WorldWideScience

Sample records for aralex process

  1. Recovery of actinides from TBP-Na2Co3 scrub-waste solutions: the ARALEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na2CO3 scrub-waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory-scale countercurrent extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, uses 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H2MBP) from acidified Na2CO3 scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds, which also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H2MBP to complex actinides. Thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds (e.g., detergents) that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. 20 figures, 6 tables

  2. Recovery of actinides from TBP-Na/sub 2/Co/sub 3/ scrub-waste solutions: the ARALEX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Mason, G.W.; Leonard, R.A.; Ziegler, A.A.

    1979-08-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub-waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory-scale countercurrent extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, uses 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP) from acidified Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds, which also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP to complex actinides. Thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds (e.g., detergents) that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. 20 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  4. Primary Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Carre, P.; Kamm, B.; Schoenicke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Primary processing of oil-containing material involves pre-treatment processes, oil recovery processes and the extraction and valorisation of valuable compounds from waste streams. Pre-treatment processes, e.g. thermal, enzymatic, electrical and radio frequency, have an important effect on the oil r

  5. Elektrokemiske Processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals.......Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals....

  6. Anaerobic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Ju, Mei-Ting; Li, Wei-Zun; Liu, Le; Wang, Yan-Nan; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on the focus of Anaerobic Process. It is divided into the following sections. Pretreatment Organic waste Multiple-stage co-digestion Process Methodology and Technology. PMID:27620085

  7. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  8. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  9. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  10. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Data Processing laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory research fields are: the semantics, the tests and the semantic analysis of the codes, the formal calculus, the software applications, the algorithms, the neuron networks and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The investigations concerning the polynomial rings are performed by means of the standard basis approach. Among the research topics, the Pascal codes, the parallel processing, the combinatorial, statistical and asymptotic properties of the fundamental data processing tools, the signal processing and the pattern recognition. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also included

  11. Kreative processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoch, Odilo

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the way of understanding processes and the development of visionary goals - linked to the daily business in archtiectural practise.......Explaining the way of understanding processes and the development of visionary goals - linked to the daily business in archtiectural practise....

  12. Peat Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  13. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  14. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through intervie...

  15. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  16. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...

  17. Grants Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  18. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  19. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  20. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  1. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    microbial and chemical processes and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied for the design, operation, and the maintenance of wastewater collection systems. The authors add chemical and microbial dimensions to the design and management of sewer networks with an overall aim of improved sustainability......Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...

  2. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    Processing proteases are proteases which proteolytically activate proteins and peptides into their biologically active form. Processing proteases play an important role in biotechnology as tools in protein fusion technology. Fusion strategies where helper proteins or peptide tags are fused...... to the protein of interest are an elaborate method to optimize expression or purification systems. It is however critical that fusion proteins can be removed and processing proteases can facilitate this in a highly specific manner. The commonly used proteases all have substrate specificities to the N...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  3. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  4. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  5. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform......The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...

  6. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  7. Causticizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engdal, H.

    1987-03-10

    This invention seeks to provide a method in which the soda lye obtained as a result of cellulose cooking process and unslaked lime are used for producing white liquor which can be re-used in the cooking process. In this method, the heat released by the slaking of lime with soda lye is recovered by a high pressure slaking process wherein the heat is transferred, either to the steam separating from the lye, which steam is then led to the desired application, or to some other medium to be heated. The invention is characterized in that the soda lye to be causticized is divided into two parts, one of which is used for the slaking of lime by adding to it all the unslaked lime needed for the causticizing process, and that, following slaking, the two volumes are brought together for the actual causticizing reaction involving the total amount of lye needed. This invention provides the advantage that the amount of lye needed is smaller, and so the temperature can be increased.

  8. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  9. Boolean process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵应骅; 李忠诚; 赵著行

    1997-01-01

    Boolean algebra successfully describes the logical behavior of a digital circuit, and has been widely used in electronic circuit design and test With the development of high speed VLSIs it is a drawback for Boolean algebra to be unable to describe circuit timing behavior. Therefore a Boolean process is defined as a family of Boolean van ables relevant to the time parameter t. A real-valued sample of a Boolean process is a waveform. Waveform functions can be manipulated formally by using mathematical tools. The distance, difference and limit of a waveform polynomial are defined, and a sufficient and necessary condition of the limit existence is presented. Based on this, the concept of sensitization is redefined precisely to demonstrate the potential and wide application possibility The new definition is very different from the traditional one, and has an impact on determining the sensitizable paths with maximum or minimum length, and false paths, and then designing and testing high performance circuits

  10. Restoration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  11. Ceramic Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  12. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  13. Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  14. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  15. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a process for making a large number of weld beads as separate contours, spaced out from each other, by means of an automatic welding head. Under this invention, after striking the arc in the prescribed manner and positioning the torch on the first contour to be welded and having made the first weld bead, the torch current is reduced to bring about a part fade out of the arc. The torch is then moved to the starting position on a second contour to be welded where a static timed pre-fusion is effected by resumption of the welding current to carry out the second weld bead by following the second welding contour in the same manner and so forth. The invention particularly applies to the welding of tube ends to a tube plate

  16. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  17. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜRTEKİN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple and cost effective and also reaction occurs in a short time period. Fenton process is applied for many different proposes. In this study, Fenton process was evaluated as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

  18. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Engin GÜRTEKİN; Nusret ŞEKERDAĞ

    2008-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple ...

  19. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  20. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  1. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are introdu

  2. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and...

  3. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can...

  4. Process Intensification: A Perspective on Process Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    process options is presented. For each step, different tools and methods will be needed. In this paper, a knowledge base tool storing and retrieving necessary information/data about intensified processes/equipments has been highlighted including metrics for performance evaluation. The application......In recent years, process intensification (PI) has attracted considerable academic interest as a potential means for process improvement, to meet the increasing demands for sustainable production. A variety of intensified operations developed in academia and industry creates a large number...... of options to potentially improve the process but to identify the set of feasible solutions for PI in which the optimal can be found takes considerable resources. Hence, a process synthesis tool to achieve PI would potentially assist in the generation and evaluation of PI options. Currently, several process...

  5. The permanental process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullagh, Peter; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second to an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension i called a permanental...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanental process are also studied. Extensions of the fermion process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinantal processes, are discussed....

  6. Modelingof the Biotransformation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Vrsalovic Presecki, A.; Findrik, Z.; Zelic, B.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of biotransformation processes have a large potential in searching for optimal process conditions, development and process design, control, scale-up, identifying of the process cost structure, and comparing process alternatives. Modeling and simulation leads to better understanding and quantification of the investigated process and could lead to significant material and costs savings especially in the early phases of the process development. In this review modeling and...

  7. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and non

  8. Special parallel processing workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  9. Contracting process innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    Process innovation pertains to making dramatic improvements in performance of enterprise processes. Stemming from total quality management, business process reengineering and other widely-accepted approaches to performance improvement in the business enterprise, process innovation has largely been practiced without a systematic method and required expertise only possessed by a few, highly-talented people. Now, as the result of research in this area, the process of process innovation now has a...

  10. Product Development Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  11. Integrated Process Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; H; T; Huang; M; L; Hung; Y; H; Chen; K; S

    2002-01-01

    Process Capability Analysis (PCA) is a powerful too l to assess the ability of a process for manufacturing product that meets specific ations. The larger process capability index implies the higher process yield, a nd the larger process capability index also indicates the lower process expected loss. Chen et al. (2001) has applied indices C pu, C pl, and C pk for evaluating the process capability for a multi-process product wi th smaller-the-better, larger-the-better, and nominal-the-best spec...

  12. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.

    2010-01-01

    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the regul

  13. Business Process Customization using Process Merging Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, Pavel; Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    One of the important application of service composition techniques lies in the field of business process management. Essentially a business process can be considered as a composition of services, which is usually prepared by domain experts, and many tasks still have to be performed manually. These i

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  15. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  16. Spatial Process Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Kroese, Dirk P.; Botev, Zdravko I.

    2013-01-01

    The generation of random spatial data on a computer is an important tool for understanding the behavior of spatial processes. In this paper we describe how to generate realizations from the main types of spatial processes, including Gaussian and Markov random fields, point processes, spatial Wiener processes, and Levy fields. Concrete MATLAB code is provided.

  17. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  18. Hyperspectral processing in graphical processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Michael E.; Winter, Edwin M.

    2011-06-01

    With the advent of the commercial 3D video card in the mid 1990s, we have seen an order of magnitude performance increase with each generation of new video cards. While these cards were designed primarily for visualization and video games, it became apparent after a short while that they could be used for scientific purposes. These Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) are rapidly being incorporated into data processing tasks usually reserved for general purpose computers. It has been found that many image processing problems scale well to modern GPU systems. We have implemented four popular hyperspectral processing algorithms (N-FINDR, linear unmixing, Principal Components, and the RX anomaly detection algorithm). These algorithms show an across the board speedup of at least a factor of 10, with some special cases showing extreme speedups of a hundred times or more.

  19. Process innovation laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...... will increasingly be driven by business process models. Consequently business process modelling and improvement is becoming a serious challenge. The aim of this paper is to establish a conceptual framework for business process innovation (BPI) in the supply chain based on advanced EIS. The challenge is thus...... to create a new methodology for developing and exploring process models and applications. The paper outlines the process innovation laboratory as a new approach to BPI. The process innovation laboratory is a comprehensive framework and a collaborative workspace for experimenting with process models...

  20. Digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Euclid

    2004-01-01

    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists. PMID:15352557

  1. Metallurgical process engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ruiyu [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    ''Metallurgical Process Engineering'' discusses large-scale integrated theory on the level of manufacturing production processes, putting forward concepts for exploring non-equilibrium and irreversible complex system. It emphasizes the dynamic and orderly operation of the steel plant manufacturing process, the major elements of which are the flow, process network and program. The book aims at establishing a quasi-continuous and continuous process system for improving several techno-economic indices, minimizing dissipation and enhancing the market competitiveness and sustainability of steel plants. The book is intended for engineers, researchers and managers in the fields of metallurgical engineering, industrial design, and process engineering. (orig.)

  2. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process...

  3. Towards better process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matero, Sanni Elina; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J; Poutiainen, Sami;

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of tablets involves many unit operations that possess multivariate and complex characteristics. The interactions between the material characteristics and process related variation are presently not comprehensively analyzed due to univariate detection methods. As a consequence......, current best practice to control a typical process is to not allow process-related factors to vary i.e. lock the production parameters. The problem related to the lack of sufficient process understanding is still there: the variation within process and material properties is an intrinsic feature...... and cannot be compensated for with constant process parameters. Instead, a more comprehensive approach based on the use of multivariate tools for investigating processes should be applied. In the pharmaceutical field these methods are referred to as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools that aim...

  4. Infrared processing of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  5. News: Process intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

  6. Dairy processing, Improving quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses raw milk composition, production and quality, and reviews developments in processing from hygiene and HACCP systems to automation, high-pressure processing and modified atmosphere packaging.

  7. Flavor changing lepton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flavor changing lepton processes, or in another words the lepton flavor changing processes, are described with emphasis on the updated theoretical motivations and the on-going experimental progress on a new high-intense muon source. (author)

  8. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  9. Modeling Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEDA, Hideaki; Veerkamp, Paul; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses building a computable design process model, which is a prerequisite for realizing intelligent computer-aided design systems. First, we introduce general design theory, from which a descriptive model of design processes is derived. In this model, the concept of metamodels plays a crucial role in describing the evolutionary nature of design. Second, we show a cognitive design process model obtained by observing design processes using a protocol analysis method. We then di...

  10. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  11. Grind hardening process

    CERN Document Server

    Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  12. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  13. Business Process Modeling Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Flowers; Charles Edeki

    2013-01-01

    Models as representations of real world entities may appear to the novice to be an unnecessary abstraction. Indeed, in small organizations where there are relatively few processes, there is little need to abstract activities. When it comes to large organizations, with hundreds or thousands of processes, thecreation of models becomes an essential activity. Even if the process itself does not change in the form of new process re-engineering efforts or new applications, there are new employees a...

  14. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  15. Hawkes processes in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Bacry; Iacopo Mastromatteo; Jean-Fran\\c{c}ois Muzy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an overview of the recent academic literature devoted to the applications of Hawkes processes in finance. Hawkes processes constitute a particular class of multivariate point processes that has become very popular in empirical high frequency finance this last decade. After a reminder of the main definitions and properties that characterize Hawkes processes, we review their main empirical applications to address many different problems in high frequency finance. Becaus...

  16. Stochastic Processes in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Madan, Dilip B.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic processes arising in the description of the risk-neutral evolution of equity prices are reviewed. Starting with Brownian motion, I review extensions to Lévy and Sato processes. These processes have independent increments; the former are homogeneous in time, whereas the latter are inhomogeneous. One-dimensional Markov processes such as local volatility and local Lévy are discussed next. Finally, I take up two forms of stochastic volatility that are due to either space scaling or tim...

  17. Mining processes in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Mans; Reijers, H.A.; Genuchten, van, MJIM Michiel; Wismeijer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Business processes in dentistry are quickly evolving towards "digital dentistry". This means that many steps in the dental process will increasingly deal with computerized information or computerized half products. A complicating factor in the improvement of process performance in dentistry, however, is the large number of independent dental professionals that are involved in the entire process. In order to reap the benefits of digital dentistry, it is essential to obtain an accurate view on ...

  18. Lithography process control

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, Harry J

    1999-01-01

    This text covers lithography process control at several levels, from fundamental through advanced topics. The book is a self-contained tutorial that works both as an introduction to the technology and as a reference for the experienced lithographer. It reviews the foundations of statistical process control as background for advanced topics such as complex processes and feedback. In addition, it presents control methodologies that may be applied to process development pilot lines.

  19. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  20. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  1. Auditory processing models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will pr...

  2. How yogurt is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s Processing column on the theme of “How Is It Processed?” focuses on yogurt. Yogurt is known for its health-promoting properties. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of yogurt and the current market. It will also unveil both traditional and modern yogurt processing t...

  3. Silicon production process evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  4. Characterization of concurrent processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utku, S.; Melosh, R.; Salama, M.

    1985-01-01

    Computer architectures designed for concurrent processing are characterized by the number of processing elements, ensemble speed, random access memory, input/output routes, and modes of operation. The important attributes of processing tasks are then identified, and some processing stratagems are examined. It is shown that the greater the complexity of a given task, the wider the range of possible stratagems which can accomplish the task. For relatively simple tasks, the optimum stratagem can be found by analytical reasoning. For more complex tasks, however, optimum scheduling techniques may have to be employed for the assignment of segments of the task to the available processing elements.

  5. Biomass process handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  6. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  7. Evaluation of steelmaking processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

  8. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  9. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  10. Theory of Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, E B

    1960-01-01

    Theory of Markov Processes provides information pertinent to the logical foundations of the theory of Markov random processes. This book discusses the properties of the trajectories of Markov processes and their infinitesimal operators.Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of the necessary concepts and theorems from measure theory. This text then provides a general definition of Markov process and investigates the operations that make possible an inspection of the class of Markov processes corresponding to a given transition function. Other chapters consider the more c

  11. Dynamical laser spike processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, Bhavin J; Tait, Alexander N; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Novel materials and devices in photonics have the potential to revolutionize optical information processing, beyond conventional binary-logic approaches. Laser systems offer a rich repertoire of useful dynamical behaviors, including the excitable dynamics also found in the time-resolved "spiking" of neurons. Spiking reconciles the expressiveness and efficiency of analog processing with the robustness and scalability of digital processing. We demonstrate that graphene-coupled laser systems offer a unified low-level spike optical processing paradigm that goes well beyond previously studied laser dynamics. We show that this platform can simultaneously exhibit logic-level restoration, cascadability and input-output isolation---fundamental challenges in optical information processing. We also implement low-level spike-processing tasks that are critical for higher level processing: temporal pattern detection and stable recurrent memory. We study these properties in the context of a fiber laser system, but the addit...

  12. Process monitor gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, T. A.; Ausschnitt, C. P.

    2007-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of advanced imaging methods to pattern chip features, process windows continue to shrink with decreasing critical dimensions. Controlling the manufacturing process within these shrinking windows requires monitor structures designed to maximize both sensitivity and robustness. In particular, monitor structures must exhibit a large, measurable response to dose and focus changes over the entire range of the critical features process window. Any process variations present fundamental challenges to the effectiveness of OPC methods, since the shape compensation assumes a repeatable process. One particular process parameter which is under increasing scrutiny is focus blur, e.g. from finite laser bandwidth, which can cause such OPC instability, and thereby damage pattern fidelity. We introduce a new type of test target called the Process Monitor Grating (PMG) which is designed for extreme sensitivity to process variation. The PMG design principle is to use assist features to zero out higher diffraction orders. We show via simulation and experiment that such structures are indeed very sensitive to process variation. In addition, PMG targets have other desirable attributes such as mask manufacturability, robustness to pattern collapse, and compatibility with standard CD metrology methods such as scatterometry. PMG targets are applicable to the accurate determination of dose and focus deviations, and in combination with an isofocal grating target, allow the accurate determination of focus blur. The methods shown in this paper are broadly applicable to the characterization of process deviations using test wafers or to the control of product using kerf structures.

  13. Future Steelmaking Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. R. J. Fruehan

    2004-09-20

    There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

  14. Badge Office Process Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Timothy Grant [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Young [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  15. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  16. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open-map bisi......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation.......The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open...

  17. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe-cuted in the......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe......-cuted in these kinds of systems can be considered using a declarative modeling framework. Proposed representation provides a unified way for performance evaluation of local cyclic as well as supported by them multimodal processes. The main question regards of reachability of a SCCP cyclic behavior. In this context......, the sufficient conditions guarantee the reachability of both local and multimodal processes cyclic steady state spaces are discussed....

  18. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  19. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  20. Jointly Poisson processes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, D H

    2009-01-01

    What constitutes jointly Poisson processes remains an unresolved issue. This report reviews the current state of the theory and indicates how the accepted but unproven model equals that resulting from the small time-interval limit of jointly Bernoulli processes. One intriguing consequence of these models is that jointly Poisson processes can only be positively correlated as measured by the correlation coefficient defined by cumulants of the probability generating functional.

  1. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  2. Hierarchical Dirichlet Scaling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongwoo; Oh, Alice

    2014-01-01

    We present the \\textit{hierarchical Dirichlet scaling process} (HDSP), a Bayesian nonparametric mixed membership model. The HDSP generalizes the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) to model the correlation structure between metadata in the corpus and mixture components. We construct the HDSP based on the normalized gamma representation of the Dirichlet process, and this construction allows incorporating a scaling function that controls the membership probabilities of the mixture components. ...

  3. Operating System Process Schedulers

    OpenAIRE

    ŠEKORANJA, MATEJ

    2016-01-01

    Process scheduling is one of the key tasks of every operating system. Proper implementation of a scheduler reflects itself in a system responsiveness, especially when processes require execution in real-time. Multimedia playback is one of these processes, also being one of the most common operating system tasks nowadays. In the beginning of this thesis, I present theoretical basics of scheduling: its goals, different scheduling types and basics algorithms. I cover scheduling in single-proces...

  4. Polygon mesh processing

    CERN Document Server

    Botsch, Mario; Pauly, Mark; Alliez, Pierre; Levy, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Geometry processing, or mesh processing, is a fast-growing area of research that uses concepts from applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering to design efficient algorithms for the acquisition, reconstruction, analysis, manipulation, simulation, and transmission of complex 3D models. Applications of geometry processing algorithms already cover a wide range of areas from multimedia, entertainment, and classical computer-aided design, to biomedical computing, reverse engineering, and scientific computing. Over the last several years, triangle meshes have become increasingly popular,

  5. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  6. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  7. The Recruitment Process:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the introduction of e-recruitment has an impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of recruitment. Three large organizations with well-established e-recruitment practices were included in the study. The three case studies......, which were carried out in Denmark in 2008-2009 using qualitative research methods, revealed changes in the sequence, divisibility and repetitiveness of a number of recruitment tasks and subtasks. The new recruitment process design was identified and presented in the paper. The study concluded...... that the main task of the process shifted from processing applications to communicating with candidates....

  8. The Critical Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    within Danish tradition of architecture and construction. The objective of the research presented in this paper, is to compare the different design processes behind the making of passive houses in a Danish context. We evaluated the process with regard to the integrated and traditional design process....... Data analysis showed that the majority of the consortiums worked in an integrated manner; though there was room for improvment. Additionally, the paper discusses the challanges of implementing the integrated design process in practice and suggests ways of overcomming some of the barriers . In doing so...

  9. Living olefin polymerization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  10. Financial information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo BAI; Shouyang WANG; Lean YU; Aoying ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth in financial data volume has made financial information processing more and more difficult due to the increase in complexity, which has forced businesses and academics alike to turn to sophisticated information processing technologies for better solutions. A typical feature is that high-performance computers and advanced computational techniques play ever-increasingly important roles for business and industries to have competitive advantages. Accordingly, financial information processing has emerged as a new cross-disciplinary field integrating computer science, mathematics, financial economics, intelligent techniques, and computer simulations to make different decisions based on processed financial information.

  11. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  12. Acoustic Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  13. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  14. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  15. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  16. EARSEC SAR processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Mark; Sloggett, David R.; Sieber, Alois J.

    1994-12-01

    Traditionally, the production of high quality Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery has been an area where a potential user would have to expend large amounts of money in either the bespoke development of a processing chain dedicated to his requirements or in the purchase of a dedicated hardware platform adapted using accelerator boards and enhanced memory management. Whichever option the user adopted there were limitations based on the desire for a realistic throughput in data load and time. The user had a choice, made early in the purchase, for either a system that adopted innovative algorithmic manipulation, to limit the processing time of the purchase of expensive hardware. The former limits the quality of the product, while the latter excludes the user from any visibility into the processing chain. Clearly there was a need for a SAR processing architecture that gave the user a choice into the methodology to be adopted for a particular processing sequence, allowing him to decide on either a quick (lower quality) product or a detailed slower (high quality) product, without having to change the algorithmic base of his processor or the hardware platform. The European Commission, through the Advanced Techniques unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Remote Sensing at Ispra in Italy, realizing the limitations on current processing abilities, initiated its own program to build airborne SAR and Electro-Optical (EO) sensor systems. This program is called the European Airborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC) program. This paper describes the processing system developed for the airborne SAR sensor system. The paper considers the requirements for the system and the design of the EARSEC Airborne SAR Processing System. It highlights the development of an open SAR processing architecture where users have full access to intermediate products that arise from each of the major processing stages. It also describes the main processing stages in the overall

  17. Facilitated exclusion process and Pfaffian Schur processes

    OpenAIRE

    Baik, Jinho; Barraquand, Guillaume; Corwin, Ivan; Suidan, Toufic

    2016-01-01

    We study the Facilitated TASEP, an interacting particle system on the one dimensional integer lattice. We prove that starting from step initial condition, the position of the rightmost particle has Tracy Widom GSE statistics on a cube root time scale, while the statistics in the bulk of the rarefaction fan are GUE. This uses a mapping with last-passage percolation in a half-quadrant, which we study using the formalism of Pfaffian Schur processes. For the model with exponential weights, we pro...

  18. Modeling soil processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereecken, H.; Schnepf, A.; Hopmans, J.W.; Javaux, M.; Or, D.; Roose, T.; Vanderborght, J.; Young, M.H.; Amelung, W.; Aitkenhead, M.; Allison, S.D.; Assouline, S.; Baveye, P.; Berli, M.; Brüggemann, N.; Finke, P.; Flury, M.; Gaiser, T.; Govers, G.; Ghezzehei, T.; Hallett, P.; Hendricks Franssen, H.J.; Heppell, J.; Horn, R.; Huisman, J.A.; Jacques, D.; Jonard, F.; Kollet, S.; Lafolie, F.; Lamorski, K.; Leitner, D.; Mcbratney, A.; Minasny, B.; Montzka, C.; Nowak, W.; Pachepsky, Y.; Padarian, J.; Romano, N.; Roth, K.; Rothfuss, Y.; Rowe, E.C.; Schwen, A.; Šimůnek, J.; Tiktak, A.; Dam, van Jos; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Vogel, H.J.; Vrugt, J.A.; Wöhling, T.; Wöhling, T.; Young, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable complexity of soil and its importance to a wide range of ecosystem services presents major challenges to the modeling of soil processes. Although major progress in soil models has occurred in the last decades, models of soil processes remain disjointed between disciplines or ecosys

  19. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  20. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Explains Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model which is based on a constructivist view of learning and provides a framework for school library media specialists for the design of information services and instruction. Highlights include a shift from library skills to information skills; attitudes; process approach; and an interview with…

  1. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi...

  2. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  3. Dosimetry in process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of absorbed dose and dose distribution in irradiated medical products relies on the use of quality dosimetry systems, trained personnel and a thorough understanding of the energy deposition process. The interrelationship of these factors will be discussed with emphasis on the current and future practices of process control dosimetry. (author)

  4. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234Th, 234Pa, 137Cs, 239Pu (trace), 60Co, U, 99Tc, and 237Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  5. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  6. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity.

  7. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  8. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  9. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-01

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  10. Image processing mini manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

  11. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  12. Technologies for Optical Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    The article consists of a Powerpoint presentation on technologies for optical processing. The paper concludes that the nonlinear elements based on SOA, fibers and waveguide structures have capabilities of simple processing at data rates of 100-600 Gb/s. Switching powers comparable to electronics...

  13. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  14. Microsystem process networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2006-10-24

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  15. Laser processing of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Peter A.

    1995-03-01

    CO2-laser processing of plastics has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Welding of cylindrical parts made from polycarbonate and polypropylene, cutting of polymethyl-methacrylate plates, and drilling holes in polypropylene are presented as examples. A good coincidence between theoretical and experimental results in case of laser welding has been found. Some practical aspects of laser processing of plastics has been given.

  16. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  17. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed......, as are structural features of progastrin that are involved in the precursor activation process. Thus, the review describes how the processing depends on the cell-specific expression of the processing enzymes and kinetics in the secretory pathway....

  18. Business process support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Adriana; Fiducia, Daniel [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    This paper is about the own development of business support software. The developed applications are used to support two business processes: one of them is the process of gas transportation and the other is the natural gas processing. This software has interphases with the ERP SAP, software SCADA and on line gas transportation simulation software. The main functionalities of the applications are: entrance on line real time of clients transport nominations, transport programming, allocation of the clients transport nominations, transport control, measurements, balanced pipeline, allocation of gas volume to the gas processing plants, calculate of product tons processed in each plant and tons of product distributed to clients. All the developed software generates information to the internal staff, regulatory authorities and clients. (author)

  19. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  20. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...... the complete software process lifecycle, from the initial definition of a product to its systematic improvement. In doing so, it addresses difficult problems, such as how to implement processes in highly regulated domains or where to find a suitable notation system for documenting processes, and provides...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation...

  1. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander;

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well...

  2. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    introduced make it possible to get an overview of processes. We have included a chapter on how to make block-dia¬grams and material balances. This should help in analysing a production and to isolate the most important processing steps. Most processes in a food production are of physical nature, thus we have...... included a chapter on relevant physical properties of foods and especially a part on rheological properties of food products. The remaining text is focused on the processes transport of fluids, transport of heat and transport of energy. The textbook ends with a chapter on heat exchangers and how...... to calculate the requirements of heat processing. Our goal is to put food engineering into a production context. Other courses teach food chemistry, food microbiology and food technology. Topics of great importance and all have to be seen in a broader context of producing good and safe food in a large scale...

  3. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  4. New Processes for Annulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hsing-Jang

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the high propensity of 2-cyano-2-cycloalkenones to undergo conjugate addition with various carbanions and the high reactivity of the ensuing α -cyano ketone system, a number of new annulation processes have been developed recently in our laboratories. As shown in Eq. 1 (n=1) with a specific example, one such process involves the addition of 3-butenylmagnesium bromide, followed by a palladium (Ⅱ) acetate mediated oxidative cyclization, to facilitate methylenecyclopentane ring formation. This annulation process could be readily extended to effect methylenecyclohexane ring formation (Eq. 1, n=2), using 4-pentenylmagnesinm bromide as the initial reagent, and to install the carbomethoxy-substituted methylenecyclopentane and methylenecyclohexane rings, using the carbanions derived from methyl 4-pentenoate and methyl 5-hexenoate, respectively (Eq. 2). In another annulation process, the addition of the enolate of methyl 5-chloropentanoate is involved initially, and the ring formation is readily effected by an intramolecular alkylation process. A specific example is given in Eq. 3.

  5. Logistics Innovation Process Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan; Yang, Su-Lan

    2011-01-01

    that was triggered by the practical needs of new ways of handling material flows of a hospital. This approach made it possible to revisit theory on logistics innovation process. Findings – Apart from the tangible benefits reported to the case hospital, five findings can be extracted from this study: the logistics...... on internal stakeholders as on external relationships; and logistics innovation process may start out as a dialectic, conflict ridden process and end up in a well-ordered goal-oriented teleological process. Research limitations/implications – In general, the study contributes to the knowledge base...... on an existing model by methodological triangulation in order to learn more about the qualities of actual processes and their implications for theory and practice....

  6. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  7. In Process Beam Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, W. M.; Weerasinghe, V. M.

    1986-11-01

    The industrial future of lasers in material processing lies in the combination of the laser with automatic machinery. One possible form of such a combination is an intelligent workstation which monitors the process as it occurs and adjusts itself accordingly, either by self teaching or by comparison to a process data bank or algorithm. In order to achieve this attractive goal in-process signals are required. Two devices are described in this paper. One is the Laser Beam Analyser which is now maturing into a second generation with computerised output. The other is the Acoustic Mirror, a totally novel analytic technique, not yet fully understood, but which nevertheless can act as a very effective process monitor.

  8. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  9. Beyond the search process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from a longitudinal case study exploring Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP)-model in a group based academic setting. The research focus is on group members' activities and cognitive and emotional experiences during the task process of writing an assignm......This paper reports on the findings from a longitudinal case study exploring Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP)-model in a group based academic setting. The research focus is on group members' activities and cognitive and emotional experiences during the task process of writing....... It is concluded that the ISP-model does not fully comply with group members' problem solving process and the involved information seeking behavior. Further, complex academic problem solving seems to be even more complex when it is performed in a group based setting. The study contributes with a new conceptual...

  10. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  11. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  12. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  13. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the main commercially significant and commonly used welding processes. This title takes the student or novice welder through the individual steps involved in each process in an easily understood way. It covers many of the requirements referred to in European Standards including EN719, EN 729, EN 729 and EN 287.$bWelding processes handbook is a concise, explanatory guide to the main commercially significant and commonly-used welding processes. It takes the novice welder or student through the individual steps involved in each process in a clear and easily understood way. It is intended to provide an up-to-date reference to the major applications of welding as they are used in industry. The contents have been arranged so that it can be used as a textbook for European welding courses in accordance with guidelines from the European Welding Federation. Welding processes and equipment necessary for each process are described so that they can be applied to all instruction levels required by the EWF and th...

  14. Monitoring of Microalgal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, Ivo; Scheper, Thomas; Reardon, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Process monitoring, which can be defined as the measurement of process variables with the smallest possible delay, is combined with process models to form the basis for successful process control. Minimizing the measurement delay leads inevitably to employing online, in situ sensors where possible, preferably using noninvasive measurement methods with stable, low-cost sensors. Microalgal processes have similarities to traditional bioprocesses but also have unique monitoring requirements. In general, variables to be monitored in microalgal processes can be categorized as physical, chemical, and biological, and they are measured in gaseous, liquid, and solid (biological) phases. Physical and chemical process variables can be usually monitored online using standard industrial sensors. The monitoring of biological process variables, however, relies mostly on sensors developed and validated using laboratory-scale systems or uses offline methods because of difficulties in developing suitable online sensors. Here, we review current technologies for online, in situ monitoring of all types of process parameters of microalgal cultivations, with a focus on monitoring of biological parameters. We discuss newly introduced methods for measuring biological parameters that could be possibly adapted for routine online use, should be preferably noninvasive, and are based on approaches that have been proven in other bioprocesses. New sensor types for measuring physicochemical parameters using optical methods or ion-specific field effect transistor (ISFET) sensors are also discussed. Reviewed methods with online implementation or online potential include measurement of irradiance, biomass concentration by optical density and image analysis, cell count, chlorophyll fluorescence, growth rate, lipid concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, dielectric scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Future perspectives are discussed, especially in the field of image analysis using in situ

  15. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  16. Transnational Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment......, European Employment Strategy, European Union, Nordic countries....

  17. Lasers in chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  18. Digital Differential Geometry Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Guo Liu; Hu-Jun Bao; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2006-01-01

    The theory and methods of digital geometry processing has been a hot research area in computer graphics, as geometric models serves as the core data for 3D graphics applications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some recent advances in digital geometry processing, particularly mesh fairing, surface parameterization and mesh editing, that heavily use differential geometry quantities. Some related concepts from differential geometry, such as normal, curvature, gradient,Laplacian and their counterparts on digital geometry are also reviewed for understanding the strength and weakness of various digital geometry processing methods.

  19. Lapis SOI Pixel Process

    OpenAIRE

    Okihara, Masao; Kasai, Hiroki; Miura, Noriyuki; Kuriyama, Naoya; Nagatomo, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    0.2 um fully-depleted SOI technology has been developed a for X-ray pixel detectors. To improve the detector performance, some advanced process technologies are developing continuously. To utilize the high resistivity FZ-SOI, slow ramp up and ramp down recipes are applied for the thermal processes in both of SOI wafer fabrication and pixel detector process. The suitable backside treatment is also applied to prevent increase of leakage current at backside damaged layer in the case of full depl...

  20. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  1. Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Leuchs, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions

  2. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  3. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  4. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  5. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  6. Study on Glulam Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Limin; WANG Haiqing; HE Weili

    2006-01-01

    This paper selected lumbers of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus rnandshurica), Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshuricd) and Spruce (Picea jezoensis vai.kornamvii) for manufacturing glulam with water-borne polymeric-isocyanate adhesive to determine process variables. The process variables that include specific pressure, pressing time and adhesive application amount influencing the shear strength of the glulam, were investigated through the orthogonal test. The results indicated that optimum process variables for glulam manufacturing were as follows: Specific pressure of 1.5 MPa for Spruce and 2,0 MPa both for Manchurian ash and Manchurian walnut, pressing time of 60 min and adhesive application amount of 250 g/m2.

  7. The image processing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, John C

    2006-01-01

    Now in its fifth edition, John C. Russ's monumental image processing reference is an even more complete, modern, and hands-on tool than ever before. The Image Processing Handbook, Fifth Edition is fully updated and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field. Written by an expert with unequalled experience and authority, it offers clear guidance on how to create, select, and use the most appropriate algorithms for a specific application. What's new in the Fifth Edition? ·       A new chapter on the human visual process that explains which visual cues elicit a response from the vie

  8. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  9. Semi-Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabski

    2014-01-01

    Semi-Markov Processes: Applications in System Reliability and Maintenance is a modern view of discrete state space and continuous time semi-Markov processes and their applications in reliability and maintenance. The book explains how to construct semi-Markov models and discusses the different reliability parameters and characteristics that can be obtained from those models. The book is a useful resource for mathematicians, engineering practitioners, and PhD and MSc students who want to understand the basic concepts and results of semi-Markov process theory. Clearly defines the properties and

  10. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  11. Business Model Process Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    strategic preference, as part of their business model innovation activity planned. Practical implications – This paper aimed at strengthening researchers and, particularly, practitioner’s perspectives into the field of business model process configurations. By insuring an [abstracted] alignment between......Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation......, by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...

  12. IT Project Prioritization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    In most of the large companies IT project prioritization process is designed based on principles of evidencebased management. We investigate a case of IT project prioritization in a financial institution, and in particular, how managers practice evidence-based management during this process. We use...... a rich dataset built from a longitudinal study of the prioritization process for the IT projects. Our findings indicate that managers reach a decision not only by using evidence but from the interplay between the evidence and the judgment devices that managers employ. The interplay between evidence...... and judgment devices is manifested in three ways: supplementing, substituting, and interpreting evidence. We show that while evidence does not fully determine the decision, it plays a central role in discussions, reflections, and negotiations during the IT prioritization process....

  13. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques......The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises...... the question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs...

  14. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  15. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  16. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  17. Organ Donation: The Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Plan Your Finances After Your Transplant Contact Your Donor Family Organ Donation: The Process Enrolling as a Donor : The ...

  18. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  19. Catalyzing alignment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how environmental management systems (EMS) spur the circulation of processes that support the constitution of environmental issues as specific environ¬mental objects and objectives. EMS catalyzes alignmentprocesses that produce coherence among the different elements involved ...

  20. Processing NOAA Spectroradiometric Data

    OpenAIRE

    Broenkow, William W.; Greene, Nancy, T.; Feinholz, Michael, E.

    1993-01-01

    This report outlines the NOAA spectroradiometer data processing system implemented by the MLML_DBASE programs. This is done by presenting the algorithms and graphs showing the effects of each step in the algorithms. [PDF contains 32 pages

  1. George: Gaussian Process regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    George is a fast and flexible library, implemented in C++ with Python bindings, for Gaussian Process regression useful for accounting for correlated noise in astronomical datasets, including those for transiting exoplanet discovery and characterization and stellar population modeling.

  2. Enrichment: centrifuge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short course is divided into three sections devoted respectively to the physics of the process, some practical problems raised by the design of a centrifuge and the present situation of centrifugation in the World. 31 figs., 18 refs

  3. Technology or Process First?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    Enterprise Systems Management (ESM) and Business Pro- cess Management (BPM), although highly correlated, have evolved as alternative and mutually exclusive approaches to corporate infrastruc- ture. As a result, companies struggle to nd the right balance between technology and process factors...

  4. Processer i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    Undersøgelsen har fokus på processer i undervisningen – og derigennem på hvordan digitale læremidler kan understøtte eller integreres i typiske processer. Undersøgelsen hviler på deltagende observation på Abildgårdskolen i Odense. Gennem observationerne er der identificeret en række eksempler på ...... udfordringer for at gennemføre de undervisningsmæssige processer og givet bud på digitale læremidler der forventes at kunne understøtte processerne. Undersøgelsen viser samtidig hvordan fokus på processer kan fungere som en metode til brugerdreven innovation....

  5. Desalination processes and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasons of the development of desalination processes, the modern desalination technologies, such as multi-stage flash evaporation, multi-effect distillation, reverse osmosis, and the prospects of using nuclear power for desalination purposes are discussed. 9 refs

  6. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  7. Reconfigurable network processing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachris, C.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents our investigation on how to efficiently exploit reconfigurable hardware to design flexible, high performance, and power efficient network devices capable to adapt to varying processing requirements of network applications and traffic. The proposed reconfigurable network pr

  8. Markovian risk process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-xing; YAN Yun-zhi; ZHAO Fei; FANG Da-fan

    2007-01-01

    A Markovian risk process is considered in this paper, which is the generalization of the classical risk model. It is proper that a risk process with large claims is modelled as the Markovian risk model. In such a model, the occurrence of claims is described by a point process {N(t)}t≥o with N(t) being the number of jumps during the interval (0, t] for a Markov jump process. The ruin probability Ψ(u) of a company facing such a risk model is mainly studied. An integral equation satisfied by the ruin probability function Ψ(u) is obtained and the bounds for the convergence rate of the ruin probability Ψ(u) are given by using a generalized renewal technique developed in the paper.

  9. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  10. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  11. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  12. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I2/H2O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  13. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  14. Reward Processing in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; DAPRETTO, MIRELLA; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2010-01-01

    The social motivation hypothesis of autism posits that infants with autism do not experience social stimuli as rewarding, thereby leading to a cascade of potentially negative consequences for later development. While possible downstream effects of this hypothesis such as altered face and voice processing have been examined, there has not been a direct investigation of social reward processing in autism. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine social and monetary rewarded ...

  15. Processing chicken at slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    POŽÁRKOVÁ, Radka

    2012-01-01

    Composition of poultry flesh and its purpose on human nutrition is described in this work. The quality and factors which affects quality are described further. HACCP system takes also important role. The end of this thesis is focused on poultry meat markets. The aim of this thesis was to study and describe chicken slaughtering process and processing of chicken carcass and determine the major share of the fleshy parts of broiler chicken carcass which means shares of breast muscles and tight mu...

  16. Digital signal processing: Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, L. M.; Matiushkin, B. D.; Poliak, M. N.

    The fundamentals of the theory and design of systems and devices for the digital processing of signals are presented. Particular attention is given to algorithmic methods of synthesis and digital processing equipment in communication systems (e.g., selective digital filtering, spectral analysis, and variation of the signal discretization frequency). Programs for the computer-aided analysis of digital filters are described. Computational examples are presented, along with tables of transfer function coefficients for recursive and nonrecursive digital filters.

  17. Poststroke neuroplasticity processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Damulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different aspects of neuroplasticity in patients with stroke. It underlines the dynamism of this process and the ambiguity of involvement of the structures of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere in the restorative process. It considers the periods after onset of stroke and the activation of different brain regions (of both the involved and intact hemisphere in the poststroke period. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues of neurorehabilitation in this category of patients. Delay in rehabilitation measures leads to a worse outcome, the patients must be at hospital longer. It is emphasized that the neurorehabilitaton measures should use strategies aimed at improving plasticity processes at the level of synaptic transmission and neuronal communications. At the same time, of great importance are the processes of structural and functional remodeling of neuronal communications with the involvement of surviving neurons that are located in the peri-infarct area and partially damaged during ischemia. To recover stroke-induced lost motor functions, measures are implemented to modulate the ipsilateral motor cortex, contralateral motor cortex, and sensory afferentation. Remodeling processes, one of the manifestations of neuroplasticity, vary with the size and location of an ischemic focus. The specific features of this process with subcortical and cortical foci are considered. It is stressed that there are genetically determined neurotrophic factors that may enhance remodeling processes in the peri-infarct area, as well as factors that inhibit these processes. The sensory system is noted to have a high potential of compensation, which is appreciably associated with the considerable extent of sensory fibers even at the level of the cerebral cortex.

  18. Differentially Private Gaussian Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael Thomas; Zwiessele, Max; Lawrence, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for machine learning is increasing the availability of data while respecting the privacy of individuals. Differential privacy is a framework which allows algorithms to have provable privacy guarantees. Gaussian processes are a widely used approach for dealing with uncertainty in functions. This paper explores differentially private mechanisms for Gaussian processes. We compare binning and adding noise before regression with adding noise post-regression. For the former we dev...

  19. Compactifications for Dual Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Glover, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    We develop a general theory of duality for Markov processes satisfying Meyer's hypothesis (L) and possessing an excessive reference measure. We make use of a compactification introduced by Walsh which allows a right process and its moderate dual to have strong Markov versions on an enlarged state space. The representation theory for potentials of additive functionals due to Revuz and Sharpe can be extended to this setting. Using this theory, we show that the conatural additive functionals int...

  20. Cognitive Processes in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Writing has become one of important topic to discuss in the new age.Its theories could be generally learnt,but its nature needs to handle in specific contents.In another words,every one who can write must generate his/her thinking or cognitive processes.Because writing thinking is to do meaningful activities,how to solove writing problems could be managed through cognitive process.

  1. Bank Record Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  2. Language and Speech Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Mariani, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Speech processing addresses various scientific and technological areas. It includes speech analysis and variable rate coding, in order to store or transmit speech. It also covers speech synthesis, especially from text, speech recognition, including speaker and language identification, and spoken language understanding. This book covers the following topics: how to realize speech production and perception systems, how to synthesize and understand speech using state-of-the-art methods in signal processing, pattern recognition, stochastic modelling computational linguistics and human factor studi

  3. Analyzing business process management

    OpenAIRE

    Skjæveland, Børge

    2013-01-01

    Within the Oil & Gas Industry, the market is constantly growing more competitive, forcing companies to continually adapt to changes. Companies need to cut costs and improve the business efficiency. One way of successfully managing these challenges is to implement business process management in the organization. This thesis will analyze how Oceaneering Asset Integrity AS handled the implementation of a Business Process Management System and the effects it had on the employees. The main goal...

  4. Novel food processing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that a...

  5. Image Processing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    To convert raw data into environmental products, the National Weather Service and other organizations use the Global 9000 image processing system marketed by Global Imaging, Inc. The company's GAE software package is an enhanced version of the TAE, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center to support remote sensing and image processing applications. The system can be operated in three modes and is combined with HP Apollo workstation hardware.

  6. Catalytic Processes in Biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Vitiello, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The biorefinery is a system that uses as feedstocks biomasses and recover from these energy, fuel and chemicals. There are many processes considered in the biorefinery system, but in this thesis the biorefinery that uses as feedstock oil, in particular dedicated crops and waste vegetable oils were considered. In the first part of this thesis the biodiesel production process was studied. One possible route to produce biodiesel from waste oils (carachetrized by high concentrations of Fr...

  7. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  8. Apple Image Processing Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  9. Granger Independent Martingale Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubini, Umberto; Gobbi, Fabio; Mulinacci, Sabrina; Romagnoli, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new class of processes for the evaluation of multivariate equity derivatives. The proposed setting is well suited for the application of the standard copula function theory to processes, rather than variables, and easily enables to enforce the martingale pricing requirement. The martingale condition is imposed in a general multidimensional Markov setting to which we only add the restriction of no-Granger-causality of the increments (Granger-independent increments). We call this...

  10. Helium process cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  11. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been on diffe......Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... on different types of organisational setup to the product development model and process. The globalization and enhanced competitive markets are however changing the innovation game and the challenge to innovation leadership Excellent product development innovation and leadership seems not any longer to enough...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  12. Helium process cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  13. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  14. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  15. Process Correlation Analysis Model for Process Improvement Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Su-jin Choi; Dae-Kyoo Kim; Sooyong Park

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practice...

  16. Carbon dioxide reducing processes; Koldioxidreducerande processer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    This thesis discusses different technologies to reduce or eliminate the carbon dioxide emissions, when a fossil fuel is used for energy production. Emission reduction can be accomplished by separating the carbon dioxide for storage or reuse. There are three different ways of doing the separation. The carbon dioxide can be separated before the combustion, the process can be designed so that the carbon dioxide can be separated without any energy consumption and costly systems or the carbon dioxide can be separated from the flue gas stream. Two different concepts of separating the carbon dioxide from a combined cycle are compared, from the performance and the economical point of view, with a standard natural gas fired combined cycle where no attempts are made to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. One concept is to use absorption technologies to separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas stream. The other concept is based on a semi-closed gas turbine cycle using carbon dioxide as working fluid and combustion with pure oxygen, generated in an air-separating unit. The calculations show that the efficiency (power) drop is smaller for the first concept than for the second, 8.7 % points compared to 13.7 % points, when power is produced. When both heat and power are produced, the relation concerning the efficiency (power) remains. Regarding the overall efficiency (heat and power) the opposite relation is present. A possible carbon dioxide tax must exceed 0.21 SEK/kg CO{sub 2} for it to be profitable to separate carbon dioxide with any of these technologies.

  17. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  18. Cantilever epitaxial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Carol I.; Follstaedt, David M.; Mitchell, Christine C.; Han, Jung

    2003-07-29

    A process of growing a material on a substrate, particularly growing a Group II-VI or Group III-V material, by a vapor-phase growth technique where the growth process eliminates the need for utilization of a mask or removal of the substrate from the reactor at any time during the processing. A nucleation layer is first grown upon which a middle layer is grown to provide surfaces for subsequent lateral cantilever growth. The lateral growth rate is controlled by altering the reactor temperature, pressure, reactant concentrations or reactant flow rates. Semiconductor materials, such as GaN, can be produced with dislocation densities less than 10.sup.7 /cm.sup.2.

  19. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  20. Cryogenic process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining accurate fluid property databases with a commercial equation-solving software package running on a desktop computer allows simulation of cryogenic processes without extensive computer programming. Computer simulation can be a powerful tool for process development or optimization. Most engineering simulations to date have required extensive programming skills in languages such as Fortran, Pascal, etc. Authors of simulation code have also usually been responsible for choosing and writing the particular solution algorithm. This paper describes a method of simulating cryogenic processes with a commercial software package on a desktop personal computer that does not require these traditional programming tasks. Applications include modeling of cryogenic refrigerators, heat exchangers, vapor-cooled power leads, vapor pressure thermometers, and various other engineering problems

  1. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... of process industries. The book builds on the extensive modelling experience of the authors, who have developed models for both research and industrial purposes. It complements existing books by the authors in the modelling area. Those areas include the traditional petroleum and petrochemical industries...

  2. Processes for xanthomonas biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelskirchen, K.; Stein, W.; Bahn, M.; Schieferstein, L.; Schindler, J.

    1984-03-27

    A process is described for producing xanthan gum in which the use of a stable, water-in-oil emulsion in the fermentation medium markedly lowers the viscosity of the medium, resulting in lower energy requirements for the process, and also resulting in enhanced yields of the biopolymer. In such an emulsion, the aqueous fermentation phase, with its microbial growth and metabolic processes, takes place in a finely dispersed homogeneous oil phase. The viscosity increase in each droplet of the aqueous nutrient solution will not noticeably affect this mixture in the fermenter because the viscosity of the reaction mixture in the fermenter is determined primarily by the viscosity of the oil phase. 45 claims

  3. Process window metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

    2000-06-01

    This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

  4. Business Process Requirement Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsa Etoundi Roger,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirement engineering is as an increasingly important discipline for supporting business process and workflow modeling, as these are designed to satisfy diverse customer needs, and increase the productivity of enterprise. Moreover, most customers hesitate to adopt a given product or service if the added value is not conformed to their desires. Dealing with customers, with a wide range of perspective, within an enterprise, is very complex. These perspectives are grounded in differences in skills, responsibility, knowledge and expertise of stakeholders. This holds more in the domain of business processes and workflows where the satisfaction of the customers is the must if these enterprises wish to deal with the pressure of the network economy. Based on the requirement engineering, we present in this paper an integration of RE approach in the modeling of business process and workflows. (Abstract

  5. Lapis SOI Pixel Process

    CERN Document Server

    Okihara, Masao; Miura, Noriyuki; Kuriyama, Naoya; Nagatomo, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    0.2 um fully-depleted SOI technology has been developed a for X-ray pixel detectors. To improve the detector performance, some advanced process technologies are developing continuously. To utilize the high resistivity FZ-SOI, slow ramp up and ramp down recipes are applied for the thermal processes in both of SOI wafer fabrication and pixel detector process. The suitable backside treatment is also applied to prevent increase of leakage current at backside damaged layer in the case of full depletion of substrate. Large detector chip about 66mm width and 30mm height can be obtained by stitching exposure technique for large detector chip. To improve cross-talk and radiation tolerance, the nested well structure and double- SOI wafer are now under investigation for advanced pixel structure.

  6. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  7. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  8. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Stochastic processes inference theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Malempati M

    2014-01-01

    This is the revised and enlarged 2nd edition of the authors’ original text, which was intended to be a modest complement to Grenander's fundamental memoir on stochastic processes and related inference theory. The present volume gives a substantial account of regression analysis, both for stochastic processes and measures, and includes recent material on Ridge regression with some unexpected applications, for example in econometrics. The first three chapters can be used for a quarter or semester graduate course on inference on stochastic processes. The remaining chapters provide more advanced material on stochastic analysis suitable for graduate seminars and discussions, leading to dissertation or research work. In general, the book will be of interest to researchers in probability theory, mathematical statistics and electrical and information theory.

  10. Modern coating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Articles collected in this volume explain both the present state of technique and current developments and problems in the environment of the following coating processes: - Hardfacing welding and soldering; - Thermal spraying; - Thin film technique (CVD, PVD); - Galvanising. Apart from basic representation of the conventional use of the different processes, both the new technological and material developments are to the fore. In this context, the purposeful post-treatment of coatings and the combination of different processes to achieve special coating properties should be mentioned. Examples of this show the hot isostatic pressing or laser melting of sprayed coatings, the simultaneous spraying and shot-blasting and the combination of galvanic and thin film techniques for the manufacture of hybrid systems. A further important group of subjects concerns the testing of various coatings. (orig.)

  11. AERONET Version 3 processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) database has evolved in measurement accuracy, data quality products, availability to the scientific community over the course of 21 years with the support of NASA, PHOTONS and all federated partners. This evolution is periodically manifested as a new data version release by carefully reprocessing the entire database with the most current algorithms that fundamentally change the database and ultimately the data products used by the community. The newest processing, Version 3, will be released in 2015 after the entire database is reprocessed and real-time data processing becomes operational. All V 3 algorithms have been developed, individually vetted and represent four main categories: aerosol optical depth (AOD) processing, inversion processing, database management and new products. The primary trigger for release of V 3 lies with cloud screening of the direct sun observations and computation of AOD that will fundamentally change all data available for analysis and all subsequent retrieval products. This presentation will illustrate the innovative approach used for cloud screening and assesses the elements of V3 AOD relative to the current version. We will also present the advances in the inversion product processing with emphasis on the random and systematic uncertainty estimates. This processing will be applied to the new hybrid measurement scenario intended to provide inversion retrievals for all solar zenith angles. We will introduce automatic quality assurance criteria that will allow near real time quality assured aerosol products necessary for real time satellite and model validation and assimilation. Last we will introduce the new management structure that will improve access to the data database. The current version 2 will be supported for at least two years after the initial release of V3 to maintain continuity for on going investigations.

  12. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  13. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  14. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  15. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  16. Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

  17. Semantic and Process Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Oscar Fernández Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management systems support education at different levels of the education. This is very important for the process in which the higher education of Cuba is involved. Structural transformations of teaching are focused on supporting the foundation of the information society in the country. This paper describes technical aspects of the designing of a model for the integration of multiple knowledgemanagement tools supporting teaching. The proposal is based on the definition of an ontology for the explicit formal description of the semantic of motivations of students and teachers in the learning process. Its target is to facilitate knowledge spreading.

  18. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  19. An Integrated Desgin Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...

  20. An Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...

  1. Research Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  2. Mutually Testing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Giovanni; Hennessy, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In the standard testing theory of DeNicola-Hennessy one process is considered to be a refinement of another if every test guaranteed by the former is also guaranteed by the latter. In the domain of web services this has been recast, with processes viewed as servers and tests as clients. In this way the standard refinement preorder between servers is determined by their ability to satisfy clients. But in this setting there is also a natural refinement preorder between clients, determined by th...

  3. Food irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international symposium on food irradiation processing dealing with issues which affect the commercial introduction of the food irradiation process was held in Vienna in 1985. The symposium, which attracted close to 300 participants, was planned to interest not only scientists and food technologists, but also representatives of government agencies, the food industry, trade associations and consumer organizations. The symposium included a discussion of the technological and economic feasibility of applying ionizing energy for the preservation of food, and focused on the specific needs of developing countries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various presentations at this meeting

  4. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    investigated individually, with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding before the final integrated model is setup. In the sub-process investigations focus is addressed especially at aeration by bottom mounted diffusers and mechanical mixing of the activated sludge suspension via slowly rotating...... zones in mind, its special construction poses strict demands to the hydrodynamic model. In case study three the model is extended to a three-phase model where also the injection of air bubbles during the aeration process is modeled. The aeration of sludge is controlled through a simple expression...

  5. Reversible brazing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  6. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  7. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  8. Thermal stir welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  9. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  10. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  11. The process of entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle

    2003-01-01

    between organisational growth and managerial role transformation in technology-based new ventures. The chapter begins by reviewing existing literature on organisational growth patterns and establishing a link to managerial roles in order to elucidate the basic premises of the study. The chapter...... for understanding the link between organisational growth and managerial role transformation.......Growing a technology-based new venture is a complex process because these ventures are embedded in turbulent environments that require fast organisational and managerial transformation. This chapter addresses the evolutionary process of such ventures. It seeks to provide insight into the link...

  12. Statecharts Via Process Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

  13. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  14. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introdu

  15. Total Process Surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to operate a plant safely and economically, an operator requires a complete knowledge of the plant's operating state. Only a limited amount of information is generally available regarding the plant's current state, this being determined by a finite number of transducers measuring key process parameters. It is the responsibility of the operator to assimilate and interpret this, possibly conflicting, raw measurement data. An operator accomplishes this data interpretation task by utilising his knowledge of the operation of the process and his experience of its behaviour under certain well defined conditions. Under normal operating conditions the operator may use only a fairly basic mental model of the process to facilitate his understanding. However under off-normal plant conditions and especially those associated with a severe accident, this mental model may not be sufficient to understand the behaviour of the process. This is highly likely to be the case where the process system has undergone a structural change as a result of a severe accident. As with any management task, the prime components of dealing with a severe accident condition are monitoring and control. This implies the need to obtain information on the process state, assimilate this information, interpret and understand what it means in the context of the process, leading to a control decision and thus a control action. A key task here is the gathering and assimilation of all the available plant data. The transducers installed on a plant represent a diverse range of information sources. Traditionally these are considered individually or in functional groups, such as fuel channel outlet temperatures. However each transducer measurement is almost invariably linked to other different transducer measurements via the physics of the process. This leads to the concept of analytical redundancy among a given set of diverse transducers. In an off-normal plant condition, the ability to exploit this

  16. Conceptualizing operations strategy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present insights into operations strategy (OS) in practice. It outlines a conceptualization and model of OS processes and, based on findings from an in-depth and longitudinal case study, contributes to further development of extant OS models and methods...

  17. Information Processing of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Carol R.; Burgess, Ann W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a neuropsychosocial model of information processing to explain a victimization experience, specifically child sexual abuse. It surveys the relation of sensation, perception, and cognition as a systematic way to provide a framework for studying human behavior and describing human response to traumatic events. (Author/JDD)

  18. Advanced Biosignal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Nait-Ali, Amine

    2009-01-01

    Presents the principle of many advanced biosignal processing techniques. This title introduces the main biosignal properties and the acquisition techniques. It concerns one of the most intensively used biosignals in the clinical routine, namely the Electrocardiogram, the Elektroenzephalogram, the Electromyogram and the Evoked Potential

  19. Uranium recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process of recovering uranium from an aqueous medium containing both it and sulfuric acid which comprises contacting the medium with an anion exchange resin having tertiary amine groups, said resin being the product of (a) the reaction of polyethyleneimine and a dihaloalkane and (b) the subsequent reductive alkylation of the product of (a)

  20. Pattern evaporation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the process of thermal evaporation of a foundry pattern. At several research-development centres, studies have been carried out to examine the physico-chemical phenomena that take place in foundry mould filled with polystyrene pattern when it is poured with molten metal. In the technique of evaporative patterns, the process of mould filling with molten metal (the said mould holding inside a polystyrene pattern is interrelated with the process of thermal decomposition of this pattern. The transformation of an evaporative pattern (e.g. made from foamed polystyrene from the solid into liquid and then gaseous state occurs as a result of the thermal effect that the liquid metal exerts onto this pattern. Consequently, at the liquid metal-pattern-mould phase boundary some physico-chemical phenomena take place, which until now have not been fully explained. When the pattern is evaporating, some solid and gaseous products are evolved, e.g. CO, CO2, H2, N2, and hydrocarbons, e.g. styrene, toluene, ethane, methane, benzene [16, 23]. The process of polystyrene pattern evaporation in foundry mould under the effect of molten metal is of a very complex nature and depends on many different factors, still not fully investigated. The kinetics of pattern evaporation is also affected by the technological properties of foundry mould, e.g. permeability, thermophysical properties, parameters of the gating system, temperature of pouring, properties of pattern material, and the size of pattern-liquid metal contact surface.

  1. Instruction sequence processing operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns instruction sequences whose execution involves the processing of instructions by an execution environment that offers a family of services and may yield a Boolean value at termination. We introduce a composition operator for families of services and three operators that have a di

  2. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  3. The Serendipitous Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing…

  4. Automated process planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, W.

    1978-01-01

    Program helps process engineers set up manufacturing plans for machined parts. System allows one to develop and store library of similar parts characteristics, as related to particular facility. Information is then used in interactive system to help develop manufacturing plans that meet required standards.

  5. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  6. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, and hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi-level modulation formats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals. In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral magnification of the OFDM signal. Utilising such telescopic arrangements, it has become possible to perform a number of interesting functionalities, which will be described in the presentation. This includes conversion from OFDM to Nyquist WDM, compression of WDM channels to a single Nyquist channel and WDM regeneration. These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platforms like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described.

  7. Diasporic Relationships and Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    How does moving across the geographical borders affect the relationships of diaspora members both here – in the country of residence and there- in the country of origin? The article delineates some of the processes through gendered experiences of the young adults perceived as active actors based...

  8. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence...

  9. Authenticizing the Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Elizondo-Schmelkes, MA, Ph.D. Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the main concern of students (national and international who are trying to get a postgraduate degree in a third world (or “in means of development” country. The emergent problem found is that students have to finish their thesis or dissertation but they do not really know how to accomplish this goal. They resolve this problem by authenticizing the process as their own. The theory of authenticizing involves compassing their way to solve the problem of advancing in the research process. Compassing allows the student to authenticize his/her research process, making it a personal and „owned. process. The main categories of compassing are the intellectual, physical and emotional dimension patterns that the student has, learns and follows in order to finish the project and get a degree. Authenticizing implies to author with authenticity their thesis or dissertation. Compassing allows them to do this in their own way, at their own pace or time and with their own internal resources, strengths and weaknesses.

  10. Self-normalized processes

    CERN Document Server

    Heyde, C C

    2008-01-01

    Self-normalized processes are of common occurrence in probabilistic and statistical studies. This volume covers developments in the area, including self-normalized large and moderate deviations, and laws of the iterated logarithms for self-normalized martingales. It treats the theory and applications of self-normalization.

  11. Cascaded Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kuniaki; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin Carl

    1982-12-01

    We investigate the counting statistics for stationary and nonstationary cascaded Poisson processes. A simple equation is obtained for the variance-to-mean ratio in the limit of long counting times. Explicit expressions for the forward-recurrence and inter-event-time probability density functions are also obtained. The results are expected to be of use in a number of areas of physics.

  12. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP...

  13. Perspective of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of the applications of radiation techniques is very wide. This paper only relates to the applications of radiation techniques in industries including radiation chemical industry, radiation processing of foods and environmental protection by radiation, but the nuclear instruments and the instrumentations of radiation are out-side of our study. (author)

  14. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the process. It also helped in formulating the basic mechanism for thedischarge formation and the material removal in the process. Temperature profile on workpieceand in electrochemical discharge machining cell is experimentally measured using pyrometer,and two varieties of K-type thermocouples. Surface topography of the discharge-affected zoneson the workpiece has been carried out using scanning electron microscope. Measurements andsurface topographical studies reveal the potential use of this process for machining in micronregime. With careful experimental set-up design, suitable supply voltage and its polarity, theprocess can be applied for both micromachining and micro-deposition. It can be extended formachining and or deposition of wide range of materials.

  15. Industrial Information Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build-to-order...

  16. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena LUCA (DEDIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering determines the change of organizational functions from an orientation focused on operations through a multidimensional approach. Former employees who were mere executors are now determined to take their own decisions and as a result the functional departments lose their reason to exist. Managers do not act anymore as supervisors, but mainly as mentors, while the employees focus more attention on customer needs and less than the head’s. Under these conditions, new organizational paradigms are required, the most important being that of learning organizations. In order to implement a reengineering of the economic processes and promoting a new organizational paradigm the information technology plays a decisive role. The article presents some results obtained in a research theme ANSTI funded by contract no. 501/2000. Economic and financial analysis is performed in order to know the current situation to achieve better results in the future. One of its objectives is the production analyzed as a labour process and the interaction elements of this process. The indicators investigated in the analysis of financial and economic activity of production reflect the development directions, the means and resources to accomplish predetermined objectives and express the results and effectiveness of what is expected.

  17. Food processing in action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  18. Revitalizing stagnated policy processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Kessener, B.

    2007-01-01

    Many complex policy processes face stagnations. People involved sense that continuing along existing paths will not produce those outcomes that are desired and deemed necessary. But changing and developing new action strategies is difficult. This article presents the results of an action research th

  19. Udfordringer for transkulturelle processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    at indskrænke mulighedsrummet for transkulturelle processer og for det at lære fra en terra nullius position. Der er fokus på empiriske undersøgelser af kultursyn i lovgivning om opholdstilladelse fra 2010, lovgivning om statsborgerskab fra 2006 samt kultursyn i den i 2003 indførte obligatoriske...

  20. Antecedents of institutional process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Díez de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to advance the understanding of why organizations are responsive to the institutionalization process. To this end, we describe key elements that help explain the origin of this process. Furthermore, this research has followed a qualitative research methodology, using the ‘concept mapping’ technique, and grouping the different constructs items that act as motivating factors in the transformation of organizations to institutions. Methodologically we have tried to overlook the differentiation between old and new institutionalism, this approach follows the ideas of those researchers that question the suitability of drawing a line between the “old” and the “new” theory. We consider that the role of the CEO is essential in driving the institutionalization process, though usually their decisions are supported or have passed through the filter of the organization governance staff or the board of directors. Any progress that the organization makes depends fundamentally on the capabilities, perceptions, training and mindset of the CEO. The research results reinforce several key topics suggested in the literature on institutional theory. Particularly, we have proposed a classification with the motives that give rise to institutional initiatives: institutional authority; advantage in management; and, social involvement. This classification is consistent, to a larger extend, to the pillars of institutionalization that have been defined in the institutional theory literature, helping to understand, in more detail, the origin of the business processes and the background or motivations that generates and guide them.

  1. Thermal radiation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.; Paerels, F.; Durret, F.; Schindler, S.; Richter, P.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the different physical processes that are important to understand the thermal X-ray emission and absorption spectra of the diffuse gas in clusters of galaxies and the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The ionisation balance, line and continuum emission and absorption properties are reviewed

  2. Supplier Evaluation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illuminate how supplier evaluation practices are linked to supplier performance improvements. Specifically, the paper investigates how performance information travelling between the evaluating buyer and the evaluated suppliers is shaped and reshaped in th...... supplier evaluation process as its unit of analysis....

  3. Process in Humanistic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Adrian

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the themes and purposes of humanistic education in the instruction of English-as-a-Second-Language, from the perspective of teacher, trainer, student, colleague, parent, and observer, focusing on the processes, values, and attitudes that underpin humanistic education and that are drawn from humanistic psychology. (Author/CB)

  4. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina;

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...

  5. Pragmatics and Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lynn Sebestyen; Downey, Doris C.

    1983-01-01

    Findings from studies of attention, semantic memory, and the pragmatics of language are reviewed and implications for intervention with children whose language is disordered are discussed. Selectivity and resource allocation are the attention topics considered while schemata, frames, inferences, and narrative discourse processing are addressed…

  6. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  7. Image-Processing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

  8. Image Processing for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…

  9. Matchmaking for business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Fankhauser, Peter; Mahleko, Bendick; Neuhold, Erich

    2003-01-01

    Web services have a potential to enhance B2B ecommerce over the Internet by allowing companies and organizations to publish their business processes on service directories where potential trading partners can find them. This can give rise to new business paradigms based on ad-hoc trading relations a

  10. Asymmetric inclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  11. Rethinking lessons learned processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttler, T.; Lukosch, S.G.; Kolfschoten, G.L.; Verbraeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    Lessons learned are one way to retain experience and knowledge in project-based organizations, helping them to prevent reinventin,g the wheel or to repeat past mistakes. However, there are several challenges that make these lessonts learned processes a challenging endeavor. These include capturing k

  12. Behavioural hybrid process calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, H.; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in th

  13. Gaia Data Processing Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    O'Mullane, W; Bailer-Jones, C; Bastian, U; Brown, A; Drimmel, R; Eyer, L; Huc, C; Jansen, F; Katz, D; Lindegren, L; Pourbaix, D; Luri, X; Mignard, F; Torra, J; van Leeuwen, F

    2006-01-01

    Gaia is ESA's ambitious space astrometry mission the main objective of which is to astrometrically and spectro-photometrically map 1000 Million celestial objects (mostly in our galaxy) with unprecedented accuracy. The announcement of opportunity for the data processing will be issued by ESA late in 2006. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been formed recently and is preparing an answer. The satellite will downlink close to 100 TB of raw telemetry data over 5 years. To achieve its required accuracy of a few 10s of Microarcsecond astrometry, a highly involved processing of this data is required. In addition to the main astrometric instrument Gaia will host a Radial Velocity instrument, two low-resolution dispersers for multi-color photometry and two Star Mappers. Gaia is a flying Giga Pixel camera. The various instruments each require relatively complex processing while at the same time being interdependent. We describe the overall composition of the DPAC and the envisaged overall archi...

  14. A visual analysis of the process of process modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, J Jan; Vanderfeesten, ITP Irene; Pinggera, J.; Reijers, HA Hajo; Weber, B.; Poels, G

    2015-01-01

    The construction of business process models has become an important requisite in the analysis and optimization of processes. The success of the analysis and optimization efforts heavily depends on the quality of the models. Therefore, a research domain emerged that studies the process of process modeling. This paper contributes to this research by presenting a way of visualizing the different steps a modeler undertakes to construct a process model, in a so-called process of process modeling C...

  15. Visualizing the Process of Process Modeling with PPMCharts

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Jan; Vanderfeesten, Irene; Pinggera, Jakob; Reijers, Hajo A.; Weber, Barbara; Poels, Geert

    2015-01-01

    In the quest for knowledge about how to make good process models, recent research focus is shifting from studying the quality of process models to studying the process of process modeling (often abbreviated as PPM) itself. This paper reports on our efforts to visualize this specific process in such a way that relevant characteristics of the modeling process can be observed graphically. By recording each modeling operation in a modeling process, one can build an event log that can be used as i...

  16. Managing Process Variants in the Process Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hallerbach, A.; Bauer, Th.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    When designing process-aware information systems, often variants of the same process have to be specified. Each variant then constitutes an adjustment of a particular process to specific requirements building the process context. Current Business Process Management (BPM) tools do not adequately support the management of process variants. Usually, the variants have to be kept in separate process models. This leads to huge modeling and maintenance efforts. In particular, more fundamental proces...

  17. Biosphere Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  18. Cassini science planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Brian G.; Ray, Trina L.

    2004-01-01

    The mission design for Cassini-Huygens calls for a four-year orbital survey of the Saturnian system and the descent into the Titan atmosphere and eventual soft-landing of the Huygens probe. The Cassini orbiter tour consists of 76 orbits around Saturn with 44 close Titan flybys and 8 targeted icy satellite flybys. The Cassini orbiter spacecraft carries twelve scientific instruments that will perform a wide range of observations on a multitude of designated targets. The science opportunities, frequency of encounters, the length of the Tour, and the use of distributed operations pose significant challenges for developing the science plan for the orbiter mission. The Cassini Science Planning Process is the process used to develop and integrate the science and engineering plan that incorporates an acceptable level of science required to meet the primary mission objectives far the orbiter. The bulk of the integrated science and engineering plan will be developed prior to Saturn Orbit Insertion (Sol). The Science Planning Process consists of three elements: 1) the creation of the Tour Atlas, which identifies the science opportunities in the tour, 2) the development of the Science Operations Plan (SOP), which is the conflict-free timeline of all science observations and engineering activities, a constraint-checked spacecraft pointing profile, and data volume allocations to the science instruments, and 3) an Aftermarket and SOP Update process, which is used to update the SOP while in tour with the latest information on spacecraft performance, science opportunities, and ephemerides. This paper will discuss the various elements of the Science Planning Process used on the Cassini Mission to integrate, implement, and adapt the science and engineering activity plans for Tour.

  19. Biosphere Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  20. 5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TSP is notified in writing that the legal process has been appealed, and that the effect of the filing... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legal processes. 1653.13... PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's...

  1. Modeling of biopharmaceutical processes. Part 2: Process chromatography unit operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; McCue, Justin; Engel, Philip;

    2008-01-01

    Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent...

  2. Process and Post-Process: A Discursive History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei

    2003-01-01

    Examines the history of process and post-process in composition studies, focusing on ways in which terms, such as "current-traditional rhetoric,""process," and "post-process" have contributed to the discursive construction of reality. Argues that use of the term post-process in the context of second language writing needs to be guided by a…

  3. Managing Process Variants in the Process Life Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallerbach, A.; Bauer, Th.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    When designing process-aware information systems, often variants of the same process have to be specified. Each variant then constitutes an adjustment of a particular process to specific requirements building the process context. Current Business Process Management (BPM) tools do not adequately supp

  4. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Bergstra; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization of the notion of an ACP process algebra to processes in which data are involved. In meadow enriched ACP process algebras, the mathematical structure for data is a meadow.

  5. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    knowledge to the point of care in a proactive manner. Attention has been on the translation of guidelines and the integration with the elec-tronic medical record (EMR). Less attention has been paid to the evaluation of clinical practice in relation to clinical guide-lines. I claim that single patient cases......, generalized processes de-ducted from many patient cases and clinical guidelines, are all guidelines that may be used in clinical reasoning. The differ-ence is the validity of the suggested actions and decisions. In the case of generalized processes deducted from EMRs, we have "what we usually do" practice i......Ideally, clinical guidelines are created from evidence based medicine. Translating the narrative semi-structured article for-mat of the clinical guidelines into a computable language makes it possible to utilize this information in IT-supported clinical reasoning, and thereby bring the relevant...

  6. Youpi: YOUr processing PIpeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerville, Mathias; Sémah, Gregory

    2012-03-01

    Youpi is a portable, easy to use web application providing high level functionalities to perform data reduction on scientific FITS images. Built on top of various open source reduction tools released to the community by TERAPIX (http://terapix.iap.fr), Youpi can help organize data, manage processing jobs on a computer cluster in real time (using Condor) and facilitate teamwork by allowing fine-grain sharing of results and data. Youpi is modular and comes with plugins which perform, from within a browser, various processing tasks such as evaluating the quality of incoming images (using the QualityFITS software package), computing astrometric and photometric solutions (using SCAMP), resampling and co-adding FITS images (using SWarp) and extracting sources and building source catalogues from astronomical images (using SExtractor). Youpi is useful for small to medium-sized data reduction projects; it is free and is published under the GNU General Public License.

  7. Integral Politics as Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Atlee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the definition proposed here, integral politics can be a process of integrating diverse perspectives into wholesome guidance for a community or society. Characteristics that follow from this definition have ramifications for understanding what such political processes involve. Politics becomes integral as it transcends partisan battle and nurtures generative conversation toward the common good. Problems, conflicts and crises become opportunities for new (or renewed social coherence. Conversational methodologies abound that can help citizen awareness temporarily expand during policy-making, thus helping raise society’s manifested developmental stage. Convening archetypal stakeholders or randomly selected citizens in conversations designed to engage the broader public enhances democratic legitimacy. With minimal issue- and candidate-advocacy, integral political leaders would develop society’s capacity to use integral conversational tools to improve its health, resilience, and collective intelligence. This both furthers and manifests evolution becoming conscious of itself.

  8. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... as a major neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The tissue-specific expression of the hormones is regulated at the transcriptional level, but the posttranslational phase is also decisive and is highly complex in order to ensure accurate maturation of the prohormones in a cell...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed...

  9. Speech processing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1990-05-01

    Speech processing standards are given for 64, 32, 16 kb/s and lower rate speech and more generally, speech-band signals which are or will be promulgated by CCITT and NATO. The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) of the International body which deals, among other things, with speech processing within the context of ISDN. Within NATO there are also bodies promulgating standards which make interoperability, possible without complex and expensive interfaces. Some of the applications for low-bit rate voice and the related work undertaken by CCITT Study Groups which are responsible for developing standards in terms of encoding algorithms, codec design objectives as well as standards on the assessment of speech quality, are highlighted.

  10. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  11. PREFACE: Quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall

    2006-05-01

    Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.

  12. Nested Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, John; Wang, Chong; Blei, David M; Jordan, Michael I

    2015-02-01

    We develop a nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) for hierarchical topic modeling. The nHDP generalizes the nested Chinese restaurant process (nCRP) to allow each word to follow its own path to a topic node according to a per-document distribution over the paths on a shared tree. This alleviates the rigid, single-path formulation assumed by the nCRP, allowing documents to easily express complex thematic borrowings. We derive a stochastic variational inference algorithm for the model, which enables efficient inference for massive collections of text documents. We demonstrate our algorithm on 1.8 million documents from The New York Times and 2.7 million documents from Wikipedia. PMID:26353240

  13. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design...... engaging user experiences, this study investigates one dimension of player engagement by empirically identifying the components associated with the desire to continue playing. Based on a description of the characteristics of player engagement, a series of surveys were developed to discover the components......, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  14. Processing of Video Records

    OpenAIRE

    Čerešňák, Michal

    2013-01-01

    V této práci je prezentován systém pro zpracování videa se zaměřením na detekci a rozeznávání obličejů. Systém zpracovává video stream z kamery v reálném čase. K detekci obličejů využívá ViolaJones detektor. Pro rozeznávání obličejů je použita metoda SURF. Systém je implementován v jazyce C# a využívá knihovnu OpenCV a Emgu CV wrapper. This thesis presents a system for video processing focused on face detection and recognition. This system processes a video stream from camer...

  15. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  16. Yeast nuclear RNA processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Bernstein; Eric; A; Toth

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear RNA processing requires dynamic and intricately regulated machinery composed of multiple enzymes and their cofactors.In this review,we summarize recent experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system that have yielded important insights regarding the conversion of pre-RNAs to functional RNAs,and the elimination of aberrant RNAs and unneeded intermediates from the nuclear RNA pool.Much progress has been made recently in describing the 3D structure of many elements of the nuclear degradation machinery and its cofactors.Similarly,the regulatory mechanisms that govern RNA processing are gradually coming into focus.Such advances invariably generate many new questions,which we highlight in this review.

  17. Instabilities in sensory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  18. Thin film interconnect processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Farid

    Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

  19. Improving staff selection processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerinus, Marie; Shannon, Marina

    2014-11-11

    This article, the second in a series of articles on Leading Better Care, describes the actions undertaken in recent years in NHS Lanarkshire to improve selection processes for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) posts. This is an area of significant interest to these professions, management colleagues and patients given the pivotal importance of NMAHPs to patient care and experience. In recent times the importance of selecting staff not only with the right qualifications but also with the right attributes has been highlighted to ensure patients are well cared for in a safe, effective and compassionate manner. The article focuses on NMAHP selection processes, tracking local, collaborative development work undertaken to date. It presents an overview of some of the work being implemented, highlights a range of important factors, outlines how evaluation is progressing and concludes by recommending further empirical research.

  20. Soft Pion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Y.

    1968-01-01

    My talk is concerned with a review, not necessarily of the latest theoretical developments, but rather of an old idea which has contributed to recent theoretical activities. By soft pion processes I mean processes in which low energy pions are emitted or absorbed or scattered, just as we use the word soft photon in a similar context. Speaking more quantitatively, we may call a pion soft if its energy is small compared to a natural scale in the reaction. This scale is determined by the particular dynamics of pion interaction, and one may roughly say that a pion is soft if its energy is small compared to the energies of the other individual particles that participate in the reaction. It is important to note at this point that pion is by far the lightest member of all the hadrons, and much of the success of the soft pion formulas depends on this fact.

  1. Plutonium dissolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  2. Attentional processes and meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Holley S; Adair, Kathryn C

    2010-12-01

    Visual attentional processing was examined in adult meditators and non-meditators on behavioral measures of change blindness, concentration, perspective-shifting, selective attention, and sustained inattentional blindness. Results showed that meditators (1) noticed more changes in flickering scenes and noticed them more quickly, (2) counted more accurately in a challenging concentration task, (3) identified a greater number of alternative perspectives in multiple perspectives images, and (4) showed less interference from invalid cues in a visual selective attention task, but (5) did not differ on a measure of sustained inattentional blindness. Together, results show that regular meditation is associated with more accurate, efficient, and flexible visual attentional processing across diverse tasks that have high face validity outside of the laboratory. Furthermore, effects were assessed in a context separate from actual meditation practice, suggesting that meditators' better visual attention is not just immediate, but extends to contexts separate from meditation practice.

  3. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it. PMID:26571974

  4. A Logical Process Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  5. Process gas solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for withdrawing gaseous UF6 from a first system and directing same into a second system for converting the gas to liquid UF6 at an elevated temperature, additionally including the step of withdrawing the resulting liquid UF6 from the second system, subjecting it to a specified sequence of flash-evaporation, cooling and solidification operations, and storing it as a solid in a plurality of storage vessels. (author)

  6. Business processes optimization possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreva, Elizabeta; Taskov, Nako; Filiposki, Oliver; Boskov, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model and opportunities for better performance, greater efficiency and effectiveness of companies, through optimization of the business processes, change of corporate culture and manners of taking full advantage of the business potential. The benefits of implementation of this model not only increase business results of companies and will continue to serve as the driving force for a continuous improvement, but also increasing the commitment of the top management and...

  7. A catalytic cracking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degnan, T.F.; Helton, T.E.

    1995-07-20

    Heavy oils are subjected to catalytic cracking in the absence of added hydrogen using a catalyst containing a zeolite having the structure of ZSM-12 and a large-pore crystalline zeolite having a Constraint Index less than about 1. The process is able to effect a bulk conversion of the oil at the same time yielding a higher octane gasoline and increased light olefin content. (author)

  8. Disability and Identity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Garzón D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a reflection about the Disabilitylike a human phenomenon, which needsnot only new definitions if not a criticism pointof view as a Concept, with the end of indicaterepresentations forms not only for people withdisabilities if not for the citizens in general.Considers discourses that identify argumentsfrom social sciences, appearing the Disabilitylike a differentiate condition between humanbeings, mainly for an exclusion process that announcesocial behaviors in relations with thepersons with disabilities.

  9. Exact Numerical Processing

    OpenAIRE

    García Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Mora Mora, Higinio

    2003-01-01

    A model of an exact arithmetic processing is presented. We describe a representation format that gives us a greater expressive capability and covers a wider numerical set. The rational numbers are represented by means of fractional notation and explicit codification of its periodic part. We also give a brief description of exact arithmetic operations on the proposed format. This model constitutes a good alternative for the symbolic arithmetic, in special when numerical exact values are requir...

  10. Karst processes and time

    OpenAIRE

    Bosák, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Karst evolution depends particularly on the time available for process evolution and on the geographical and geological conditions of the exposure of the rock. The longer the time, the higher the hydraulic gradient and the larger the amount of solvent water entering the karst system, the more evolved is the karst. In general, stratigraphic discontinuities directly influence the intensity and extent of karstification. Unconformities influence the stratigraphy of the karst through the time-span...

  11. The Thermox Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thermox process is a process developed by AB Atomenergi for the decladding and dissolution of irradiated Zircaloy-2 clad uranium dioxide fuel elements and consists of the following stages: 1. Decladding by means of thermal oxidation of the Zircaloy-2 with oxygen and water vapour at 825 C using nitrogen as a catalyst. 2. Oxidation of the uranium dioxide pellets with air and oxygen to U3O8 at a temperature of 450 - 650 C. 3. Dissolving and leaching the uranium oxides with dilute nitric acid leaving the insoluble zirconium oxide as a residue. 4. Filtering the solution and washing the residues of the cladding. The work has included the following parts; The laboratory scale investigation of the conditions for the oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in various gas mixtures and of the conditions for oxidizing and dissolving sintered UO2 pellets; The development on a pilot plant scale of suitable apparatus and process techniques for the safe and reproducible treatment of half length inactive fuel elements; Studies of some special operation and handling problems, which have to be solved before the method can be applied in full scale. Five half length fuel elements have been treated, and the results have been satisfactory. The pilot plant experiments have proved that inactive fuel elements can be decanned, oxidized and dissolved by means of the Thermox process. Solutions and canning residues are easy to filter, separate, and handle and are free from corroding agents. The uranium losses can be kept very low. The zirconium dioxide is obtained in a form suitable for permanent disposal

  12. Topology and mental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, H

    2000-08-01

    The study reported here considers the effect of rotation on the decision time taken to compare nonrigid objects, presented as like and unlike pairs of knots and unknots. The results for 48 subjects, 21 to 45 years old, support the notion that images which have a characteristic 'foundation part' are more easily stored and accessed in the brain. Also, there is evidence that the comparison of deformable objects is processed by mental strategies other than self-evident mental rotation.

  13. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the pr...

  14. Thermal radiation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaastra, J. S.; Paerels, F.; Durret, F; S. Schindler; Richter, P.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the different physical processes that are important to understand the thermal X-ray emission and absorption spectra of the diffuse gas in clusters of galaxies and the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The ionisation balance, line and continuum emission and absorption properties are reviewed and several practical examples are given that illustrate the most important diagnostic features in the X-ray spectra.

  15. Image processing occupancy sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  16. Field Geology/Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Carlton C.; Jakeš, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Moses, Stewart; Marshall, John; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    The field geology/processes group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. We determined four basic requirements for robotic field geology: geologic context, surface vision, mobility, and manipulation. Geologic context requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for u...

  17. Fastdata processing with Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Karau, Holden

    2013-01-01

    This book will be a basic, step-by-step tutorial, which will help readers take advantage of all that Spark has to offer.Fastdata Processing with Spark is for software developers who want to learn how to write distributed programs with Spark. It will help developers who have had problems that were too much to be dealt with on a single computer. No previous experience with distributed programming is necessary. This book assumes knowledge of either Java, Scala, or Python.

  18. Lie detection: Cognitive Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Street, C. N. H.

    2013-01-01

    How do we make decisions when we are uncertain? In more real-world settings there is often a vast array of information available to guide the decision, from an understanding of the social situation, to prior beliefs and experience, to information available in the current environment. Yet much of the research into uncertain decision-making has typically studied the process by isolating it from this rich source of information that decision-makers usually have available to them. This thesis take...

  19. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, B. C., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  20. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, B

    1998-08-05

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area. Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to precision cuts in composites are possible by using this technology. For material removal at reasonable rates, we have developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  1. Sustainable friendly processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the sustainability approach and the organic agriculture movement is made. Organic agriculture and processors of organic foods had the focus in developing new (innovative) production methods – sustainability strategies were more focussing on improving/adjusting already existing production technologies. Today it is more likely to find a convergence between sustainability strategies and organic strategies in organic agriculture and food processing. But basically the strategies em...

  2. Radiation processing in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungary has 10.7 million population in 100,000 km2 territory. The gross national product is about $3,000 per capita per year. Hungary is a country with highly developed agriculture and medium degree developed industries. The Hungarian economy is an open economy because more than 40% of the national income is earned by export. The research and development works on various radiation processing have been performed for 25 years. In the Central Research Institute for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, a laboratory was organized for the basic research of radiation chemistry and the moderator materials for nuclear reactors. Also the activities in the Central Research Institute for Chemistry, the Institute of Isotopes, the Research Institute for Plastics Industry, and the Central Research Institute for Food Industry are briefly reported. The largest radiation processing unit in Hungary is the automatic sterilization plant of Medicor Works in Debrecen with 350 kCi Co-60 source. The second important field of radiation processing is the irradiation of foods and agricultural products, and the radiation unit with 150 kCi Co-60 source is in the Central Research Institute for Food Industry. Radiation cross-linked polyethylene production, the production of wood-unsaturated polyester composite and enzyme immobilization are performed. (Kako, I.)

  3. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  4. Process measuring techniques; Prozessmesstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberger, A.

    2000-07-01

    This introduction into measurement techniques for chemical and process-technical plant in science and industry describes in detail the methods used to measure basic quantities. Most prominent are modern measuring techniques by means of ultrasound, microwaves and the Coriolis effect. Alongside physical and measuring technique fundamentals, the practical applications of measuring devices are described. Calculation examples are given to illustrate the subject matter. The book addresses students of physical engineering, process engineering and environmental engineering at technical schools as well as engineers of other disciplines wishing to familiarize themselves with the subject of process measurement techniques. (orig.) [German] Diese Einfuehrung in die Messtechnik fuer chemische und verfahrens-technische Forschungs- und Produktionsanlagen beschreibt ausfuehrlich die Methoden zur Messung der Basisgroessen. Moderne Messverfahren mit Ultraschall, Mikrowellen und Coriolis-Effekt stehen dabei im Vordergrund. Beruecksichtigung finden sowohl die physikalischen und messtechnischen Grundlagen als auch die praktischen Anwendungen der Geraete. Berechnungsbeispiele dienen der Erlaeuterung und Vertiefung des Stoffes. Angesprochen sind Studenten der Ingenieurstufengaenge Physikalische Technik und Verfahrens- und Umwelttechnik an Fachhochschulen als auch Ingenieure anderer Fachrichtungen, die sich in das Gebiet der Prozessmesstechnik einarbeiten wollen. (orig.)

  5. Laser processing of materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Dutta Majumdar; I Manna

    2003-06-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) is a coherent and monochromatic beam of electromagnetic radiation that can propagate in a straight line with negligible divergence and occur in a wide range of wavelength, energy/power and beam-modes/configurations. As a result, lasers find wide applications in the mundane to the most sophisticated devices, in commercial to purely scientific purposes, and in life-saving as well as life-threatening causes. In the present contribution, we provide an overview of the application of lasers for material processing. The processes covered are broadly divided into four major categories; namely, laser-assisted forming, joining, machining and surface engineering. Apart from briefly introducing the fundamentals of these operations, we present an updated review of the relevant literature to highlight the recent advances and open questions. We begin our discussion with the general applications of lasers, fundamentals of laser-matter interaction and classification of laser material processing. A major part of the discussion focuses on laser surface engineering that has attracted a good deal of attention from the scientific community for its technological significance and scientific challenges. In this regard, a special mention is made about laser surface vitrification or amorphization that remains a very attractive but unaccomplished proposition.

  6. Processing of lateritic ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly weathered or lateritic ores that contain high proportions of fine clay minerals present specific problems when they are processed to extract uranium. Of perhaps the greatest significance is the potential of the fine minerals to adsorb dissolved uranium (preg-robbing) from leach liquors produced by processing laterites or blends of laterite and primary ores. These losses can amount to 25% of the readily soluble uranium. The clay components can also restrict practical slurry densities to relatively low values in order to avoid rheology problems in pumping and agitation. The fine fractions also contribute to relatively poor solid-liquid separation characteristics in settling and/or filtration. Studies at ANSTO have characterised the minerals believed to be responsible for these problems and quantified the effects of the fines in these types of ores. Processing strategies were also examined, including roasting, resin-in-leach and separate leaching of the laterite fines to overcome potential problems. The incorporation of the preferred treatment option into an existing mill circuit is discussed. (author)

  7. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  8. Spacelab Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Edward J.; Gaskins, Roger B.

    1982-02-01

    Spacelab (SL) ground processing is active at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The palletized payload for the second Shuttle launch is staged and integrated with interface verification active. The SL Engineering Model is being assembled for subsequent test and checkout activities. After delivery of SL flight elements from Europe, prelaunch operations for the first SL flight start with receipt of the flight experiment packages and staging of the SL hardware. Experiment operations consist of integrating the various experiment elements into the SL racks, floors and pallets. Rack and floor assemblies with the experiments installed, are integrated into the flight module. Aft end-cone installation, pallet connections, and SL subsystems interface verifications are accomplished, and SL-Orbiter interfaces verified. The Spacelab cargo is then transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) in a controlled environment using a canister/transporter. After the SL is installed into the Orbiter payload bay, physical and functional integrity of all payload-to-Orbiter interfaces are verified and final close-out operations conducted. Spacelab payload activities at the launch pad are minimal with the payload bay doors remaining closed. Limited access is available to the module through the Spacelab Transfer Tunnel. After mission completion, the SL is removed from the Orbiter in the OPF and returned to the SL processing facility for experiment equipment removal and reconfiguration for the subsequent mission.

  9. Multivariate Statistical Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control (SPC) and monitoring for which the aim is to iden......As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control (SPC) and monitoring for which the aim...... is to identify “out-of-control” state of a process using control charts in order to reduce the excessive variation caused by so-called assignable causes. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through a statistic akin to the Hotelling’s T2. For high dimensional data with excessive...... in conjunction with image data are plagued with various challenges beyond the usual ones encountered in current applications. In this presentation we will introduce the basic ideas of SPC and the multivariate control charts commonly used in industry. We will further discuss the challenges the practitioners...

  10. The Caroline interrogatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degagne, D. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gibson, T. [Gecko Management, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Using the specific case study of the Caroline interrogatory process, an example is given of how an effective communications and public involvement program can re-establish trust and credibility levels within an community after an incident. The public is nervous about sour gas, especially about blowouts of gas from a pipeline. The post-approval period was marked by high expectations and a community consultation program which included a community advisory board, an emergency planning committee, socio-economic factors, and environmental monitoring and studies. Information and education involves newspaper articles, newsletters, tours, public consultation meetings, and weekly e-mail. Mercury was detected as a potential hazard at the site, and company actions are illustrated. Overall lessons learned included: starting early paid off, face to face resident contacts were the most effective, the willingness to make changes was the key to success, the community helped, knowing all the answers is not essential, and there is a need for empathy. The interrogatory process includes a hybrid technique that is comprised of four stages: 1) process review and public input, 2) identification and clarification of issues, 3) responses by industry and government, and 4) a public forum and follow-up action.

  11. The Caroline interrogatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degagne, D. (Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)); Gibson, T. (Gecko Management, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    Using the specific case study of the Caroline interrogatory process, an example is given of how an effective communications and public involvement program can re-establish trust and credibility levels within an community after an incident. The public is nervous about sour gas, especially about blowouts of gas from a pipeline. The post-approval period was marked by high expectations and a community consultation program which included a community advisory board, an emergency planning committee, socio-economic factors, and environmental monitoring and studies. Information and education involves newspaper articles, newsletters, tours, public consultation meetings, and weekly e-mail. Mercury was detected as a potential hazard at the site, and company actions are illustrated. Overall lessons learned included: starting early paid off, face to face resident contacts were the most effective, the willingness to make changes was the key to success, the community helped, knowing all the answers is not essential, and there is a need for empathy. The interrogatory process includes a hybrid technique that is comprised of four stages: 1) process review and public input, 2) identification and clarification of issues, 3) responses by industry and government, and 4) a public forum and follow-up action.

  12. FCC resid processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper narrows the definition of reside processor to those FCC's which run feedstocks containing 1 wt.% or more Conradson carbon residue. With this new definition, the resid survey is revisited to see if any new conclusions can be drawn from the data. The authors break down the numbers and geography of resid processors, feed types, operating variables, and yields. After examining the state of resid processing in the FCC, the paper focuses on the design of cracking catalysts for handling resid feeds. There are important considerations involved in processing resid including high levels of contaminants such as vanadium and nickel, the impact on heat balance, and diffusion effects. Catalysts can be designed to improve the profitability of a resid operation. A clear picture of the roles of zeolite and matrix is presented, along with a discussion of the different types of zeoliters which are commonly used. The paper demonstrates how zeolite and matrix are best combined to meet objectives within a given set of constraints while processing resid

  13. Basic Social Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of grounded theory is to generate a theory that accounts for a pattern of behavior that is relevant and problematic for those involved. The goal is not voluminous description, nor clever verification. As with all grounded theory, the generation of a basic social process (BSP theory occurs around a core category. While a core category is always present in a grounded research study, a BSP may not be.BSPs are ideally suited to generation by grounded theory from qualitative research because qualitative research can pick up process through fieldwork that continues over a period of time. BSPs are a delight to discover and formulate since they give so much movement and scope to the analyst’s perception of the data. BSPs such as cultivating, defaulting, centering, highlighting or becoming, give the feeling of process, change and movement over time. They also have clear, amazing general implications; so much so, that it is hard to contain them within the confines of a single substantive study. The tendency is to refer to them as a formal theory without the necessary comparative development of formal theory. They are labeled by a “gerund”(“ing” which both stimulates their generation and the tendency to over-generalize them.

  14. Priority in Process Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.

  15. The Process Design Courses at Pennsylvania: Impact of Process Simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Warren D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the use and impact of process design simulators in process design courses. Discusses topics covered, texts used, computer design simulations, and how they are integrated into the process survey course as well as in plant design projects. (JM)

  16. Fundamentals of process intensification: A process systems engineering view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Sales Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the fundamentals of process intensification from a process systems engineering point of view. The concept of process intensification, including process integration, is explained together with the drivers for applying process intensification, which can be achieved...... at different scales of size, that is, the unit operation scale, the task scale, and the phenomena scale. The roles of process intensification with respect to process improvements and the generation of more sustainable process designs are discussed and questions related to when to apply process intensification...... and how to apply process intensification are answered through illustrative examples. The main issues and needs for generation of more sustainable process alternatives through process intensification are discussed in terms of the need for a systematic computer-aided framework and the methods and tools...

  17. Innovation process management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pałucha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of the article is to present selected problems of innovation management. Indication of the growing interdisciplinary and the complexity of that issue and requirement of having an extensive knowledge from the scope of the management. The other purpose is a synthetic presentation of differences in approach to managing innovations.The additional purpose is to present benefits which are the effect of efficient managing innovations. They are described based on examining processes of preparing the production. The topicality of the subject matter results from the fact that it is projecting to a considerable degree onto the competitiveness of businesses. However the large variability is forcing surroundings to seek organizational new solutions.Design/methodology/approach: For the need of achieving presented purposes, studies on literature concerning managing innovations were undertaken. Special attention was paid to development processes of new releases. At the same time in chosen manufacturing companies they conducted pilot researches (interviews, conversations with the technical divisions’ management staff. Those researches enabled to recognize approaches toward the discussed subject matter as well as to find out solutions applied in processes of preparing the production and effects obtained from this title.Findings: Studies on literature are showing that there is a number of innovation management models as well as of managing development processes of new releases. It is explicitly hard to show better solutions and to recommend them for individual enterprises. All of them have the determined merits and demerits. They are reweighing demand-induced models. A complexity of suggested solutions grows. Examined enterprises apply own models embracing outside organizations, stakeholders and consumers more and more often. At the same moment they require a modern organization.Research limitations/implications: The preliminary findings introduced in

  18. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel cycle work included hydraulic performance and extraction efficiency of eight-stage centrifugal contactors, flowsheet for the Aralex process, Ru and Zr extraction in a miniature centrifugal contactor, study of Zr aging in the organic phase and its effect on Zr extraction and hydraulic testing of the 9-cm-ID contactor. Work for predicting accident consequences in LWR fuel processing covered the relation between energy input (to subdivide a solid) and the modes of particle size frequency distribution. In the pyrochemical and dry processing program corrosion-testing materials for containment vessels and equipment for studying carbide reactions in bismuth is under way. Analytical studies have been made of salt-transport processes; efforts to spin tungsten crucibles 13 cm dia continue, and other information on tungsten fabrication is being assembled; the process steps of the chloride volatility process have been demonstrated and the thoria powder product used to produce oxide pellets; solubility of UO/sub 2/, PuO/sub 2/, and fission products in molten alkali nitrates is being investigated; work was continued on reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting the actinides into ammonium chloroaluminate from bismuth; the preparation of thorium-uranium carbide from the oxide is being studied as a means of improving the oxide reactivity; studies are in progress on producing uranium metal and decontaminated ThO/sub 2/ by the reaction of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in molten salts containing ThCl/sub 4/ and thorium metal chips. In the molten tin process, no basic thermodynamic or kinetic factors have been found that may limit process development.

  19. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AS THE METHOD OF PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    O. Honcharova

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of process management approach. The main understanding of process management approach has been researched in the article. The definition of process and process management has been given. Also the methods of business process improvement has been analyzed, among them are fast-analysis solution technology (FAST), benchmarking, reprojecting and reengineering. The main results of using business process improvement have been described in figures of reducing cy...

  20. CONVERGENCE TO PROCESS ORGANIZATION BY MODEL OF PROCESS MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Piuković Babičković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With modern business process orientation binds primarily, process of thinking and process organizational structure. Although the business processes are increasingly a matter of writing and speaking, it is a major problem among the business world, especially in countries in transition, where it has been found that there is a lack of understanding of the concept of business process management. The aim of this paper is to give a specific contribution to overcoming the identified problem, by pointing out the significance of the concept of business process management, as well as the representation of the model for review of process maturity and tools that are recommended for use in process management.

  1. Time processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marinella eCappelletti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To test whether atypical number development may affect other types of quantity processing, we investigated temporal discrimination in adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. This also allowed us to test whether (1 number and time may be sub-served by a common quantity system or decision mechanisms –in which case they may both be impaired, or (2 whether number and time are distinct –and therefore they may dissociate. Participants judged which of two successively presented horizontal lines was longer in duration, the first line being preceded by either a small or a large number prime (‘1’ or ‘9’ or by a neutral symbol (‘#’, or in third task decide which of two Arabic numbers (either ‘1’, ‘5’, ’9’ lasted longer. Results showed that (i DD’s temporal discriminability was normal as long as numbers were not part of the experimental design even as task-irrelevant stimuli; however (ii task-irrelevant numbers dramatically disrupted DD’s temporal discriminability, the more their salience increased, though the actual magnitude of the numbers had no effect; and in contrast (iii controls’ time perception was robust to the presence of numbers but modulated by numerical quantity such that small number primes or numerical stimuli made durations appear shorter than veridical and the opposite for larger numerical prime or numerical stimuli. This study is the first to investigate continuous quantity as time in a population with a congenital number impairment and to show that atypical development of numerical competence leaves continuous quantity processing spared. Our data support the idea of a partially shared quantity system across numerical and temporal dimensions, which allows dissociations and interactions among dimensions; furthermore, they suggest that impaired number in DD is unlikely to originate from systems initially dedicated to continuous quantity processing like time.

  2. Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Shibata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence, local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet, and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely, while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.

  3. Discovery as a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1994-05-01

    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  4. Coupled Diffusion Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章复熹

    2004-01-01

    @@ Coupled diffusion processes (or CDP for short) model the systems of molecular motors,which attract much interest from physicists and biologists in recent years[1,2,9,14,4,7,21]. The protein moves along a filament called the track, and it is crucial that there are several inner states of the protein and the underlying chemical reaction causes transitions among different inner states,while chemical energy can be converted to mechanical energy by rachet effects[5,3,2,14,12].

  5. Cascade hydrodewaxing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, J.H.

    1986-07-08

    A cascade catalytic hydrodewaxing process is described comprising: (a) passing a hydrocarbon feedstock containing waxy components selected from a group of normal paraffins and slightly branched chain paraffins over a hydroisomerization catalyst comprising a crystalline silicate zeolite having the structure of ZSM-12 in admixture with a crystalline silicate zeolite having the structure of ZSM-23, the admixture having hydrogenation/dehydrogenation activity to hydroisomerize the feedstock; and (b) passing at least a majority of the normally liquid hydrocarbon recovered from step (a) over a dewaxing catalyst comprising a crystalline silicate zeolite having a structure of ZSM-5, the zeolite of step (b) having hydrogenation/-dehydrogenation activity to dewax the recovered hydrocarbon.

  6. Hyperspectral image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the authors’ research, this book introduces the main processing techniques in hyperspectral imaging. In this context, SVM-based classification, distance comparison-based endmember extraction, SVM-based spectral unmixing, spatial attraction model-based sub-pixel mapping, and MAP/POCS-based super-resolution reconstruction are discussed in depth. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of these cutting-edge hyperspectral imaging techniques. Researchers and graduate students in fields such as remote sensing, surveying and mapping, geosciences and information systems will benefit from this valuable resource.

  7. Process Principle of Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高锋; 任君

    2006-01-01

    Ⅰ.IntroductionInformation structure is the organization modelof given and New information in the course ofinformation transmission.A discourse contains avariety of information and not all the informationlisted in the discourse is necessary and useful to us.When we decode a discourse,usually,we do not needto read every word in the discourse or text but skimor scan the discourse or text to search what we thinkis important or useful to us in the discourse as quicklyas possible.Ⅱ.Process Principles of Informati...

  8. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  9. Introduction to information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dietel, Harvey M

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Information Processing provides an informal introduction to the computer field. This book introduces computer hardware, which is the actual computing equipment.Organized into three parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of personal computing and includes detailed case studies on two of the most essential personal computers for the 1980s, namely, the IBM Personal Computer and Apple's Macintosh. This text then traces the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapte

  10. Computers and data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Computers and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the advances in the computer field. This book covers a variety of topics, including the computer hardware, computer programs or software, and computer applications systems.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of some of the fundamental computing concepts. This text then explores the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapters consider how computers present their results and explain the storage and retrieval of

  11. FHR Process Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  12. Entrepreneurship and Process Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel; Holt, Robin; Steyaert, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Process studies put movement, change and flow first; to study processually is to consider the world as restless, something underway, becoming and perishing, without end. To understand firms processually is to accept but also – and this is harder perhaps – to absorb this fluidity, to treat...... and potential of processual approaches to studying, researching and practising entrepreneurship. The articles in the issue attest to an increasing sensitivity to processual thinking. We argue that appreciating entrepreneurial phenomena processually opens up the field to an understanding of entrepreneurship...

  13. Investigating the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    /methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players...... to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory...

  14. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  15. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  16. Process for treating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Timothy J; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-11-04

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  17. Simpler radioactive wastewater processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José Canga; Luh, Volker

    2011-11-01

    José Canga Rodríguez, key account manager, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, EnviroChemie, and Volker Luh, CEO of EnviroDTS, describe the development, and recent successful application, of a new technology for dealing safely and effectively with the radioactive "wastewater" generated by patients who have undergone radiotherapy in nuclear medicine facilities. The BioChroma process provides what is reportedly not only a more flexible means than traditional "delay and decay" systems of dealing with this "by-product" of medical treatment, but also one that requires less plant space, affords less risk of leakage or cross-contamination, and is easier to install. PMID:22368885

  18. Medical image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This book is designed for end users in the field of digital imaging, who wish to update their skills and understanding with the latest techniques in image analysis. This book emphasizes the conceptual framework of image analysis and the effective use of image processing tools. It uses applications in a variety of fields to demonstrate and consolidate both specific and general concepts, and to build intuition, insight and understanding. Although the chapters are essentially self-contained they reference other chapters to form an integrated whole. Each chapter employs a pedagogical approach to e

  19. Simulation of Cavitation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jover Herrero, Álvaro

    2010-01-01

    Cavitation is the formation of empty cavities in a liquid by high forces and the immediate implosion of them. It occurs when a liquid is subjected to rapid changes of pressure causing the formation of cavities in the lower pressure regions of the liquid. Cavitation processes can produce high temperatures (10.000 ◦C) and pressures (1.000 atm) inside the bubbles and also generate micro jets produced by the asymmetric implosions of the bubbles. This phenomenon has been investigated duri...

  20. High processivity polymerases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamoo, Yousif; Sun, Siyang

    2014-06-10

    Chimeric proteins comprising a sequence nonspecific single-stranded nucleic-acid-binding domain joined to a catalytic nucleic-acid-modifying domain are provided. Methods comprising contacting a nucleic acid molecule with a chimeric protein, as well as systems comprising a nucleic acid molecule, a chimeric protein, and an aqueous solution are also provided. The joining of sequence nonspecific single-stranded nucleic-acid-binding domain and a catalytic nucleic-acid-modifying domain in chimeric proteins, among other things, may prevent the separation of the two domains due to their weak association and thereby enhances processivity while maintaining fidelity.

  1. Process for treating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-08-11

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  2. Process-based tolerance assessment of connecting rod machining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Surendra Babu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Process tolerancing based on the process capability studies is the optimistic and pragmatic approach of determining the manufacturing process tolerances. On adopting the define-measure-analyze-improve-control approach, the process potential capability index ( C p) and the process performance capability index ( C pk) values of identified process characteristics of connecting rod machining process are achieved to be greater than the industry benchmark of 1.33, i.e., four sigma level. The tolerance chain diagram methodology is applied to the connecting rod in order to verify the manufacturing process tolerances at various operations of the connecting rod manufacturing process. This paper bridges the gap between the existing dimensional tolerances obtained via tolerance charting and process capability studies of the connecting rod component. Finally, the process tolerancing comparison has been done by adopting a tolerance capability expert software.

  3. Multivariate Statistical Process Control Process Monitoring Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

      Given their key position in the process control industry, process monitoring techniques have been extensively investigated by industrial practitioners and academic control researchers. Multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) is one of the most popular data-based methods for process monitoring and is widely used in various industrial areas. Effective routines for process monitoring can help operators run industrial processes efficiently at the same time as maintaining high product quality. Multivariate Statistical Process Control reviews the developments and improvements that have been made to MSPC over the last decade, and goes on to propose a series of new MSPC-based approaches for complex process monitoring. These new methods are demonstrated in several case studies from the chemical, biological, and semiconductor industrial areas.   Control and process engineers, and academic researchers in the process monitoring, process control and fault detection and isolation (FDI) disciplines will be inter...

  4. Development of innovative iron making process, Hi-QIP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda Kanji [JFE Steel Corp. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The direct reduction smelting process of iron is explained based on the tasks in the conventional blast furnace process. Furthermore, Hi-QIP (High Quality Iron Pebble) method that is under development as a new iron making process from powdery iron ores and pulverized coal to metallic iron directly with respect to the principle, and the development status is explained. The Midrex process, the fusion reduction process, and the rotary hearth furnace method that supplement the blast furnace process are explained. The Hi-QIP process is a coal-based bed type reduction and melting process. The whole process is conducted in a rotary hearth of a furnace continuously. Tests are conducted to confirm the feasibility of the Hi-QIP process with a bench-scale furnace. A pilot plant has been constructed to verify the feasibility of the process with a continuous type large furnace. 3 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  6. Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Il

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Rewa...

  7. Aquarius Digital Processing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Joshua; Winkert, George; Dobson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Three documents provide information on a digital processing unit (DPU) for the planned Aquarius mission, in which a radiometer aboard a spacecraft orbiting Earth is to measure radiometric temperatures from which data on sea-surface salinity are to be deduced. The DPU is the interface between the radiometer and an instrument-command-and-data system aboard the spacecraft. The DPU cycles the radiometer through a programmable sequence of states, collects and processes all radiometric data, and collects all housekeeping data pertaining to operation of the radiometer. The documents summarize the DPU design, with emphasis on innovative aspects that include mainly the following: a) In the radiometer and the DPU, conversion from analog voltages to digital data is effected by means of asynchronous voltage-to-frequency converters in combination with a frequency-measurement scheme implemented in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). b) A scheme to compensate for aging and changes in the temperature of the DPU in order to provide an overall temperature-measurement accuracy within 0.01 K includes a high-precision, inexpensive DC temperature measurement scheme and a drift-compensation scheme that was used on the Cassini radar system. c) An interface among multiple FPGAs in the DPU guarantees setup and hold times.

  8. Ambiguity in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, G T

    1998-04-01

    As listeners and readers, we rarely notice the ambiguities that pervade our everyday language. When we hear the proverb `Time flies like an arrow' we might ponder its meaning, but not the fact that there are almost 100 grammatically permissible interpretations of this short sentence. On occasion, however, we do notice sentential ambiguity: headlines, such as `Two Sisters Reunited After 18 Years in Checkout Counter', are amusing because they so consistently lead to the unintended interpretation (presumably, the sisters did not spend 18 years at the checkout). It is this consistent preference for one interpretation-and one grammatical structure-rather than another that has fuelled research into sentence processing for more than 20 years. Until relatively recently, the dominant belief had been that these preferences arise from general principles that underlie our use of grammar, with certain grammatical constructions being preferred over others. There has now accrued, however, a considerable body of evidence demonstrating that these preferences are not absolute, but can change in particular circumstances. With this evidence have come new theories of sentence processing, some of which, at first glance, radically question the standard notions of linguistic representation, grammar and understanding.

  9. Hybrid microcircuit intraconnection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonham, H.B.

    1976-08-01

    Hybrid intraconnections join thin film networks and applique components into an electrically functional hybrid microcircuit (HMC). Applique components were intraconnected with thermocompression (TC) bonds to chromium/gold metallized thin film networks. The project determined critical processes, material parameters, quality criteria, and characterization techniques. The program began on July 1, 1970, and initial efforts consisted of organizing the development program and forecasting needed equipment and manpower. The total time schedule was then PERT-charted. Gold beam-lead devices, gold wire, and chromium/gold films had already been selected for these intraconnection technologies. Thermocompression bonding was developed to provide intraconnections between the HMC gold conductor metallization and gold beam-lead active devices, gold plated external leads, and gold terminated applique devices, such as capacitors. An optimum combination of bonding parameters based on the fundamental physics of the process was developed. This philosophy required bonding equipment to be thoroughly characterized so that the value of bonding parameters (such as force and temperature) indicated on the bonder could be translated into measurable values of the force and temperature within the bond zone.

  10. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  11. Grants Process Overview Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the steps in the National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute Grants Process. The graphic shows which steps are done by the Principle Investigator, Grantee Institution, and by NIH. The process is represented by a circular flow of steps. Starting from the top and reading clockwise: The Principle Investigator “Initiates Research Idea and Prepares Application” The Grantee Institution “Submits Application” NIH “NIH Center For Scientific Review, Assigns To NCI And To Study Section” NIH “Scientific Review Group (NCI OR CSR) Evaluates for Scientific Merit” NIH “National Cancer Advisory Board Recommends Action” NIH “NCI Evaluates Program Relevance And Need” NIH “NCI Makes Funding Selections And Issues Grant Awards” (NIH) NIH “NCI Monitors Programmatic and Business Management Performance of the Grant” The Grantee Institution “Manages Funds” The Principle Investigator “Conducts Research” Source: www.cancer.gov Icons made by Freepik from http://www.flaticon.com is licensed by CC BY3.0”

  12. Hot rolling joining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of incorporating nonferrous metal equipment in fuel reprocessing processes, from the viewpoint of reducing maintenance works for the piping connection to peripheral equipments, it is desirable to adopt the pipe joints of joining the materials of different kinds, which have the high reliability against leakage. In order to meet this demand, the development of the manufacturing technology of the pipe joints by hot rolling process has been carried out. As for the structure of this pipe joint, a small diameter nonferrous metal pipe and a large diameter stainless steel pipe are joined by hot rolling by using an inserted material. The materials are Ti-5% Ta, Ti and Zr for the nonferrous metals, SUS 304L for the stainless steel, and Ta foil for the inserted material. The merits and demerits of this pipe joints are shown. The control of the interface structure in the joining of different materials was carried out by using the inserted material. The method of manufacturing the pipe joints and the proper conditions of the rolling joining are explained. As for the performance of the pipe joints, the evaluations of the defects in the joining interface, the strength of the joining, the corrosion resistance and the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Multidimensional diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Stroock, Daniel W

    1997-01-01

    From the reviews: "… Both the Markov-process approach and the Itô approach … have been immensely successful in diffusion theory. The Stroock-Varadhan book, developed from the historic 1969 papers by its authors, presents the martingale-problem approach as a more powerful - and, in certain regards, more intrinsic-means of studying the foundations of the subject. […] … the authors make the uncompromising decision not "to proselytise by intimidating the reader with myriad examples demonstrating the full scope of the techniques", but rather to persuade the reader "with a careful treatment of just one problem to which they apply". […] Most of the main tools of stochastic-processes theory are used, ..but it is the formidable combination of probability theory with analysis … which is the core of the work. […] I have emphasized the great importance of the Stroock-Varadhan book. It contains a lot more than I have indicated; in particular, its many exercises conain much interesting material. For immediat...

  14. Mastering the diesel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antila, E.; Kaario, O.; Lahtinen, T. (and others)

    2004-07-01

    This is the final report of the research project 'Mastering the Diesel Process'. The project has been a joint research effort of the Helsinki University of Technology, the Tampere University of Technology, the Technical Research Centre of Finland, and the Aabo Akademi University. Moreover, the contribution of the Michigan Technological University has been important. The project 'Mastering the Diesel Process' has been a computational research project on the physical phenomena of diesel combustion. The theoretical basis of the project lies on computational fluid dynamics. Various submodels for computational fluid dynamics have been developed or tested within engine simulation. Various model combinations in three diesel engines of different sizes have been studied. The most important submodels comprise fuel spray drop breakup, fuel evaporation, gas-fuel interaction in the spray, mixing model of combustion, heat transfer, emission mechanisms. The boundary conditions and flow field modelling have been studied, as well. The main simulation tool have been Star-CD. KIVA code have been used in the model development, as well. By the help of simulation, we are able to investigate the effect of various design parameters or operational parameters on diesel combustion and emission formation. (orig.)

  15. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  16. Mindfulness and psychological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J Mark G

    2010-02-01

    The author reviews the articles in the Special Section on Mindfulness, starting from the assumption that emotions evolved as signaling systems that need to be sensitive to environmental contingencies. Failure to switch off emotion is due to the activation of mental representations of present, past, and future that are created independently of external contingencies. Mindfulness training can be seen as one way to teach people to discriminate such "simulations" from objects and contingencies as they actually are. The articles in this Special Section show how even brief laboratory training can have effects on processing affective stimuli; that long-term meditation practitioners show distinct reactions to pain; that longer meditation training is associated with differences in brain structure; that 8 weeks' mindfulness practice brings about changes in the way emotion is processed showing that participants can learn to uncouple the sensory, directly experienced self from the "narrative" self; that mindfulness training can affect working memory capacity, and enhance the ability of participants to talk about past crises in a way that enables them to remain specific and yet not be overwhelmed. The implications of these findings for understanding emotion and for further research is discussed.

  17. Turbulence and Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celani, Antonio; Mazzino, Andrea; Pumir, Alain

    sec:08-1In 1931 the monograph Analytical Methods in Probability Theory appeared, in which A.N. Kolmogorov laid the foundations for the modern theory of Markov processes [1]. According to Gnedenko: "In the history of probability theory it is difficult to find other works that changed the established points of view and basic trends in research work in such a decisive way". Ten years later, his article on fully developed turbulence provided the framework within which most, if not all, of the subsequent theoretical investigations have been conducted [2] (see e.g. the review by Biferale et al. in this volume [3]. Remarkably, the greatest advances made in the last few years towards a thorough understanding of turbulence developed from the successful marriage between the theory of stochastic processes and the phenomenology of turbulent transport of scalar fields. In this article we will summarize these recent developments which expose the direct link between the intermittency of transported fields and the statistical properties of particle trajectories advected by the turbulent flow (see also [4], and, for a more thorough review, [5]. We also discuss the perspectives of the Lagrangian approach beyond passive scalars, especially for the modeling of hydrodynamic turbulence.

  18. [In Process Citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böthin, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The discussion on systematization and methodology combined with the question of state interference and professional political interests accompanies the beginning of Continuing Medical Education (CME) until today. The development of CME for the period 1871 to 1945 shows a process of systematization regarding organizational, administrational and structural level with participation of government and medical professional policies. In the time of the German Empire the foundation for a structured CME was created by establishing a system of charge free and decentralized training courses. For the first time, thought was given to distinguish different types of medical education. During the period of the Weimar Republic the structure of decentralized CME was supported by developing new teaching and learning methods. The medical professional representatives refused any state participation except financial assistance. In the Nazi era CME was brought into line of Nazi ideology concerning structure, organization and administration. CME obligations were mandatory for all physicians and trained them on Nazi ideology especially. CME as a lifelong process centrally guided in combination with decentralized structures is an appropriate way for offering training to all physicians. State support is important and necessary, but shaping the contents should be a duty of the professional associations of Physicians. The quality of patient care is no longer complied as soon as the aspect of cost-efficiency is transformed into a pressure factor concerning political interests and social insurance. PMID:26790195

  19. [In Process Citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böthin, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The discussion on systematization and methodology combined with the question of state interference and professional political interests accompanies the beginning of Continuing Medical Education (CME) until today. The development of CME for the period 1871 to 1945 shows a process of systematization regarding organizational, administrational and structural level with participation of government and medical professional policies. In the time of the German Empire the foundation for a structured CME was created by establishing a system of charge free and decentralized training courses. For the first time, thought was given to distinguish different types of medical education. During the period of the Weimar Republic the structure of decentralized CME was supported by developing new teaching and learning methods. The medical professional representatives refused any state participation except financial assistance. In the Nazi era CME was brought into line of Nazi ideology concerning structure, organization and administration. CME obligations were mandatory for all physicians and trained them on Nazi ideology especially. CME as a lifelong process centrally guided in combination with decentralized structures is an appropriate way for offering training to all physicians. State support is important and necessary, but shaping the contents should be a duty of the professional associations of Physicians. The quality of patient care is no longer complied as soon as the aspect of cost-efficiency is transformed into a pressure factor concerning political interests and social insurance.

  20. NANOSCALE PROCESS ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qixiang Wang; Fei Wei

    2003-01-01

    The research of nanoscale process engineering (NPE) is based on the interdisciplinary nature of nanoscale science and technology. It mainly deals with transformation of materials and energy into nanostructured materials and nanodevices, and synergizes the multidisciplinary convergence between materials science and technology, biotechnology, and information technology. The core technologies of NPE concern all aspects of nanodevice construction and operation, such as manufacture of nanomaterials "by design", concepts and design of nanoarchitectures, and manufacture and control of customizable nanodevices. Two main targets of NPE at present are focused on nanoscale manufacture and concept design of nanodevices. The research progress of nanoscale manufacturing processes focused on creating nanostructures and assembling them into nanosystems and larger scale architectures has built the interdiscipline of NPE. The concepts and design of smart, multi-functional, environmentally compatible and customizable nanodevice prototypes built from the nanostructured systems of nanocrystalline, nanoporous and microemulsion systems are most challenging tasks of NPE. The development of NPE may also impel us to consider the curriculum and educational reform of chemical engineering in universities.

  1. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  2. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert M.

    2004-07-01

    Industrial process tomography remains a multidisciplinary field with considerable interest for many varied participants. Indeed this adds greatly to its appeal. It is a pleasure and a privilege to once again act as guest editor for a special feature issue of Measurement Science and Technology on industrial process tomography, the last being in December 2002. Those involved in the subject appreciate the efforts of Measurement Science and Technology in producing another issue and I thank the journal on their behalf. It can be seen that there are considerable differences in the composition of material covered in this issue compared with previous publications. The dominance of electrical impedance and electrical capacitance techniques is reduced and there is increased emphasis on general utility of tomographic methods. This is encompassed in the papers of Hoyle and Jia (visualization) and Dierick et al (Octopus). Electrical capacitance tomography has been a core modality for industrial applications. This issue includes new work in two very interesting aspects of image reconstruction: pattern matching (Takei and Saito) and simulated annealing (Ortiz-Aleman et al). It is important to take advantage of knowledge of the process such as the presence of only two components, and then to have robust reconstruction methods provided by pattern matching and by simulated annealing. Although crude reconstruction methods such as approximation by linear back projection were utilized for initial work on electrical impedance tomography, the techniques published here are much more advanced. The paper by Kim et al includes modelling of a two-component system permitting an adaption-related approach; the paper by Tossavainen et al models free surface boundaries to enable the estimation of shapes of objects within the target. There are clear improvements on the previous crude and blurred reconstructions where boundaries were merely inferred rather than estimated as in these new developments

  3. Poultry Slaughtering and Processing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Agriculture Production Poultry Slaughtering and Processing in the United States This dataset consists of facilities which engage in slaughtering, processing, and/or...

  4. Particle processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshio, Sakka

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been strong demand for the development of novel devices and equipment that support advanced industries including IT/semiconductors, the environment, energy and aerospace along with the achievement of higher efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Many studies have been conducted on the fabrication of innovative inorganic materials with novel individual properties and/or multifunctional properties including electrical, dielectric, thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical properties through the development of particle processing. The fundamental technologies that are key to realizing such materials are (i) the synthesis of nanoparticles with uniform composition and controlled crystallite size, (ii) the arrangement/assembly and controlled dispersion of nanoparticles with controlled particle size, (iii) the precise structural control at all levels from micrometer to nanometer order and (iv) the nanostructural design based on theoretical/experimental studies of the correlation between the local structure and the functions of interest. In particular, it is now understood that the application of an external stimulus, such as magnetic energy, electrical energy and/or stress, to a reaction field is effective in realizing advanced particle processing [1-3]. This special issue comprises 12 papers including three review papers. Among them, seven papers are concerned with phosphor particles, such as silicon, metals, Si3N4-related nitrides, rare-earth oxides, garnet oxides, rare-earth sulfur oxides and rare-earth hydroxides. In these papers, the effects of particle size, morphology, dispersion, surface states, dopant concentration and other factors on the optical properties of phosphor particles and their applications are discussed. These nanoparticles are classified as zero-dimensional materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are well-known one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials, respectively. This special issue also

  5. Radiation in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uses of ionizing radiation can be divided into two broad categories. First, it can be used as a tool of investigation, measurement and testing, and secondly, it can be a direct agent in inducing chemical processes. For example, radiation can help in the detecting and locating of malignant tumours, and it can be employed also for the destruction of those tumours. Again, it can reveal intricate processes of plant growth and, at the same time, can initiate certain processes which result in the growth of new varieties of plants. Similarly in industry, radiation is both a tool of detection, testing and measurement and an active agent for the initiation of useful chemical reactions. The initiation of chemical reactions usually requires larger and more powerful sources of radiation. Such radiation can be provided by substances like cobalt 60 and caesium 137 or by machines which accelerate nuclear particles to very high energies. Of the particle-accelerating machines, the most useful in this field are those which accelerate electrons to energies considerably higher than those possessed by the electrons (beta particles) emitted by radioactive substances. These high-energy radiations produce interesting reactions both in organic life and in materials for industry. Several of the papers presented at the Warsaw conference were devoted to the application of ionizing radiation to polymerization and other useful reactions in the manufacture and treatment of plastics. The polymerization of the ethylene series of hydro-carbons was discussed from various angles and the technical characteristics and requirements were described. It was pointed out by some experts that the cross-linking effect of radiation resulted in a superior product, opening the way to new applications of polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene film has been sold for several years, and electrical wire has been made with irradiated polyethylene as the insulating jacket. Other reactions discussed included the cross

  6. Titan's global geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaska, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Solomonidou, Anezina; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Soderblom, Jason M.; Neish, Catherine; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We have mapped the Cassini SAR imaged areas of Saturn's moon Titan in order to determine the geological properties that modify the surface [1]. We used the SAR dataset for mapping, but incorporated data from radiometry, VIMS, ISS, and SARTopo for terrain unit determination. This work extends our analyses of the mid-latitude/equatorial Afekan Crater region [2] and in the southern and northern polar regions [3]. We placed Titan terrains into six broad terrain classes: craters, mountain/hummocky, labyrinth, plains, dunes, and lakes. We also extended the fluvial mapping done by Burr et al. [4], and defined areas as potential cryovolcanic features [5]. We found that hummocky/mountainous and labyrinth areas are the oldest units on Titan, and that lakes and dunes are among the youngest. Plains units are the largest unit in terms of surface area, followed by the dunes unit. Radiometry data suggest that most of Titan's surface is covered in high-emissivity materials, consistent with organic materials, with only minor exposures of low-emissivity materials that are consistent with water ice, primarily in the mountain and hummocky areas and crater rims and ejecta [6, 7]. From examination of terrain orientation, we find that landscape evolution in the mid-latitude and equatorial regions is driven by aeolian processes, while polar landscapes are shaped by fluvial, lacrustine, and possibly dissolution or volatilization processes involving cycling organic materials [3, 8]. Although important in deciphering Titan's terrain evolution, impact processes play a very minor role in the modification of Titan's landscape [9]. We find no evidence for large-scale aqueous cryovolcanic deposits.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C. et al. (2010) Icarus, 205, 540–558. [2] Malaska, M.J. et al. (2016) Icarus, 270, 130–161. [3] Birch et al., in revision. [4] Burr et al. (2013) GSA Bulletin 125, 299–321. [5] Lopes et al. JGR: Planets, 118, 1–20. [6] Janssen et al., (2009) Icarus, 200, 222–239. [7

  7. Sensors in Spray Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents what is our actual knowledge about sensors, used in the harsh environment of spray booths, to improve the reproducibility and reliability of coatings sprayed with hot or cold gases. First are described, with their limitations and precisions, the different sensors following the in-flight hot particle parameters (trajectories, temperatures, velocities, sizes, and shapes). A few comments are also made about techniques, still under developments in laboratories, to improve our understanding of coating formation such as plasma jet temperature measurements in non-symmetrical conditions, hot gases heat flux, particles flattening and splats formation, particles evaporation. Then are described the illumination techniques by laser flash of either cold particles (those injected in hot gases, or in cold spray gun) or liquid injected into hot gases (suspensions or solutions). The possibilities they open to determine the flux and velocities of cold particles or visualize liquid penetration in the core of hot gases are discussed. Afterwards are presented sensors to follow, when spraying hot particles, substrate and coating temperature evolution, and the stress development within coatings during the spray process as well as the coating thickness. The different uses of these sensors are then described with successively: (i) Measurements limited to particle trajectories, velocities, temperatures, and sizes in different spray conditions: plasma (including transient conditions due to arc root fluctuations in d.c. plasma jets), HVOF, wire arc, cold spray. Afterwards are discussed how such sensor data can be used to achieve a better understanding of the different spray processes, compare experiments to calculations and improve the reproducibility and reliability of the spray conditions. (ii) Coatings monitoring through in-flight measurements coupled with those devoted to coatings formation. This is achieved by either maintaining at their set point both in-flight and

  8. Composable Data Processing in Environmental Science - A Process View

    OpenAIRE

    Wombacher, A.

    2008-01-01

    Data processing in environmental science is essential for doing science. The heterogeneity of data sources, data processing operations and infrastructures results in a lot of manual data and process integration work done by each scientist individually. This is very inefficient and time consuming. The aim is to provide a view based approach on accessing and processing data supporting a more generic infrastructure to integrate processing steps from different organizations, systems and libraries...

  9. CONVERGENCE TO PROCESS ORGANIZATION BY MODEL OF PROCESS MATURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Blaženka Piuković Babičković; Željko Vojinović

    2015-01-01

    With modern business process orientation binds primarily, process of thinking and process organizational structure. Although the business processes are increasingly a matter of writing and speaking, it is a major problem among the business world, especially in countries in transition, where it has been found that there is a lack of understanding of the concept of business process management. The aim of this paper is to give a specific contribution to overcoming the identified problem, by poin...

  10. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF PARALLEL PROCESSING ARCHITECTURE FOR IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    K.MANJUNATHACHARI; K.SATYAPRASAD

    2007-01-01

    Typical real time computer vision tasks require huge amount of processing power and time for handling real time computer vision applications. The nature of processing in a typical computer vision algorithm usually ranges from many small arithmetic operations (Fine Grain Parallelism) to symbolic operations (Coarse grain parallelism). The task become more complicate while considering image processing application due to large data sets and there processing. The existing processing system respond...

  11. Forward Osmosis Process

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2013-12-05

    A process that can alleviate the internal concentration polarization and can enhance membrane performance of a forward osmosis system includes the steps of passing a fluid in a forward osmosis system from a feed solution with a first osmotic pressure, through a membrane into a draw solution comprising a draw solute with a second osmotic pressure, where the first osmotic pressure is lower than the second osmotic pressure, the membrane includes an active layer and a support layer, and the membrane is oriented such that the active layer of the membrane faces a draw side, and the support layer faces a feed side; and applying an external force to the fluid on the feed side of the membrane.

  12. Process for producing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, K.; Komatsu, A.; Moroe, M.; Moroe, T.

    1980-07-22

    A process is described for producing a hydrocarbon product consisting essentially of hydrocarbons having about 10 to 50 carbon atoms with 60% or more of said product consisting of hydrocarbons containing 25 to 32 carbon atoms which comprises subjecting a synthetic polyisoprene rubber having 92 to 97% cis-type double bods to a thermally destructive distillation at about 300 to 400/sup 0/ C for about 30 minutes under a reduced pressure of about 0.1 to 5 mm. Hg to obtain said hydrocarbon product consisting essentially of hydrocarbons having about 10 to 50 carbon atoms with 60% or more of said product consisting of hydrocarbons containing 25 to 35 carbon atoms, said hydrocarbon product not having a bad odor and containing scarcely any resinous material.

  13. [Signal Processing Suite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahr, John D.; Mir, Hasan; Morabito, Andrew; Grossman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Our role in this project was to participate in the design of the signal processing suite to analyze plasma density measurements on board a small constellation (3 or 4) satellites in Low Earth Orbit. As we are new to space craft experiments, one of the challenges was to simply gain understanding of the quantity of data which would flow from the satellites, and possibly to interact with the design teams in generating optimal sampling patterns. For example, as the fleet of satellites were intended to fly through the same volume of space (displaced slightly in time and space), the bulk plasma structure should be common among the spacecraft. Therefore, an optimal, limited bandwidth data downlink would take advantage of this commonality. Also, motivated by techniques in ionospheric radar, we hoped to investigate the possibility of employing aperiodic sampling in order to gain access to a wider spatial spectrum without suffering aliasing in k-space.

  14. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  15. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2011-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the range of available welding technologies. This title includes chapters on individual techniques that cover principles, equipment, consumables and key quality issues. It includes material on such topics as the basics of electricity in welding, arc physics, and distortion, and the weldability of particular metals.$bThe first edition of Welding processes handbook established itself as a standard introduction and guide to the main welding technologies and their applications. This new edition has been substantially revised and extended to reflect the latest developments. After an initial introduction, the book first reviews gas welding before discussing the fundamentals of arc welding, including arc physics and power sources. It then discusses the range of arc welding techniques including TIG, plasma, MIG/MAG, MMA and submerged arc welding. Further chapters cover a range of other important welding technologies such as resistance and laser welding, as well as the use of welding techniqu...

  16. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  17. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  18. Electro Processing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Electroprocessing which is concerned with fluid dynamics of the electroreduction process to determine how it may be modified to improve the quality of the deposit was studied. Experimental techniques are used in this research. These techniques include laser Schlieren photography, laser Doppler velocimetry, and frequency spectrum analysis. Projects involve fluid flow studies of zinc plating in aqueous and molten salt electrolytes, study of cell design for magnesium chlorides electrolysis, digital signal analysis of manganese electrodeposition in molten chlorides, and electroplating of molybdenum from low melting salts. It is anticipated that the use of refractory metals as constructed materials in engineering will increase. Their electrodeposition from molten salt electrolytes is important in the extraction metallurgy of refractory metals.

  19. Electrochemical processes in amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the method of cyclic voltammetry it has been ascertained that in the process of anodic oxidation of liquid amalgams of s-metal (M = Li-Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba) hydrides with hydride content in mercury of 0.01-0.03 mass % in aqueous solutions of electrolytes (o.1-10 M) in the temperature range of 10-50 deg C the previously unknown electrochemical effects are observed: a wide anodic peak of current in the range of potentials from -1.65 to -1.40 V, accompanied by intensive hydrogen evolution and increase in the amalgam volume, as well as a narrow peak of current in the range of potentials of -1.0 V. The phenomena observed have been explained. 4 refs

  20. Additive Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duvenaud, David; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a Gaussian process model of functions which are additive. An additive function is one which decomposes into a sum of low-dimensional functions, each depending on only a subset of the input variables. Additive GPs generalize both Generalized Additive Models, and the standard GP models which use squared-exponential kernels. Hyperparameter learning in this model can be seen as Bayesian Hierarchical Kernel Learning (HKL). We introduce an expressive but tractable parameterization of the kernel function, which allows efficient evaluation of all input interaction terms, whose number is exponential in the input dimension. The additional structure discoverable by this model results in increased interpretability, as well as state-of-the-art predictive power in regression tasks.

  1. Fractal Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and Extreme Value Theory (EVT) study, respectively, the stochastic limit-laws of sums and maxima of sequences of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables via an affine scaling scheme. In this research we study the stochastic limit-laws of populations of i.i.d. random variables via nonlinear scaling schemes. The stochastic population-limits obtained are fractal Poisson processes which are statistically self-similar with respect to the scaling scheme applied, and which are characterized by two elemental structures: (i) a universal power-law structure common to all limits, and independent of the scaling scheme applied; (ii) a specific structure contingent on the scaling scheme applied. The sum-projection and the maximum-projection of the population-limits obtained are generalizations of the classic CLT and EVT results - extending them from affine to general nonlinear scaling schemes.

  2. Paretian Poisson Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-05-01

    Many random populations can be modeled as a countable set of points scattered randomly on the positive half-line. The points may represent magnitudes of earthquakes and tornados, masses of stars, market values of public companies, etc. In this article we explore a specific class of random such populations we coin ` Paretian Poisson processes'. This class is elemental in statistical physics—connecting together, in a deep and fundamental way, diverse issues including: the Poisson distribution of the Law of Small Numbers; Paretian tail statistics; the Fréchet distribution of Extreme Value Theory; the one-sided Lévy distribution of the Central Limit Theorem; scale-invariance, renormalization and fractality; resilience to random perturbations.

  3. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  4. The process of leukemogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irons, R.D.; Stillman, W.S. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Leukemias are monoclonal diseases that arise from cells in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment. Consistent with emerging models of carcinogenesis, leukemogenesis is an evolutionary process that involves multiple independent genetic and epigenetic events. Over the last half-century a predominant paradigm has emerged to describe leukemia developing secondary to alkylating drug therapy or exposure to benzene in which progressive dysplastic changes, accompanied by a distinct pattern of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities, give rise to acute myelogenous leukemia. Characterization of these clonal chromosomal aberrations, together with observed alterations in other growth-promoting genes, provides a useful framework for studying chemical leukemogenesis and for use in understanding the origins and development of leukemia in general. 122 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Electrowinning apparatus and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-06-19

    Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

  6. Foam process models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2008-09-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

  7. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    on a sustainable renovation of their building while getting the corresponding associated benefits and therefore a building more adapted to user’s needs and behaviours. The IRP also helps the building experts to be more structured for the quantitative analyses and the generation of the renovation scenarios so...... they get more time for the cost optimization and the qualitative analysis of the users’ needs and behaviours. In order to reach a fossil free energy building stock within an acceptable time frame, it is primordial that researchers, politicians and the building industry work hand in hand. Indeed, in order......The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). The IRP supports, informs and reassures building owners to decide...

  8. Evaluating Discourse Processing Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    1994-01-01

    In order to take steps towards establishing a methodology for evaluating Natural Language systems, we conducted a case study. We attempt to evaluate two different approaches to anaphoric processing in discourse by comparing the accuracy and coverage of two published algorithms for finding the co-specifiers of pronouns in naturally occurring texts and dialogues. We present the quantitative results of hand-simulating these algorithms, but this analysis naturally gives rise to both a qualitative evaluation and recommendations for performing such evaluations in general. We illustrate the general difficulties encountered with quantitative evaluation. These are problems with: (a) allowing for underlying assumptions, (b) determining how to handle underspecifications, and (c) evaluating the contribution of false positives and error chaining.

  9. Uncloaking the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzell, K.; Meier, W.

    2009-12-01

    Since April 2008, NSIDC has offered daily updates of sea ice data on our Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis Web page (http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews). The images provide near-real-time data to the general public and policy makers, accompanied by monthly or more frequent analysis updates. In February 2009, a crucial channel of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) sensor on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F15 satellite, from which NSIDC was obtaining near-real-time Arctic sea ice data, suddenly failed. The daily image, which is automatically updated, showed a sudden drop in ice extent of over 50,000 square kilometers. Even after taking the images down, skeptical blogs jumped on the event, posting headlines such as “Errors in publicly presented data - Worth blogging about?” and “NSIDC pulls the plug on sea ice data.” In fact, NSIDC data managers and scientists were well aware that the F15 satellite sensor would eventually fail. NSIDC switched to a previously used back-up sensor, F13, and work to transition to a newer sensor on the F17 satellite had been underway for several weeks. While the deluge of questions from readers and bloggers were frustrating to NSIDC communications staff and scientists, they also presented a chance to give readers a window into the scientific process, and specifically into the collection of satellite data. We decided to publish a clear account of the process used to transition between sensors, as well as a basic explanation of the satellites used to measure sea ice data. While most scientists are familiar with the limitations of near-real-time data, the concept is unfamiliar to many in the general public. The Web page includes links to information on near-real-time data, including notes that images sometimes contain missing or erroneous data, and that delays can occur. However, to a skeptical person, the words that scientists use to describe the processing of final data, including “adjustment,”

  10. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  11. Plutonium dissolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

  12. Perception and information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Consumer researchers are interested in the responses of people to commercial stimuli. Usually, these stimuli are products and services, including all attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Perception is the first bottleneck in this process...... information and to characterise the operations they perform. To avoid confusion, it should be stressed that the term "perception" is often used in a colloquial sense in consumer research. In concepts like perceived quality, perceived value, or perceived risk, the modifier "perceived" simply highlights...... the subjective nature of these phenomena. However, many of these phenomena are the result of rather complex evaluative judgments and should therefore be regarded as attitudes, not as perceptions in a narrow sense. In this chapter, the term perception will be used in its narrow sense, referring to the selection...

  13. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...... consistency with suggested kinetic parameter values of the literature. A large amount of information about the two plants and their performances is obtained from the models, of which the variations of the influent ammonia load, and the autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass activity have particular interest...... control are discussed. Both methods include the evaluation of a cost function incorporating the cost of operation and discharge of nutrients to the recipient. The concept of prediction based control is demonstrated in a simulation study....

  14. Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Diebold, Philipp; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Software process improvement (SPI) is around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out...... there? Are there new trends and emerging approaches? What are open issues? Still, we struggle to answer these questions about the current state of SPI and related research. In this article, we present results from an updated systematic mapping study to shed light on the field of SPI, to develop a big...... theories and models on SPI in general. In particular, standard SPI models like CMMI and ISO/IEC 15504 are analyzed, enhanced, and evaluated for applicability in practice, but these standards are also critically discussed, e.g., from the perspective of SPI in small-to-medium-sized companies, which leads...

  15. Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Konopka, Claudia; Nellemann, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Software process improvement (SPI) is around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out...... there? Are there new emerging approaches? What are open issues? Still, we struggle to answer the question for what is the current state of SPI and related research? We present initial results from a systematic mapping study to shed light on the field of SPI and to draw conclusions for future research...... directions. An analysis of 635 publications draws a big picture of SPI-related research of the past 25 years. Our study shows a high number of solution proposals, experience reports, and secondary studies, but only few theories. In particular, standard SPI models are analyzed and evaluated for applicability...

  16. Learning Determinantal Point Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kulesza, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Determinantal point processes (DPPs), which arise in random matrix theory and quantum physics, are natural models for subset selection problems where diversity is preferred. Among many remarkable properties, DPPs offer tractable algorithms for exact inference, including computing marginal probabilities and sampling; however, an important open question has been how to learn a DPP from labeled training data. In this paper we propose a natural feature-based parameterization of conditional DPPs, and show how it leads to a convex and efficient learning formulation. We analyze the relationship between our model and binary Markov random fields with repulsive potentials, which are qualitatively similar but computationally intractable. Finally, we apply our approach to the task of extractive summarization, where the goal is to choose a small subset of sentences conveying the most important information from a set of documents. In this task there is a fundamental tradeoff between sentences that are highly relevant to th...

  17. Business Process Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina FOTACHE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Outsourcing (BPO is gaining widespread acceptance throughout the US, Europe, South America and Asia Pacific as the top executives of leading multinationals turn to outsourcing as a strategic management tool for improving corporate performance, profitability and shareholder value. BPO started to emerge a few years ago as follow-on to IT outsourcing. The concept is not new; BPO is the contracting of a specific business task. Outsourcing focuses on adding value typically to non-core and non-complex activities by buying in best practices and economies of scale. Because reduce costs, focus on core strategic activities and improve customer service, an increasing number of organizations in both the public and the private sector are looking toward BPO as a solution to their needs.

  18. Fluorination process using catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

    1983-08-25

    A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  19. Fluorination process using catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochel, Robert C.; Saturday, Kathy A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  20. Irradiation and food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  1. Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3) is currently the most studied material for applications such as solid oxide fuel cell inter connector (HTSOFC). The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries. Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage. Thus, surface chemistry, stability and rheological behaviour of strontium and cobalt doped LaCrO3 (La)0.80Sr0.20Cr0.92Co0.08O3) slips prepared with ethanol and water, were studied. The doped lanthanum chromite was produced by combustion synthesis in the IPEN/SP labs. The influence of parameters: pH (water), dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. The La)0.80Sr0.20Cr0.92Co0.08O3 products obtained by casting aqueous slips in a plaster mould, using alkaline pH and anionic polyelectrolyte and tapes obtained by using ethanol as a dispersant medium, after sintering at 1600 degree C/4 hours presented theoretical density > 94%, suitable for use as HTSOFC inter connector. (author)

  2. Integrated palm oil processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  3. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization o

  4. Laundry process intensification by ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.; Vlist, van der P.; Moholkar, V.S.; Nierstrasz, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    In domestic textile laundering processes, mass transfer and mass transport are often rate limiting. Therefore, these processes require a long processing time, large amounts of water and chemicals, and they are energy consuming. In most of these processes, diffusion and convection in the inter-yarn a

  5. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen;

    2007-01-01

    Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and...

  6. Process algebra for Hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg [Process Algebra with Timing, Springer, Chap. 4, 2002] and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra [Theoretical Computer

  7. Process algebra for hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg (Process Algebra with Timing, Springer,Berlin, 2002, Chapter 4), and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra(Theoret. Com

  8. Multivariate supOU processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Stelzer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Univariate superpositions of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-type processes (OU), called supOU processes, provide a class of continuous time processes capable of exhibiting long memory behavior. This paper introduces multivariate supOU processes and gives conditions for their existence and finiteness of momen......-type processes, which has been suggested in [2] in the univariate case. Finally, as an important special case, we introduce positive semi-definite supOU processes, and we discuss the relevance of multivariate supOU processes in applications....

  9. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AS THE METHOD OF PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Honcharova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of process management approach. The main understanding of process management approach has been researched in the article. The definition of process and process management has been given. Also the methods of business process improvement has been analyzed, among them are fast-analysis solution technology (FAST, benchmarking, reprojecting and reengineering. The main results of using business process improvement have been described in figures of reducing cycle time, costs and errors. Also the tasks of business process reengineering have been noticed. The main stages of business process reengineering have been noticed. The main efficiency results of business process reengineering and its success factors have been determined.

  10. Processing polymers with cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Brandon Robert

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic starch molecules that have the unique ability to include a variety of small molecules and polymers inside their cavities, forming "Inclusion Complexes" (ICs). While much work has been done to understand the formation and behavior of these ICs, far less is known about the fundamental property changes that can occur when CD is used to alter polymer chain morphology. The goal of my graduate research has been to discover different ways to improve upon existing polymer properties through CD processing, as well as explore the possibility of creating a novel type of IC using non-traditional forms of cyclodextrin. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was processed with alpha-CD to form an IC. The cyclodextrin was then stripped away to yield a PCL with elongated, unentangled, and constrained polymer chains, a process referred to as coalescence. The physical and rheological property changes resulting from this coalescence were then examined. It was found that reorganizing PCL in this manner resulted in an increase in the melt crystallization temperature of up to 25°C. Coalescence also decreased the tan delta of the material and increased the average hardness and Young's modulus by 33 and 53%, respectively. Non-stoichiometric ICs (NS-ICs), or ICs with at least parts of some polymer chains uncovered, were formed between poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and gamma-CD as well as a synthesized poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(propylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PPG-PCL) triblock copolymer and beta-CD. The property changes of the non-complexed polymer chains were then studied. The PMMA/gamma-CD NS-IC samples were determined to be extremely heterogeneous, however glass transition temperature increases of up to 27°C above that of as-received PMMA were observed. Diffraction data for the PMMA NS-ICs suggests slight crystallinity at partial coverage, with a similar crystal structure to that of the fully covered IC. XRD, DSC and FTIR data revealed an almost

  11. Administrative processes in the enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Šišková, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Administrative processes in an enterprise" is focused on four selected processes. The main goal of this work is to propose solutions leading to efficiency improvement of the various processes. The proposed solution should contribute to simplifying of the implementation of selected processes, time and financial savings. The secondary aim is to evaluate the current implementation of the processes and create the theoretical basis of the problem. The work is divided into two par...

  12. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.

  13. Next generation software process improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Turnas, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Software is often developed under a process that can at best be described as ad hoc. While it is possible to develop quality software under an ad hoc process, formal processes can be developed to help increase the overall quality of the software under development. The application of these processes allows for an organization to mature. The software maturity level, and process improvement, of an organization can be measured with the Cap...

  14. Event-driven process execution model for process virtual machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dong-yao; WEI Jun; GAO Chu-shu; DOU Wen-shen

    2012-01-01

    Current orchestration and choreography process engines only serve with dedicate process languages. To solve these problems, an Even~driven Process Execution Model (EPEM) was developed. Formalization and map- ping principles of the model were presented to guarantee the correctness and efficiency for process transformation. As a case study, the EPEM descriptions of Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS~BPEL) were represented and a Process Virtual Machine (PVM)-OncePVM was implemented in compliance with the EPEM.

  15. Process-oriented evaluation of agile business processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Agile enterprises are built based on agile business processes.Simultaneously,agile enterprises must be able to utilize agile business processes to rapidly respond market opportunities and maintain enterprises'competitions.But how to evaluate and choose agile business processes is a key problem about building agile enterprises.The paper proposes a goal driven method and an evaluation architecture for business processes' agility.Furthermore,a four-layer configuring model for agile business processes is developed based on the evaluation architecture and it can evaluate and configure agile business processes among alternatives.

  16. Maintenance Process Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Stachowiak, A.

    2016-08-01

    The performance and competitiveness of manufacturing companies is dependent on the availability, reliability and productivity of their production facilities. Low productivity, downtime, and poor machine performance is often linked to inadequate plant maintenance, which in turn can lead to reduced production levels, increasing costs, lost market opportunities, and lower profits. These pressures have given firms worldwide the motivation to explore and embrace proactive maintenance strategies over the traditional reactive firefighting methods. The traditional view of maintenance has shifted into one of an overall view that encompasses Overall Equipment Efficiency, Stakeholders Management and Life Cycle assessment. From practical point of view it requires changes in approach to maintenance represented by managers and changes in actions performed within maintenance area. Managers have to understand that maintenance is not only about repairs and conservations of machines and devices, but also actions striving for more efficient resources management and care for safety and health of employees. The purpose of the work is to present strategic analysis based on SWOT analysis to identify the opportunities and strengths of maintenance process, to benefit from them as much as possible, as well as to identify weaknesses and threats, so that they could be eliminated or minimized.

  17. Advances in speech processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  18. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 900C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 5000C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  19. Controlled processing during sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Rattinger, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding evidence has identified a role for the frontal cortex in sequencing within both linguistic and non-linguistic domains. More recently, neuropsychological studies have suggested a specific role for the left premotor-prefrontal junction (BA 44/6) in selection between competing alternatives during sequencing. In this study, we used neuroimaging with healthy adults to confirm and extend knowledge about the neural correlates of sequencing. Participants reproduced visually presented sequences of syllables and words using manual button presses. Items in the sequence were presented either consecutively or concurrently. Concurrent presentation is known to trigger the planning of multiple responses, which might compete with one another. Therefore, we hypothesized that regions involved in controlled processing would show greater recruitment during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. Whole-brain analysis showed concurrent > consecutive activation in sensory, motor and somatosensory cortices and notably also in rostral-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Region of interest analyses showed increased activation within left BA 44/6 and correlation between this region's activation and behavioral response times. Functional connectivity analysis revealed increased connectivity between left BA 44/6 and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. These results corroborate recent evidence and demonstrate the involvement of BA 44/6 and other control regions when ordering co-activated representations.

  20. Controlled processing during sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathi eThothathiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Longstanding evidence has identified a role for the frontal cortex in sequencing within both linguistic and non-linguistic domains. More recently, neuropsychological studies have suggested a specific role for the left premotor-prefrontal junction (BA 44/6 in selection between competing alternatives during sequencing. In this study, we used neuroimaging with healthy adults to confirm and extend knowledge about the neural correlates of sequencing. Participants reproduced visually presented sequences of syllables and words using manual button presses. Items in the sequence were presented either consecutively or concurrently. Concurrent presentation is known to trigger the planning of multiple responses, which might compete with one another. Therefore, we hypothesized that regions involved in controlled processing would show greater recruitment during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. Whole-brain analysis showed concurrent > consecutive activation in sensory, motor and somatosensory cortices and notably also in rostral-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Region of interest analyses showed increased activation within left BA 44/6 and correlation between this region’s activation and behavioral response times. Functional connectivity analysis revealed increased connectivity between left BA 44/6 and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. These results corroborate recent evidence and demonstrate the involvement of BA 44/6 and other control regions when ordering co-activated representations.

  1. Vanadium recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for recovering vanadium values from carbonaceous type vanadium ores, and vanadium scrap, such as vanadium contaminated spent catalyst, is disclosed which comprises roasting the vanadium containing material in air at a temperature less than about 6000C to produce a material substantially devoid of organic matter, subjecting said roasted material to a further oxidizing roast in an oxygen atmosphere at a temperature of at least about 8000C for a period sufficient to convert substantially all of the vanadium to the soluble form, leaching the calcine with a suitable dilute mineral acid or water at a pH of neutral to about 2 to recover vanadium values, precipitating vanadium values as iron vanadate from the leach solution with a soluble iron compound at a pH from neutral to about 1, and recovering ferrovanadium from the iron vanadate by a reduction vacuum smelting operation. The conversion of vanadium in the ore to the soluble form by the oxidizing roast is accomplished without the addition of an alkaline salt during calcining

  2. The Creative Drawing process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg, Ingelise

    understand spatial relationships through their drawings and to identify their cognitive development in their construction of schemata or mapping abilities. Gibson's theory on the picking-up of invariant features through movement comprises an un­der­stan­ding of the fact that normally we do not make use...... of cognitive maps (schema­ta), but that our spatial orientation is purely perceptually based. For the purpose of explaining how we re­member and recognize spatial positions and relations, the schema concept was invo­ked, by way of Neis­ser, as an example of a cognitive agency of structuring or a con......­nec­ting link bet­ween perception and higher mental processes. By this me­ans it also be­comes possible to ex­plain the sche­ma con­cept in a deve­lop­mental perspec­tive. A schema is a mental structure that is constantly modified by experience through perceiving, action and movement, and some of its structure...

  3. Meditation: Process and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Meditation has become popular in many Western nations, especially the USA. An increasing body of research shows various health benefits associated with meditation and these findings have sparked interest in the field of medicine. The practice of meditation originated in the ancient Vedic times of India and is described in the ancient Vedic texts. Meditation is one of the modalities used in Ayurveda (Science of Life), the comprehensive, natural health care system that originated in the ancient Vedic times of India. The term "meditation" is now loosely used to refer to a large number of diverse techniques. According to Vedic science, the true purpose of meditation is to connect oneself to one's deep inner Self. Techniques which achieve that goal serve the true purpose of meditation. Neurological and physiological correlates of meditation have been investigated previously. This article describes the process of meditation at a more fundamental level and aims to shed light on the deeper underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects associated with meditation. Research on the effects of meditation is summarized. PMID:27313408

  4. Data Processing for Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, K F

    1956-10-26

    This brief survey of integrated and electronic data processing has touched on such matters as the origin of the concepts, their use in business, machines that are available, indexing problems, and, finally, some scientific uses that surely foreshadow further development. The purpose of this has been to present for the consideration of scientists a point of view and some techniques which have had a phenomenal growth in the business world and to suggest that these are worth consideration in scientific data-handling problems (30). To close, let me quote from William Bamert on the experience of the C. and O. Railroad once more (8, p. 121): "Frankly, we have been asked whether we weren't planning for Utopia-the implication being that everyone except starry-eyed visionaries knows that Utopia is unattainable. Our answer is that of course we are! Has anyone yet discovered a better way to begin program planning of this nature? Our feeling is that compromise comes early enough in the normal order of things."

  5. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  6. Radiation processing in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laboratory experiments on the application of γ radiation in industrial process have already been started since a few years ago using Gamma Cell 220 from AECL Canada. The fields of study are those which the radiation application can have a maximum beneficial impact to the country such as radiation polymerization of natural latex, natural rubber, polypropylene fibers, cotton, and rayon fabrics. The following results are shown and discussed. 1. Dipping trials with irradiated concentrates and irradiated field latex gave products with high ultimate elongation, low modulus, and high permanent set. 2. The grafting of acrylonitrile onto natural rubber gave a product with better oil resistance and tensile strength. 3. Moisture regain, dye absorbtion, and the melting point of grafted polypropylene fibers were found to increase with the increasing degree of grafting. 4. Graft copolymerization of monomers into cellulose fabrics could improve the dimensional stability and crease recovery angle of the fabrics, while its tensile strength and its abrasion decreased with the increasing irradiation dose. (author)

  7. Radiation processing of polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A.; Biggs, J. W.; Meeks, L. A.

    This paper covers two areas (a) the use of high energy radiation for the synthesis and improvement of polymer properties and (b) the formulation of radiation curable compounds for automotive/appliance wire applications and high voltage insulation. The first part discusses the use of gamma radiation for the bulk polymerization of ethylene and the properties of the polymer produced. The use of low dose radiation to increase polymer molecular weight and modify polydispersity is also described together with its projected operational cost. An update is provided of the cost savings that can be realized when using radiation crosslinked heavy duty film, which expands its applications, compared with noncrosslinked materials. The second section of the paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of radiation vs. peroxide curing of wire and cable compounds. The formulation of a radiation curable, automotive/appliance wire compound is discussed together with the interactions between the various ingredients; i.e., base resin, antioxidants, flame retardant filler, coupling agents, processing aids and radiation to achieve the desired product. In addition, the general property requirements of a radiation curable polyethylene for high voltage insulation are discussed; these include crosslinking efficiency, thermal stability, wet tree resistance and satisfactory dielectric properties. Preliminary data generated in the development of a 230KV radiation crosslinked polyethylene insulation are included.

  8. Processing of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy. PMID:19878858

  9. Transforming spatial point processes into Poisson processes using random superposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaaard

    with a complementary spatial point process Y  to obtain a Poisson process X∪Y  with intensity function β. Underlying this is a bivariate spatial birth-death process (Xt,Yt) which converges towards the distribution of (X,Y). We study the joint distribution of X and Y, and their marginal and conditional distributions...... process with intensity function β if and only if the true Papangelou intensity is used. Whether the superposition is actually such a Poisson process can easily be examined using well known results and fast simulation procedures for Poisson processes. We illustrate this approach to model checking....... In particular, we introduce a fast and easy simulation procedure for Y conditional on X. This may be used for model checking: given a model for the Papangelou intensity of the original spatial point process, this model is used to generate the complementary process, and the resulting superposition is a Poisson...

  10. Design Process Optimization Based on Design Process Gene Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; TONG Shu-rong

    2011-01-01

    The idea of genetic engineering is introduced into the area of product design to improve the design efficiency. A method towards design process optimization based on the design process gene is proposed through analyzing the correlation between the design process gene and characteristics of the design process. The concept of the design process gene is analyzed and categorized into five categories that are the task specification gene, the concept design gene, the overall design gene, the detailed design gene and the processing design gene in the light of five design phases. The elements and their interactions involved in each kind of design process gene signprocess gene mapping is drawn with its structure disclosed based on its function that process gene.

  11. Processes of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 16 July 2003This THEMIS visible image captures a complex process of deposition, burial and exhumation. The crater ejecta in the top of the image is in the form of flow lobes, indicating that the crater was formed in volatile-rich terrain. While a radial pattern can be seen in the ejecta, the pattern is sharper in the lower half of the ejecta. This is because the top half of the ejecta is still buried by a thin layer of sediment. It is most likely that at one time the entire area was covered. Wind, and perhaps water erosion have started to remove this layer, once again exposing the what was present underneath.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.3, Longitude 181.2 East (178.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Pion absorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton and deuteron production from low-energy pion absorption in light nuclei leading to discrete and continuum states were measured. The LEP beam line at LAMPF was used with a stack of 8 intrinsic germanium crystals. The proton energy spectra are in general characterized by a broad bump at an energy approximately corresponding to π+d → pp reaction kinematics, suggestive of pion absorption on 2 nucleons. The energy-integrated cross-section for production of deuterons has an angular distribution similar to that for production of protons. The dependence of the total pion absorption cross-section on A is explained using a semi-classical model for pion transport in nuclei. The (π+,p) as well as (π+,d) reactions generally favor transitions involving larger angular momentum transfer to the residual nucleus when states of similar nuclear structure are considered. The low-energy excitation spectra from the (π+,p) reaction are similar to the spectra from (p,d) reaction on 12C and 13C. However, a calculation of the (π+,p) cross-section using the measured (p,d) reaction with the formulation of Wilkin to relate the two reactions is in moderate disagreement with the measured (π+,p) cross-sections. The excitation spectra from the (π+,p) reaction indicte the importance of two-step processes for the reaction. The (π+,d) reaction leading to the ground state of -- residual nucleus has been seen for 7Li, 12C, and 13C targets. The measured cross section for the 12C(π+,d)10C reaction to the 2+ state is much higher than that for the ground state. For the case of 18O, no counts were seen for excitation energy of +,d) reaction

  13. [Chronification process of backache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, H D

    1994-06-01

    The high economical costs produced by the impact of low back pain on sick-listing and loss of manpower at work encouraged the search for personal or situational characteristics that indicate an increased risk for an acute onset of back pain or for its continuation towards chronicity. Risk factors for the onset of acute pain identified at the workplace refer to mechanical and psychomental strain. Vibration as well as lifting and carrying of heavy loads, especially if combined with a twisting of the trunk, are the most prominent mechanical risks, whereas dissatisfaction with the job or the working conditions, especially if there is a lack of social support either at the workplace or at home by the family or the spouse, increase the risk on a psychosocial level. Although these risks continue to be effective in the process of chronicity, other risks pertaining to behavioral and emotional reactions to the acute pain episode gain in importance. At the acute level, avoidance of physical and social activities are often encouraged by physicians who prescribe bed rest or give advice to regulate the active reinvolvement in daily life by assessing pain levels ('let the pain guide'). On the other hand, with regard to the prevention of chronicity, a strategy of graded early activation aiming at a reinforcement of healthy behaviors has more beneficial effects. After a short period of bed rest, no longer than two days, if at all necessary, patients are taught to maintain their daily activities and to practice specified exercises, while receiving time-contingent pain medication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Developing engineering processes through integrated modelling of product and process

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at developing an operational tool for integrated modelling of product assortments and engineering processes in companies making customer specific products. Integrating a product model in the design of engineering processes will provide a deeper understanding of the engineering activities as well as insight into how product features affect the engineering processes. The article suggests possible ways of integrating models of products with models of engineering processes. The ...

  15. Process integration and opportunity for heat pumps in industrial processes

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Helen; Maréchal, François; Vuillermoz, Aurélie

    2009-01-01

    Process integration methods allow one optimizing industrial processes. The main goals are decreasing energy demand and operating costs as well as reduction of pollutants emissions. High fuel costs promote installation of heat pumps. In a heat pump process waste energy is valorized by electrical power to produce higher quality energy. That is used to satisfy a part of the process demand so that less fuel is required and CO2 emission will decrease. This paper presents a methodology, based...

  16. Natural decomposition of processes and weak Dirichlet processes

    OpenAIRE

    Coquet, François; Jakubowski, Adam; Mémin, Jean; Slominski, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    International audience A class of stochastic processes, called "weak Dirichlet processes", is introduced and its properties are investigated in detail. This class is much larger than the class of Dirichlet processes. It is closed under C^1$-transformations and under absolutely continuous change of measure. If a weak Dirichlet process has finite energy, as defined by Graversen and Rao, its Doob-Meyer type decomposition is unique. The developed methods have been applied to a study of general...

  17. Developing the JPL Engineering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

  18. Perspectives on Multienzyme Process Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santacoloma, Paloma A.; Woodley, John M.

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt that chemical processing of the future will involve an increasing number of biocatalytic processes using more than one enzyme. There are good reasons for developing such innovative biocatalytic processes and interesting new biocatalyst and process options will be introduced....... One consequence is that decisions about the format of the biocatalyst and reactor type as well as the process flowsheet require more extensive knowledge. In this chapter, some of the background to these decisions and decision-making tools to help establish effective multienzyme processes in a timely...

  19. An improved approach for process monitoring in laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Hans-Georg; Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Process monitoring is used in many different laser material processes due to the demand for reliable and stable processes. Among different methods, on-axis process monitoring offers multiple advantages. To observe a laser material process it is unavoidable to choose a wavelength for observation that is different to the one used for material processing, otherwise the light of the processing laser would outshine the picture of the process. By choosing a different wavelength, lateral chromatic aberration occurs in not chromatically corrected optical systems with optical scanning units and f-Theta lenses. These aberrations lead to a truncated image of the process on the camera or the pyrometer, respectively. This is the reason for adulterated measurements and non-satisfying images of the process. A new approach for solving the problem of field dependent lateral chromatic aberration in process monitoring is presented. Therefore, the scanner-based optical system is reproduced in a simulation environment, to predict the occurring lateral chromatic aberrations. In addition, a second deflecting system is integrated into the system. By using simulation, a predictive control is designed that uses the additional deflecting system to introduce reverse lateral deviations in order to compensate the lateral effect of chromatic aberration. This paper illustrates the concept and the implementation of the predictive control, which is used to eliminate lateral chromatic aberrations in process monitoring, the simulation on which the system is based the optical system as well as the control concept.

  20. Process mining discovery, conformance and enhancement of business processes

    CERN Document Server

    van der Aalst, Wil M P

    2011-01-01

    The first to cover this missing link between data mining and process modeling, this book provides real-world techniques for monitoring and analyzing processes in real time. It is a powerful new tool destined to play a key role in business process management.

  1. Integrating Process Learning and Process Evolution - A Semantics Based Approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderle, S.B.; Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.; Wild, W.

    2005-01-01

    Companies are developing a growing interest in aligning their information systems in a process-oriented way. However, current process-aware information systems (PAIS) fail to meet process flexibility requirements, which reduces the applicability of such systems. To overcome this limitation PAIS shou

  2. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  3. What is the Process Window for Semi-solid Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duyao; Dong, Hongbiao; Atkinson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In semi-solid processing, the liquid fraction vs temperature is commonly used to define the process window. Conventionally, it is assumed that a freezing range is required for semi-solid processing but recently both high-purity aluminum and binary Al-Si eutectic alloy have been rheo-processed. Here, the kinetics during melting and solidification of pure metal are analyzed, and a comparison between the liquid fraction vs temperature and the liquid fraction vs time is presented. It is found that liquid fraction vs time is a significant criterion for semi-solid processing.

  4. Process Correlation Analysis Model for Process Improvement Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-jin Choi

    2014-01-01

    software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data.

  5. Oxidase-based biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, Hemalata; Woodley, John; Krühne, Ulrich

    Biocatalytic processes are gaining significant focus in frontiers where they offer unique advantages(selectivity and mild operating conditions) over chemical catalysts. It is therefore not surprising that therehave been many industrial biocatalytic processes implemented.Despite past successes......, the implementation of a new biocatalytic process still presents some challenges (demands placed on the biocatalyst) in terms of the requirements to make a viable industrial process. Inorder for a biocatalytic process to be economically successful, it is necessary that certain a set of targetmetrics (product titre...... the reaction species (substrate and product volatility for example) and the process (such as oxygen supply, ability to control pH) and are classified as reaction-related and process-related constraintsrespectively. Although the development of biocatalyst and process engineering tools offers a number...

  6. A Multivariate Process Capability Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shaoxi; JIA Xinzhang; JIAO Huifang; BIAN Yingchao; SONG Ning; ZHAO Luyu; WEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Process capability indices have been widely used in the manufacturing industry, providing numerical measures on process precision, process accuracy, and process performance. Capability measures for processes with a single characteristic have been investigated extensively. However, capability measures for processes with multiple characteristics are comparatively neglected. In this paper, inspired by the approach and model of process capability index investigated by K.S.Chen et al.(2003) and A.B.Yeh et al.(1998), a note model of multivariate process capability index based on non-conformity is presented. As for this index, the data of each single characteristic don't require satisfying normal distribution, of which its computing is simple and particioners will not fell too theoretical. At last the application analysis is made.

  7. National Automated Conformity Inspection Process

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...

  8. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  9. Multi-enzyme Process Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade Santacoloma, Paloma de Gracia

    The subject of this thesis is to develop a methodological framework that can systematically guide mathematical model building for better understanding of multi-enzyme processes. In this way, opportunities for process improvements can be identified by analyzing simulations of either existing...... features of the process and provides the information required to structure the process model by using a step-by-step procedure with the required tools and methods. In this way, this framework increases efficiency of the model development process with respect to time and resources needed (fast and effective...... in the scientific literature. Reliable mathematical models of such multi-catalytic schemes can exploit the potential benefit of these processes. In this way, the best outcome of the process can be obtained understanding the types of modification that are required for process optimization. An effective evaluation...

  10. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: assessing process comparability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip; Rathore, Anurag S

    2012-01-01

    A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product and has anywhere from 15 to 30 unit operations in series. The total number of process variables (input and output parameters) and other variables (raw materials) can add up to several hundred variables. As the manufacturing process is widely accepted to have significant impact on the quality of the product, the regulatory agencies require an assessment of process comparability across different phases of manufacturing (Phase I vs. Phase II vs. Phase III vs. Commercial) as well as other key activities during product commercialization (process scale-up, technology transfer, and process improvement). However, assessing comparability for a process with such a large number of variables is nontrivial and often companies resort to qualitative comparisons. In this article, we present a quantitative approach for assessing process comparability via use of chemometrics. To our knowledge this is the first time that such an approach has been published for biotech processing. The approach has been applied to an industrial case study involving evaluation of two processes that are being used for commercial manufacturing of a major biosimilar product. It has been demonstrated that the proposed approach is able to successfully identify the unit operations in the two processes that are operating differently. We expect this approach, which can also be applied toward assessing product comparability, to be of great use to both the regulators and the industry which otherwise struggle to assess comparability.

  11. PROCESS VARIABILITY REDUCTION THROUGH STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Mahesh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality has become one of the most important customer decision factors in the selection among the competing product and services. Consequently, understanding and improving quality is a key factor leading to business success, growth and an enhanced competitive position. Hence quality improvement program should be an integral part of the overall business strategy. According to TQM, the effective way to improve the Quality of the product or service is to improve the process used to build the product. Hence, TQM focuses on process, rather than results as the results are driven by the processes. Many techniques are available for quality improvement. Statistical Process Control (SPC is one such TQM technique which is widely accepted for analyzing quality problems and improving the performance of the production process. This article illustrates the step by step procedure adopted at a soap manufacturing company to improve the Quality by reducing process variability using Statistical Process Control.

  12. Business Process Innovation using the Process Innovation Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    Most organizations today are required not only to establish effective business processes but they are required to accommodate for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Many business processes extend beyond the boundary of the enterprise into the supply chain and the information...... process innovation (BPI) in future organizations. There is a significant body of knowledge on various aspect of process innovation, e.g. on conceptual modeling, business processes, supply chains and enterprise systems. Still an overall comprehensive and consistent theoretical framework with guidelines...... for practical applications has not been identified. The aim of this paper is to establish a conceptual framework for business process innovation in the supply chain based on advanced enterprise systems. The main approach to business process innovation in this context is to create a new methodology for exploring...

  13. Cyclic Processing for Context Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Many machine-learning techniques use feedback information. However, current context fusion systems do not support this because they constrain processing to be structured as acyclic processing. This paper proposes a generalization which enables the use of cyclic processing in context fusion systems. A solution is proposed to the inherent problem of how to avoid uncontrollable looping during cyclic processing. The solution is based on finding cycles using graph-coloring and breaking cycles usin...

  14. Information Symmetries in Irreversible Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Christopher J.; Mahoney, John R.; James, Ryan G.; Crutchfield, James P.; Reichardt, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamical reversibility in stationary stochastic processes from an information theoretic perspective. Extending earlier work on the reversibility of Markov chains, we focus on finitary processes with arbitrarily long conditional correlations. In particular, we examine stationary processes represented or generated by edge-emitting, finite-state hidden Markov models. Surprisingly, we find pervasive temporal asymmetries in the statistics of such stationary processes with the consequence...

  15. Metrics Generation Process for Mechatronics

    OpenAIRE

    WARNIEZ, Aude; Penas, Olivia; Choley, Jean-Yves; Hehenberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    International audience Due to the complexity of designing mechatronic systems, providers of these systems need to precisely evaluate their products, design processes and projects all along the design phase and beyond. We propose a metrics generation process and then define related specifications to develop an evaluation tool to build customized metrics for the mechatronic industry with respect to its specific process and expectations. The proposed process has been experimented on the modul...

  16. Gaussian Processes for Functional Autoregression

    OpenAIRE

    Kowal, Daniel R.; David S. Matteson; Ruppert, David

    2016-01-01

    We develop a hierarchical Gaussian process model for forecasting and inference of functional time series data. Unlike existing methods, our approach is especially suited for sparsely or irregularly sampled curves and for curves sampled with non-negligible measurement error. The latent process is dynamically modeled as a functional autoregression (FAR) with Gaussian process innovations. We propose a fully nonparametric dynamic functional factor model for the dynamic innovation process, with br...

  17. Perfect simulation of Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    This article concerns a perfect simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The usual stratihtforward simulation algorithm suffers from edge effects, whereas our perfect simulation algorithm does not. By viewing Hawkes processes as Poisson cluster processes and using...... their branching and conditional independence structure, useful approximations of the distribution function for the length of a cluster are derived. This is used to construct upper and lower processes for the perfect simulation algorithm. Examples of applications and empirical results are presented....

  18. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  19. Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-IlKim

    2013-01-01

    Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three subprocesses, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous subprocesses, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision making, and goal-directed control. Reward...

  20. GPU applications for data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladymyrov, Mykhailo, E-mail: mykhailo.vladymyrov@cern.ch [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, Andrey [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Tioukov, Valeri [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    Modern experiments that use nuclear photoemulsion imply fast and efficient data acquisition from the emulsion can be performed. The new approaches in developing scanning systems require real-time processing of large amount of data. Methods that use Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) computing power for emulsion data processing are presented here. It is shown how the GPU-accelerated emulsion processing helped us to rise the scanning speed by factor of nine.