, i.e. Tianshu formula, a widely clinically used anti-migraine herbal formula in China which comprises of Rhizoma chuanxiong and Gastrodia elata. The results exhibit that 20 active ingredients of Tianshu formula possess favorable pharmacokinetic profiles, which have interactions with 48 migraine-related targets to provide potential synergistic therapeutic effects. Additionally, from systematic analysis, we speculate that R. chuanxiong as the monarch herb mediates the major targets like PTGS2, ESR1, NOS2, HTR1B and NOS3 to regulate the vascular and nervous systems, as well as the inflammation and pain-related pathways to benefit migraine patients. Meanwhile, as an adjuvant herb, G. elata may not only assist the monarch herb to improve the outcome of migraine patients, but also regulate multiple targets like ABAT, HTR1D, ALOX15 and KCND3 to modify migraine accompanying symptoms like vomiting, vertigo and gastrointestinal disorders.

  16. The reliability and validity study of the Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire in individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Moghadas Tabrizi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Motor imagery (MI has been recently considered as an adjunct to physical rehabilitation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It is necessary to assess MI abilities and benefits in patients with MS by using a reliable tool. The Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ was recently developed to assess MI ability in patients with stroke and other disabilities. Considering the different underlying pathologies, the present study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of the KVIQ in MS patients. METHOD: Fifteen MS patients were assessed using the KVIQ in 2 sessions (5-14days apart by the same examiner. In the second session, the participants also completed a revised MI questionnaire (MIQ-R as the gold standard. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs were measured to determine test-retest reliability. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to assess concurrent validity with the MIQ-R. Furthermore, the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and factorial structure of the KVIQ were studied. RESULTS: The test-retest reliability for the KVIQ was good (ICCs: total KVIQ=0.89, visual KVIQ=0.85, and kinesthetic KVIQ=0.93, and the concurrent validity between the KVIQ and MIQ-R was good (r=0.79. The KVIQ had good internal consistency, with high Cronbach's alpha (alpha=0.84. Factorial analysis showed the bi-factorial structure of the KVIQ, which was explained by visual=57.6% and kinesthetic=32.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study revealed that the KVIQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing MI in MS patients.

  17. 天麻与钩藤配伍前后天麻素在SHR大鼠肝脏和肾脏的分布与归经探讨%Distribution of Gastrodin in Liver and Kidney Tissue of SHR Rats before and after Compatibility of Gastrodia data and Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis and Meridian Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 李晓倩; 王兴; 辛秀; 张卫国; 王敏智

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立SHR大鼠肝、肾组织中天麻素含量的测定方法,并通过天麻与钩藤配伍前后效应成分天麻素的组织分布差异探讨归经.方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定SHR大鼠肝、肾组织中天麻素的含量.色谱柱为Phenomenence LunaC1s(250 mm×4.6mm,5um),流动相为乙腈-1%磷酸(3:97),流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为220nm,柱温为30℃,进样量为10uL.结果:天麻素的检测浓度在0.312 5~200 μg·mL-1范围内同其峰面积与内标峰面积之比呈良好线性关系.天麻与钩藤配伍前后天麻素在肝脏和肾脏的分布有显著性差异.结论:此方法能准确、灵敏地测定大鼠肝、肾组织中天麻素含量.天麻与钩藤的配伍对天麻素在SHR大鼠肝、肾中的分布及归经有显著的影响.%OBJECTIVE: To establish an method for the content determination of gastrodin in liver and kidney tissue of SHR rats and to discuss the meridian distribution of Gastrodia elata by contrasting the differences of gastrodin tissue distribution before and after compatibility of G. Elata and Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis. METHODS: The contents of gastrodin in liver and kidney tissue of SHR rats were determined by HPLC. The analysis was carried on Phenomenence Luna ds column(250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-1% phosphoric acid (3:97) at flow rate of 1.0 rnL·min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 220 nm and column temperature was 30 ℃. The injection volume was 10 μL. RESULTS: The linear rang of gastrodin was 0.312 5~200 ng·mL-1. The data showed significant difference of the distribution of gastrodin in liver and kidney before and after compatibility of G. Elata and Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis. CONCLUSION: The method is sensitive and accurate for the content determination of gastrodin in liver and kidney tissue of SHR rats. The compatibility of G. Elata and Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis shows a significant effect on the meridian distribution of G. Elata

  18. 中国大陆植物分布新记录种——菱叶常春藤%A New Record of Distribution in Mainland China:Hedera rhombea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建强; 马丹丹; 胡冬冬; 胡军飞; 欧丹燕; 金水虎

    2010-01-01

    报道了发现于浙江省国家级风景名胜区普陀山的一种五加科(Araliaceae)常春藤属(Hedera)植物-菱叶常春藤[Hedera rhombea(Miq.)Bean],为中国大陆种的地理分布新记录,并对其形态特征、生境、用途及所处群落的主要植物做了介绍.

  19. Novas espécies e notas sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Pará e do nordeste do Brasil New species and notes on Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from Pará and Brazilian norteastern

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    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on material collected by P. Jauffert in Pará and by L. Ianuzzi in Alagoas and Sergipe, four new species are described: Temnopis fasciata sp. nov. (Oemini and Dihammaphoroides jaufferti sp. nov. (Cleomenini from Pará. This species breads in branches of Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens (Miq. J. W. Grimes, Fabaceae. Adetus tuberosus sp. nov. (Apomecynini and Mimasyngenes lucianae sp. nov. (Desmiphorini from Alagoas. New records and notes are provided for Neocompsa serrana (Martins, 1962 and Rhopalophora occipitalis Chevrolat, 1859.

  20. 天麻眩晕宁颗粒原药材中钩藤、泽泻、半夏的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董慧

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 检查项目 1.1 钩藤:本品为茜草科植物钩藤Uncaria macrophylla Wall.、毛钩藤Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq.)Jacks.、大叶钩藤Uncaria hirsute Havil.、无柄果钩藤Uncaria sessilifructus Roxb.或华钩藤Uncaria sinensis(Oliv.)Havil.的干燥带钩茎枝.秋、冬二季采收,去叶,切段,晒干.

  1. 钩藤的药理作用及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄青萍; 蔡乐

    2003-01-01

    @@ 钩藤出自,为茜草科植物钩藤Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq.)Jacks.或华钩藤Uncariasinensis(Oliv.)Havil.及其同属多种植物的干燥带钩茎枝.其性微寒,味甘,归肝、心包经,可清热平肝,熄风定惊.用于头痛眩晕,感冒夹惊,惊痫抽搐,妊娠子痫,高血压症等,临床常配伍入药.

  2. 三明产钩藤中生物碱类成分的薄层色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永静; 陈丹; 陈强; 范世明

    2010-01-01

    @@ 钩藤系茎木类药材,原植物为茜草科钩藤[Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq.)Jacks.]、大叶钩藤[Uncaria macrophylla Wall.]、毛钩藤[Uncaria hirsute Havil.]、华钩藤[Uncaria sinensis(Olive.)Havil.]、无柄果钩藤[Uncaria sessilifructus Roxb.]干燥带钩茎枝等[1],为多来源药物.广泛分布于福建、湖南、广东、广西、贵州、四川等省.

  3. Chromosomal Studies on Seven Species of Indigofera L.%七种木蓝属植物的染色体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑霞; 高信芬; 徐波; 涂卫国

    2011-01-01

    本文采用根尖压片法对豆科( Leguminosae)木蓝属(Indigofera L)植物的7个种:多花木蓝(tndigofera amblyantha Craib)、河北木蓝(I.bungeana Walp.)、滇木蓝(1.delavayi Franch.)、腺毛木蓝(I.scabrida Dunn)、四川木蓝(I.szechuensis Craib)、刺序木蓝(I.silvestrii Pamp.)、尖叶木蓝(I.zollingeriana Miq.)的染色体数目和核型进行了研究.结果表明:除了尖叶木蓝染色体数目为2n =4x =32(四倍体)外,其余6种木蓝的染色体数目均为2n =2x =16(二倍体).尖叶木蓝和刺序木蓝核型分类为2A型,其余5种木蓝的核型均为1A型.种间核型差异很小.供试种主要包含中部着丝点区染色体.滇木蓝、腺毛木蓝、刺序本蓝、四川木蓝和尖叶术蓝的核型分析为首次报道.%The chromosome number and karyotype of seven species of Indigofera L. Were studied by applying the root tip squash technique. Results show that six species were diploid (2n=2×=16) .while Indigofera zollingeriana Miq. Was tetraploid (2n=2×=32). The karyo-types of I. Zollingeriana Miq. And /. Silvestrii Pamp. Belonged to 2A, while the others were 1A. The karyological difference between species was small. Most chromosomes in the tested seven species were metacentric. The karyomorphology of I. Delavayi Franch,I. Scabrida Dunn,I. Silvestrii Pamp,I.szechuensis Craib and I. Zollingeriana Miq. Are reported here for the first time.

  4. Evolutionary Relationships of Araliaceae in the Malesian Region: a Preliminary Analysis%东南亚地区五加科植物进化关系的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文军; 朱昱苹; Chunghee LEE; Elizabeth WIDJAJA; LENG Guan Saw

    2008-01-01

    We employ the nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences to assess the evolutionary relationships of Araliaceae in the Malesian region. Malesian Araliaceae consist of 14 genera and about 500 species. Our analysis suggests a diffuse origin of Araliaceae taxa, with many genera belong to the Asian palmate clade or the tribe Hedereae. The Malesian endemic Harmsiopanax is morphologically unique and its phylogenetic position is not well resolved at present. Several morphologically diverse species of Brassaiopsis perhaps have a relatively recent origin in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, as suggested by their monophyly as well as their low ITS sequence divergence. Wardenia is not supported as W. simplex ( = B. simplex) is nested within Brassaiopsis. The Malayan region is important for the development of Schefflera, and available evidence suggests that Scheffera in the region forms a clade with the Heptapleurum group. Dendropanax lancifolius does not form a clade with the core group of Dendropanax, and its status needs to be further analyzed. Macropanax maingayi was considered to be a highly distinct member comprising the monotypic genus Hederopsis. Our analysis clearly places it in Macropanax. Aralia merrillii was once considered to be the sole member of the genus Acanthophora because of its unusual climbing habit. The ITS data support its placement in Aralia. Our expanded sampling of ArthrophyUum continues to support its monophyly. Osmoxylon has a primary distribution in the Malesian region and it is a hylogenetically isolated member of Araliaceae.%东南亚五加科包含14个属约500种,本文应用ITS片段对该区五加科植物的进化关系作了初步研究.研究显示该地区五加科植物具有复杂的起源,很多属属于亚洲掌状复叶类群或Hedereae族的一支中.该区特有类群Harmsiopanax形态上非常特殊,但其系统位置尚未不明朗.在Brassaiopsis属中,有几种形态差异较大的种,但它们属同一单系,加之各种问ITS序列差

  5. Effects of Extraction Method and Tissues on the Quality of Genomic DNA in Fritillaria thunbergii%提取方法与部位对浙贝母基因组DNA提取质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 王晓飞; 金晓霞; 王忠华

    2011-01-01

    探讨了改良CTAB法、SDS法、高盐低pH法和试剂盒法对浙贝母(Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.)基因组DNA的提取效果.综合比较了各方法提取的DNA浓度、纯度、完整性,结果表明高盐低pH法是比较适合浙贝母新鲜叶片基因组DNA提取的方法.比较了分别以叶片和鳞茎为材料提取的DNA质量,发现以新鲜叶片为材料提取的DNA浓度和纯度较高,更适合用于提取浙贝母基因组DNA.%Modified CTAB method, high salt low pH method, SDS method and DNA Mini-prep kit method were used to extract genomic DNA from Fritlllaria thunbergii Miq. Comprehensive comparison of the concentration, purity and integrity of ge-nomic DNA extracted by various methods showed that high salt low pH method was the suitable method for extracting DNA from F. Thunbergii. Comparison between the DNA extracted from fresh leaves and bulb revealed that DNA obtained from fresh leaves was with higher concentration and purity, thus fresh leaves were better materials for DNA extraction of F. Thunbergii.

  6. 温州植物区系新资料(Ⅱ)%New Materials in Flora of Wenzhou(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美秀; 陈佳丽; 吴玉南; 余翔; 丁炳扬; 胡仁勇

    2014-01-01

    13 new recorded in flora of Wenzhou have been recently reported, including 5 new distribution-record genera, i.e., Arabis Linn., Turritis Linn., Primula Linn., Mitrasacme Labill. and Diplacrum R. Br., and 8 new distribution-record species of Cardamine limprichtiana Pax, Arabis flagellosa Miq. and Turritis glabra Linn. of Cruciferae, Primula cicutariifolia Pax of Primulaceae, Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.&Wilson and Mitrasacme pygmaea R. Br. of Loganiaceae, Gentiana delicata Hance of Gentianaceae and Diplacrum caricinum R. Br. of Cyperaceae.%报道了近来发现的5个温州分布新纪录属:南芥属(Arabis Linn.)、旗杆芥属(Turritis Linn.)、报春花属(Primula Linn.)、尖帽草属(Mitrasacme Labill.)和裂颖茅属(Diplacrum R. Br.),8个温州分布新记录种:心叶碎米荠(Cardamine limprichtiana Pax)、匍匐南芥(Arabis flagellosa Miq.)、旗杆芥(Turritis glabra Linn.),毛茛叶报春(Primula cicutariifolia Pax),柳叶蓬莱葛(Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.&Wilson),水田白(Mitrasacme pygmaea R. Br.),黄山龙胆(Gentiana delicata Hance)和裂颖茅(Diplacrum caricinum R. Br.).

  7. 悬钩子属部分类群的分类订正%TAXONOMIC REVISION ON SEVERAL TAXA INTHE GENUS RUBUS(ROSACEAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维林; 贺善安

    2001-01-01

    根据野外调查和查阅标本的结果,对悬钩子属部分类群做了修订.将红毛悬钩子(R. pinfaensis Lévl. et Vant.)并入椭圆悬钩子(R. ellipticus Smith),栽秧泡(R. ellipticus Smith var. obcordatus (Franch.) Focke)提升为种(R. obcordatus (Franch.) Focke);棱枝细瘦悬钩子(R. macilentus Camb. var. angulatus Delav. )并入细瘦悬钩子(R. macilentus Camb.);毛叶插田泡(R. coreanus Miq. var.tomentosus Card.)并入插田泡(R. coreanus Miq.);狭叶绢毛悬钩子(R.lineatus Reinw. var. angustifolius Hook.)并入绢毛悬钩子(R.lineatus Reinw.).对针刺悬钩子(R. pungens Camb.)及其各变种做了订正.

  8. Effect of Ethanol Extract of Different Plant Breeds Uncaria Schreb on Blood Pressure in Normal Rat%钩藤属部分不同种植物药材对正常大鼠血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何飞; 苏华; 韦桂宁; 曾宪彪; 周军; 黄瑞松

    2013-01-01

    normal control group, nifedipine (0. 002 g·kg-1) group and ethanol extract groups of six breeds of Uncaria Schreb at dose of crude drug 34.2, 17. 1 g ·kg-1. The caudal artery blood pressures were recorded on 0, 7, 11 days after repeated intragastric administration. Result: Uncaria rhynchophlly (Miq. ) Miq. ex Havil at doses of 68. 4, 34.2 g ·kg-1 could significantly decrease the common carotid artery blood pressure of normal rats from 0. 5 h to 3 h after single dose administration (P < 0. 01 ). U. rhynchophlly ( Miq. ) Miq. ex Havil at doses of 17. 1, 34. 2 g ·kg-1 , U. macrophylla Wall and U. rhynchophylloides F. C. How at dose of 34. 2 g crude drug·kg-1 could significantly decrease the caudal artery blood pressure of normal rats after repeated intragastric administration (P<0.01). But U. scandens (Sm. ) Huntch, U. lancifolia Hutch and U. homomalla Miq could not decrease the common carotid artery and caudal artery blood pressure of normal rat. Conclusion: U. rhynchophlly (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil, U. macrophylla Wall and U. rhynchophylloides F. C. How could significantly decrease the blood pressure of normal rats. But U. scandens (Sm. ) Huntch, U. lancifolia Hutch and U. homomalla Miq showed no influence on blood pressure in normal rat.

  9. Mechanistic studies of the transport of peimine in the Caco-2 cell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for its expectorant, antitussive, antiinflammatory and analgesic properties. Moreover, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that F. thunbergii Miq. has efficacy in the treatment of leukemia and cancers of the liver and cervix. Although the alkaloid, peimine, is largely responsible for these pharmacological effects, it has very low oral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption of peimine in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Having demonstrated that peimine is non-toxic to Caco-2 cells at concentrations <200 μmol/L, the effect of peimine concentration, pH, temperature, efflux transport protein inhibitors and EDTA-Na2 on peimine transport were studied. The results show that peimine transport is concentration-dependent; that at pH 6.0 and 7.4, the Papp(AP-BL of peimine is not significantly different but the Papp(BL-AP is; that both Papp(AP-BL and Papp(BL-AP at 4 °C are significantly higher than their corresponding values at 37 °C; that the P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, increase absorption of peimine; and that EDTA-Na2 has no discernible effect. In summary, the results demonstrate that the intestinal absorption of peimine across Caco-2 cell monolayers involves active transport and that peimine is a substrate of P-gp.

  10. 国产玉叶金花属(茜草科)的三个新异名%Three new synonyms in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小芳; 张奠湘

    2006-01-01

    The taxonomic status of two species and one form of the genus Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) from China is clarified: M. inflata Hsue & H. Wu, M. anomala Li and M. pubescens Ait. f. forma clematidiflora Chun ex Hsue & H. Wu are reduced to synonyms of M. hirsutula Miq., M. esquirolii Lévl. and M. pubescens Ait. f. respectively.%澄清了中国产玉叶金花属Mussaenda 2种1变型的分类学位置, 分别将胀管玉叶金花M. inflata Hsue & H. Wu、异形玉叶金花M. anomala Li和灵仙玉叶金花M. pubescens Ait. f. forma clematidiflora Chun ex Hsue & H. Wu作为粗毛玉叶金花M. hirsutula Miq.、大叶白纸扇M. esquirolii Lévl.和玉叶金花M. pubescens Ait. f.的新异名处理.

  11. Construction, database integration, and application of an Oenothera EST library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrácek, Jaroslav; Greiner, Stephan; Cho, Won Kyong; Rauwolf, Uwe; Braun, Martha; Umate, Pavan; Altstätter, Johannes; Stoppel, Rhea; Mlcochová, Lada; Silber, Martina V; Volz, Stefanie M; White, Sarah; Selmeier, Renate; Rudd, Stephen; Herrmann, Reinhold G; Meurer, Jörg

    2006-09-01

    Coevolution of cellular genetic compartments is a fundamental aspect in eukaryotic genome evolution that becomes apparent in serious developmental disturbances after interspecific organelle exchanges. The genus Oenothera represents a unique, at present the only available, resource to study the role of the compartmentalized plant genome in diversification of populations and speciation processes. An integrated approach involving cDNA cloning, EST sequencing, and bioinformatic data mining was chosen using Oenothera elata with the genetic constitution nuclear genome AA with plastome type I. The Gene Ontology system grouped 1621 unique gene products into 17 different functional categories. Application of arrays generated from a selected fraction of ESTs revealed significantly differing expression profiles among closely related Oenothera species possessing the potential to generate fertile and incompatible plastid/nuclear hybrids (hybrid bleaching). Furthermore, the EST library provides a valuable source of PCR-based polymorphic molecular markers that are instrumental for genotyping and molecular mapping approaches. PMID:16829020

  12. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN, gastrodin (GAS, and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG. At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and Cmax⁡ and AUC0–∞ (P<0.05 were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint.

  13. De novo biosynthesis of Gastrodin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanfen; Yin, Hua; Bi, Huiping; Zhuang, Yibin; Liu, Tao; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-05-01

    Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the key ingredient of Gastrodia elata, a notable herbal plant that has been used to treat various conditions in oriental countries for centuries. Gastrodin is extensively used clinically for its sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties in China. Gastrodin is usually produced by plant extraction or chemical synthesis, which has many disadvantages. Herein, we report unprecedented microbial synthesis of gastrodin via an artificial pathway. A Nocardia carboxylic acid reductase, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and a Rhodiola glycosyltransferase UGT73B6 transformed 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, an intermediate of ubiquinone biosynthesis, into gastrodin in Escherichia coli. Pathway genes were overexpressed to enhance metabolic flux toward precursor 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. Furthermore, the catalytic properties of the UGT73B6 toward phenolic alcohols were improved through directed evolution. The finally engineered strain produced 545mgl(-1) gastrodin in 48h. This work creates a new route to produce gastrodin, instead of plant extractions and chemical synthesis.

  14. Comparison of mineral element content in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains%秦岭产9种野菜中矿质元素含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟君; 张九东; 陶贵荣; 杜喜春

    2012-01-01

    Contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in Cardamine macrophylla var. macrophylla Willd., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum ( Desv.) Underw. ex Heller, Aralia chinensis L., Osmunda japonica Thunb., Vitex trifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Lycium chinense Miller and Cichorium intybus L. from Qinling Mountains were determined, and compared to average contents of those mineral elements in cultivation foliage vegetables. The results show that contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in nine wild vegetables are 2. 90-14.20,0.5-3.6, 2.7-14.3,4.5-50.6, 141.9-4 646.0,106.3-643.9, 2 029.8-8 583.5, 295.3-1 136.0 and 3 870.0-14 011. 9 μg · g-1 , respectively. In which, Fe content in C. intybus, Ca content in V. trifolia, Mg and K contents in C. album, Zn and Mn contents in A. chinensis and Cu, N and P contents in 0. japonica all are the highest. Average contents of Ca, N, Fe and K in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains all have very obvious difference with those in cultivation foliage vegetables, but differences in average contents of Cu, Mg and P among them are relatively small.

  15. Evolução do uso e valorização das espécies madeiráveis da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Alto-Uruguai, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species identification and their market value and price evolution since the colonization time of the remnants of the Brazilian Semi-Evergreen Forest (Floresta Estacional Decidual do Rio Uruguai for potential timber production was assessed through 41 questionnaires, applied to timbermen and settlers from the surrounding region. The diversity of species for timber production commonly known by the people reached 63. From the 15 predominant species is relevant to mention Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana and Peltophorum dubium. The species with the highest commercial value were: Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Data from the interviews suggest that several species from the Lauraceae family and Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum had an increment in use and commercial value during the last 15 years. Changing in the commercial value of a species was pointed out as due not only to the timber quality but also to the amount of the timber availability. Overall, it was detected that the species values changed across time and that the timber industry found several ways to adapt to the demands of forest products.

  16. Apoptosis-induced cell death due to oleanolic acid in HaCaT keratinocyte cells--a proof-of-principle approach for chemopreventive drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a naturally occurring triterpenoid in food materials and is a component of the leaves and roots of Olea europaea, Viscum album L., Aralia chinensis L. and more than 120 other plant species. There are several reports validating its antitumor activity against different cancer cells apart from its hepatoprotective activity. However, antitumor activity against skin cancer has not been studied well thus far. Hence the present study of effects of OA against HaCaT (immortalized keratinocyte) cells--a cell-based epithelial model system for toxicity/ethnopharmacology-based studies--was conducted. Radical scavenging activity (DPPH·) and FRAP were determined spectrophotometrically. Proliferation was assessed by XTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 hrs with exposure to various concentrations (12.5-200 μM) of OA. Apoptotic induction potential of OA was demonstrated using a cellular DNA fragmentation ELISA method. Morphological studies were also carried out to elucidate its antitumor potential. The results revealed that OA induces apoptosis by altering cellular morphology as well as DNA integrity in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, with comparatively low cytotoxicity. The moderate toxicity observed in HaCaT cells, with induction of apoptosis, possibly suggests greater involvement of programmed-cell death-mediated mechanisms. We conclude that OA has relatively low toxicity and has the potential to induce apoptosis in HaCaT cells and hence provides a substantial and sound scientific basis for further validation studies. PMID:22901164

  17. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O.  & DUYFJES, BRIGITTA E.E. 2004. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia. Reinwardtia 12(2:129 – 133. — Kedrostis (Cucurbitaceae occurs in Africa and Madagascar and comprises 4 (5 species in Asia. Of these 2 species are found in India and Sri Lanka and 2 (3 species in western Malesia. One Malesian species is for the first time included in Kedrostis here, Kedrostis bennettii (Miq. W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, and one species is described as new here, Kedrostis hirta W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. One more Malesian species is insufficiently known to be formally described.  Keywords: Kedrostis, Cucurbitaceae, SE Asia, taxonomy

  18. 皂角刺及其伪品同属植物棘刺的理化鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周日宝; 石国强

    1999-01-01

    @@ 皂角刺属常用中药,来源于豆科Leguminosae)皂荚属(Gleditsia)植物皂荚(G.sinensis Lam.)的干燥棘刺,调查研究发现,在皂角刺原药材或饮片中常混杂有同属植物山皂荚(G.japonica Miq.)、华南皂荚(G.fera (Lour.)Merr.)、绒毛皂荚(G.vestita Chan et Hou ex B.G.Li)和滇皂荚(G.delavayi Franch.)的棘刺,类似的报道也较多[1,2].为此,笔者对皂角刺及其同属植物棘刺的混伪品进行了薄层层析和紫外吸收光谱的鉴别研究,现将结果报告如下.

  19. Isolation and antifungal activity of kakuol, a propiophenone derivative from Asarum sieboldii rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Yeop; Moon, Surk Sik; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2005-08-01

    An antifungal substance active against Colletotrichum orbiculare (Berk & Mont) Arx was isolated from the methanol extracts of Asarum sieboldii (Miq) Maek rhizomes. High-resolution MS, NMR and UV spectral data confirmed that the antifungal substance is kakuol, 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxypropiophenone. Colletotrichum orbiculare was most sensitive to kakuol, with MIC of 10 microg ml(-1). Kakuol also completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr and Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arthur at 50 microg ml(-1) and 30 microg ml(-1), respectively. However, no antimicrobial activity was found against yeast and bacteria even at 100 microg ml(-1). Kakuol exhibited a protective activity against the development of anthracnose disease on cucumber plants. The control efficacy of kakuol against the anthracnose disease was in general somewhat less than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothalonil. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of kakuol against C. orbiculare infection. PMID:15846774

  20. [Evolution of the origin of strain of Shancigu (Rhizoma Pleionis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyan; Song, Xiangwen; Han, Bangxing; Fang, Shiying

    2015-05-01

    Shancigu (Rhizome Pleionis) was first recorded in the Ben cao shiyi (Supplements to Chinese Materia Medica). The source of the strain of this medicinal was unclear because of its too simple description in the medical books in the Tang and Song dynasties. Its original plant could be Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino, Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker and so on. The original plant of Shanciguwas Tulipaedulis since the Ming dynasty to the Republican period. The name of "Guangcigu" began to appear in the Republican period because of the changes of its processing method. The original plants evolved into Cremastra appendiculata, Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe and Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe, with Tulipa edulisas the original plant of Guangcigu (Bulbus of Tulipasedulis). It is found that only the Tulipaedulis is the unequivocal origin with the longest medicinal history through sorting out of the original plants of Shancigu. Hence, it is suggested that Tulipa edulis should be recovered as the original strain of Shancigu. PMID:26420522

  1. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites

  2. Role of the Gelatinous Layer (G-Layer) on the Origin of the Physical Properties of the Tension Wood of Acer sieboldianum

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, H; Arakawa, Y; Okuyama, T; Gril, J; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Abe, Kentaro; Arakawa, Yoshiharu; Okuyama, Takashi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The tension wood (TW) properties of a 70 year-old Acer sieboldianum Miq were analyzed by using the G-fiber model which was proposed in our previous paper. The roles of the G-layer on the origins of (1) a high large tensile growth stress, (2) a large longitudinal Young's modulus, and (3) a high longitudinal drying shrinkage in the tension wood xylem were discussed on the basis of the simulations using the G-fiber model. The results suggest that the G-layer generates a high tensile stress in the longitudinal direction during the xylem maturation; the longitudinal Young's modulus of the green G-layer becomes significantly higher than that of the lignified layer; furthermore, the G-layer tends to shrink extraordinarily higher than that of the lignified layer during the moisture desorption.

  3. Use of video observation and motor imagery on jumping performance in national rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Claudia; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Tsopani, Despina; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a mental training protocol could improve gymnastic jumping performance. Seventy-two rhythmic gymnasts were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. At baseline, experimental group completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Revised (MIQ-R) to assess the gymnast ability to generate movement imagery. A repeated measures design was used to compare two different types of training aimed at improving jumping performance: (a) video observation and PETTLEP mental training associated with physical practice, for the experimental group, and (b) physical practice alone for the control group. Before and after six weeks of training, their jumping performance was measured using the Hopping Test (HT), Drop Jump (DJ), and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ). Results revealed differences between jumping parameters F(1,71)=11.957; pprotocol described herein was shown to improve jumping performance, thereby preserving the elite athlete's energy for other tasks. PMID:25457420

  4. Antileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mesquita Marques

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases, representing a group of parasitic diseases worldwide spread, occurring in 88 tropical and subtropical countries. Approximately 350 million people live in areas of active transmission of leishmaniasis, with about 1-2 million estimated new cases occurring every year. More than 90% of the cutaneous cases appear in developing countries. Efforts to improve the therapeutic arsenal against leishmaniasis have led to the search for new and cheap range of drugs. In this study, the nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum (Miq. C. DC., Piperaceae, was assayed on arginase activity of Leishmania amazonensis. The effect of this essential oil on arginase activity levels showed an enzyme inhibition of 62.2%. This result stimulates the scientific interest about the potential value of this plant species on neglected diseases as potential new natural product source of pharmacological interest for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  5. 钩藤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    别名双钩藤、金钩草、倒挂刺。基源为茜草科植物钧藤Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq)Jacks的干燥带钧茎枝。识别要点常绿木质藤本。根肥厚,淡黄色。枝条四棱形,叶腋有对生的两钩,钩尖向下弯曲,形似鹰爪。叶对生,叶片椭圆形或卵状披针形。夏日开花,绒球状头状花序单生于叶腋或枝顶,花黄色。蒴果。

  6. Estimativa por infravermelho da concentração da unidade estrutural b-O-4 em ligninas de angiospermas tropicais Infrared estimates of the concentration of the b-o-4 structural unit in lignins of tropical angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber dos Santos Abreu

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Five Björkman lignins, codified as AM, LL, GG, PP and AP, were isolated from wood species of Aspidosperma macrocarpum Mart., Lophanthera lactescens Ducke, Gallesia gorazema (Vell. Miq., Peltogyne paniculata Bth. and Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg., respectively. Analyses of the lignins were carried out by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy using an experimental technique, Diffusely Reflected Infrared Fourier Transformed (DRIFT, admitting in the original spectra a band at 1500 cm-1 as an internal reference. Application of a deconvolution technique made possible to estimate the percentage per mol of b-O-4 unit content around 65.5% to AM, 68.0% to LL, 71.0% to GG. 73.4% to PP and 75.0% to AP, toward AM

  7. Selection of mercury accumulator plants for gold mine tailing contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Muddarisna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation, which is more efficient with less side effects than conventional physical and chemical methods, is increasing in popularity as a remediation system. This paper provides a brief overview of developments in research and application of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailings containing mercury. Lindernia crustacea L., Digitaria radicosa Presl. Miq., Zingiber purpurium L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg., Cyperus kyllingia Endl., and Caladium bicolor Vent., that were selected for this study were planted in the planting media consisting of soil (70% and tailings (30% for 9 weeks. The results showed that after 9 weeks of planting, Paspalum conjugatum had growth rate, biomass production, Hg accumulation, and ratio of shoot Hg : root Hg higher than those of other plant species tested, both in the media consisted of amalgamation and cyanidation tailings. It can thus be concluded that Paspalum conjugatum is potential plant species for remediating mercury-contaminated soil.

  8. Identification of Polyhydroxylated Spirostanes and their Glycosides from C. Majalis Using NMR Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. majalis L. from the family Liliaceae is widely distributed in Europe whereas C. keisukei Miq. grows in East Asia. Convallasaponins with several OH groups were isolated from the flowers of C. keisukei and from the roots and rhizomes of C. majalis. Polihydroxy steroidal saponins have been found in the family Liliaceae. Our further investigation of the polar (n-BuOH / CHCl3) fraction of the extract from the roots and rhizomes of C. majalis has led to the isolation of new convallasaponins. The structures of the new saponins were deducted from 1H and 13C NMR spectral data and by interpretation of two-dimensional COSY, HMQC, HMBC and ROESY correlations. The new steroidal sapogenins are tetra- or pentaols with b-orientation of all hydroxy groups, as indicated on the figures. The 5-O - substitution of sugar moieties seemed to be rather unique. (author)

  9. Morphology and anatomy of Justicia acuminatissima leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina S. Verdam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia acuminatissima (Miq. Bremek., Acanthaceae, is a subshrub found in northern Brazil, where it is widely used by the population of this region as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Despite this popular use, there is no pharmacognostical data to support the correct identification of this species. We therefore performed a morpho-anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this species, using well-known methods. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, green on the surfaces, and pubescent, with a lanceolate shape, crenate margin, pinnate venation and decussate phyllotaxy. The parenchyma is palisade and spongy, and its vascular system is bilateral. Glandular and non-glandular trichome and cystoliths were also detected. There are diacytic stomata on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of epidermis. Histochemical tests revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, amide and protein. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of coumarins, tannins, catechins, saponins and steroids.

  10. The addition of functional task-oriented mental practice to conventional physical therapy improves motor skills in daily functions after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. Santos-Couto-Paz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mental practice (MP is a cognitive strategy which may improve the acquisition of motor skills and functional performance of athletes and individuals with neurological injuries. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an individualized, specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional physical therapy (PT, promoted better learning of motor skills in daily functions in individuals with chronic stroke (13±6.5 months post-stroke. METHOD: Nine individuals with stable mild and moderate upper limb impairments participated, by employing an A1-B-A2 single-case design. Phases A1 and A2 included one month of conventional PT, and phase B the addition of MP training to PT. The motor activity log (MAL-Brazil was used to assess the amount of use (AOU and quality of movement (QOM of the paretic upper limb; the revised motor imagery questionnaire (MIQ-RS to assess the abilities in kinesthetic and visual motor imagery; the Minnesota manual dexterity test to assess manual dexterity; and gait speed to assess mobility. RESULTS: After phase A1, no significant changes were observed for any of the outcome measures. However, after phase B, significant improvements were observed for the MAL, AOU and QOM scores (p<0.0001, and MIQ-RS kinesthetic and visual scores (p=0.003; p=0.007, respectively. The significant gains in manual dexterity (p=0.002 and gait speed (p=0.019 were maintained after phase A2. CONCLUSIONS: Specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional PT, led to improvements in motor imagery abilities combined with increases in the AOU and QOM in daily functions, manual dexterity, and gait speed.

  11. 江苏省维管植物分布新记录(三)%New records of vascular plants in Jiangsu Province ( Ⅲ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶康; 刘启新; 邓懋彬; 褚晓芳

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: According to plant investigation result in Yixing and Liyang of Jiangsu Province, ten species, one subspecies and one variety belonging to eleven genera of ten families are reported as new records in Jiangsu Province, viz. Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Schisandra arisanensis Hayata subsp. viridis (A. C. Smith) R. M. K. Saunders, Broussonetia kaempferi Sieb. var. australis Suzuki, Laportea cuspidate (Wedd.) Friis, Oreocnide frutescens (Thunb.) Miq., Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana (A. Camus) Y. S. Hsu et H. W. Jen, Achyranthes longifolia (Makino) Makino, Eurya alata Kobuski, Hyperwum seniavinii Maxim., Viola palrinii DC. ex Ging., V. violacea Makino and Vaccinium trichocladum Merr. et Met. And Oreocnide Miq. is a new record genus in Jiangsu Province. Some of them are simply analyzed on resources, flora and distribution.%结合《江苏植物志》(增订版)的修订,作者对江苏境内植物做了补充调查并发现了一些江苏省分布新记录.续前文[1-2],本文报道了分布于宜溧山地的部分江苏新记录属和新记录种,共计有10种1亚种1变种,隶属10个科11个属,其中有新记录属1个.另外,从植物资源利用、植物区系及分布范围等方面对部分种类进行了简要分析.凭证标本均保存于江苏省·中国科学院植物研究所标本馆(NAS).

  12. INVESTIGATION ON PLANT RESOURCES OF UNCARIA SCHREBER IN GUANGXI AND FOLK APPLICATION IN ZHUANG AND YAO%广西钩藤属植物资源及壮、瑶民间应用的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞松; 朱意麟; 严克俭

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific basis for protection, cultivation, development and utilization of Uncaria Schreber resources. Methods: Investigation on Uncaria Schreber resources and medication experience of Zhuang and Yao in Guangxi by ways of field survey, collection and identification of the specimens and reviewing literature. Results: There were 10 species of Uncaria Schreber in Guangxi, which accounted for 83. 33% of Uncaria Schreber in China. Among them, Uncaria macrophylla Wall. , U. Sessilifructus Roxb. , U. Rhynchophylla (Miq. ) Miq. Ex Havil. , U. Hirsuta Havil. , U. Sandens (Sm. ) Hutch, and U. Rhynchophylloides How were the preponderant species. Conclusion: With rich resources, many varieties, awide distribution and its own feature of folk application in Zhuang and Yao, the resources in Uncaria Schreber of Guangxi should be protected and utilized strongly.%目的:为钩藤属植物资源保护、栽培和开发利用提供科学依据.方法:采用实地调查、标本采集鉴定、文献资料查阅相结合的方法,对广西钩藤属植物资源和壮瑶民间的用药经验进行调查.结果:广西有钩藤属植物10种,占国内钩藤属种类的83.33%,其中以大叶钩藤、无柄果钩藤、钩藤、毛钩藤、攀茎钩藤、侯钩藤等为优势品种;壮、瑶民间使用钩藤内涵丰富.结论:广西钩藤属植物资源丰富,品种多,分布广,壮、瑶民间应用钩藤资源独具特色,应该加强保护和进一步开发利用.

  13. The New Geographical Distribution Records of Wild Tree Species in Guangdong Province,China(II)%广东省野生树种地理分布新记录(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩维栋; 陈杰

    2014-01-01

    近2年对广东省雷州半岛各地野生木本植物实地踏查与标本采集鉴定,并参照相关植物区系文献,发现广东省新分布野生树种5种1变种,分别为:琼刺榄( Xantolis longispinnsa( Merr.) H.S.Lo)、顶花杜茎山( Maesa balansae Mez)、海南山麻杆( Alchornea rugosa ( Lour.) Muell.Arg.var.pubescens ( Pax et Hoffm.) H.S.Kiu)、刺茉莉( Azima sarmentosa ( Bl.) Benth.et Hook.f.)、单叶拿身草( Desmodium zonatum Miq.)、过山崖爬藤( Tetrastigma pseudocruciatum C.L.Li)。%For the last two years ,based on the related flora references and the author′s field survey in Leizhou Peninsula of Guang-dong Province,China,there were 5 species and 1 variety found as new wild tree species records of their geographical distribution in Guangdong Province.They were Xantolis longispinnsa ( Merr.) H.S.Lo, Maesa balansae Mez., Alchornea rugosa ( Lour.) Muell.Arg.var.pubescens (Pax et Hoffm.)H.S.Kiu,Azima sarmentosa(Bl.) Benth.et Hook.f.,Desmodium zonatum Miq.,Tet-rastigma pseudocruciatum C.L.Li.

  14. 益智GAP栽培的环境评价%Environmental Assessment of GAP Cultivation of Alpinia oxyphylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙湘来; 田建平; 黄关木; 陈胜庭; 刘全星; 张俊清

    2013-01-01

    To provide scientific foundation for establishment of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq SOP and construction of A.oxyphylla GAP cultivation base,the environment conditions including soil,water and air in main production area and wild growth area of A.oxyphylla in Hainan province were sampled and analyzed.The results showed that of the A.oxyphylla GAP cultivation base,Changxing village planning area in Qiongzhong of Hainan province,the air environment met the first class of national standard,the irrigation water resource met the national standard,and soil environment met the second class of national standard.The environment quality of A.oxyphylla cultivation area in Hainan province was well,met the demand of green medicine cultivation.%为制定益智(Alpinia oxyphylla Miq)SOP和建设益智GAP种植基地提供科学依据,对海南省益智主要生产区及野生生长区环境包括土壤、水体及大气进行采样综合分析评价.结果表明,益智GAP种植基地——海南省琼中长兴村规划区大气环境达到国家第一级标准要求,灌溉水资源达到国家标准要求,土壤环境达到国家第二级标准要求.海南益智GAP种植区环境质量良好,符合绿色药材栽培的环境质量要求.

  15. Pharmacognostic Identification of Liparis from Gansu%甘肃产羊耳蒜的生药鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘高宏; 宁艳梅; 赵红磊; 杨韬

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study pharmacognostic characteristic of Liparis [Liparis japonica (Miq.)Maxim. from Gansu. Method: Experimental research of liparis was carried out with morphological identification, microscopical identification, physical and chemical identification. Result: Calcium oxalate needle crystal, tube and fiber are found in liparis' leaves, leaf sheath, stalks, false bulb powder and transverse section of false bulb tissue. Methanol extracts of liparis in UV 254nm show blue fluorescence and pale green fluorescence in UV 365nm after drying. Conclusion: Microscopical identification, physical and chemical identification of Liparis showed obvious features, which could provide evidence for liparis identification.%目的:研究甘肃产羊耳蒜Liparis japonica(Miq.)Maxim的生药鉴定特征.方法:应用性状、显微、理化等鉴别方法对羊耳蒜进行研究.结果:羊耳蒜的叶、叶鞘、花茎、假鳞茎粉末、假鳞茎组织横切片中均可见到草酸钙针晶、导管、纤维等.羊耳蒜全草甲醇提取液在紫外灯254 nm显蓝色荧光,经干燥后在紫外灯365 nm显淡绿色荧光.结论:羊耳蒜显微鉴别及理化鉴别均有明显的鉴别特征,可作为鉴别羊耳蒜的依据.

  16. An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method for preparative separation of minor alkaloids by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Hong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wenzhi; Qi, Peng; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-08-28

    An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR. PMID:26209189

  17. Complete sequencing of five araliaceae chloroplast genomes and the phylogenetic implications.

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    Rong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ginseng family (Araliaceae includes a number of economically important plant species. Previously phylogenetic studies circumscribed three major clades within the core ginseng plant family, yet the internal relationships of each major group have been poorly resolved perhaps due to rapid radiation of these lineages. Recent studies have shown that phyogenomics based on chloroplast genomes provides a viable way to resolve complex relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the complete nucleotide sequences of five Araliaceae chloroplast genomes using next-generation sequencing technology. The five chloroplast genomes are 156,333-156,459 bp in length including a pair of inverted repeats (25,551-26,108 bp separated by the large single-copy (86,028-86,566 bp and small single-copy (18,021-19,117 bp regions. Each chloroplast genome contains the same 114 unique genes consisting of 30 transfer RNA genes, four ribosomal RNA genes, and 80 protein coding genes. Gene size, content, and order, AT content, and IR/SC boundary structure are similar among all Araliaceae chloroplast genomes. A total of 140 repeats were identified in the five chloroplast genomes with palindromic repeat as the most common type. Phylogenomic analyses using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on the complete chloroplast genomes strongly supported the monophyly of the Asian Palmate group and the Aralia-Panax group. Furthermore, the relationships among the sampled taxa within the Asian Palmate group were well resolved. Twenty-six DNA markers with the percentage of variable sites higher than 5% were identified, which may be useful for phylogenetic studies of Araliaceae. CONCLUSION: The chloroplast genomes of Araliaceae are highly conserved in all aspects of genome features. The large-scale phylogenomic data based on the complete chloroplast DNA sequences is shown to be effective for the phylogenetic reconstruction of Araliaceae.

  18. Rhizome morphology and flowering characteristic of 5 species Curcuma plants%5种姜黄属植物的根茎形态及其相关特性与开花特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈荔荔; 许丽珍; 吕锦权; 盛爱武; 刘念

    2014-01-01

    对5种姜黄属( Curcuma L.)植物根茎的形态及其贮藏期根茎的相关特性与人工栽培条件下的开花特性进行了研究.结果表明,可直接用肉眼分辨南岭莪术( Curcuma kwangsiensis var.naulingensis)、广西莪术( C. kwangsiensis),而南昆山莪术(C.nankunshanensis)、郁金(C.aromatica)、大莪术(C.elata)则需切开根茎通过颜色分辨;在整个栽培过程中,水培条件下姜黄属植物的开花率优于土培;南岭莪术开花率最高,且其根茎内蛋白质浓度最高;南昆山莪术的花期最长;而郁金、大莪术只展叶不开花.5种姜黄属植物根茎随着冷藏时间的增加,根茎质量、长度、直径、蛋白质浓度均随之减小.%Rhizome morphology and correlation property in storage period , and the flowering characteris-tic at artificial conditions of 5 species Curcuma plants were studied .The results showed that Curcuma kwangsiensis var.naulingensis and C.kwangsiensis could be distinguished by naked eyes , and that C.nankunshanensis, C.aromatica and C.elata must be distinguished by cutting the rhizomes through the colour.In the whole process of cultivation , the percentage of flowering of Curcuma plants under water culture was higher than that under soil culture , with the highest percentage of C.kwangsiensis var.naulingensis and the highest protein content in its rhizomes .The flowering period of C.nankun-shanensis was longest.C.aromatica and C.elata only leafed with no flower .The weight, length, diame-ter, protein content of the rhizomes of 5 species Curcuma plants were reduced with the increase of storage time.

  19. Análise da estrutura da comunidade de diatomáceas (Bacillariophyceae em duas estações do sistema Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Eduardo A Lobo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Através da análise da composição específica e da diversidade da comunidade de diatomáceas, em duas estações do sistema Guaíba (RS, Brasil, nos meses de setembro e novembro de 1975, foi encontrada uma diferença significativa na estrutura dessa comunidade. Essa diferença deve-se, provavelmente, à presença exclusiva de Achnanthes inflata (Kütz. Grun. var. elata (Leud. - Fort.Hust., A. lanceolata (Bréb.Grun. var. lanceolata, Cocconeis placentula Ehr., Cyclotella meneghiniana Kütz., Cymbella minuta Hilse ex Rabh., Aulacosira distans (Ehr. Sim., Navicula mutica Kütz., Surirella robusta Ehr. var. splendida (Ehr. Van Heurck, Synedra ulna (Nitz.Ehr., espécies abundantes, que refletem características ambientais distintas, pelo fato de apresentarem uma diferenciação em suas tolerâncias ecológicas. Foram identificados um total de 114 táxons, 57 a níveis específicos e infra-específicos, dentre os quais 14 constituem-se em primeira referência para o Guaíba e quatro são citações novas para o Estado.Through the analysis of specific composition and diversity of diatom community, in two sampling areas of the Guaíba system (RS, Brasil in September and October 1975, a meaningful difference in the structure of that community was found. Such difference is probably due to exclusive presence of Achnanthes inflata (Kütz.Grun. var. elata (Leud. - Fort.Hust., A. lanceolata(Bréb.Grun. var. lanceolata, Cocconeis placentula Ehr., Cyclotella meneghiniana Kütz., Cymbella minuta Hilse ex Rabh., and of Aulacosira distans(Ehr. Sim., Navicula mutica Kütz., Surirella robusta Ehr. var. splendida (Ehr.Van Heurck, Synedra ulna(Nitz.Ehr., abundant species which reflect different environmental characteristics because of their different ecological tolerances. A total of 114 taxa have been identified; 57 of them to specific and infraespecific levels, 14 of which mentioned for the first time in the Guaíba system and 4 for the first time in the state.

  20. 治疗高血压常用中药复方的用药规律分析%Analysis of using drugs regularity of commonly used traditional Chinese medicine compound in the treatment of hy-pertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沛然

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨常用中药复方治疗高血压的用药规律。方法:收集治疗高血压方剂600张,对用药方名、用药剂量等资料进行统计分析。结果:使用前5位的药物有牛膝、钩藤、白芍、茯苓、天麻,应用次数多的药物是补益药、清热药、平肝熄风药、活血化瘀药和利水保湿药。结论:牛膝、钩藤、白芍、茯苓、天麻是治疗高血压常用的中药,补益药、清热药、平肝熄风药、活血化瘀药和利水保湿药是治疗高血压常用的方剂。%Objective:To explore the using drugs regularity of commonly used traditional Chinese medicine compound in the treatment of hypertension.Methods:600 copies of treating hypertension prescriptions were selected.The data of using drugs prescription and using drugs dosages were statistically analyzed.Results:The top 5 drugs were achyranthes,uncaria,radix paeoniae alba,poria cocos,gastrodia elata.The more application number drugs were restore deficiency drug,heat-clearing drug,liver wind calmed drug,promoting circulation and removing stasis drug and water moisture drug.Conclusion:Achyranthes,uncaria,radix paeoniae alba,poria cocos,gastrodia elata are commonly used traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of hypertension. Restore deficiency drug,heat-clearing drug,liver wind calmed drug,promoting circulation and removing stasis drug and water moisture drug are commonly used prescriptions in the treatment of hypertension.

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy template for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Ma, Xiuli; Xie, Hongkai; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-11-14

    Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves have been prepared. Two dummy template molecule with similar structural skeleton to GAs, 6-methoxysalicylic acid (MOSA, DT-1) and 6-hexadecyloxysalicylic acid (HOSA, DT-2), have been designed and synthesized. The performance of the DMIPs and NIPs were evaluated including selective recognition capacity, adsorption isotherm, and adsorption kinetics. The selective recognition capacity of the three GAs with four analogues on the sorbents illustrated that the DMIPs sorbents have high specificity for GAs. An efficient method based on DMIP-HOSA coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The method showed excellent recoveries (82.5-88.7%) and precision (RSD 0.5-2.6%, n=5) for licorice extracts, Gastrodia elata extracts and pepper extracts spiked at three concentration levels each (50, 100, 200 μg mL(-1)). The results indicated that GAs and standardized Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts could be obtained simultaneously through the DMIP-SPE.

  2. NMR spectroscopy: structure elucidation of cycloelatanene A: a natural product case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Sylvia; Dias, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The structure elucidation of new secondary metabolites derived from marine and terrestrial sources is frequently a challenging task. The hurdles include the ability to isolate stable secondary metabolites of sufficient purity that are often present in conversions and/or degradations. Immediately after purification, the next step is to rapidly acquire all analytical spectroscopic data in order to complete the characterization of the isolated secondary metabolite(s), prior to any possible decomposition. The final hurdle in this multiple step process, especially in the acquisition of the NMR spectroscopic and other analytical data (mass spectra, infrared and ultra-violet spectra, optical rotation, etc.), is to assemble the structural moieties/units in an effort to complete the structure elucidation. Often ambiguity with the elucidation of the final structure remains when structural fragments identified are difficult to piece together on the basis of the HMBC NMR correlations or when the relative configuration cannot be unequivocally identified on the basis of NOE NMR enhancements observed. Herein, we describe the methodology used to carry out the structure elucidation of a new C16 chamigrene, cycloelatanene A (5) which was isolated from the southern Australian marine alga Laurencia elata (Rhodomelaceae). The general approach and principles used in the structure determination of this compound can be applied to the structure elucidation of other small molecular weight compounds derived from either natural or synthetic sources. PMID:23963906

  3. Alleviation effect of gibberellin A3 on antagonism of manganese to glyphosate%赤霉素缓解Mn2+对草甘膦拮抗效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茹; 李桂俊; 李小艳; 夏凯

    2014-01-01

    为探索能够减轻或消除 Mn2+对草甘膦拮抗效应的方法,以高羊茅为试材,将赤霉素( GA3)与草甘膦和硫酸锰( Mn2+质量分数为0�1%)混用,研究了赤霉素对Mn2+降低草甘膦药效的缓解作用。结果表明:赤霉素+草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组高羊茅比同剂量草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组叶色更黄,萎蔫更严重,与同剂量草甘膦单剂处理组比较接近,其中加入50 mg/L 赤霉素处理组缓解草甘膦拮抗效应的效果最好。赤霉素+草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组高羊茅的干、鲜重及叶绿素含量均低于草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组,而丙二醛和莽草酸含量均明显高于草甘膦+硫酸锰处理组。处理后第6天,赤霉素+草甘膦+硫酸锰组莽草酸含量分别比草甘膦+硫酸锰组增加了49.8%(加入50 mg/L 赤霉素)和28.8%(加入30 mg/L 赤霉素),差异显著;处理后第2天,赤霉素+草甘膦+硫酸锰组丙二醛含量分别比草甘膦+硫酸锰组增加了54.1%(加入50 mg/L 赤霉素)和52.9%(加入30 mg/L 赤霉素),差异显著。研究表明,将赤霉素与锰肥和草甘膦混合喷施,将有可能在一定程度上缓解Mn2+对草甘膦的拮抗效应,保证草甘膦的除草效果。%MnSO4 , applied as a foliar fertilizer in tank mixtures with glyphosate, may antagonize the control efficacy of glyphosate. So it is very important to find out a way to relieve or eliminate the antagonistic effect of manganese to glyphosate. The purpose of present study is to investigated the relieving effect of gibberellin A3 ( GA3 ) on antagonism of manganese to glyphosate in Festuca elata by spraying mixture of glyphosate and manganese and GA3 . The results indicated that spraying GA3 in tank mixtures with glyphosate and manganese could make the leaf color of Festuca elata more yellow and increase the leaf wilting to some extent when compared with that spraying the

  4. Protective Effects of Gastrodin Against Autophagy-Mediated Astrocyte Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-shang; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Nan; Han, Jing; Guo, Hong-liang; Zhao, Ming-gao; Liu, Shui-bing

    2016-03-01

    Gastrodin is an active ingredient derived from the rhizome of Gastrodia elata. This compound is usually used to treat convulsive illness, dizziness, vertigo, and headache. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gastrodin on the autophagy of glial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 1 µg/mL). Autophagy is a form of programmed cell death, although it also promotes cell survival. In cultured astrocytes, LPS exposure induced excessive autophagy and apoptosis, which were significantly prevented by the pretreatment cells with gastrodin (10 μM). The protective effects of gastrodin via autophagy inhibition were verified by the decreased levels of LC3-II, P62, and Beclin-1, which are classical markers for autophagy. Furthermore, gastrodin protected astrocytes from apoptosis through Bcl-2 and Bax signaling pathway. The treatment of astrocytes with rapamycin (500 nM), wortmannin (100 nM), and LY294002 (10 μM), which are inhibitors of mTOR and PI3K, respectively, eliminated the known effects of gastrodin on the inhibited Beclin-1 expression. Furthermore, gastrodin blocked the down-regulation of glutamine synthetase induced by LPS exposure in astrocytes. Our results suggest that gastrodin can be used as a preventive agent for the excessive autophagy induced by LPS. PMID:26643508

  5. Natural antioxidants may prevent posttraumatic epilepsy: a proposal based on experimental animal studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Head injury or hemorrhagic cortical infarction results in extravasation of blood and breakdown of red blood cells and hemoglobin. Iron liberated from hemoglobin, and hemoglobin itself, are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS. ROS and RNS have been demonstrated to be involved in the mechanism of seizures induced by iron ions in the rat brain, an experimental animal model for posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE. ROS are responsible for the induction for peroxidation of neural lipids, i.e., an injury of neuronal membranes, and also could induce disorders in the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Antioxidants, such as a phosphate diester of vitamin E and C (EPC-K1 and antiepileptic zonisamide, have been known to prevent the epileptogenic focus formation, or to attenuate seizure activities in the iron-injected rat brain. Natural antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol, and condensed tannins, including (--epigallocatechin and (--epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, adenosine and its derivative, melatonin, uyaku (Lindera Strychnifolia, fermented papaya preparations, Gastrodia elata BI., and Guilingji, have been demonstrated to scavenge ROS and/or RNS and to be prophylactic for the occurrence of epileptic discharge in the iron-injected rat brain.

  6. Parishin C's prevention of Aβ 1-42-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation is related to NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Weiping; Feng, Nan; Wang, Ling; Shi, Jiangong; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2016-05-01

    The rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE), a herb medicine, has been used for treatment of neuronal disorders in Eastern Asia for hundreds of years. Parishin C is a major ingredient of GE. In this study, the i.c.v. injection of soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers model of LTP injury was used. We investigated the effects of parishin C on the improvement of LTP in soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomer-injected rats and the underlying electrophysiological mechanisms. Parishin C (i.p. or i.c.v.) significantly ameliorated LTP impairment induced by i.c.v. injection of soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers. In cultured hippocampal neurons, soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers significantly inhibited NMDAR currents while not affecting AMPAR currents and voltage-dependent currents. Pretreatment with parishin C protected NMDA receptor currents from the damage induced by Aβ. In summary, parishin C improved LTP deficits induced by soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers. The protection by parishin C against Aβ-induced LTP damage might be related to NMDA receptors.

  7. Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2014-01-01

    In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII = (Fm(') -F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in

  8. Comparing the morphology and determination of inorganic elements of starch granules of three Fritillariae bulbs by scan electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis%基于扫描电镜和X射线谱比较三种贝母的淀粉粒形态及元素分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志锋; 何丽华; 张汉阳; 刘圆

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立比较分析不同基源中药贝母品种中淀粉粒的新方法.方法:采用扫描电子显微镜对几种常见的贝母药材包括浙贝母Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.、湖北贝母Fritillaria hupehensis Hsiao et K.C.Hsia.和平贝母Fritillaria ussuriensis Maxim中所含的淀粉粒进行观察,同时采用X射线能谱分析对其所舍的无机成分进行元素分析.结果:淀粉粒在形态学上差异甚微,然而其无机元素的差异比较明显,平贝母中含有P元素(023%),在湖北贝母和浙贝母中没有该元素.结论:该方法简单可行,为贝母属植物的资源鉴定提供了新的依据,为其它中药材资源的鉴定提供参考.%To compare the starch grain and its inorganic constituents of different botanical origin Fritillariae Bulbus. Methods To investigate the starch granules of Fritillariae Bulbus by sacn electron microscopy, including Fritillaria thunbergii Miq., Fritillaria hupehensis Hsiao et K.C. Hsia. And Fritillaria ussuriensis Maxim. At the same time, the inorganic constituents were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Results Differences in starch grain morphology is little, but it is obvious different in inorganic elements. F. hupehensis contains P (0.23%), but the others are absent of the element. Conclusion The method is simple and available, it provides a new scientific base for the identification of Fritillariae Bulbus, and it provides a reference for the identification of other traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2014-01-01

    In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII = (Fm(') -F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in

  10. Considerações taxonômicas e novas combinações em Ardisia Swartz (Myrsinaceae do sudeste do Brasil Taxonomic considerations and new combinations in Ardisia Swartz (Myrsinaceae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Bernacci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Os tipos de placentação e de pré-floração têm sido utilizados para a distinção dos gêneros Ardisia Swartz, ao qual tem sido atribuído placentação plurisseriada e pré-floração imbricada ou quincuncial, e Stylogyne A.DC., ao qual tem sido atribuído placentação unisseriada e pré-floração contorta. Entretanto, a análise de dez espécies destes gêneros revelou a inconsistência destes caracteres. Também foi constatada a impossibilidade de observar diferenças no tipo de placentação em espécimes com poucos óvulos. Propõe-se, portanto, o restabelecimento da circunscrição de Ardisia, incluindo o gênero Stylogyne, conforme adotado por Miquel, em 1856 e Handro, em 1969. Desta forma, Ardisia ambigua Mart. é o nome válido para S. ambigua (Mart. Mez e Ardisia martiana Miq. o é para S. laevigata (Mart. Mez. Duas novas combinações são necessárias: Ardisia depauperata (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli e Ardisia warmingii (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli.Placentation and aestivation have traditionally been used as diagnostic features to separate the genera Ardisia Swartz and Stylogyne A.DC. While Ardisia has pluriseriate placentation and imbricate or quincuncial aestivation, Stylogyne has uniseriate placentation and contorted aestivation. However, careful examination of ten species of these genera revealed the inconsistency of these characters in the distinction of the two genera. Also, we noticed the impossibility of observation of placentation types in few-ovuled specimens. Therefore, we propose the re-establishment of the circumscription of Ardisia adopted by Miquel, in 1856, and Handro, in 1969 which includes the genus Stylogyne. In this way Ardisia ambigua Mart. is the valid name for S. ambigua (Mart. Mez as Ardisia martiana Miq. is for S. laevigata (Mart. Mez. Two new combinations are necessary: Ardisia depauperata (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli and Ardisia warmingii (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli.

  11. Determination of rhynchophylline in Uncaria rhynchophylla by HPLC%HPLC测定广西产钩藤药材中的钩藤碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 覃冬杰; 黄瑞松; 朱意麟; 严克俭

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价广西不同产地钩藤Uncaria rhynchophylla的药材质量,确定药材的最佳采收期.方法 采用HPLC测定28批不同产地和1个产地不同时期钩藤药材钩藤碱的含量,采用Gemini C18色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-水(含0.002 mol· L-1三乙胺,用冰乙酸调pH7.5)(64∶36),流速1.0 mL· min-1,检测波长254 nm.结果 28批不同产地钩藤药材中有11批药材能检出钩藤碱,但含量差异较大;有17批药材未能检出钩藤碱成分;不同时期钩藤中钩藤碱的动态积累差异较大.结论 广西不同产地钩藤药材的质量有一定差异;钩藤药材于秋、冬二季采收似乎较合理.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the quality of Uncaria rhynchophylla(Miq. ) Miq. ex Havil from different habitats of Guangxi and decide the best collected time. METHODS The content of rhynchophylline in U. rhynchophylla from 28 habitats and one habitat in different collecting time was determined by HPLC. The chromatographic conditions were as follows; Gemini C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm) with the detection wavelength of 254 ran, methanol - water (64 : 36) containing 0. 002 mol ·L-1 triethylomine (pH7. 5, adjusted with acetic acid) as mobile phase with the flow rate of 1.0 mL· min-'. RESULTS 11 batches of different habitats of Guangxi contained rhynchophylline, but there were great differences among them. The others didn' t detect rhynchophylline. There were great differences in contents of rhynchophylline in U. rhynchophylla from different periods. CONCLUSION The quality in U. rhynchophylla from different habitats had certain differences, and it was varied with different habitats. It seems that it was reasonable to collect U. rhynchophylla in autumn and winter.

  12. Activity of the Extracts and Neolignans from Piper regnellii against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper regnellii (Miq. C. DC. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil to treat infectious diseases. The extracts obtained of the leaves from P. regnellii were investigated for their antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The ethyl acetate extract presented a good activity against MRSA, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of 16 μg/mL. Based on this finding, the ethyl acetate extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into nine fractions. The hexane fraction was active against MRSA (MIC at 4 μg/mL. Further column chromatography separation of the hexane fraction afforded the pure compound eupomatenoid-5. The structure of the compound was established by spectral data (1H and 13C NMR HSQC, HMBC, gNOE, IR and MS. Eupomatenoid-5 was the only compound active on the bacterium. The antibacterial property of P. regnellii extract provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. The active compound eupomatenoid-5 should be further studied in animal models to verify in vivo efficacy and toxicity.

  13. Sensory quality of frozen shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Inês Maria Barbosa Nunes Queiroga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory quality of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown and stored in a freezer. A sensory analysis consisted of the Quality Index Method (MIQ to review the raw shrimp and Descriptive Analysis (AD in cooked shrimp in samples stored for a period of 90 days, using eight previously trained panelists. Accommodation comprising shrimp filet (100-120 pieces / kg samples were subjected to freezing in liquid nitrogen (- 86 °C, Freezing Tunnel (- 35 °C and Domestic Freezer (- 18 °C. At 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage in these freezing systems, determination of pH, water holding capacity (WHC, weight loss during cooking (WLC, shearing force, color, total volatile bases (TVB and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were performed. The attributes manual firmness and softness showed better results in rapid freezing. The color parameters (a *, b * and L *, WHC and WCL were higher at 90 days of storage, no significant losses were observed. Highlighted the strength of greater shear in slowly frozen samples at 90 days, confirming the results reported by the sensory panel. At 90 days of storage, the frozen shrimp showed good sensory quality and physical and chemistry characteristics. The shelf life of this shrimp could be set at about 90 days.

  14. 河源市桂山野生姜科花卉多样性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育声; 钟平生; 温汉都

    2015-01-01

    通过调查河源桂山山脉和福礤地区的野生姜科植物,为城市园林绿化建设开发和利用姜科植物提供参考.本文共鉴定野生姜科植物4属8种,分别是大高良姜(Alpinia galanga Swartz)、草豆蔻(Alpinia katsumadai Hayata)、益智(Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.)、艳山姜(Alpinia zerumbet Smith et Burtt)、姜黄(Curcuma longa L.)、郁金(Curcuma aromatica Salisb.)、闭鞘姜(Costus speciosus Smith)、姜花(Hedychium coronarium Koenig).从物种数量来看,优势种是草豆蔻(Alpinia katsumadai Hayata) 23.1%,劣势种是姜黄(Curcuma longa L.)4.9%.该地区姜科植物的多样性指数为1.99,均匀度指数为0.23.

  15. Further discoveries in the ever-expanding genus Begonia (Begoniaceae: fifteen new species from Sumatra

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    Mark Hughes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen new species of Begonia L. from Sumatra are described and illustrated, in Begonia sect. Bracteibegonia (B. beludruvenea M.Hughes sp. nov. and B. jackiana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Petermannia (B. harauensis Girm. sp. nov., B. sect. Platycentrum (B. leuserensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Reichenheimia (B. fluvialis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. halabanensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. karangputihensis Girm. sp. nov., B. kemumuensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. korthalsiana Miq. ex M.Hughes sp. nov., B. kudoensis Girm. sp. nov., B. lilliputana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. olivacea Ardi sp. nov., B. raoensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. simolapensis Ardi sp. nov. and B. sect. Sphenanthera (B. pseudoscottii Girm. sp. nov.. Using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria, 6 are considered to be Least Concern, 5 Vulnerable and 4 Data Deficient. A key to 58 of the 63 currently accepted Begonia species in Sumatra is provided.

  16. Preparation of pellets containing Pothomorphe umbellata extracts by extrusion-spheronization: improvement of 4-nerolidylcatechol photostability

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    César A. de Araújo-Júnior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq., Piperaceae, has been extensively used in Brazilian folk medicine and it is well known for its strong antioxidant properties. However, its main active constituent, 4-nerolydilcatechol (4-NC, is sensitive to ultraviolet and visible light, which can limit the use of intermediate and final herbal preparations of this species. In the present work, coated multiparticulate solid dosage forms of P. umbellata were obtained with the purpose of increasing the stability of 4-NC. P. umbellata extract was used as a wetting liquid for the preparation of pellets by extrusion-spheronization. Pellets were coated in a fluidized bed by three different polymers (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, polyvynilpirrolidone K-30 (PVP-K30, and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft-copolymer (PVAPEG. 4-NC photostability was evaluated by an accelerated photostability protocol. Pellets showed a narrow size distribution and low friability. 4-NC photodegradation followed a second order degradation kinetics with similar k values for the percolate, uncoated pellets and HPMC coated pellets. Photoprotection was higher in pellets coated with PVP-K30 and PVA-PEG. PVA-PEG coated pellets with 6 and 9% weight gain resulted in a final concentration of 4-NC approximately cinco times higher than uncoated pellets or liquid extracts, suggesting the potential of this formulation as a multiparticulate solid dosage form for P. umbellata extracts.

  17. Preparation of pellets containing Pothomorphe umbellata extracts by extrusion-spheronization: improvement of 4-nerolidylcatechol photostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. de Araújo-Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq., Piperaceae, has been extensively used in Brazilian folk medicine and it is well known for its strong antioxidant properties. However, its main active constituent, 4-nerolydilcatechol (4-NC, is sensitive to ultraviolet and visible light, which can limit the use of intermediate and final herbal preparations of this species. In the present work, coated multiparticulate solid dosage forms of P. umbellata were obtained with the purpose of increasing the stability of 4-NC. P. umbellata extract was used as a wetting liquid for the preparation of pellets by extrusion-spheronization. Pellets were coated in a fluidized bed by three different polymers (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, polyvynilpirrolidone K-30 (PVP-K30, and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft-copolymer (PVAPEG. 4-NC photostability was evaluated by an accelerated photostability protocol. Pellets showed a narrow size distribution and low friability. 4-NC photodegradation followed a second order degradation kinetics with similar k values for the percolate, uncoated pellets and HPMC coated pellets. Photoprotection was higher in pellets coated with PVP-K30 and PVA-PEG. PVA-PEG coated pellets with 6 and 9% weight gain resulted in a final concentration of 4-NC approximately cinco times higher than uncoated pellets or liquid extracts, suggesting the potential of this formulation as a multiparticulate solid dosage form for P. umbellata extracts.

  18. Toxic Effects of Lanthanum, Cerium, Chromium and Zinc on Potamogeton Malaianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xue; Shi Guoxin; Xu Qinsong; Wang Chuntao

    2005-01-01

    The toxic effects of rare earth elements such as lanthanum, cerium and heavy metal elements such as chromium, zinc on Potamogeton malaianus Miq. were studied. The results show that the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein increase to a certain degree and then decrease under La3+, Ce3+, Zn2+ stress, while there is a constantly dropping tendency under Cr6+ stress. The four ions have different effects on protective enzyme systems of Potamogeton malaianus. They can induce rises of the activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxides (POD) at lower concentration, however, with the increase of ions concentration, the activities decline. The change of SOD activity is exactly opposite to that of CAT and POD activity. It falls at first and rises later. An increasing tendency of MDA content appears with the increasing concentration. The toxicities of La3+, Zn2+, Ce3+ and Cr6+ become more serious in the order. The lethal concentration of Cr6+ to Potamogeton malaianus ranges from 0.5 to 1 mg·L-1, that of Ce3+ and Zn2+ ranges from 3 to 5 mg·L-1, and that of La3+ ranges from 7 to 10 mg·L-1. The toxic mechanism of La3+ and Ce3+ is similar to that of Cr6+ and Zn2+.

  19. Different cell death responses induced by eupomatenoid-5 in MCF-7 and 786-0 tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longato, Giovanna Barbarini; Fiorito, Giovanna Francisco; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; de Oliveira Sousa, Ilza Maria; Tinti, Sirlene Valério; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Padilha, Rafael José Ribeiro; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Natural products remain an important source of new drugs, including anticancer drugs. Recently, our group reported the anticancer activity of eupomatenoid-5 (eup-5), a neolignan isolated from Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. regnellii leaves. In vitro studies demonstrated that MCF-7 (breast) and 786-0 (kidney) were among the cancer cell lines most sensitive to eup-5 treatment. The current results demonstrate that mitochondrial membrane depolarization and generation of reactive oxygen species are implicated in eup-5-mediated cytotoxic effects on these cancer cells lines. In MCF-7 cells, eup-5 led to phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase activation, whereas the same did not occur in 786-0 cells. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a reduction of microvilli density, as well as cell morphology alterations. Moreover, treated MCF-7 cells exhibited well-characterized apoptosis alterations, while treated 786-0 cells exhibited characteristics of programmed necroptosis process. These findings support the possibility that different mechanisms may be targeted by eup-5 in cell death response.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of Ficus section Ficus in China based on four DNA regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Qing LI; Shuang WANG; Ji-Yun CHEN; Ping GUI

    2012-01-01

    We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses to examine the phylogenetic relationship of Ficus section Ficus (Moraceae) based on 22 species,73 samples of the section,and 37 species,41 samples representing other sections of Ficus.Four DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and the plastid trnH-psbA,psbK-psbI,and atpF-atpH intergenetic regions were selected.Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony,maximum likelihood,and Bayesian methods revealed that section Ficus was not monophyletic unless subsection Ficus was removed and that subsection Frutescentiae was monophyletic when excluding species such as F.tikoua Bureau,F.pedunculosa Miq.,and F.neriifolia Sm.Ficus tikoua should be transferred from subgenus Ficus to subgenus Sycomorus.Ficus tuphapensis Drake should be transferred into subsection Frutescentiae from section F.riosycea.Our results also supported the placement of F.henryi Warb.ex Diels and F.subincisa Buch.-Ham.ex Sm.in subgenus Sycidium.

  1. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

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    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  2. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community. PMID:21562693

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract from Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark in animal models

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    Kodangala Subraya Chandrashekar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthocephalus cadamba (ReboxMiq. (Rubiaceae is widely distributed throughout the greater part of India, especially at low levels in wet place. Traditionally the bark is used as tonic, febrifuge and to reduce the pain and inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract obtained from  Anthocephalus cadamba  aerial parts, MEAC, were investigated in this study. Design and methods: The effects of MEAC on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan, dextran and mediators (histamine and serotonin induced paw edema and cotton pallet-induced granuloma, respectively. The anti-edema effect of MEAC was compared with 10 mg/kg of indomethacin orally. Results: The results suggested that MEAC possess potent anti-inflammatory activity. The acute inflammatory model showed that all the doses of MEAC effectively suppressed the edema produced by histamine, so it may be suggested that its anti-inflammatory activity is possibly backed by its antihistaminic activity. In chronic inflammatory model the effect may be due to the cellular migration to injured sites and accumulation of collagen and mucopolysaccharide. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, it may be inferred that  Anthocephalus cadamba  is an anti-inflammatory agent and the results are in agreement with its traditional use.

  4. Mercury and Cyanide Contaminations in Gold Mine Environment and Possible Solution of Cleaning Up by Using Phytoextraction

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    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with heavy metals, mainly mercury and cyanide (CN due to small scale of public mines and large scale of industrial mines have been in concern to residents around the area. Surveys of heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments, such as rivers and paddy fields over two gold mine areas in West Jawa were conducted and possible solution of using indigenous plants for phytoremediation was studied. The results showed that most of the rivers and other aquatic environments were affected by gold mine activities. Rivers, ponds, and paddy fields around illegal public mines were mostly contaminated by mercury in considerably high levels, such as paddy fields in two locations (Nunggul and Leuwijamang, Pongkor were contaminated up to 22.68 and 7.73 ppm of Hg, respectively. Whereas rivers located around large scale industrial mines were contaminated by CN. Possible solution of cleaning up by using green technology of phytoremediation was examined. Some plant species grew in the contaminated sites showed high tolerance and potentially effective in accumulating cyanide or mercury in their roots and above ground portions. Lindernia crustacea (L. F.M., Digitaria radicosa (Presl Miq, Paspalum conjugatum, Cyperus kyllingia accumulated 89.13, 50.93, 1.78, and 0.77 ppm of Hg, respectively. Whereas, Paspalum conjugatum, Cyperus kyllingia accumulated 16.52 and 33. 16 ppm of CN respectively.

  5. Genetic diversity and origin of Potamogeton anguillanus (Potamogetonaceae) in Lake Biwa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Satoko; Kadono, Yasuro

    2002-02-01

    We analyzed the genetic variation in Potamogeton anguillanus Koidz. and its putative parents, P. malaianus Miq. and P. perfoliatus L., at five allozyme loci of four enzymes to test the hypothesis of a hybrid origin for P. anguillanus, collected in Lake Biwa, Japan. Alleles diagnostic for either P. malaianus or P. perfoliatus were present at four loci. Of 13 single locus phenotypes (SLPs) of P. anguillanus, eight were phenotypes that were expected in F(1) hybrids between P. malaianus and P. perfoliatus. Two SLPs were different from those expected in F(1) hybrids but could have resulted from segregation of parental alleles in later generation hybrids. Each of the remaining three SLPs possessed one allele unique to P. anguillanus. Allozyme analyses thus supported the view that P. anguillanus was derived from hybridization between P. malaianus and P. perfoliatus. It seems likely that the genetic diversity of P. anguillanus found previously originated through multiple hybridizations and sexual processes in P. anguillanus. Other processes such as intragenic recombination, mutation, or hybridization with another lineage are also discussed with reference to the origin of unique alleles. PMID:12884043

  6. Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Characteristics in Southern Thailand

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    Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The climatic, vegetation and soil characteristics of several tropical montane cloud forests in southern Thailand were investigated. Automatic weather stations were installed at three study sites: Mt. Nom cloud forest, Dadfa cloud forest and Mt. Nan Headquarters. HOBO U23 Pro V2 Temperature/Relative Humidity data loggers along the Mt. Nom elevational transect at five sites (500, 700, 900, 1,100 and 1,300 m were installed for measuring air temperature and relative humidity. Soil samples along the Mt. Nom elevational transect at the same five sites were collected and soil pH, soil moisture and organic content were measured in the laboratory. Tree height, shrub width, leaf thickness, leaf area and epiphyte cover of every Lithocarpus bennettii (Miq. Rehd. tree found along the Mt. Nom cloud forest elevational transect starting at 313 m and ending at 1,274 m were measured. Of the three sites, Mt. Nom cloud forest had the lowest air temperature, dew point, heat index, solar radiation, solar energy and UV index. Soil moisture and soil organic content increased with increasing elevation. The soil pH ranged from 3.6 to 4.3 which indicated that soil at Mt. Nom is high acidic.

  7. Corynoxine, a natural autophagy enhancer, promotes the clearance of alpha-synuclein via Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei-Lei; Song, Ju-Xian; Lu, Jia-Hong; Yuan, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Liang-Feng; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Li, Min

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates (namely Lewy bodies) in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is the major component of Lewy bodies in PD patients, and impairment of the autophagy-lysosomal system has been linked to its accumulation. In our previous study, we identified an oxindole alkaloid Corynoxine B (Cory B), isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese), as a Beclin-1-dependent autophagy inducer. In this work, we show that Cory, an enantiomer of Cory B, also induces autophagy in different neuronal cell lines, including N2a and SHSY-5Y cells, which is paralleled with increased lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D. In vivo, Cory promotes the formation of autophagosomes in the fat bodies of Drosophila. By inducing autophagy, Cory promotes the clearance of wild-type and A53T α-syn in inducible PC12 cells. Interestingly, different from its enantiomer Cory B, Cory induces autophagy through the Akt/mTOR pathway as evidenced by the reduction in the levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-p70 S6 Kinase. Collectively, our findings provide experimental evidence for developing Cory as a new autophagy enhancer from Chinese herbal medicine, which may have potential application in the prevention or treatment of PD. PMID:24522518

  8. Pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids,rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline%钩藤总碱、钩藤碱和异钩藤碱的药理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石京山; 余俊先; 陈修平; 徐瑞霞

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline extracted from Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq Jacks were reviewed. The alkaloids mainly act on cardiovascular system and central nervous system including the hypotension, brachycardia, antiarrhythmia, and protection of cerebral ischemia and sedation.The active mechanisms were related to blocking of calcium channel, opening of potassium channel,and regulating of nerve transmitters transport and metabolism,etc.%综述了钩藤总碱、钩藤碱和异钩藤碱对心血管系统和神经系统等方面的药理作用,包括降低血压、减慢心率、抗心律失常、脑缺血保护,以及镇静等作用,其作用机制与钙通道阻滞、钾通道开放、以及神经递质转运和代谢的调节有关.

  9. Pharmacokinetic study of isocorynoxeine metabolites mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lizhu; Zang, Bin; Qi, Wen; Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Haibo; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Isocorynoxeine (ICN) is one of the major bioactive tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids found in Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. that is widely used for the treatment of hypertension, vascular dementia, and stroke. The present study was undertaken to assess the plasma pharmacokinetic characteristics of major ICN metabolites, and the role of simulated gastric and intestinal fluid (SGF and SIF), human and rat liver microsomes (HLMs and RLMs), and seven recombinant human CYP enzymes in the major metabolic pathway of ICN. A rapid, sensitive and accurate UHPLC/Q-TOF MS method was validated for the simultaneous determination of ICN and its seven metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of ICN at 40mg/kg. It was found that 18.19-dehydrocorynoxinic acid (DCA) and 5-oxoisocorynoxeinic acid (5-O-ICA) were both key and predominant metabolites, rather than ICN itself, due to the rapid and extensive metabolism of ICN in vivo. The further study indicated that ICN was mainly metabolized in human or rat liver, and CYPs 2C19, 3A4 and 2D6 were the major enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of ICN to DCA and 5-O-ICA in human. These findings are of significance in understanding of the pharmacokinetic nature of tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids, and provide helpful information for the clinical co-administration of the herbal preparations containing U. rhynchophylla with antihypertensive drugs that are mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. PMID:27094112

  10. Identification of Some Piper Crude Drugs Based on Fourier Transform Inf rared Spectrometry%傅里叶红外光谱法鉴别部分胡椒属生药的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晔; 张庆伟; 罗学军; 李佩孚; 宋亨; 张伯礼

    2014-01-01

    利用共有峰率和变异峰率双指标,以胡椒属七种药用植物的红外指纹图谱为依据,计算出所测样品的共有峰率和变异峰率。建立了胡椒属七种药用植物共有峰率和变异峰率双指标序列,结果揭示了胡椒属七种药用植物的亲缘关系。中药海风藤与石南藤、大叶蒟根茎的共有峰率均在77%以上,变异峰率均在30%以下,此三种胡椒属药用植物亲缘关系较近;海风藤与胡椒根茎、十八症根的共有峰率在61%左右,亲缘关系稍远;海风藤与蒌叶根茎的共有峰率仅为44%。亲缘关系较远。利用红外二阶导数谱图,可以鉴别中药海风藤及其伪品石南藤、十八症根、大叶蒟根茎、胡椒根茎等品种。傅里叶红外光谱法可以对样品进行无损处理,不需要对药材进行复杂的提取分离过程即可提供化合物的官能团、类别、氢键等信息。该法能从整体水平分析谱图特征峰,具有分析速度快,重现性好,非破坏性和样品量小,制样简单,专属性强,节约成本,保护环境等优点。可以解决中药海风藤因资源短缺,伪品较多,鉴别困难等问题,也可为临床用药的安全、有效提供保障。傅里叶红外光谱法为胡椒属药用植物亲缘关系的探讨和真伪鉴别提供了一种新方法。符合中药向综合分析和整体分析发展的趋势。%The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Pip-er .The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established ,which showed the sibship of the medic-inal plants .The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi ,Piper wallichii (Miq .) Hand .-Mazz .Piper laetispicum (C .DC .) was greater than 77% ,and the variant peak ratio was less than 30% .The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs .The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi

  11. Effects of a windthrow disturbance on the carbon balance of a broadleaf deciduous forest in Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanoi, K.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Utsugi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon balance, with most being in a carbon sequestration stage. The net carbon releases that occur result from forest disturbance, and windthrow is a typical disturbance event affecting the forest carbon balance in eastern Asia. The CO2 flux has been measured using the eddy covariance method in a deciduous broadleaf forest (Japanese white birch, Japanese oak, and castor aralia) in Hokkaido, where incidental damage by the strong Typhoon Songda in 2004 occurred. We also used the biometrical method to demonstrate the CO2 flux within the forest in detail. Damaged trees amounted to 40 % of all trees, and they remained on site where they were not extracted by forest management. Gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), and net ecosystem production were 1350, 975, and 375 g C m-2 yr-1 before the disturbance and 1262, 1359, and -97 g C m-2 yr-1 2 years after the disturbance, respectively. Before the disturbance, the forest was an evident carbon sink, and it subsequently transformed into a net carbon source. Because of increased light intensity at the forest floor, the leaf area index and biomass of the undergrowth (Sasa kurilensis and S. senanensis) increased by factors of 2.4 and 1.7, respectively, in 3 years subsequent to the disturbance. The photosynthesis of Sasa increased rapidly and contributed to the total GPP after the disturbance. The annual GPP only decreased by 6 % just after the disturbance. On the other hand, the annual Re increased by 39 % mainly because of the decomposition of residual coarse-wood debris. The carbon balance after the disturbance was controlled by the new growth and the decomposition of residues. The forest management, which resulted in the dead trees remaining at the study site, strongly affected the carbon balance over the years. When comparing the carbon uptake efficiency at the study site with that at others, including those with various kinds of disturbances, we

  12. 几种植物对土壤中阿特拉津的吸收富集特征及去除效率研究%Uptake and Removal Efficiency of Atrazine in Soil by Several Weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建军; 李明锐; 张坤; 李元

    2014-01-01

    , enrichment and transfer of atrazine to some extents. The enrichment co-efficient and transfer coefficient of P. hydridum was the highest, which were 0.54 and 2.81, respectively, followed by those of S. arundi-naceum and F. elata. In sum, P. hydridum, S. arundinaceum and F. elata could be recommended for restoring atrazine contaminated soils.

  13. 矿山岩石边坡植被恢复中植物配置的研究%Study on the plant furnishing of vegetation recovery of the mine rock slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振峰; 程文; 陈增香; 潘荣森; 胡天寿; 孙凯蕾; 李东樵

    2015-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of high technical difficulty and low success rate of recovering vegetation on the rock slope of mining wasteland ,the optimal solution of proportion of plants was de-termined,based on the analysis of the nature of rock and the application of plants on slope,herbs and woody planted in the mining wasteland,and control of its density and seeding rates. Taking Yongping copper mine as a case,tests showed that greening plants should be acid proof,because of the serious acid of rock slope. The plants choose Estuca elata,Cynodon dactylon,Miscathus sinensis, Indigofera pseudotinctoria, Lespedeza bicolor, Crotalaria pallida, Parthenoeissus trieuspidata,and Puerarialobata. Because germination time of woody plants usually was later than herbs,so it was necessary to control the density of herbs and woody plants. Suggestions for the ratio of Estuca elata,Cynodon dactylon,Miscathus sinensis,Indigofera pseudotinctoria,Lespedeza bicolor,Crotalaria pallida,Parthenoeissus trieuspidata,Puerarialobata respectively were 4. 88 g/m2 ,1. 63 g/m2 ,2. 61 g/m2 ,2. 59 g/m2 ,4. 76 g/m2 ,1. 56 g/m2 ,2-3 p/m and 2-3 p/m.%针对矿山废弃地岩石边坡进行植被恢复存在的技术难度大和成功率低的特点,通过对废弃地的岩石性质和生态恢复边坡绿化植物应用情况调查的分析,草本植物和木本植物在铜矿废弃地生长情况,及其密度和播种量控制试验,确定矿山废弃地岩石边坡绿化植物配比的优化方案。以永平铜矿为研究对象进行的试验表明,矿山废弃地岩石边坡酸性污染严重,应选择耐酸植物;宜选择草本植物高羊茅、狗牙根、芒草;木本植物马棘、胡枝子、猪屎豆;藤本植物爬墙虎和葛藤;木本植物的发芽时间通常迟于草本植物,合理控制草本植物和木本植物的生长密度;喷播绿化植物配置方案建议为:高羊茅(4.88 g/m2),狗牙根(1.63 g/m2),芒草(2.61 g/m2

  14. True morels (Morchella, Pezizales) of Europe and North America: evolutionary relationships inferred from multilocus data and a unified taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Franck; Bellanger, Jean-Michel; Clowez, Philippe; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry; Urban, Alexander; Sauve, Mathieu; Courtecuisse, Régis; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Applying early names, with or without original material, to genealogical species is challenging. For morels this task is especially difficult because of high morphological stasis and high plasticity of apothecium color and shape. Here we propose a nomenclatural revision of true morels (Morchella, Pezizales) from Europe and North America, based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of portions of the genes for RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) and second largest subunit (RPB2), translation elongation factor-1α (TEF1), the nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), and partial nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S). The 107 newly sequenced collections were from both continents, including 48 types, together with previously published sequences. Names are applied to 30 of the 65 currently recognized genealogical species. Results of the present study revealed that the number of Morchella species in Europe (n = 21) is nearly identical to that in North America (n = 22). Only seven species were found on both continents, consistent with previous reports of high continental endemism within the genus. Presently it is not possible to tell whether the transoceanic disjunctions were due to human activities, migration across a Bering land bridge or long-distance dispersal. In an effort to stabilize the taxonomy, due in part to the recent publication of synonyms for 11 of the species, accepted names are presented together with their corresponding later synonyms. A new subclade that includes holotypes of M. castanea and M. brunneorosea is identified in sect. Morchella (Esculenta Clade). Lectotypes for Morchella deliciosa, M. eximia and M. tridentina are designated here, as well as epitypes for M. dunalii, M. eximia, M. purpurascens and M. vulgaris. Morchella conica was determined to be illegitimate, and further research is required to determine the identity of M. elata and M. inamoena. PMID:25550303

  15. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  16. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Squalene Epoxidase Gene in Panax gin-seng%人参鲨烯环氧酶基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯双利; 刘翠晶; 杨利民; 韩梅

    2014-01-01

    Five-year ginseng root tissue was used as material .After extracting the total RNA and revers-ing transcription,Squalene Epoxidase (SQE)gene was cloned and sequenced by RT-PCR technology . Then the impact factors of ginseng saponins′biosynthetic pathway was discussed .The results showed that Panax ginseng SQE was cloned successfully,with a full length of 1 636 bp,containing a 1 61 1 bp open reading frame that encode 536 amino acids .The nucleotide showed a high homology with other plants . Furthermore,phylogenic analysis on the sequence of SQE gene with other plants showed that P .ginseng was closely related to P .Notoginseng,Alalia elata and Eleutherococcus senticosus,and the identities of nucleotide sequences reached 98%,96%and 90%,respectively .%以五年生人参根组织为试验材料,提取总RNA,反转录合成cDNA,利用RT-PCR法对人参鲨烯环氧酶(SQE)基因的cDNA进行克隆及序列分析,初步探讨人参皂苷生物合成途径中的影响因子。结果表明:获得人参SQE基因全长片段大小为1636 bp,开放阅读框长1611 bp,编码536个氨基酸残基,与其他植物核苷酸序列具有较高同源性,其中与三七、龙牙惚木、刺五加同源性分别为98%、96%、90%。

  17. 基于层次分析法对姜黄属植物的观赏应用综合评价%Ornamental evaluation of Curcuma based on analytic hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽珍; 吴永辉; 岳保超; 刘念

    2015-01-01

    运用层次分析法对姜黄属(CurcumaL.)植物的10个种12份材料进行了鲜切花应用、盆栽观花应用、盆栽观叶应用与地栽应用等方面的观赏特性综合评价,并对就该12份材料的株高、花梗长度、花梗粗度、花序长度、花序直径等28个单项指标进行了综合考察评分,按评分标准计算其综合得分.结果显示,在姜黄属植物的观赏应用上,上部苞片先端颜色与花序直径是较为重要的评价指标;在观赏应用综合评价上,等级为I的有大莪术(C.elata)、春秋姜黄(C.attenuata)的顶生花与侧生花、南昆山莪术(C.nankunshanensis)的顶生花与侧生花、顶花莪术(C.yunnanensis),其中大莪术得分最高,是开发应用的首选种类.南岭莪术(C.kwangsiensis var.nanlingensis、姜黄(C.longa、红艳郁金(C.rubescens)、Curcuma sp.1、Curcuma sp.2被评定为等级Ⅱ,Curcuma sp.2、姜黄较其他得分高.郁金因其花色淡,花梗长度短,开花率低等因素,总体得分明显落后其他种,被评定为等级Ⅲ.

  18. The herbal extract KCHO-1 exerts a neuroprotective effect by ameliorating oxidative stress via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Song, Bong-Keun; Son, Ilhong; Kim, Dong-Woung; Kang, Dae-Gil; Lee, Ho-Sub; Oh, Hyuncheol; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-06-01

    KCHO-1 is a novel product comprised of 30% ethanol extracts obtained from nine medical herbs, which are commonly used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine. The nine herbs include Curcuma longa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Gastrodia elata, Chaenomeles sinensis, Polygala tenuifolia, Paeonia japonica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Atractylodes japonica and processed Aconitum carmichaeli. Recent studies have reported the beneficial effects of these herbs. The present study aimed to investigate the direct neuroprotective effects of KCHO‑1 on HT22 mouse hippocampal cells, and to determine the possible underlying mechanisms. KCHO‑1 significantly suppressed glutamate‑ and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced cell damage, and reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, KCHO‑1 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of heme oxygenase (HO)‑1. Tin protoporphyrin, which is an inhibitor of HO activity, partially suppressed the effects of KCHO‑1. Furthermore, KCHO‑1 significantly upregulated nuclear factor erythroid‑derived 2‑related factor‑2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. Extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) activation also appeared to be associated with KCHO‑1‑induced HO‑1 expression, since the ERK inhibitor PD98059 suppressed HO‑1 expression and prevented KCHO‑1‑induced cytoprotection. The results of the present study suggested that KCHO‑1 may effectively prevent glutamate‑ or H2O2‑induced oxidative damage via Nrf2/ERK mitogen‑activated protein kinase‑dependent HO‑1 expression. These data suggest that KCHO‑1 may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27082826

  19. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  20. 甘肃省康县药用资源及评价体系初探%Medicinal Resources from Kangxian County of Gansu Province and Its Evaluation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富贵; 孙丽娟; 杜申喜; 梁金磊

    2012-01-01

    通过野外调查,民间走访和查阅相关资源等调查方式,全面系统地整理康县药用资源(包括药用植物、动物以及矿物),发现康县境内有各类药用资源600 余种.野生天麻、猪苓、紫草等35种野生药用植物为急需保护的物种,钩藤、祖师麻、菟丝子等124种野生药用资源为需要保护的物种.并且初步建立了蕴藏系数、保护缓急程度等5 项指标为定量评价珍稀药材的指标体系.%Medicinal resources from Kangxian County (including medicinal plants, animals and minerals) are fully collected through field investigation, folk interview and consulting related literature. It is found that there are more than 600 kinds of medicinal resources in Kangxian County. 35 kinds of wild medicinal plants such as wild TianMa (Gastrodia elata Blume), ZhuLing (polyporus), ZtCao(Lithospermum erythrorhizon) are the species in the need of urgent protection, 124 kinds including GouTeng (Uncaria rhynchophylla), ZuShiMa (Daphne giraldii Nitsche), 7uStZt(Semen Cuscutae.) are the species required protection. An evaluation system for endangered and precious medicinal materials, which contain 5 indices such as storage index and protection urgency degree, is set up primarily.

  1. Neighborhood structure influences the convergence in light capture efficiency and carbon gain: an architectural approach for cloud forest shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Q, J Antonio; Cordero S, Roberto A

    2016-06-01

    Although plant competition is recognized as a fundamental factor that limits survival and species coexistence, its relative importance on light capture efficiency and carbon gain is not well understood. Here, we propose a new framework to explain the effects of neighborhood structures and light availability on plant attributes and their effect on plant performance in two understory shade-tolerant species (Palicourea padifolia (Roem. & Schult.) C.M. Taylor & Lorence and Psychotria elata (Swartz)) within two successional stages of a cloud forest in Costa Rica. Features of plant neighborhood physical structure and light availability, estimated by hemispherical photographs, were used to characterize the plant competition. Plant architecture, leaf attributes and gas exchange parameters extracted from the light-response curve were used as functional plant attributes, while an index of light capture efficiency (silhouette to total area ratio, averaged over all viewing angles, STAR) and carbon gain were used as indicators of plant performance. This framework is based in a partial least square Path model, which suggests that changes in plant performance in both species were affected in two ways: (i) increasing size and decreasing distance of neighbors cause changes in plant architecture (higher crown density and greater leaf dispersion), which contribute to lower STAR and subsequently lower carbon gain; and (ii) reductions in light availability caused by the neighbors also decrease plant carbon gain. The effect of neighbors on STAR and carbon gain were similar for the two forests sites, which were at different stages of succession, suggesting that the architectural changes of the two understory species reflect functional convergence in response to plant competition. Because STAR and carbon gain are variables that depend on multiple plant attributes and environmental characteristics, we suggest that changes in these features can be used as a whole-plant response approach to

  2. Gastrodin suppresses BACE1 expression under oxidative stress condition via inhibition of the PKR/eIF2α pathway in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J-S; Zhou, S-F; Wang, Q; Guo, J-N; Liang, H-M; Deng, J-B; He, W-Y

    2016-06-14

    The expression of β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is increased in the brain of late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and oxidative stress may be the potential cause of this event. The phenolic glucoside gastrodin (Gas), a main component of a Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has been demonstrated to display antioxidant activity and suppresses BACE1 expression. However, the mechanisms by which Gas suppresses BACE1 expression are not clear. Morris water maze test was performed to assess the effect of Gas treatment on memory impairments in Tg2576 mice. The level of oxidative stress in the brain of Tg2576 mice was determined by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS. In vivo and in vitro, we detected the expression levels of BACE1, pPKRThr446, PKR, pPERKThr981, PERK, peIF2αSer51, and eIF2α using western blot analysis. We found that Gas improved learning and memory abilities of Tg2576 transgenic mice and attenuated intracellular oxidative stress in hippocampi of Tg2576 mice. We discovered that the expression levels of BACE1, activated PKR (pPKRThr446) and activated eIF2α (peIF2αSer51) were elevated in the brains of Tg2576 mice and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, peptide PKR inhibitor (PRI) and Gas down-regulated BACE1 expression in Tg2576 mice and H2O2-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting activation of PKR and eIF2α. Gas alleviates memory deficits in mice and suppresses BACE1 expression by inhibiting the protein kinase/Eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (PKR/eIF2α) pathway. The research suggested that Gas may develop as an drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26987953

  3. Neighborhood structure influences the convergence in light capture efficiency and carbon gain: an architectural approach for cloud forest shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Q, J Antonio; Cordero S, Roberto A

    2016-06-01

    Although plant competition is recognized as a fundamental factor that limits survival and species coexistence, its relative importance on light capture efficiency and carbon gain is not well understood. Here, we propose a new framework to explain the effects of neighborhood structures and light availability on plant attributes and their effect on plant performance in two understory shade-tolerant species (Palicourea padifolia (Roem. & Schult.) C.M. Taylor & Lorence and Psychotria elata (Swartz)) within two successional stages of a cloud forest in Costa Rica. Features of plant neighborhood physical structure and light availability, estimated by hemispherical photographs, were used to characterize the plant competition. Plant architecture, leaf attributes and gas exchange parameters extracted from the light-response curve were used as functional plant attributes, while an index of light capture efficiency (silhouette to total area ratio, averaged over all viewing angles, STAR) and carbon gain were used as indicators of plant performance. This framework is based in a partial least square Path model, which suggests that changes in plant performance in both species were affected in two ways: (i) increasing size and decreasing distance of neighbors cause changes in plant architecture (higher crown density and greater leaf dispersion), which contribute to lower STAR and subsequently lower carbon gain; and (ii) reductions in light availability caused by the neighbors also decrease plant carbon gain. The effect of neighbors on STAR and carbon gain were similar for the two forests sites, which were at different stages of succession, suggesting that the architectural changes of the two understory species reflect functional convergence in response to plant competition. Because STAR and carbon gain are variables that depend on multiple plant attributes and environmental characteristics, we suggest that changes in these features can be used as a whole-plant response approach to

  4. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  5. 45S rDNA在多种植物中期染色体上的定位%Physical Mapping of 45S rDNA on Metaphase Chromosomes in Several Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 陈成彬; 李秀兰; 陈瑞阳; 宋文芹

    2006-01-01

    应用荧光原位杂交技术首次确定了日本小檗(Berberis thunbergii DC)、车前(Plantago major L.)、野芹菜(Sanicula lamelligera Hance)、荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)、槭树(Acer buergerianum Miq.)、天目琼花(Viburnum sargentii Koehne.)、丹参(Salvia miltorrhiza Bunge.)、榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)中45S rDNA在中期染色体上的位置.根据rDNA的位点数和位置的变化,分为四种类型:①在日本小檗、车前和野芹菜中,荧光信号正好位于随体染色体的次缢痕或端部;②荔枝和槭树,分别有1对和3对染色体具随体,但荧光原位杂交却检测到3对和5对染色体上具有杂交信号;③天目琼花,具有4对随体染色体,但仅在其中一对随体上显示了杂交信号;④在丹参和榆树中,有的杂交信号位于着丝粒部位或长臂的末端,杂交信号的数目成奇数.黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)的染色体45S rDNA信号正好位于6条染色体的着丝粒部位,这与Dal-Hoe和Hoshi等人的结果是一致的.上述结果表明:45S rDNA可以作为染色体的一个识别指标,对识别染色体的个体性具有一定的参考价值.另外还对45S rDNA位点分布的多态性进行了讨论.%The genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes has been determined for the first time by fluo rescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Berberis thunbergii DC. , Plantago major L. , Sanicula lamelligera Hance, Litchi chinensis Sonn. , Acer buergerianum Miq. , Viburnum sargentii Koehne. , Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. , and Ulmus pumila L.. These species could be divided into four groups based on the difference on the number and sites of their rDNA loci: the fluorescence signals lay in the secondary constrictions or the terminal regions of SAT-chromosomes in B. thunbergii, P. major, and S. lamelligera; 3 and 5 pairs of signals were de tected in L. chinensis and A. buergerianum, respectively which had 1 and 3 pairs of satellites respectively ; there were 4 pairs of SAT-chromosomes in V

  6. 北细辛及其近缘植物叶片显微结构比较研究%Comparative Study on Leaf Microstructure of Asarum heterotropoides Fr .Schmidt var .Mandshuricum (Maxim .)Kitag .and its Relative Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳艳飞; 于营; 邢丽伟; 邵财; 朴向民; 张佳琪; 郭靖

    2016-01-01

    采用常规石蜡切片法和无色指甲油印痕法对北细辛及其近缘植物叶片解剖结构进行比较研究。结果表明,北细辛及其近缘植物在叶片表皮细胞大小及排列方式、栅栏组织、叶肉细胞形态及排列方式和叶片表皮气孔密度等方面存在差异。北细辛叶片栅栏组织由1层柱状细胞组成;汉城细辛和华细辛叶片栅栏组织均由2层柱状细胞组成;尾花细辛和花叶尾花细辛叶片栅栏组织由1层柱状细胞组成,但其细胞较小且排列疏松;青城细辛、川滇细辛和长毛细辛栅栏组织分化不明显。北细辛、汉城细辛和华细辛叶肉细胞叶绿体小而密,青城细辛和长毛细辛叶肉细胞叶绿体较大,川滇细辛和尾花细辛叶肉细胞叶绿体较小,青城细辛、长毛细辛、川滇细辛和花叶尾花细辛叶肉细胞叶绿体数量较少且主要分布于叶肉组织上层细胞,叶肉细胞中叶绿体间的差异也可为细辛属植物分类鉴别提供参考。%Leaf microstructure of Asarum heterotropoides Fr .Schmidt var .mandshuricum and its relative species were studied using paraffin method and colorless nail polish imprint method .The results showed that the leaf microstructure of A .heterotropoides var .mandshuricum and its relative species had a difference in the epidermal cell size and arrangement ,palisade tissue ,mesophyll cell morphology and arrangement ,and the leaf stoma density .Leaf palisade tissues of A .heterotropoides var .mandshuricum were composed of a layer of columnar cells ,but A .sieboldii Miq f .seoulense and A .sieboldii Miq were composed of two layers of columnar cells .Leaf palisade tissues of A .caudigerum Hance var .caudi-gerum and A .caudigerum Hance var .cardiophyllum were composed of a layer of columnar cells which were small and loose .A .splendens ,A . delavayi and A .pulchellum had no significant difference of palisade tissue .Chloroplasts in mesophyll cells of A

  7. Avaliação de defeitos no processo de fabricação de lamelas para pisos de madeira engenheirados com uso de ferramentas de controle de qualidade Evaluation of the production process of lamella for engineered wood floor using quality control instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Coletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os defeitos das lamelas são responsáveis em grande parte pelo retrabalho, perdas e diminuição da qualidade do piso acabado. Esses defeitos geram aumento de custos de produção sendo um fator muito importante para o processo de fabricação de pisos de madeira. Este trabalho tem por objetivos classificar e quantificar os defeitos ocorrentes na produção de lamelas, buscar causas, propor soluções e melhorias através da aplicação de ferramentas de qualidade como: “Brainstorming", “ Diagrama de Pareto", “Diagrama de Ishikawa" e 5W2H . Foram amostrados 1598,47 m² de lamelas das seguintes espécies: Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms e timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq com as seguintes dimensões: espessuras (2,5mm e 3,5mm, larguras (76,2mm, 82,5mm e 127mm, comprimentos (450mm a 1.200mm. O defeito mais freqüente encontrado na produção de lamelas foi a marca de serra (31%, seguido de corte da madeira feito pelo fornecedor (23% e falta de instrução de trabalho (15%. As principais causas dos defeitos de marca de serra são devidas aos problemas de manutenção de serras da empresa fornecedora de madeira.Lamella defects are responsible in large part for rework losses and decrease in the quality of the finished floor. These defects increase costs, a very important factor in the process wood floor production. This work aimed to quantify and classify the common defects occurring in the lamella production, find out causes and propose solutions and improvements using the tools “Brainstorming", “Pareto Diagram", “Ishibawa Diagram", and 5W2H. 1598,47 square meters of lamella of the species Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, Amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, Cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms and Timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq were sampled with the following dimensions: thickness (2.5mm and 3.5mm, width (76,2mm, 82,5mm and 127mm, lenght

  8. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  9. Pseudopyxis heterophylla subsp.monilirhizoma (Rubiaceae, tribe Paederieae), a new combination from Zhejiang of China, based on morphological trait analysis%基于形态性状分析的浙江茜草科胀节假盖果草亚种新组合(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶立新; 周莹莹; 刘玲娟; 陈伟杰; 刘胜龙; 郑朝宗; 金孝锋

    2013-01-01

    茜草科(Rubiaceae)假盖果草属(Pseudopyxis)共3种,分布于中国和日本,其中胀节假盖果草(P.monilirhizoma)为近年发表的新种,特产浙江凤阳山.在文献查阅、野外采集和标本整理鉴定的基础上,对产于日本的P.depressa、P.heterophylla和特产于中国的胀节假盖果草形态性状进行主坐标分析(PCoA),并对茎的毛被和种子微观形态进行扫描电镜观察.结果表明:在PCoA散点图中,P.heterophylla和胀节假盖果草不能明显区分,而P.depressa与这二者区别明显;P.heterophylla和胀节假盖果草在茎的毛被方面也无区别,但胀节假盖果草种子表面除有纵肋外,还有瘤块状突起,与P.heterophylla有所区别.通过形态性状和种子微观形态分析,认为假盖果属的已有3个种应归并为2个种,将胀节假盖果草作为P.heterophylla的亚种处理,组合为P.heteroph ylla subsp.monilirhizoma (Tao Chen)L.X.Ye,C.Z.Zheng&X.F.Jin.%Pseudopyxis Miq.,a genus distributed in eastern China and Japan,comprises three species,in which Pseudopyxis monilirhizoma Tao Chen is endemic to China.The variation analysis of the diagnostic characters among these three species of Pseudopyxis was carried out.Based on principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of eighteen morphological characters,the individuals of P.depressa were separated distinctly from P.heterophylla + P.monilirhizoma,whereas the separation between P.heterophylla and P.monilirhizoma was not clear.The observations of stem indumentum and seed micromorphology showed the difference between P.depressa and P.heterophylla + P.monilirhizoma,while that of P.heterophylla and P.monilirhizoma was consistent.In case of the observations of stem indumentum and seed micromorphology and PCoA of morphological characters,P.monilirhizoma is consequently combined as a subspecies of P.heterophylla (Miq.) Maxim.,and the combination of P.heterophylla subsp.monilirhizoma (Tao Chen) L.X.Ye,C.Z.Zheng &X.F.Jin is proposed.

  10. New species of the genus Castanopsis from Hainan%海南锥栗属新植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符国瑷

    2001-01-01

    @@1. 五指山锥别名:山白锥(五指山)新种图版Ⅰ-A Castanopsis wuzhishangensis G. A. Fu sp. nov. Species affinis Castanopsi carlesii(Hemsl.)Hayata var. spinulosa,a qua folia crasoribus et duroribus differf. Etiam affinis C.Echinocarpae Miq.var.seninudae,sed folia minoribus,tantum 5.5~10.5 cm longa,1.5~2.8 cm lata differt. Arbor,usque ad 19 m alta,trunco 26~32 cm diam.,ramulis nigro-fuscis,glabris. Folia coriacea,oblonga vel longo-elliptica,5.5~10.5 cm longa,1.5~2.8 cm lata,apice caudato-acuminata,basi cuneata vel late cuneata,supra in sicco viridis,glabra,subtus ferrugineo-lepidota,margine apicem remote serrulata,supra costa impressa,nerris lateralibus utrinqe 10~11,subtus conspicuis prominulis,petioli cir. 7 mm longi.Inflorescentiae spicatae;flores♂:calycis obovatis,6-partitis,staminibus 10~13,filamentis 3.5~4 mm longis;flores♀:involucra flore uno vel dou amplecantia; ovario 3-loculo,stylis vulgo 3,rare 2.Infructescentia spicata 5.5~14 cm longa,solitaria vel 2~3 in ramulis disposita,nuculis globosis,apice triangulatis,cupulae cum spinis usque ad 13~20 mm diam.,spinis 2~5 mm longis,puberulis,cicatrice 9 mm longa,6 mm lata.

  11. The potency of Bukit Tapak forest as means for traditional ceremony, environmental conservation, and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bukit Tapak (1903 m the natural reserve of Batukau I (816.4 ha is one of three natural reserve area of Batukau (1762.8 ha, 1974. Located at the tourism object of Bedugul, the eastern part boundaries to the Botanic Garden Eka Karya-LIPI (154.5 ha, 1959 and settlement of Candikuning area (1152 family, 4475 persons and near the three lakes of the water resources of Bali; Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan lake. The special plants; cemara geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., cemara pandak (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub., nyabah (Pinanga arinasaensis J.R. Witono, paku kidang (Dicksonia blumei Planch., and purnajiwa (Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benth.. The pioneer plant of the hill is cemara geseng and the endemic is cemara pandak. The plant of needle leaves that basically the existence of Bali Botanical Garden as the conservation ex situ flora of noodle leaves especially at the eastern Indonesian area. Nyabah, which is supposed to be the new kind of palm named Arinasa, driven from the staff name who is the pioneer of the conservation. Paku kidang is rare. There are ethnobotany plants of ritual ceremony such as: kayu tulak (Schefflera sp., kayu tulung (Brasaia sp., penjalin (Calamus sp., paku pidpid (Nephrolepis sp., trijata (Medinilla speciosa (Blume ex Mart. Blume, etc. Balinese people believe that forest is holly and sacred. But because of the existence of Pura Teratai Bang (16 century at the slope, moslem cemetery (found in 1938 at the peak, and other needs (climbing, food, medicine, etc., it can not be avoided the entrances of people that caused the forest is damaged. The forest reservation needs the approach to the local people, so the solution are morally and integration. The use of the forest which is potential as the environment education facilities conservation and other alternatives such as: horticulture, the improvement of the people economy discussed here to be the input for the forest conservation wisely and continuously.

  12. Método do índice de qualidade na determinação do frescor de peixes

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    Gabriela Vieira do Amaral

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O Método do Índice de Qualidade é um sistema de controle de qualidade do frescor do pescado e baseia-se na avaliação objetiva dos principais atributos sensoriais de cada espécie de peixe, através de um sistema de pontos de demérito. O MIQ é baseado na avaliação visual e olfativa de certos atributos do peixe, principalmente a aparência dos olhos, pele e brânquias, juntamente com o odor e textura, através de um sistema de classificação por pontos de demérito, de 0 a 3. A pontuação de todos os atributos é somada para dar uma pontuação global sensorial, o chamado Índice de Qualidade (IQ. O método permite a avaliação da qualidade do pescado em questão, a previsão da validade comercial da espécie estudada, com a vantagem de ser barato, simples, requerer pouco treinamento em relação aos outros métodos e não destruir a amostra. Sua aplicação faz da análise sensorial, tão importante para avaliação do frescor do pescado, um método objetivo, permitindo de forma confiável e rápida, a avaliação da matéria-prima, seja a bordo das embarcações, no controle da matéria-prima nas indústrias, ou nos entrepostos e em postos de venda.

  13. THE GENUS TEIJSMANNIODENDRON KOORDERS (VERBENACEAE

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The present notes on Teijsmanniodendron are based on a study of the spec- imens from Herbarium Bogoriense and the Herbarium of the Singapore Botanic Garden. 2. The taxonomic value of the principal characters and their variation are discussed. Each of the species recognized is annotated. 3. A delimitation and subdivision of the genus in two sections,  Plurifoliolatae Kosterm.  and 'Unifoliolatae Kosterm  is proposed. 4. A key to the 12 species and 1 variety distinguished, is included. 5. One new species is provisionally described (but not named, and one new variety, Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum var. auriculatum Kosterm, is published. 6. The following new combinations are made: Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum B. Clarke Kosterm,, T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm. T. holophyllum (Bak. Kos- term, T.novoguineense (Kan. & Hatus. Kosterm., T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., T. smilacifolium (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., and T. subspieatum (Hallier f. Kosterm. 7. The genus Xerocarpa H. 3. Lam (non Spach is rejected; its only species, X. avicenniaefoliola H. J. Lam, is referred to Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr. Bakh. In addition, the following reductions are made: Teijsmanniodendron mono- phyllum Kurata = T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm.; Vitex bankae H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh., V. bogoriensis H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh.; V. koordersii H. J. Lam t= T. pteropodum (Miq. Bakh.; V. tetragona Hallier f. = T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm.; V. venosa H. J. Lam = T. coriaceum (C. B. Clarke Kosterm. Possible identity of T. longifolium (Merr. Merr. and T. bogoriense is suggested: the identity of T. simplicifolium Merr. and T. smilacifolium (H. H-, W. Pears. Kosterm. is indicated as probable. 8. Vitex subspicata Hallier f. and V. holophylla Bak. included by Lam in vitex hollrungii Warb. are reinstated as distinct species of Teijsmanniodendron.

  14. Nerve Regeneration Potential of Protocatechuic Acid in RSC96 Schwann Cells by Induction of Cellular Proliferation and Migration through IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Da-Tong; Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chung, Li-Chin; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-12-31

    Peripheral nerve injuries, caused by accidental trauma, acute compression or surgery, often result in temporary or life-long neuronal dysfunctions and inflict great economic or social burdens on the patients. Nerve cell proliferation is an essential process to restore injured nerves of adults. Schwann cells play a crucial role in endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate, migrate and provide trophic support to axons via expression of various neurotrophic factors, such as the nerve growth factor (NGF), especially after nerve injury. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, isolated from the kernels of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq (AOF), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine the fruits of which are widely used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-salivation and anti-diarrheatic. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms by which PCA induces Schwann cell proliferation by activating IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt pathway. Treatment with PCA induces phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/serine - threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway, and activates expression of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis after 18 h of treatment showed that proliferation of the RSC96 cells was enhanced by PCA treatment. The PCA induced proliferation was accompanied by modulation in the expressions of cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A. Knockdown of PI3K using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and inhibition of IGF-IR receptor resulted in the reduction in cell survival proteins. The results collectively showed that PCA treatment promoted cell proliferation and cell survival via IGF-I signaling. PMID:26717920

  15. Contrasting seasonal leaf habits of canopy trees between tropical dry-deciduous and evergreen forests in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Ladpala, Phanumard; Staporn, Duriya; Panuthai, Samreong; Gamo, Minoru; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2006-05-01

    We compared differences in leaf properties, leaf gas exchange and photochemical properties between drought-deciduous and evergreen trees in tropical dry forests, where soil nutrients differed but rainfall was similar. Three canopy trees (Shorea siamensis Miq., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob. and Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer) in a drought-deciduous forest and a canopy tree (Hopea ferrea Lanessan) in an evergreen forest were selected. Soil nutrient availability is lower in the evergreen forest than in the deciduous forest. Compared with the evergreen tree, the deciduous trees had shorter leaf life spans, lower leaf masses per area, higher leaf mass-based nitrogen (N) contents, higher leaf mass-based photosynthetic rates (mass-based P(n)), higher leaf N-based P(n), higher daily maximum stomatal conductance (g(s)) and wider conduits in wood xylem. Mass-based P(n) decreased from the wet to the dry season for all species. Following onset of the dry season, daily maximum g(s) and sensitivity of g(s) to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees, whereas both properties decreased in the evergreen tree during the dry season. Photochemical capacity and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II (PSII) also remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees even after the onset of the dry season. In contrast, photochemical capacity decreased and NPQ increased in the evergreen tree during the dry season, indicating that the leaves coped with prolonged drought by down-regulating PSII. Thus, the drought-avoidant deciduous species were characterized by high N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, high water use and photoinhibition avoidance, whereas the drought-tolerant evergreen was characterized by low N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, conservative water use and photoinhibition tolerance. PMID:16452078

  16. Ethnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Mairida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Suku Anak Dalam (SAD, a tribal in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park (TNBD has knowledge for utilizing rattans. This research attempts to investigate the species of rattans utilized and to analyze the local wisdom of Suku Anak Dalam(SAD community.The data was collected by doing an interview the informants consisting of temenggung (head of the tribe, jenang (the liaison between the villagers and anak dalam, rattans gatherers, induk (mother and hand maker. Then, the researcher observed active participation (following the SAD activity in utilizing rattans.The interview was conducted based on the appropriate time with qualitative condition and situation. The result showed 12 (twelve species of rattan utilized by the SAD community, Calamus ornatus (Blume, Calamus caesius( Blume, Calamus flabellatus (Becc., Calamus manan(Miq., Calamus csipionum (Lour., Calamus javensis(Blume, Calamus axilliaris(Becc., Calamus sp., Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. Mart., Daemonorops draco(Willd. Blume, Daemonorops verticiliaris(Griff. Mart., and Korthalsiaechinometra(Becc.The eight species were utilized as ambung, penampilan, and tekalo handicraft. One type for rituals, ropes, clotheslines, dye, durian lempok cakes preservatives (Durio spp.,and the species for the food for pregnant mothers (‘ngidam’, and the three species for medicine. The implication of this research gave a documentation for the government to formulate and to make an authority of TNB forest conservation and to protect the culture of SAD community in the form of rattans inventarization and local wisdom of SAD community in utilizing the species of rattans.How to CiteMairida, D., Muhadiono, M., & Hilwan, I. (2016. Etnobotanical Study of Rattans on Suku Anak Dalam Community in Bukit Duabelas Nasional Park. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1 64-70.

  17. Biochemical Status of Stock Plants and Their Annual Sprouts as a Crucial Key for Successful Adventitious Root Formation

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    Gregor OSTERC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leafy cuttings of Prunus subhirtella Miq. ‘Autumnalis’ were harvested from mature, semi-mature and juvenile stock plants at four dates during the vegetative period 2011 (on 16th of May, on 30th of May, on 20th of June and on 11th of July and their auxin levels (IAA, IAA-Asp and sugar content (glucose, sucrose, sorbitol were quantified. The IAA and IAA-Asp contents in cutting bases increased over the vegetative period, whereby aspartate values were higher than IAA values. The IAA-Asp values ranged from 6.3 µg g-1 to 22.7 µg g-1 FW and reached two great peaks on 30th of May and on 11th of July. The IAA values ranged from 0.29 µg g-1 to 4.51 µg g-1 FW, reaching a small fall on 20th of June. Significantly higher levels of IAA and IAA-Asp were measured at the base of mature cuttings compared to cuttings of semi-mature and juvenile origin, when the cuttings were harvested on 30th of May and on 11th of July. On the other hand, mature leafy cuttings accumulated significantly less fructose and glucose in their root emergence zone (16.3 g kg-1 DW, 45.2 g kg-1 DW compared to semi-mature cuttings (26.4 g kg-1 DW, 62.5 g kg-1 DW and juvenile cuttings (27.3 g kg-1 DW, 73.9 g kg-1 DW. All measured rooting parameters (rooting success, number of main roots and root length were significantly improved when cuttings of a more juvenile origin (semi-mature and juvenile were used.

  18. A REVISION OF MALAYSIAN BAUHINIEAE

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    H. C. D. de Wit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available SummaryThis revision deals with the tribus Bauhinieae (Caesalpiniaceae as occurring in Malaysia. The tribe includes the genera Bauhinia L. s. str., Bracteolanthus de Wit gen. nov., Gigasiphon Drake del Cast., Lasiobema (Korth. Miq., Lysiphyllum (Benth. de Wit gen. & stat. nov., Phanera Lour., and Piliostigma Hochst. Bauhinia is reduced to the original Lin-nean delimitation; 9 species are treated (inclusive of a number of varieties ; 2 species are reduced to the rank of varieties and 3 new varieties are described, accounting for 3 new varietal combinations and 3 new varietal names. Bracteolanthus contains a single species for which a new combination is proposed. Gigasiphon is represented by 3 species; 3 new specific combinations are made. Lasiobema is represented by 5 species; in this ge- nus 1 new species is described, 4 new combinations and 1 new varietal combination are proposed, and a new but insufficiently represented species is recorded. Some new combinations for extra-Malaysian species are also proposed. Of Lysiphyllum 2 species are treated; 2 new combinations and some new combinations for extra-Malaysian species were necessary. Pha-nera is by far the largest genus: 44 species, many of which are divided into subspecies and/or varieties. The genus is subdivided into three sub-genera, Phanera, Biporina de Wit, and Austrocercis de Wit. Of these, subgenus Phanera, in its turn, contains 3 sections, all new, viz Pha.nero-siphon, Meganthera, and Micranthera. Subgenus Biporina comprises the 3 new sections Bifoliola, Palmatifolia, and Cinnamomifolia. Subgenus Austrocercis consists of a single species. The recognition of Phanera as a genus, as well as the description of new taxa and the revaluation of some previously described ones made necessary a large number of new names and new combinations.

  19. 南岳珍稀濒危植物的调查研究%Investigation on Rare and Endangered Plants Nanyue,Hunan Prorince

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左家哺; 李明红; 彭珍宝; 旷建军

    2002-01-01

    在南岳野生植物中,珍稀濒危植物主要是指国家级保护植物,共有13种,其中一级2种,二级11种,它们是金钱松Pseudolarix amabilis(Nelson)Rehd.,篦子三尖杉Cephalotaxus oliveri Mast.,南方红豆杉Taxuschinensis(Pilger)Rehd. var.mairei(Lemeé et Lévl.)Cheng et L.K.Fu,榉树Zelkova Schneideriana Hand.-Mazz,樟树Cinnamomum camphora(L.)Presl,闽楠Phoebe bournei(Hemsl.)Yang,伯乐树Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl,绒毛皂荚Gleditsia.japonica Miq.var.velutina L.C.Li,野大豆Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.,花榈木Ormosia henryi Prain,毛红椿Toona sinensis(A.Juss.)Roem.var.pubescens(Franch.)Hand.-Mazz.,喜树Camptotheca acuminata Decne.,以及香果树等,本文主要介绍他们的分类位置、形态特征和地理分布状况,分析了它们的区系特征,提出应该尽快建立南岳国家级野生保护植物的核心或者优先保护地段、建立珍稀濒危植物的地理信息系统、研究其生物学和生态学特性以及采取就地或迁地保护措施来保存等对策.

  20. 细柱五加皮化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向前; 陆昌洙; 张承烨

    2004-01-01

    目的系统地研究五加属植物细柱五加皮Acanthopanax gracilistylus 的化学成分.方法用热甲醇分别对细柱五加皮的根进行提取后,采用Diaion HP-20P,Chromatorex ODS,Sephadex LH-20和硅胶色谱进行分离纯化,通过光谱分析以及直接和标准品对照进行结构确认.结果从根皮中得到二萜类等6 个化合物:五加酸(Ⅰ),异贝壳杉烯酸(Ⅱ),l-芝麻素(Ⅲ),豆甾醇(Ⅳ),β-谷甾醇(Ⅴ)和刺五加苷B(Ⅵ).结论化合物Ⅰ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Object To study the chemical constituents of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith as the purpose of study continually on plants of Acanthopanax (Decne. et Planch.) Miq. Methods The leaves, roots, and stem barks of A. gracilistylus were extracted with hot MeOH and steam distillation respectively, and then, separated and purified by column chromatographies on Diaion HP-20P, Chromatorex ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel. All compounds were identified on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis including GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR, or comparison with the reported data. Results Six compounds were obtained from the roots of A. gracilistylus. They are (-)-pimara-9 (11), 15-dien-19-oic acid (Ⅰ), (-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (Ⅱ), d-sesamin (Ⅲ), stigmasterol (Ⅳ), β-sitosterol (Ⅴ), and eleutheroside B (Ⅵ). Conclusion Compounds Ⅰ, Ⅳ, and Ⅴ are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  1. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  2. PRELIMINARY REVISIONS OF SOME GENERA OF MALAYSIAN PAPILIONACEAE II

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    MS van Meeuwen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The revisions or notes have been prepared by Miss M. S. van Meeuwen, except for those of Pseudarthria and Sophora by C. G. G. J. van Steenis, and Tephrosia by J. Stemmerik. In Alysicarpus 4 species are distinguished in Malaysia; a key, synonymy, and discussion are given.Lourea Desv., being a homonym, has, according to Dr. Bakhuizen van den Brink, to be replaced by Christia; a key and discussion is given of 4 Malaysian species; 5 new combinations are proposed. Under Desmodium the variability of D. heterocarpon (L. DC. and its full synonymy are discussed; one new variety is proposed; an enumeration of specimens of both varieties is given. D. ormooarpoides DC. and D. zonatum Miq. are two sharply distinct species which have been confused in the past; a key, synonyms, discussion, and enumeration of specimens ;; j are provided. The discrimination of D. sequax Wall, and D. viegaphyllum Zoll. is discussed and their synonymy given; specimens have been enumerated. Distribution is given of D. scorpiurus (Sw. Desv. and D. tor-tuosum (Sw.   DC. Psoraleai is revised for Malaysia where 4 species are recorded and keyed out; a fifth species must remain dubious, as the type could not be traced in the Paris Herbarium. Of Pseudarthria only one species occurs in Malaysia; its synonymy and distribution is given.Sophora longipes Merr.; an endemic species from the Philippines, is recorded for Timor. Of Tephro&ia maculata M. & P., from Papua, the synonymy is given and specimens enumerated; T. brachystachys Laut. & K. Seh. is reduced. Notes and distribution are given of T. zollingeri Backer. For T. mollie . Val., a later homonym, the new name T. papuana is proposed.

  3. Cytotoxicity and antitumoral activity of dichloromethane extract and its fractions from Pothomorphe umbellata

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    J.L. Sacoman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxicity of the dichloromethane crude extract (DCE, obtained from the aerial parts of Pothomorphe umbellata (L. Miq (Piperaceae, was evaluated against nine human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-ADR/RES, OVCAR-3, PC-3, HT-29, NCI-H460, 786-O, UACC-62, K-562. The DCE presented antiproliferative activity with good potency against all cell lines at low concentrations (between 4.0 and 9.5 µg/mL and with selectivity (1.55 µg/mL for the leukemia cell line (K-652. DCE (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg, ip was also evaluated in the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Both the survival number and the life span of the animals that died increased by at least 45 and 50%, respectively (8 animals per group, demonstrating P. umbellata extract potential anticancer activity. The results of the in vivo antitumor activity prompted the fractionation of the crude extract. The crude extract was submitted to dry column chromatography with dichloromethane-methanol (99:1. The column effluent fractions were extracted with methanol, dried under vacuum yielding fractions FR1 (less polar, FR2 (medium polarity, and FR3 (polar, which were analyzed for their growth inhibition or cytotoxic properties by a 48-h sulforhodamine B cell viability assay by measuring the total protein content. FR1 demonstrated high potency and cytotoxicity, a result compatible with the high toxicity of oxalic acid; FR2, containing 4-nerolidylcathecol, presented the lowest cytotoxic activity compared to the other two fractions but with selectivity for prostate cancer cell line; FR3, containing a mixture of steroids described in the literature as possessing various biological activities, also presented potent anticancer in vitro activity. These results suggest that P. umbellata DCE in vivo antitumor activity may be a consequence of the activity of different active principles.

  4. The botanical legacy of Thomas Hardwicke’s journey to Srinagar in 1796

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    Ian M. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1796, Thomas Hardwicke travelled through northern India between what is now Fatehgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Srinagar in Uttarakhand. Hardwicke collected and described plants encountered and had many of the plants illustrated from life. He published an account of the journey in 1799 including a list of plant species. I review the names validated in the original paper, and also those published subsequently by Sir James Edward Smith and William Roxburgh based partly or wholly on the material or drawings acquired by Hardwicke on the journey to Srinagar. The large collection of Hardwicke plant drawings now held in the British Library, and a smaller set in the Botany Library of the Natural History Museum, are considered in relation to the application and typification of plant names related to Hardwicke’s botanical exploration in India. The names of seven plant species were validly published in the 1799 paper (Androsace rotundifolia Hardw., Ficus laminosa Hardw., Justicia thyrsiformis Roxb. ex Hardw., Linum trigynum Roxb. ex Hardw., Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw., Salvia integrifolia Roxb. ex Hardw. and Volkameria bicolor Hardw., plus one new combination (Echites antidysentericus (L. Roxb. ex Hardw.. As concluded by Britten more than a century ago, Ficus laminosa is the correct name for the fig variously referred to F. saemocarpa Miq. or F. squamosa Roxb. Smith based Rhododendron arboreum Sm. and Bignonia undulata Sm. on Hardwicke plants. At least a dozen Roxburgh names, including Crataegus integrifolia Roxb., Gardenia tetrasperma Roxb. and Morus serrata Roxb., are based, at least partly, on Hardwicke’s collections. In total, 23 names are lectotypified here and one neotype is designated.

  5. De Novo Sequencing and Assembly Analysis of the Pseudostellaria heterophylla Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhen, Wei; Long, Dengkai; Ding, Ling; Gong, Anhui; Xiao, Chenghong; Jiang, Weike; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax is a mild tonic herb widely cultivated in the Southern part of China. The tuberous roots of P. heterophylla accumulate high levels of secondary metabolism products of medicinal value such as saponins, flavonoids, and isoquinoline alkaloids. Despite numerous studies on the pharmacological importance and purification of these compounds in P. heterophylla, their biosynthesis is not well understood. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform to sequence the RNA from flowers, leaves, stem, root cortex and xylem tissues of P. heterophylla. We obtained 616,413,316 clean reads that we assembled into 127, 334 unique sequences with an N50 length of 951 bp. Among these unigenes, 53,184 unigenes (41.76%) were annotated in a public database and 39, 795 unigenes were assigned to 356 KEGG pathways; 23,714 unigenes (8.82%) had high homology with the genes from Beta vulgaris. We discovered 32, 095 DEGs in different tissues and performed GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. The most enriched KEGG pathway of secondary metabolism showed up-regulated expression in tuberous roots as compared with the ground parts of P. heterophylla. Moreover, we identified 72 candidate genes involved in triterpenoids saponins biosynthesis in P. heterophylla. The expression profiles of 11 candidate unigenes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Our study established a global transcriptome database of P. heterophylla for gene identification and regulation. We also identified the candidate unigenes involved in triterpenoids saponins biosynthesis. Our results provide an invaluable resource for the secondary metabolites and physiological processes in different tissues of P. heterophylla. PMID:27764127

  6. The Effectiveness of Choice Theory by Grouping Method on Increasing Self-Differentiation and Intimacy of Married Students

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    Monireh Shariatzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marriage and choice of spouse is one of the most important events of human life which affect not only the physical but also mental health of the individual. It is certain that any problem that arises in the family, the losses will concern the total structure and cultural value system of the society. Unfortunately, young couples do not allocate particular time and energy to preparedness to establish relationship and consequently experience the considerable amount of conflict in early years of marital life. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of choice theory education on increasing self-differentiation and intimacy in married couples. Methods: In this interventional study, 30 married couples of students (n=60 were selected and allocated randomly to case (15 couples and control (15 couples groups. Differentiation of Self-Inventory (DSI and Marital Intimacy (MIQ questionnaires were completed by students. The control group received no training. Intervention included 10 sessions of choice theory education. Results: results showed that choice theory education by grouping method is effective in increasing the self-differentiation of married students, in which the mean score of self-differentiation in case group increased from 170.2±19.2 to 191.8±10.1. Also, the effect of intervention on increasing the couples’ marital intimacy was not significant. Conclusion: Result of this research confirmed the effectiveness of choice theory education in increasing the self- differentiation, so regarding the cultural and social transition and also the increasing need of incipient married youth, it is recommended that education of these skills will be concerned in the academic and training centers.

  7. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  8. Ecophysiology of Cecropia schreberiana saplings in two wind regimes in an elfin cloud forest: growth, gas exchange, architecture and stem biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Roberto A.

    1999-03-01

    The hypothesis that the short, stunted development of elfin cloud forest trees is influenced by strong winds was tested by studying growth, gas exchange and biomechanics of potted saplings of Cecropia schreberiana Miq. ex. C. peltata L. (Cecropiaceae) exposed to two natural wind regimes (exposed and protected) at high elevation sites in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. The wind-exposure treatment produced several thigmomorphogenetic responses, including reductions in plant stature and crown area, changes in allocation patterns, and increased root to shoot ratio, leaf abrasion and leaf epinasty. Wind-exposure decreased maximum photosynthetic rate and respiration on an area basis, but not on a leaf-mass basis. Wind-exposed plants had lower apparent quantum yields, and higher light compensation points than wind-protected plants. Photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency was lower in wind-exposed plants, but such plants had higher leaf nitrogen concentration than wind-protected plants. There were no effects of treatments on stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water-use efficiency. Stems of wind-exposed plants had lower second moment of area, apparent modulus of elasticity, flexural stiffness and stem density, but higher water content than wind-protected plants. Tissue-density-specific stiffness and the calculated critical height were not affected by the treatments. Wind-exposed plants were biomechanically less predisposed to bending and failing under their own weight than wind-protected plants because their safety factors were smaller, indicating that maintenance of an ontogenetically less developed structure enables plants to cope with wind loading. Windward trees showed a lower scaling component of the allometric relationship between diameter and height than leeward trees.

  9. Antioxidant activity and identification of bioactive compounds from leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhu Chandel; Upendra Sharma; Neeraj Kumar; Bikram Singh; Satwinderjeet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of different extract/fractions of Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) (Roxb.) Miq. (Rubiaceae) and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: The extract/fractions were screened for antioxidant activity using various in vitro assays viz. DPPH assay, ABTS assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and plasmid DNA nicking assay. Total phenolic content of extract/fractions was determined by colorimetric method. An ultra-performance LC-electrospray-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was used to analyse the active constituents of extract/fractions of A. cadamba. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction was found to be most active fraction in all the assays as compared to other extract/fractions. The IC50 value of ethyl acetate fraction (ETAC fraction) was 21.24 μg/mL, 1.12 μg/mL, 9.68 μg/mL and 57.81 μg/mL in DPPH assay, ABTS assay, reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging assay respectively. All the extract/fractions also showed the potential to protect the plasmid DNA (pBR322) against the attack of hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton’s reagent. The bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, by comparing the mass and λmax with literature values. Conclusions: The potential of the extract/fractions to scavenge different free radicals in different systems indicated that they may be useful therapeutic agents for treating radical-related pathologic damage.

  10. Different Hypotentive Effects of Various Active Constituents Isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla%钩藤中不同成分降压作用的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋纯清; 樊懿; 黄伟晖; 吴大正; 胡之璧

    2000-01-01

    目的:比较钩藤中提取的异钩藤碱、钩藤碱、钩藤总碱及非生物碱部分的降压作用。方法:大鼠麻醉后经颈总动脉插管记录外周血压和经股静脉微量输注实验用药。结果:实验表明钩藤中4种成分的降压强度为异钩藤碱(42.0%)>钩藤碱(32.1%)>钩藤总碱(21.3%)>钩藤非生物碱(12.4%)。结论:提示钩藤中主要降压成分为异钩藤碱和钩藤碱。%Hypotensive effects of rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, total alkaloid and non-alka-loid fraction isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. were compared. Change in peripheralblood pressure was recorded by inserting a catheter into the right common carotid artery of anaethetizedrat, while each of the four hypotensive constituents was injected individually into the femoral vein by a mi-croinfusion pump. Results of the findings showed that the four constituents in U. rhynchophylla displayeddifferent hypotensive potency in the order of isorhynchophylline [lowering of mean arterial pressure(MAP) by 42.0%] > rhynchophylline (lowering of MAP by 32.1%) > total alkaloid (lowering of MAPby 21.3%) > non-alkaloid fraction (lowering of MAP by 12.4%). It was concluded that isorhyn-chophylline and rhynchophylline were the main hypotensive constituents in U. rhynchophylla.

  11. 滇西北金沙江流域云南红豆杉群落种内与种间竞争%Intra-and interspecific competitions of Taxus yunnanensis population in Jinsha River Basin of northwest Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 郎学东; 张志钧

    2013-01-01

    szechuanica, Quercus aquifolioides, and Aralia thomsonii var. glabrescens, with the competition indices being >5. The competition index of T. yunnanensis with the objective trees in the whole forest stand was significantly negatively correla-ted with the DBH of the objective trees, and nearly conformed to power function (CI=aDb). The larger the DBH of the objective trees, the smaller the competitive stress of the T. yunnanensis population.

  12. Gastrodin prevents steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rats by anti-apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Huifeng; Yang Erping; Peng Hao; Li Jianping; Chen Sen; Zhou Jianlin; Fang Hongsong

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrodin,as one of the major components extracted from the Chinese herb Gastrodia elata BI.,has many biologic effects,one of which is anti-apoptosis.Apoptosis is considered to be one of the pathogenetic mechanisms in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).Therefore,we performed this study to investigate whether gastrodin has the potential to prevent steroid-induced ONFH.Methods All 18 male adult Wistar rats were divided equally into three groups:the steroid group,the gastrodin+steroid group,and the control group.Osteonecrosis was induced by low-dose lipopolysaccharide and subsequent high-dose methylprednisolone.Histomorphometric method was used to determine the incidence of osteonecrosis.Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to detect apoptotic index of osteocytes and osteoblasts.Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expression of Bax,Bcl-2,and Caspase-3.Fisher's exact probability test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Turkey's post hoc test were used to examine significant differences between groups.Results The incidence of osteonecrosis in the gastrodin+steroid group (16.7%) was significantly lower than that in the steroid group (83.3%).According to TUNEL assay,the apoptotic indices in the steroid group,the gastrodin+steroid group,and the control group were 91.1%,27.1%,and 5.4%,respectively,and the differences were significant between groups.Compared with the control group and the gastrodin+steroid group,the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly higher in the steroid group,but the Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly lower.Conclusion Gastrodin could prevent steroid-induced ONFH by anti-apoptosis.

  13. Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

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    Hatira TAŞKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

  14. An exceptional horizontal gene transfer in plastids: gene replacement by a distant bacterial paralog and evidence that haptophyte and cryptophyte plastids are sisters

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    Palmer Jeffrey D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT to the plant mitochondrial genome has recently been shown to occur at a surprisingly high rate; however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite extensive sequencing. In this study, we analyzed all genes from sequenced plastid genomes to unearth any neglected cases of HGT and to obtain a measure of the overall extent of HGT to the plastid. Results Although several genes gave strongly supported conflicting trees under certain conditions, we are confident of HGT in only a single case beyond the rubisco HGT already reported. Most of the conflicts involved near neighbors connected by long branches (e.g. red algae and their secondary hosts, where phylogenetic methods are prone to mislead. However, three genes – clpP, ycf2, and rpl36 – provided strong support for taxa moving far from their organismal position. Further taxon sampling of clpP and ycf2 resulted in rejection of HGT due to long-branch attraction and a serious error in the published plastid genome sequence of Oenothera elata, respectively. A single new case, a bacterial rpl36 gene transferred into the ancestor of the cryptophyte and haptophyte plastids, appears to be a true HGT event. Interestingly, this rpl36 gene is a distantly related paralog of the rpl36 type found in other plastids and most eubacteria. Moreover, the transferred gene has physically replaced the native rpl36 gene, yet flanking genes and intergenic regions show no sign of HGT. This suggests that gene replacement somehow occurred by recombination at the very ends of rpl36, without the level and length of similarity normally expected to support recombination. Conclusion The rpl36 HGT discovered in this study is of considerable interest in terms of both molecular mechanism and phylogeny. The plastid acquisition of a bacterial rpl36 gene via HGT provides the first strong evidence for a sister-group relationship between haptophyte and

  15. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

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    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  16. Diversity of Soil Fungi in Root System of Seven Wild Chinese Herbal Medicine Plants in Yuntai Mountain of Jiangsu Province%江苏省云台山7种野生中草药植物根区土壤真菌多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮晓东; 孙冬雪; 李新宇; 张惠文

    2008-01-01

    通过对江苏省云台山地区7种不同野生中草药植物烟台百里香(T.quinquecostatus Celak.)、掌叶半夏(P.pedatisecta Schott.)、何首乌(P.multiflorum Thunb.)、海洲香薷(E.splendens Nakai ex F.)、野葛[P.lobata (Willd) Ohwi]、紫金牛(A.japonica Bl.)和菝葜(S.sieboldii Miq.)根区土壤真菌进行分离鉴定,共分离出真菌16属126种.多样性分析结果表明,7种野生中草药植物根区土壤真菌种群多样性丰富,其中青霉属(Penicillium)、曲霉属(Aspergillus)和木霉属(Trichoderma) 是中草药植物根区土壤中的优势种群,镰孢菌属(Fusarium)、交链孢属(Alternaria)、腐霉属(Pythium)、毛霉属(Mucor)真菌分布丰度也较高.结果也表明根区土壤真菌群落在一定程度上受到中草药植物的影响,大部分野生中草药植物根区土壤的真菌群落的均匀度指数低于裸地非根区土壤,而丰富度指数却高于裸地非根区土壤.不同野生中草药植物根区土壤真菌区系的结构和组成存在一定的差异性,紫金牛根区土壤中真菌种类最多,达到14属,而野葛根区土壤中真菌种类最少,只有8属.

  17. 21种野菜抗氧化性的分析比较%Comparative Analysis on Antioxidant Activity of 21 Species of Wild Vegetables

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    李凤英; 李润丰; 肖月娟; 刘素稳

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from edible portion of 21 species of wild vegetables in east Hebei province were determined using DPPH free radical scavenging method to compare the antioxidant activities of different wild vegetables,and the correlation between antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and flavones was analyzed. The results showed that wild vegetables was good source of polyphenols and flavones, and had higher antioxidant activity, among them, Toona sinensis, Sonchus brachyotus DC. and Rumex patientia Linn had higher antioxidant activity followed by Lycium barbarum L., Gypsophila oldhamina Miq, Lepidium apetalum, Cirsium setosum, Kochia scoparia (L.), Salsola collina pall, Herba portulacae, Radix Rehmanniae and Amaranthus mangostanus; correlation between antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and flavones was not significant.(the correlative coefficients were 0.146 and 0.007 respectively); short time blanch treatment increased the antioxidant activity of wild vegetables.%为比较不同野菜的抗氧化活性,采用DPPH法对冀东地区21种野菜可食部位水提取液的抗氧化活性进行比较研究,分析其抗氧化活性和多酚、黄酮含量之间的相关性.结果表明:野菜中多酚和黄酮类物质含量丰富,具有较强的抗氧化活性,其中抗氧化较强的野菜有香椿、长裂苦苣菜、巴天酸模,其次为枸杞叶、霞革、独行菜、刺儿菜、地肤、猪毛菜、马齿苋、地黄、苋菜.野菜抗氧化活性和多酚、黄酮含量之间的相关性不显著(r分别为0.146、0.007).野菜经短时热烫处理,其抗氧化活性增强.

  18. 高血压不同水平与危险因素相关性分析%Correlation analysis between the different levels of hypertension and risk factors

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    陈红方; 袁越; 陈晓依; 刘峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To analyze; the; correlation be;twe;e;n the; different levels of hypertension and risk factors in order to provide a reliable theoretical basis for nursing care of hypertensive patients in different levels. Methods: 150 patients with hypertension were divided into group A( n=45 ),group B( n=58 ) and group C ( n=47) according to the le;ve;ls of hypertension ( level 1,2,3 ). The; risk factors of patients we;re; investigated, analyzing the; relationship be;twe;e;n the; le;vels of Wood pressure and age;, body mass index ( BMI ), smoking history, alcohol history,eating habits, exercise, sleep quality, personality type,medication compliance;. The; elata were analyzed by using Logistic regression. Results:The quality of sleep, diet and medication compliance; were significantly worse; in group C than group A and B ( P < 0. 05 ); the; level of hypertension was correlated with quality of sleep, diet and medication compliance; ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The; patient s blood pressure fluctuates greatly and it is difficult to be; controlled. Hypertension has the; close relationship with medication compliance, sleep quality,high salt and high fat diet. Therefore a comprehensive nursing intervention like; health education and management should be; given to the; patients against risk factors.%目的:探讨高血压患者血压水平与危险因素的相关性,为不同程度高血压患者的护理提供可靠的理论依据.方法:选取高血压患者150例,根据血压1级、2级、3级水平将患者分为A组45例、B组58例和C组47例,再分别对患者进行危险因素调查,分析血压水平与年龄、体重指数(BMI)、吸烟史、饮酒史、饮食习惯、运动、睡眠质量、性格类型、用药依从性等危险因素的相关性,并采用Logistic回归分析.结果:C组睡眠质量、饮食习惯、用药依从性明显差于A、B组(P<0.05),高血压水平与睡眠质量、饮食习惯、用药依从性存在相关性(P<0.05).结论:患者

  19. 天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床观察%Treatment of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint sertraline on premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣志华; 刘宝山

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To observe the clinical curative effect of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint ser-traline in the treatment of premature ejaculation.Methods:100 premature ejaculation patients were randomly divid-ed into control group and observation group,50 cases in each group.The control group received oral sertraline,50 mg daily before bedtime,1 time /day;If sex was expected on the day,50 mg sertraline should be taken 4 ~6 hours before sex.On the basis of the treatment above,observation group received oral gastrodia and uncaria decoction (gastrodia elata,uncaria,haliotis,gardenia,etc.)at the same time,once a day in the morning or evening.The a-bove two groups received the treatment for 4 weeks.Vagina ejaculation latency time (intravaginal ejaculationg laten-cy time,IELT),spouses sexual satisfaction score and clinical total effective rate of two groups before and after the treatment were compared.Results:The total effective rate of control group and observation group was 59.18% and 79.07% respectively,with statistically significant differencce (P <0.05).The ejaculation latency time,improve-ment of the sexual satisfaction in patients and sexual partners in observation group was better than these of control group (P <0.05).Conclusion:Curative effect of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint sertraline treatment on pre-mature ejaculation is clear,which is feasible in the treatment of premature ejaculation.%目的:观察天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床疗效。方法:将100例早泄患者随机分为单用组和联合组,各50例。单用组予口服舍曲林,每日睡前服用50mg,1次/d;若预计当日发生性生活,则在性生活前4~6h 服用50mg。联合组:在上述治疗的同时,给予口服天麻钩藤饮(天麻、钩藤、石决明、栀子等)加减方药,1剂/d,早晚服用。上述两组均治疗4周。对比观察两组治疗前、治疗后的阴道内射精潜伏时间(intravaginal ejaculationg

  20. 天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床观察%Treatment of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint sertraline on premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣志华; 刘宝山

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄的临床疗效。方法:将100例早泄患者随机分为单用组和联合组,各50例。单用组予口服舍曲林,每日睡前服用50mg,1次/d;若预计当日发生性生活,则在性生活前4~6h 服用50mg。联合组:在上述治疗的同时,给予口服天麻钩藤饮(天麻、钩藤、石决明、栀子等)加减方药,1剂/d,早晚服用。上述两组均治疗4周。对比观察两组治疗前、治疗后的阴道内射精潜伏时间(intravaginal ejaculationg latency time,IELT)、配偶性生活满意度评分及临床总有效率。结果:单用组有效率为59.18%,联合组总有效率79.07%,两组总疗效比较,有统计学差异(P <0.05),联合组射精潜伏期时间,改善患者及性伴侣的性生活满意度方面优于单用组(P <0.05)。结论:天麻钩藤饮加减联合舍曲林治疗早泄疗效明确,为治疗早泄的一种可行性治疗方法。%Objectives:To observe the clinical curative effect of gastrodia and uncaria decoction joint ser-traline in the treatment of premature ejaculation.Methods:100 premature ejaculation patients were randomly divid-ed into control group and observation group,50 cases in each group.The control group received oral sertraline,50 mg daily before bedtime,1 time /day;If sex was expected on the day,50 mg sertraline should be taken 4 ~6 hours before sex.On the basis of the treatment above,observation group received oral gastrodia and uncaria decoction (gastrodia elata,uncaria,haliotis,gardenia,etc.)at the same time,once a day in the morning or evening.The a-bove two groups received the treatment for 4 weeks.Vagina ejaculation latency time (intravaginal ejaculationg laten-cy time,IELT),spouses sexual satisfaction score and clinical total effective rate of two groups before and after the treatment were compared.Results:The total effective rate of control group and observation

  1. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Hypertension with Syndrome Differentiation%辨证治疗高血压病临床观察

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    李学勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of syndrome differentiation in the treatment of hypertension. Methods:260 patients of hypertension were divided into 5 syndromes. The syndrome of ascendan hyperactivity of liver yang (98 cases) was treated by clearing liver-fire and suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding,with Longdan Xiegan decoction and Tianma Gouteng yin. ( Composion:Getian 10 g,Gardenia 10 g,Skullcap 12 g,Gastrodia elata 20 g,Uncaria rhynchophylla 15 g,Raw abalone shell 20 g,Chuan cattle paint 20 g, Eucommia ulmoides oliv 15 g,Tuber fleeceflower stem 30 g,Glycyrrhizae 5 g). The syndrome of liver -kidney yin deficiency(102 cases) was treated by nourishing liver and kidney and suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding, with Qiju dihuang pills( Composion: The fruit of Chinese woliberry 20 g,Radix rehmanniae preparata 25 g,Chinese yam 30 g,The peony bark 10 g,Chrysanthemum 15 g, Crude dragonbone 20 g,Raw oyster shell20 g,Eucommia ulmoides oliv 15 g,Chuan cattle paint 15 g,Parasitic loranthus 20 g,Glycyrrhi-zae 6 g). The syndrome of phlegm-dampness internal exuberance(20 cases) was treated by expelling phlegm and resolving dampness and upraising purity and descend turbidness,with modified Banxia Baizhu Tianma decoction (Composion: Processed rhizoma Pinelliae 12 g,Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae 15 g,Gastrodia elata 10 g,Rhizoma acori graminei 10 g, Poly gala tenuifolia 12 g,Radix curcumae 15 g,Pericarpium citri reticulatae 12 g,Bamboo shavings 15 g,Poria cocos 20 g,Semen coicis 15 g,Glycyrrhizae 6 g). The syndrome of static blood stasis in the interior( 15 cases) was treated by benifiting qi for nourishing blood and expelling blood stasis and dredging collaterals,with Xuefu Zhuyu decoction and Buyang Huanwu decoction. (Composion: Radix bupleuri 10 g, Astragalus mongholicus 20 g, Angelica sinensis 12 g,Iigusticum chuanxiong Hort 9 g,Peach seed 9 g,Red flower 9 g,Earthwarm 20 g,Chuan cattle paint 20 g,Teasel 20 g,Eucommia ulmoides oliv 12 g

  2. RP-HPLC determination of nootkatone and yakuchinone A in the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla at different growth phases%RP-HPLC法测定不同生长期益智药材中圆柚酮和益智酮甲的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永辉; 赖伟勇; 黄莎莎; 王俊芳; 王勇; 陈峰; 宋文璟; 张俊清

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine nootkatone and yakuchinone A in the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.at 5 to 65 day growth phase by RP-HPLC.Methods:The chromatographic separation was achieved with a Phenomenex Gemini C6-phenyl analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm) by gradient elution with acetonitrile (A) and water (B) [0-15 min,A-B (30∶70);16-50 min,A-B(30∶70)→A-B (44∶56);51-60 min,A-B (44∶56) ;61-65 min,A-B (44∶ 56)→A-B (70∶ 30)] as the mobile phase,with a flow rate at 1.0 mL · min-1.Detection was carried out at 240 nm.Results:The linearities of nootkatone and yakuchinone A were 0.06-2.03 μg (r =0.9999) and 0.004-1.14 μg (r =0.9995),respectively.The average recoveries by the method were 97.53% and 98.31%.The contents of the two compounds showed a stable tendency after 55 days during the growth phase.Conclusion:The result can provide a scientific reference for the harvest time of the fruits of A.oxyphylla.%目的:采用RP-HPLC法测定5~65 d益智果实中圆柚酮和益智酮甲的含量.方法:采用Phenomenex Gemini C6-phenyl色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),以乙腈(A)-水(B)为流动相,梯度洗脱[0 ~ 15 min,A-B(30∶ 70);16 ~50 min,A-B (30∶70)→A-B(44∶ 56);51 ~60 min,A-B(44∶ 56);61 ~65 min,A-B(44∶56)→A-B(70∶ 30)],流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为240 nm.结果:圆柚酮和益智酮甲的线性范围分别为0.06 ~2.03 μg(r =0.9999)和0.004 ~ 1.14 μg(r =0.9995),加样回收率(n=6)分别为97.53%%和98.31%.益智中的成分在55 d后,含量趋于稳定.结论:本文方法可以为益智的采收时间提供科学参考.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in different forest tree species of Hazarikhil forest of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.Dhar; M.A.U.Mridha

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity ofarbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and AM fungal spores were studied in the roots and rhizosphere soils of Acacia catechu (L.f).Wild.,A.mangium Willd,Anthocephala cadamba Miq.,Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.,Chickrassia tabularis A.Juss.,Swietenia macrophylla King.,Tectona grandis L.from plantations; Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.,A.falcataria L.,Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.,Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker.,Hydnocarpus kurzii (King.)Warb.,Heynea trijuga Roxb.,Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.,Messua ferrea Linn.,Podocarpus nerifolia Don.,Swintonia floribunda Griff.,Syzygium fruticosum (Roxb.) DC.,S.grandis (Wt.) Wal.from forest and nursery seedlings of A.polystachya,A.chaplasha,Gmelina arborea Roxb.and S.cuminii (L.) Skeels from Hazarikhil forest,Chittagong of Bangladesh.Roots were stained in aniline blue and rhizosphere soils were assessed by wet sieving and decanting methods.The range of AM colonization varied significantly from 10%-73% in the plantations samples.Maximum colonization was observed in A.mangium (73%) and minimum colonization was observed in C tabularis (10%).Vesicular colonization was recorded 15%-67% in five plantation tree species.The highest was in A.cadamba (67%) and the lowest was in T.grandis; A.chaplasha and C tabularis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was recorded 12%-60% in four plantation tree species.The highest was in A.mangium (60%) and the lowest was in A.cadamba.Roots of Artocarpus chaplasha,C tabularis and T.grandis showed no arbuscular colonization.Among 12 forest tree species,nine tree species showed AM colonization.The highest was in A.falcataria (62%) and the lowest was in S.fruticosum (10%).Significant variation in vesicular colonization was recorded in seven forest tree species.The highest was in H.trijuga (52%) and the lowest was in L.speciosa (18%).Hydnocarpus kurzii,M.ferrea,P.nerifolia S.fruticosum and S.grandis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was

  4. 巢湖沉水植物现状(2010年)及其与环境因子的关系%Status of submerged macrophytes and its relationship with environmental factors in Lake Chaohu ,2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳芹; 陈开宁

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of submerged macrophytes and its relational environmental factors in June, 2010, Lake Chaohu, this paper analyzed the characteristics of submerged macrophyte community and distribution, discussed the relationship between submerged macrophytes and environmental factors with redundancy analysis. The results showed that there were 6 submerged macrophyte species in 5 families, 4 genera. Total biomass of submerged macrophytes was about 8077.8t and their total distribution area was just 1.54% of the whole lake area. Potarnogeton malaianus was the dominant species, which occupied 90.7% of the total distribution area of submerged macrophytes. Ceratophyllum demersura Linn. , Myriophyllurn spicatum Lian. and Hydrilla verticillata( Linn. f. ) Royle appeared rarely and had been at the verge of extinction. Monte Carlo test results showed that the correlation between TP, PO34 - -P, COD, SD, depth of water and the distribution of submerged macrophyte community was significant, however, TN had no significant effect, which suggesting that the distribution of submerged macrophyte community was more limited by P than N. The results also showed that the correlation between TN and TP of sediment and the distribution of submerged macrophyte community were not significant, while the influence of sediment TOC on the distribution of submerged macrophyte community was significant.%在对巢湖2010年沉水植物和环境因子调查的基础上,分析了巢湖沉水植物群落特征、分布规律,应用冗余分析探讨了沉水植物与环境因子之间的关系.结果表明,现场观测到的沉水植物共计4科5属6种,全湖生物量约为8077.8t,分布面积仅占巢湖总面积的1.54%.其中马来眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus Miq.)分布面积占沉水植物分布总面积的90.7%,是巢湖沉水植物中绝对优势种.金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum Linn.)、穗花狐尾藻(Myriophyllum spicatum Linn.)和轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata

  5. 香港大榄郊野公园的植物组成与植被数量分类%Floristic Composition and Quantitative Classification in Tai Lam Country Park,Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾绮微; 李海生; 陈桂珠; 叶创兴; 黄颂诗; 黄超弘

    2008-01-01

    通过对香港大榄郊野公园森林群落的样地调查,利用组平均法和除趋势对应分析两种方法,对样方进行聚类与排序分析.把35个样地划分为11个植被类型,森林群落可划分为台湾相思(Acacia confusa Merr.)林、红胶木(Lophostemon confertus (R. Br.) Peter G. Wilson ex J. T. Waterh.)林、木荷(Schima superba Gardner ex Champ.)林、柠檬桉(Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.)林、湿地松+鸭脚木(Pinus elliottii Engelm.+ Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms.)林、土沉香(Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Spreng.)林、毛叶桉(Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell.)林; 灌木群落分为山油柑+越南叶下珠(Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq.+ Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.)矮树灌丛、豺皮樟+桃金娘(Litsea rotoundifolia (Nees) Hemsl. var. oblongifolia (Nees) C. K. Allen+Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Alton) Hassk.)矮树灌丛、大头茶(Gordonia axillaris (Roxb. ex Ker Gawl.) D. Dietr.)矮树灌丛、桃金娘+芒萁(Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Alton) Hassk.+Dicranopteris dichotoma (Thunb.) Bernh.)灌草丛.DCA排序结果反映海拔高度与各个森林群落的分布格局和物种组成关系不大,而环境湿度是影响森林群落物种组成的主要因素.多样性分析结果显示,台湾相思林和土沉香林多样性指数最高,说明台湾相思林逐渐向次生林演变,除了红胶木林和少数郁闭度低的台湾相思林中有强阳生性树种外,大部分人工林下植物以阳生性稍耐阴的树种为主.调查结果显示,大榄郊野公园植物生长条件东部优于西部,西部的物种丰富度和多样性指数较低,主要以人工林和灌丛为主,加上山火频繁发生,导致长期处于先锋阶段.

  6. 陕南秦巴山区栎类资源消长分析%Growth and Decline Analysis about Oak Resources in Qinba Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄学渊; 张文辉; 郭敏; 张剑南

    2014-01-01

    Growth and decline of oak resources in Qinba Mountains were analyzed based on the forest resource survey data of oak resources in three areas within Shaanxi,such as Hanzhong,Ankang and Shangluo in 2009 and the oak consumption statistics from a variety of data in forestry sectors,combined with typical investigation,to further verify the relevant statistical data.The results showed that:1) young and middle-aged oak forests occupied significant ratios both in area and accumulation volume.The net growth of oak accumulation was 5.09 %,higher than those in northern Shaanxi and the average level of the province.Based on these numbers,the net annual growth of oak resource accumulation in Qinba Mountains would be 63.26 × 104 m3.2) The utilization approaches of oak resources were mainly in the forms of the production of crude drugs (such as Gastrodia elata,Polyporus umbellatus),accounting for 35.4% of total oak resource accumulation,edible fungi (23.8%),and firewood for daily life of the local residents (40.8%).The traditional charcoal production,used to be the main sector for the consumption of oak resources had been distinguished due to government policy.Oak resources for furniture making and construction material,as well as small diameter timber production accounted small amount.3) During 2009-2011,taking off the amount of consumption,the annual net increase of the oak accumulation was 33.26 × 104 m3.4) Currently,the annual growth of oak resources was mainly due to the full implementation of the national "Natural Forest Protection" projects.In the future,the key points of oak resource protection would be to continue to maintain the advantage of "Natural Forest Protection" projects.The principle of exchanging maximum profit with minimum consumption should be followed to improve the utilization efficiency of oak resources,such as to train farmers how to use oak resources for the production of crude drugs and edible fungi.According to close-to-nature forest

  7. Symbiotic seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii Griff. ex Lindl%大雪兰种子的共生培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭仕坛; 伍建榕; 胡隽; 杨宏光; 陆露; 刘芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to screen mycorrhiza fungus that can promote the seed germination and form the symbiosis with Cymbidium mastersii Griff. ex Lindl and scale produce high quality seedling, we first symbiosis cultivated seeds with different fungi in the medium of cortices symbiotic culture, then measured the biomass of seedlings, re - separation of fungus strain, studied the 3D hypha net by using the optical microscope and electron microscope, and determined the seed vitality with TFC method. The results showed that strain CLB111 and MLX102 that were separated from roots of Cymbidium goeringii Rchb. f. and C. Sinense Willd can promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii. The differences of germination rates between treatments with strain symbiosises and control were significant. Re - separations from the culture medium confirmed the strains in symbiosis roots were the same as the inoculated strains. The optical microscope and electron microscope observation found that many fungus hypha infected into embryo cell and formed the 3D hypha net, and the embryo started differentiation. TFC measurement showed that the Seed had high vitality. No strain was found by re - separation from culture medium, no hy- pha was observed and very low vitality under control treatment. Thus, It can be concluded that strain CLB111 and MLX102 can form the symbiosis and promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii. The experiments found the fungus Cymbidium separated from adult orchids and the fungus that promote the seed germination were the same strains in mastersii. This phenomenon was different from the C, astrodia elata Blume. It was also confirmed that funguses that can form symbiosis with and promote the seed germination of Cymbidium mastersii were not abso- lutely specific. Under certain condition, different strains can significantly promote germination of one orchid species. It may need further investigation to verify the differences under different ecological conditions.%为

  8. 砷形态对黑藻和竹叶眼子菜有机酸含量的影响%Effects of arsenic speciations on contents of main organic acids in Hydrilla verticillata and Potamogeton malaianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟正燕; 王宏镔; 王海娟; 宋雁辉; 李红梅

    2012-01-01

    contents of palmitic acid and total organic acids in H. verticillata and palmitic acid in P. malaianus. In the DMA treantments, the contents of oxalic, citric and malic acids significantly decreased in H. verticillata, and the decreasing trend was also observed for the contents of palmitic, linolenic and total organic acids in P. malaianus. The contents of palmitic acid, linolenic acid, or total organic acid was negatively correlated to arsenic concentrations in H. verticillata in As ( III ) treantments, and the negative correlation was also found between oxalic acid and arsenic concentration in As ( V ) treantments (P<0. 05). A significantly negative correlation was also noted between the contents of palmitic acid, linolenic acid, or total organic acid and concentrations of arsenic in P. malaianus in As ( III ) or DMA treantments. Citric acid content also negatively correlated to arsenic uptake in DMA treantment (P<0.05). Oxalic, malonic, succinic and palmitic acids were determined in the root exudates of two tested plants, and a significantly positive correlation was observed between the concentration of oxalic exudation and that of arsenic in H. verticillata in As( III ) or As( V ) treantments. The present study concludes that root exudation of oxalic is one of impotrant mechanisms in arsenic hyperaccumulation by H. verticillata in As( III ) or As( V ) treantment.%采用室内溶液培养法,运用气相色谱-质谱联用(Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,GC-MS)技术测定在As(Ⅲ)、As(Ⅴ)和二甲基胂酸(Dimethylarsinic acid,DMA)3种形态砷(浓度0-5.0 mg/L)胁迫下,砷超富集植物黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata( Linn.f.)Royle.)和非砷超富集植物竹叶眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus Miq.)体内生成和体外分泌的7种有机酸的含量.结果表明,黑藻体内草酸、丙二酸、柠檬酸、苹果酸和棕榈酸都显著高于竹叶眼子菜(P<0.05).在As(Ⅲ)处理时,黑藻体内柠檬酸、苹果酸、棕榈酸、亚麻酸和总有机酸

  9. 《中草药》杂志2001年投稿须知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    观察;药用动、植物的饲养、栽培、鉴别、资源调查等方面的研究论文,并辟有专论、综述、短文、新药开发纵谈、新产品、新设备、企业介绍、学术动态和信息等栏目。本刊主要读者对象为从事药学研究、教学、生产、临床和药检的科技人员。   2 可用中文或英文投稿,来稿须附单位介绍信(综述除外),注明无一稿两投,署名无争议,无泄密内容。已在非公开发行的刊物发表者或学术会议交流过的必须注明。下列文章将优先发表:①国家自然科学基金资助项目;国家、省、部级以上攻关或者重点项目;开放实验室的研究项目。②两院院士及博士生导师的论文。③有重大新发现,发表后准备报奖的论文。④有重要指导性意义或发表后具有广泛引用价值的文章。   3 文稿应数据可靠,论点鲜明,结论明确,层次清楚,文字简炼。全文(参考文献、中英文摘要、表和图等)字数一般不超过5000字,短文在2000字以内,综述不超过6000字。文稿须送两份,作者自留复印件。可用16开400格稿纸打印或眷写。   为了减少排印错误,英文大小写、上下角标及希文均请在文中注明。需排斜体字的外文,下面画一横线表示:量符号如P(压力),V(体积),坐标系符号(x,y);生物学中属以下(含属)的拉丁名如:Valerian officinalis L. var. latifolia Miq.;化学中表示旋光性、构型、构象、取代基位置等的符号如d(右旋),dl(外消旋),O-(邻位),P-(对位),m-(间位),iso(异位);含双键化合物;Z(顺式);E(反式);手性化合物空间结构;R(顺时针),S(逆时针);氨基酸、肽类、糖类等;D(取代基在右侧),L(取代基在左侧);取代位的元素如:N,O,P,S;常数k;一些统计学符号如样本数n,均数x,标准差s,F检验,t检验和概率P;拉丁字in vivo