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Sample records for aral sea region

  1. Primary tasks of environmental improvement of the Aral Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauipbaev, S.T.; Turebaev, Sh.Kh.; Kusherbaev, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Main reasons of environmental crisis in Aral Sea region are analyzed. Primary tasks of its environmental improvement are planed: - creation of conditions of guarantee ensuring (by territory and time) for all water consumers of water resources of the Syr-Dariya and Amu Dariya rivers at the expense of increase of water system efficiency and organization of Water Union of Basin Countries; - acceptance of regional measures on good quality water supply for the Aral Sea region population, mainly at expense of underground water use; -fulfillment of primary measures for Aral Sea save, envisaging building of land dam separating the Small Aral: - solution of unemployment problem by capacity of strengthening of farm economy and rebirth of native business

  2. International Fund of Aral Sea rescue: the way to regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In this book scientists consider Aral Sea ecology problems, international cooperation on using of water resources in Aral sea basin, national plans of actions in decision of regional problems of Aral Sea basin, the Aral Sea crisis-the problems and objectives to future

  3. Nature–society linkages in the Aral Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher D. White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia's Aral Sea crisis represents a disaster of monumental proportions, a tragedy for both the region's ecology and its human inhabitants. While the human and natural environments had operated in a sustainable co-joined system for millennia, Tsarist Russian expansion into Central Asia, followed by Soviet expansion of both the cotton industry and unsustainable irrigation practices to anchor it spelled doom for the Aral Sea. Today, many of the political and economic stimuli for such misguided practices continue, as do the continued retreat of the Sea and the proliferation of poor human health. The Aral Sea crisis has received ample scholarly attention, though somewhat surprising is a relative dearth of research explicitly investigating the nature, variety, and directionality of nature–society linkages today within the region. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the contemporary nature–society linkages operating within the Aral Sea region of Central Asia. Historical nexuses will provide necessary background, and the linkages operating currently within the spheres of regional economy, human health, and political considerations will be detailed. Couching the current crisis within the framework of coupled human–environment system contexts reveals a region in which these linkages are largely inextricable. This paper concludes with a call for a reconsideration of the nature-society linkages and a greater emphasis placed on the local region's ecological and social sustainability.

  4. Features of Malignancy Prevalence among Children in the Aral Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbayev, Arstan; Dyussembayeva, Nailya; Ibrayeva, Lyazzat; Satenova, Zhanna; Tulyayeva, Anara; Kireyeva, Nurgul; Zholmukhamedova, Dinara; Rybalkina, Dina; Yeleuov, Galymzhan; Yeleuov, Almasbek

    2016-12-01

    Objective: A study of primary cancer morbidity among children and subsequent calculation of average annual incidence were carried out for boys and girls, and young men and women in Kazakhstan. Methods: The investigated population lived in three areas of the Aral Sea region: designated catastrophe (Aral, Kazalt, Shalkar regions), crisis (Zhalagash, Karmakshy, Shiely regions), pre-crisis (Irgiz, Arys, Ulytau regions). Zhanaarka region of Karaganda oblast was applied as a control. Parameters were retrospective analyzed for the 10 years from 2004 to 2013. Result: The results indicate that indices of children cancer morbidity were slightly higher in the Aral Sea region than in the control district, but they were comparable with similar data from studies in other regions. In all areas of the Aral Sea region, except for Ulytau, primary cancer morbidity exceeded the control level by 1.3-2.7 times (4.7%000). Hematological malignancies, including solid tumors - tumors of musculoskeletal system and skin, digestive system, brain and central nervous system predominated. Stress levels in zones of the Aral Sea region were slightly higher in the crisis zone than in the catastrophe zone that can be explained by the phenomenon of wave-like dynamics of disease growth risk. Gender differences in characteristics of malignancy formation were not more pronounced in the studied region. Conclusion: Indices of children cancer are slightly higher in the Aral Sea region than in the control area of Kazakhstan, but they are comparable to results for other regions. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Impact of Desiccation of Aral Sea on the Regional Climate of Central Asia Using WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Huang, Huei-Ping; Zavialov, Peter; Khan, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the impacts of the desiccation of the Aral Sea and large-scale climate change on the regional climate of Central Asia in the post-1960 era. A series of climate downscaling experiments for the 1960's and 2000's decades were performed using the Weather Research and Forecast model at 12-km horizontal resolution. To quantify the impacts of the changing surface boundary condition, a set of simulations with an identical lateral boundary condition but different extents of the Aral Sea were performed. It was found that the desiccation of the Aral Sea leads to more snow (and less rain) as desiccated winter surface is relatively much colder than water surface. In summer, desiccation led to substantial warming over the Aral Sea. These impacts were largely confined to within the area covered by the former Aral Sea and its immediate vicinity, although desiccation of the Sea also led to minor cooling over the greater Central Asia in winter. A contrasting set of simulations with an identical surface boundary condition but different lateral boundary conditions produced more identifiable changes in regional climate over the greater Central Asia which was characterized by a warming trend in both winter and summer. Simulations also showed that while the desiccation of the Aral Sea has significant impacts on the local climate over the Sea, the climate over the greater Central Asia on inter-decadal time scale was more strongly influenced by the continental or global-scale climate change on that time scale.

  6. Neuropsychological state of the population living in the Aral Sea region (zone of ecological crisis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiev, Kanat; Battakova, Sharbanu; Namazbaeva, Zulkiya; Ibrayeva, Lyazat; Otarbayeva, Maral; Sabirov, Zhanbol

    2017-04-01

    Background The Aral Sea crisis has led to harmful effects on human habitat. In recent years, mild cognitive impairment is a growing problem. Objectives This article provides the results of studying the neuropsychological state of residents living in the crisis zone of the Aral Sea region in the case of Shalkar city. We have provided an assessment of the neuropsychological state of examined population and determined the leading pathology in this region. Methods The survey sample included 344 persons of reproductive age from 21 to 45 years. We have obtained results in biochemical studies, indicating perturbations of proteometabolism and lipid metabolism. Results A correlation analysis showed dependence between a decrease of albumin and high-density lipoproteins, an increase of low-density lipoproteins and parameters of cognitive function. Conclusions The research suggests a high prevalence of cerebrovascular pathology among the population, changes in cognitive function parameters, long-term and short-term memory problems and high levels of depression.

  7. Ra-226 and Rn-222 in saline water compartments of the Aral Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, Georg; Oberhänsli, Hedi; Hahne, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 222 Rn and 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Aral Sea region. • 226 Ra-analysis based on 222 Rn-ingrowth versus MS-analysis after solid-phase extraction. • 226 Ra in different groundwater types of the Aral Sea Basin. • 222 Rn distribution in the Aral Sea, western basin. - Abstract: The Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1963 due to extensive irrigation and the corresponding decline in the river water inflow. Understanding of the current hydrological situation demands an improved understanding of the surface water/groundwater dynamics in the region. 222 Rn and 226 Ra measurements can be used to trace groundwater discharge into surface waters. Data of these radiometric parameters were not previously available for the study region. We determined 222 Rn activities after liquid phase extraction using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) with peak-length discrimination and analyzed 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Amu Darya Delta (surface waters, unconfined groundwater, artesian water, and water profiles from the closed Large Aral Sea (western basin). The water samples comprise a salinity range between 1 and 263 g/l. The seasonal dynamics of solid/water interaction under an arid climate regime force the hydrochemical evolution of the unconfined groundwater in the Amu Darya Delta to high-salinity Na(Mg)Cl(SO 4 ) water types. The dissolved radium concentrations in the waters were mostly very low due to mineral over-saturation, extensive co-precipitation of radium and adsorption of radium on coexisting solid substrates. The analysis of very low 226 Ra concentrations (<10 ppq) at remote study sites is a challenge. We used the water samples to test and improve different analytical methods. In particular, we modified a procedure developed for the α-spectrometric determination of 226 Ra after solid phase extraction of radium using 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disks (Purkl, 2002) for the

  8. Past and present Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC

  9. Ecological and economic problems of the Aral Sea region during transition to market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Yu.M.; Rice, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The anthropogenic pressure upon the Aral Sea has exceeded reasonably permissible bounds too long. As a result of extensive water and land resources use, the regional ecology has been disrupted. The region is presently subject to potentially irreversible environment degradation. Under existing condition stabilization of the situation may be only achieved by applying modern land use management methods. Wise water resources distribution among water users in the different countries impossible under improved development condition and acceptance of appropriate legal mechanisms. Abundance of solar energy (238 MJ/m 2 per year) and windy days in the region imply that solar and wind energy development projects in the former sea bottom would be successful. Such project should be implemented when feasible. The use of natural resources incurs environmental and financial costs. Wise land must consider the ecological and socioeconomic division within region. Disturbed areas with unprofitable or unsuitable agricultural production must be evaluated and perhaps taken out of production. All infertile lands should be excluded from agricultural production and should be converted to permanent pastures or wildlife habitant. Optimal rotational grazing system should be used in the deltas. A scientific soil fertility improvement program should be implemented. Rice and cotton cultivation on fields adjacent to human population centers should be discontinued. Finally, all productive irrigated lands should be privatised by the local farmers

  10. The Assessment of Irrigated Land Salinization in the Aral Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlykhanov, Orazkhan K.; Toktaganova, Gulzhaz B.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the main industries of Kazakhstan, especially in the Kyzylorda Region. Before the reforms, agriculture in this region was better developed than the manufacturing industry; this is no longer the case. The main crop grown on the irrigated land of the region is rice. Inefficient distribution of cultivated areas, their excessive…

  11. International Fund of Aral Sea rescue:prospects and new aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslov, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter of book author suggest about aims and prospects of International Fund of Aral Sea rescue. The base aim of International Fund of Aral Sea rescue was the funds attraction of Central Asia governments and international community-donors for financing of Program of Aral Sea basin. Now the Executive Committee of International Fund of Aral Sea rescue develops the program of basin of Aral Sea for the period till 2010

  12. History of Aral Sea level variability and current scientific debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretaux, Jean-François; Letolle, René; Bergé-Nguyen, Muriel

    2013-11-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk drastically over the past 50 years, largely due to water abstraction from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers for land irrigation. Over a longer timescale, Holocene palaeolimnological reconstruction of variability in water levels of the Aral Sea since 11,700 BP indicates a long history of alternating phases of regression and transgression, which have been attributed variously to climate, tectonic and anthropogenic forcing. The hydrological history of the Aral Sea has been investigated by application of a variety of scientific approaches, including archaeology, palaeolimnological palaeoclimate reconstruction, geophysics, sedimentology, and more recently, space science. Many issues concerning lake level variability over the Holocene and more recent timescales, and the processes that drive the changes, are still a matter for active debate. Our aim in this article is to review the current debates regarding key issues surrounding the causes and magnitude of Aral Sea level variability on a variety of timescales from months to thousands of years. Many researchers have shown that the main driving force of Aral Sea regressions and transgressions is climate change, while other authors have argued that anthropogenic forcing is the main cause of Aral Sea water level variations over the Holocene. Particular emphasis is made on contributions from satellite remote sensing data in order to improve our understanding of the influence of groundwater on the current hydrological water budget of the Aral Sea since 2005. Over this period of time, water balance computation has been performed and has shown that the underground water inflow to the Aral Sea is close to zero with an uncertainty of 3 km3/year.

  13. Aral Sea ecology crisis: the ways of negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashirbekov, U.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter of book author suggest about problems which connect with Aral Sea ecology crisis. He asserts that for solving those problems it is necessary consolidated acts of all world community and first of all political volition and determination of leaders of all countries of basin

  14. The Study of Cellular and Molecular Physiological Characteristics of Sperm in Men Living in the Aral Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berikbay Z. Kultanov

    2015-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Men living in environmentally disadvantaged areas of Kyzylorda region under the influence of dust and salt aerosols and other toxicants leads to disruption of the reproductive function in men.

  15. THE GEOPOLITICAL DIMENSION OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY. WATERS AND CONFLICT IN THE ARAL SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piastra

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the Aral Sea, located in Central Asia on the boundary between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, experienced a dramatic shrinking, divulged even in newspapers and magazines. Such an ecological catastrophe, renamed the “Aral Sea Crisis”, was triggered by the artificial diversion of the rivers of the basin during the Soviet period, in order to irrigate new cotton fields. Nowadays, notwithstanding the fulfilment of several environmental restoration projects and a wide scientific literature about the process, the general balance about the water body, in particular its Uzbek side, is still critical. This paper, after a synthesis concerning the causes and the consequences of the ecological disaster, analyses the geopolitical implications connected to the deterioration of the environmental quality in the region and to water management in Post-Soviet Central Asia, underlining, in the case of the Aral Sea Basin, the criticities linked to its fast transition from an internal basin to an international one. Finally, Central Asian water-related old programs and future scenarios are discussed.

  16. Mixing regime of the residual water basins of the Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhitskiy, Alexander; Zavialov, Peter; Kirillin, Georgiy

    2017-04-01

    The Aral Sea, a terminal salt lake in western Central Asia situated at the border between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, was ranked as the fourth largest inland water body in the mid-20th century. However, in the early 1960s, the lake's volume started to decrease rapidly due to severe changes in the Aral's water balance. Thus, the present-day Aral Sea can be considered as a system of separate water bodies with a common origin but very different physical, chemical and biological features. Our previous studies showed that the Large Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas transformed into hyperhaline water bodies, while the Small Aral Sea was a brackish basin with rather similar to the pre-desiccation environment. On the other hand, the Small Aral Sea and Lake Tshchebas exhibited a mixed vertical structure, whereas the Western Large Aral Sea (especially the Chernyshev Bay) was strongly stratified. The presented study is focused on the seasonal mixing regimes of the residual basins. Isolation of deep waters from the atmosphere together with low rates of photosynthesis produce deep anoxia observed in the Chernyshev Bay and in the Large Aral. The high amount of organic matter provides a rich source of nutrients for anoxic microorganisms favoring methanogenesis in the bottom layer of the basins. In the Small Aral, the water column remains well-oxygenated down to the bottom throughout most of the year and development of anoxia is unlikely. The mixing regimes of the recently formed residual lakes of the former Aral Sea will provide manifold effect on the ongoing development of the aquatic system in the following decades. The study is based on a field data collected during two surveys of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology to the Aral Sea, which took place in October, 2015 and June, 2016. In situ measurements including CTD profiling and water sampling were carried out in the northern extremity of the western Large Aral (the Chernyshev Bay), in Lake Tshchebas, and in the Small Aral Sea

  17. The Kara Bogaz Gol Bay, Lake Issyk Kul and Aral Sea sediments as archives of climate change in the Aral-Caspian catchment basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferronsky, V.I.; Brezgunov, V.S.; Vlasova, L.S.; Karpychev, Y.A.; Polyakov, V.A.; Bobkov, A.F.; Romanovsky, V.V.; Johnson, T.; Ricketts, D.; Rasmussen, K.

    2002-01-01

    A 5-m long core of bottom sediments from the Kara Bogaz Gol Bay of the Caspian Sea, 4- m and 2-m cores from the Issyk Kul Lake of the Thian Shan Mountains, and a 4-m core from the Aral Sea were examined for evidence of climatic and environmental changes in the catchment basin of the Central Asia Region. The distribution of 18 O and 13 C in the bulk carbonates, 2 H in the pore water, radiocarbon age, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the lake water, abundance of CaCO 3 , MgCO 3 , and the basic salt ions of Na + , K + , Cl - , SO 4 2- in the cores were measured. The isotope and hydrogeochemical data of the Kara Bogaz Gol Bay sediments prove a historical scenario for the basin which suggests that fresh water has been discharged to the Caspian Sea during the Bay's humid episode across the Central Asia Region (∼ 9 Ka BP). Isotope and geochemical evidence indicate that the sedimentation of the upper core segment has taken place during the last ∼2.2 Ka BP in the environment of sea water recharged from the Central Caspian Basin. The period of between 4.3 and 6 Ka BP, which relates to the core depth interval of between 170 cm and 260 cm, demonstrates the most dramatic change in the sedimentation rate in the Issyk Kul Lake. It means that active melting of the mountain glaciers and warming of climate has happened just in this period. The swamp plant peat layers at depths of 230 cm and 130 cm indicate that during 3.5-3.7 Ka BP and 1.6-1.8 Ka BP the Aral Sea dried and broke up into a number of lakes and swamps. Sediment cores taken from the bottom of the Kara Bogaz Gol Bay, Lake Issyk Kul and Aral Sea show periodic rise and fall in water levels during the last ∼10 000 years. Two peat layers within the sediment core of the Aral Sea and dated at 1.6-1.8 Ka BP and 3.5-3.7 Ka BP demonstrate that this reservoir also periodically dried. (author)

  18. Geometrical and gravimetrical observations of the Aral Sea and its tributaries along with hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Seitz, F.; Schwatke, C.; Güntner, A.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite altimetry is capable of measuring surface water level changes of large water bodies. This is especially interesting for regions where in-situ gauges are sparse or not available. Temporal variations of coastline and horizontal extent of a water body can be derived from optical remote sensing data. A joint analysis of both data types together with a digital elevation model allows for the estimation of water volume changes. Related variations of water mass map into the observations of the satellite gravity field mission GRACE. In this presentation, we demonstrate the application of heterogeneuous remote sensing methods for studying chages of water volume and mass of the Aral Sea and compare the results with respect to their consistency. Our analysis covers the period 2002-2011. In particular we deal with data from multi-mission radar and laser satellite altimetry that are analyzed in combination with coastlines from Landsat images. The resultant vertical and horizontal variations of the lake surface are geometrically intersected with the bathymetry of the Aral Sea in order to compute volumetric changes. These are transformed into variations of water mass that are subsequently compared with storage changes derived from GRACE satellite gravimetry. Hence we obtain a comprehensive picture of the hydrological changes in the region. Observations from all datasets correspond quite well with each other with respect to their temporal development. However, geometrically determined volume changes and mass changes observed by GRACE agree less well during years of heavy water inflow in to the Aral Sea from its southern tributary 'Amu Darya' since the GRACE signals are contaminated by the large mass of water stored in the river delta and prearalie region On the other hand, GRACE observations of the river basins of Syr Darya and Amu Dayra correspond very well with hydrological models and mass changes computed from the balance of precipitation, evaporation and runoff

  19. Coupling physically based and data-driven models for assessing freshwater inflow into the Small Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzel, Georgy; Izhitskiy, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    The Aral Sea desiccation and related changes in hydroclimatic conditions on a regional level is a hot topic for past decades. The key problem of scientific research projects devoted to an investigation of modern Aral Sea basin hydrological regime is its discontinuous nature - the only limited amount of papers takes into account the complex runoff formation system entirely. Addressing this challenge we have developed a continuous prediction system for assessing freshwater inflow into the Small Aral Sea based on coupling stack of hydrological and data-driven models. Results show a good prediction skill and approve the possibility to develop a valuable water assessment tool which utilizes the power of classical physically based and modern machine learning models both for territories with complex water management system and strong water-related data scarcity. The source code and data of the proposed system is available on a Github page (https://github.com/SMASHIproject/IWRM2018" target="_blank">https://github.com/SMASHIproject/IWRM2018).

  20. Basin Economic Allocation Model (BEAM): An economic model of water use developed for the Aral Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegels, Niels; Kromann, Mikkel; Karup Pedersen, Jesper; Lindgaard-Jørgensen, Palle; Sokolov, Vadim; Sorokin, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    The water resources of the Aral Sea basin are under increasing pressure, particularly from the conflict over whether hydropower or irrigation water use should take priority. The purpose of the BEAM model is to explore the impact of changes to water allocation and investments in water management infrastructure on the overall welfare of the Aral Sea basin. The BEAM model estimates welfare changes associated with changes to how water is allocated between the five countries in the basin (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; water use in Afghanistan is assumed to be fixed). Water is allocated according to economic optimization criteria; in other words, the BEAM model allocates water across time and space so that the economic welfare associated with water use is maximized. The model is programmed in GAMS. The model addresses the Aral Sea Basin as a whole - that is, the rivers Syr Darya, Amu Darya, Kashkadarya, and Zarafshan, as well as the Aral Sea. The model representation includes water resources, including 14 river sections, 6 terminal lakes, 28 reservoirs and 19 catchment runoff nodes, as well as land resources (i.e., irrigated croplands). The model covers 5 sectors: agriculture (crops: wheat, cotton, alfalfa, rice, fruit, vegetables and others), hydropower, nature, households and industry. The focus of the model is on welfare impacts associated with changes to water use in the agriculture and hydropower sectors. The model aims at addressing the following issues of relevance for economic management of water resources: • Physical efficiency (estimating how investments in irrigation efficiency affect economic welfare). • Economic efficiency (estimating how changes in how water is allocated affect welfare). • Equity (who will gain from changes in allocation of water from one sector to another and who will lose?). Stakeholders in the region have been involved in the development of the model, and about 10 national experts, including

  1. Microelements containing in rock of the Aral region. Agrochemical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumamuratov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Lately chemization of agriculture has been done not only by mineral nitrification and pesticides but also by melioration with rocks and industrial waste. However, increase in soil fertility and the related efficiency of production requires systematic control and analysis of the chemization so as not to disturb the existing balance in ecosystem. The experiment on bringing mountain rocks up 30 ton/hectare in soil shows that the socks have variable element contents (up a few orders of value) and under this condition the soil may be poisoned with undesirable toxic elements. Thus, it becomes actual to analyse the total element contents of soil and the inserted meliorants (rocks and other resources available in the region) used in agriculture production. Besides, the obtained information about element contents of mountain rocks allows to solve not only geochemical problems but also to evaluate soil formation process. Choose of a mountain rock having soil. Lack of microelements in soil can be made up by fitting optimal doses of meliorants consisting of mineral (NPK) and local fertilizers, mountain rocks or industrial waste. We proved earlier, that the soils of cotton planting area of Uzbekistan are exhausted with the nutrient elements (Co, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Rb, Cs, K and rarer P). Besides, the soil are polluted with As, Sb, Br, U, Th, REE and the Republics. Owing to pollution of the region soil with toxic elements, deficit of the nutritious in the environment, one can expect progressing of several diseases (sick ratr) in the population. Relating to the update agro-state of the soil of cotton planting region of Karakalpakstan, one can observe similar agrogeochemical processes complicated by a sharp accumulation on Na and Cl in subsurface layers of the soil. On the territory of the South Aral at different depths of many chinks and paleogenic terrigenic thick being opened in hills of Krantau, Khoja-Kul, Beshtube, Khojeily and also in the South-East Sultanuezdag, there are

  2. Microelements containing in rock of the Aral region. Agrogeochemical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumamuratov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Lately chemization of agriculture has been done not only by mineral nutrification and pesticides but also by melioration with rocks and industrial waste. However, increase in soil fertility and the related efficiency of production requires systematic control and analysis of the chemization so as not to disturb the existing balance in ecosystem. The experiment on bringing mountain rocks up 30ton/hectare in soil shows that the socks have variable element contents (up a few orders of value) and under this condition the soil may be poisoned with undesirable toxic elements. Thus, it becomes actual to analyse the total element contents of soil and the inserted meliorants (rocks and other resources available in the region) used in agriculture production. Besides, the obtained information about element contents of mountain rocks allows to solve not only geochemical problems but also to evaluate soil formation process. Choose of a mountain rock having soil. Lack of microelements in soil can be made up by fitting optimal doses of meliorants consisting of mineral (NPK) and local fertilizers, mountain rocks or industrial waste. We proved earlier, that the soils of cotton planting area of Uzbekistan are exhausted with the nutrient elements (Co, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Rb, Cs, K and rarer P). Besides, the soil are polluted with As, Sb, Br, U, Th, REE and the Republics. Owing to pollution of the region soil with toxic elements, deficit of the nutritious in the environment, one can expect progressing of several diseases (sick ratr) in the population. Relating to the update agro-state of the soil of cotton planting region of Karakalpakstan, one can observe similar agrogeochemical processes complicated by a sharp accumulation on Na and Cl in subsurface layers of the soil. On the territory of the South Aral at different depths of many chinks and paleogenic terrigenic thick being opened in hills of Krantau, Khoja-Kul, Beshtube, Khojeily and also in the South-East Sultanuezdag

  3. Morphology of the Ovaries in Condition of Inhalation Intoxication with Dust-Saline Aerosols of the Aral Sea in Female White Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasminur G. Turdybekova

    2018-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account the proven effect of dust-saline aerosols on the production of estrogen, the violation of the postovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle, we trace the mechanism of folliculogenesis disturbance. This confirms the data of our previous studies on primary and secondary infertility in women living in the Aral Sea region and the necessity of creation and development of preventive measures for the inhabitants of the region.

  4. The Study on Eco-environmental Issue of Aral Sea from the Perspective of Sustainable Development of Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanyan

    2017-04-01

    The Aral Sea crisis is the most prominent environmental problem in building Silk Road and Economic Belt, which is mainly induced by extensive exploitation of land resources in Aral Sea basin since the middle of last century. The upstream part of Amu Darya River, as the main water source of Aral Sea, is almost entirely located in Tajikistan, thus, the development and utilization of Tajikistan water resources affect the whole Aral Sea basin. The author puts forward oriented-development of green energy under the overall framework of co-building Silk Road and Economic Belt, developing small hydro-power and dam-free hydro-power stations, standardized implementation of agricultural modernization in Central Asia, through high efficiency and water saving agriculture to achieve “returning water to sea”, to reverse drying trend of Aral Sea, to renovate ecological environment, resulting in simultaneous implementation of agricultural production and Aral Sea governance, simultaneous achievement of agricultural harvest and ecological environment improvement of Aral Sea basin. The article makes a scientific proof of reality and feasibility regarding the proposed methods. Green ecological environment and stable social environment will contribute to the sustainable development of Green Silk Road and Economic belt.…

  5. What have we learned? A review of the literature on children's health and the environment in the Aral Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Eric James; Barwin, Lynn; Small, Ian; Upshur, Ross

    2011-04-01

    To review the published literature examining the impacts of the Aral Sea disaster on children's health. A systematic review of the English language literature. The literature search uncovered 26 peer-reviewed articles and four major reports published between 1994 and 2008. Anemia, diarrheal diseases, and high body burdens of toxic contaminants were identified as being among the significant health problems for children. These problems are associated either directly with the environmental disaster or indirectly via the deterioration of the region's economy and social and health care services. While links between persistent organic pollutant exposures and body burdens are clear, health impacts remain poorly understood. No clear evidence for the link between dust exposure and respiratory function was identified. While important questions about the nature of the child health and environment relationships remain to be answered, the literature unequivocally illustrates the seriousness of the public health tragedy and provides sufficient evidence to justify immediate action. Regrettably, international awareness of the crisis continues to be poor, and the level of action addressing the situation is wholly inadequate.

  6. Evaluation of the toxicological properties of ground- and surface-water samples from the Aral Sea Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, K.; Erdinger, L.; Ingel, F.; Khussainova, S.; Utegenova, E.; Bresgen, N.; Eckl, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine whether there is a potential health risk associated with the water supply in the Aral Sea Basin, ground- and surface-water samples were collected in and around Aralsk and from the Aral Sea in 2002. Water samples from Akchi, a small town close to Almaty, served as controls. Bioassays with different toxicological endpoints were employed to assess the general toxicological status. Additionally, the samples were analysed for microbial contamination. The samples were tested in the primary hepatocyte assay for their potential to induce micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations as cumulative indicators for genotoxicity. In parallel, the effects on cell proliferation evidenced by mitotic index and cytotoxicity such as the appearance of necrotic and apoptotic cells, were determined. Furthermore, samples were examined using the Microtox assay for general toxicity. Chemical analysis according to European regulations was performed and soil and water samples were analysed for DDT and DDE. The results obtained indicated no increased cyto- or genotoxic potential of the water samples, nor levels of DDT or DDE exceeding the thresholds levels suggested by WHO. Our data therefore do not support the hypothesis that the contamination of the drinking water in and around Aralsk is responsible for the health effects previously described such as increased rates of liver disease and in particular liver cancer. Microbiological analysis, however, revealed the presence of contamination in most samples analysed

  7. Catchment-scale contaminant transport under changing hydro-climatic conditions in the Aral Sea Drainage Basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarsjö, Jerker; Törnqvist, Rebecka; Su, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Dependable projections of future water availability and quality are essential in the management of water resources. Changes in land use, water use and climate can have large impacts on water and contaminant flows across extensive catchments that may contain different administrative regions where shared water resources must be managed. We consider the extensive Aral Sea Drainage Basin (ASDB) and the Amu Darya River Delta in Central Asia, which are currently under severe water stress due to large-scale irrigation expansion. We interpret data on hydro-climatic conditions, main contaminants of surface water and shallow groundwater systems, location of rivers and canal networks, and groundwater flow directions. The data are used together with climate change projections from general circulation models (GCMs) as input to hydrological and (advective) transport modelling. The main goal is to assess how regional transport pathways and travel times have changed, and are likely to change further, in response to past and projected future hydro-climatic changes. More specifically, the hydrological modelling was based on temperature and precipitation change (ΔT and ΔP) results from 65 GCM projections of 21st century conditions (specifically considering time periods around 2025, 2050, and 2100), relative to reference conditions around 1975 (taken from the reference period 1961-1990). Whereas ΔT is robustly projected to increase with time, the projected magnitude of ΔP differs more among projections for the distant future (2100) than for the near future (2025), with uncertainty remaining even about the direction of change (i.e., positive or negative ΔP). However, mainly due to the projected temperature-driven increases in evapotranspiration, ensemble average results show that the Amu Darya river discharge Q in the downstream ASDB is likely to show a decreasing trend throughout the 21st century. Notably, projected changes in the upstream, mountainous regions have a relatively

  8. Remote-sensing-based analysis of landscape change in the desiccated seabed of the Aral Sea--a potential tool for assessing the hazard degree of dust and salt storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, F; Navratil, P; Kotte, K; Schöler, H F; Bubenzer, O

    2013-10-01

    With the recession of the Aral Sea in Central Asia, once the world's fourth largest lake, a huge new saline desert emerged which is nowadays called the Aralkum. Saline soils in the Aralkum are a major source for dust and salt storms in the region. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal land cover change dynamics in the Aralkum and discuss potential implications for the recent and future dust and salt storm activity in the region. MODIS satellite time series were classified from 2000-2008 and change of land cover was quantified. The Aral Sea desiccation accelerated between 2004 and 2008. The area of sandy surfaces and salt soils, which bear the greatest dust and salt storm generation potential increased by more than 36 %. In parts of the Aralkum desalinization of soils was found to take place within 4-8 years. The implication of the ongoing regression of the Aral Sea is that the expansion of saline surfaces will continue. Knowing the spatio-temporal dynamics of both the location and the surface characteristics of the source areas for dust and salt storms allows drawing conclusions about the potential hazard degree of the dust load. The remote-sensing-based land cover assessment presented in this study could be coupled with existing knowledge on the location of source areas for an early estimation of trends in shifting dust composition. Opportunities, limits, and requirements of satellite-based land cover classification and change detection in the Aralkum are discussed.

  9. The fight against desertification and the remediation of the salt deserts near the Aral Sea; Desertifikationsbekaempfung und Sanierung der Salzwuesten am Aralsee. Sukzession und Phytomelioration, Naturschutz und nachhaltige Entwicklung. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wucherer, W.; Breckle, S.W. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    The main goals of the project carried out at Bielefeld University on ''The fight against desertification and the remediation of the salt deserts near the Aral Sea'' were as follows: a) to test methods for counteracting desertification by phytomelioration of saline soils; b) to develop plausible nature conservation strategies for the region and preserve biodiversity; and c) to manage resources at the local and regional level. Ad a) The planting was done in November 2002 and March 2004 on an area of 248.3 ha. Three species were tested: Haloxylon aphyllum, Halocnemum strobilaceum and Tamarix hispida. Various planting methods were used. Ad b) A model for preserving biodiversity in the region was developed using the nature conservation area Barsa Kelmes as an example. The flora and vegetation of the core area (the former island Barsa Kelmes) were inventoried, and measures were taken to develop the above-named nature conservation area. Ad c) The villages Bogen and Karateren were used as model objects for cooperation within the region. These villages belong to the Aralsk region (Raion). They are the administrative centres of their respective sub-districts (Aulsoviet), Karateren and Bogen. An intensive cooperation has evolved with the relevant NGOs. In the village Bogen a bureau for the NGO and an information centre for nature resource conservation were established.

  10. Eastern Baltic Sea Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig

    2016-01-01

    Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016).......Kort over den østlige Østersøregion i middelalderen med angivelse af lokaliteter omtalt i antologien, placeret på s.8 i bogen "Church and Belief in the Middle Ages", red. Kirsi Salonen & Sari Katajala-Peltomaa (Amsterdam, 2016)....

  11. Genetic variation among agamid lizards of the trapelus agiliscomplex in the caspian-aral basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Ananjeva, Natalia B.

    2004-05-19

    Allozyme variation is examined in eight populations of Trapelus from the Caspian-Aral Basin of the former USSR. Thirty-one loci (15 variable) exhibit remarkably low levels of genetic variation with only a Nei's genetic distance of 0.117 across 2500 km. An isolated population on the European side of the Caspian Sea is found to phenetically cluster inside the Asian populations examined, suggesting that it should not be considered taxonomically distinct.

  12. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  13. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  14. The Incidence of Malignant Tumors in Environmentally Disadvantaged Regions of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbayev, Arstan; Djarkenov, Timur; Dosbayev, Askar; Dusembayeva, Nailya; Shpakov, Anatolyi; Umarova, Gulmira; Drobchenko, Yelena; Kunurkulzhayev, Temirgali; Zhaylybaev, Mukhtar; Isayeva, Gulnar

    2016-12-01

    Objective: To explore the prevalence of malignant tumors in the adult population through 2003-2014 in parts of the Aral Sea region: a zone of ecological disaster, a zone of ecological crisis and a zone of precritical conditions. Methods: The long-time average annual levels of cancer morbidity stratified by zones of the Aral Sea region and trends of long-time average annual incidence indicators of malignant tumors were identified. Leading cancer localizations in the adult population was established and associations between cancer incidence and environmental pollution were analyzed. In addition, associations between individual risk factors and cancer incidence in the adult population was established. Correlations between a hazard index and the cancer incidence in the adult population were calculated. Results: In all three Aral Sea regions, as well as in Zhanaarkinskii district, leading cancer in adult population was esophageal, stomach, tracheal, lung, hepatobiliary, and breast. Long-time average annual levels of cancer morbidity in adult population living in the Aral sea region is 1.5 times higher comparing to the control region. In particular, long-time average annual levels of cancer morbidity in adult population living in the zone of ecological disaster was 57.2% higher, in the zone of ecological crisis - 61.9% higher, and in the zone of precritical condition – 16.8% higher. Long-time average annual levels in the adult population of the Aral Sea region significantly exceeded control levels for brain and central nervous system cancer, cancer of bone and articular cartilage, and thyroid cancer. Conclusion: It has was established that the total cancer morbidity depended on the total hazard index associated with the inhalation of nickel and the combined cadmium intake (r=0.8). Creative Commons Attribution License

  15. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  16. Ranking of the Ecological Disaster Areas According to Coliform Contamination and the Incidence of Acute Enteric Infections of the Population in Kyzylorda Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Mariya N.; Orakbay, Lyazzat Zh.; Shuratov, Idelbay H.; Kenjebayeva, Asiya T.; Zhumagalieva, Aizhan B.; Sarsenova, Ainur B.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to monitoring the environmental coliform bacteria (CB) contamination (soil and water) in the environmental disaster areas in the Kazakhstan part of the Aral Sea Region and ranking districts by their level of contamination and the rate of gastrointestinal infections (GI). The research was done in environmental disaster areas…

  17. AoA Region: South Asian Seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    is an environmental assessment for the entire Bay of Bengal region (BOBP/ REP/67) prepared for the Swedish Centre for Coastal Development and Management of Aquatic Resources by Holmgren (1994) under the Bay of Bengal Programme. This assessment provides information...-based activities (UNEP 2001) includes information on the South Asian Seas region. Under the Environment Management-Capacity Building Project implemented by the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests with funding support from the World Bank, the Integrated...

  18. The regional seas programme of UNEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss-Guest, P.A. (United Nations Environment Programme, Geneva, Switzerland); Keckes, S.

    1982-04-01

    The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) outlined a ''master plan'' for protecting the world's environment which linked environmental assessment, environmental management, and supporting measures, as basic and inseparable elements - also recognizing the advantages of a regional approach in contributing to the solution of global problems. The development of UNEP's Regional Seas Programme, since the Action Plan for the Mediterranean was adopted in 1975, demonstrates that the basic concepts formulated at Stockholm can effectively foster regional cooperation among interested States, and that such cooperation can and does benefit greatly from the support of the United Nations as a whole. The viability of any long-term regional programme lies with the political and financial commitment of the Governments concerned. Within the UNEP Regional Seas Programme this commitment is usually formalized through binding regional legal agreements, and is manifested concretely through an agreed set of activities that are revised periodically by the Governments involved. It is expected that these activities will be adquately supported by financial resources put at the disposal of each of the regional programmes primarily by the Governments concerned.

  19. SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikScat satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions.This false-color image is based entirely on SeaWinds measurements obtained over oceans, land, and polar regions. Over the ocean, colors indicate wind speed with orange as the fastest wind speeds and blue as the slowest. White streamlines indicate the wind direction. The ocean winds in this image were measured by SeaWinds on September 20, 1999. The large storm in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida is Hurricane Gert. Tropical storm Harvey is evident as a high wind region in the Gulf of Mexico, while farther west in the Pacific is tropical storm Hilary. An extensive storm is also present in the South Atlantic Ocean near Antarctica.The land image was made from four days of SeaWinds data with the aid of a resolution enhancement algorithm developed by Dr. David Long at Brigham Young University. The lightest green areas correspond to the highest radar backscatter. Note the bright Amazon and Congo rainforests compared to the dark Sahara desert. The Amazon River is visible as a dark line running horizontally though the bright South American rain forest. Cities appear as bright spots on the images, especially in the U.S. and Europe.The image of Greenland and the north polar ice cap was generated from data acquired by SeaWinds on a single day. In the polar region portion of the image, white corresponds to the largest radar return, while purple is the lowest. The variations in color in Greenland and the polar ice cap reveal information about the ice and snow conditions present.NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth

  20. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  1. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    Investigation of atmospheric transport of arid aerosol from Central Asia was held within the ISTC project 3715. Particular attention was paid to the removal of aerosol from the Aral Sea region and its further transport, because aerosol and pollutants emission from Central Asia affect the airspace of the entire Asian continent. At the same time measurements of aerosols in the atmosphere of Central Asia are holding in a small number of stations, and currently available data are insufficient to define the initial conditions and/or verification of models of long-range transport. To identify sources of pollution transported from Central Asia, in Kyrgyzstan measurement and sampling of air were organized: at the station on the northern slope of the Kirgiz Range, 30 km south of Bishkek, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level (Bishkek Site, 42,683N; 74,694E ), and on permanent alpine Teploklyuchenka lidar station in the Central Tien Shan at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level (Lidar Site, 42,467N; 78,533E). The chemical analysis of collected aerosol and soils samples was carried out. Measurements of aerosol at these stations have been merged with the simulation of the trajectories of air masses in the study region and with the satellite (the Terra and Aqua satellites) observations of aerosol optical thickness in this region. Satellite data for the region 43-47 N, and 58-62 E (Aral Sea) from April 2008 to September 2009 were analyzed. The moments were selected, when the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was greatest (more than 0.5), and the transport from the Aral Sea region to the observation sites took place. For each of these days, the forward trajectories, which started at 6 points within the region, were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. The days, on which the trajectories reached the BISHKEK and LIDAR sites, were determined from the data obtained. Calculations on the basis of the RAMS model were performed for these days. These calculations were performed

  2. Geodynamic Evolution of the Banda Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, N.; Decker, J.; Orange, D.; Teas, P.; Van Heiningen, P.

    2013-12-01

    We've carried out a large on- and offshore study in Eastern Indonesia to characterize the major structures and to provide constraints on the Neogene geodynamic evolution of the Banda Sea region. The onshore portion utilized remote sensing data and published geology. We tied the onshore to the offshore using recently acquired high resolution bathymetric data (16m and 25m bin size) and 2D seismic profiles that extend from Sulawesi in the west to Irian Jaya in the east across the northern part of the Banda Arc. We interpret the northern boundary of the 'Birds Head' (BH) of Papua, the Sorong Fault, to be a sinistral strike-slip fault zone with a minimum of 48 km displacement over the last few million years. The western boundary fault of Cendrawasih Basin defines the eastern boundary of BH and corresponds to the Wandamen Peninsula which comprises high pressure metamorphic rocks, including eclogite and granulite facies rocks, with exhumation ages from 4 to 1 Ma. Earthquake focal mechanism solutions indicate that the eastern boundary of BH is linked with a large scale offshore normal fault which we suggest may be related to the exhumation of the Wandamen Peninsula. The eastern boundary of Cendrawasih Basin is defined by a large transpressive belt along which BH is decoupled from the rest of Papua / Irian Jaya. This interpretation is supported by recent GPS studies. We propose that the BH and the Pacific plate are coupled, and therefore the Birds Head is therefore completely detached from Irian Jaya. Furthermore, Aru Basin, located at the NE corner of Banda Arc, is a Fault-Fault-Transform (FFT) type triple junction. According to available literature information the Banda Sea includes three distinct basins with different geologic histories; the North Banda Sea Basin (NBSB) was opened during 12-7 Ma, Wetar-Damar Basin (WDB) during 7-3.5 Ma and Weber Basin (WB) 3-0 Ma. Our bathymetric and seismic data indicated that the NBSB and Weber Basin lack normal oceanic crust and are

  3. Projecting twenty-first century regional sea-level changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Carson, M.; Katsman, C.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Köhl, A.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Stammer, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present regional sea-level projections and associated uncertainty estimates for the end of the 21 (st) century. We show regional projections of sea-level change resulting from changing ocean circulation, increased heat uptake and atmospheric pressure in CMIP5 climate models. These are combined

  4. Estudio de la relación del ascenso del nivel del Mar Caspio con el regadio en la Cuenca del Mar de Aral

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Cruz, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    El nivel del Mar Caspio ha venido subiendo desde mediados de los años 60. Se plantea la conjetura de que este ascenso sea debido al augmento de las extensiones de cultivo situadas en las cuencas de regadío del Mar de Aral. Ello provoca un aumento de humedad atmosférica, que es transportada hacia la cuenca del Mar Caspio. El objetivo de la tesina es estudiar dicha conjetura.

  5. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  6. Evaluation of radionuclides content in the Near-Aral inhabited area's soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlachev, I.D.; Kamberov, I.M.; Knyazev, B.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Platov, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The soils analysis for radionuclides content determination in three inhabited areas of Near-Aral region (Shiili, Kazalinsk and Zhalagash) is carried out. In capacity of the 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 137 Cs, and radon concentrations analytical parameters were selected. A mean, minimal and maximal values of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 137 Cs radioisotopes in the selected areas soils are presented. Results of radionuclide content researches testify about 137 Cs global fallout typical levels for the Northern Hemisphere. So on the base of these data one can affirm that radiation situation in these regions is normal and radiation background level does not presents threat for human health. The indoor radon content excluding of two points does not exceeds the stated norms

  7. Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, S.; Jahn, Alexandra; Kay, Jennifer E.; Holland, Marika; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2014-02-01

    Rapid declines in summer Arctic sea ice extent are projected under high-forcing future climate scenarios. Regional Arctic climate engineering has been suggested as an emergency strategy to save the sea ice. Model simulations of idealized regional dimming experiments compared to a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission simulation demonstrate the importance of both local and remote feedback mechanisms to the surface energy budget in high latitudes. With increasing artificial reduction in incoming shortwave radiation, the positive surface albedo feedback from Arctic sea ice loss is reduced. However, changes in Arctic clouds and the strongly increasing northward heat transport both counteract the direct dimming effects. A 4 times stronger local reduction in solar radiation compared to a global experiment is required to preserve summer Arctic sea ice area. Even with regional Arctic dimming, a reduction in the strength of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and a shut down of Labrador Sea deep convection are possible.

  8. Changes in extreme regional sea level under global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnabend, S. E.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Kliphuis, Michael; Bal, Henri E.; Seinstra, Frank J.; van Werkhoven, Ben; Maassen, J.; van Meersbergen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    An important contribution to future changes in regional sea level extremes is due to the changes in intrinsic ocean variability, in particular ocean eddies. Here, we study a scenario of future dynamic sea level (DSL) extremes using a high-resolution version of the Parallel Ocean Program and

  9. Contemporary Trends in Land Surface Phenologies from the Aral Basin Suggest Weather- or Irrigation-Driven Changes in GPP not Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. K.; de Beurs, K.; Henebry, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    The transformation of the Aral Sea into the Aral Lakes is a startling example of anthropogenic environmental degradation. However, ongoing impacts of hydrologic modification and climatic change are occurring throughout the nearly 2 million km2 Aral Basin (AB), thus requiring synoptic, basin-wide monitoring of environmental trends. The MODIS 500m global land cover (LC) product is a potential source of such information in a data-sparse region like the AB. However, we find that it is particularly unstable in this arid/semi-arid region. For example, 25% of AB pixels change LC class between 2001 and 2005 versions of the global LC using the IGBP LC scheme. Here we present an alternate analysis of environmental trends in the AB using MODIS data at the same spatial resolution, but incorporating temporal information embedded within contemporary land surface phenologies (LSPs), in contrast to temporally delimited LC. NDVI time series from 2001-2008 were derived from 500m MODIS NBAR data (16-d composites every 8 d; MCD43A4). Focusing on the period from 1 March to 1 October, each pixel time series was comprised of 27 NDVI values per year (or 216 composites in total). Trend analysis using the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall test revealed a number of spatially coherent hotspots of highly significant (p<0.01) positive and negative trends in NDVI dynamics over the 2001-2008 interval. Relative to the 2001 and 2005 LC classifications, positive trends tended to coincide with the following transitions between IGBP classes: open shrub → closed shrub; grassland → {open shrub, cropland}; {open shrub, cropland/natural vegetation mix} → cropland. These findings suggest that apparent LC change events might be false-positives caused by weather-driven increases in GPP. In turn, negative trends were largely coincident with putative LC change to grassland from mostly woody classes: {closed shrub, open shrub, woody savanna, savanna, snow/ice, barren} → grassland. Here, potential false

  10. An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

    2014-04-01

    From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

  11. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  12. Sea spray aerosol fluxes in the Baltic Sea region: Comparison of the WAM model with measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markuszewski, Piotr; Kosecki, Szymon; Petelski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    Sea spray aerosol flux is an important element of sub-regional climate modeling. The majority of works related to this topic concentrate on open ocean research rather than on smaller, inland seas, e.g., the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish inland seas by area, where major inflows of oceanic waters are rare. Furthermore, surface waves in the Baltic Sea have a relatively shorter lifespan in comparison with oceanic waves. Therefore, emission of sea spray aerosol may differ greatly from what is known from oceanic research and should be investigated. This article presents a comparison of sea spray aerosol measurements carried out on-board the s/y Oceania research ship with data calculated in accordance to the WAM model. The measurements were conducted in the southern region of the Baltic Sea during four scientific cruises. The gradient method was used to determinate aerosol fluxes. The fluxes were calculated for particles of diameter in range of 0.5-47 μm. The correlation between wind speed measured and simulated has a good agreement (correlation in range of 0.8). The comparison encompasses three different sea spray generation models. First, function proposed by Massel (2006) which is based only on wave parameters, such as significant wave height and peak frequency. Second, Callaghan (2013) which is based on Gong (2003) model (wind speed relation), and a thorough experimental analysis of whitecaps. Third, Petelski et al. (2014) which is based on in-situ gradient measurements with the function dependent on wind speed. The two first models which based on whitecaps analysis are insufficient. Moreover, the research shows strong relation between aerosol emission and wind speed history.

  13. Checklist of sea turtles endohelminth in Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M. R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a list of parasites described in sea turtles from the Neotropical region. Through the review of literature the occurrence of 79 taxa of helminthes parasites were observed, mostly consisting of the Phylum Platyhelminthes with 76 species distributed in 14 families and 2 families of the Phylum Nematoda within 3 species. Regarding the parasite records, the most studied host was the green turtle (Chelonia mydas followed by the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea, loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea. Overall helminths were reported in 12 countries and in the Caribbean Sea region. This checklist is the largest compilation of data on helminths found in sea turtles in the Neotropical region.

  14. How Changing Human Lifestyles are Shaping Europe's Regional Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, L. D.; Lowe, C. D.; Langmead, O.; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Attrill, M.; Cooper, P.; Gilbert, A.; Knudsen, S.; Garnacho, E.

    2007-05-01

    European society is experiencing unprecedented changes triggered by expansion of the European Union, the fall of Communism, economic growth and the onset of globalisation. Europe's regional seas, the Baltic, Black Sea, Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (including the North Sea), provide key goods and services to the human population but have suffered from severe degradation in past decades. Their integrity as coupled social and ecological systems depends on how humanity will anticipate potential problems and deal with its ecological footprint in the future. We report the outcome of an EU-funded 15-country, 28 institution project entitled European Lifestyles and Marine Ecosystems (ELME). Our studies were designed to inform new EU policy and legislation that incorporates Ecosystem-Based Management. ELME has modelled the key relationships between economic and social drivers (D), environmental pressures (P) and changes in the state of the environment (S) in Europe's regional seas. We examined four key issues in each sea: habitat change, eutrophication, chemical pollution and fisheries. We developed conceptual models for each regional sea and employed a novel stochastic modelling technique to examine the interrelationship between key components of the conceptual models. We used the models to examine 2-3 decade projections of current trends in D, P and S and how a number of alternative development scenarios might modify these trends. These simulations demonstrate the vulnerability of Europe's seas to human pressure. As affluence increases in countries acceding to the EU, so does the demand for marine goods and services. There are `winners' and `losers' amongst marine species; the winners are often species that are opportunistic invaders or those with low economic value. In the case of eutrophication, semi-enclosed seas such as the Baltic or Black Sea are already affected by the `legacy of the past'; nutrients that have accumulated in soils, ground waters and

  15. Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J.W.

    2015-05-18

    The Red Sea is a semi-enclosed tropical marine ecosystem that stretches from the Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba in the north, to the Gulf of Aden in the south. Despite its ecological and economic importance, its biological environment is relatively unexplored. Satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration (an index of phytoplankton biomass) offer an observational platform to monitor the health of the Red Sea. However, little is known about the optical properties of the region. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties of the Red Sea in the context of satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration. Making use of a new merged ocean-colour product, from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative, and in situ data in the region, we test the performance of a series of ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms. We find that standard algorithms systematically overestimate chlorophyll when compared with the in situ data. To investigate this bias we develop an ocean-colour model for the Red Sea, parameterised to data collected during the Tara Oceans expedition, that estimates remote-sensing reflectance as a function of chlorophyll concentration. We used the Red Sea model to tune the standard chlorophyll algorithms and the overestimation in chlorophyll originally observed was corrected. Results suggest that the overestimation was likely due to an excess of CDOM absorption per unit chlorophyll in the Red Sea when compared with average global conditions. However, we recognise that additional information is required to test the influence of other potential sources of the overestimation, such as aeolian dust, and we discuss uncertainties in the datasets used. We present a series of regional chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea, designed for a suite of ocean-colour sensors, that may be used for further testing.

  16. Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; den Besselaar Else, van; Abdel, Hannachi; Jaak, Jaagus; Elizabeth, Kent; Christiana, Lefebvre; Gudrun, Rosenhagen; Anna, Rutgersson; Frederik, Schenk; der Schrier Gerard, van; Tim, Woolings

    2017-04-01

    Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions In the framework of the BACC 2 (for the Baltic Sea) and NOSCCA projects (for the North Sea region), studies of past and present variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period (roughly the past 200 years) have been investigated. Findings on trends in temperature and precipitation have already been presented. Here we focus on data homogeneity issues and examine how reliable reanalyses are in this context. Unlike most other regions in the world, there is a wealth of old observations available for the Baltic and North Sea regions, most of it in handwritten form in meteorological journals and other publications. These datasets need to be carefully digitised and homogenized. For this, a thorough quality control must be applied; otherwise the digitised datasets may prove useless or even counterproductive. We present evidence that this step cannot be conducted without human interference and thus cannot be fully automated. Furthermore, inhomogeneities due to e.g. instrumentation and station relocations need to be addressed. A wealth of reanalysis products is available, which can help detect such inhomogeneities in observed time series, but at the same time are prone to biases and/or spurious trends themselves e.g. introduced by changes in the availability and quality of the underlying assimilated data. It therefore in general remains unclear in how far we can simulate the pre-satellite era with respect to homogeneity with reanalyses based only on parts of the observing system. Extreme events and changes in extreme situations are more important and of greater (societal) significance than changes in mean climate. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess not only because they are, per definition, rare events, but also due to the homogeneity issues outlined above. Taking these into account, we present evidence for changes

  17. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  18. IAEA supports regional seas conventions and action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs about the 3rd Global Meeting of Regional Seas Conventions and Action Plans held in Monaco in November 2000 at the IAEA's Marine Environmental Laboratory (IAEA-MEL). The meeting assembled a number of marine environmental experts from several UN bodies to reinforce activities to protect the marine environment

  19. AoA Region: Red Sea And Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    . The Secretariat for PERSGA was formally established in Jeddah following the Cairo Declaration of September 1995. PERSGA’s mandate is to perform functions necessary for the management of the Jeddah Convention and its Action Plan. As a result, PERSGA, in close... collaboration with relevant regional and international organizations, began implementing activities and programmes to deal with the various threats facing the coastal and marine environments in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region. The Strategic Action...

  20. Indonesian Sea Power and Regional Maritime Security Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsetio Marsetio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the regional maritime security challenges facing Indonesia. As it is known that entering to the 21st century has come a new term in regional architecture in the Asia-Pacific region, namely the Indo-Pacific region. This region consists of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. Both of these areas became more interconnected than in the previous period. These two regions became a single, significant system in the global order. Key players in the Indo-Pacific region are China, India and the United States. Of course, their actions have created new challenges in maritime security. These challenges include maritime disputes, pirates, and maritime power competition. The dispute in the South China Sea has spawned a security problem in the Asia Pacific region that Indonesia must face in the future.

  1. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  2. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  3. THE ECONOMY AND ENERGY OF THE BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Floriana Popescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea region has proved to be an emerging hub for Europe’s security and has experienced several changes and a great development at the beginning of the twenty-first century. This process is currently carried out, and has important implications for European security in a broader definition of the term - to achieve traditional military security, but also tackling other challenges at the address soft security issues, such as organized crime. Located at the crossroads of three regions of paramount importance - Europe, Middle East and Central Asia – the Black Sea region is a major transit area for energy and at the same time, an important source of asymmetric risks and outbreaks of conflicts. Therefore, analysing this region from an economical point of view, but not forgetting the energy security implications for this area, represents the main focus of this article, along with underlining the importance of various actors in the region and their actions’ impact on the future development of the Black Sea territory and surroundings.

  4. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  5. Seasonal regional forecast of the minimum sea ice extent in the LapteV Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, B.; Brunette, C.; Newton, R.

    2017-12-01

    Late winter anomaly of sea ice export from the peripheral seas of the Atctic Ocean was found to be a useful predictor for the minimum sea ice extent (SIE) in the Arctic Ocean (Williams et al., 2017). In the following, we present a proof of concept for a regional seasonal forecast of the min SIE for the Laptev Sea based on late winter coastal divergence quantified using a Lagrangian Ice Tracking System (LITS) forced with satellite derived sea-ice drifts from the Polar Pathfinder. Following Nikolaeva and Sesterikov (1970), we track an imaginary line just offshore of coastal polynyas in the Laptev Sea from December of the previous year to May 1 of the following year using LITS. Results show that coastal divergence in the Laptev Sea between February 1st and May 1st is best correlated (r = -0.61) with the following September minimum SIE in accord with previous results from Krumpen et al. (2013, for the Laptev Sea) and Williams et a. (2017, for the pan-Arctic). This gives a maximum seasonal predictability of Laptev Sea min SIE anomalies from observations of approximately 40%. Coastal ice divergence leads to formation of thinner ice that melts earlier in early summer, hence creating areas of open water that have a lower albedo and trigger an ice-albedo feedback. In the Laptev Sea, we find that anomalies of coastal divergence in late winter are amplified threefold to result in the September SIE. We also find a correlation coefficient r = 0.49 between February-March-April (FMA) anomalies of coastal divergence with the FMA averaged AO index. Interestingly, the correlation is stronger, r = 0.61, when comparing the FMA coastal divergence anomalies to the DJFMA averaged AO index. It is hypothesized that the AO index at the beginning of the winter (and the associated anomalous sea ice export) also contains information that impact the magnitude of coastal divergence opening later in the winter. Our approach differs from previous approaches (e.g. Krumpen et al and Williams et al

  6. Upwelling in the Minicoy region of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Jayaraman, R.

    in the Minicoy Region of the Arabian Sea CurrentScience sankaran (Atomic Energy Establishment). The principles of the field emission and the field ion microscopes were the subject of symposium talks by Drs. Ramakhshna Rao and Bahadur. Dr (Mrs ) Satyavati M... the methodology and applications of cytochemistry at the ultrastructural level. All the participants, irrespective of their scientific background, had to undergo the practical course in the various techniques of specimen preparation in both physical and bio...

  7. The origin of sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, through its trace constituents, can have a major impact on lower tropospheric chemistry, as evidenced by ozone depletion events (ODEs in oceanic polar areas. These ODEs are caused by the chemistry of bromine compounds that originate from sea salt bromide. Bromide may be supplied to the snow surface by upward migration from sea ice, by frost flowers being wind-blown to the snow surface, or by wind-transported aerosol generated by sea spray. We investigate here the relative importance of these processes by analyzing ions in snow near Alert and Ny-Ålesund (Canadian and European high Arctic in winter and spring. Vertical ionic profiles in the snowpack on sea ice are measured to test upward migration of sea salt ions and to seek evidence for ion fractionation processes. Time series of the ionic composition of surface snow layers are investigated to quantify wind-transported ions. Upward migration of unfractionated sea salt to heights of at least 17cm was observed in winter snow, leading to Cl- concentration of several hundred µM. Upward migration thus has the potential to supply ions to surface snow layers. Time series show that wind can deposit aerosols to the top few cm of the snow, leading also to Cl- concentrations of several hundred µM, so that both diffusion from sea ice and wind transport can significantly contribute ions to snow. At Ny-Ålesund, sea salt transported by wind was unfractionated, implying that it comes from sea spray rather than frost flowers. Estimations based on our results suggest that the marine snowpack contains about 10 times more Na+ than the frost flowers, so that both the marine snowpack and frost flowers need to be considered as sea salt sources. Our data suggest that ozone depletion chemistry can significantly enhance the Br- content of snow. We speculate that this can also take place in coastal regions and contribute to propagate ODEs inland. Finally, we stress the need to measure snow physical parameters

  8. Conflict Resolution Trends in the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Shelest

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses the main trends of the various conflict resolution processes in the Black Sea region. It emphasizes the transformation of the mediators’ role, including the increase of the EU efforts in the various peace processes. The author states that the absence of military actions, the narrowness of the existing peace formats and competition between the various mediating parties for leadership lead to the militarization of the region, the absence of the conflicts’ ‘ripeness’, new peace initiatives and an ‘all or nothing’ position on the part of the conflicting parties.

  9. Air-sea exchange over Black Sea estimated from high resolution regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velea, Liliana; Bojariu, Roxana; Cica, Roxana

    2013-04-01

    Black Sea is an important influencing factor for the climate of bordering countries, showing cyclogenetic activity (Trigo et al, 1999) and influencing Mediterranean cyclones passing over. As for other seas, standard observations of the atmosphere are limited in time and space and available observation-based estimations of air-sea exchange terms present quite large ranges of uncertainty. The reanalysis datasets (e.g. ERA produced by ECMWF) provide promising validation estimates of climatic characteristics against the ones in available climatic data (Schrum et al, 2001), while cannot reproduce some local features due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Detailed and realistic information on smaller-scale processes are foreseen to be provided by regional climate models, due to continuous improvements of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions and thus affording simulations at high spatial resolution. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of three regional climate models in reproducing known climatological characteristics of air-sea exchange over Black Sea, as well as to explore the added value of the model compared to the input (reanalysis) data. We employ results of long-term (1961-2000) simulations performed within ENSEMBLE project (http://ensemblesrt3.dmi.dk/) using models ETHZ-CLM, CNRM-ALADIN, METO-HadCM, for which the integration domain covers the whole area of interest. The analysis is performed for the entire basin for several variables entering the heat and water budget terms and available as direct output from the models, at seasonal and annual scale. A comparison with independent data (ERA-INTERIM) and findings from other studies (e.g. Schrum et al, 2001) is also presented. References: Schrum, C., Staneva, J., Stanev, E. and Ozsoy, E., 2001: Air-sea exchange in the Black Sea estimated from atmospheric analysis for the period 1979-1993, J. Marine Systems, 31, 3-19 Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg (1999): Objective

  10. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  11. Regional sea level projections with observed gauge, altimeter and reconstructed data along China coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L.; Shi, H.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Acting as the typical shelf seas in northwest Pacific Ocean, regional sea level along China coasts exhibits complicated and multiscale spatial-temporal characteristics under circumstance of global change. In this paper, sea level variability is investigated with tide gauges records, satellite altimetry data, reconstructed sea surface height, and CMIP simulation fields. Sea level exhibits the interannual variability imposing on a remarkable sea level rising in the China seas and coastal region, although its seasonal signals are significant as the results of global ocean. Sea level exhibits faster rising rate during the satellite altimetry era, nearly twice to the rate during the last sixty years. AVISO data and reconstructed sea surface heights illustrate good correlation coefficient, more than 0.8. Interannual sea level variation is mainly modulated by the low-frequency variability of wind fields over northern Pacific Ocean by local and remote processes. Meanwhile sea level varies obviously by the transport fluctuation and bimodality path of Kuroshio. Its variability possibly linked to internal variability of the ocean-atmosphere system influenced by ENSO oscillation. China Sea level have been rising during the 20th century, and are projected to continue to rise during this century. Sea level can reach the highest extreme level in latter half of 21st century. Modeled sea level including regional sea level projection combined with the IPCC climate scenarios play a significant role on coastal storm surge evolution. The vulnerable regions along the ECS coast will suffer from the increasing storm damage with sea level variations.

  12. Polyporus squamosus (Huds. Fr. in the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanem Bulam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyporus squamosus (Huds. Fr., also named as Aladana, Peri Semeri, Pullu Mantar in varying by localities of Turkey, is an edible wild mushroom species widely existed in the mycobiota of the Black Sea Region. It has not been sold in the local markets. The public recognition of this mushroom may change locally in the Black Sea Region. It is widely consumed by the people in some parts of the region. It is usually appeared in the nature during May-September on the logs, dead and living trunks of the deciduous trees. Following the rainy period, it grows so fast and can produce a few kilograms fruit body within a short period. It is delicious and precious as much as meat for the nutritional value, especially during early growth stage. In this review, general knowledge on the morphological and ecological characteristics, nutritional value and medicinal properties of P. squamosus mushroom and some study results on the domestication of this mushroom have been presented in order to improve the public awareness and its consumption.

  13. Potential impacts of climate change on the primary production of regional seas: A comparative analysis of five European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jason; Schrum, Corinna; Cannaby, Heather; Daewel, Ute; Allen, Icarus; Artioli, Yuri; Bopp, Laurent; Butenschon, Momme; Fach, Bettina A.; Harle, James; Pushpadas, Dhanya; Salihoglu, Baris; Wakelin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Regional seas are potentially highly vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important regions of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change impacts on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore the response of five regional sea areas to potential future climate change, acting via atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial vectors. These include the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and are contrasted with a region of the Northeast Atlantic. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within these seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic impacts on: long term changes in elemental budgets, seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five regional model systems each using a common global Earth System Model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and additional sensitivity experiments. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas we consider (Black and Baltic Seas) the increase in stratification is not seen as a first order control on primary production. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change

  14. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M; Ahlhaus, M [eds.

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster the energetic use

  15. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  16. Climatic features of the Red Sea from a regional assimilative model

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Langodan, Sabique; Challa, Venkata Srinivas; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    over the Red Sea compared to global analysis data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. We use the dataset to describe the atmospheric climatic conditions over the Red Sea region. © 2016 Royal Meteorological Society.

  17. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  18. Horsemanship of ancient armies of Northern Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kolesnykov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deal with the description, analysis and generalization of features of organization and tactics of cavalry of the army ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region: Olbia, Chersonese, Bosporus. Author sure that the foundation of the armed forces of these states was a civil militia – free, economically independent landowners, endowed with the broadest volume of political and social rights men – full citizens. Bosporus kings have attracted a significant number of hired troops that held by the royal treasury income and special direct tax. The cavalry is interacted with heavily armed infantry contingents – hoplites or swordsman­ thyureoforoi. The contingents of lightweight (arrow­toxots and heavy (akontists and spearmen cavalry were presented as part of ancient armies of the Northern Black Sea Region in Classical and Hellenistic periods. In the Roman period on the Bosporus fixed formation units of cathafractarian cavalry. The weapons and tactics of the Sarmatian nomadic nobility (Aspurhianian, Sirak, Aorsy and more were served as a model for Bosporus cataphractarian horsemen.

  19. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  20. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  1. Shallow Drilling In The Salton Sea Region, The Thermal Anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R. L.; Kasameyer, P. W.; Younker, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 C/m) to extreme (0.83 C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is >600 mW/m{sup 2} and in some areas exceeds 1200 mW/m{sup 2}. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes. These observations of the thermal anomaly provide important constraints for models of the circulation of the hydrothermal system. Thermal budgets based on a simple model for this hydrothermal system indicate that the heat influx rate for local ''hot spots'' in the region may be large enough to account for the rate of heat flux from the entire Salton Trough.

  2. Some characteristics of the seismicity of the Tyrrhenian Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HEDERVARI

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first p a r t of the paper the seismic strain release of the T y r r h e n i a n Sea Region (including Italy, as the function of time, is examined on the basis of t h e d a t a of the e a r t h q u a k e s t h a t took place f r om 1901.01.01 to 1970.12.31, between the northern l a t i t u d e s of 34° and 44° and between the eastern longitudes of 8° and 18.5°, respectively. All registered shocks with a R i c h t e r - m a g n i t u d e of 5.5 or over it were considered, i n d e p e n d e n t l y f r om t h e focal d e p t h . Three periods were recognized in the a c t i v i t y ; t h e lengths of which are not t h e same, however. I n the second p a r t the elastic strain release in accordance with the focal d e p t h of t h e same e a r t h q u a k e s is t r e a t e d briefly. It was found t h at t h e t o t a l strain-release had a maximum value in t h e depth between 0 and 74 kms and there was a minimum between the depth of 300 and 524 kins with an interval between 375 and 449 kms within which no earthquakes occurred at all. The general p a t t e r n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of seismicity as t h e f u n c t i o n of hypocentral d e p t h reminds to the well-known picture, one can experience in other regions where i n t e r m e d i a t e and deep shocks occur. This s t a t e m e n t is consistent w i t h t h e idea, according to which t h e seismicity of t h e Tyrrhenian Sea Region can be discussed and explained in t h e light of t h e theory of new global tectonics. F i n a l l y , in the t h i r d p a r t of the study, the authors have s t a t e d t h at in some cases multiple events occurred b e n e a t h t h e Tyrrhenian Sea Region. Such multiple seismic events were detected in the case of other areas, such as the Fiji-Tonga-Kermadec Region, the seismic belt of South America etc., — but, according to the knowledge of t h e authors, this is t h e first occasion when multiple seismic events are

  3. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  4. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI North Sea and Baltic Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  5. The Ross Sea Dipole - temperature, snow accumulation and sea ice variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica, over the past 2700 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertler, Nancy A. N.; Conway, Howard; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Emanuelsson, Daniel B.; Winstrup, Mai; Vallelonga, Paul T.; Lee, James E.; Brook, Ed J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Fudge, Taylor J.; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Neff, Peter D.; Blunier, Thomas; Edwards, Ross; Mayewski, Paul A.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Buizert, Christo; Canessa, Silvia; Dadic, Ruzica; Kjær, Helle A.; Kurbatov, Andrei; Zhang, Dongqi; Waddington, Edwin D.; Baccolo, Giovanni; Beers, Thomas; Brightley, Hannah J.; Carter, Lionel; Clemens-Sewall, David; Ciobanu, Viorela G.; Delmonte, Barbara; Eling, Lukas; Ellis, Aja; Ganesh, Shruthi; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Haines, Skylar; Handley, Michael; Hawley, Robert L.; Hogan, Chad M.; Johnson, Katelyn M.; Korotkikh, Elena; Lowry, Daniel P.; Mandeno, Darcy; McKay, Robert M.; Menking, James A.; Naish, Timothy R.; Noerling, Caroline; Ollive, Agathe; Orsi, Anaïs; Proemse, Bernadette C.; Pyne, Alexander R.; Pyne, Rebecca L.; Renwick, James; Scherer, Reed P.; Semper, Stefanie; Simonsen, Marius; Sneed, Sharon B.; Steig, Eric J.; Tuohy, Andrea; Ulayottil Venugopal, Abhijith; Valero-Delgado, Fernando; Venkatesh, Janani; Wang, Feitang; Wang, Shimeng; Winski, Dominic A.; Winton, V. Holly L.; Whiteford, Arran; Xiao, Cunde; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution, well-dated climate archives provide an opportunity to investigate the dynamic interactions of climate patterns relevant for future projections. Here, we present data from a new, annually dated ice core record from the eastern Ross Sea, named the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core. Comparison of this record with climate reanalysis data for the 1979-2012 interval shows that RICE reliably captures temperature and snow precipitation variability in the region. Trends over the past 2700 years in RICE are shown to be distinct from those in West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea captured by other ice cores. For most of this interval, the eastern Ross Sea was warming (or showing isotopic enrichment for other reasons), with increased snow accumulation and perhaps decreased sea ice concentration. However, West Antarctica cooled and the western Ross Sea showed no significant isotope temperature trend. This pattern here is referred to as the Ross Sea Dipole. Notably, during the Little Ice Age, West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea experienced colder than average temperatures, while the eastern Ross Sea underwent a period of warming or increased isotopic enrichment. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. All three regions show current warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea but increasing in the western Ross Sea. We interpret this pattern as reflecting an increase in sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea with perhaps the establishment of a modern Roosevelt Island polynya as a local moisture source for RICE.

  6. The Ross Sea Dipole – temperature, snow accumulation and sea ice variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica, over the past 2700 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. N. Bertler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution, well-dated climate archives provide an opportunity to investigate the dynamic interactions of climate patterns relevant for future projections. Here, we present data from a new, annually dated ice core record from the eastern Ross Sea, named the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE ice core. Comparison of this record with climate reanalysis data for the 1979–2012 interval shows that RICE reliably captures temperature and snow precipitation variability in the region. Trends over the past 2700 years in RICE are shown to be distinct from those in West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea captured by other ice cores. For most of this interval, the eastern Ross Sea was warming (or showing isotopic enrichment for other reasons, with increased snow accumulation and perhaps decreased sea ice concentration. However, West Antarctica cooled and the western Ross Sea showed no significant isotope temperature trend. This pattern here is referred to as the Ross Sea Dipole. Notably, during the Little Ice Age, West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea experienced colder than average temperatures, while the eastern Ross Sea underwent a period of warming or increased isotopic enrichment. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. All three regions show current warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea but increasing in the western Ross Sea. We interpret this pattern as reflecting an increase in sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea with perhaps the establishment of a modern Roosevelt Island polynya as a local moisture source for RICE.

  7. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  8. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  9. Introduction: The Black Sea as region and horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphrey, Caroline; Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The introduction first outlines different perspectives on the Black Sea: in history, as a site of imperial conflicts and a buffer zone; in area studies, as a “region”; and in anthropology, as a sea crisscrossed by migration, cultural influences, alternative visions, and often a mutual turning...... brought about by migration and trade. In the concluding section we discuss how the Black Sea has appeared as a “horizon” and imaginary of the beyond for the peoples living around its shores....

  10. State of the marine environment in the South Asian seas region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Ali, M.M.; Bhuiyan, A.L.; Hossain, M.M.; Sivalingam, P.M.; Subasinghe, S.; Tirmizi, N.M.

    stream_size 45 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name UNEP_Regional_Seas_Rep_Stud_1990_123.pdf.txt stream_source_info UNEP_Regional_Seas_Rep_Stud_1990_123.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  11. Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J.W.; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Jackson, Thomas; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Jones, Burton; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    an ocean-colour model for the Red Sea, parameterised to data collected during the Tara Oceans expedition, that estimates remote-sensing reflectance as a function of chlorophyll concentration. We used the Red Sea model to tune the standard chlorophyll

  12. The Wadden Sea region: towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazelmans, J.G.A.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  13. The Wadden Sea Region : Towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, Pavel; Bazelmans, Jos; van Dijk, Jouke; Herman, Peter M. J.; van Oijen, Tim; Pejrup, Morten; Reise, Karsten; Speelman, Hessel; Wolff, Wim J.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  14. The Wadden Sea Region: Towards a science for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Bazelmans, J.; Dijk, van J.; Hermans, P.; Oijen, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The Wadden Sea is one of the largest intertidal areas in the world and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its unique natural features. Major changes in the morphology and ecology of the Wadden Sea over the past millennium resulted from increasing anthropogenic

  15. Linking Regional Winter Sea Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness to Spring Melt Pond Fraction on Landfast Arctic Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Nasonova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea ice cover has decreased strongly in extent, thickness, volume and age in recent decades. The melt season presents a significant challenge for sea ice forecasting due to uncertainty associated with the role of surface melt ponds in ice decay at regional scales. This study quantifies the relationships of spring melt pond fraction (fp with both winter sea ice roughness and thickness, for landfast first-year sea ice (FYI and multiyear sea ice (MYI. In 2015, airborne measurements of winter sea ice thickness and roughness, as well as high-resolution optical data of melt pond covered sea ice, were collected along two ~5.2 km long profiles over FYI- and MYI-dominated regions in the Canadian Arctic. Statistics of winter sea ice thickness and roughness were compared to spring fp using three data aggregation approaches, termed object and hybrid-object (based on image segments, and regularly spaced grid-cells. The hybrid-based aggregation approach showed strongest associations because it considers the morphology of the ice as well as footprints of the sensors used to measure winter sea ice thickness and roughness. Using the hybrid-based data aggregation approach it was found that winter sea ice thickness and roughness are related to spring fp. A stronger negative correlation was observed between FYI thickness and fp (Spearman rs = −0.85 compared to FYI roughness and fp (rs = −0.52. The association between MYI thickness and fp was also negative (rs = −0.56, whereas there was no association between MYI roughness and fp. 47% of spring fp variation for FYI and MYI can be explained by mean thickness. Thin sea ice is characterized by low surface roughness allowing for widespread ponding in the spring (high fp whereas thick sea ice has undergone dynamic thickening and roughening with topographic features constraining melt water into deeper channels (low fp. This work provides an important contribution towards the parameterizations of fp in

  16. Ferry traffic in the Baltic Sea Region in south – north corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available All countries form the Baltic Sea Region are strongly economically connected with each other. International trade inbound the Region is usually realized by shipping lines, especially ro-ro and ferry lines. Ferry traffic on the BSR shows specific features, which draw a distinctions between other regions. In this article was tried to analized quantity and directions of maritime traffic in the BSR in years 2006 – 2008. Those period was excellent time for market growing for all owners. And more over – the analysis was made for main directions in the Baltic Sea Region – between Norway, Sweden and Finland – versus polish and german Baltic sea ports.

  17. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  18. Teaching anti-corruption in the caucasus and black sea region(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kruessmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is hardly a topic in the current transformations that is as central as corruption. Anti-corruption efforts go back to the nineties when globalisation turned the world into a corporate playing field. Since then, a wealth of tools and instruments has been invented, and any student of anti-corruption can be certain to find abundant materials. From a teacher’s perspective, turning these materials into a coherent academic subject is the first challenge. But anti-corruption is not a subject like any other. If taught properly, it should challenge every student’s moral compass and become a catalyst for the development of professional ethics. Anybody who has ever been forced to pay bribes in a university setting will remember «turning red with shame». Bribing your teacher, as compared to a traffic police or customs officer, seems like the ultimate betrayal of the notion of the intellectual community between scholar/teacher and student, and it throws into doubt the entire system of values and goals that higher education stands for. In its effect, it is as pernicious as doping in sports. And when the shame is overcome, the result will be a graduate who is «street-wise», who is ready to play the game and expect nothing less from his or her colleagues. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is twofold. It serves as a reflection on the state of anti-corruption efforts in the Black Sea and Caucasus region(s and suggests a model how electronic resources could become a catalyst in bringing blended learning/teaching on anti-corruption to the region(s. At the same time, it develops the scholarly argument that the «toolkit box approach» favoured by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC is not sufficient to address the root causes of corruption in the region(s. As an alternative and to the extent that it concerns the Black Sea and Caucasus region(s, it is suggested to place anti-corruption more firmly into the context of

  19. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling for the North Sea is presented. The numerical model used for the study is the coupled ice-ocean model OPYC. In a hindcast of the years 1979 to 1993 it was forced with atmospheric forcing of the ECMWF reanalysis. The models capability in simulating the observed mean state and variability in the North Sea is demonstrated by the hindcast. Two time scale ranges, from weekly to seasonal and the longer-than-seasonal time scales are investigated. Shorter time scales, for storm surges, are not captured by the model formulation. The main modes of variability of sea level, sea-surface circulation, sea-surface temperature, and sea-surface salinity are described and connections to atmospheric phenomena, like the NAO, are discussed. T106 ''time-slice'' simulations with a ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' horizon are used to estimate the effects of a changing climate on the shelf sea ''North Sea''. The ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' changes in the surface forcing are accompanied by changes in the lateral oceanic boundary conditions taken from a global coupled climate model. For ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' the time mean sea level increases up to 25 cm in the German Bight in the winter, where 15 cm are due to the surface forcing and 10 cm due to thermal expansion. This change is compared to the ''natural'' variability as simulated in the ECMWF integration and found to be not outside the range spanned by it. The variability of sea level on the weekly-to-seasonal time-scales is significantly reduced in the scenario integration. The variability on the longer-than-seasonal time-scales in the control and scenario runs is much smaller then in the ECMWF integration. This is traced back to the use of ''time-slice'' experiments. Discriminating between locally forced changes and changes induced at the lateral oceanic boundaries of the model in the circulation and

  20. Deep Sea Coral National Observation Database, Northeast Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The national database of deep sea coral observations. Northeast version 1.0. * This database was developed by the NOAA NOS NCCOS CCMA Biogeography office as part of...

  1. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  2. The regional structure of the Red Sea Rift revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Nico; van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Devey, Colin W.; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís

    2017-04-01

    The Red Sea Rift has, for decades, been considered a text book example of how young ocean basins form and mature. Nevertheless, most studies of submarine processes in the Red Sea were previously based on sparse data (mostly obtained between the late 1960's and 1980's) collected at very low resolution. This low resolution, combined with large gaps between individual datasets, required large interpolations when developing geological models. Thus, these models generally considered the Red Sea Rift a special case of young ocean basement formation, dividing it from North to South into three zones: a continental thinning zone, a "transition zone" and a fully developed spreading zone. All these zones are imagined, in most of the models, to be separated by large transform faults, potentially starting and ending on the African and Arabian continental shields. However, no consensus between models e.g. about the locations (or even the existence) of major faults, the nature of the transition zone or the extent of oceanic crust in the Red Sea Rift has been reached. Recently, high resolution bathymetry revealed detailed seafloor morphology as never seen before from the Red Sea, very comparable to other (ultra)slow spreading mid-ocean ridges such as the Gakkel Ridge, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and SW-Indian Ridge, changing the overall picture of the Red Sea significantly. New discoveries about the extent, movement and physical properties of submarine salt deposits led to the Red Sea Rift being linked to the young Aptian-age South Atlantic. Extensive crosscutting transform faults are not evident in the modern bathymetry data, neither in teleseismic nor vertical gravity gradient data and comparisons to Gakkel Ridge and the SW-Indian Ridge suggest that the Red Sea is much simpler in terms of structural geology than was previously thought. Complicated tectonic models do not appear necessary and there appears to be large areas of oceanic crust under the Red Sea salt blankets. Based on

  3. A model technical cooperation project on the marine radioactivity assessment in the Black Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, B. G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.; Koese, A.; Kuecuekcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Guengoer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region is a wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project coded as RER/2/003 implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001.This multidisciplinay project was designed in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey)- to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies. The IAEA assisted laboratories in the region by providing expert services, training, equipment and materials (Goektepe et al., 1998; Osvath et al., 1997-2000)

  4. Seismic stratigraphy and regional unconformity analysis of Chukchi Sea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasheva, Mariia; Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Russian Chukchi Sea Shelf one of petroleum potential province and still one of the most uninvestigated area. North and Sough Chukchi Trough that separated by Wrangel-Hearld Arch have different origin. The main challenge is stratigraphic sequences determination that filled North and South Chukchi basins. The joint tectonic evolution of the territory as Canada basin opening and Brooks Range-Wrangel Herald orogenic events enable to expect the analogous stratigraphy sequences in Russian Part. Analysis of 2D seismic data of Russian and American Chukchi Sea represent the major seismic reflectance that traced throughout the basins. Referring to this data North Chukchi basin includes four seismic stratigraphic sequences - Franklian (pre-Mississippian), Ellesmirian (Upper Devonian-Jurassic), Beaufortian (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and Brookian (Lower Cretaceous-Cenozoic), as it is in North Slope Alaska [1]. South Chukchi basin has different tectonic nature, representing only Franclian basement and Brookian sequences. Sedimentary cover of North Chukchi basins starts with Ellesmirian sequence it is marked by bright reflector that separates from chaotic folded Franklian sequence. Lower Ellesmirian sequence fills of grabens that formed during upper Devonian rifting. Devonian extension event was initiated as a result of Post-Caledonian orogenic collapse, terminating with the opening of Arctic oceans. Beaufortian sequence is distinguished in Colville basin and Hanna Trough by seismically defined clinoforms. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are eroded by regional Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU) linked with Canada basin opening. LCU is defined at seismic by angular unconformity, tracing at most arctic basins. Lower Cretaceous erosion and uplift event are of Hauterivian to Aptian age in Brooks Range and the Loppa High uplift refer to the early Barremian. The Lower Cretaceous clinoform complex downlaps to LCU horizon and filling North Chukchi basin (as in Colville basin Alska

  5. Climatic features of the Red Sea from a regional assimilative model

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu

    2016-08-16

    The Advanced Research version of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model was used to generate a downscaled, 10-km resolution regional climate dataset over the Red Sea and adjacent region. The model simulations are performed based on two, two-way nested domains of 30- and 10-km resolutions assimilating all conventional observations using a cyclic three-dimensional variational approach over an initial 12-h period. The improved initial conditions are then used to generate regional climate products for the following 24 h. We combined the resulting daily 24-h datasets to construct a 15-year Red Sea atmospheric downscaled product from 2000 to 2014. This 15-year downscaled dataset is evaluated via comparisons with various in situ and gridded datasets. Our analysis indicates that the assimilated model successfully reproduced the spatial and temporal variability of temperature, wind, rainfall, relative humidity and sea level pressure over the Red Sea region. The model also efficiently simulated the seasonal and monthly variability of wind patterns, the Red Sea Convergence Zone and associated rainfall. Our results suggest that dynamical downscaling and assimilation of available observations improve the representation of regional atmospheric features over the Red Sea compared to global analysis data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. We use the dataset to describe the atmospheric climatic conditions over the Red Sea region. © 2016 Royal Meteorological Society.

  6. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  7. On the regional characteristics of past and future sea-level change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, A.; McGregor, S.

    2010-12-01

    Global sea-level rise due to the thermal expansion of the warming oceans and freshwater input from melting glaciers and ice-sheets is threatening to inundate low-lying islands and coast-lines worldwide. At present global mean sea level rises at 3.1 ± 0.7 mm/yr with an accelerating tendency. However, the magnitude of recent decadal sea-level trends varies greatly spatially attaining values of up to 10 mm/yr in some areas of the western tropical Pacific. Identifying the causes of recent regional sea-level trends and understanding the patterns of future projected sea-level change is of crucial importance. Using a wind-forced simplified dynamical ocean model, we show that the regional features of recent decadal and multidecadal sea-level trends in the tropical Indo-Pacific can be attributed to changes in the prevailing wind-regimes. Furthermore it is demonstrated that within an ensemble of ten state-of-the art coupled general circulation models, forced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the next century, wind-induced re-distributions of upper-ocean water play a key role in establishing the spatial characteristics of projected regional sea-level rise. Wind-related changes in near- surface mass and heat convergence near the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Kiribati, the Cook Islands and French Polynesia oppose, but can not cancel the regional signal of global mean sea-level rise.

  8. Absolute sea levels and isostatic changes of the eastern North Sea to central Baltic region during the last 900 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Morten; Aagaard, Troels; Binderup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    that ice-cap growth can be faster than ice-cap melting. By comparison with 29 long-term tide gauge measurements of the region we show that the isostatic implications of the sea-level curve are in nearly perfect agreement with Peltier's global isostatic VM2 model (applied by IPCC and PSMSL) and yield a 3...

  9. Romanian contribution to the regional study of Black Sea radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, S.

    1993-01-01

    In the Black Sea area, polluting mineral exploitation, abusive fishing, unrestricted shipping activities and dumping of toxic wastes were done. Pollutant load carried by the Danube and other northern rivers, such as: Dnieper, Dniester, Bug, etc to the Black Sea, industrial and municipal discharges of air and water pollutants, pollution from ship traffic (particularly in the Constanta harbour area) contributed to the ecological degradation of the sea. Radioactivity monitoring as well as radioecological research are part of environmental assessments and protection strategies in Romania. The Romanian contribution consisted in participation in research contracts and coordinated research programs with IAEA-Vienna/Marine Environment Laboratory-Monaco between 1987-1992, in the program 'Global Inventory of Radioactivity in the Mediterranean Sea' (GIRMED) launched by IAEA after the XXXIst Congress and General assembly of the International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea by the Committee of Marine Radioactivity in 1988 and in the Co-operative Marine Science Program for the Black Sea (CoMSBlack) trough its Working group on radiochemistry and radioecology. This group includes Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Natural and artificial radionuclide (K-40, Ac-228, Ra-226, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Cs-137 and, starting in 1992, Sr-90) space and time distribution data were used for computation of in situ distribution coefficients and concentration factors (CFs) as well as for external and internal dose assessments in the Romanian sector. CFs of marine sediments, seaweeds and molluscs were measured in laboratory conditions. (author)

  10. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F.

    1999-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling is presented that allows an estimation of potential effects of climate change on the North Sea. Therefore, the ocean general circulation model OPYC is adapted for application on a shelf by adding a lateral boundary formulation and a tide model. In this set-up the model is forced, first, with data from the ECMWF reanalysis for model validation and the study of the natural variability, and, second, with data from climate change experiments to estimate the effects of climate change on the North Sea. (orig.)

  11. East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 from 1804 to 2014 (NODC Accession 0123300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 is an update to the preliminary version released in May 2012. This update includes new temperature and salinity...

  12. Simulating the Regional Impact of Dust on the Middle East Climate and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2018-01-01

    the Regional Ocean Modeling System fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We modified the atmospheric model to account for the radiative effect of dust. The simulations show that, in the equilibrium response, dust cools the Red Sea

  13. Simulating the Regional Impact of Dust on the Middle East Climate and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, Sergey

    2018-01-19

    The Red Sea is located between North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, the largest sources of dust in the world. Satellite retrievals show very high aerosol optical depth in the region, which increases during the summer season, especially over the southern Red Sea. Previously estimated and validated radiative effect from dust is expected to have a profound thermal and dynamic impact on the Red Sea, but that impact has not yet been studied or evaluated. Due to the strong dust radiative effect at the sea surface, uncoupled ocean modeling approaches with prescribed atmospheric boundary conditions result in an unrealistic ocean response. Therefore, to study the impact of dust on the regional climate of the Middle East and the Red Sea, we employed the Regional Ocean Modeling System fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We modified the atmospheric model to account for the radiative effect of dust. The simulations show that, in the equilibrium response, dust cools the Red Sea, reduces the surface wind speed, and weakens both the exchange at the Bab-el-Mandeb strait and the overturning circulation. The salinity distribution, freshwater, and heat budgets are significantly altered. A validation of the simulations against satellite products indicates that accounting for radiative effect from dust almost completely removes the bias and reduces errors in the top of the atmosphere fluxes and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that dust plays an important role in the energy balance, thermal, and circulation regimes in the Red Sea.

  14. Simulating the Regional Impact of Dust on the Middle East Climate and the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2018-02-01

    The Red Sea is located between North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, the largest sources of dust in the world. Satellite retrievals show very high aerosol optical depth in the region, which increases during the summer season, especially over the southern Red Sea. Previously estimated and validated radiative effect from dust is expected to have a profound thermal and dynamic impact on the Red Sea, but that impact has not yet been studied or evaluated. Due to the strong dust radiative effect at the sea surface, uncoupled ocean modeling approaches with prescribed atmospheric boundary conditions result in an unrealistic ocean response. Therefore, to study the impact of dust on the regional climate of the Middle East and the Red Sea, we employed the Regional Ocean Modeling System fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We modified the atmospheric model to account for the radiative effect of dust. The simulations show that, in the equilibrium response, dust cools the Red Sea, reduces the surface wind speed, and weakens both the exchange at the Bab-el-Mandeb strait and the overturning circulation. The salinity distribution, freshwater, and heat budgets are significantly altered. A validation of the simulations against satellite products indicates that accounting for radiative effect from dust almost completely removes the bias and reduces errors in the top of the atmosphere fluxes and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that dust plays an important role in the energy balance, thermal, and circulation regimes in the Red Sea.

  15. Environmental Assessment for Selected Regions in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    7-23. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1972). Wide scale digital seismic exploration of the Mediterranean Sea. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 14...291-342. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1973). Geophysical exploration of the Mediterranean. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 15: 263-341

  16. Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region ministerial meeting. Opening statement, Monaco, 5 October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Opening Statement of the Director General of the IAEA at the Ministerial Meeting on Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region, held in Monaco, on 5 October 1998. The Director General emphasized the contribution of the IAEA, mainly through its Technical Co-operation Programme, in strengthening the international co-operation in marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region

  17. Learning through EC directive based SEA in spatial planning? Evidence from the Brunswick Region in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Thomas B.; Kidd, Sue; Jha-Thakur, Urmila; Gazzola, Paola; Peel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results of an international comparative research project, funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Academy for Sustainable Communities (ASC) on the 'learning potential of appraisal (strategic environmental assessment - SEA) in spatial planning'. In this context, aspects of 'single-loop' and 'double-loop' learning, as well as of individual, organisational and social learning are discussed for emerging post-EC Directive German practice in the planning region (Zweckverband) of Brunswick (Braunschweig), focusing on four spatial plan SEAs from various administrative levels in the region. It is found that whilst SEA is able to lead to plan SEA specific knowledge acquisition, comprehension, application and analysis ('single-loop learning'), it is currently resulting only occasionally in wider synthesis and evaluation ('double-loop learning'). Furthermore, whilst there is evidence that individual and occasionally organisational learning may be enhanced through SEA, most notably in small municipalities, social learning appears to be happening only sporadically.

  18. A scaling approach to project regional sea level rise and its uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perrette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change causes global mean sea level to rise due to thermal expansion of seawater and loss of land ice from mountain glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. Locally, sea level can strongly deviate from the global mean rise due to changes in wind and ocean currents. In addition, gravitational adjustments redistribute seawater away from shrinking ice masses. However, the land ice contribution to sea level rise (SLR remains very challenging to model, and comprehensive regional sea level projections, which include appropriate gravitational adjustments, are still a nascent field (Katsman et al., 2011; Slangen et al., 2011. Here, we present an alternative approach to derive regional sea level changes for a range of emission and land ice melt scenarios, combining probabilistic forecasts of a simple climate model (MAGICC6 with the new CMIP5 general circulation models. The contribution from ice sheets varies considerably depending on the assumptions for the ice sheet projections, and thus represents sizeable uncertainties for future sea level rise. However, several consistent and robust patterns emerge from our analysis: at low latitudes, especially in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific, sea level will likely rise more than the global mean (mostly by 10–20%. Around the northeastern Atlantic and the northeastern Pacific coasts, sea level will rise less than the global average or, in some rare cases, even fall. In the northwestern Atlantic, along the American coast, a strong dynamic sea level rise is counteracted by gravitational depression due to Greenland ice melt; whether sea level will be above- or below-average will depend on the relative contribution of these two factors. Our regional sea level projections and the diagnosed uncertainties provide an improved basis for coastal impact analysis and infrastructure planning for adaptation to climate change.

  19. Ecological safety and potentialities of sustainable development of Kzyl-Orda region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saparbaev, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Some problems of Kazakstan's sustainable development are of great importance but mainly theoretically. There are acute urgent problems to be solved without delay, such as Aral environmental disaster. The Kzyl-Orda region is really able to start sustainable development. Natural resources, their reasonable use, drawing in investments, reducing migration, making new working places and other measures can change the situation, balance region economy and solve numerous problems of socio-political and cultural development in Aral region. (author)

  20. Taxation of the economical activities developed in the sea regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcio Branco de

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the power of taxation is straightly connected to the idea of territory. It is important to establish the limits of tax jurisdiction not only for taxes in view of which territoriality is part of the taxable event as defined in legislation - import tax (I.I.) and excise tax (IPI) -, but also for those the location of a possession - property tax (IPTU) - or the place in which services are rendered - service occupation tax (ISS) and sales tax (ICMS) - appear as the main component of the taxable event. According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, and the Brazilian internal legislation as well, Federal Government has full sovereignty over its territorial sea -12 mile zone. In other areas (contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and brazilian continental shelf), sovereignty is restricted to the supervision of some activities, not involving power of taxation. (author)

  1. The genetic prehistory of the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittnik, Alissa; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Pfrengle, Saskia; Daubaras, Mantas; Zariņa, Gunita; Hallgren, Fredrik; Allmäe, Raili; Khartanovich, Valery; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Tõrv, Mari; Furtwängler, Anja; Andrades Valtueña, Aida; Feldman, Michal; Economou, Christos; Oinonen, Markku; Vasks, Andrejs; Balanovska, Elena; Reich, David; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Haak, Wolfgang; Schiffels, Stephan; Krause, Johannes

    2018-01-30

    While the series of events that shaped the transition between foraging societies and food producers are well described for Central and Southern Europe, genetic evidence from Northern Europe surrounding the Baltic Sea is still sparse. Here, we report genome-wide DNA data from 38 ancient North Europeans ranging from ~9500 to 2200 years before present. Our analysis provides genetic evidence that hunter-gatherers settled Scandinavia via two routes. We reveal that the first Scandinavian farmers derive their ancestry from Anatolia 1000 years earlier than previously demonstrated. The range of Mesolithic Western hunter-gatherers extended to the east of the Baltic Sea, where these populations persisted without gene-flow from Central European farmers during the Early and Middle Neolithic. The arrival of steppe pastoralists in the Late Neolithic introduced a major shift in economy and mediated the spread of a new ancestry associated with the Corded Ware Complex in Northern Europe.

  2. Maps of mesoscale wind variability over the North Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Badger, Jake

    Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the operation of wind farms, particularly as the number of geographically concentrated wind farms in the North Sea increases (Akhmatov et al. 2007). The frequency and intensity of wind fluctuations could be considered as a new siting criterion, together with exi...... for a 1 year period. The model was run with a horizontal grid spacing of 2 km. The variability maps are created by integrating the average 24 hour spectra at every grid point over different time-scales....

  3. Oil pollution of the sea – global and regional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Begányi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport of oil is very important for the world economic and industry. Oil is transported to the countries and states, where it is transformed for the industry. The oil transport is connected with some advantages and disadvantages. One of the disadvantages is the pollution of seas. The pollution is very dangerous for everything and everyone. Transport companies of oil must stop the pollution with new, safety and effective transport technologies.

  4. The Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea as the region of natural aquaculture: Organochlorine pesticides in Pacific salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu.; Lukyanova, Olga N.; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K.

    2016-01-01

    Kuril Islands of the Sea of Okhotsk and the western part of the Bering Sea are an area of natural feeding of Pacific salmon, and the catch area of ones for food market. Food safety of products is an important task of aquaculture. Сoncentrations of HCHs (α-, β-, γ-) and DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) were determined in organs of the pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye (O. nerka), which caught from the natural aquaculture region of Russia (near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea). The average total concentration of OCPs in organs of salmon from Western Pacific is lower than that in salmon from the North Pacific American coast and the Atlantic Ocean. The region can be used to grow smolts, which will be later released into the ocean. - Highlights: • The study area is area of natural feeding of Pacific salmon, and the catch area of ones for food market. • ΣOCPs in salmon muscle increases in the following: chum ≤ pink < chinook < sockeye. • ΣOCPs in salmon from study area is lower than that in ones from the Atlantic Ocean. • The salmon, which feeding in the study area, did not accumulate higher OCPs content.

  5. Regional seesaw between the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas during the last glacial abrupt climate events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wary

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dansgaard–Oeschger oscillations constitute one of the most enigmatic features of the last glacial cycle. Their cold atmospheric phases have been commonly associated with cold sea-surface temperatures and expansion of sea ice in the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. Here, based on dinocyst analyses from the 48–30 ka interval of four sediment cores from the northern Northeast Atlantic and southern Norwegian Sea, we provide direct and quantitative evidence of a regional paradoxical seesaw pattern: cold Greenland and North Atlantic phases coincide with warmer sea-surface conditions and shorter seasonal sea-ice cover durations in the Norwegian Sea as compared to warm phases. Combined with additional palaeorecords and multi-model hosing simulations, our results suggest that during cold Greenland phases, reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and cold North Atlantic sea-surface conditions were accompanied by the subsurface propagation of warm Atlantic waters that re-emerged in the Nordic Seas and provided moisture towards Greenland summit.

  6. Regional Changes in the Sea Ice Cover and Ice Production in the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal polynyas around the Antarctic continent have been regarded as sea ice factories because of high ice production rates in these regions. The observation of a positive trend in the extent of Antarctic sea ice during the satellite era has been intriguing in light of the observed rapid decline of the ice extent in the Arctic. The results of analysis of the time series of passive microwave data indicate large regional variability with the trends being strongly positive in the Ross Sea, strongly negative in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas and close to zero in the other regions. The atmospheric circulation in the Antarctic is controlled mainly by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the marginal ice zone around the continent shows an alternating pattern of advance and retreat suggesting the presence of a propagating wave (called Antarctic Circumpolar Wave) around the circumpolar region. The results of analysis of the passive microwave data suggest that the positive trend in the Antarctic sea ice cover could be caused primarily by enhanced ice production in the Ross Sea that may be associated with more persistent and larger coastal polynyas in the region. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate-of-increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 km2 per year. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 km3/year, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. In addition to the possibility of changes in SAM, modeling studies have also indicated that the ozone hole may have a role in that it causes the deepening of the lows in the western Antarctic region thereby causing strong winds to occur offthe Ross-ice shelf.

  7. Air-Sea Interaction in the Somali Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T. G.; Rydbeck, A.

    2017-12-01

    The western Indian Ocean is an area of high eddy-kinetic energy generated by local wind-stress curl, instability of boundary currents as well as Rossby waves from the west coast of India and the equatorial wave guide as they reflect off the African coast. The presence of meso-scale eddies and coastal upwelling during the Southwest Monsoon affects the air-sea interaction on those scales. The U.S. Navy's Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to understand and quantify the surface flux, effects on surface waves and the role of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies on ocean-atmosphere coupling in that area. The COAMPS atmosphere model component with 9 km resolution is fully coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) with 3.5 km resolution and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model with 10 km resolution. Data assimilation using a 3D-variational approach is included in hindcast runs performed daily since June 1, 2015. An interesting result is that a westward jet associated with downwelling equatorial Rossy waves initiated the reversal from the southward Somali Current found during the northeast monsoon to a northward flow in March 2016 more than a month before the beginning of the southwest monsoon. It is also found that warm SST anomalies in the Somali Current eddies, locally increase surface wind speed due to an increase in the atmospheric boundary layer height. This results in an increase in significant wave height and also an increase in heat flux to the atmosphere. Cold SST anomalies over upwelling filaments have the opposite impacts on air-sea fluxes.

  8. Region descriptors for automatic classification of small sea targets in infrared video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, M.M.; Broek, S.P. van den; Hendriks, E.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of different key-point detectors and region descriptors when used for automatic classification of small sea targets in infrared video. In our earlier research performed on this subject as well as in other literature, many different region descriptors have been proposed.

  9. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  10. Marine environmental assessment in the Black Sea region- a case for the Turkish coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.

    2001-01-01

    'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' Technical Cooperation Project, implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Environmental problems of the Black Sea eco-system and the current international efforts with regard to prevention of pollution are discussed. General aspects of the project are presented. A joint monitoring program initiated according to the work plan of the project among six Black Sea countries is outlined with emphasis on the monitoring program for the Turkish coastal zone. Concluding remarks are on the vital importance of sharing the scientific responsibility on the trans-boundary environmental problems

  11. Project scoping for lessons learnt to apply to the Celtic Seas marine sub-region

    OpenAIRE

    Twomey, Sarah; O'Mahony, Cathal

    2013-01-01

    This report involves a formal scoping exercise to identify lessons from a wide range of previous and current project and initiative experiences at the national, regional seas, European and global levels. An inventory of 77 projects and initiatives that are relevant with regard to the key activities proposed by the Celtic Seas Partnership has been compiled, as well as a short-list of 23 of the most pertinent projects, lessons learnt and contact names. This report has identified a number of syn...

  12. ENTRERPRENEURIAL CATCH UP AND NEW INDUSTRIAL COMPETENCE BLOC FORMATION IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Gunnar; Braunerhjelm, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) has been an institutionally homogeneous economy, integrated economically and culturally through the sea lanes of the Baltic. After WWII the BSR was broken up into a dual economy, consisting of a poor Soviet block of centrally planned economies, on the one hand, and the industrially advanced BSR economies Finland, Denmark, Germany and Sweden, on the other. 1990 saw the break up of the soviet political system. The liberated, but poor formerly planned ec...

  13. Regional characteristics of the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the sea level in the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Kexiu; Wang, Aimei; Feng, Jianlong; Fan, Wenjing; Liu, Qiulin; Xu, Yao; Zhang, Zengjian

    2018-05-01

    Based on coastal tide level, satellite altimetry, and sea surface temperature (SST) data of offshore areas of China's coast and the equatorial Pacific Ocean, the regional characteristics of the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the sea level in the China Sea were investigated. Singular value decomposition results show a significant teleconnection between the sea level in the China Sea and the SST of the tropical Pacific Ocean; the correlation coefficient decreases from south to north. Data from tide gauges along China's coast show that the seasonal sea-level variations are significantly correlated with the ENSO. In addition, China's coast was divided into three regions based on distinctive regional characteristics. Results obtained show that the annual amplitude of sea level was low during El Niño developing years, and especially so during the El Niño year. The ENSO intensity determined the response intensity of the annual amplitude of the sea level. The response region (amplitude) was relatively large for strong ENSO intensities. Significant oscillation periods at a timescale of 4-7 years existed in the sea level of the three regions. The largest amplitude of oscillation was 1.5 cm, which was the fluctuation with the 7-year period in the South China Sea. The largest amplitude of oscillation in the East China Sea was about 1.3 cm. The amplitude of oscillation with the 6-year period in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea was the smallest (less than 1 cm).

  14. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  15. The place of the Irish Sea oil and gas industryin the economy of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoney, P.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The economies of two areas close to the Irish Sea, Morecambe Bay and Liverpool Bay, are compared in order to illustrate the effect of the Irish Sea oil and gas industry on these regions. Capital investment projects connected with those industries during the construction and operational lifetime periods are considered in terms of direct, indirect and induced effects. Mathematical modelling is used to provide a conceptual basis for making inferences about the possible size of oil and gas industry effects on local economies. Information on employment in various regions and sectors of industry, including forecasts of future profitability are given. (UK)

  16. Climate in France during the 21. century - Regionalized scenarios - Reference indices for the metropolitan region - Evolution at sea level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peings, Yannick; Planton, Serge; Deque, Michel; Jamous, Marc; Le Treut, Herve; Gallee, Hubert; Li, Laurent; Jouzel, J.

    2011-01-01

    After some comments on climate modelling (models, scenarios, uncertainties, regional predictions), the first part reports the study of several temperature indices (minimum, average and maximum daily temperature, number of days with abnormally high or low temperature, number of days of heat wave, number of days with negative temperatures, and so on.), precipitation indices (daily and extreme precipitations, dry periods, snow falls). It also discusses soil humidity index, strong wind index, river flow rate, and sea level. The second part reports simulation results for indices in metropolitan France according to the French Aladin-Climat, LMDZ and MAR models. The third volume reports evolutions and predictions of average sea level at the planet scale and along the French coasts, and discusses impacts related to sea level change (coast erosion, submersion, salt intrusion)

  17. Modeling of Regional Climate over Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2011-04-09

    Observations, re-analyses, and climate model simulations show strong surface temperature trends in Middle East and Arabian Peninsula in the last 30 years. Trends are especially pronounced in summer exceeding +1K/decade. However, some regions, e.g., the So

  18. Assessment of sea water inundation along Daboo creek area in Indus Delta Region, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Ibrahim; Zafar, Hina; Shahzad, Muhammad I.; Meraj, Mohsin; Kazmi, Jamil H.

    2017-12-01

    Indus Deltaic Region (IDR) in Pakistan is an erosion vulnerable coast due to the high deep water wave energy. Livelihood of millions of people depends on the fisheries and mangrove forests in IDR. IDR consists of many creeks where Daboo is a major creek located at southeast of the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi. Unfortunately, there has been no detailed study to analyze the damages of sea water intrusion at a large temporal and spatial scale. Therefore, this study is designed to estimate the effects of sea water inundation based on changing sea water surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Sea surface salinity and SST data from two different surveys in Daboo creek during 1986 and 2010 are analyzed to estimate the damages and extent of sea water intrusion. Mean salinity has increased 33.33% whereas mean SST decreased 13.79% from 1987 to 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of creek area using LANDSAT 5 Thematic mapper (TM) data for the years 1987 and 2010 shows significant amount of erosion at macro scale. Creek area has increased approximately 9.93% (260.86 m2 per year) which is roughly equal to 60 extensive sized shrimp farms. Further Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analyses for years 2001 and 2014 using LANDSAT 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has indicated 42.3% decrease in cultivated land. Wet mud flats have spread out at the inner mouth of creek with enormous increase of 123.3%. Significant sea water intrusion has increased the area of barren land by 37.9%. This also resulted in overall decrease of 6.7% in area covered by mangroves. Therefore, this study recorded a significant evidence of sea water intrusion in IDR that has caused serious damages to community living in the area, economical losses. Additionally, it has also changed the environment by reducing creek biological productivity as reported by earlier studies over other regions of the world.

  19. Comparison of two Centennial-scale Sea Surface Temperature Datasets in the Regional Climate Change Studies of the China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingyuan, Wang; Yanan, Wang; Yiwei, Liu

    2017-08-01

    Two widely used sea surface temperature (SST) datasets are compared in this article. We examine characteristics in the climate variability of SST in the China Seas.Two series yielded almost the same warming trend for 1890-2013 (0.7-0.8°C/100 years). However, HadISST1 series shows much stronger warming trends during 1961-2013 and 1981-2013 than that of COBE SST2 series. The disagreement between data sets was marked after 1981. For the hiatus period 1998-2013, the cooling trends of HadISST1 series is much lower than that of COBE SST2. These differences between the two datasets are possibly caused by the different observations which are incorporated to fill with data-sparse regions since 1982. Those findings illustrate that there are some uncertainties in the estimate of SST warming patterns in certain regions. The results also indicate that the temporal and spatial deficiency of observed data is still the biggest handicap for analyzing multi-scale SST characteristics in regional area.

  20. Multi-phase structural and tectonic evolution of the Andaman Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, Sheona; Hill, Catherine; Sagi, David Adam; Webb, Peter; Sevastjanova, Inga

    2017-04-01

    We present a new regional tectonic interpretation for Myanmar and the Andaman Sea, built within the framework of global plate motions. In our model the Present Day Andaman Sea region has been subjected to multiple phases of extension, culminating in its mid-Miocene to Present Day opening as a rhomboidal pull-apart basin. The Andaman Sea region is historically thought to have developed as a consequence of back-arc opening associated with plate convergence at the Andaman-Nicobar subduction system. We have undertaken detailed structural interpretation of potential field, Landsat and SRTM data, supported by 2-D crustal models of the Andaman Sea. From this analysis we identified several major north-south striking faults and a series of northeast-southwest striking structures across the region. We have also mapped the extent of the Andaman-Nicobar Accretionary Prism, a fore arc trough and volcanic arc, which we associate with a phase of traditional trench-parallel back-arc extension from the Paleocene to the middle Miocene. A regional tectonic event occurred during the middle Miocene that caused the cessation of back-arc extension in the Present Day Andaman Sea and an eastward shift in the locus of arc-related volcanism. At that time, N-S striking faults onshore and offshore Myanmar were reactivated with widespread right-lateral motion. This motion, accompanied by extension along new NE-SW striking faults, facilitated the opening of the Central Andaman Basin as a pull-apart basin (rhombochasm) in which a strike-slip tectonic regime has a greater impact on the mode of opening than the subduction process. The integration of our plate model solution within a global framework allows identification of major plate reorganisation events and their impact on a regional scale. We therefore attribute the onset of pull-apart opening in the Andaman Sea to ongoing clockwise rotation of the western Sundaland margin throughout the late Paleogene and early Miocene, possibly driven by the

  1. The implementation of sea ice model on a regional high-resolution scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Siva; Zakharov, Igor; Bobby, Pradeep; McGuire, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The availability of high-resolution atmospheric/ocean forecast models, satellite data and access to high-performance computing clusters have provided capability to build high-resolution models for regional ice condition simulation. The paper describes the implementation of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) on a regional scale at high resolution. The advantage of the model is its ability to include oceanographic parameters (e.g., currents) to provide accurate results. The sea ice simulation was performed over Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea to retrieve important parameters such as ice concentration, thickness, ridging, and drift. Two different forcing models, one with low resolution and another with a high resolution, were used for the estimation of sensitivity of model results. Sea ice behavior over 7 years was simulated to analyze ice formation, melting, and conditions in the region. Validation was based on comparing model results with remote sensing data. The simulated ice concentration correlated well with Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) data. Visual comparison of ice thickness trends estimated from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) agreed with the simulation for year 2010-2011.

  2. Regional Effects of the Mount Pinatubo Eruption on the Middle East and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, Sergey

    2017-10-26

    The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo had dramatic effects on the regional climate in the Middle East. Though acknowledged, these effects have not been thoroughly studied. To fill this gap and to advance understanding of the mechanisms that control variability in the Middle East\\'s regional climate, we simulated the impact of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system set for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) domain. We used the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) framework, which couples the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) model with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). We modified the WRF model to account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Our coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations verified by available observations revealed strong perturbations in the energy balance of the Red Sea, which drove thermal and circulation responses. Our modeling approach allowed us to separate changes in the atmospheric circulation caused by the impact of the volcano from direct regional radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols. The atmospheric circulation effect was significantly stronger than the direct volcanic aerosols effect. We found that the Red Sea response to the Pinatubo eruption was stronger and qualitatively different from that of the global ocean system. Our results suggest that major volcanic eruptions significantly affect the climate in the Middle East and the Red Sea and should be carefully taken into account in assessments of long-term climate variability and warming trends in MENA and the Red Sea.

  3. Coupled Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Modeling of the Mount Pinatubo Impact on the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchikov, G. L.; Osipov, S.

    2017-12-01

    The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo had dramatic effects on the regional climate in the Middle East. Though acknowledged, these effects have not been thoroughly studied. To fill this gap and to advance understanding of the mechanisms that control variability in the Middle East's regional climate, we simulated the impact of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system set for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) domain. We used the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) framework, which couples the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) model with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). We modified the WRF model to account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Our coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations verified by available observations revealed strong perturbations in the energy balance of the Red Sea, which drove thermal and circulation responses. Our modeling approach allowed us to separate changes in the atmospheric circulation caused by the impact of the volcano from direct regional radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols. The atmospheric circulation effect was significantly stronger than the direct volcanic aerosols effect. We found that the Red Sea response to the Pinatubo eruption was stronger and qualitatively different from that of the global ocean system. Our results suggest that major volcanic eruptions significantly affect the climate in the Middle East and the Red Sea and should be carefully taken into account in assessments of long-term climate variability and warming trends in MENA and the Red Sea.

  4. Regional Effects of the Mount Pinatubo Eruption on the Middle East and the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2017-11-01

    The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo had dramatic effects on the regional climate in the Middle East. Though acknowledged, these effects have not been thoroughly studied. To fill this gap and to advance understanding of the mechanisms that control variability in the Middle East's regional climate, we simulated the impact of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system set for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) domain. We used the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) framework, which couples the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) model with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). We modified the WRF model to account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Our coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations verified by available observations revealed strong perturbations in the energy balance of the Red Sea, which drove thermal and circulation responses. Our modeling approach allowed us to separate changes in the atmospheric circulation caused by the impact of the volcano from direct regional radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols. The atmospheric circulation effect was significantly stronger than the direct volcanic aerosols effect. We found that the Red Sea response to the Pinatubo eruption was stronger and qualitatively different from that of the global ocean system. Our results suggest that major volcanic eruptions significantly affect the climate in the Middle East and the Red Sea and should be carefully taken into account in assessments of long-term climate variability and warming trends in MENA and the Red Sea.

  5. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  6. Curie Depth Analysis of the Salton Sea Region, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickus, Kevin; Hussein, Musa

    2016-02-01

    Aeromagnetic data were analyzed to determine the bottom of magnetic bodies that might be related to the Curie point depth (CPD) by 2D spectral and 3D inversion methods within the Salton Trough and the surrounding region in southern California. The bottom of the magnetic bodies for 55 × 55 km windows varied in depth between 11 and 23 km in depth using 2D spectral methods. Since the 55 × 55 km square window may include both shallow and deep source, a 3D inversion method was used to provide better resolution of the bottom of the magnetic bodies. The 3D models indicate the depth to the bottom of the magnetic bodies varied between 5 and 23 km. Even though both methods produced similar results, the 3D inversion method produced higher resolution of the CPD depths. The shallowest depths (5-8 km) occur along and west of the Brawley Seismic Zone and the southwestern portion of the Imperial Valley. The source of these shallow CPD values may be related to geothermal systems including hydrothermal circulation and/or partially molten material. Additionally, shallow CPD depths (7-12 km) were found in a northwest-trending zone in the center of the Salton Trough. These depths coincide with previous seismic analyses that indicated a lower crustal low velocity region which is believed to be caused by partially molten material. Lower velocity zones in several regions may be related to fracturing and/or hydrothermal fluids. If the majority of these shallow depths are related to temperature, they are likely associated with the CPD, and the partially molten material extends over a wider zone than previously known. Greater depths within the Salton Trough coincide with the base of basaltic material and/or regions of intense metamorphism intruded by mafic material in the middle/lower crust.

  7. Regional to Global Assessments of Phytoplankton Dynamics From The SeaWiFS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Behrenfeld, Michael; Maritorena, Stephanie; McClain, Charles R.; Antoine, David; Bailey, Sean W.; Bontempi, Paula S.; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Dierssen, Heidi M.; Doney, Scott C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic production of organic matter by microscopic oceanic phytoplankton fuels ocean ecosystems and contributes roughly half of the Earth's net primary production. For 13 years, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission provided the first consistent, synoptic observations of global ocean ecosystems. Changes in the surface chlorophyll concentration, the primary biological property retrieved from SeaWiFS, have traditionally been used as a metric for phytoplankton abundance and its distribution largely reflects patterns in vertical nutrient transport. On regional to global scales, chlorophyll concentrations covary with sea surface temperature (SST) because SST changes reflect light and nutrient conditions. However, the oceanmay be too complex to be well characterized using a single index such as the chlorophyll concentration. A semi-analytical bio-optical algorithm is used to help interpret regional to global SeaWiFS chlorophyll observations from using three independent, well-validated ocean color data products; the chlorophyll a concentration, absorption by CDM and particulate backscattering. First, we show that observed long-term, global-scale trends in standard chlorophyll retrievals are likely compromised by coincident changes in CDM. Second, we partition the chlorophyll signal into a component due to phytoplankton biomass changes and a component caused by physiological adjustments in intracellular chlorophyll concentrations to changes in mixed layer light levels. We show that biomass changes dominate chlorophyll signals for the high latitude seas and where persistent vertical upwelling is known to occur, while physiological processes dominate chlorophyll variability over much of the tropical and subtropical oceans. The SeaWiFS data set demonstrates complexity in the interpretation of changes in regional to global phytoplankton distributions and illustrates limitations for the assessment of phytoplankton dynamics using chlorophyll

  8. The influence of regional Arctic sea-ice decline on stratospheric and tropospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Christine; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Shuckburgh, Emily; Haynes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent has rapidly declined over the past few decades, and most climate models project a continuation of this trend during the 21st century in response to greenhouse gas forcing. A number of recent studies have shown that this sea-ice loss induces vertically propagating Rossby waves, which weaken the stratospheric polar vortex and increase the frequency of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). SSWs have been shown to increase the probability of a negative NAO in the following weeks, thereby driving anomalous weather conditions over Europe and other mid-latitude regions. In contrast, other studies have shown that Arctic sea-ice loss strengthens the polar vortex, increasing the probability of a positive NAO. Sun et al. (2015) suggest these conflicting results may be due to the region of sea-ice loss considered. They find that if only regions within the Arctic Circle are considered in sea-ice projections, the polar vortex weakens; if only regions outwith the Arctic Circle are considered, the polar vortex strengthens. This is because the anomalous Rossby waves forced in the former/latter scenario constructively/destructively interfere with climatological Rossby waves, thus enhancing/suppressing upward wave propagation. In this study, we investigate whether Sun et al.'s results are robust to a different model. We also divide the regions of sea-ice loss they considered into further sub-regions, in order to examine the regional differences in more detail. We do this by using the intermediate complexity climate model, IGCM4, which has a well resolved stratosphere and does a good job of representing stratospheric processes. Several simulations are run in atmosphere only mode, where one is a control experiment and the others are perturbation experiments. In the control run annually repeating historical mean surface conditions are imposed at the lower boundary, whereas in each perturbation run the model is forced by SST perturbations imposed in a specific

  9. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias, Volker, E-mail: volker.matthias@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Bewersdorff, Ines [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Aulinger, Armin, E-mail: armin.aulinger@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Quante, Markus, E-mail: markus.quante@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased. - Ship emissions lead to significantly enhanced air pollution by secondary inorganic aerosols in North Sea coastal areas.

  10. Greenland uplift and regional sea level changes from ICESat observations and GIA modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spada, G.; Ruggieri, G.; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    2012-01-01

    ‐resolution GrIS mass balance, we study the time‐variations of various geophysical quantities in response to the current mass loss. They include vertical uplift and subsidence, geoid height variations, global patterns of sea level change (or fingerprints), and regional sea level variations along the coasts...... of Greenland. Long‐wavelength uplifts and gravity variations in response to current or past ice thickness variations are obtained solving the sea level equation, which accounts for both the elastic and the viscoelastic components of deformation. To capture the short‐wavelength components of vertical uplift...... in response to current ice mass loss, which is not resolved by satellite gravity observations, we have specifically developed a high‐resolution regional elastic rebound (ER) model. The elastic component of vertical uplift is combined with estimates of the viscoelastic displacement fields associated...

  11. A success story of regional projects implemented for the management of marine environment. Turkish experience related to the black sea and the mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Karakelle, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project was initiated in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interests. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed through various convention and declarations. Socio-economically, fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity-monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from the Turkish monitoring work consist of the routine sampling of seawater, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. The success of the Black Sea regional project has given rise to a new regional project 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Mediterranean Region' based on the request of the member countries, which will be initiated in 2005 by the IAEA. The initial phase the project, its objectives and the schedule will be summarized. Key words: marine radioactivity, environmental management, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, regional cooperation

  12. Regional cooperation for European seas: Governance models in support of the implementation of the MSFD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Raakjaer, J.; Leeuwen, van J.; Hoof, van L.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    During the implementation process of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), Member States are expected to cooperate and coordinate at the regional sea level as wells as arrange stakeholder involvement. However, the MSFD does not specify any governing structures to do so. The aim of this

  13. Towards harmonised assessment and classification of "biodiversity status" in the North Sea eco-region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Andersen, Jesper; Vinther, M.

    As one of the milestones in the HARMONY-project a demonstration of the application of the integrative indicator based biodiversity assessment tool (BEAT) was undertaken for the Greater North Sea sub-region across a range of coastal and offshore areas. The first version of the BEAT tool was applie...

  14. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  15. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...

  16. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  17. Signatures of global warming and regional climate shift in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Roshin, R.P.; Narvekar, J.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Vivekanandan, E.

    phytoplankton biomass during fall and winter is attributed to the iron-fertilization driven by enhanced dust-delivery under this regional climate shift. Finally, it is shown that the increased fish (oil-sardine) catch in the eastern and western Arabian Sea after...

  18. Contribution of glacier melt to sea-level rise since AD 1865: a regionally differentiated calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Z.; Oerlemans, J.

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of glacier melt, including the Greenland ice-sheet, to sea-level change since AD 1865 is estimated on the basis of modelled sensitivity of glacier mass balance to climate change and historical temperature data. Calculations are done in a regionally differentiated manner to overcome

  19. Earthquake clustering in the tectonic pattern and volcanism of the Andaman Sea region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 608, November (2013), s. 728-736 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09011 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earthquake swarm * Andaman Sea region * global seismological data * submarine volcanism * magma intrusion Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.866, year: 2013

  20. 75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities and monitors the ``economic stability for... Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports... CR Program's mandatory economic data collection report (EDR) used to assess the efficacy of the CR...

  1. Climate change impact on the river runoff: regional study for the Central Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaitseva, Natalya

    2004-01-01

    increase is expected in evaporation from water surfaces of 15-20%. The most severe and climate conditions in the watershed area were predicted under the CCCM model. According to this model, if CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere is doubled, then the runoffs of the Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers are expected to be reduced by 28 and 40%, respectively. According to GFDL and GISS scenarios, presented.(Author)e experiencethe catchment area would increase by 3-4 o C and average annual precipitation volume by 10-15%. Under these scenarios, one could expect that no significant reduction in the Amudarya and Syrdarya runoff would occur. An air temperature rise of 1-2 o C will intensify the process of ice degradation. In 1957-180 glaciers in the Aral Sea river basins lost 115.5 km 3 Of ice (approximately 104 km 3 of water), which constituted almost 20 per cent of the 1957 ice reserve. By 2000 another 14 per cent of the 1957 reserve were lost. By 2020 glaciers will lose at least another 10 per cent of their initial volume. Calculations of regional climatic scenarios by the year 2030 also indicate persistence of present runoff volumes accompanied by an increase in fluctuations from year. Longer-term assessments are more pessimistic, since, along with increasing evaporation, water resource inputs (snow and glaciers in the mountains) are continuously shrinking. (Author)

  2. Caspian Sea Energy: Oil, Politics and Development in the Caspian Sea Region (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Light, Chris

    2004-01-01

    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 5.0 MB. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to present the major issues impacting Caspian hydrocarbon development Specifically, a number of topics including the regions geography, history, governments, politics...

  3. Transport and geographical position of the big and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Shulevskyi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There were features of the transport and geographical position of large and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region described in the article. The situation of cities in relation to the existing network of main types of transport connections like road, rail, water, aviation was analyzed. The location of cities in relation to regional centers, the regional center of Odessa, the capital of the country and the state border were characterized. The situation of cities in relation to international transport corridors and the international E-road network was examined. The cities with the most and least favorable transport and geographical location in the region were highlighted.

  4. Improvement of Global and Regional Mean Sea Level Trends Derived from all Altimetry Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablain, Michael; Benveniste, Jérôme; Faugere, Yannice; Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary

    2012-07-01

    The global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993 using data from satellite altimetry missions. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 is increasing with a global trend of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL Aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from +/- 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend uncertainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in Sea Level Essential Climate Variable Project in the frame of the Climate Change Initiative, an ESA Programme, in addition to activities performed within the SALP/CNES, strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections allowing us to link regional time series together better. These improvements are described at global and regional scale for all the altimetry missions.

  5. Uncertainties in Future Regional Sea Level Trends: How to Deal with the Internal Climate Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Hu, A.; Deser, C.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today, the Climate models (CM) are the main tools for forecasting sea level rise (SLR) at global and regional scales. The CM forecasts are accompanied by inherent uncertainties. Understanding and reducing these uncertainties is becoming a matter of increasing urgency in order to provide robust estimates of SLR impact on coastal societies, which need sustainable choices of climate adaptation strategy. These CM uncertainties are linked to structural model formulation, initial conditions, emission scenario and internal variability. The internal variability is due to complex non-linear interactions within the Earth Climate System and can induce diverse quasi-periodic oscillatory modes and long-term persistences. To quantify the effects of internal variability, most studies used multi-model ensembles or sea level projections from a single model ran with perturbed initial conditions. However, large ensembles are not generally available, or too small, and computationally expensive. In this study, we use a power-law scaling of sea level fluctuations, as observed in many other geophysical signals and natural systems, which can be used to characterize the internal climate variability. From this specific statistical framework, we (1) use the pre-industrial control run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (NCAR-CCSM) to test the robustness of the power-law scaling hypothesis; (2) employ the power-law statistics as a tool for assessing the spread of regional sea level projections due to the internal climate variability for the 21st century NCAR-CCSM; (3) compare the uncertainties in predicted sea level changes obtained from a NCAR-CCSM multi-member ensemble simulations with estimates derived for power-law processes, and (4) explore the sensitivity of spatial patterns of the internal variability and its effects on regional sea level projections.

  6. Variability and change of sea level and its components in the Indo-Pacific region during the altimetry era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Quran; Zhang, Xuebin; Church, John A.; Hu, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that regional sea level exhibits interannual and decadal variations associated with the modes of climate variability. A better understanding of those low-frequency sea level variations benefits the detection and attribution of climate change signals. Nonetheless, the contributions of thermosteric, halosteric, and mass sea level components to sea level variability and trend patterns remain unclear. By focusing on signals associated with dominant climate modes in the Indo-Pacific region, we estimate the interannual and decadal fingerprints and trend of each sea level component utilizing a multivariate linear regression of two adjoint-based ocean reanalyses. Sea level interannual, decadal, and trend patterns primarily come from thermosteric sea level (TSSL). Halosteric sea level (HSSL) is of regional importance in the Pacific Ocean on decadal time scale and dominates sea level trends in the northeast subtropical Pacific. The compensation between TSSL and HSSL is identified in their decadal variability and trends. The interannual and decadal variability of temperature generally peak at subsurface around 100 m but that of salinity tend to be surface-intensified. Decadal temperature and salinity signals extend deeper into the ocean in some regions than their interannual equivalents. Mass sea level (MassSL) is critical for the interannual and decadal variability of sea level over shelf seas. Inconsistencies exist in MassSL trend patterns among various estimates. This study highlights regions where multiple processes work together to control sea level variability and change. Further work is required to better understand the interaction of different processes in those regions.

  7. Inferring regional vertical crustal velocities from averaged relative sea level trends: A proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bâki Iz H.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that relative sea level trends calculated from long-term tide gauge records can be used to estimate relative vertical crustal velocities in a region with high accuracy. A comparison of the weighted averages of the relative sea level trends estimated at six tide gauge stations in two clusters along the Eastern coast of United States, in Florida and in Maryland, reveals a statistically significant regional vertical crustal motion of Maryland with respect to Florida with a subsidence rate of −1.15±0.15 mm/yr identified predominantly due to the ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment process. The estimate is a consilience value to validate vertical crustal velocities calculated from GPS time series as well as towards constraining predictive GIA models in these regions.

  8. Sea surface temperature 1871-2099 in 38 cells in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Charles; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo

    2005-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) data with monthly resolution are provided for 38 cells in the Caribbean Sea and Bahamas region, plus Bermuda. These series are derived from the HadISST1 data set for historical time (1871-1999) and from the HadCM3 coupled climate model for predicted SST (1950-2099). Statistical scaling of the forecast data sets are performed to produce confluent SST series according to a now established method. These SST series are available for download. High water temperatures in 1998 killed enormous amounts of corals in tropical seas, though in the Caribbean region the effects at that time appeared less marked than in the Indo-Pacific. However, SSTs are rising in accordance with world-wide trends and it has been predicted that temperature will become increasingly important in this region in the near future. Patterns of SST rise within the Caribbean region are shown, and the importance of sub-regional patterns within this biologically highly interconnected area are noted.

  9. Gas nad mud volcanism formation as a result of geodynamic development of the Black sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrievsky, A.N.; Karakin, A.V.; Kazmin, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Fluidodynamic model of moving of gas-mud mixture accompanied by eruptions of mud volcanoes and gas bursts is firstly demonstrated by the example of the Black sea basin. The entire spectrum of gas bursts can be divided into gas and mud-fluid volcanoes. Emanation of hydrocarbon gases during the eruptions accompanied by powerful exploison, bursts of gas, water and fragments of rocks as well as by issue of breccia are typical for the first type of volcanoes. It was suggested that the eastern part of the Black sea forms block or subplate moving to the northeast. This conclusion is important for estimation of seismic and connected geological hazard in the studied region. It was established that deformations and seismicity were mainly confined to the edges of the East Black sea subplate while in its inner part the level of seismic activity is considerably lower.

  10. CRITERIA OF THE ECOSYSTEM STABILITY IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mitina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to determine the criteria of the marine shallow-water ecosystem stability using the Northern region of the Caspian Sea as a case study. For each 260 reference points, we received data on 76 parameters, including physical-geographical, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological characteristics that have been analyzed by the method of principle components. The analyzes of these data allowed us to reveal and evaluate principal geoecological factors that influence the distribution of Acipenseridae in the Caspian Sea as a top level of the ecosystem’s trophic chain. The main geoecological factors and the factor of anthropogenic load of the Caspian Sea ecosystems’ stability have been determined.

  11. Trends in Sea Ice Cover, Sea Surface Temperature, and Chlorophyll Biomass Across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K. E.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Wood, C.; Panday, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    The northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Pacific Arctic Region (PAR) are among the most productive marine ecosystems in the world and act as important carbon sinks, particularly during May and June when seasonal sea ice-associated phytoplankton blooms occur throughout the region. Recent dramatic shifts in seasonal sea ice cover across the PAR should have profound consequences for this seasonal phytoplankton production as well as the intimately linked higher trophic levels. In order to investigate ecosystem responses to these observed recent shifts in sea ice cover, the development of a prototype Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is now underway in the PAR. The DBO is being developed as an internationally-coordinated change detection array that allows for consistent sampling and monitoring at five spatially explicit biologically productive locations across a latitudinal gradient: (1) DBO-SLP (south of St. Lawrence Island (SLI)), (2) DBO-NBS (north of SLI), (3) DBO-SCS (southern Chukchi Sea), (4) DBO-CCS (central Chukchi Sea), and (5) DBO-BCA (Barrow Canyon Arc). Standardized measurements at many of the DBO sites were made by multiple research cruises during the 2010 and 2011 pilot years, and will be expanded with the development of the DBO in coming years. In order to provide longer-term context for the changes occurring across the PAR, we utilize multi-sensor satellite data to investigate recent trends in sea ice cover, chlorophyll biomass, and sea surface temperatures for each of the five DBO sites, as well as a sixth long-term observational site in the Bering Strait. Satellite observations show that over the past three decades, trends in sea ice cover in the PAR have been heterogeneous, with significant declines in the Chukchi Sea, slight declines in the Bering Strait region, but increases in the northern Bering Sea south of SLI. Declines in the persistence of seasonal sea ice cover in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait region are due to both earlier sea

  12. The Solomon Sea eddy activity from a 1/36° regional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djath, Bughsin; Babonneix, Antoine; Gourdeau, Lionel; Marin, Frédéric; Verron, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    In the South West Pacific, the Solomon Sea exhibits the highest levels of eddy kinetic energy but relatively little is known about the eddy activity in this region. This Sea is directly influenced by a monsoonal regime and ENSO variability, and occupies a strategical location as the Western Boundary Currents exiting it are known to feed the warm pool and to be the principal sources of the Equatorial UnderCurrent. During their transit in the Solomon Sea, meso-scale eddies are suspected to notably interact and influence these water masses. The goal of this study is to give an exhaustive description of this eddy activity. A dual approach, based both on altimetric data and high resolution modeling, has then been chosen for this purpose. First, an algorithm is applied on nearly 20 years of 1/3° x 1/3° gridded SLA maps (provided by the AVISO project). This allows eddies to be automatically detected and tracked, thus providing some basic eddy properties. The preliminary results show that two main and distinct types of eddies are detected. Eddies in the north-eastern part shows a variability associated with the mean structure, while those in the southern part are associated with generation/propagation processes. However, the resolution of the AVISO dataset is not very well suited to observe fine structures and to match with the numerous islands bordering the Solomon Sea. For this reason, we will confront these observations with the outputs of a 1/36° resolution realistic model of the Solomon Sea. The high resolution numerical model (1/36°) indeed permits to reproduce very fine scale features, such as eddies and filaments. The model is two-way embedded in a 1/12° regional model which is itself one-way embedded in the DRAKKAR 1/12° global model. The NEMO code is used as well as the AGRIF software for model nestings. Validation is realized by comparison with AVISO observations and available in situ data. In preparing the future wide-swath altimetric SWOT mission that is

  13. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g. Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution.

  14. Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Russell, Lynn M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Burrows, Susannah M. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-09-23

    In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol concentrations at Barrow, Alaska, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic (60ºN-90ºN) climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions substantially increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol concentration in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The parameterization reproduces both the magnitude and seasonal variation of the observed submicron sea salt aerosol concentration at surface in Barrow during winter much better than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases aerosol optical depth by 10% and results in a small cooling at surface. The increase in salt particle mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 2 W m-2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate.

  15. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  16. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H E; Omstedt, Anders; Von Storch, Hans; Hünicke, Birgit; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993–2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003–12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  17. Contributions of internal climate variability to mitigation of projected future regional sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A.; Bates, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations indicate that the global mean surface temperature is rising, so does the global mean sea level. Sea level rise (SLR) can impose significant impacts on island and coastal communities, especially when SLR is compounded with storm surges. Here, via analyzing results from two sets of ensemble simulations from the Community Earth System Model version 1, we investigate how the potential SLR benefits through mitigating the future emission scenarios from business as usual to a mild-mitigation over the 21st Century would be affected by internal climate variability. Results show that there is almost no SLR benefit in the near term due to the large SLR variability due to the internal ocean dynamics. However, toward the end of the 21st century, the SLR benefit can be as much as a 26±1% reduction of the global mean SLR due to seawater thermal expansion. Regionally, the benefits from this mitigation for both near and long terms are heterogeneous. They vary from just a 11±5% SLR reduction in Melbourne, Australia to a 35±6% reduction in London. The processes contributing to these regional differences are the coupling of the wind-driven ocean circulation with the decadal scale sea surface temperature mode in the Pacific and Southern Oceans, and the changes of the thermohaline circulation and the mid-latitude air-sea coupling in the Atlantic.

  18. EU Contribution to Strengthening Regional Development and Cooperation in the Black Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dorobanțu Roxana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU's agenda had for some time a topic (at least at an idea level about the “strengthening ofcooperation in the Black Sea Region.” It faced an interesting paradox: the lack of (or, in the caseof existence, sub-optimal economic relations between countries in this area, regardless of theirgeographical proximity. The paradoxical situation considered to be mostly due to their differenthistorical and political backgrounds. Therefore, a form of support of regional development in thearea was necessary, as it has been considered in EU's Black Sea Synergy, which encouragescooperation between countries in the Basin while offering a forum for solving common issues andpromoting political and economic reform. Regional cooperation in various areas stems from a highpolitical involvement as the main initiator but requires a strong involvement and participation ofboth civil society and private sector as main drivers of cross-border cooperation. Our paperfocuses, apart from its conceptual research background, on mapping the effective outcomes of theEU initiatives in the area and on providing future perspectives for EU contribution tostrengthening regional development and cooperation in the Black Sea Basin.

  19. Large-Scale Covariability Between Aerosol and Precipitation Over the 7-SEAS Region: Observations and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Zhang, Chidong; Jeong, Myeong Jae; Gautam, Ritesh; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew M.; Hansell, Richard A.; Liu, Xiaohong; hide

    2012-01-01

    One of the seven scientific areas of interests of the 7-SEAS field campaign is to evaluate the impact of aerosol on cloud and precipitation (http://7-seas.gsfc.nasa.gov). However, large-scale covariability between aerosol, cloud and precipitation is complicated not only by ambient environment and a variety of aerosol effects, but also by effects from rain washout and climate factors. This study characterizes large-scale aerosol-cloud-precipitation covariability through synergy of long-term multi ]sensor satellite observations with model simulations over the 7-SEAS region [10S-30N, 95E-130E]. Results show that climate factors such as ENSO significantly modulate aerosol and precipitation over the region simultaneously. After removal of climate factor effects, aerosol and precipitation are significantly anti-correlated over the southern part of the region, where high aerosols loading is associated with overall reduced total precipitation with intensified rain rates and decreased rain frequency, decreased tropospheric latent heating, suppressed cloud top height and increased outgoing longwave radiation, enhanced clear-sky shortwave TOA flux but reduced all-sky shortwave TOA flux in deep convective regimes; but such covariability becomes less notable over the northern counterpart of the region where low ]level stratus are found. Using CO as a proxy of biomass burning aerosols to minimize the washout effect, large-scale covariability between CO and precipitation was also investigated and similar large-scale covariability observed. Model simulations with NCAR CAM5 were found to show similar effects to observations in the spatio-temporal patterns. Results from both observations and simulations are valuable for improving our understanding of this region's meteorological system and the roles of aerosol within it. Key words: aerosol; precipitation; large-scale covariability; aerosol effects; washout; climate factors; 7- SEAS; CO; CAM5

  20. Study on the methods of rational analysis about the area of the Planning of Sea Usage of Regional Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Juan, Li; Tian-Yu, Mao; Mingjing-Tian

    2018-03-01

    The Planning of Sea Usage of Regional Construction is a new area, and the rational analysis about the area of which is one of its difficulties. Based on “Urban land classification and land use planning and construction standards”, the land use control index method study the rationality of the sea usage area of the whole region, by accumulating for specific land use indicators for each land type within the planning area. This paper, takeing the project named “caofeidian integrated service area” for example, make a little study on the land use control index method used by the sea usage demonstration of the planning of sea usage of regional construction. The study will be good for improving the technical methods of rational analysis about the area of the planning of sea usage of regional construction.

  1. Analysis of the projected regional sea-ice changes in the Southern Ocean during the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, W.; Goosse, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Using the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4), the projected regional distribution of sea ice for the twenty-first century has been investigated. Averaged over all those model simulations, the current climate is reasonably well reproduced. However, this averaging procedure hides the errors from individual models. Over the twentieth century, the multimodel average simulates a larger sea-ice concentration decrease around the Antarctic Peninsula compared to other regions, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. This is likely related to the positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index over the twentieth century, in both observations and in the multimodel average. Despite the simulated positive future trend in SAM, such a regional feature around the Antarctic Peninsula is absent in the projected sea-ice change for the end of the twenty-first century. The maximum decrease is indeed located over the central Weddell Sea and the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas. In most models, changes in the oceanic currents could play a role in the regional distribution of the sea ice, especially in the Ross Sea, where stronger southward currents could be responsible for a smaller sea-ice decrease during the twenty-first century. Finally, changes in the mixed layer depth can be found in some models, inducing locally strong changes in the sea-ice concentration. (orig.)

  2. Improvement of global and regional mean sea level derived from satellite altimetry multi missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablain, M.; Faugere, Y.; Larnicol, G.; Picot, N.; Cazenave, A.; Benveniste, J.

    2012-04-01

    With the satellite altimetry missions, the global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993. 'Verification' phases, during which the satellites follow each other in close succession (Topex/Poseidon--Jason-1, then Jason-1--Jason-2), help to link up these different missions by precisely determining any bias between them. Envisat, ERS-1 and ERS-2 are also used, after being adjusted on these reference missions, in order to compute Mean Sea Level at high latitudes (higher than 66°N and S), and also to improve spatial resolution by combining all these missions together. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 provide a global rate of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from + 8 mm/yr to - 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend unceratainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in the frame of the SALP project (supported by CNES) and Sea-level Climate Change Initiative project (supported by ESA), strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections

  3. Investigating the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of sea level rise in the Galveston Bay, Texas region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedee, M.; Dotson, M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic effects throughout the twenty-first century, particularly greenhouse gas emissions, have contributed to global climatic and environmental changes. Sea level rise (SLR) is one of these changes which is occurring along the Texas Coast and is amplified by land subsidence. SLR along the northern Texas coast is impacting sensitive coastal environments as well as human populations, and industries and infrastructure supporting those populations. Sea level data from the NOAA gauge at Galveston Pier 21 has shown an increase of 2.08 feet in relative sea level in 100 years. Given an expected increase in the rate of sea level rise in the next decades, the purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth assessment on the effects of relative sea level rise on the habitat distribution of highly valuable coastal wetlands in the Galveston Bay region. This study also focuses on projecting the potential socioeconomic losses due to coastal flooding that is amplified by SLR in the region. In this study, three SLR scenarios are modeled: a scenario based on a linear extrapolation of satellite altimetry data (0.21 m by 2100); the IPCC's RCP8.5 mean scenario (0.74 m by 2100); and a high-end scenario (1.8 m by 2100) as proposed by Jevrejeva et al. (2014). A land subsidence rate calculated by developing a subsidence grid using GPS-measured subsidence monitoring and releveling data is added to all these scenarios. The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) is used to predict wetland conversion due to long-term SLR incorporating the processes of inundation, erosion, accretion, overwash, and saturation. Similarly, HAZUS-MH is used to evaluate the property damage to building stocks and the direct business interruption losses due to flooding caused by 100-year flood event scenario with three SLR scenarios. This coordinated research effort to assess the physical, environmental and policy impacts due to SLR is intended to enable policy-makers, managers, and the general public to

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gaffke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications on the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region (BSR. It indicates the main emission sources of these substances, related to anthropogenic activity. These include incomplete combustion of fuels in engines on land and from marine transportation, as well as the burning of coal in the community sector. High PAH concentrations in the air are also related to increased industrial activity in urban areas. In the Baltic Sea Region, Germany and Poland have been determined to be responsible for the greatest proportion of PAH emissions. However, the highest number of exceedances of the accepted annual norm for benzo(apyrene concentrations was recorded in Poland.

  5. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    ANUFRIIEVA, Elena V.; SHADRIN, Nickolai V.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some o...

  6. Effect of urbanization in a coastal region on sea breeze and urban thermal environment

    OpenAIRE

    河原, 能久; 川又, 孝太郎; 玉井, 信行

    1994-01-01

    Effect of land use development in a coastal region on heat island phenomenon is studied numerically by an urban climate model that employs the k-e turbulence model and an eddy diffusivity model for the transport of momentum, temperature and moisture in the Eckman layer together with a heat balance model for the surface boundary layer and the soil layer. Numerical simulations are carried out for a simplified terrain which consists of sea and land. Changes in wind velocity, temperature and heat...

  7. Sediment Yields of Basins in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CAMBAZOĞLU, Mustafa Kemal; GÖĞÜŞ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Soil loss and sediment yield are estimated for the basins of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey with different prediction models. The universal soil loss equation (USLE) is the first model applied in this study. Due to the lack of reliable measurement data, the results determined by the application of the USLE using weighted average factors are compared with the results from geographical information system supported USLE predictions undertaken in the TEFER studies performed in th...

  8. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  9. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  10. Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  11. Prophage-Encoded Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A: Regulation of Production in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Representing Different Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the nature of the link between the staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA gene and the lifecycle of Siphoviridae bacteriophages, including the origin of strain variation regarding SEA production after prophage induction. Five strains representing three different genetic lines of the sea region were studied under optimal and prophage-induced growth conditions and the Siphoviridae lifecycle was followed through the phage replicative form copies and transcripts of the lysogenic repressor, cro. The role of SOS response on prophage induction was addressed through recA transcription in a recA-disruption mutant. Prophage induction was found to increase the abundance of the phage replicative form, the sea gene copies and transcripts and enhance SEA production. Sequence analysis of the sea regions revealed that observed strain variances were related to strain capacity for prophage induction, rather than sequence differences in the sea region. The impact of SOS response activation on the phage lifecycle was demonstrated by the absence of phage replicative form copies in the recA-disruption mutant after prophage induction. From this study it emerges that all aspects of SEA-producing strain, the Siphoviridae phage and the food environment must be considered when evaluating SEA-related hazards.

  12. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2014-06-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft.

  13. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M H; Umar, S; Nauman, S

    2014-01-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft

  14. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue critical aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2013-01-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced Aluminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft. (author)

  15. Genetic signature of Last Glacial Maximum regional refugia in a circum-Antarctic sea spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Membrives, Anna; Linse, Katrin; Miller, Karen J.; Arango, Claudia P.

    2017-10-01

    The evolutionary history of Antarctic organisms is becoming increasingly important to understand and manage population trajectories under rapid environmental change. The Antarctic sea spider Nymphon australe, with an apparently large population size compared with other sea spider species, is an ideal target to look for molecular signatures of past climatic events. We analysed mitochondrial DNA of specimens collected from the Antarctic continent and two Antarctic islands (AI) to infer past population processes and understand current genetic structure. Demographic history analyses suggest populations survived in refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum. The high genetic diversity found in the Antarctic Peninsula and East Antarctic (EA) seems related to multiple demographic contraction-expansion events associated with deep-sea refugia, while the low genetic diversity in the Weddell Sea points to a more recent expansion from a shelf refugium. We suggest the genetic structure of N. australe from AI reflects recent colonization from the continent. At a local level, EA populations reveal generally low genetic differentiation, geographically and bathymetrically, suggesting limited restrictions to dispersal. Results highlight regional differences in demographic histories and how these relate to the variation in intensity of glaciation-deglaciation events around Antarctica, critical for the study of local evolutionary processes. These are valuable data for understanding the remarkable success of Antarctic pycnogonids, and how environmental changes have shaped the evolution and diversification of Southern Ocean benthic biodiversity.

  16. Regional cenozoic uplift and subsidence events in the southeastern North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordt, H.

    1995-12-31

    The Paleocene topography of the Fennoscandian Shield is indicated by outbuilding towards the Central Trough and the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. From Eocene until Pliocene time three events of relative vertical movements are indicated by changes in outbuilding directions and reflection termination patterns in the central North Sea. The firs event of uplift was in the Eocene and resulted in relative uplift of the Mid North Sea High and contemporary subsidence east of it, indicated by a change in outbuilding from north to west. A second event of uplift is indicated to the north of the study area at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary by renewed southward outbuilding in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In Miocene until Early Pliocene time a relatively stationary, almost east-west striking, basin margin was probably located to the north along the Tornquist Zone as indicated by the continued outbuilding towards the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. A third event of relative uplift is indicated east of the study area by changes in the Pliocene outbuilding pattern. After the first event of uplift it appears that the deepest parts of the Eocene North Sea Basin was located more easterly than the deepest part are today. Apparently the two latest uplift events north and east of the study area were related to movements of, or along the Tornquist Zone or to regional uplift of the Fennoscandian Shield finally resulting in the present-day configuration of the North Sea. (au) 11 refs.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of Scomberomorus commerson using sequence analysis of the mtDNA D-loop region in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mansourkiaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson, is an epipelagic and migratory species of family Scombridae which have a significant role in terms of ecology and fishery. 100 samples were collected from the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea. Part of their dorsal fins was snipped and transferred to micro-tubes containing ethanol; then, DNAs were extracted and HRM-Real Time PCR was performed to designate representative specimens for sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of S. commerson from Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea were investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. None clustered Neighbor Joining tree indicated the proximity amid S. commerson in four sites. As numbers demonstrated in sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region a sublimely high degree of genetic similarity among S. commerson from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea were perceived, thereafter, having one stock structure of S. commerson in four regions were proved, and this approximation can be merely justified by their migration process along the coasts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. Therefore, the assessment of distribution patterns of 20 haplotypes in the constructed phylogenetic tree using mtDNA D-Loop sequences ascertained that no significant clustering according to the sampling sites was concluded.

  18. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Point Hope et al., v. Salazar, No. 1:08-cv-00004-RRB (D. Alaska)]. The sale was conducted in February... Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of...: BOEMRE announces the availability of a Revised Draft SEIS, OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea...

  19. Changes in extreme regional sea surface height due to an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnabend, S.-E.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Kliphuis, M. A.; van Werkhoven, B.J.C.; Bal, H. E.; Seinstra, F.; Maassen, J.; van Meersbergen, M.

    2014-01-01

    As an extreme scenario of dynamical sea level changes, regional sea surface height (SSH) changes that occur in the North Atlantic due to an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) are simulated. Two versions of the same ocean-only model are used to study the effect

  20. Romania – an International Actor in the Context of the Extensive Region of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world of the 21st century, the international relations are presented as a mandatory element for maintaining the balance of world power and peace. Although the international actors, such as states or international organizations, are trying to establish as many relationships as possible of various kinds (economic, political, military through diplomacy, all over the world, at macro level, the international actors should first achieve a harmony or a general state of good understanding at the micro level, i.e. in a certain geographic region to which they belong. Romania, as an actor of international relations, has as own purpose, and also imposed upon accession to the European Union, maintaining the diplomatic relations in the region of Central-Eastern Europe, both with its neighbors and with the states in the proximity of the Black Sea region. The article aims at outlining better the role that they have, in the geopolitical context, the countries from the extensive region of the Black Sea, in the consolidation of economic and political cooperation relationships, which would lead to stability in the region.

  1. Air Cargo Development in the Regional Airports of the Baltic Sea Region Through Road Feeder Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As issued in the Competition Policy Brief on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry by the Competition Directorate-General of the European Commission in February 20141, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to obtain financial public subsidies on EU, national or regional level. Although the positive impact of small airports on the regional development and general accessibility was mentioned, still the operating aid to the airports shall be cut out over a maximum of 10 years. It has been further stated that the vast majority of small and regional airports experience problems to cover their running operative costs, as a result from an intensive market competition and overlapping of airports’ catchment areas preventing even some promising airports from growth. Public subsidies are mostly used by the airport management for infrastructural investments, to cover operating losses or to attract price-sensitive airlines. Herewith, among other things, the EU Commission is pointing out at the lack of cooperation structures and network strategies among the regional airports and at rather isolated and individual approach during elaboration of the airport development scenarios. However, the Competition Policy Brief permits public aid to regional airports, among other things if there is sufficient transports need to establish transition periods for small airports; the need for more flexibility of the regional airports in the remote areas has been underlined. The EU Commission is expecting herewith not to close the regional airports, but to stimulate them to operate on cost efficient and profitable basis, and that only the most inefficient airports will be closed.

  2. Transgranichnaja korporativnaja integracija v Baltijskom regione [Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  3. Regions of open water and melting sea ice drive new particle formation in North East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall Osto, M; Geels, C; Beddows, D C S; Boertmann, D; Lange, R; Nøjgaard, J K; Harrison, Roy M; Simo, R; Skov, H; Massling, A

    2018-04-17

    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and growth significantly influences the indirect aerosol-cloud effect within the polar climate system. In this work, the aerosol population is categorised via cluster analysis of aerosol number size distributions (9-915 nm, 65 bins) taken at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS) in North Greenland during a 7 year record (2010-2016). Data are clustered at daily averaged resolution; in total, we classified six categories, five of which clearly describe the ultrafine aerosol population, one of which is linked to nucleation events (up to 39% during summer). Air mass trajectory analyses tie these frequent nucleation events to biogenic precursors released by open water and melting sea ice regions. NPF events in the studied regions seem not to be related to bird colonies from coastal zones. Our results show a negative correlation (r = -0.89) between NPF events and sea ice extent, suggesting the impact of ultrafine Arctic aerosols is likely to increase in the future, given the likely increased sea ice melting. Understanding the composition and the sources of Arctic aerosols requires further integrated studies with joint multi-component ocean-atmosphere observation and modelling.

  4. Revisiting the contemporary sea-level budget on global and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietbroek, Roelof; Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Kusche, Jürgen; Schröter, Jens; Dahle, Christoph

    2016-02-09

    Dividing the sea-level budget into contributions from ice sheets and glaciers, the water cycle, steric expansion, and crustal movement is challenging, especially on regional scales. Here, Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity observations and sea-level anomalies from altimetry are used in a joint inversion, ensuring a consistent decomposition of the global and regional sea-level rise budget. Over the years 2002-2014, we find a global mean steric trend of 1.38 ± 0.16 mm/y, compared with a total trend of 2.74 ± 0.58 mm/y. This is significantly larger than steric trends derived from in situ temperature/salinity profiles and models which range from 0.66 ± 0.2 to 0.94 ± 0.1 mm/y. Mass contributions from ice sheets and glaciers (1.37 ± 0.09 mm/y, accelerating with 0.03 ± 0.02 mm/y(2)) are offset by a negative hydrological component (-0.29 ± 0.26 mm/y). The combined mass rate (1.08 ± 0.3 mm/y) is smaller than previous GRACE estimates (up to 2 mm/y), but it is consistent with the sum of individual contributions (ice sheets, glaciers, and hydrology) found in literature. The altimetric sea-level budget is closed by coestimating a remaining component of 0.22 ± 0.26 mm/y. Well above average sea-level rise is found regionally near the Philippines (14.7 ± 4.39 mm/y) and Indonesia (8.3 ± 4.7 mm/y) which is dominated by steric components (11.2 ± 3.58 mm/y and 6.4 ± 3.18 mm/y, respectively). In contrast, in the central and Eastern part of the Pacific, negative steric trends (down to -2.8 ± 1.53 mm/y) are detected. Significant regional components are found, up to 5.3 ± 2.6 mm/y in the northwest Atlantic, which are likely due to ocean bottom pressure variations.

  5. Coupling a thermodynamically active ice shelf to a regional simulation of the Weddell Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Meccia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamically interactive ice shelf cavity parameterization is coupled to the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS and is applied to the Southern Ocean domain with enhanced resolution in the Weddell Sea. This implementation is tested in order to assess its degree of improvement to the hydrography (and circulation of the Weddell Sea. Results show that the inclusion of ice shelf cavities in the model is feasible and somewhat realistic (considering the lack of under-ice observations for validation. Ice shelf–ocean interactions are an important process to be considered in order to obtain realistic hydrographic values under the ice shelf. The model framework presented in this work is a promising tool for analyzing the Southern Ocean's response to future climate change scenarios.

  6. Understanding Flash Flood Generation in the Arid Region of the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, R.; Hennig, H.; Rödiger, T.; Laronne, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    The arid region of the Dead Sea is prone by flash floods. Such flash floods in (semi-) arid regions are impressive. Generated within minutes, the peak unit discharge can be as high as 25 m³/s km². Floods are the main mechanism supplying water to alluvial aquifers, forming fluvial landscapes including canyons and often causing damage to humans, infrastructure, industry and tourism. Existing hydrological models in this region focus on peak discharges. However, these models are often based on simplified concepts and/or on concepts which were developed for humid regions. To more closely relate such models to local conditions, processes within catchments where floods occur require consideration. Therefore, a measurement network of rain gauges and level loggers to monitor runoff was installed in the beginning of the 2015/16 hydrological season in the tributaries of Wadi Arugot. The Arugot catchment is one of the largest ephemeral Wadis draining to the western shoreline of the Dead Sea at 450 m bsl. Due to the high gradient in elevation, the climate within the basin ranges from semiarid in the Judean Mountains, to hyper-arid near the Dead Sea with respective mean annual rainfall of 650 and 50 mm. The installed rain gauge network in the mountains is more dense compared to the Dead Sea area. Arid to semiarid catchments have different runoff generation processes compared to humid regions due local storm rainfall, low density of vegetation cover as well as patchy and shallow soil. These characteristics limit the contribution of groundwater flow, saturated overland flow and shallow subsurface flow, and therefore Hortonian overland flow is the most important contributor to overland flow. First analyses of the runoff data have shown that the storage capacity in the mountain area is lower compared to the more arid region. This is an evidence of high transmission losses in the coarse gravel wadi bed, therefore having a high permeability. The rain event duration and the amount of

  7. Aerosol Radiative Impact on the Middle East Regional Climate and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    The climate in the Middle East is complex and remains poorly understood. Due to the vast Arabian Desert, it is very sensitive to radiative forcing. Mineral dust is the dominant aerosol in this region. High background dust loading and frequent dust outbreaks significantly perturb the radiative balance and contribute to climate variability in the Middle East. To assess the climatological impact of dust in the region, we derived the aerosol optical properties and used a standalone column model to quantify radiative forcing sensitivity to a range of parameters representative of the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. Simulations and modeling assumptions were validated using available in situ observations and satellite retrievals for fair weather and dust storm conditions. We incorporated the optical properties into the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model and conducted simulations that represent the regional climate. The analysis shows that dust cools the Earth-atmosphere system and thus offsets the warming due to greenhouse gases. Dust reduces the sea surface temperature by 0.4 K, significantly perturbs energy balance, overturning circulation, and its purely dynamical impact reduces biological productivity in the Red Sea. In the real world, dust is present permanently and this does not allow to directly observe the climate response to the dust forcing. Volcanic eruptions produce a transient radiative impact that causes a detectable climate response that could be evaluated from observations and compared with simulations. Large equatorial eruptions are known to significantly perturb the Earth’s climate on the global scale, but their regional impact on the Middle East has not been thoroughly investigated. For example, the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption had a profound effect on the MENA and caused extensive coral bleaching in the Gulf of Aqaba. The analysis shows that observed cooling in the Middle East was mostly driven by changes in the atmospheric large

  8. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PAPAGAYO, COSTA RICA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica dataset was created using an automated...

  9. East Siberian Sea, an Arctic region of very high biogeochemical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Anderson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelf seas are among the most active biogeochemical marine environments and the East Siberian Sea is a prime example. This sea is supplied by seawater from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and has a substantial input of river runoff. All of these waters contribute chemical constituents, dissolved and particulate, but of different signatures. Sea ice formation during the winter season and melting in the summer has a major impact on physical as well as biogeochemical conditions. The internal circulation and water mass distribution is significantly influenced by the atmospheric pressure field. The western region is dominated by input of river runoff from the Laptev Sea and an extensive input of terrestrial organic matter. The microbial decay of this organic matter produces carbon dioxide (CO2 that oversaturates all waters from the surface to bottom relative to atmospheric level, even when primary production, inferred from low surface water nutrients, has occurred. The eastern surface waters were under-saturated with respect to CO2 illustrating the dominance of marine primary production. The drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon equals a primary production of ~0.8 ± 2 mol C m−2, which when multiplied by half the area of the East Siberian Sea, ~500 000 km2, results in an annual primary production of 0.4 (± 1 × 1012 mol C or ~4 (± 10 × 1012 gC. Microbial decay occurs through much of the water column, but dominates at the sediment interface where the majority of organic matter ends up, thus more of the decay products are recycled to the bottom water. High nutrient concentrations and fugacity of CO2 and low oxygen and pH were observed in the bottom waters. Another signature of organic matter decomposition, methane (CH4, was observed in very high but variable concentrations. This is due to its seabed sources of glacial origin or modern production from

  10. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem

  11. Elasmobranch fisheries in the Arabian Seas Region: Characteristics, trade and management

    KAUST Repository

    Jabado, Rima W

    2017-05-23

    The Arabian Seas Region plays an important role in the global landings and trade of sharks and rays. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Yemen, two countries with stark socio-economic differences, serve as major regional trade hubs for shark and ray products and four countries (Oman, Pakistan, UAE and Yemen) supply nearly 11% of dried fin exports to Hong Kong. Yet, little information is available on the characteristics of this trade and the fisheries contributing to it. Here, we review the fisheries characteristics, trade, utilization and distribution chain of sharks and rays in 15 countries of the Arabian Seas Region based on published and grey literature, landing surveys, field observations and interviews with fishermen and traders. Although regional shark fisheries remain mostly artisanal, reported shark and ray landings represent 28% of the regional total fish production, reaching 56,074 mt in 2012 (7.3% of total world catches), with Iran, Oman, Pakistan and Yemen ranking as the primary catchers. Utilization and distribution patterns are complex, vary between landing sites and countries, and remain unmonitored. Based on widespread over-exploitation of most teleost fisheries, current exploitation levels for most sharks and rays are potentially unsustainable. The situation is exacerbated by limited research and political will to support policy development, the incomplete nature of fisheries data, as well as insufficient regulations and enforcement. A better understanding of shark and ray fisheries will be key for regulating trade, promoting conservation and developing management initiatives to secure food security, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in the region.

  12. Innovacionnaja jekonomika v regione Baltijskogo morja [Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  13. A 21-Year Record of Arctic Sea Ice Extents and Their Regional, Seasonal, and Monthly Variability and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite passive-microwave data have been used to calculate sea ice extents over the period 1979-1999 for the north polar sea ice cover as a whole and for each of nine regions. Over this 21-year time period, the trend in yearly average ice extents for the ice cover as a whole is -32,900 +/- 6,100 sq km/yr (-2.7 +/- 0.5 %/decade), indicating a reduction in sea ice coverage that has decelerated from the earlier reported value of -34,000 +/- 8,300 sq km/yr (-2.8 +/- 0.7 %/decade) for the period 1979-1996. Regionally, the reductions are greatest in the Arctic Ocean, the Kara and Barents Seas, and the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, whereas seasonally, the reductions are greatest in summer, for which season the 1979-1999 trend in ice extents is -41,600 +/- 12,900 sq km/ yr (-4.9 +/- 1.5 %/decade). On a monthly basis, the reductions are greatest in July and September for the north polar ice cover as a whole, in September for the Arctic Ocean, in June and July for the Kara and Barents Seas, and in April for the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan. Only two of the nine regions show overall ice extent increases, those being the Bering Sea and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.For neither of these two regions is the increase statistically significant, whereas the 1079 - 1999 ice extent decreases are statistically significant at the 99% confidence level for the north polar region as a whole, the Arctic Ocean, the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, and Hudson Bay.

  14. Decadal trends in deep ocean salinity and regional effects on steric sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, S. G.; Llovel, W.

    2017-12-01

    We present deep (below 2000 m) and abyssal (below 4000 m) global ocean salinity trends from the 1990s through the 2010s and assess the role of deep salinity in local and global sea level budgets. Deep salinity trends are assessed using all deep basins with available full-depth, high-quality hydrographic section data that have been occupied two or more times since the 1980s through either the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program or the Global Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). All salinity data is calibrated to standard seawater and any intercruise offsets applied. While the global mean deep halosteric contribution to sea level rise is close to zero (-0.017 +/- 0.023 mm/yr below 4000 m), there is a large regional variability with the southern deep basins becoming fresher and northern deep basins becoming more saline. This meridional gradient in the deep salinity trend reflects different mechanisms driving the deep salinity variability. The deep Southern Ocean is freshening owing to a recent increased flux of freshwater to the deep ocean. Outside of the Southern Ocean, the deep salinity and temperature changes are tied to isopycnal heave associated with a falling of deep isopycnals in recent decades. Therefore, regions of the ocean with a deep salinity minimum are experiencing both a halosteric contraction with a thermosteric expansion. While the thermosteric expansion is larger in most cases, in some regions the halosteric compensates for as much as 50% of the deep thermal expansion, making a significant contribution to local sea level rise budgets.

  15. Sub regional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environments: The Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-07-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  16. Separating contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources in atmospheric methane from the Black Sea region, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, Stela; Pendall, Elise; Miller, John B.; Tans, Pieter P.; Dlugokencky, Ed; White, James W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Danube Delta-Black Sea region of Romania is an important wetland, and this preliminary study evaluates the significance of this region as a source of atmospheric CH 4 . Measurements of the mixing ratio and δ 13 C in CH 4 are reported from air and water samples collected at eight sites in the Danube Delta. High mixing ratios of CH 4 were found in air (2500-14,000 ppb) and dissolved in water samples (∼1-10 μmol L -1 ), demonstrating that the Danube Delta is an important natural source of CH 4 . The intercepts on Keeling plots of about -62 per mille show that the main source of CH 4 in this region is microbial, probably resulting primarily from acetate fermentation. Atmospheric CH 4 and CO data from the NOAA/ESRL (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory) were used to make a preliminary estimate of biogenic CH 4 at the Black Sea sampling site at Constanta (BSC). These data were used to calculate ratios of CH 4 /CO in air samples, and using an assumed CH 4 /CO anthropogenic emissions ratio of 0.6, fossil fuel emissions at BSC were estimated. Biogenic CH 4 emissions were then estimated by a simple mass balance approach. Keeling plots of well-mixed air from the BSC site suggested a stronger wetland source in summer and a stronger fossil fuel source in winter

  17. Bangladesh’s dynamic coastal regions and sea-level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Brammer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical geography of Bangladesh’s coastal area is more diverse and dynamic than is generally recognised. Failure to recognise this has led to serious misconceptions about the potential impacts of a rising sea-level on Bangladesh with global warming. This situation has been aggravated by accounts giving incorrect information on current rates of coastal erosion and land subsidence. This paper describes physical conditions within individual physiographic regions in Bangladesh’s coastal area based on ground-surveyed information, and it reviews possible area-specific mitigation measures to counter predicted rates of sea-level rise in the 21st century. Two important conclusions are drawn: the adoption of appropriate measures based on knowledge of the physical geography of potentially-affected areas could significantly reduce the currently-predicted displacement of many millions of people; and the impacts of a slowly-rising sea-level are currently much less than those generated by rapidly increasing population pressure on Bangladesh’s available land and water resources and by exposure to existing environmental hazards, and the latter problems need priority attention.

  18. Calculations of hydrophysical fields in the coastal regions of the Black Sea with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, N.

    2017-09-01

    Numerical experiments have been carried out using a hydrodynamical model with nonlinear equations of motion and heat and salt advection to reconstruct the fields of hydrophysical parameters in the coastal regions of the Black Sea taking into account the real atmospheric forcing and river discharges for the winter and summer seasons of 2006. A higher spatial resolution allowed to get a detailed meso- and submesoscale structure of hydrophysical fields in the upper and deep layers of the Southern Coast of Crimea and the north-western shelf and to obtain quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the eddies and jets more accurately in comparison with previous calculations.

  19. NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Zeleneva

    2013-01-01

    NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT By 2050, we can expect dramatic changes in the global energy balance. At the beginning of 21st century, the configuration of the global energy market has begun to change due to a wide variety of both political and economic reasons. The formation of a European common gas market in the world of fierce competition among world exporters for short-term and long-term contracts, the growth of energy consumption in China, J...

  20. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  1. Assessing Sea Level Rise Impacts on the Surficial Aquifer in the Kennedy Space Center Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Warnock, A. M.; Hall, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Global sea level rise in the past century due to climate change has been seen at an average rate of approximately 1.7-2.2 mm per year, with an increasing rate over the next century. The increasing SLR rate poses a severe threat to the low-lying land surface and the shallow groundwater system in the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, resulting in saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding. A three-dimensional groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented to investigate and evaluate the extent of floods due to rising water table as well as saltwater intrusion. The SEAWAT model is chosen to solve the variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport governing equations and simulate the regional-scale spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater level and chloride concentration. The horizontal resolution of the model is 50 m, and the vertical domain includes both the Surficial Aquifer and the Floridan Aquifer. The numerical model is calibrated based on the observed hydraulic head and chloride concentration. The potential impacts of sea level rise on saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding are assessed under various sea level rise scenarios. Based on the simulation results, the potential landward movement of saltwater and freshwater fringe is projected. The existing water supply wells are examined overlaid with the projected salinity distribution map. The projected Surficial Aquifer water tables are overlaid with data of high resolution land surface elevation, land use and land cover, and infrastructure to assess the potential impacts of sea level rise. This study provides useful tools for decision making on ecosystem management, water supply planning, and facility management.

  2. QUANTIFYING REGIONAL SEA LEVEL RISE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE GREENLAND ICE SHEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diandong Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study projects the sea level contribution from the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS through to 2100, using a recently developed ice dynamics model forced by atmospheric parameters derived from three different climate models (CGCMs. The geographical pattern of the near-surface ice warming imposes a divergent flow field favoring mass loss through enhanced ice flow. The calculated average mass loss rate during the latter half of the 21st century is ~0.64±0.06 mm/year eustatic sea level rise, which is significantly larger than the IPCC AR4 estimate from surface mass balance. The difference is due largely to the positive feedbacks from reduced ice viscosity and the basal sliding mechanism present in the ice dynamics model. This inter-model, inter-scenario spread adds approximately a 20% uncertainty to the IPCC ice model estimates. The sea level rise is geographically non-uniform and reaches 1.69±0.24 mm/year by 2100 for the northeast coastal region of the United States, amplified by the expected weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC. In contrast to previous estimates, which neglected the GrIS fresh water input, both sides of the North Atlantic Gyre are projected to experience sea level rises. The impacts on a selection of major cities on both sides of the Atlantic and in the Pacific and southern oceans also are assessed. The other ocean basins are found to be less affected than the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea Region: the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Alba Martínez; Kronbak, Jacob; Jiang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    This paper is framed in the context of the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region project Food Port. In line with this project, this paper aims to define mathematically cost and time models able to provide realistic information about the performances of road haulage and of intermodal chains using short...

  4. Regional Interdependence in Adaptation to Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, M. T.; Lubell, M.; Hummel, M.; Wang, R. Q.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Herdman, L.; Pozdnukhov, A.; Sheehan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Projections of sea level rise may differ in the pace of change, but there is clear consensus that coastal communities will be facing more frequent and severe flooding events in the coming century. As communities adapt to future conditions, infrastructure systems will be developed, modified and abandoned, with important consequences for services and resilience. Whether action or inaction is pursued, the decisions made by an individual community regarding a single infrastructure system have implications that extend spatially and temporally due to geographic and infrastructure system interactions. At the same time, there are a number of barriers to collective or coordinated action that inhibit regional solutions. This interplay between local actions and regional responses is one of the great challenges facing decision-makers grappling with both local and regional climate-change adaptation. In this talk, I present case studies of the San Francisco Bay Area that examine how shoreline infrastructure, transporation sytems and decision-making networks interact to define the regional response to local actions and the local response to regional actions. I will characterize the barriers that exist to regional solutions, and characterize three types of interdependence that may motivate decision-makers to overcome those barriers. Using these examples, I will discuss the importance of interdisciplinary analyses that integrate the natural sciences, engineering and the social science to climate change adaptation more generally.

  5. {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents Sea Regions. Sources and radioecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The radioecological assessment for {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents sea regions was made using the compartment modelling approach. The following sources of radioactive contamination were under consideration: global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, transport of {sup 239+240}Pu from the Sellafield and La Hauge nuclear plants and underwater testing of nuclear weapons in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zemlya. The box model developed at NRPA uses a modified approach for compartmental modeling, which takes into account the dispersion of radionuclides over time. The box structures for surface, mid-depth and deep water layers have been developed based on the description of polar, Atlantic and deep waters in the Arctic Ocean and the Northern Seas, as well as site-specific information for the boxes. The volume of the three water layers in each box has been calculated using detailed bathymetry together with Geographical Information Systems. The box model includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing and a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers. Radioactive decay is calculated for all compartments. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumptions, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota are determined on the basis of calculated radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. Results of the calculations show that atmospheric deposition is the dominant source for the Barents Sea, except for the Chernaya Bay region. It is also demonstrated that the impact of the Sellafield nuclear facilities has

  6. A one stop website for sharing sea ice, ocean and ice sheet data over the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.; Hui, F.; Ding, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The polar regions, including the Arctic and Antarctic, are changing rapidly. Our capabilities to remotely monitor the state of the polar regions are increasing greatly. Satellite and airborne technologies have been deployed and further improvements are underway. Meanwhile, various algorithms have been developed to retrieve important parameters to maximize the effectiveness of available remote sensing data. These technologies and algorithms promise to greatly increase our understanding of variations in sea ice, ocean and ice sheet. However, so much information is scattered out there. It is challenging to find exactly what you are looking for by just searching it through the network. Therefore, we try to establish a common platform to sharing some key parameters for the polar regions. A group of scientists from Beijing Normal University and University at Albany developed a website as a "one-stop shop" for the current state of the polar regions. The website provides real-time (or near real-time) key parameters derived from a variety of operational satellites in an understandable, accessible and credible way. Three types of parameter, which are sea ice, ocean and ice sheet respectively, are shown and available to be downloaded in the website. Several individual parameters are contained in a specific type of parameter. The parameters of sea ice include sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness, melt pond, sea ice leads and sea ice drift. The ocean parameters contain sea surface temperature and sea surface wind. Ice sheet balance, ice velocity and some other parameters are classified into the type of ice sheet parameter. Some parameters are well-calibrated and available to be obtained from other websites, such as sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness sea surface temperature. Since these parameters are retrieved from different sensors, such as SSMI, AMSR2 etc., data format, spatial resolution of the parameters are not unified. We collected and reprocessed these

  7. GHRSST Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  8. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  9. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  10. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

    2010-09-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  11. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Artico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande, both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7, with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%. Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62% and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%. Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  12. Sensitivity of Horn of Africa Rainfall to Regional Sea Surface Temperature Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu T. Segele

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP version 4.4 Regional Climate Model (RegCM4 is used to investigate the rainfall response to cooler/warmer sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA forcing in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The effect of SSTA forcing in a specific ocean basin is identified by ensemble, averaging 10 individual simulations in which a constant or linearly zonally varying SSTA is prescribed in individual basins while specifying the 1971–2000 monthly varying climatological sea surface temperature (SST across the remaining model domain. The nonlinear rainfall response to SSTA amplitude also is investigated by separately specifying +1K, +2K, and +4K SSTA forcing in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The simulation results show that warm SSTs over the entire Indian Ocean produce drier conditions across the larger Blue Nile catchment, whereas warming ≥ +2K generates large positive rainfall anomalies exceeding 10 mm·day−1 over drought prone regions of Northeastern Ethiopia. However, the June–September rainy season tends to be wetter (drier when the SST warming (cooling is limited to either the Northern or Southern Indian Ocean. Wet rainy seasons generally are characterized by deepening of the monsoon trough, east of 40°E, intensification of the Mascarene high, strengthening of the Somali low level jet and the tropical easterly jet, enhanced zonal and meridional vertically integrated moisture fluxes, and steeply vertically decreasing moist static energy. The opposite conditions hold for dry monsoon seasons.

  13. Polyphased rifting to post-breakup evolution of the Coral Sea region, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulois, Cédric; Pubellier, Manuel; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    region underwent thermal subsidence through the Middle Eocene prior the first regional compressional episode (Late Eocene to Oligocene). Rift-megacycles, although poorly dated, are probably pulsed, implying that internal sequences are of specific nature and age and are bounded by unconformities. The controlling factors may include the distribution of underlying basement highs and the response to regional stress variation driven by plate motion. In particular, the set of unconformities is thought to mark a series of uplift episodes that characterise the initiation of the rifting, or else seafloor spreading and subsidence (tectonic/thermal) during each specific rift megacycle. The current study more specifically shows that: (1) the early rifting phases of the crust (R1 and R2) were controlled by pre-existing continental features whereas the late Coral Sea propagator (R3) cut through the rifted margin independently from earlier structural trends. This last rifting is also more restricted to the area near the continent-ocean transition. (2) the set of rifted basins of the northern margin of the Coral Sea are now underthrusted below the Owen Stanley Basin initially located northward.

  14. Regional Evaluation of ERA-40 Reanalysis Data with Marine Atmospheric Observations in the North Sea Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils H. Schade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important task of the departmental research programme KLIWAS is the evaluation and assessment of climate model results by means of a comprehensive reference data set. For validation purposes, and to create a North Sea wide maritime atmospheric and oceanographic reference database, in-situ observations of the Centre for Global Marine Meteorological Observations (GZS of the National Meteorological Service DWD have been compared to the ERA-40 reanalysis. ERA-40 is used as forcing for the hindcast runs of the ENSEMBLES regional climate models, which is used within the KLIWAS model chain. The GZS hosts a regularly updated, quality controlled, world-wide data bank of weather observations from the oceans. It includes data from all sorts of observation platforms as Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS, drifting and moored buoys, light vessels, and offshore platforms, either from real-time (RT via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS or from international exchange in delayed-mode (DM. In addition to the automated set of programs applied for high quality control, erroneous data are also manually corrected to a certain extent, if possible. To assure reliable statistics for the evaluation, the corrected observations are gridded to a resolution of 2.25 degree, so each grid box includes four ERA-40 reanalysis grid points. The temporal coverage of the grid boxes depends on shipping routes and the positions of automated systems. Observed air temperatures, covering a period of 40 years (1961?2000, show noticeable differences to the reanalysis data for all land influenced boxes, specifically in the winter months. The same differences can be found if ERA-40 data alone are compared between land- and sea facing boxes. They can not be found in GZS data. It can be assumed that the differences are not resulting from measurement errors or uncertain fraction variabilities, since they are small during the winter months. A comparison of the differences basing on the 1981

  15. Paleoecology of late-glacial peats from the bering land bridge, Chukchi Sea shelf region, northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, S.A.; Short, S.K.; Phillips, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Insect fossils and pollen from late Pleistocene nonmarine peat layers were recovered from cores from the shelf region of the Chukchi Sea at depths of about 50 m below sea level. The peats date to 11,300-11,000 yr B.P. and provide a limiting age for the regional Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgression. The insect fossils are indicative of arctic coastal habitats like those of the Mackenzie Delta region (mean July temperatures = 10.6-14??C) suggesting that 11,000 yr ago the exposed Chukchi Sea shelf had a climate substantially warmer than modern coastal regions of the Alaskan north slope. The pollen spectra are consistent with the age assignment to the Birch Interval (14,000-9000 yr B.P.). The data suggest a meadow-like graminoid tundra with birch shrubs and some willow shrubs growing in sheltered areas. ?? 1992.

  16. Aspects of Remote Sensing in the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Knudsen, Per

    1999-01-01

    The general objectives of the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) project are presented. These include analyses of the dynamics of the ocean and its characteristics. The analyses are mainly based on remote sensing. As an example a data set obtained by the multi-channel Sea-viewing...... Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) is analysed. The presentation results include the computed principal components (PC) and the maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF). Both methods are expected to be incorporated into future analyses of the state of the ocean....

  17. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  18. A transnational and holistic breeding approach is needed for sustainable wheat production in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawade, Aakash; Armoniené, Rita; Berg, Gunilla; Brazauskas, Gintaras; Frostgård, Gunilla; Geleta, Mulatu; Gorash, Andrii; Henriksson, Tina; Himanen, Kristiina; Ingver, Anne; Johansson, Eva; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Koppel, Mati; Koppel, Reine; Makela, Pirjo; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Podyma, Wieslaw; Roitsch, Thomas; Ronis, Antanas; Svensson, Jan T; Vallenback, Pernilla; Weih, Martin

    2018-03-14

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. Eutrophication is a major concern in the Baltic Sea due to the leakage of nutrients to the sea with agriculture being the primary source. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown crop in the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and thus promoting sustainable agriculture practices for wheat cultivation will have a major impact on reducing pollution in the Baltic Sea. This approach requires identifying and addressing key challenges for sustainable wheat production in the region. Implementing new technologies for climate-friendly breeding and digital farming across all surrounding countries should promote sustainable intensification of agriculture in the region. In this review, we highlight major challenges for wheat cultivation in the Baltic Sea region and discuss various solutions integrating transnational collaboration for pre-breeding and technology sharing to accelerate development of low input wheat cultivars with improved host plant resistance to pathogen and enhanced adaptability to the changing climate. © 2018 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Landslide susceptibility assessment of SE Bartin (West Black Sea region, Turkey by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ercanoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are significant natural hazards in Turkey, second only to earthquakes with respect to economic losses and casualties. The West Black Sea region of Turkey is known as one of the most landslide-prone regions in the country. The work presented in this paper is aimed at evaluating landslide susceptibility in a selected area in the West Black Sea region using Artificial Neural Network (ANN method. A total of 317 landslides were identified and mapped in the area by extensive field work and by use of air photo interpretations to build a landslide inventory map. A landslide database was then derived automatically from the landslide inventory map. To evaluate landslide susceptibility, six input parameters (slope angle, slope aspect, topographical elevation, topographical shape, wetness index, and vegetation index were used. To obtain maps of these parameters, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and ASTER satellite imagery of the study area were used. At the first stage, all data were normalized in [0, 1] interval, and parameter effects on landslide occurrence were expressed using Statistical Index values (Wi. Then, landslide susceptibility analyses were performed using an ANN. Finally, performance of the resulting map and the applied methodology is discussed relative to performance indicators, such as predicted areal extent of landslides and the strength of relation (rij value. Much of the areal extents of the landslides (87.2% were classified as susceptible to landsliding, and rij value of 0.85 showed a high degree of similarity. In addition to these, at the final stage, an independent validation strategy was followed by dividing the landslide data set into two parts and 82.5% of the validation data set was found to be correctly classified as landslide susceptible areas. According to these results, it is concluded that the map produced by the ANN is reliable and methodology applied in the study produced high performance, and satisfactory results.

  20. The Sea Stacks Project: Enhancing the Use of Regional Literature in Atlantic Canadian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Howard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canada, regional Atlantic Canadian authors and illustrators for children receive very limited critical attention, and resources for the study and teaching of Atlantic Canadian children’s literature are few. Print and digital information sources on regional children’s books, publishing, authors and illustrators are scattered and inconsistent in quality and currency. This research project directly addresses these key concerns by summarizing the findings of a survey of Atlantic Canadian teachers on their use of regional books. In response to survey findings, the paper concludes by describing the creation of the Sea Stacks Project an authoritative web-delivered information resource devoted to contemporary Atlantic Canadian literature for children and teens.

  1. Air-sea gas exchange of HCHs and PCBs and enantiomers of α-HCH in the Kattegat Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundqvist, Kristina L.; Wingfors, Haakan; Brorstoem-Lunden, Eva; Wiberg, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations and air-water gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in nine paired air and water samples. The samples were collected monthly in the Kattegat Sea between December 1998 and November 1999. Average fugacity and flux values indicated that PCBs were oversaturated in the water, while HCHs were net deposited. Variations were large over the year, especially during spring and summer. Air parcel back trajectories suggested that air concentrations over the Kattegat Sea are largely dependent of air mass origin. Seasonal trends were detected for airborne HCHs and for PCBs in water. The air and water enantiomeric compositions of α-HCH indicated that a larger portion of α-HCH in air originated from the underlying water during summer than during winter. - Air-water exchange of PCBs and HCHs is studied in the Kattegat Sea and shows to vary seasonally

  2. Interannual-to-decadal air-sea interactions in the tropical Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo

    2001-09-01

    The present research identifies modes of atmosphere-ocean interaction in the tropical Atlantic region and the mechanisms by which air-sea interactions influence the regional climate. Novelties of the present work are (1)the use of relevant ocean and atmosphere variables important to identity coupled variability in the system. (2)The use of new data sets, including realistic diabatic heating. (3)The study of interactions between ocean and atmosphere relevant at interannual-to-decadal time scales. Two tropical modes of variability are identified during the period 1958-1993, the Atlantic Niño mode and the Interhemispheric mode. Those modes have defined structures in both ocean and atmosphere. Anomalous sea surface temperatures and winds are associated to anomalous placement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). They develop maximum amplitude during boreal summer and spring, respectively. The anomalous positioning of the ITCZ produces anomalous precipitation in some places like Nordeste, Brazil and the Caribbean region. Through the use of a diagnostic primitive equation model, it is found that the most important terms controlling local anomalous surface winds over the ocean are boundary layer temperature gradients and diabatic heating anomalies at low levels (below 780 mb). The latter is of particular importance in the deep tropics in producing the anomalous meridional response to the surface circulation. Simulated latent heat anomalies indicate that a thermodynamic feedback establishes positive feedbacks at both sides of the equator and west of 20°W in the deep tropics and a negative feedback in front of the north west coast of Africa for the Interhemispheric mode. This thermodynamic feedback only establishes negative feedbacks for the Atlantic Niño mode. Transients establish some connection between the tropical Atlantic and other basins. Interhemispheric gradients of surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic influence winds in the midlatitude North

  3. Toward Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Arctic Sea Ice Forecasting Using the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S.; Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Osinski, R.; Cassano, J. J.; Seefeldt, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Regional Arctic system model has been developed and used to advance the current state of Arctic modeling and increase the skill of sea ice forecast. RASM is a fully coupled, limited-area model that includes the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, land hydrology and runoff routing components and the flux coupler to exchange information among them. Boundary conditions are derived from NCEP Climate Forecasting System Reanalyses (CFSR) or Era Iterim (ERA-I) for hindcast simulations or from NCEP Coupled Forecast System Model version 2 (CFSv2) for seasonal forecasts. We have used RASM to produce sea ice forecasts for September 2016 and 2017, in contribution to the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) of the Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN). Each year, we produced three SIOs for the September minimum, initialized on June 1, July 1 and August 1. In 2016, predictions used a simple linear regression model to correct for systematic biases and included the mean September sea ice extent, the daily minimum and the week of the minimum. In 2017, we produced a 12-member ensemble on June 1 and July 1, and 28-member ensemble August 1. The predictions of September 2017 included the pan-Arctic and regional Alaskan sea ice extent, daily and monthly mean pan-Arctic maps of sea ice probability, concentration and thickness. No bias correction was applied to the 2017 forecasts. Finally, we will also discuss future plans for RASM forecasts, which include increased resolution for model components, ecosystem predictions with marine biogeochemistry extensions (mBGC) to the ocean and sea ice components, and feasibility of optional boundary conditions using the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM).

  4. Data-adaptive harmonic analysis and prediction of sea level change in North Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, D. A.; Chekroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to characterize North Atlantic sea level variability across the temporal and spatial scales. We apply recently developed data-adaptive Harmonic Decomposition (DAH) and Multilayer Stuart-Landau Models (MSLM) stochastic modeling techniques [Chekroun and Kondrashov, 2017] to monthly 1993-2017 dataset of Combined TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2/OSTM altimetry fields over North Atlantic region. The key numerical feature of the DAH relies on the eigendecomposition of a matrix constructed from time-lagged spatial cross-correlations. In particular, eigenmodes form an orthogonal set of oscillating data-adaptive harmonic modes (DAHMs) that come in pairs and in exact phase quadrature for a given temporal frequency. Furthermore, the pairs of data-adaptive harmonic coefficients (DAHCs), obtained by projecting the dataset onto associated DAHMs, can be very efficiently modeled by a universal parametric family of simple nonlinear stochastic models - coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators stacked per frequency, and synchronized across different frequencies by the stochastic forcing. Despite the short record of altimetry dataset, developed DAH-MSLM model provides for skillful prediction of key dynamical and statistical features of sea level variability. References M. D. Chekroun and D. Kondrashov, Data-adaptive harmonic spectra and multilayer Stuart-Landau models. HAL preprint, 2017, https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01537797

  5. Hindcast storm events in the Bering Sea for the St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet Regions, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; McCall, Robert T.; van Rooijen, Arnold; Norris, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study provides viable estimates of historical storm-induced water levels in the coastal communities of Gambell and Savoonga situated on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, as well as Unalakleet located at the head of Norton Sound on the western coast of Alaska. Gambell, Savoonga, and Unalakleet are small Native Villages that are regularly impacted by coastal storms but where little quantitative information about these storms exists. The closest continuous water-level gauge is at Nome, located more than 200 kilometers from both St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet. In this study, storms are identified and quantified using historical atmospheric and sea-ice data and then used as boundary conditions for a suite of numerical models. The work includes storm-surge (temporary rise in water levels due to persistent strong winds and low atmospheric pressures) modeling in the Bering Strait region, as well as modeling of wave runup along specified sections of the coast in Gambell and Unalakleet. Modeled historical water levels are used to develop return periods of storm surge and storm surge plus wave runup at key locations in each community. It is anticipated that the results will fill some of the data void regarding coastal flood data in western Alaska and be used for production of coastal vulnerability maps and community planning efforts.

  6. Determination of Seasonal Vitamin and Mineral Contents of Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) Cultured in Net Cages in Central Black Sea Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Dilara Kaya; Baki, Birol; Karayücel, İsmihan; Öztürk, Recep; Gören, Gülşen Uzun; Karayücel, Sedat

    2018-05-12

    This study aimed to determine the seasonal vitamin and mineral contents of sea bream (Sparus aurata) cultured in net cages in Central Black Sea region. The average seasonal A, D 3 , and E vitamins values in fish meat were between 0.27 ± 0.02-0.60 ± 0.00, 0.98 ± 0.01-1.70 ± 0.00, and 3.10 ± 0.14-6.00 ± 0.21 mg/kg, respectively (p meat were between 276.90 ± 0.99-1788.50 ± 51.27 (p  0.05), 4244.50 ± 8.84-4761.50 ± 1.06 (p  0.05), respectively. As a result, it can be concluded that sea bream cultured in the Central Black Sea region is a rich source of nutrients in terms of vitamins and mineral matters, and fish size, feed quality, and the environmental factors are influential on the contents of vitamin and mineral substances in the fish tissue.

  7. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  8. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  9. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    The report summarizes the key results of the consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs) carried out for a variety of manure management techniques over the Baltic Sea Regions (BSR). For all manure management technologies assessed, the environmental impacts (in terms of potential to global warming......, acidification of aquatic & terrestrial systems as well as phosphorus and nitrogen enrichment) are evaluated along the whole “manure management chain”, quantified and compared to the applying reference manure management system. The LCA results presented in this report cover 4 main manure types (dairy cow slurry....... Assessed separation technologies include concentration technologies, state-of-the-art decanter centrifuge and source-separation technologies. The energy production technologies addressed consist of thermal gasification, incineration and anaerobic digestion (for which a myriad of carbon co...

  10. Co-existence of electricity, TEP, and TGC markets in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Nybroe, Malene Hein; Ravn, Hans F.; Schmidt, Rune

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the application of two policy instruments, tradable emission permits (TEPs) and tradable green certificates (TGCs) to the electricity sector in an international context. The paper contains an explicit modelling at two levels of abstraction, one suitable for defining and analysing basic functionalities and one suitable for numerical analysis in relation to countries in the Baltic Sea Region. Emphasis is on estimating implications in quantitative terms for countries in the Baltic Sea Region in 2010 when the TEP market in the analysis extends to four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden), and the TGC market extends to North European EU countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Germany). The study concludes that within the range of goals stipulated in the EU draft directive (23.6% renewable energy) and the Kyoto targets for emissions, the following prices are affected significantly: from -2 to +10 Euro/MWh for electricity spot prices, TGC prices up to 50 Euro/MWh, TEP prices up to 18 Euro/t CO 2 and up to +15 Euro/MWh on the consumer cost. It is shown that such price changes have important consequences for the production and investment patterns in the electricity sector, and the resulting patterns will be clearly different according to the specific numerical targets for the two goals. An immediate consequence is increased pressure on transmission lines. Further, the introduction of TEP and TGC markets will imply a restructuring of the electricity sector, e.g. (depending on the specific combination of targets) by a significant increase in wind power capacities. However, this will have to be counterbalanced by access to production technologies that have fast regulation properties and/or that may maintain voltage stability. However, the price signals of TGCs (and to some extent also TEPs) that will enhance wind power investments will simultaneously hamper investments in technologies that are a precondition for extensive use of wind power

  11. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  12. Strengthening of radiation protection in the Baltic Sea Region and North west-Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ake Persson, B.; Olof Snihs, Jan

    2000-01-01

    There are a number of strong radiation sources in the Baltic Sea Region and Northwest Europe (Northwest Russia). They include more than 30 nuclear power reactors, various other operating facilities with radiation sources, a number of radioactive waste repositories and several stores for spent nuclear fuel. Many of these facilities are in good shape and under good control from the authorities. Others are in a very poor condition and there is a need of immediate actions to be taken. This is particular the case in the Northwest part of Russia. The strengthening of radiation protection in the two regions mentioned above is made by national efforts and through international co-operation including various support activities. The close geographical position with common seas, the developing economical and cultural co-operation between the countries as well as connections with historical background means that there is an interest and common benefit to strengthen the co-operation in the field of radiation protection and radiological emergency planning. Sweden has since the disintegration of the Soviet Union a policy to assist and support the Baltic States and the Russian Federation in the field of radiation protection and to strengthen the preparedness for co-operation between the countries in the event of a severe nuclear accident or radiological emergency. The problems, strategies, results and failures up to now will be described as well as how these efforts are integrated in and put into perspective of the development of radiation protection in the donor countries. There are also efforts to integrate most of the countries in common policy work, research and technical development in the field of radiation protection. Some perspectives into the next millennium are discussed. (author)

  13. Impact of increasing antarctic glacial freshwater release on regional sea-ice cover in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Nacho; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Le Sommer, Julien; Goosse, Hugues; Mathiot, Pierre; Durand, Gael

    2018-01-01

    The sensitivity of Antarctic sea-ice to increasing glacial freshwater release into the Southern Ocean is studied in a series of 31-year ocean/sea-ice/iceberg model simulations. Glaciological estimates of ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving are used to better constrain the spatial distribution and magnitude of freshwater forcing around Antarctica. Two scenarios of glacial freshwater forcing have been designed to account for a decadal perturbation in glacial freshwater release to the Southern Ocean. For the first time, this perturbation explicitly takes into consideration the spatial distribution of changes in the volume of Antarctic ice shelves, which is found to be a key component of changes in freshwater release. In addition, glacial freshwater-induced changes in sea ice are compared to typical changes induced by the decadal evolution of atmospheric states. Our results show that, in general, the increase in glacial freshwater release increases Antarctic sea ice extent. But the response is opposite in some regions like the coastal Amundsen Sea, implying that distinct physical mechanisms are involved in the response. We also show that changes in freshwater forcing may induce large changes in sea-ice thickness, explaining about one half of the total change due to the combination of atmospheric and freshwater changes. The regional contrasts in our results suggest a need for improving the representation of freshwater sources and their evolution in climate models.

  14. Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of 5 years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anticorrelation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice!free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7% and 10%, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5% 7%. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Because longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  15. The Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of five years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anti-correlation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7 and 10 percent, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5 to 7 percent. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Since longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  16. Relationship of spontaneous pneumothorax cases seen in Eastern Black Sea region with meteorological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamac, Mustafa Esat; Karapolat, Sami; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Seyis, Kubra Nur; Tekinbas, Celal

    2017-08-01

    The relationship of climate changes or weather conditions with the incidence of pneumothorax has been explored for many years. We aimed at revealing the effects of meteorological changes on the incidence of pneumothorax in the Eastern Black Sea region where spontaneous pneumothorax cases are seen relatively more frequently. The records of 195 subjects (179 males and 16 females) who had been monitored and treated due to spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2006 and December 2012 at our clinic were reviewed retrospectively, and their relationship was investigated with the meteorological data obtained by going through the database archive records of the 11th Regional Meteorology Directorate for the years between 2006 and 2012. Wind velocity was observed to be less in the days of having spontaneous pneumothorax than in the days of having no spontaneous pneumothorax, and the difference was found statistically significant ( P = 0.026). The people of our region whose active lifestyle is reflected in their working life, social life, and even in their folk dances usually take a rest in the days of slower wind speed. We think that this state of resting leads to an increase in the frequency of spontaneous pneumothorax.

  17. International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Partridge, P; Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics

    1992-01-01

    This book Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics is the second volume of the two volume proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics, held in Southampton, U.K., in April 1992. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is now fully established as an ac­ curate and successful technique for solving engineering problems in a wide range of fields. The success of the method is due to its advantages in data reduction, as only the boundary of the region is modelled. Thus moving boundaries may be more easily handled, which is not the case if domain methods are used. In addition, the method is easily able to model regions to extending to infinity. Fluid mechanics is traditionally one of the most challenging areas of engi­ neering, the simulation of fluid motion, particularly in three dimensions, is always a serious test for any numerical method, and is an area in which BEM analysis may be used taking full advantage of its special character...

  18. 137Cs and 239+240Pu levels in the Asia-Pacific regional seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; Povinec, P.P.; Fowler, S.W.; Airey, P.L.; Hong, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    137 Cs and 239+240 Pu data in seawater, sediment and biota from the regional seas of Asia-Pacific extending from 50 deg. N to 60 deg. S latitude and 60 deg. E to 180 deg. E longitude based on the Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database (ASPAMARD) are presented and discussed. 137 Cs levels in surface seawater have been declining to its present median value of about 3 Bq/m 3 due mainly to radioactive decay, transport processes, and the absence of new significant inputs. 239+240 Pu levels in surface seawater are much lower, with a median of about 6 mBq/m 3 . 239+240 Pu appears to be partly scavenged by particles and is therefore more readily transported down the water column. As with seawater, 239+240 Pu concentrations are lower than 137 Cs in surface sediment. The median 137 Cs concentration in surface sediment is 1.4 Bq/kg dry, while that of 239+240 Pu is only 0.2 Bq/kg dry. The vertical profiles of both 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in the sediment column of coastal areas are different from deep seas which can be attributed to the higher sedimentation rates and additional contribution of run-offs from terrestrial catchment areas in the coastal zone. Comparable data for biota are far less extensive than those for seawater and sediment. The median 137 Cs concentration in fish (0.2 Bq/kg wet) is higher than in crustaceans (0.1 Bq/kg wet) or mollusks (0.1 Bq/kg wet). Benchmark values (as of 2001) for 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu concentrations in seawater, sediment and biota are established to serve as reference values against which the impact of future anthropogenic inputs can be assessed. ASPAMARD represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of available data on 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in particular, and other anthropogenic as well as natural radionuclides in seawater, sediment and biota from the Asia-Pacific regional seas

  19. GHRSST Level 4 MUR North America Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced as a retrospective dataset at the JPL Physical...

  20. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Eastern Central Pacific Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  1. GHRSST Level 4 RAMSSA Australian Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  2. Regional air-sea coupled model simulation for two types of extreme heat in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghuan; Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2018-03-01

    Extreme heat (EH) over North China (NC) is affected by both large scale circulations and local topography, and could be categorized into foehn favorable and no-foehn types. In this study, the performance of a regional coupled model in simulating EH over NC was examined. The effects of regional air-sea coupling were also investigated by comparing the results with the corresponding atmosphere-alone regional model. On foehn favorable (no-foehn) EH days, a barotropic cyclonic (anticyclonic) anomaly is located to the northeast (northwest) of NC, while anomalous northwesterlies (southeasterlies) prevail over NC in the lower troposphere. In the uncoupled simulation, barotropic anticyclonic bias occurs over China on both foehn favorable and no-foehn EH days, and the northwesterlies in the lower troposphere on foehn favorable EH days are not obvious. These biases are significantly reduced in the regional coupled simulation, especially on foehn favorable EH days with wind anomalies skill scores improving from 0.38 to 0.47, 0.47 to 0.61 and 0.38 to 0.56 for horizontal winds at 250, 500 and 850 hPa, respectively. Compared with the uncoupled simulation, the reproduction of the longitudinal position of Northwest Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) and the spatial pattern of the low-level monsoon flow over East Asia are improved in the coupled simulation. Therefore, the anticyclonic bias over China is obviously reduced, and the proportion of EH days characterized by anticyclonic anomaly is more appropriate. The improvements in the regional coupled model indicate that it is a promising choice for the future projection of EH over NC.

  3. The atmospheric boundary layer over land and sea: Focus on the off-shore Southern Baltic and Southern North Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    Lecture notes for a short course on the ideal atmospheric boundary layer and its characteristics for different types of real boundary layers, aiming at a discussion of the coastal conditions at the Southern Baltic and North Sea region. The notes are aimed at young scientists (e.g. PhD students......) that study the physics of the atmospheric boundary layer with the purpose of applying this knowledge for remote sensing techniques within offshore wind energy....

  4. Daily temperature and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region derived from the BaltAn65+ reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Post, Piia

    2018-04-01

    Daily 2-m temperature and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region for the time period of 1965-2005 is studied based on data from the BaltAn65 + high resolution atmospheric reanalysis. Moreover, the ability of regional reanalysis to capture extremes is analysed by comparing the reanalysis data to gridded observations. The shortcomings in the simulation of the minimum temperatures over the northern part of the region and in the simulation of the extreme precipitation over the Scandinavian mountains in the BaltAn65+ reanalysis data are detected and analysed. Temporal trends in the temperature and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region, with the largest increases in temperature and precipitation in winter, are detected based on both gridded observations and the BaltAn65+ reanalysis data. However, the reanalysis is not able to capture all of the regional trends in the extremes in the observations due to the shortcomings in the simulation of the extremes.

  5. Modelling regional sea-level changes in recent past and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level change is one of the most important consequences of a warming climate, affecting many densely populated coastal communities. To improve coastal management and the planning of flood defences, information on the future development of sea-level rise is needed. However, sea-level rise is not

  6. The Baltic Sea Macro-Regional Transport Cluster as an Element of the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nežerenko Olga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the opportunities of the Chinese initiative “One Belt, One Road”, for the development of the Baltic Sea macro-region (BSR, as a single transport cluster. One of the objectives of the initiative is to strengthen transport linkages from the Pacific Ocean to the Baltic Sea Region. Thus, the contemporary macro-regional approach to the development of EU macro-regions can provide an additional impulse to the creation of formal macro-regional inter-cooperation, via in this case, the project that will advance the transport infrastructure of the region. This study examines the situation of the railway sector in the BSR in the period 2004–2015, through hierarchical cluster analysis, to identify countries with similar trends in cargo flow turnover. Taking into account the favorable geographical position of Poland, its transport performance and advanced (in comparison to other Baltic Sea region countries relations with China, it is concluded that Poland’s conditions are more suitable to promote economic integration with its closest neighbors – the Baltic countries-through the creation of formal macro-regional railway transport within the Rail Baltic project.

  7. The Development of the Regional Sea Port Infrastructure on the Basis of Dry Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nelevich Rakhmangulov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the solution of the relevant problem of the seaport infrastructure development for the purpose of increasing the cargo turnover in the regions of seaport location as well as to improve the quality of freight traffic on the basis of the creation of container hinterlands — dry ports. The options of dry ports as the potentially effective solution to increase the cargo turnover of existing seaports, improve the timeliness of freight transportation and overcome the environmental problems of the regions of seaport location are shown. This work analyzes the transport infrastructure of the region, the cargo turnover of major Russian sea and dry ports as well as the experience of creating dry ports in the Russian Federation and abroad. The authors propose the system of parameters for dry ports, which are recommended for the assessment of seaport infrastructure development scenarios on the stage of strategic planning. The authors have developed the approach of optimal values determination of the main parameters of dry ports by simulation modeling method. The features of construction and research of the simulation models of system “seaport — dry port” in programming software AnyLogic are considered. The results of modeling experiments with a developed simulation model are provided. This model is aimed to assess the maximum estimated capacity of the existing seaport in the conditions of the increasing irregularity of cargo traffic, and also to determine the optimum parameters of the constructed «dry port». The obtained dependencies as a result of modeling experiments prove the adequacy of the selected main parameters of dry ports for the effective evaluation of the scenarios of the strengthening of carrying and estimated capacity of existing seaports on the stage of strategic planning. The article shows that the methodology of this research can be used by the investors and public authorities as grounds for a decision on

  8. The fast expansion of Pyropia aquaculture in ;Sansha; regions should be mainly responsible for the Ulva blooms in Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianheng; Zhao, Peng; Huo, Yuanzi; Yu, Kefeng; He, Peimin

    2017-04-01

    Massive Ulva blooms became an environmental disaster in the Yellow Sea from 2007 to 2015. In this study, field shipboard observations indicated that Ulva blooms originated in Pyropia aquaculture area, and the morphology of initial floating Ulva seaweed have the structure of rhizoid, which is similar with the attached Ulva on the Pyropia rafts. The spatial distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules in the southern Yellow Sea also supported that the blooms originated in the Pyropia aquaculture area. Besides, numerical model was used in this study, showing the origin of macroalgal blooms was traced to "Sansha" regions which accounted for almost 70% of the total Pyropia aquaculture area. We conclude that the significant biomass (4252 tons) of Ulva species on the Pyropia rafts during the harvesting season in "Sansha" regions played an important role in the early rapid development of blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  9. Options for integrated resource management in the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.E.

    1991-02-01

    Examples of consultative activities and environmental protection measures are reviewed which have been employed in the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea region by one or more petroleum operators to achieve successful integrated land use during the past 20 years. The review illustrates how petroleum operators, in cooperation with local residents and communities, have planned and adapted specific aspects of different projects to address and resolve environmental and community concerns, and provides an overview of the measures that can be employed to achieve integrated land use planning guidelines for future projects. The review focuses on specific groups of renewable resources and the applicable measures that have been used to reduce industrial impacts to these resources which are very important to local residents. Community consultation processes in the planning region have been successfully used by local residents, government, and industry to identify concerns associated with petroleum projects, and to develop appropriate measures to address these concerns. Environmental protection planning measures are described for cultural and historical resources, air quality, noise, freshwater quality, marine water quality, terrain and soils, fisheries, and terrestrial and marine wildlife. General measures as well as specific protection procedures such as the beluga whale protection plan and oil spill contingency plans are discussed. Although some environmental accidents have occurred during petroleum exploration and drilling activities, evidence suggests that petroleum activity has been able to proceed with no detectable long-term impacts to the environment. 30 refs., 1 fig

  10. Spatial distribution of earthquake hypocenters in the Crimea—Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmin, V. Yu; Shumlianska, L. O.

    2018-03-01

    Some aspects of the seismicity the Crime—Black Sea region are considered on the basis of the catalogued data on earthquakes that have occurred between 1970 and 2012. The complete list of the Crimean earthquakes for this period contains about 2140 events with magnitude ranging from -1.5 to 5.5. Bulletins contain information about compressional and shear waves arrival times regarding nearly 2000 earthquakes. A new approach to the definition of the coordinates of all of the events was applied to re-establish the hypocenters of the catalogued earthquakes. The obtained results indicate that the bulk of the earthquakes' foci in the region are located in the crust. However, some 2.5% of the foci are located at the depths ranging from 50 to 250 km. The new distribution of foci of earthquakes shows the concentration of foci in the form of two inclined branches, the center of which is located under the Yalto-Alushta seismic focal zone. The whole distribution of foci in depth corresponds to the relief of the lithosphere.

  11. A comparison of the marine and estuarine benthic fauna of the nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    The distribution and abundance of the benthic fauna of the Arabian sea were studied in the nearshore region at a depth of 10 fathoms, about 7 miles off Cochin. The results showed that the macrofauna was more abundant than the meiofauna...

  12. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  13. Using MPAs to address regional-scale ecological objectives in the North Sea: modelling the effects of fishing effort displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenstreet, S.P.R.; Fraser, H.M.; Piet, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to address regional-scale objectives as part of an ecosystem approach to management in the North Sea is examined. Ensuring that displacement of fishing activity does not negate the ecological benefits gained from MPAs is a major concern. Two scenarios are

  14. Volcanic and Tectonic Activity in the Red Sea Region (2004-2013): Insights from Satellite Radar Interferometry and Optical Imagery

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    due to insufficient in-situ data and remoteness of some of the activity. In this dissertation, I have used satellite remote sensing to derive new information about several recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region. I first report

  15. A regional benthic fauna assessment method for the Southern North Sea using Margalef diversity and reference value modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Willem M.G.M.; Walvoort, Dennis J.J.; Hoey, van Gert; Vina-Herbon, Christina; Blandon, Abigayil; Pesch, Roland; Schmitt, Petra; Scholle, Jörg; Heyer, Karin; Lavaleye, Marc; Phillips, Graham; Duineveld, Gerard C.A.; Blomqvist, Mats

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study are to develop an optimized method for regional benthic fauna assessment of the Southern North Sea which (a) is sensitive and precise (quantified as the slope and the R2 value of the pressure-impact relationships, respectively) for the anthropogenic pressures bottom fishing

  16. Greenland coastal air temperatures linked to Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea ice conditions during autumn through regional blocking patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Thomas J.; Hanna, Edward; Hall, Richard J.; Miller, Jeffrey; Ribergaard, Mads H.; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2018-01-01

    Variations in sea ice freeze onset and regional sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea are linked to autumn surface air temperatures (SATs) around coastal Greenland through 500 hPa blocking patterns, 1979-2014. We find strong, statistically significant correlations between Baffin Bay freeze onset and SSTs and SATs across the western and southernmost coastal areas, while weaker and fewer significant correlations are found between eastern SATs, SSTs, and freeze periods observed in the neighboring Greenland Sea. Autumn Greenland Blocking Index values and the incidence of meridional circulation patterns have increased over the modern sea ice monitoring era. Increased anticyclonic blocking patterns promote poleward transport of warm air from lower latitudes and local warm air advection onshore from ocean-atmosphere sensible heat exchange through ice-free or thin ice-covered seas bordering the coastal stations. Temperature composites by years of extreme late freeze conditions, occurring since 2006 in Baffin Bay, reveal positive monthly SAT departures that often exceed 1 standard deviation from the 1981-2010 climate normal over coastal areas that exhibit a similar spatial pattern as the peak correlations.

  17. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  18. Vertical land motion controls regional sea level rise patterns on the United States east coast since 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, C. G.; Huybers, P. J.; Hay, C.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Little, C. M.; Ponte, R. M.; Tingley, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding observed spatial variations in centennial relative sea level trends on the United States east coast has important scientific and societal applications. Past studies based on models and proxies variously suggest roles for crustal displacement, ocean dynamics, and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Here we perform joint Bayesian inference on regional relative sea level, vertical land motion, and absolute sea level fields based on tide gauge records and GPS data. Posterior solutions show that regional vertical land motion explains most (80% median estimate) of the spatial variance in the large-scale relative sea level trend field on the east coast over 1900-2016. The posterior estimate for coastal absolute sea level rise is remarkably spatially uniform compared to previous studies, with a spatial average of 1.4-2.3 mm/yr (95% credible interval). Results corroborate glacial isostatic adjustment models and reveal that meaningful long-period, large-scale vertical velocity signals can be extracted from short GPS records.

  19. RKU North Sea. Update on the regional consequence examination concerning the petroleum industry in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    An overview over prognoses for oil and gas production and the emissions related to these activities is provided for the years 2005-2025. A description of the Norwegian Continental Shelf's ecosystem, environmental technology employed, and considerations regarding the petroleum industry's effect on the ecosystem are considered. Emissions to air, planned emissions to the sea and accident emissions and spills are treated, as well as other possible environmental effects. Consequences for fishery, cultural monuments and for the society in general are also examined (ml)

  20. Towards flash flood prediction in the dry Dead Sea region utilizing radar rainfall information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, E.; Jacoby, Y.; Navon, S.; Bet-Halachmi, E.

    2009-04-01

    Flash-flood warning models can save lives and protect various kinds of infrastructure. In dry climate regions, rainfall is highly variable and can be of high-intensity. Since rain gauge networks in such areas are sparse, rainfall information derived from weather radar systems can provide useful input for flash-flood models. This paper presents a flash-flood warning model utilizing radar rainfall data and applies it to two catchments that drain into the dry Dead Sea region. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) were derived using a rain gauge adjustment approach, either on a daily basis (allowing the adjustment factor to change over time, assuming available real-time gauge data) or using a constant factor value (derived from rain gauge data) over the entire period of the analysis. The QPEs served as input for a continuous hydrological model that represents the main hydrological processes in the region, namely infiltration, flow routing and transmission losses. The infiltration function is applied in a distributed mode while the routing and transmission loss functions are applied in a lumped mode. Model parameters were found by calibration based on five years of data for one of the catchments. Validation was performed for a subsequent five-year period for the same catchment and then for an entire ten year record for the second catchment. The probability of detection and false alarm rates for the validation cases were reasonable. Probabilistic flash-flood prediction is presented applying Monte Carlo simulations with an uncertainty range for the QPEs and model parameters. With low probability thresholds, one can maintain more than 70% detection with no more than 30% false alarms. The study demonstrates that a flash-flood-warning model is feasible for catchments in the area studied.

  1. Towards flash-flood prediction in the dry Dead Sea region utilizing radar rainfall information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Efrat; Jacoby, Yael; Navon, Shilo; Bet-Halachmi, Erez

    2009-07-01

    Flash-flood warning models can save lives and protect various kinds of infrastructure. In dry climate regions, rainfall is highly variable and can be of high-intensity. Since rain gauge networks in such areas are sparse, rainfall information derived from weather radar systems can provide useful input for flash-flood models. This paper presents a flash-flood warning model which utilizes radar rainfall data and applies it to two catchments that drain into the dry Dead Sea region. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) were derived using a rain gauge adjustment approach, either on a daily basis (allowing the adjustment factor to change over time, assuming available real-time gauge data) or using a constant factor value (derived from rain gauge data) over the entire period of the analysis. The QPEs served as input for a continuous hydrological model that represents the main hydrological processes in the region, namely infiltration, flow routing and transmission losses. The infiltration function is applied in a distributed mode while the routing and transmission loss functions are applied in a lumped mode. Model parameters were found by calibration based on the 5 years of data for one of the catchments. Validation was performed for a subsequent 5-year period for the same catchment and then for an entire 10-year record for the second catchment. The probability of detection and false alarm rates for the validation cases were reasonable. Probabilistic flash-flood prediction is presented applying Monte Carlo simulations with an uncertainty range for the QPEs and model parameters. With low probability thresholds, one can maintain more than 70% detection with no more than 30% false alarms. The study demonstrates that a flash-flood warning model is feasible for catchments in the area studied.

  2. Emission Trading as a Basis for new Bioenergy Business Concepts in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterinen, Pirkko; Helynen, Satu

    2006-01-01

    The new EU Emission Trading system started in the beginning of 2005. This system will bring new challenges, but also new opportunities for the energy market in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) countries. Typically in some EU countries the decreasing of greenhouse gas emissions tends to be more expensive to achieve than in the others. This brings about new trade schemes that could be implemented in the BSR. One important way of reducing emissions is to replace fossil fuels with biomass-based fuels in large scale power and steam production. As the availability of biomass, price level of biomass, electricity and steam, and national subsidies and taxation are different in different countries, it may be economically viable to create a framework for international trade. The product to be traded may be e.g. wood fuel (either as logs and chips or in refined form like pellets), energy (electricity), green certificates or emission allowances. It is also possible to implement so-called JI (Joint Implementation) projects to reach the emission reduction targets.All the above mentioned options may be realised in different ways. The purpose of the project is to find win-win opportunities, in which both the exporting and importing countries/regions will get profit from the system. These positive impacts may be quite impressive in regional level, as they directly boost several business areas like fuel production and transport, equipment manufacturing and maintenance, plant construction, as well as energy production and use. In addition, the impacts cover also forestry and agriculture, by bringing new value and utilisation options for their by-products.The paper presents the first results of an on-going project which is co-financed by the EU programme BSR INTERREG III B. The two-year project started in the beginning of 2005, and the main results will be available in autumn 2006

  3. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  4. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  5. Crimea and the quest for energy and military hegemony in the Black Sea region: governance gap in a contested geostrategic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have radically altered the European security order, with the Black Sea region becoming an acutely contested geostrategic zone. Russia’s strategic interests in the Black Sea region, especially in terms of energy and military

  6. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from SNPP/VIIRS (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) based on retrievals from the...

  7. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Jesbin, G.

    –885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34/871/2016/ doi:10.5194/angeo-34-871-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea V. Sanil Kumar and Jesbin... of the period. The annual average value is ∼ 1.5 m (Anoop et al., 2015). During the non-monsoon period, the land and sea breeze has a signif- icant influence on the wave climate of eastern AS (Glejin Ann. Geophys., 34, 871–885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34...

  8. The ordered network structure of M {>=} 6 strong earthquakes and its prediction in the Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Ke-Pei [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). College of Mathematics and Statistics; Cui, Lei [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Applied Probability and Statistics Dept.

    2013-05-15

    The the Jiangsu-South Yellow Sea region is one of the key seismic monitoring defence areas in the eastern part of China. Since 1846, M {>=} 6 strong earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in this region. The main orderly values are 74 {proportional_to} 75 a, 57 {proportional_to} 58 a, 11 {proportional_to} 12 a, and 5 {proportional_to} 6 a, wherein 74 {proportional_to} 75 a and 57 {proportional_to} 58 a with an outstanding predictive role. According to the information prediction theory of Wen-Bo Weng, we conceived the M {>=} 6 strong earthquake ordered network structure in the South Yellow Sea and the whole region. Based on this, we analyzed and discussed the variation of seismicity in detail and also made a trend prediction of M {>=} 6 strong earthquakes in the future. The results showed that since 1998 it has entered into a new quiet episode which may continue until about 2042; and the first M {>=} 6 strong earthquake in the next active episode will probably occur in 2053 pre and post, with the location likely in the sea area of the South Yellow Sea; also, the second and the third ones or strong earthquake swarm in the future will probably occur in 2058 and 2070 pre and post. (orig.)

  9. Mixing processes at the subsurface layer in the Amundsen Sea shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, J.; Djoumna, G.; Francis, D. K.; Holland, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the Amundsen Sea shelf region, mixing processes promote an upward transport of diapycnal fluxes of heat and salt from the subsurface to the surface mixing layer. Here we estimate the diapycnal mixing rates on the Amundsen shelf from a multi-year mooring cluster and five research cruises. By applying fine-scale parameterizations, the mixing rates obtained were higher near the southern end of Pine Island glacier front and exceeded 10-2 m2s-1. The eddy diffusivity increased near the critical latitude (74o 28' S) for semi-diurnal M2 tides, which coincided with near-critical topography on the shelf. This condition favored the generation of internal waves of M2 frequency. The semi-diurnal dynamic enhanced the mixing that potentially affected the heat budget and the circulation of the modified Circumpolar Deep Water. This can be observed in the characteristics of water exchange both below the ice shelves and between the continental shelf and the ice shelf cavities. The location of the critical latitude and critical topography provided favorable conditions for the generation of internal waves. KEYWORDS: Mixing processes, diapycnal fluxes, critical latitude, Circumpolar Deep Water.

  10. Regional Responses to Black Carbon Aerosols: The Importance of Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Scott, A. A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Seviour, W. J. M.; Waugh, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of modern black carbon aerosols on climate via their changes in radiative balance is studied using a coupled model where sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are allowed to vary and an atmosphere-only version of the same model where SSTs are held fixed. Allowing the ocean to respond is shown to have a profound impact on the pattern of temperature change. Particularly, large impacts are found in the North Pacific (which cools by up to 1 K in the coupled model) and in north central Asia (which warms in the coupled simulation and cools in the fixed SST simulation). Neither set of experiments shows large changes in surface temperatures in the Southeast Asian region where the atmospheric burden of black carbon is highest. These results are related to the stabilization of the atmosphere and changes in oceanic heat transport. Over the North Pacific, atmospheric stabilization results in an increase in stratiform clouds. The resulting shading reduces evaporation, freshening the surface layer of the ocean and reducing the inflow of warm subtropical waters. Over the land, a delicate balance between greater atmospheric absorption, shading of the surface and changes in latent cooling of the surface helps to determine whether warming or cooling is seen. Our results emphasize the importance of coupling in determining the response of the climate system to black carbon and suggest that black carbon may play an important role in modulating climate change over the North Pacific.

  11. Natural and artificial radioactivity measurements in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, N.; Cevik, U.; Celik, A.; Koz, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, naturally occurring radionuclides of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in soil samples collected from the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. It was found that the activity concentrations ranged from 12 to 120 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 13 to 121 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 204 to 1295 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Besides naturally occurring radionuclides, 137 Cs activity concentration was measured in soil, lichen and moss samples and it was found that 137 Cs activity concentration ranged from 27 to 775 Bq kg -1 with for soil, from 29 to 879 Bq kg -1 for lichen and from 67 to 1396 Bq kg -1 for moss samples. Annual effective doses due to the naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs were estimated. Ecological half-lives of 137 Cs in lichen and moss species were estimated. The decrease of the activity concentrations in the present measurements (2007) relative to those in 1993 indicated ecological half-lives between 1.36 and 2.96 years for lichen and between 1.35 and 2.85 years for moss species

  12. Strategic Networking in the Technical HEI‘s of the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Nugaras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the empirical research of the networking of Technical Higher Education Institutions (HEI‘S of the Baltic Sea region. The research was conducted in order to understand how the Social Network Analysis (SNA and network mapping methods could help to strengthen institution’s strategic perspective through networking. The author analyse the interaction phenomena in the Higher education sector; its’ impact for networking of institutions and for the network itself; the role of the position in the networks; abilities to strengthen the node’s perception of the network for the strategizing purposes. The research was based on the SNA of the Erasmus programme student mobility data. The results of the research cover the implications of aspects of the network centrality, clustering and ego networks let to identify the node’s position in the network, and to understand surrounding network. The research disclosed that the SNA could be applied in supporting the strategizing process by: increasing of understanding of embedded networks, having more realistic network picture, also could be used as supplement evaluation and development planning method for the relationships portfolio management for HEI’s.

  13. Military organization and army command of ancient armies of Northern Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kolesnykov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deal with the description, analysis and generalization of features organization of command structure of the army ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region: Olbia, Chersonese, Bosporus. Author sure that the foundation of the armed forces of these states was a civil militia – free, economically independent landowners, endowed with the broadest volume of political and social rights men – full citizens. Accordingly, the assemblies of citizens were electing strategists, who led militia forces. In case of need the people also claimed commanders’ mercenary troops. Bosporus kings have attracted a significant number of hired troops that held by the royal treasury income and special direct tax. Bosporus military command came from magistrates of polis only at the lower levels. Middle and higher level of «officer corps» of the Bosporus were appointed by the monarch from among the landowners, officialdom and military aristocracy. For example, in the Roman period on the Bosporus fixed formation units of cathafractarian cavalry. The weapons and tactics of the Sarmatian nomadic nobility (Aspurhianian, Sirak, Aorsy and more were served as a model for Bosporus cataphractarian horsemen.

  14. Stratigraphic, regional unconformity analysis and potential petroleum plays of East Siberian Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized [1]: Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains [1]: Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and

  15. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E.

    1998-11-01

    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics

  16. Radionuclides in ornithogenic sediments as evidence for recent warming in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Yaguang [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology of Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Xu, Liqiang [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Liu, Xiaodong, E-mail: ycx@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Emslie, Steven D. [Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601 S. College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclides including {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs were analyzed in eight ornithogenic sediment profiles from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea region, East Antarctica. Equilibration between {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra were reached in all eight profiles, enabling the determination of chronology within the past two centuries through the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model. Calculated fluxes of both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs varied drastically among four of the profiles (MB4, MB6, CC and CL2), probably due to differences in their sedimentary environments. In addition, we found the flux data exhibiting a clear decreasing gradient in accordance with their average deposition rate, which was in turn related to the specific location of the profiles. We believe this phenomenon may correspond to global warming of the last century, since warming-induced surface runoff would bring more inflow water and detritus to the coring sites, thus enhancing the difference among the profiles. To verify this hypothesis, the deposition rate against age of the sediments was calculated based on their determined chronology, which showed ascending trends in all four profiles. The significant increase in deposition rates over the last century is probably attributable to recent warming, implying a potential utilization of radionuclides as environmental indicators in this region. - Highlights: • {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs were measured in ornithogenic sediment profiles. • Chronology within 200 years was determined through Constant Rate of Supply model. • Calculated nuclide fluxes decreased with average deposition rate and locations. • Deposition rate over time indicated warming which caused the flux gradient.

  17. Biogeography of Deep-sea benthic bacteria at regional scale (LTER HAUSGARTEN, Fram Strait, Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Jacob

    Full Text Available Knowledge on spatial scales of the distribution of deep-sea life is still sparse, but highly relevant to the understanding of dispersal, habitat ranges and ecological processes. We examined regional spatial distribution patterns of the benthic bacterial community and covarying environmental parameters such as water depth, biomass and energy availability at the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site HAUSGARTEN (Eastern Fram Strait. Samples from 13 stations were retrieved from a bathymetric (1,284-3,535 m water depth, 54 km in length and a latitudinal transect (∼ 2,500 m water depth; 123 km in length. 454 massively parallel tag sequencing (MPTS and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA were combined to describe both abundant and rare types shaping the bacterial community. This spatial sampling scheme allowed detection of up to 99% of the estimated richness on phylum and class levels. At the resolution of operational taxonomic units (97% sequence identity; OTU3% only 36% of the Chao1 estimated richness was recovered, indicating a high diversity, mostly due to rare types (62% of all OTU3%. Accordingly, a high turnover of the bacterial community was also observed between any two sampling stations (average replacement of 79% of OTU3%, yet no direct correlation with spatial distance was observed within the region. Bacterial community composition and structure differed significantly with increasing water depth along the bathymetric transect. The relative sequence abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes decreased significantly with water depth, and that of Deferribacteres increased. Energy availability, estimated from phytodetrital pigment concentrations in the sediments, partly explained the variation in community structure. Overall, this study indicates a high proportion of unique bacterial types on relatively small spatial scales (tens of kilometers, and supports the sampling design of the LTER site HAUSGARTEN to

  18. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, A.G. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geology; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-11-01

    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics 101 refs, 22 figs

  19. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  20. Coastal sensitivity to sea level rise : a focus on the mid-atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-15

    The focus of this product is to identify and review the potential impacts of future sea-level rise based on present scientific understanding. To do so, this product evaluates : several aspects of sea-level rise impacts to the natural environment and ...

  1. Study of sea surface temperature distribution, in Angra dos Reis Nuclear Plant region - Mission Angra 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.R.; Steffen, C.A.; Villagra, H.M.I.

    1982-03-01

    A study of spectral and temporal variations of sea surface temperature, using data obtained from level of satellite, aircraft and surface, with the purpose of evaluate and plot the small scale variations of sea surface temperature, due to thermal discharge from a nuclear the results of the first mission called Angra 1. (maps). (C.G.C.)

  2. A comprehensive validation toolbox for regional ocean models - Outline, implementation and application to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Simon; Laagemaa, Priidik; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    version is compared with the previous version. Although, the toolbox is mainly tested for the Baltic Sea yet, it can easily be adapted to different datasets and parameters, regardless of the geographic region. In this presentation the usability of the toolbox is demonstrated along with several results of the validation process.

  3. 3. Promotion of environment protection of sea and near-sea region. Swinoujscie 12-14 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The great number of problems connected with environment protection near shore marine zone, beach protection, effluent transport in ground and surface waters in region of North Port of Poland as well as technical solutions of water purification and legal problems have been discussed during the conference. All observations and experimental works have been carried out in that region. Among reported works two of them have been devoted to application of nuclear methods in interesting merit

  4. RKU North Sea. Update on the regional consequence examination concerning the petroleum industry in the North Sea; RKU-Nordsjoeen. Oppdatering av regional konsekvensutredning for petroleumsvirksomhet i Nordsjoeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    An overview over prognoses for oil and gas production and the emissions related to these activities is provided for the years 2005-2025. A description of the Norwegian Continental Shelf's ecosystem, environmental technology employed, and considerations regarding the petroleum industry's effect on the ecosystem are considered. Emissions to air, planned emissions to the sea and accident emissions and spills are treated, as well as other possible environmental effects. Consequences for fishery, cultural monuments and for the society in general are also examined (ml)

  5. RKU North Sea. Update on the regional consequence examination concerning the petroleum industry in the North Sea; RKU-Nordsjoeen. Oppdatering av regional konsekvensutredning for petroleumsvirksomhet i Nordsjoeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    An overview over prognoses for oil and gas production and the emissions related to these activities is provided for the years 2005-2025. A description of the Norwegian Continental Shelf's ecosystem, environmental technology employed, and considerations regarding the petroleum industry's effect on the ecosystem are considered. Emissions to air, planned emissions to the sea and accident emissions and spills are treated, as well as other possible environmental effects. Consequences for fishery, cultural monuments and for the society in general are also examined (ml)

  6. Volcanic and Tectonic Activity in the Red Sea Region (2004-2013): Insights from Satellite Radar Interferometry and Optical Imagery

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-04-01

    Studying recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region is important for improving our knowledge of the Red Sea plate boundary and for regional geohazard assessments. However, limited information has been available about the past activity due to insufficient in-situ data and remoteness of some of the activity. In this dissertation, I have used satellite remote sensing to derive new information about several recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region. I first report on three volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea, the 2007-8 Jebel at Tair eruption and the 2011-12 & 2013 Zubair eruptions, which resulted in formation of two new islands. Series of high- resolution optical images were used to map the extent of lava flows and to observe and analyze the growth and destructive processes of the new islands. I used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to study the evolution of lava flows, to estimate their volumes, as well as to generate ground displacements maps, which were used to model the dikes that fed the eruptions. I then report on my work of the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir dike intrusion and the 2004 Tabuk earthquake sequence in western Saudi Arabia. I used InSAR observations and stress calculations to study the intruding dike at Harrat Lunayyir, while I combined InSAR data and Bayesian estimation to study the Tabuk earthquake activity. The key findings of the thesis are: 1) The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea indicate that the area is magmatically more active than previously acknowledged and that a rifting episode has been taken place in the southern Red Sea; 2) Stress interactions between an ascending dike intrusion and normal faulting on graben-bounding faults above the dike can inhibit vertical propagation of magma towards the surface; 3) InSAR observations can improve locations of shallow earthquakes and fault model uncertainties are useful to associate earthquake activity with mapped faults; 4). The

  7. Observations of seasonal exchange in the Celtic Sea slope region from underwater gilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marie; Inall, Mark; Smeed, David; Palmer, Matthew; Dumont, Estelle; Aleynik, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    Between June 2012 and January 2013, four underwater gliders, profiling to a maximum depth of 1000m, occupied a transect between 47.6°N, 10.3°W and 48.4°N, 9.3°W, perpendicular to the Celtic Sea continental slope. Due to the significant and well-documented internal tide activity in this region and the relatively slow through-water speed of gliders it is first demonstrated that the chosen sampling methodology minimised aliasing of the internal tide. Gliders were flown along a repeat transect and care was taken to ensure that each location was sampled at a different phase of the tide on repeat occupations. Through monthly averaging of the transect data, the effects of the internal tide are minimised and the lower frequency processes made visible. In this presentation we highlight the importance of the lower frequency variability in contributing to cross-slope exchange. Analysis of monthly averaged glider transect data suggests two distinct regimes; 1) Summer, June - October, when the surface water was temperature stratified and, 2) Winter, from October to January, when the seasonal thermocline was mixed down to below the depth of the shelf break (200 m). During the stratified summer months a well-defined shelf break salinity front limits the exchange of water between the ocean and the shelf, preventing the spread of the more saline, sub-surface ocean water (centred at ~150m) onto the shelf. Nevertheless, some cross-slope flow is identified during these months: an intermediate depth salinity minimum (centred at ~600m) is observed to upwell (from 600m to 200-300m) up the slope, sometimes continuing onto the shelf. As the stratification is eroded during the winter months, subsurface upwelling switches to downwelling, and the intermediate depth salinity minimum (~600m) retreats away from the slope region removing it as a potential source of oceanic water on the shelf. Downwelling near to the slope does however allow for an intrusion of the shallower high salinity

  8. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  9. A high-resolution hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model of the Gulf of Cadiz – Alboran Sea region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. MACIAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern Iberia regional seas comprise the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea sub-basins connected by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. Both basins are very different in their hydrological and biological characteristics but are, also, tightly connected to each other. Integrative studies of the whole regional oceanic system are scarce and difficult to perform due to the relative large area to cover and the different relevant time-scales of the main forcings in each sub-basin. Here we propose, for the first time, a fully coupled, 3D, hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model that covers, in a single domain (~2km resolution both marine basins for a 20 years simulation (1989-2008. Model performance is assessed against available data in terms of spatial and temporal distributions of biological variables. In general, the proposed model is able to represent the climatological distributions of primary and secondary producers and also the main seasonality of primary production in the different sub-regions of the analyzed basins. Potential causes of the observed mismatches between model and data are identified and some solutions are proposed for future model development. We conclude that most of these mismatches could be attributed to the missing tidal forcing in the actual model configuration. This model is a first step to obtain a meaningful tool to study past and future oceanographic conditions in this important marine region constituting the unique connection of the Mediterranean Sea with the open world’s ocean.

  10. Seismotectonics of the Armutlu peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) from geological field observation and regional moment tensor inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinscher, J.; Krüger, F.; Woith, H.; Lühr, B. G.; Hintersberger, E.; Irmak, T. S.; Baris, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Armutlu peninsula, located in the eastern Marmara Sea, coincides with the western end of the rupture of the 17 August 1999, İzmit MW 7.6 earthquake which is the penultimate event of an apparently westward migrating series of strong and disastrous earthquakes along the NAFZ during the past century. We present new seismotectonic data of this key region in order to evaluate previous seismotectonic models and their implications for seismic hazard assessment in the eastern Marmara Sea. Long term kinematics were investigated by performing paleo strain reconstruction from geological field investigations by morphotectonic and kinematic analysis of exposed brittle faults. Short term kinematics were investigated by inverting for the moment tensor of 13 small to moderate recent earthquakes using surface wave amplitude spectra. Our results confirm previous models interpreting the eastern Marmara Sea Region as an active transtensional pull-apart environment associated with significant NNE-SSW extension and vertical displacement. At the northern peninsula, long term deformation pattern did not change significantly since Pliocene times contradicting regional tectonic models which postulate a newly formed single dextral strike slip fault in the Marmara Sea Region. This area is interpreted as a horsetail splay fault structure associated with a major normal fault segment that we call the Waterfall Fault. Apart from the Waterfall Fault, the stress strain relation appears complex associated with a complicated internal fault geometry, strain partitioning, and reactivation of pre-existing plane structures. At the southern peninsula, recent deformation indicates active pull-apart tectonics constituted by NE-SW trending dextral strike slip faults. Earthquakes generated by stress release along large rupture zones seem to be less probable at the northern, but more probable at the southern peninsula. Additionally, regional seismicity appears predominantly driven by plate boundary

  11. Seasonal cycle of hydrography in the Bab el Mandab region, southern Red Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saafani, M.A.A.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    and less than 26 m deep, whereas the large strait on the west of Myyun is about 18 km wide and 300 m deep. The Strait of Bab el Mandab con- nects the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden in the south. Consistent northwesterly winds blow over the Red Sea except....0 psu) con nes to the top 20 m layer. The cooler inflow is fresher (19.0 C, 36.0 psu) and is from GA. The deeper high saline water has its origin in the northern Red Sea (Maillard 1974; Murray et al 1984; Cember 1988). Keywords. Hydrography; Gulf of Aden...

  12. Improving Satellite Retrieved Infrared Sea Surface Temperatures in Aerosol-Contaminated Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Minnett, P. J.; Szczodrak, G.; Kilpatrick, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Infrared satellite observations of sea surface temperature (SST) have become essential for many applications in meteorology, climatology, and oceanography. Applications often require high accuracy SST data: for climate research and monitoring an absolute uncertainty of 0.1K and stability of better than 0.04K per decade are required. Tropospheric aerosol concentrations increase infrared signal attenuation and prevent the retrieval of accurate satellite SST. We compare satellite-derived skin SST with measurements from the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) deployed on ships during the Aerosols and Ocean Science Expeditions (AEROSE) and with quality-controlled drifter temperatures. After match-up with in-situ SST and filtering of cloud contaminated data, the results indicate that SST retrieved from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have negative (cool) biases compared to shipboard radiometric measurements. There is also a pronounced negative bias in the Saharan outflow area that can introduce SST errors >1 K at aerosol optical depths > 0.5. In this study, we present a new method to derive night-time Saharan Dust Index (SDI) algorithms based on simulated brightness temperatures at infrared wavelengths of 3.9, 10.8 and 12.0 μm, derived using RTTOV. We derived correction coefficients for Aqua MODIS measurements by regression of the SST errors against the SDI. The biases and standard deviations are reduced by 0.25K and 0.19K after the SDI correction. The goal of this study is to understand better the characteristics and physical mechanisms of aerosol effects on satellite retrieved infrared SST, as well as to derive empirical formulae for improved accuracies in aerosol-contaminated regions.

  13. Regional Maritime Contexts and the Maritorium: A Latin American Perspective on Archaeological Land and Sea Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jorge M.; Chapanoff, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    In the field of maritime archaeology, the use of maritime, coastal, riverine, and lacustrine spaces by past societies has been perceived in different and changing viewpoints. These perspectives have flourished in dynamic and varying ways in many countries, and under different theoretical constructs. If in the 1970s the subject was perhaps not recognized as a central research subject by much of our community, it is now not only accepted but it has become a robust area of interest in maritime research. Two concepts in Latin America have been accepted that have had widespread application and influence, namely the regional maritime context and the maritorio. The points of contact between both are so intense that it is possible to speak about a single alternative with two possible names. In this article, their origins, applications, and theoretical influences are presented in a way that unifies these two concepts into a single approach (the maritorium), and examines how these ideas have been applied to research carried out in Mexico, Chile, and Uruguay. These applications are wide ranging, as they include the interconnected complexity between land and sea as used and inhabited by past societies. They have been applied in the study of ship traps, whole fleets, sites of maritime conflict and warfare, exploration activities, and ethnographic research. These will also be presented in light of other concepts of similar interest in the international sphere, such as the widespread concept of the Maritime Cultural Landscape, and also in view of other theoretical frameworks coming from the wider sphere of the profession, such as Landscape Archaeology and Phenomenological Archaeology.

  14. Water quality management and climate change mitigation: cost-effectiveness of joint implementation in the Baltic Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainggolan, Doan; Hasler, Berit; Andersen, Hans Estrup

    2018-01-01

    of contrasting strategies: single environmental objective management versus joint implementation strategy. The results show that implementing land-based measures with a sole focus on water quality (to meet the HELCOM's 2013 Baltic Sea Action Plan nutrient abatement targets) can produce climate change mitigation......This paper explores the scope for simultaneously managing nutrient abatement and climate change mitigation in the Baltic Sea (BS) region through the implementation of a selection of measures. The analysis is undertaken using a cost-minimisation model for the entire BS region, the BALTCOST model....... In the present research, the model has been extended to include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effects, enabling us to analyse the tradeoffs between cost-effective GHG and nutrient load reductions. We run the model for four different scenarios in order to compare the environmental and economic consequences...

  15. MULTILATERAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA REGION IN THE ENERGY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyacheslavovich Ishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the state of international cooperation is analysed in the field of energy in Black Sea besseyne. Problems and prospects of development of power communications, their influence, are examined on the level of international stability.

  16. Characteristics of long-period swells measured in the near shore regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Amrutha, M.M.; Singh, J.

    Measured wave data covering two years simultaneously at 3 locations along the eastern Arabian Sea reveals the presence of long-period (peak wave period > 18 s) low-amplitude waves (significant wave height < 1 m) and the characteristics...

  17. VARIATIONS OF THE MUON FLUX AT SEA LEVEL ASSOCIATED WITH INTERPLANETARY ICMEs AND COROTATING INTERACTION REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Kopenkin, V.; Navia, C. E.; Tsui, K. H.; Shigueoka, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Fauth, A. C.; Kemp, E.; Manganote, E. J. T. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wathagin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Leigui de Oliveira, M. A. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas da Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Miranda, P.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA, La Paz Bolivia (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We present the results of an ongoing survey on the association between the muon flux variation at ground level (3 m above sea level) registered by the Tupi telescopes (Niteri-Brazil, 22.{sup 0}9S, 43.{sup 0}2W, 3 m) and the Earth-directed transient disturbances in the interplanetary medium propagating from the Sun (such as coronal mass ejections (CME), and corotating interaction regions (CIRs)). Their location inside the South Atlantic Anomaly region enables the muon telescopes to achieve a low rigidity of response to primary and secondary charged particles. The present study is primarily based on experimental events obtained by the Tupi telescopes in the period from 2010 August to 2011 December. This time period corresponds to the rising phase of solar cycle 24. The Tupi events are studied in correlation with data obtained by space-borne detectors (SOHO, ACE, GOES). Identification of interplanetary structures and associated solar activity was based on the nomenclature and definitions given by the satellite observations, including an incomplete list of possible interplanetary shocks observed by the CELIAS/MTOF Proton Monitor on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. Among 29 experimental events reported in the present analysis, there are 15 possibly associated with the CMEs and sheaths, and 3 events with the CIRs (forward or reverse shocks); the origin of the remaining 11 events has not been determined by the satellite detectors. We compare the observed time (delayed or anticipated) of the muon excess (positive or negative) signal on Earth (the Tupi telescopes) with the trigger time of the interplanetary disturbances registered by the satellites located at Lagrange point L1 (SOHO and ACE). The temporal correlation of the observed ground-based events with solar transient events detected by spacecraft suggests a real physical connection between them. We found that the majority of observed events detected by the Tupi experiment were delayed in

  18. Molecular taxonomy study of representatives of the genus Gobius inhabiting coastal waters of Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriha Tserkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin the Black Sea gobies can be divided to Ponto-Caspian relicts and Mediterranean immigrants. The increase of species diversity in the Black Sea is a consequence of Mediterranean immigrants. The present study investigated the variability in Cytochrome b sequences isolated from two former Mediterranean immigrant species: Gobius niger and Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. The annotated at NCBI Cyt b sequences of the species were also used to extend the reach of the study. The analyses demonstrated that Black Sea inhabited by four haplotypes of G. niger. Four other haplotypes were found in sequences of Mediterranean black gobies. In the Black Sea haplotype, 6 is predominant and 83.5% of all G. niger representatives belong to it. Three other haplotypes (H_1; H_7 and H_8 were found to form isolated populations. The Tajima D-test indicated that in the Black Sea G. niger in a stage of expansion and significant evolutionary pressure according to data from Maximum Composite Likelihood model of Tamura-Nei, which can explain the accumulation of mutation and appearance of new haplotypes. Unlike G. niger, Z. ophiocephalus populations are shrinking according to Tajima D-test and only one haplotype is still surviving in isolated locations in the Black Sea. These data are in agreement with previous reports of other authors which alarmed that the grass goby is a critically endangered species close to extinction.

  19. Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, 1910-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 392 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between 1910 and 2010 that are archived by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades. Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens.

  20. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  1. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  2. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  3. What About Sea Ice? People, animals, and climate change in the polar regions: An online resource for the International Polar Year and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrow, S.; Meier, W. N.; Wolfe, J.; Scott, D.; Leon, A.; Weaver, R.

    2005-12-01

    Decreasing Arctic sea ice has been one of the most noticeable changes on Earth over the past quarter-century. The years 2002 through 2005 have had much lower summer sea ice extents than the long-term (1979-2000). Reduced sea ice extent has a direct impact on Arctic wildlife and people, as well as ramifications for regional and global climate. Students, educators, and the general public want and need to have a better understanding of sea ice. Most of us are unfamiliar with sea ice: what it is, where it occurs, and how it affects global climate. The upcoming International Polar Year will provide an opportunity for the public to learn about sea ice. Here, we provide an overview of sea ice, the changes that the sea ice is undergoing, and information about the relation between sea ice and climate. The information presented here is condensed from the National Snow and Ice Data Center's new 'All About Sea Ice' Web site (http://www.nsidc.org/seaice/), a comprehensive resource of information for sea ice.

  4. Lexicon of Albanian mythology: areal studies in the polylingual region of Azov Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Alexandrovich Novik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lexicon of Albanian mythology: areal studies in the polylingual region of Azov Sea Four villages with Albanian population are located in the Ukraine: Karakurt (Zhovtnevoe set up in 1811 (Odessa region, Tyushki (Georgievka, Dzhandran (Gammovka and Taz (Devninskoe set up in 1862 (Zaporizh’a region. The analysis of lexica of the Albanian subdialect of the Ukraine shows the continuation of the use of mythological terminology between the districts of the South-Eastern Albania (Korça, Devoll, Kolonja and the Albanian-speaking villages of the Azov Sea region. The Albanian subdialect of the Ukraine has no collective lexeme to designate all the representatives of the demonic world. The most common forms of denotation are these: nok janë të prastúrë (lit. ‘they are unclean’, shpírti nok i prastúrë (lit. ‘unclean spirit’. There are a large number of stories about the transformation of people into the animals – dogs, cats, goats, foxes, chickens etc. and even into things (the most common plot variant is about transformation of a man into a wheel. Also we observe the personification of the steppe wind among the Albanians of the Ukraine. Thus there is a special word for such a kind of wind in this subdialect – varalluzhg/ë, –a (‘varaluzhga’. The Balkan peoples believe that the fate of every individual is assigned by three mythological characters. Most of them, including the Albanians, consider that these three characters are female. They appear several hours after the child’s birth and assign its fate. The Albanians of the Ukraine keep these beliefs, but according to their system of mythological images, there are three men determining the child’s fate instead of three women. As the native consultants claim, these are three huge, tall and strong black men (tri burre qysh japin fatnë. Another variation on this theme comprises the stories about Christ’s disciples, the apostles and their followers, who can also determine the

  5. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  6. Regional Hydrological Cycle over the Red Sea in ERA-Interim

    KAUST Repository

    Zolina, Olga

    2016-09-30

    The major sources of atmospheric moisture over the Red Sea are analyzed using ERA-Interim for the 1979-2013 period. The vertical structure of moisture transports across the coastlines has been computed separately for the western and eastern coasts of the Red Sea. The vertical structure of the moisture transport from the Red Sea to the continents is dominated by a breeze-like circulation in the near-surface layer and the Arabian high above 850 hPa. The lower-layer, breeze-like circulation is acting to export the moisture to the northwest of Africa and to the Arabian Peninsula and contributes about 80% of the moisture exports from the Red Sea, dominating over the transport in the upper layer, where the moisture is advected to the Arabian Peninsula in the northern part of the sea and to the African continent in the southern part. Integrated moisture divergence over the Red Sea decreased from the early 1980s to 1997 and then increased until the 2010s. Associated changes in the moisture export were provided primarily by the increasing intensity of the breeze-associated transports. The transports above the boundary layer, while being strong across the western and the eastern coasts, have a smaller effect on the net moisture export. The interannual variability of the moisture export in the near-surface layer was found to be closely correlated with the variability in sea surface temperature, especially in summer. Implications of the observed changes in the moisture advection for the hydrological cycle of the Middle East are discussed.

  7. Regional Hydrological Cycle over the Red Sea in ERA-Interim

    KAUST Repository

    Zolina, Olga; Dufour, Ambroise; Gulev, Sergey K.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2016-01-01

    The major sources of atmospheric moisture over the Red Sea are analyzed using ERA-Interim for the 1979-2013 period. The vertical structure of moisture transports across the coastlines has been computed separately for the western and eastern coasts of the Red Sea. The vertical structure of the moisture transport from the Red Sea to the continents is dominated by a breeze-like circulation in the near-surface layer and the Arabian high above 850 hPa. The lower-layer, breeze-like circulation is acting to export the moisture to the northwest of Africa and to the Arabian Peninsula and contributes about 80% of the moisture exports from the Red Sea, dominating over the transport in the upper layer, where the moisture is advected to the Arabian Peninsula in the northern part of the sea and to the African continent in the southern part. Integrated moisture divergence over the Red Sea decreased from the early 1980s to 1997 and then increased until the 2010s. Associated changes in the moisture export were provided primarily by the increasing intensity of the breeze-associated transports. The transports above the boundary layer, while being strong across the western and the eastern coasts, have a smaller effect on the net moisture export. The interannual variability of the moisture export in the near-surface layer was found to be closely correlated with the variability in sea surface temperature, especially in summer. Implications of the observed changes in the moisture advection for the hydrological cycle of the Middle East are discussed.

  8. On the forcing mechanisms of mesocyclones in the eastern Weddell Sea region, Antarctica: Process studies using a mesoscale numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klein

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Development mechanisms of Antarctic mesocyclones in the eastern Weddell Sea area are examined by means of simulations with a mesoscale model using different idealized initial conditions. In one of the experiments, a mesocyclone develops over an area of open water close to the coast of the Antarctic continent. The forcing mechanisms of this mesocyclogenesis are investigated by means of sensitivity studies in which certain physical processes and the relevance of the surface conditions topography, sea surface temperature and sea ice coverage are examined. The sensitivity experiments show that the simulated mesocyclone is forced by an interaction of several forcing mechanisms at different stages of the development rather than by a single mechanism. The topography of the eastern Weddell Sea region and the summertime coastal polynia are shown to be of great importance for the mesocyclogenesis. A suitable synoptic-scale flow is necessary to support the katabatic flow over the sloped ice sheet, and to enhance the generation of cyclonic vorticity due to vertical stretching for the initial mesocyclogenesis. The diabatic process of the convergence of the sensible and latent heat fluxes in the boundary layer over the coastal polynia then becomes the dominant forcing mechanism for the further development of the mesocyclone.

  9. Addressing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Pan-Japan Sea Region. An Overview of Economic Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G.; Kambu, A.

    2005-11-01

    The health and environmental impacts of fossil fuel consumption are of increasing concern to countries in the Pan-Japan Sea region, where economic growth has led to increased energy consumption in recent years. Economic instruments like green taxes and emissions-trading schemes represent important tools to help reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, Japan, South Korea and Russia. Over the past several years, OECD countries have made progress in the use of economic instruments to reduce atmospheric air pollution. In Europe, new environmental taxes have been used most extensively, while in the United States market creation and emissions-trading schemes are more common. In the Pan-Japan Sea region, there has been considerable experience with pollution charge and levy systems, including the longstanding Japanese sulfur levy and the Russian and Chinese pollution charge systems. Generally, tax and emissions-trading systems are only beginning to emerge in the region although China has been experimenting with SOx emissions-trading schemes for several years now and South Korea and Japan have already begun experimenting with CO2 emissions-trading schemes. Only Japan has seriously looked at a carbon tax to curb GHG emissions among the four countries while direct subsidies for cleaner technologies have been adopted in the different Pan-Japan Sea countries. The costs and benefits of different economic instruments like taxes, charges, emissions-trading schemes and subsidies vary from case to case because they all have to be financially feasible, rest on informed and competent public institutions and perform effectively in local market and economic conditions. On top of all these is the fact that their overall success depends on their political acceptability. Given the experience of Pan-Japan Sea countries with economic instruments so far vis-a-vis the lessons learned in OECD countries and the nature of current and emerging pollution problems in Pan

  10. Characterizing the anthropogenic signature in the LCLU dynamics in the Central Asia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarskii, V.; Sokolik, I. N.; de Beurs, K.; Shiklomanov, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Humans have been changing the LCLU dynamics over time through the world. In the Central Asia region, these changes have been especially pronounced due to the political and economic transformation. We present a detailed analysis, focusing on identifying and quantifying the anthropogenic signature in the water and land use across the region. We have characterized the anthropogenic dust emission by combining the modeling and observations. The model is a fully coupled model called WRF-Chem-DuMo that takes explicitly into account the vegetation treatment in modeling the dust emission. We have reconstructed the anthropogenic dust sources in the region, such as the retreat of the Aral Sea, changes in agricultural fields, etc. In addition, we characterize the anthropogenic water use dynamics, including the changes in the water use for the agricultural production. Furthermore, we perform an analysis to identify the anthropogenic signature in the NDVI pattern. The NDVI were analyzed in conjunction with the meteorological fields that were simulated at the high special resolution using the WRF model. Meteorological fields of precipitation and temperature were used for the correlation analysis to separate the natural vs. anthropogenic changes. In this manner, we were able to identify the regions that have been affected by human activities. We will present the quantitative assessment of the anthropogenic changes. The diverse consequences for the economy of the region, as well as, the environment will be addressed.

  11. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kheireddine, Malika

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  12. Calculation of temperature distribution and rheological properties of the lithosphere along geotransect in the Red Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dérerová, Jana; Kohút, Igor; Radwan, Anwar H.; Bielik, Miroslav

    2017-12-01

    The temperature model of the lithosphere along profile passing through the Red Sea region has been derived using 2D integrated geophysical modelling method. Using the extrapolation of failure criteria, lithology and calculated temperature distribution, we have constructed the rheological model of the lithosphere in the area. We have calculated the strength distribution in the lithosphere and constructed the strength envelopes for both compressional and extensional regimes. The obtained results indicate that the strength steadily decreases from the Western desert through the Eastern desert towards the Red Sea where it reaches its minimum for both compressional and extensional regime. Maximum strength can be observed in the Western desert where the largest strength reaches values of about 250-300 MPa within the upper crust on the boundary between upper and lower crust. In the Eastern desert we observe slightly decreased strength with max values about 200-250 MPa within upper crust within 15 km with compression being dominant. These results suggest mostly rigid deformation in the region or Western and Eastern desert. In the Red Sea, the strength rapidly decreases to its minimum suggesting ductile processes as a result of higher temperatures.

  13. Last interglacial marine environments in the White Sea region, northern Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsfjeld, Kari; Funder, Svend; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2006-01-01

    Marine sediments from river sections in the Mezen River drainage, northwest Russia, have been analysed for dinoflagellate cysts, foraminifers and molluscs. The sediments were dated by pollen analysis and by reference to the local sea-level history, and are Late Saalian to late Eemian (c. 133 to 119...... water was stronger and probably penetrated further eastwards than at present. The molluscs, dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifers reflect the warmer than present conditions and that the optimum temperature occurred at the time of the early Eemian global sea-level rise. Around 128 kyr BP, the eustatic...

  14. Challenges to estimate surface- and groundwater flow in arid regions: the Dead Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Christian; Rödiger, Tino; Mallast, Ulf; Gräbe, Agnes; Guttman, Joseph; Laronne, Jonathan B; Storz-Peretz, Yael; Greenman, Anat; Salameh, Elias; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Vachtman, Dina; Zvi, Arie Ben; Ionescu, Danny; Brenner, Asher; Merz, Ralf; Geyer, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    The overall aim of the this study, which was conducted within the framework of the multilateral IWRM project SUMAR, was to expand the scientific basement to quantify surface- and groundwater fluxes towards the hypersaline Dead Sea. The flux significance for the arid vicinity around the Dead Sea is decisive not only for a sustainable management in terms of water availability for future generations but also for the resilience of the unique ecosystems along its coast. Coping with different challenges interdisciplinary methods like (i) hydrogeochemical fingerprinting, (ii) satellite and airborne-based thermal remote sensing, (iii) direct measurement with gauging station in ephemeral wadis and a first multilateral gauging station at the river Jordan, (iv) hydro-bio-geochemical approach at submarine and shore springs along the Dead Sea and (v) hydro(geo)logical modelling contributed to the overall aim. As primary results, we deduce that the following: (i) Within the drainage basins of the Dead Sea, the total mean annual precipitation amounts to 300 mm a(−1) west and to 179 mm a(−1) east of the lake, respectively. (ii) The total mean annual runoff volumes from side wadis (except the Jordan River) entering the Dead Sea is approximately 58–66 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1) (western wadis: 7–15 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1); eastern wadis: 51 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1)). (iii) The modelled groundwater discharge from the upper Cretaceous aquifers in both flanks of the Dead Sea towards the lake amounts to 177 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1). (iv) An unexpected abundance of life in submarine springs exists, which in turn explains microbial moderated geo-bio-chemical processes in the Dead Sea sediments, affecting the highly variable chemical composition of on- and offshore spring waters.The results of this work show a promising enhancement of describing and modelling the Dead Sea basin as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A three-dimensional geophysical model of the crust in the Barents Sea region: Model construction and basement characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, O.; Maercklin, N.; Inge, Faleide J.; Bungum, H.; Mooney, W.D.; Detweiler, S.T.

    2007-01-01

    BARENTS50, a new 3-D geophysical model of the crust in the Barents Sea Region has been developed by the University of Oslo, NORSAR and the U.S. Geological Survey. The target region comprises northern Norway and Finland, parts of the Kola Peninsula and the East European lowlands. Novaya Zemlya, the Kara Sea and Franz-Josef Land terminate the region to the east, while the Norwegian-Greenland Sea marks the western boundary. In total, 680 1-D seismic velocity profiles were compiled, mostly by sampling 2-D seismic velocity transects, from seismic refraction profiles. Seismic reflection data in the western Barents Sea were further used for density modelling and subsequent density-to-velocity conversion. Velocities from these profiles were binned into two sedimentary and three crystalline crustal layers. The first step of the compilation comprised the layer-wise interpolation of the velocities and thicknesses. Within the different geological provinces of the study region, linear relationships between the thickness of the sedimentary rocks and the thickness of the remaining crystalline crust are observed. We therefore, used the separately compiled (area-wide) sediment thickness data to adjust the total crystalline crustal thickness according to the total sedimentary thickness where no constraints from 1-D velocity profiles existed. The BARENTS50 model is based on an equidistant hexagonal grid with a node spacing of 50 km. The P-wave velocity model was used for gravity modelling to obtain 3-D density structure. A better fit to the observed gravity was achieved using a grid search algorithm which focussed on the density contrast of the sediment-basement interface. An improvement compared to older geophysical models is the high resolution of 50 km. Velocity transects through the 3-D model illustrate geological features of the European Arctic. The possible petrology of the crystalline basement in western and eastern Barents Sea is discussed on the basis of the observed seismic

  16. Tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability at the northern shelf of the Brazilian Northeast Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Felipe F; Truccolo, Eliane C; Schettini, Carlos A F

    2016-09-01

    A characterization of the sea level variability at tidal and sub-tidal frequencies at the northern shore of the Brazilian Northeast shelf for the period 2009-2011 is presented. The sea level data used was obtained from the Permanent Geodetic Tide Network from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the Fortaleza gauge station. Local wind data was also used to assess its effects on the low-frequency sea level variability. The variability of the sea level was investigated by classical harmonic analysis and by morphology assessment over the tidal signal. The low frequencies were obtained by low-pass filtering. The tidal range oscillated with the highest value of 3.3 m during the equinox and the lowest value of 0.7 m during the solstice. Differences between the spring and neap tides were as high as 1 m. A total of 59 tidal constituents were obtained from harmonic analysis, and the regional tide was classified as semi-diurnal pure with a form number of 0.11. An assessment of the monthly variability of the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, N2, O1, and K1) indicated that the main semi-diurnal solar S2 presented the highest variability, ranging from 0.21 to 0.41 m; it was the main element altering the form number through the years. The low frequency sea-level variability is negligible, although there is a persistent signal with an energy peak in the 10-15 day period, and it cannot be explained by the effects of local winds.

  17. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  18. Application of the spectrometric and radiochemical techniques in analyzing environmental samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.S.; Mungov, G.; Galabov, N.; Kolarova, M.; Guenchev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Development of the appropriate methods and techniques for marine and atmospheric radioactivity measurements in the NIMH-BAS during the last 5 years is presented. Approaches for pre-concentration of the radionuclides from the atmosphere and sea water samples followed with reliable radiochemical methods for radionuclides separation and low level counting are discussed. Dissolved radiocesium concentrations measured in a period of time starting in 1993 show some decrease with years and spatial variations probably due to the hydrophysical features of the sampling sides - the lower measured concentrations during 1995 and 1998 correspond to the lower salinity. Application of the radiochemical separation of Plutonium, Thorium, 90 Sr and Americium on the samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal region is reported. (author)

  19. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  20. [The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea region, Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea Region : papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium, held at Gotland University, Visby / editor: Jörn Staecker. Visby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia ; 12)

  1. [The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby. Viby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia. 12)

  2. GHRSST Level 3P North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  4. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  5. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  6. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  7. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from Metop/AVHRR (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  8. Stakeholder-based evaluation categories for regional climate services - a case study at the German Baltic Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Insa

    2017-08-01

    In this study, categories, dimensions, and criteria for evaluating regional climate services are derived by a participatory approach with potential service users at the German Baltic Sea coast. The development is carried out within nine face-to-face interviews conducted with decision makers, working in climate sensitive sectors at the German Baltic Sea coast. Three main groups of categories were localized which seem to matter most to the considered stakeholders and which seem to be crucial evaluation categories for regional climate services: (1) credibility, (2) relevance, and (3) appropriateness. For each of these evaluation categories several dimensions emerged, indicating certain perspectives of stakeholder demands. When summarizing these evaluation categories and their dimensions, 13 evaluation criteria for regional climate services can be derived (see Table 1). The results show that stakeholders do mainly address components other than those found in the literature (e.g. inputs, process, outputs, outcomes, and impacts). This might indicate that an evaluation, following solely literature-based (non-participative) components, is not sufficient to localize deficiencies or efficiencies within a regional climate service, since it might lead to results which are not relevant for potential users.

  9. Thoughts on controls on evolution and dispersal of benthos in the Magellan-Scotia Sea region: a workshop proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R.A. Thomson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scotia Arc and the Scotia Sea comprise a geologically young feature of the Earth’s surface that evolved over the last 40 million years (Ma or so, between the southern tip of South America and the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. With the notable exception of the much younger South Sandwich Islands, the islands, banks and seamounts of the arc represent dispersed fragments of a previous continental link between southern South America (Magellan region and the Antarctic Peninsula. The benthic marine shelf faunas of the region are the focus of the IBMANT (Investigación Biolólogica Marina en Magallanes relacionada con la Antártida programme, and those of the surrounding oceanic deeps are the focus of ANDEEP (Antarctic Benthic Deep-Sea Biodiversity. Elucidating the potential relationships between the faunas of the region and the profound geographical, oceanographic and climatic changes undergone by the region in later Cenozoic time is hampered by significant unknowns in the geological history, the expense of further geoscientific exploration to fill these, and a general lack of communication between the biological and geological science communities. It is suggested that the time is opportune for a truly multidisciplinary workshop at which all the involved science communities have much to gain from the others.

  10. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  11. The prospects of entrepreneurship in the formation of new hi-tech markets in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidrya Yefim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an analytical review of the prospects for the formation of new hi-tech markets in the Baltic Sea region with the participation of small and medium businesses. In view of the essential features of entrepreneurship, its prospects in the development and implementation of innovations seem to be quite attractive. However, in the current economic context, growth requires special measures. The authors analyse the measures taken by the European Union and individual countries in order to strengthen the participation of small and medium business in R&D and innovation, describe conditions which are necessary for unlocking innovative potential, identify new industries that might become drivers of innovative economy in Europe. The authors also offer a country-specific list of basic markets, which can be developed by small and medium enterprises in a short-term perspective. In the structure of the Baltic Sea region a special position is held by the Nordic countries — Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland — major regional innovators, as well as a group of South-eastern regions that serve as innovation consumers. Best hopes rest with information and communications technologies and biotechnologies, which are expected to become the centre of major clusters of small and medium enterprises.

  12. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent; Cusack, Michael; Almahasheer, Hanan; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Krishnakumar, Periyadan Kadinjappalli; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  13. Regional Mapping and Resource Assessment of Shallow Gas Hydrates of Japan Sea - METI Launched 3 Years Project in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of METI launched a 3 years shallow gas hydrate exploration project in 2013 to make a precise resource assessment of shallow gas hydrates in the eastern margin of Japan Sea and around Hokkaido. Shallow gas hydrates of Japan Sea occur in fine-grained muddy sediments of shallow subsurface of mounds and gas chimneys in the form of massive nodular to platy accumulation. Gas hydrate bearing mounds are often associated with active methane seeps, bacterial mats and carbonate concretions and pavements. Gases of gas hydrates are derived either from deep thermogenic, shallow microbial or from the mixed gases, contrasting with totally microbial deep-seated stratigraphically controlled hydrates. Shallow gas hydrates in Japan Sea have not been considered as energy resource due to its limited distribution in narrow Joetsu basin. However recently academic research surveys have demonstrated regional distribution of gas chimney and hydrate mound in a number of sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Regional mapping of gas chimney and hydrate mound by means of MBES and SBP surveys have confirmed that more than 200 gas chimneys exist in 100 km x 100 km area. ROV dives have identified dense accumulation of hydrates on the wall of half collapsed hydrate mound down to 30 mbsf. Sequential LWD and shallow coring campaign in the Summer of 2014, R/V Hakurei, which is equipped with Fugro Seacore R140 drilling rig, drilled through hydrate mounds and gas chimneys down to the BGHS (base of gas hydrate stability) level and successfully recovered massive gas hydrates bearing sediments from several horizons.

  14. How sea level change mediates genetic divergence in coastal species across regions with varying tectonic and sediment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Greer A; Ellingson, Ryan A; Findley, Lloyd T; Jacobs, David K

    2018-02-01

    Plate tectonics and sediment processes control regional continental shelf topography. We examine the genetic consequences of how glacial-associated sea level change interacted with variable nearshore topography since the last glaciation. We reconstructed the size and distribution of areas suitable for tidal estuary formation from the last glacial maximum, ~20 thousand years ago, to present from San Francisco, California, USA (~38°N) to Reforma, Sinaloa, Mexico (~25°N). We assessed range-wide genetic structure and diversity of three codistributed tidal estuarine fishes (California Killifish, Shadow Goby, Longjaw Mudsucker) along ~4,600 km using mitochondrial control region and cytB sequence, and 16-20 microsatellite loci from a total of 524 individuals. Results show that glacial-associated sea level change limited estuarine habitat to few, widely separated refugia at glacial lowstand, and present-day genetic clades were sourced from specific refugia. Habitat increased during postglacial sea level rise and refugial populations admixed in newly formed habitats. Continental shelves with active tectonics and/or low sediment supply were steep and hosted fewer, smaller refugia with more genetically differentiated populations than on broader shelves. Approximate Bayesian computation favoured the refuge-recolonization scenarios from habitat models over isolation by distance and seaway alternatives, indicating isolation at lowstand is a major diversification mechanism among these estuarine (and perhaps other) coastal species. Because sea level change is a global phenomenon, we suggest this top-down physical control of extirpation-isolation-recolonization may be an important driver of genetic diversification in coastal taxa inhabiting other topographically complex coasts globally during the Mid- to Late Pleistocene and deeper timescales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent

    2018-04-12

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  16. Thermoluminescence dating of abyssal deposits in the north region of the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoxian

    1988-01-01

    The ages of abyssal deposits have been studied by TL dating. The ages of the deposits from the wells Weima 1, 5 and 6 at the slope in the north of the South China Sea are 36,100 and 128 thousand years respectively

  17. 15 CFR 918.5 - Eligibility, qualifications, and responsibilities-Sea Grant Regional Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identification and communication of user communities' research and educational needs. (6) Relationships. The Sea... ability to obtain matching funds from non-Federal sources, such as State legislatures, university... Grant organizations. (3) Maintain an effective management framework and application of organizational...

  18. Arabian Sea upwelling - A comparison between coastal and open ocean regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The response of the eastern Arabian Sea to prevailing winds during an upwelling event, in the peak of southwest monsoon, was studied at both coastal and open ocean environment based on the data collected as a part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean...

  19. Sources of new nitrogen in the Vietnamese upwelling region of the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombar, Deniz; Dippner, Joachim W.; Doan, Hai Nhu

    2010-01-01

    In the South China Sea, the southwest monsoon between June and September induces upwelling off the southern central Vietnamese coast. During field campaigns in July 2003 and 2004 we evaluated the importance of nitrate and nitrogen fixation as sources of new nitrogen for phytoplankton primary...

  20. Leatherback sea turtle stewardship to attain local, regional, and global marine conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall Arauz; Todd Steiner

    2007-01-01

    The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is the largest marine reptile with one of the longest known ocean migrations in the world and an important part of marine biodiversity. It is also important to the economies of coastal communities in developing countries, especially in areas where eco-tourism has replaced unsustainable harvest and...

  1. High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxon, Seymour; Peacock, Neil; Smith, Doug

    2003-10-30

    Possible future changes in Arctic sea ice cover and thickness, and consequent changes in the ice-albedo feedback, represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of future temperature rise. Knowledge of the natural variability of sea ice thickness is therefore critical for its representation in global climate models. Numerical simulations suggest that Arctic ice thickness varies primarily on decadal timescales owing to changes in wind and ocean stresses on the ice, but observations have been unable to provide a synoptic view of sea ice thickness, which is required to validate the model results. Here we use an eight-year time-series of Arctic ice thickness, derived from satellite altimeter measurements of ice freeboard, to determine the mean thickness field and its variability from 65 degrees N to 81.5 degrees N. Our data reveal a high-frequency interannual variability in mean Arctic ice thickness that is dominated by changes in the amount of summer melt, rather than by changes in circulation. Our results suggest that a continued increase in melt season length would lead to further thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  2. Elemental and organic carbon in aerosols over urbanized coastal region (southern Baltic Sea, Gdynia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Anita; Falkowska, Lucyna; Murawiec, Dominika; Pryputniewicz, Dorota; Burska, Dorota; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2010-09-15

    Studies on PM 10, total particulate matter (TSP), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were carried out in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, in urbanized Gdynia. The interaction between the land, the air and the sea was clearly observed. The highest concentrations of PM 10, TSP and both carbon fractions were noted in the air masses moving from southern and western Poland and Europe. The EC was generally of primary origin and its contribution to TSP and PM 10 mass was on average 2.3% and 3.7% respectively. Under low wind speed conditions local sources (traffic and industry) influenced increases in elemental carbon and PM 10 concentrations in Gdynia. Elemental carbon demonstrated a pronounced weekly cycle, yielding minimum values at the weekend and maximum values on Thursdays. The role of harbors and ship yards in creating high EC concentrations was clearly observed. Concentration of organic carbon was ten times higher than that of elemental carbon, and the average OC contribution to PM 10 mass was very high (31.6%). An inverse situation was observed when air masses were transported from over the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These clean air masses were characterized by the lowest concentrations of all analysed compounds. Obtained results for organic and elemental carbon fluxes showed that atmospheric aerosols can be treated, along with water run-off, as a carbon source for the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The enrichment of surface water was more effective in the case of organic carbon (0.27+/-0.19 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Elemental carbon fluxes were one order of magnitude smaller, on average 0.03+/-0.04 mmol m(-2) d(-1). We suggest that in some situations atmospheric carbon input can explain up to 18% of total carbon fluxes into the Baltic coastal waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactivity monitoring of the Turkish Black Sea coast as a part of the IAEA model project 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' and nuclear techniques for the environmental management of water resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Koksal, G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Kose, A.; Kucukcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Erkol, A.Y.; Karakelle, B.; Osvath, I.; Fowler, S.

    2002-01-01

    A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project is initiated in response to the needs of participating Member-States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer technique to marine pollution studies. The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interest. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed thought various conventions and declarations. Socio-economically; fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from Turkish monitoring work consists of the routine sampling of sea water, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. Insights gained from the application of nuclear techniques for the 'Pollution Investigation of the Kucukcekmece Lake' and the 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' Model Technical Co-operation Project carried out at the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center supporting by the IAEA are presented. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of protection of the water resources within Eurasian countries and the need for strong cooperation among nuclear research centers

  4. Remote wind stress influence on mean sea level in a subtropical coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Calim Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relative influence of remote wind stress on mean sea level (MSL variations in the coastal region of Cananeia (Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil during the period from 1/1/1955 to 12/31/1993. An optimized low-pass Thompson filter for the study area, and spectral analysis (cross spectrum, coherence and phase lag of the relationship between the MSL and both parallel (T// and perpendicular (T| wind stress components were applied. These were extracted from four grid points of the NCEP/NCAR global model. The predominance of annual oscillations as those of greatest coherence and energy, of periods of approximately 341 days (frequency of 0.00293 cpd and 410 days (frequency of 0.00244 cpd, respectively, were observed. Offshore NCEP/NCAR grid points were those with the highest coherence and energy throughout the study in relation to the observed MSL. This may be linked to the restriction of the NCEP/NCAR model as regards the inland limit. It is also concluded that remote wind stress may play an important role in several MSL time scales, including the annual ones. Based on criteria such as coherence and energy peaks, the wind stress component of greatest effect on MSL was the parallel one.O presente estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a influência relativa de tensão do vento remoto na variação do nível médio do mar (NMM para a região costeira de Cananéia (SP durante o período de 1/1/1955 a 31/12/1993. Foram aplicados um filtro de passa-baixa de Thompson (1983, otimizado para a região de Cananéia, além de análise espectral (espectro cruzado, coerência e defasagem entre o NMM e as componentes paralela (T// e perpendicular (T| da tensão do vento. Estas foram extraídas de quatro pontos de grade do modelo global NCEP/NCAR. Observou-se a predominância das oscilações anuais como aquelas de maior coerência e energia, destacando-se os períodos de aproximadamente 341 dias (frequência de 0,00293 cpd e 410

  5. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, Ivica [Ministry of Defense, Croatian Navy, Dubrovacka 49, 21000 Split (Croatia); Kollar, Robert [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of 'hot spots', which might interfere with threat material identification.

  7. An empirical model of Onecut binding activity at the sea urchin SM50 C-element gene regulatory region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otim, Ochan

    2017-01-01

    Studying the formation of endoskeleton in many species is complex and difficult. The sea urchin embryo offers an unparalleled platform for understanding this process because of the ease with which its skeletogenic mesenchyme cells can be manipulated. In this study, preliminary evidence from biochemical studies towards understanding the role of the Onecut transcription factor during sea urchin skeletogenic mesenchyme cell specification is presented. Based on the evidence, an empirical model is proposed showing how Onecut, together with associated co-factors, may be using the C-element of the SM50 gene regulatory region in advance of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus spicule development. In the model, Onecut recognizes and binds the DNA sequence CATCGATCTC in the C-element without temporal restriction. Onecut then utilizes different sets of co-factors to switch from its unknown function early in development (four cell stage to the mesenchyme blastula stage), to its known role in the oral-aboral boundary thereafter. At the writing of this report, definitive evidence as to whether the "early" factors are expressed in all cells except the micromere lineages, or whether the "late" factors are expressed in micromere descendants or ectodermal precursors only are lacking. The former would suggest a possible Onecut repression function for the early co-factors outside the micromere lineages; the latter scenario would suggest a Onecut activation function for the late co-factors in the presumptive ciliary band.

  8. Stability of the Black Sea Littoral Region: Focus on the Montreux Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    relationships (if seen as monopolistic ) during crisis’s such as; harsh winters when Russian energy companies have admitted to lowering or shutting off...Exxon to build a LNG plant in the Kara Sea in hopes of future oil and gas explorations discoveries. Tourism is expected to be an increasing market ...in this fertile area and Caspian countries are anxious to connect with global markets , especially Europe. CHALLENGES FOR STABILITY PERCEIVED

  9. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic processes in the Red Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Madah, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    The semi-enclosed Red Sea basin presents a unique large marine ecosystem. Therefore it deserves scientific attention. The processes under concern are studied using a combination of very few available observations (water levels and oceanographic data), remotely sensed data as well as numerical modelling approach. The numerical simulations are performed using the three-dimensional modeling system Delft3D, developed by WL | Delft Hydraulics. The first part of the present thesis investigates ...

  10. Ozone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Wang, Yu; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Xinming; Jiang, Fei; Zeren, Yangzong; Pan, Wenzhuo; Huang, Xiaobo; Shen, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Marine atmosphere is usually considered to be a clean environment, but this study indicates that the near-coast waters of the South China Sea (SCS) suffer from even worse air quality than coastal cities. The analyses were based on concurrent field measurements of target air pollutants and meteorological parameters conducted at a suburban site (Tung Chung, TC) and a nearby marine site (Wan Shan, WS) from August to November 2013. The observations showed that the levels of primary air pollutants were significantly lower at WS than those at TC, while the ozone (O3) value was greater at WS. Higher O3 levels at WS were attributed to the weaker NO titration and higher O3 production rate because of stronger oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, O3 episodes were concurrently observed at both sites under certain meteorological conditions, such as tropical cyclones, continental anticyclones and sea-land breezes (SLBs). Driven by these synoptic systems and mesoscale recirculations, the interaction between continental and marine air masses profoundly changed the atmospheric composition and subsequently influenced the formation and redistribution of O3 in the coastal areas. When continental air intruded into marine atmosphere, the O3 pollution was magnified over the SCS, and the elevated O3 ( > 100 ppbv) could overspread the sea boundary layer ˜ 8 times the area of Hong Kong. In some cases, the exaggerated O3 pollution over the SCS was recirculated to the coastal inshore by sea breeze, leading to aggravated O3 pollution in coastal cities. The findings are applicable to similar mesoscale environments around the world where the maritime atmosphere is potentially influenced by severe continental air pollution.

  11. An Evaluation of Sea Ice Deformation and Its Spatial Characteristics from the Regional Arctic System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Ice Thickness and Age It has long been recognized that many physical properties of sea ice depend upon the thickness ( Thorndike et al. 1975). Three...within the ice (Kovacs 1996). Thorndike et al. (1975) showed that the approximation, used in many ice models even today, for the compressive stress...in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297–1300. Thorndike , A.S., D.A. Rothrock, G.A. Maykut, and

  12. Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Creti, S

    2016-02-15

    Sea surface concentrations of plastics and their fluxes onto coastlines are simulated over 2009-2015. Calculations incorporate combinations of terrestrial and maritime litter inputs, the Lagrangian model MEDSLIK-II forced by AFS ocean current simulations, and ECMWF wind analyses. With a relatively short particle half-life of 43.7 days, the Adriatic Sea is defined as a highly dissipative basin where the shoreline is, by construction, the main sink of floating debris. Our model results show that the coastline of the Po Delta receives a plastic flux of approximately 70 kg(km day)(-1). The most polluted sea surface area (>10 g km(-2) floating debris) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. Evident seasonality is found in the calculated plastic concentration fields and the coastline fluxes. Complex source-receptor relationships among the basin's subregions are quantified in impact matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sea floor morphology of the Ebro Shelf in the region of the Columbretes Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A.; Lastras, G.; Ballesteros, M.; Canals, M.; Acosta, J.; Uchupi, E.

    2005-12-01

    Widespread volcanism off eastern Spain in the western Mediterranean is associated with Cenozoic crustal attenuation and sinistral motion along the Trans-Moroccan-Western Mediterranean-European mega shear, extending from northern Morocco to the North Sea via the Alboran Basin, eastern Iberia, the Valencian and Lyons basins, France and Germany. The Quaternary Columbretes Islands volcanic field is the most prominent example of this volcanism associated with this mega shear. The islands are located in the Ebro continental shelf on top of a structural horst probably made of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Surrounding the emerged islands are volcanic structures and associated flows partially mantled by a sediment drift whose morphology is controlled by the southwestward flowing Catalan Current. This association is rather unique and appears to have never been described from a continental shelf in the Mediterranean Sea or outside the sea. The morphology of both kinds of structures, obtained by means of swath bathymetry data and very-high resolution seismic profiles, is presented in this study. They provide striking images of this previously unstudied part of the western Mediterranean seafloor. These images suggest that the volcanic structures are intruded into the surficial Holocene sediments indicating that volcanism in the Columbretes has extended into Holocene.

  14. Phylogenetic status of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in five rivers from the southern Caspian Sea and two inland lake basins, Iran: a morphogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh Segherloo, I; Farahmand, H; Abdoli, A; Bernatchez, L; Primmer, C R; Swatdipong, A; Karami, M; Khalili, B

    2012-10-01

    Interrelationships, origin and phylogenetic affinities of brown trout Salmo trutta populations from the southern Caspian Sea basin, Orumieh and Namak Lake basins in Iran were analysed from complete mtDNA control region sequences, 12 microsatellite loci and morphological characters. Among 129 specimens from six populations, seven haplotypes were observed. Based on mtDNA haplotype data, the Orumieh and southern Caspian populations did not differ significantly, but the Namak basin-Karaj population presented a unique haplotype closely related to the haplotypes of the other populations (0·1% Kimura two-parameter, K2P divergence). All Iranian haplotypes clustered as a distinct group within the Danube phylogenetic grouping, with an average K2P distance of 0·41% relative to other Danubian haplotypes. The Karaj haplotype in the Namak basin was related to a haplotype (Da26) formerly identified in the Tigris basin in Turkey, to a Salmo trutta oxianus haplotype from the Aral Sea basin, and to haplotype Da1a with two mutational steps, as well as to other Iranian haplotypes with one to two mutational steps, which may indicate a centre of origin in the Caspian basin. In contrast to results of the mtDNA analysis, more pronounced differentiation was observed among the populations studied in the morphological and microsatellite DNA data, except for the two populations from the Orumieh basin, which were similar, possibly due to anthropogenic causes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. An inter-decadal increase in summer sea level pressure over the Mongolian region around the early 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Li, Xiuzhen; Chen, Ruidan

    2018-05-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon is affected by processes in the mid-high latitudes in addition to various tropical and subtropical systems. The present study investigates the summer sea level pressure (SLP) variability over northern East Asia (NEA) and emphasizes the closed active center over the Mongolian region. It is found that the seasonal mean Mongolian SLP (MSLP) anomaly is closely connected with the variability of summertime regional synoptic extra-tropical cyclones on longer time scales. A significant inter-decadal increase in the MSLP around the early 1990s has been detected, which is accompanied by a weakening in the activity of regional extra-tropical cyclones. Recent warming over NEA may have a contribution to the inter-decadal change, which features evidently meridional inhomogeneity around 45°N. The inhomogeneous air temperature anomaly distribution results in decreased vertical wind shear, reduced atmospheric baroclinicity over the Mongolian region, and thus inactive regional cyclones and increased MSLP in the latter decade. The associated temperature anomaly distribution may be partly attributed to regional inhomogeneity in cloud and radiation anomalies, and it is further maintained by two positive feedback mechanisms associated with atmospheric internal processes: one via adiabatic heating and the other via horizontal temperature advection.

  16. Regional Effects of the Mount Pinatubo Eruption on the Middle East and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2017-01-01

    variability in the Middle East's regional climate, we simulated the impact of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system set for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) domain. We used the Coupled Ocean

  17. Sustaining the grassland sea: Regional perspectives on identifying, protecting and restoring the Sky Island region's most intact grassland valley landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitanjali S. Bodner; Peter Warren; David Gori; Karla Sartor; Steven Bassett

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands of the Sky Islands region once covered over 13 million acres in southeastern Arizona and adjacent portions of New Mexico, Sonora, and Chihuahua. Attempts to evaluate current ecological conditions suggest that approximately two thirds of these remain as intact or restorable grassland habitat. These grasslands provide watershed services such as flood control...

  18. Determinantes sociales de salud y calidad de vida en una localidad con deterioro ambiental, Chañaral, región de Atacama, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Klarian Vergara, José

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo estudia la localidad de Chañaral, ubicada en la Región de Atacama en el norte de Chile, dado que ella reviste especial importancia debido a los problemas ambientales que impactan la salud de sus habitantes. Se buscó, a través de una actividad Focus Group, identificar aquellas variables que, a juicio de representantes clave, tienen alta importancia desde la perspectiva de la calidad de vida de la comunidad. Entre 14 áreas temáticas, se i...

  19. Exploring New Challenges of High-Resolution SWOT Satellite Altimetry with a Regional Model of the Solomon Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, P.; Verron, J. A.; Djath, B.; Duran, M.; Gaultier, L.; Gourdeau, L.; Melet, A.; Molines, J. M.; Ubelmann, C.

    2014-12-01

    The upcoming high-resolution SWOT altimetry satellite will provide an unprecedented description of the ocean dynamic topography for studying sub- and meso-scale processes in the ocean. But there is still much uncertainty on the signal that will be observed. There are many scientific questions that are unresolved about the observability of altimetry at vhigh resolution and on the dynamical role of the ocean meso- and submesoscales. In addition, SWOT data will raise specific problems due to the size of the data flows. These issues will probably impact the data assimilation approaches for future scientific or operational oceanography applications. In this work, we propose to use a high-resolution numerical model of the Western Pacific Solomon Sea as a regional laboratory to explore such observability and dynamical issues, as well as new data assimilation challenges raised by SWOT. The Solomon Sea connects subtropical water masses to the equatorial ones through the low latitude western boundary currents and could potentially modulate the tropical Pacific climate. In the South Western Pacific, the Solomon Sea exhibits very intense eddy kinetic energy levels, while relatively little is known about the mesoscale and submesoscale activities in this region. The complex bathymetry of the region, complicated by the presence of narrow straits and numerous islands, raises specific challenges. So far, a Solomon sea model configuration has been set up at 1/36° resolution. Numerical simulations have been performed to explore the meso- and submesoscales dynamics. The numerical solutions which have been validated against available in situ data, show the development of small scale features, eddies, fronts and filaments. Spectral analysis reveals a behavior that is consistent with the SQG theory. There is a clear evidence of energy cascade from the small scales including the submesoscales, although those submesoscales are only partially resolved by the model. In parallel

  20. Climate and land-use change impacts on potential solar photovoltaic power generation in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, I.; Goyette, S.; Gago-Silva, A.; Quiquerez, L.; Lehmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solar resource is sufficient to provide PV power at suitable locations within the Black Sea catchment. • Climate change will not significantly impact the solar resource, although uncertainty exists. • Land-use change will significantly impact potential PV power, although socio-economic factors will have more importance. • It is important to strengthen regional cooperation for the integration of renewable energy resources. - Abstract: Climate change is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has recently been greatly impacted by anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the main contributing sectors to GHG emissions is the energy sector, due to its high dependency on fossil fuels. Renewable energy systems, notably solar energy, can be an effective climate change mitigation alternative. Photovoltaic (PV) technology provides an interesting method to produce electricity through a virtually infinite renewable resource at the human time scale: solar radiation. This study evaluates the current and future solar energy potential through the use of grid-connected PV power plants at the scale of countries within the Black Sea catchment. Simulated data are used to determine potential change in climate and land-use according to two different development scenarios. Incident solar radiation flux from re-analyses, spatial interpolation, and the application of the Delta change method are used to assess the current and future solar resource potential within this catchment. Potential sites suitable for PV power plants are selected following a Fuzzy logic approach, and thus the total potential solar energy through PV power generation can be determined. Results show that climate change will have little impact on the solar radiation resource, while land-use change induces more variability. However, regardless of the scenario followed, the solar energy potential is sufficient to provide an interesting contribution to the electricity generation mix of

  1. Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, T.; Naumann, M.; Tauber, F.; Radtke, H.; Friedland, R.; Hiller, A.; Arz, H. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (<63 μm, mud) from more than 600 surficial samples, combined with recalculations for the bulk sediment. For the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) and selected elements (P, Hg), the regional distribution maps show strong differences between the analysed fine fraction and the recalculated total sediment. Seeing that mud contents vary strongly between 0 and 100%, this can be explained by the well-known grain-size effect. To avoid (or at least minimise) this effect, further interpretations were based on the data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical "anomalies" in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

  2. The radiation hazards of some radio-elements in petroleum and phosphate regions along the Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, M.A.; El Saman, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4 '0K were measured using gamma ray spectrophotometer as well as the radiological hazard parameters were calculated in the marine sediments at two industrial regions along the Red Sea coast; oil and gas industry at Rasel Behar and phosphate mining, milling and shipping at Hamrawin. 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K at Rasel Behar recorded the average activities of, 15.2±6.3, 16.2±8.7 and 330.7±107.1 Bq/kg and at Hamrawin were; 114.2±134.5, 14.8±17.2 and 253.9±78.1 Bq/kg respectively. The averages of the absorbed dose rates (D), the annual effective dose rate (mSv/y), radium equivalent (Ra eq ), the external hazard index (H ex ) and the internal hazard index (H in ) and the representative level index (Iγr) at Rasel Behar were; 30.7 nGy/h, 0.04 mSv/y, 63.8 Bq/kg, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.2 and at Hamrawin were; 72.35 nGy/h, 0.09 mSv/y, 154.9 Bq/kg, 0.42, 0.73 and 1.08 respectively. The calculated radiation hazard parameters at Rasel Behar were lower than the global average and most studies in the Red Sea, while at Hamrawin were higher than the calculated averages in the Red Sea and some parameters; (H ex , H in and Iγr) exceeded the unity and out of the human health safe limit and it may be harmful to the peoples in the region

  3. Estimating the sensitivity of a regional atmospheric model to a sea state dependent roughness using ensemble calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisse, R.; Heyen, H.; Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    The sensitivity of an atmospheric high resolution limited area model to a sea state dependent roughness is examined. Two sets of Monte Carlo experiments are compared with each other, one set with a sea state dependent roughness, the other with a roughness parameterized by the standard Charnock relation. From the climatic point of view, i.e., on time scales of months and longer, the differences of mean and standard deviation between the two sets are small and exceed, for instance in winter, where the differences are largest, rarely 0.4 hPa. From the forecasters' point of view, i.e., locally and on a daily time scale, differences of several hPa may occur, but generally differences are smaller than 1 hPa, too. It is concluded that on longer time scales the Charnock relation is a reasonable parameterization in global and regional atmospheric climate models. It is illustrated, too, that the comparison of single realizations, a common practice in regional sensitivity studies, can be misleading. Large differences were found between individual realizations, suggesting a considerable impact of the sea state dependent roughness on the atmosphere. However, it is shown that these differences are to a large fraction caused by internal variability of the atmospheric model itself. (orig.) [German] Die Sensitivitaet eines atmosphaerischen Regionalmodells bezueglich einer seegangsabhaengigen Rauhigkeit wird mittels Ensemblerechnungen untersucht. Dazu werden eine Reihe von Monte-Carlo-Experimenten mit und ohne seegangsabhaengige Rauhigkeit verglichen. Im letzten Fall wird die Charnock-Relation zur Bestimmung der Rauhigkeit verwendet. Auf Zeitskalen von Monaten und laenger sind die Unterschiede zwischen den Experimenten mit und denen ohne seegangsabhaengige Rauhigkeit gering. Auf der lokalen und der taeglichen Skala koennen jedoch Unterschiede von einigen hPa im Bodenluftdruckfeld auftreten. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese Unterschiede jedoch weniger eine Reaktion des

  4. GHRSST Level 2P Regional 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  5. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in some ships' ballast water incoming from various marine regions to the Sea of Marmara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altug, Gulsen; Gurun, Sevan; Cardak, Mine; Ciftci, Pelin S; Kalkan, Samet

    2012-10-01

    The composition and frequency of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria, the abundance of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HPC) and possible in-situ use of chromogenic agar were investigated in the ships' ballast water coming from different regions of the world to the Sea of Marmara, Turkey for the first time. The samples that were taken from 21 unit ships coming from various marine environments of the Southern China Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, Turkey in 2009 and 2010 were tested. 38 bacteria species, 27 of them pathogenic bacteria belonging to 17 familia, were detected. Vibrio cholera was not detected in the samples. However, the presence of a high number of HPC, including a cocktail of pathogenic bacteria showed that the ships carry a potential risk for the Sea of Marmara. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coastal Flooding in Florida's Big Bend Region with Application to Sea Level Rise Based on Synthetic Storms Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Hagen Peter Bacopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is examined by comparing maximum envelopes of water against the 0.2% (= 1-in-500-year return-period flooding surface generated as part of revising the Federal Emergency Management Agency¡¦s flood insurance rate maps for Franklin, Wakulla, and Jefferson counties in Florida¡¦s Big Bend Region. The analysis condenses the number of storms to a small fraction of the original 159 used in production. The analysis is performed by assessing which synthetic storms contributed to inundation extent (the extent of inundation into the floodplain, coverage (the overall surface area of the inundated floodplain and the spatially variable 0.2% flooding surface. The results are interpreted in terms of storm attributes (pressure deficit, radius to maximum winds, translation speed, storm heading, and landfall location and the physical processes occurring within the natural system (storms surge and waves; both are contextualized against existing and new hurricane scales. The approach identifies what types of storms and storm attributes lead to what types of inundation, as measured in terms of extent and coverage, in Florida¡¦s Big Bend Region and provides a basis in the identification of a select subset of synthetic storms for studying the impact of sea level rise. The sea level rise application provides a clear contrast between a dynamic approach versus that of a static approach.

  7. Effect of penguin and seal excrement on mercury distribution in sediments from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yaguang; Liu, Xiaodong; Sun, Liguang; Emslie, Steven D

    2012-09-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentration and several other geochemical parameters were determined for five sediment profiles from the Antarctic Ross Sea region. Our data exhibit significant positive correlations between Hg concentration and total organic carbon (TOC) content in all profiles, suggesting the predominant role of organic matter (OM) as a Hg carrier. The OM in the sediments originates primarily from penguin guano and algae. High Hg content in guano and a positive correlation between Hg and a guano bio-element (phosphorus, P) in the ornithogenic sediment profiles (MB6, BI and CC) indicate that Hg was strongly influenced by guano input. The bottom sediments of MB6 with seal hairs contain relatively high Hg. This increase is attributed to the input of seal excrement, suggesting that sedimentary Hg may be an effective trophic-level indicator from seals to penguins. The enrichment factor (EF) for Hg was calculated and the results indicated apparent Hg enrichment in the sediment profiles from the Ross Sea region caused by bio-vectors such as penguins and seals. Compared with typical sediments from other sites in Antarctica and the SQGs (sediment quality guidelines), the total amount of Hg in our study area is still not considered to be adversely high. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G.; Erdogan, M.F.; Delange, F.; Sav, H.; Guellue, S.; Kamel, N.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 μg/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

  9. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin-H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstensen, J.; Andersen, J.; Dromph, K. [and others

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the outcome of the project 'Review of the ecological targets for eutrophication of the HELCOM BSAP', also known as HELCOM TARGREV. The objectives of HELCOM TARGREV have been to revise the scientific basis underlying the ecological targets for eutrophication, placing much emphasis on providing a strengthened data and information basis for the setting of quantitative targets. The results are first of all likely to form the information basis on which decisions in regard to reviewing and if necessary revising the maximum allowable inputs (MAI) of nutrient of the Baltic Sea Action Plan, including the provisional country-wise allocation reduction targets (CART), will be made.

  11. Crustal structure beneath Liaoning province and the Bohai Sea and its adjacent region in China based on ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Guang-hua; Feng, Ji-Kun; Lin, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The velocity structure of the crust beneath Liaoning province and the Bohai sea in China was imaged using ambient seismic noise recorded by 73 regional broadband stations. All available three-component time series from the 12-month span between January and December 2013 were cross-correlated to yield empirical Green's functions for Rayleigh and Love waves. Phase-velocity dispersion curves for the Rayleigh waves and the Love waves were measured by applying the frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements of the Rayleigh wave and the Love wave were then utilized to construct 2D phase-velocity maps for the Rayleigh wave at 8-35 s periods and the Love wave at 9-32 s periods, respectively. Both Rayleigh and Love phase-velocity maps show significant lateral variations that are correlated well with known geological features and tectonics units in the study region. Next, phase dispersion curves of the Rayleigh wave and the Love wave extracted from each cell of the 2D Rayleigh wave and Love wave phase-velocity maps, respectively, were inverted simultaneously to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures. The horizontal shear wave velocity images clearly and intuitively exhibit that the earthquake swarms in the Haicheng region and the Tangshan region are mainly clustered in the transition zone between the low- and high-velocity zones in the upper crust, coinciding with fault zones, and their distribution is very closely associated with these faults. The vertical shear wave velocity image reveals that the lower crust downward to the uppermost mantle is featured by distinctly high velocities, with even a high-velocity thinner layer existing at the bottom of the lower crust near Moho in central and northern the Bohai sea along the Tanlu fault, and these phenomena could be caused by the intrusion of mantle material, indicating the Tanlu fault could be just as the uprising channel of deep materials.

  12. Assessment of water exchange between a discharge region and the open sea A comparison of different methodological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döös, Kristofer; Engqvist, Anders

    2007-09-01

    Two different methods of estimating the water exchange through the Baltic coastal region of Laxemar have been used, consisting of particle trajectories and passive tracers. Water is traced from and to a small discharge region near the coast. The discharge material in this region is treated as zero-dimensional particles or tracers with neutral buoyancy. The real discharge material could be a leakage of radio-nuclides through the sea floor from an underground repository of nuclear waste. Water exchange rates between the discharge region and the model domain are estimated using both forward and backward trajectories as well as passive tracers. The Lagrangian trajectories can account for the time evolution of the water exchange while the tracers give one average age per model grid box. Water exchange times such as residence time, age and transient times have been calculated with trajectories but only the average age (AvA) for tracers. The trajectory calculations provide a more detailed time evolution than the tracers. On the other hand the tracers are integrated "on-line" simultaneously in the sea circulation model with the same time step while the Lagrangian trajectories are integrated "off-line" from the stored model velocities with its inherent temporal resolution, presently 1 h. The sub-grid turbulence is parameterised as the Laplacian diffusion for the passive tracers and with an extra stochastic velocity for trajectories. The importance of the parameterised sub-grid turbulence for the trajectories is estimated to give an extra diffusion of the same order as the Laplacian diffusion by comparing the Lagrangian dispersions with and without parameterisation. The results of the different methods are similar but depend on the chosen diffusivity coefficient with a slightly higher correlation between trajectories and tracers when integrated with a lower diffusivity coefficient.

  13. A Simple Technique for Creating Regional Composites of Sea Surface Temperature from MODIS for Use in Operational Mesoscale NWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knievel, Jason C.; Rife, Daran L.; Grim, Joseph A.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hacker, Joshua P.; Ge, Ming; Fisher, Henry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for creating regional, high-resolution, daytime and nighttime composites of sea surface temperature (SST) for use in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP). The composites are based on observations from NASA s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua and Terra. The data used typically are available nearly in real time, are applicable anywhere on the globe, and are capable of roughly representing the diurnal cycle in SST. The composites resolution is much higher than that of many other standard SST products used for operational NWP, including the low- and high-resolution Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses. The difference in resolution is key because several studies have shown that highly resolved SSTs are important for driving the air sea interactions that shape patterns of static stability, vertical and horizontal wind shear, and divergence in the planetary boundary layer. The MODIS-based composites are compared to in situ observations from buoys and other platforms operated by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) off the coasts of New England, the mid-Atlantic, and Florida. Mean differences, mean absolute differences, and root-mean-square differences between the composites and the NDBC observations are all within tenths of a degree of those calculated between RTG analyses and the NDBC observations. This is true whether or not one accounts for the mean offset between the skin temperatures of the MODIS dataset and the bulk temperatures of the NDBC observations and RTG analyses. Near the coast, the MODIS-based composites tend to agree more with NDBC observations than do the RTG analyses. The opposite is true away from the coast. All of these differences in point-wise comparisons among the SST datasets are small compared to the 61.08C accuracy of the NDBC SST sensors. Because skin-temperature variations from land to water so strongly affect the development and life cycle of the sea breeze, this

  14. The threat from sea and land. Regional report 2: the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This article reports on the environmental threat caused by the Bay of Bengal on the economic situation in Bangladesh and India. More than four-fifths of Bangladesh amount to an extended delta at the confluence of one of the largest river systems in the world, comprising the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna. In the Brahmaputra watershed, the rate of deforestation caused soil erosion in the Himalayas is five times as much as in the geological past. This sediment loading is often considered to be a prime factor in downstream flooding. Because of this, Bangladesh agriculture products were damaged, which led to economic instability. Furthermore, as a result of the combined impacts of population growth, poverty, no land, and inadequate food supplies, many migrated into the neighboring Indian areas. Moreover, the susceptibility of the Bay of Bengal to cyclones has caused a great number of deaths leaving millions of people homeless. Cyclone episodes are expected to be more frequent as global warming continues. Furthermore, Bangladesh was estimated to be only 5 meters above sea level, which is considered vulnerable to sea level rise. On top of these problems, trouble from the other side of Bangladesh was also predicted with the combined outflow of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna leading to more national damage.

  15. Development of Tertiary Basins of SE Asia from the South China Sea to the Andaman Sea region ; a comparative view on structure and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubellier, Manuel; Sautter, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Basins of SE Asia have developed since the end of Cretaceous times to the detriment of a Mesozoic andean arc which surrounded Sundaland. The arc was broader in the Eastern part along the Pacific Subduction Zone including theSouth China Sea (SCS), than in the Western part along the Sumatra Subduction Zone (Myanmar, Andaman Sea (AS), Malay Peninsula). By the end of the Upper Cretaceous, this arc died out and a widespread rifting with astonishing resemblances started in the whole Sundaland. We compare and discuss the basins similarities and differences in structure and timing between the two sides. A relaxation stage is evidenced in Western Sunda, represented by poorly exposed Late Cretaceous red beds filling the pre-existing morphostructures without clear fault-controlled basins. These deposits are also observed on seismic data offshore in the Gulf of Thailand and AS). On the opposite side along the Chinese margin, thick molasse-type deposits of Late Cretaceous age are on the contrary well expressed offshore and restricted to narrow valleys, indicating that stretching had already begun. There, the Paleogene is marked by strong extension with large crustal blocks rotated by often counter-regional normal faults creating half grabens. Crust was extended and extremely thinned particularly around the SCS. Basins reached the spreading stage in the Celebes Sea, the North Makassar basin and the SCS. On the western side, this period corresponds to narrow deep grabens (e.g. Mergui basins and part of western Malacca) with continental deposits, meaning that the stretching was localized. There, thinning of the crust took place during the Oligocene up to the Middle Miocene where large basins develop mostly to the outer edges of the Yenshanian Arc. Extension resumed in the Pliocene with the opening of the Andaman basin in an even more external position. To the eastern side the uppermost Miocene and the Pliocene were marked mostly by a deepening of the margins and the SCS ocean

  16. Environment and security in the South China Sea region : the role of experts, non-governmental actors and governments in regime building processes

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Background: The Spratly islands in the South China Sea are today the focal point of a territorial dispute that represents a serious threat to the regional security in Southeast Asia. Six governments - China, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei - have laid claims to all or some of the more than 230 islets, reefs and shoals in the Spratly area. The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a key player in the South China Sea conflict. However, the South China Sea is not jus...

  17. Correlation and SVD Analysis of Anomalous Spring Precipitation in Northwest China and Sea Surface Temperature in Key Region in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the relationship between spring precipitation anomaly in Northwest China and sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in Key region in recent 50 years. [Method] Based on monthly average precipitation in Northwest China and global monthly sea surface temperature (SST) grid data, the effects of SSTA in equatorial central and eastern Pacific on spring precipitation in Northwest China were discussed by means of correlation and SVD analysis. [Result] For spring precipitation in Nor...

  18. Potential for shoreline changes due to sea-level rise along the U.S. mid-Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2007-01-01

    Sea-level rise over the next century is expected to contribute significantly to physical changes along open-ocean shorelines. Predicting the form and magnitude of coastal changes is important for understanding the impacts to humans and the environment. Presently, the ability to predict coastal changes is limited by the scientific understanding of the many variables and processes involved in coastal change, and the lack of consensus regarding the validity of existing conceptual, analytical, or numerical models. In order to assess potential future coastal changes in the mid-Atlantic U.S. for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a workshop was convened by the U.S. Geological Survey. Assessments of future coastal change were made by a committee of coastal scientists with extensive professional experience in the mid-Atlantic region. Thirteen scientists convened for a two-day meeting to exchange information and develop a consensus opinion on potential future coastal changes for the mid-Atlantic coast in response to sea-level rise. Using criteria defined in past work, the mid-Atlantic coast was divided into four geomorphic compartments: spits, headlands, wave-dominated barriers, and mixed-energy barriers. A range of potential coastal responses was identified for each compartment based on four sea-level rise scenarios. The four scenarios were based on the assumptions that: a) the long-term sea-level rise rate observed over the 20th century would persist over the 21st century, b) the 20th century rate would increase by 2 mm/yr, c) the 20th century rate would increase by 7 mm/yr, or d) sea-level would rise by 2 m over the next few hundred years. Potential responses to these sea-level rise scenarios depend on the landforms that occur within a region and include increased likelihood for erosion and shoreline retreat for all coastal types, increased likelihood for erosion, overwash and inlet breaching for barrier islands, as well as the possibility of a threshold

  19. CCS in the North Sea region: A comparison on the cost-effectiveness of storing CO2 in the Utsira formation at regional and national scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strachan, N.; Hoefnagels, R.; Ramirez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential scale of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) under long-term decarbonisation scenarios means that analysis on the contribution of large international CO2 storage reservoirs is critical. This paper compares the potentially key role of CCS within cost-optimizing energy systems...... formation as a common North Sea CO2 storage resource. A robust finding is that low carbon electricity is a primary decarbonisation pathway and that CCS plays a key role (32–40%) within this portfolio. This paper confirms that the overall driver of the amount of CCS utilized is the climate policy...... the CO2 storage cost curve, with the Netherlands and the UK being the largest contributors, followed by transboundary flows of CO2 from other countries. However, overall regional CCS flows may be larger (for example under low fossil fuel prices) than the estimated (and uncertain) maximum annual injection...

  20. On the representation of regional characteristics by hydrographic measurements at central stations in four deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Reissmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the eddy resolving data sets of salinity, temperature, and oxygen content aquired in the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (MESOscale DYNamics in the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow, and the Eastern Gotland Basin during summer and winter stratification situations are utilized to examine to which extent the observations at the central monitoring stations within these basins are representative for the spatial mean state of the corresponding region with respect to comparative monitoring purposes of the whole Baltic Sea. The investigation covers profiles of salinity, potential temperature, oxygen content, potential density, and squared buoyancy or Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Moreover, some parameters of the halocline, namely its depth, thickness, and upper and lower boundaries, and the first baroclinic Rossby radii are subject to the investigation. The profiles match best for the squared buoyancy or Brunt-Väisälä frequency. The profiles of salinity match best in the Eastern Gotland Basin and worst in the Arkona Basin both for summer and winter stratification situations. The overall agreement for the halocline parameters is good. The baroclinic Rossby radii match their spatial mean values well, if the depth range considered for their calculation is restricted to the mean depth in each region at the bottom side. In doing so they also match the spatial mean values of the first baroclinic Rossby radii calculated considering the whole depth range at each station. Overall, the regional characteristics of the investigated quantities and parameters are represented well by the hydrographic measurements at the central stations in the four regions in spite of some significant differences between the spatial mean states and the observations at the central stations. In particular, the observations at the central stations seem to be usefull for comparisons between these regions. However, the observed differences

  1. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. A total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (Artvin, Giresun, Gumushane, and Tokat) of East Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for all Theileria and Babesia species. The PCR products were hybridized against catchall and species-specific (Theileria spp., Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp., OT3, Theileria sp., MK, Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Babesia spp., Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, and Babesia crassa) probes. Theileria piroplasms were identified in nine (4.47%) samples by microscopic examination. Reverse line blotting (RLB) detected the infection in 19.90% of the samples. The infection rate of sheep (28.90%) was higher than goats (4.10%). T. ovis, Theileria sp., MK, and Theileria sp. OT3 were detected by RLB. The most prevalent Theileria species was T. ovis (18.90%) followed by Theileria sp. MK (0.99%). Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in one sample (0.43%). A single animal was infected as mix with T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK. The other Theileria (T. lestoquardi, Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni, and T. uilenbergi) and Babesia (B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa) species were not detected. This study is the first molecular survey on ovine tick-borne protozoans in East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  2. Regional difference of the vertical structure of seasonal thermocline and its impact on sea surface temperature in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, R.; Suga, T.

    2016-12-01

    Recent observational studies show that, during the warming season, a large amount of heat flux is penetrated through the base of thin mixed layer by vertical eddy diffusion, in addition to penetration of solar radiation [1]. In order to understand this heat penetration process due to vertical eddy diffusivity and its contribution to seasonal variation of sea surface temperature, we investigated the evolution of thermal stratification below the summertime thin mixed layer (i.e. evolution of seasonal thermocline) and its vertical structure in the North Pacific using high vertical resolution temperature profile observed by Argo floats. We quantified the vertical structure of seasonal thermocline as deviations from the linear structure where the vertical gradient of temperature is constant, that is, "shape anomaly". The shape anomaly is variable representing the extent of the bend of temperature profiles. We found that there are larger values of shape anomaly in the region where the seasonal sea surface temperature warming is relatively faster. To understand the regional difference of shape anomalies, we investigated the relationship between time changes in shape anomalies and net surface heat flux and surface kinetic energy flux. From May to July, the analysis indicated that, in a large part of North Pacific, there's a tendency for shape anomalies to develop strongly (weakly) under the conditions of large (small) downward net surface heat flux and small (large) downward surface kinetic energy flux. Since weak (strong) development of shape anomalies means efficient (inefficient) downward heat transport from the surface, these results suggest that the regional difference of the downward heat penetration below mixed layer is explained reasonably well by differences in surface heat forcing and surface wind forcing in a vertical one dimensional framework. [1] Hosoda et al. (2015), J. Oceanogr., 71, 541-556.

  3. Relationships among seismic velocity, metamorphism, and seismic and aseismic fault slip in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Lohman, Rowena B.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is one of the most geothermally and seismically active areas in California and presents an opportunity to study the effect of high-temperature metamorphism on the properties of seismogenic faults. The area includes numerous active tectonic faults that have recently been imaged with active source seismic reflection and refraction. We utilize the active source surveys, along with the abundant microseismicity data from a dense borehole seismic network, to image the 3-D variations in seismic velocity in the upper 5 km of the crust. There are strong velocity variations, up to ~30%, that correlate spatially with the distribution of shallow heat flow patterns. The combination of hydrothermal circulation and high-temperature contact metamorphism has significantly altered the shallow sandstone sedimentary layers within the geothermal field to denser, more feldspathic, rock with higher P wave velocity, as is seen in the numerous exploration wells within the field. This alteration appears to have a first-order effect on the frictional stability of shallow faults. In 2005, a large earthquake swarm and deformation event occurred. Analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data and earthquake relocations indicates that the shallow aseismic fault creep that occurred in 2005 was localized on the Kalin fault system that lies just outside the region of high-temperature metamorphism. In contrast, the earthquake swarm, which includes all of the M > 4 earthquakes to have occurred within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the last 15 years, ruptured the Main Central Fault (MCF) system that is localized in the heart of the geothermal anomaly. The background microseismicity induced by the geothermal operations is also concentrated in the high-temperature regions in the vicinity of operational wells. However, while this microseismicity occurs over a few kilometer scale region, much of it is clustered in earthquake swarms that last from

  4. An assessment of biological processes close to the sea bed in a slope region and its significance to the assessment of sea bed disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, P.M.; Ellis, C.J.; Angel, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Vertical profiles of planktonic and micronektonic biomass observed close to the sea bed along a transect running up the continental slope on the southern flank of the Porcupine Seabight (to the southwest of Ireland) showed that a doubling in biomass concentration occurs from 100 to 10m above the sea bed. Comparison with biomass concentrations at two deep water stations, one in the Seabight and the other in the Rockall Trough, showed that there was a consistent increase in standing crop close to the sea bed over the slope. Supplementary data were collected on the northern flank of the Seabight. Analysis of both taxonomic groups and individual species showed that some taxa were more abundant near the sea floor and extended their vertical ranges to greater depths over the slope than over deep water, other taxa were unaffected. The implications to the problem of assessing the safety of sea bed disposal of high level radioactive waste are summarised. (author)

  5. Patterns of deep-sea genetic connectivity in the New Zealand region: implications for management of benthic ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor K Bors

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic connectivity are increasingly considered in the design of marine protected areas (MPAs in both shallow and deep water. In the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ, deep-sea communities at upper bathyal depths (<2000 m are vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance from fishing and potential mining operations. Currently, patterns of genetic connectivity among deep-sea populations throughout New Zealand's EEZ are not well understood. Using the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S rRNA genes as genetic markers, this study aimed to elucidate patterns of genetic connectivity among populations of two common benthic invertebrates with contrasting life history strategies. Populations of the squat lobster Munida gracilis and the polychaete Hyalinoecia longibranchiata were sampled from continental slope, seamount, and offshore rise habitats on the Chatham Rise, Hikurangi Margin, and Challenger Plateau. For the polychaete, significant population structure was detected among distinct populations on the Chatham Rise, the Hikurangi Margin, and the Challenger Plateau. Significant genetic differences existed between slope and seamount populations on the Hikurangi Margin, as did evidence of population differentiation between the northeast and southwest parts of the Chatham Rise. In contrast, no significant population structure was detected across the study area for the squat lobster. Patterns of genetic connectivity in Hyalinoecia longibranchiata are likely influenced by a number of factors including current regimes that operate on varying spatial and temporal scales to produce potential barriers to dispersal. The striking difference in population structure between species can be attributed to differences in life history strategies. The results of this study are discussed in the context of existing conservation areas that are intended to manage anthropogenic threats to deep-sea benthic communities in the New Zealand region.

  6. Predictability and environmental drivers of chlorophyll fluctuations vary across different time scales and regions of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw, Anouk N.; Benincà, Elisa; Laane, Remi W. P. M.; Greenwood, Naomi; Huisman, Jef

    2018-02-01

    Phytoplankton concentrations display strong temporal variability at different time scales. Recent advances in automated moorings enable detailed investigation of this variability. In this study, we analyzed phytoplankton fluctuations at four automated mooring stations in the North Sea, which measured phytoplankton abundance (chlorophyll) and several environmental variables at a temporal resolution of 12-30 min for two to nine years. The stations differed in tidal range, water depth and freshwater influence. This allowed comparison of the predictability and environmental drivers of phytoplankton variability across different time scales and geographical regions. We analyzed the time series using wavelet analysis, cross correlations and generalized additive models to quantify the response of chlorophyll fluorescence to various environmental variables (tidal and meteorological variables, salinity, suspended particulate matter, nitrate and sea surface temperature). Hour-to-hour and day-to-day fluctuations in chlorophyll fluorescence were substantial, and mainly driven by sinking and vertical mixing of phytoplankton cells, horizontal transport of different water masses, and non-photochemical quenching of the fluorescence signal. At the macro-tidal stations, these short-term phytoplankton fluctuations were strongly driven by the tides. Along the Dutch coast, variation in salinity associated with the freshwater influence of the river Rhine played an important role, while in the central North Sea variation in weather conditions was a major determinant of phytoplankton variability. At time scales of weeks to months, solar irradiance, nutrient conditions and thermal stratification were the dominant drivers of changes in chlorophyll concentrations. These results show that the dominant drivers of phytoplankton fluctuations differ across marine environments and time scales. Moreover, our findings show that phytoplankton variability on hourly to daily time scales should not be

  7. Using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS to improve the sea surface temperature predictions of the MERCATOR Ocean System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global models are generally capable of reproducing the observed trends in the globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST. However, the global models do not perform as well on regional scales. Here, we present an ocean forecast system based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, the boundary conditions come from the MERCATOR ocean system for the North Atlantic (1/6° horizontal resolution. The system covers the region of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula with a horizontal resolution of 1/36°, forced with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The ocean model results from the regional ocean model are validated using real-time SST and observations from the MeteoGalicia, INTECMAR and Puertos Del Estado real-time observational networks. The validation results reveal that over a one-year period the mean absolute error of the SST is less than 1°C, and several sources of measured data reveal that the errors decrease near the coast. This improvement is related to the inclusion of local forcing not present in the boundary condition model.

  8. A comparative assessment of the innovation potential of the Baltic Sea region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemeshev Andrey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a comparative assessment of the Baltic region countries on the basis of three groups of indicators — indicators of economic and research potential, indicators of dynamics of economic and research potential development, and indicators of economic and innovation potential of the states of the region. The author emphasises the need for Russia to cooperate with other countries of the region in the field of innovations as well as the possible role for the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University in this process.

  9. Description and assessment of regional sea-level trends and variability from altimetry and tide gauges at the northern Australian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharineiat, Zahra; Deng, Xiaoli

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims at providing a descriptive view of the low-frequency sea-level changes around the northern Australian coastline. Twenty years of sea-level observations from multi-mission satellite altimetry and tide gauges are used to characterize sea-level trends and inter-annual variability over the study region. The results show that the interannual sea-level fingerprint in the northern Australian coastline is closely related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events, with the greatest influence on the Gulf Carpentaria, Arafura Sea, and the Timor Sea. The basin average of 14 tide-gauge time series is in strong agreement with the basin average of the altimeter data, with a root mean square difference of 18 mm and a correlation coefficient of 0.95. The rate of the sea-level trend over the altimetry period (6.3 ± 1.4 mm/yr) estimated from tide gauges is slightly higher than that (6.1 ± 1.3 mm/yr) from altimetry in the time interval 1993-2013, which can vary with the length of the time interval. Here we provide new insights into examining the significance of sea-level trends by applying the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test is applied to assess if the trends are significant (upward or downward). Apart from a positive rate of sea-level trends are not statistically significant in this region due to the effects of natural variability. The findings suggest that altimetric trends are not significant along the coasts and some parts of the Gulf Carpentaria (14°S-8°S), where geophysical corrections (e.g., ocean tides) cannot be estimated accurately and altimeter measurements are contaminated by reflections from the land.

  10. NOAA Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry Sea Level Rise Products: Global and regional sea level time series and trend maps for the major ocean basins and marginal seas, based on measurements from satellite radar altimeters, from 1992-12-17 to 2017-08-11 (NCEI Accession 0125535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains global and regional mean sea level time series and trend maps calculated on a continual basis since December 1992 by Laboratory for...

  11. The Demographic Characteristics of the Tribes of the Black Sea Region in the first half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social class structure of the Black sea tribes, the resettlement area which was the territory from Anapa to the river Bzyb, has not yet become a subject of research in the historiography. Natukhaitsy and shapsugs of Adygeyan tribe, ubykhs, and also jikis of Abaza tribe lived in the territory during the first half of the XIX century. The data sources on the population in this territory at a specified time are contradictory, thus practically does not reflect the proportion of estates. The authors attracted as sources the statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period on the Abkhazia (Abaza tribe and the Kuban. By the comparison of the different sources there was made an attempt to calculate the proportion of the population on the estates, namely: the proportion of princes, nobles, free inhabitants, dependent inhabitants, slaves separately for coastal and mountain societies. In addition there were attracted the sources of personal origin – diaries and memoirs, the works of Abkhazians who lived among travelers, and, of course, the scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of the tribes of the Black sea region due to the presence of incomplete data on the number of classes. In conclusion the research provides with the accumulated statistical data on total population, population class and gender.

  12. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tony E.; Bakker, Alexander M. R.; Ruckert, Kelsey; Applegate, Patrick; Slangen, Aimée B. A.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components), and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge) v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  13. Climatological Factors Affecting Electromagnetic Surface Ducting in the Aegean Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    low precipitation, and northeasterly winds, all due to changes in large scale circulations and a northward shift in extratropical storm tracks. The...differences over the Aegean region, that are governed by large-scale climate factors. a. Winter During winter, the Aegean area is subject to extratropical ... extratropical cyclones from entering the Aegean region, while opposite shifts can 18 allow extratropical cyclones to more frequently enter the Aegean

  14. Evolution of a Greenland Ice sheet Including Shelves and Regional Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Sarah; Reerink, Thomas; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Helsen, Michiel; Goelzer, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and marine sediment cores infer that at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) grounded out across the Davis Strait into Baffin Bay, with fast flowing ice streams extending out to the continental shelf break along the NW margin. These observations lead to a number of questions as to weather the GIS and Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) coalesced during glacial maximums, and if so, did a significant ice shelf develop across Baffin Bay and how would such a configuration impact on the relative contribution of these ice sheets to eustatic sea level (ESL). Most previous paleo ice sheet modelling simulations of the GIS recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilised a simplified marine ice parameterisation to recreate an extended GIS, and therefore did not fully include ice shelf dynamics. In this study we simulate the evolution of the GIS from 220 kyr BP to present day using IMAU-ice; a 3D thermodynamical ice sheet model which fully accounts for grounded and floating ice, calculates grounding line migration and ice shelf dynamics. As there are few observational estimates of the long-term (yrs) sub marine basal melting rates (mbm) for the GIS, we developed a mbm parameterization within IMAU-ice controlled primarily by changes in paleo water depth. We also investigate the influence of the LIS on the GIS evolution by including relative sea level forcing's derived from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model. We will present results of how changes in the mbm directly impacts on the ice sheet dynamics, timing and spatial extent of the GIS at the glacial maximums, but also on the rate of retreat and spatial extent at the Last interglacial (LIG) minimum. Results indicate that with the inclusion of ice shelf dynamics, a larger GIS is generated which is grounded out into Davis strait, up to a water depth of -750 m, but significantly reduces the GIS contribution to Last

  15. Late Quaternary chronology of paleo-climatic changes in Caspian Sea region based on Lower Volga sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, Redzhep; Yanina, Tamara; Murray, Andrew; Svitoch, Alexander; Tkach, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    Lower Volga is a unique region for understanding the history of the Caspian Sea in the Pleistocene, its correlation of paleogeographic events with glacial-interglacial rhythms of the East European Plain and the global and regional climate changes. The reason is representativeness of Quaternary sections, their completeness, presence of both marine and subaerial sediments, paleontological richness of the materials and available for study. The purpose of this work is to reconstruct the paleogeographic events in the Late Pleistocene of the Lower Volga region on the basis of summarizing the study results for the Srednyaya Akhtuba reference section. Located near city of Volgograd, at Khvaynian plain natural outcrop of Srednyaya Akhtuba section, reveals in a series of exposures a unique to the region series of marine Caspian continental deposits with four levels of buried soil horizons and loess. The results were obtained during 2015 and 2016 complex field research with application of lithological, paleopedological, paleontological, paleocryological, OSL-dating, paleomagnetic methods, that allowed more fundamental approach to the chronological assessment of individual horizons. The structure of the Srednyaya Akhtuba reference section reflects a number of paleogeographic stages of development of the study area. The oldest phase (layers 22-19) is not characterized by OSL dating or faunal material. Based on the sequence of dated layers, we assume its Middle Pleistocene age (MIS-6 stage), corresponding to Moscow stage of the Dnieper glaciation of the East European Plain and the final stage of Early Khazarian transgressive era of Caspian sea. The next stage (layers 18-14), represented by three horizons of paleosols, refers to the first half of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 5). Epoch of soil formation, based on the results the OSL-dating, can be referred to the warm sub-stages (MIS 5c and 5a), with unstable climatically transitional phase from Mikulino (Eemian) interglacial to the

  16. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHOLAMI, Shirzad; JAHANDAR, Hefzallah; ABASTABAR, Mahdi; PAGHEH, Abdolsatar; MOBEDI, Iraj; SHARBATKHORI, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15) were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp) of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach. Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7%) and G3 (33.3%)] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1) had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045). Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047). A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048). Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province. PMID:28096852

  17. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad GHOLAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1.Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15 were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach.Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7% and G3 (33.3%] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1 had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045. Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047. A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048.Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province.

  18. Regional Scale Sea Cliff Hazard Assessment at Sintra and Cascais Counties, Western Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mass movements of different types and sizes are the main processes of sea cliff evolution, being a considerable natural hazard, the assessment of which is a relevant issue in terms of human loss prevention and land use regulations. To predict the occurrence of future failures affecting the cliff top in slow retreating cliffs, a study was made using the logistic regression statistical method, a set of predisposing factors mainly related with geology (lithology, structure, faults, geomorphology (maximum, mean and standard variation of slope angle, height, aspect, curvatures, toe protection and near offshore mean annual wave power, which were correlated with an aerial photo interpretation based inventory of cliff failures occurred in a 63 years period (1947–2010. The susceptibility model was validated against the inventory data using standard Receiver Operator Curves, which provided area under the curve (AUC values higher than 0.8. In spite of the room for improvement of cliff failure inventories and predisposing factors to be used in these types of studies, namely those related to the rock mass strength and wave power nearshore, the results obtained indicate that the proposed approach is an effective contribution for objective and quantitative hazard assessment.

  19. Microbiome analysis shows enrichment for specific bacteria in separate anatomical regions of the deep-sea carnivorous sponge Chondrocladia grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Joost T P; Kavanagh, Alana N; Dufour, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    The Cladorhizidae is a unique family of carnivorous marine sponges characterised by either the absence or reduction of the aquiferous system and by the presence of specialised structures to trap and digest mesoplanktonic prey. Previous studies have postulated a key role of host-associated bacteria in enabling carnivory in this family of sponges. In this study, we employed high-throughput Illumina-based sequencing to identify the bacterial community associated with four individuals of the deep-sea sponge Chondrocladia grandis sampled in the Gulf of Maine. By characterising the V6 through V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, we compared the bacterial community composition and diversity in three distinct anatomical regions with predicted involvement in prey capture (sphere), support (axis) and benthic substrate attachment (root). A high abundance of Tenacibaculum, a known siderophore producing bacterial genus, was present in all anatomical regions and specimens. The abundance of Colwellia and Roseobacter was greater in sphere and axis samples, and bacteria from the hydrocarbon-degrading Robiginitomaculum genus were most abundant in the root. This first description of the bacterial community associated with C. grandis provides novel insights into the contribution of bacteria to the carnivorous lifestyle while laying foundations for future cladorhizid symbiosis studies. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Seabed images from Southern Ocean shelf regions off the northern Antarctic Peninsula and in the southeastern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenburg, Dieter; Buschmann, Alexander; Driemel, Amelie; Grobe, Hannes; Gutt, Julian; Schumacher, Stefanie; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Sieger, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in underwater imaging technology allow for the gathering of invaluable scientific information on seafloor ecosystems, such as direct in situ views of seabed habitats and quantitative data on the composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of epibenthic fauna. The imaging approach has been extensively used within the research project DynAMo (Dynamics of Antarctic Marine Shelf Ecosystems) at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven (AWI), which aimed to comparatively assess the pace and quality of the dynamics of Southern Ocean benthos. Within this framework, epibenthic spatial distribution patterns have been comparatively investigated in two regions in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: the shelf areas off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, representing a region with above-average warming of surface waters and sea-ice reduction, and the shelves of the eastern Weddell Sea as an example of a stable high-Antarctic marine environment that is not (yet) affected by climate change. The AWI Ocean Floor Observation System (OFOS) was used to collect seabed imagery during two cruises of the German research vessel Polarstern, ANT-XXIX/3 (PS81) to the Antarctic Peninsula from January to March 2013 and ANT-XXXI/2 (PS96) to the Weddell Sea from December 2015 to February 2016. Here, we report on the image and data collections gathered during these cruises. During PS81, OFOS was successfully deployed at a total of 31 stations at water depths between 29 and 784 m. At most stations, series of 500 to 530 pictures ( > 15 000 in total, each depicting a seabed area of approximately 3.45 m2 or 2.3 × 1.5 m) were taken along transects approximately 3.7 km in length. During PS96, OFOS was used at a total of 13 stations at water depths between 200 and 754 m, yielding series of 110 to 293 photos (2670 in total) along transects 0.9 to 2.6 km in length. All seabed images taken during the two cruises

  1. Beaufort Sea deep-water gas hydrate recovery from a seafloor mound in a region of widespread BSR occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Patrick E.; Pohlman, John W.; Lorenson, T.D.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate was recovered from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay in August 2010 during a U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy expedition (USCG cruise ID HLY1002) under the direction of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Interpretation of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected in 1977 by the USGS across the Beaufort Sea continental margin identified a regional bottom simulating reflection (BSR), indicating that a large segment of the Beaufort Sea slope is underlain by gas hydrate. During HLY1002, gas hydrate was sampled by serendipity with a piston core targeting a steep-sided bathymetric high originally thought to be an outcrop of older, exposed strata. The feature cored is an approximately 1100m diameter, 130 m high conical mound, referred to here as the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM), which overlies the crest of a buried anticline in a region of sub-parallel compressional folds beneath the eastern Beaufort outer slope. An MCS profile shows a prominent BSR upslope and downslope from the mound. The absence of a BSR beneath the CSM and occurrence of gas hydrate near the summit indicates that free gas has migrated via deep-rooted thrust faults or by structural focusing up the flanks of the anticline to the seafloor. Gas hydrate recovered from near the CSM summit at a subbottom depth of about 5.7 meters in a water depth of 2538 m was of nodular and vein-filling morphology. Although the hydrate was not preserved, residual gas from the core liner contained >95% methane by volume when corrected for atmospheric contamination. The presence of trace C4+hydrocarbons (extrusion contributing to the development of the mound. Blister-like inflation of the seafloor caused by formation and accumulation of shallow hydrate lenses is also a likely factor in CSM growth. Pore water analysis shows the sulfate-methane transition to be very shallow (0-1 mbsf), also supporting an active high-flux interpretation. Pore water with chloride concentrations as low as 160 m

  2. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Terra MODIS-AMSRE Day North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  3. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Terra MODIS-AMSRE Night North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  4. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA North-Western Europe Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  5. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Aqua MODIS-AMSRE Night North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  6. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Aqua MODIS-AMSRE Day North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  7. GHRSST Level 4 REMO_OI_SST_5km Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature (SST) analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the...

  8. Riverine influence on nitrogen fixation in the upwelling region off Vietnam, South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Bombar, Deniz; Loick, Natalie

    2006-01-01

    with the intermonsoon season and find that nitrogen fixation rates are app. 10 times higher during the monsoon season. However, this was not the case in the actual upwelling region - a 40-50 km wide strip along the coast - but further offshore, where the Mekong plume was noticeable. Therefore, we hypothesize...

  9. Aerosol Radiative Impact on the Middle East Regional Climate and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The climate in the Middle East is complex and remains poorly understood. Due to the vast Arabian Desert, it is very sensitive to radiative forcing. Mineral dust is the dominant aerosol in this region. High background dust loading and frequent dust

  10. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  11. Detecting anthropogenic footprints in regional and global sea level rise since 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, S.; Marcos, M.; Piecuch, C. G.; Jensen, J.

    2015-12-01

    While there is scientific consensus that global and local mean sea level (GMSL and LMSL) is rising since the late 19th century, it remains unclear how much of this rise is due to natural variability or anthropogenic forcing. Distinguishing both contributions requires an extensive knowledge about the persistence of natural high and low stands in GMSL and LMSL. This is challenging, since observational time series represent the superposition of various processes with different spectral properties. Here we provide a probabilistic upper range of long-term persistent natural GMSL/LMSL variability (P=0.99), which in turn determines the minimum/maximum anthropogenic contribution since 1900. To account for different spectral characteristics of various contributing processes, we separate LMSL (corrected for vertical land motion) into a slowly varying volumetric (mass and density changes) and a more rapidly changing atmospheric component. Based on a combination of spectral analyses of tide gauge records, barotropic and baroclinic ocean models and numerical Monte-Carlo experiments, we find that in records where transient atmospheric processes dominate the spectra, the persistence of natural volumetric changes tends to be underestimated. If each component is assessed separately, natural centennial trends are locally up to ~1.0 mm/yr larger than in case of an integrated assessment, therefore erroneously enhancing the significance of anthropogenic footprints. The GMSL, however, remains unaffected by such biases. On the basis of a model assessment of the separate components, we conclude that it is virtually certain (P=0.99) that at least 45% of the observed increase in GMSL is of anthropogenic origin.

  12. Drowning and near-drowning: experience of a university hospital in the Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Ahmet; Duran, Latif; Paksu, Sule; Akdemir, Hızır Ufuk; Paksu, Muhammet Şükrü; Katı, Celal; Başol, Nurşah; Yılman, Metehan; Özsevik, Sevinç Nursev; Murat, Naci

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of patients who applied to the Emergency Department (ED) due to submersion injury; to recognize the risk factors, complications, causes of death, and the educational needs of families and caregivers about unsafe environments for submersion; and to develop preventive strategies. All patients were analyzed retrospectively according to demographic features, clinical and laboratory findings, association between clinical variables and submersion injuries, and patient outcomes. Fifty-five patients with submersion injury were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 10.9 ± 4.7 years. The most common Szpilman clinical scores were Grade 1 (24 patients, 43.8%), Grade 2 (15 patients, 27.3%), and Grade 5 (10 patients, 18.2%). The common location of the submersion injuries included the sea (74.5%), pool (18.4%), bathtub (7.3%), river (3.6%), and lake (3.6%). A limited swimming ability or exhaustion and suffocation (49.1%) due to unknown reasons were the most common causes of submersion injury among all patients. Most complications were due to aspiration pneumonia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Thirty-nine patients (70.9%) were followed in the ED, while 16 patients (29.1%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU); 11 patients (20.0%) died. All of the risk factors of drowning should be taken into account when designing preventive measures and family education. In addition, all pediatricians should be trained periodically about the complications of submersion and the treatment strategies, particularly in coastal cities and areas where drownings occur frequently.

  13. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea

  14. Shippers’ Choice Behaviour in Choosing Transport Mode: The Case of South East Asia (SEA Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsun Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using South East Asia as a case study, shippers’ choice of transport modes taking into consideration their economic and environmental impacts was examined in this research. A triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative methods was deployed. First, a quantitative analysis using secondary data was conducted to establish the index score, which includes four quantitative factors (transport distance, cost, time, and CO2 emission, for each transport mode. In addition, in order to examine at what level of the importance weight shippers would change their decision on transport mode, a sensitivity analysis involving the four aforesaid factors was also conducted. Next, an in-depth interview with a major shipper in Singapore was also carried out to qualitatively validate the aforesaid four quantitative factors as well as two additional qualitative factors, namely, customer service and shipper-forwarder relationship in relation to shipper's choice. The results from this study indicate that shippers might change to the short-sea shipping (SSS mode when the importance weights of cost and CO2 emission increase, and to trucking mode when the weight of time decreases. It was also found that cost is the most important factor when shippers choose carriers/forwarders, whereas CO2 emission is not an important factor at the current stage. However, if the government imposes financial measures such as fine and/or tax for CO2 emission, shippers would choose eco-friendlier transport modes. This research is the first study considering the environmental issue as one of important factors that influence shippers’ choice behaviour. This research also facilitates managers’ understanding on how shippers may select LSPs taking into account important factors including the environmental consideration.

  15. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I. [Marine Operations, BNFL International Transport and British Nuclear Group Security (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea.

  16. Geomorphic evidence for ancient seas in west Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars-1: Regional geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    The fretted terrain in west Deuteronilus Mensae consists of extensive cratered upland penninsulas or isolated plateaus cut by long, finger-like canyons typically 10 to 20 km wide and upwards of 300 km long. The longest of these canyons trend roughly north-south to north-northeast, which may reflect some local structural and/or topographic control. At least three geomorphic zones roughly parallel to the lowland/upland boundary, suggestive of increasing modification northward, can be recognized on the fretted region of the region. The southern-most zone (zone A) consists of sharply defined fretted terrain. The middle zone (zone B) consists of well defined fretted terrain in which the plateau surfaces appear smoother, with a somewhat darker and much less varied albedo surface than those of zone A. The northern-most zone (zone C) consists of rounded or softened fretted terrain. The zones were interpreted as surface exposures of successively lower stratigraphic units.

  17. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in sheep and goats in the Black Sea Region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate presence and distribution of Theileria and Babesia species via microscopic examination and reverse line blotting (RLB) techniques in sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey. For this purpose, 1,128 blood samples (869 sheep and 259 goats) were collected by active surveillance from sheep and goats in different provinces of various cities in the region in the years 2010 and 2011. Smears were prepared from the blood samples, stained with Giemsa, and examined under the light microscope for Theileria and Babesia piroplasms. The genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples. The length of 360-430-bp fragment in the variable V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA gene of Theileria and Babesia species was amplified using the gDNAs. The polymerase chain reaction products were hybridized to the membrane-connected species-specific probes. A total of 38 animals (3.37%) including 34 sheep (3.91%) and 4 goats (1.54%) were found to be positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in microscopic examination of smears while Babesia spp. piroplasm could not detected. Infection rates were 34.64% in sheep, 10.04% in goats, and totally 28.99% for Theileria ovis while 0.58% in sheep and totally 0.44% for Babesia ovis. However, Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in 2.65% of sheep and 2.04% of all animals; besides Theileria sp., MK had 0.58% prevalence in sheep and 0.77% in goats, with a total 0.62% with RLB. Although T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK were determined in both sheep and goats, B. ovis and Theileria sp. OT3 were observed only in the sheep. These results provide the first detailed molecular data for sheep and goat theileriosis and babesiosis in the region.

  18. Healthcare waste management practice in the West Black Sea Region, Turkey: A comparative analysis with the developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciplak, Nesli; Kaskun, Songul

    2015-12-01

    The need for proper healthcare waste management has been a crucial issue in many developing countries as it is in Turkey. The regulation regarding healthcare wastes in Turkey was updated in 2005 in accordance with the European Union (EU) waste directives, but it still falls behind meeting the requirements of current waste treatment technologies. Therefore, this study aims to reveal deficiencies, inconsistencies, and improper applications of healthcare waste management in the western part of the Turkish Black Sea Region. In this study, it was revealed that nearly 1 million people live in the region, resulting in 5 million hospital admissions annually. All the healthcare waste produced (1000 tons yr(-1)) is treated in an autoclave plant. However, treating some categories of healthcare wastes in autoclave units mismatches with the EU waste regulations, as alternative treatment technologies are not technically able to treat all types of healthcare wastes. A proper waste management system, therefore, requires an internal segregation scheme to divert these wastes from the main healthcare waste stream. The existing malpractice in the region could cause serious health problems if no measure is taken urgently. It is expected that healthcare waste management in the region and then all across Turkey will be improved with the significant deficiencies and inconsistencies pointed out in this research. In developed countries, specific rules and regulations have already been implemented along with the recommendations for handling of healthcare waste. However, in Turkey, these wastes are treated in autoclave units, which mismatches with the European Union waste regulations, as alternative treatment technologies are not technically capable to treat all types of healthcare wastes. The existing malpractice could cause serious health problems if no measure is taken urgently. The authors demonstrated the existing status of Turkish waste management and revealed deficiencies

  19. M≥7 Earthquake rupture forecast and time-dependent probability for the Sea of Marmara region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Maura; Akinci, Aybige; Falcone, Guiseppe; Pucci, Stefano; Console, Rodolfo; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    We forecast time-independent and time-dependent earthquake ruptures in the Marmara region of Turkey for the next 30 years using a new fault-segmentation model. We also augment time-dependent Brownian Passage Time (BPT) probability with static Coulomb stress changes (ΔCFF) from interacting faults. We calculate Mw > 6.5 probability from 26 individual fault sources in the Marmara region. We also consider a multisegment rupture model that allows higher-magnitude ruptures over some segments of the Northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NNAF) beneath the Marmara Sea. A total of 10 different Mw=7.0 to Mw=8.0 multisegment ruptures are combined with the other regional faults at rates that balance the overall moment accumulation. We use Gaussian random distributions to treat parameter uncertainties (e.g., aperiodicity, maximum expected magnitude, slip rate, and consequently mean recurrence time) of the statistical distributions associated with each fault source. We then estimate uncertainties of the 30-year probability values for the next characteristic event obtained from three different models (Poisson, BPT, and BPT+ΔCFF) using a Monte Carlo procedure. The Gerede fault segment located at the eastern end of the Marmara region shows the highest 30-yr probability, with a Poisson value of 29%, and a time-dependent interaction probability of 48%. We find an aggregated 30-yr Poisson probability of M >7.3 earthquakes at Istanbul of 35%, which increases to 47% if time dependence and stress transfer are considered. We calculate a 2-fold probability gain (ratio time-dependent to time-independent) on the southern strands of the North Anatolian Fault Zone.

  20. Closing the sea level budget on a regional scale: Trends and variability on the Northwestern European continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo; Kleinherenbrink, Marcel; Wada, Yoshihide; van den Broeke, Michiel; Marzeion, Ben

    2016-10-28

    Long-term trends and decadal variability of sea level in the North Sea and along the Norwegian coast have been studied over the period 1958-2014. We model the spatially nonuniform sea level and solid earth response to large-scale ice melt and terrestrial water storage changes. GPS observations, corrected for the solid earth deformation, are used to estimate vertical land motion. We find a clear correlation between sea level in the North Sea and along the Norwegian coast and open ocean steric variability in the Bay of Biscay and west of Portugal, which is consistent with the presence of wind-driven coastally trapped waves. The observed nodal cycle is consistent with tidal equilibrium. We are able to explain the observed sea level trend over the period 1958-2014 well within the standard error of the sum of all contributing processes, as well as the large majority of the observed decadal sea level variability.

  1. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  2. South China, East Vietnam or West Philippine? Comparative Framing Analysis of Regional News Coverage of Southeast Asian Sea Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Bradley C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, the world paid scant attention to the sporadic skirmishes and sovereignty squabbles in what is known by many as the South China Sea. However, in the past few years, there have been several noteworthy happenings that have drawn the attention of media outlets, including a Chinese oil rig placement near Vietnam, a Philippineinternational court case, a U.S.–ASEAN summit, and Chinese reclamation projects. Many of the countries involved are members of the regional grouping known as ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations. This study examined Asean’s English-language press, looking at the amount, patterns, and tone of coverage given to regional maritime disputes. Results indicate that use of the term ‘South China Sea’ prevails in all countries except Vietnam. The Asean newspapers have devoted a consistent and substantial amount of space to covering the topic. Indonesia’s Jakarta Post tended to use neutral or positive language when mentioning Asean and the US, while China saw more negative associations in the coverage. Further research is suggested, taking into account mass communication theories and perspectives.

  3. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thirty-eight antibiotics were systematically investigated in marine environment. • The distribution of antibiotics was significantly correlated with COD and NO 3 –N. • Untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics. • Fluoroquinolones showed a strong sorption capacity onto sediments. • Oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H 2 O indicated high risks. - Abstract: In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163 ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318 ng/L (erythromycin–H 2 O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184 ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H 2 O posed high risks to aquatic organisms

  4. Balmorel: A model for analyses of the electricity and CHP markets in the Baltic Sea Region. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravn, H.F.; Munksgaard, J.; Ramskov, J.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Larsen, H.V.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes the motivations behind the development of the Balmorel model as well as the model itself. The purpose of the Balmorel project is to develop a model for analyses of the power and CHP sectors in the Baltic Sea Region. The model is directed towards the analysis of relevant policy questions to the extent that they contain substantial international aspects. The model is developed in response to the trend towards internationalisation in the electricity sector. This trend is seen in increased international trade of electricity, in investment strategies among producers and otherwise. Also environmental considerations and policies are to an increasing extent gaining an international perspective in relation to the greenhouse gasses. Further, the ongoing process of deregulation of the energy sector highlights this and contributes to the need for overview and analysis. A guiding principle behind the construction of the model has been that it may serve as a means of communication in relation to the policy issues that already are or that may become important for the region. Therefore, emphasis has been put on documentation, transparency and flexibility of the model. This is achieved in part by formulating the model in a high level modelling language, and by making the model, including data, available at the internet. Potential users of the Balmorel model include research institutions, consulting companies, energy authorities, transmission system operators and energy companies. (au)

  5. The direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke on a severe thunderstorm event in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, V.; Männik, A.

    2015-03-01

    On August 8, 2010, a severe derecho type thunderstorm in the Baltic Sea region coincided with smoke from wildfires in Russia. Remarkable smoke aerosol concentrations, with a maximum aerosol optical depth of more than 2 at 550 nm, were observed near the thunderstorm. The impact of the wildfire smoke on the thunderstorm through direct radiative effects was investigated using the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Euromed (HARMONIE) model. HARMONIE was successfully able to resolve the dynamics of the thunderstorm, and simulations that considered the influence of the smoke-related aerosols were compared to simulation without aerosols. As simulated by the HARMONIE model, the smoke reduced the shortwave radiation flux at the surface by as much as 300 W/m2 and decreased the near-surface temperature by as much as 3 °C in the vicinity of the thunderstorm and respectively 100 W/m2 and 1 °C in the thunderstorm region. Atmospheric instability decreased through the direct radiative effect of aerosols, and several dynamic features of the simulated thunderstorm appeared slightly weaker.

  6. Water resources vulnerability assessment in the Adriatic Sea region: the case of Corfu Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakoudis, Vasilis; Tsitsifli, Stavroula; Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Karleusa, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Cross-border water resources management and protection is a complicated task to achieve, lacking a common methodological framework. Especially in the Adriatic region, water used for drinking water supply purposes pass from many different countries, turning its management into a hard task to achieve. During the DRINKADRIA project, a common methodological framework has been developed, for efficient and effective cross-border water supply and resources management, taking into consideration different resources types (surface and groundwater) emphasizing in drinking water supply intake. The common methodology for water resources management is based on four pillars: climate characteristics and climate change, water resources availability, quality, and security. The present paper assesses both present and future vulnerability of water resources in the Adriatic region, with special focus on Corfu Island, Greece. The results showed that climate change is expected to impact negatively on water resources availability while at the same time, water demand is expected to increase. Water quality problems will be intensified especially due to land use changes and salt water intrusion. The analysis identified areas where water resources are more vulnerable, allowing decision makers develop management strategies.

  7. Northern Black Sea Region in 1400–1442 and the Origin of the Crimean Khanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Gulevych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Crimean Khanate’s foundation still remains poorly studied. Also, little is known about the early years of the first Crimean khan Haci I Giray whose ancestors ruled in the Crimea and the Golden Horde. In the 20s of the 15th century the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas actively intervened in the affairs of the Crimea and the Golden Horde trying to establish his sovereignty in the city of Caffa, where he strove to nominate subordinated khans. However, at the end of his reign, he could not exert a serious military pressure because until he died, he was occupied with his coronation. The boundaries of the Crimean tumen extended from the river Dniester in the West to the Volga River in the East, from the mean flow of the Dnieper and Southern Bug River in the North to the coastal cities of the Crimean peninsula in the south. In the first half of 15th century, there were many stationary settlements of Tatars in the Black Sea steppes. Thus, the tumen occupied a large territory. Having a great military power, the Crimean rulers did not separate the Crimean Ulus from the Golden Horde, but used the peninsula as a staging area for the seizure of power in the state capital city of Sarai. The Tatar nobility also sought to enthrone those khans who would be dependent on them. One of their strongest representatives was Tehene-bey who had a residence in Solkhat on the Crimean peninsula. He persuaded Vytautas to give them Ulugh Muhammad as a khan. In response, the khan nominated Tehene-bey as his deputy in the Crimea. A few years later, Ulugh Muhammad quarreled both with Tehene-bey and the Lithuanian ruler Švitrigaila. In 1433, the Grand Duke of Lithuania helped Khan Sayid Ahmad II both to split the Golden Horde and to seize power on the right bank of the Dnieper. According to many historians, Haci Giray seized power in the Crimea and defeated a Genoese military detachment in 1434, but this statement is not confirmed by the written sources and

  8. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  9. Role of atmospheric heating over the South China Sea and western Pacific regions in modulating Asian summer climate under the global warming background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bian; Yang, Song; Li, Zhenning

    2016-05-01

    The response of monsoon precipitation to global warming, which is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface, exhibits very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions in boreal summer. To understand the possible atmospheric dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, changes in atmospheric heating and their possible influences on Asian summer climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical simulations. Results indicate that heating in the middle troposphere has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific regions in boreal summer, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, and lower-tropospheric convergence and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS and western Pacific and continental South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The result highlights the important role of air-sea interaction in understanding the changes in Asian climate.

  10. Long-range transport of dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and Indian region – A case study using satellite data and ground-based measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badarinath, K.V.S.; Kharol, S.K.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Sharma, A; Ramaswamy, V.; Kambezidis, H.D.

    The present study addresses an intense dust storm event over the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea (AS) region and its transport over the Indian subcontinent using multi-satellite observations and ground-based measurements. A time series of Indian...

  11. Assessment of contaminant concentrations in sediments, fish and mussels sampled from the North Atlantic and European regional seas within the ICON project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Craig D.; Webster, Lynda; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Burgeot, Thierry; Gubbins, Matthew J.; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; McIntosh, Alistair D.; Hylland, Ketil

    Understanding the status of contaminants in the marine environment is a requirement of European Union Directives and the Regional Seas Conventions, so that measures to reduce pollution can be identified and their efficacy assessed. The international ICON workshop (Hylland et al., in this issue) was

  12. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallée, H.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the sea level rise (SLR) originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Mod`ele Atmosph´erique R´egional), forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model

  13. Spatial distribution of fall out 137Cs in the marine environment of Kudankulam and its comparison with Indian and Asia Pacific Regional sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Thomas, G.; Selvi, B.S.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking the fallout 137 Cs in the coastal marine environment assumes significance in view of expansion of nuclear power plants in India and the Asia-Pacific region. This paper presents a snapshot of 137 Cs activity in marine coastal water samples collected around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant site across a 50 km stretch from Kanyakumari to Uvari and attempts to compare with the 137 Cs concentration observed across Indian coastal region and Asia Pacific regional sea water. 137 Cs activity of the Kudankulam coast ranges from ≤ 0.40 - 1.92 mBq/L with a GM value of 1.0 mBq/L. In general, 137 Cs activity in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 - 1.25 mBq/L, which may be considered as global fallout. (author)

  14. Monitoring lake level changes by altimetry in the arid region of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Liao, J. J.; Shen, G. Z.; Zhang, X. L.

    2017-07-01

    The study of lake level changes in arid region of Central Asia not only has important significance for the management and sustainable development of inland water resources, but also provides the basis for further study on the response of lakes to climate change and human activities. Therefore, in this paper, eleven typical lakes in Central Asia were observed. The lake edges were obtained through image interpretation using the quasi-synchronous MODIS image, and then water level information with long period (2002-2015) was acquired using ENVISAT/RA-2 and Cryosat-2 satellite borne radar altimeter data. The results show that these 11 lakes all have obvious seasonal changes of water level in a year with a high peak at different month. During 2002 - 2015, their water levels present decreased trend generally except Sarygamysh Lake, Alakol Lake and North Aral Sea. The alpine lakes are most stables, while open lakes’ levels change the most violently and closed lakes change diversely among different lakes.

  15. SEA LEVEL AND PALAEOCLIMATIC CHANGES IN THE SOUTH AND MIDDLE CASPIAN SEA REGION SINCE THE LATEGLACIAL FROM PALYNOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF MARINE SEDIMENT CORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Leroy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of pollen, spores, non-pollen palynomorphs and dinocyst analyses made in the last two decades is proposed here. Building on spare palynological analyses before 1990, a series of new projects have allowed taking cores in the deeper parts of the Caspian Sea, hence providing access to low-stand sediment. However, still nowadays no complete record exists for the Holocene. The first steps towards quantification of the palynological spectra have been taken. Some of the most urgent problems to solve are the uncertainties related to radiocarbon dating, which are especially acute in the Caspian Sea.

  16. Quality assessment of atmospheric surface fields over the Baltic Sea from an ensemble of regional climate model simulations with respect to ocean dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Markus Meier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate model results for the Baltic Sea region from an ensemble of eight simulations using the Rossby Centre Atmosphere model version 3 (RCA3 driven with lateral boundary data from global climate models (GCMs are compared with results from a downscaled ERA40 simulation and gridded observations from 1980-2006. The results showed that data from RCA3 scenario simulations should not be used as forcing for Baltic Sea models in climate change impact studies because biases of the control climate significantly affect the simulated changes of future projections. For instance, biases of the sea ice cover in RCA3 in the present climate affect the sensitivity of the model's response to changing climate due to the ice-albedo feedback. From the large ensemble of available RCA3 scenario simulations two GCMs with good performance in downscaling experiments during the control period 1980-2006 were selected. In this study, only the quality of atmospheric surface fields over the Baltic Sea was chosen as a selection criterion. For the greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B two transient simulations for 1961-2100 driven by these two GCMs were performed using the regional, fully coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean model RCAO. It was shown that RCAO has the potential to improve the results in downscaling experiments driven by GCMs considerably, because sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations are calculated more realistically with RCAO than when RCA3 has been forced with surface boundary data from GCMs. For instance, the seasonal 2 m air temperature cycle is closer to observations in RCAO than in RCA3 downscaling simulations. However, the parameterizations of air-sea fluxes in RCAO need to be improved.

  17. Baseline analysis of the existing capacities and needs for capacity building for Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation in the Celtic Seas sub-region.

    OpenAIRE

    Twomey, Sarah; O'Mahony, Cathal

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the existing situation in the Celtic Seas sub-region and determines the current state of preparedness for transboundary management of marine ecosystems and MSFD implementation. Recommendations for capacity building are provided through the analysis of the existing conflicts and potential synergies between relevant policies, institutions and information resources for MSFD implementation across the region. This report strives to empower stakeholders through the provision o...

  18. On the comparability of knowledge transfer activities - a case study at the German Baltic Sea Coast focusing regional climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Insa

    2017-06-01

    In this article the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is discussed by accounting for external impacts. It is shown that factors which are neither part of the knowledge transfer activity nor part of the participating institution may have significant impact on the potential usefulness of knowledge transfer activities. Differences in the potential usefulness are leading to different initial conditions of the knowledge transfer activities. This needs to be taken into account when comparing different knowledge transfer activities, e.g., in program evaluations. This study is focusing on regional climate services at the German Baltic Sea coast. It is based on two surveys and experiences with two identical web tools applied on two regions with different spatial coverage. The results show that comparability among science based knowledge transfer activities is strongly limited through several external impacts. The potential usefulness and thus the initial condition of a particular knowledge transfer activity strongly depends on (1) the perceived priority of the focused topic, (2) the used information channels, (3) the conformity between the research agenda of service providing institutions and information demands in the public, as well as (4) on the spatial coverage of a service. It is suggested to account for the described external impacts for evaluations of knowledge transfer activities. The results show that the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is limited and challenge the adequacy of quantitative measures in this context. Moreover, as shown in this case study, in particular regional climate services should be individually evaluated on a long term perspective, by potential user groups and/or by its real users. It is further suggested that evaluation criteria should be co-developed with these stakeholder groups.

  19. Jelektrojenergeticheskaja kooperacija v Baltijskom regione i rol' v nej Rossii [Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  20. Development of a Seasonal Extratropical Cyclone Activity Outlook for the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Storm activity (i.e. 'storminess') and associated forecasting skill in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaska is relatively well understood on a daily to weekly scale, however, two important elements are missing from current capacity. First, there is no way to predict storm activity at the monthly to seasonal time frame. Second, storm activity is characterized in terms that best serve weather specialists, and which are often not very informative for different sectors of the public. Increasing the utility of forecasts for end users requires consultation with these groups, and can include expressing storm activity in terms of, for example, strong-wind return intervals or ship hull strength. These types of forecasts can provide valuable information for use in community planning, resource allocation, or potential risk assessment. A preliminary study of seasonal storminess predictability in the North Pacific and Alaska regions has shown that a key factor related to the annual variation of seasonal storminess is the strength of the Aleutian Low as measured using indices such as the North Pacific Index (NPI) or Aleutian Low Pressure Index (ALPI). Use of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis to identify patterns in storminess variability indicates that the primary mode of annual variation is found to be best explained by the variation in the strength of the Aleutian Low. NPI and the first component of storm activity for the entire region are found to be are highly correlated (R = 0.83). This result is supported by the works of others such as Rodionov et al. (2007), who note the impact of the strength of the Aleutian Low on storm track and speed. Additionally, the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), along with NPI, have been shown to be highly correlated with annual variance in the seasonal storminess for the North Pacific and Alaska. Additional skill has been identified when the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is explicitly considered

  1. Smokeless tobacco: a major public health problem in the SEA region: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash C; Ray, Cecily S; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Singh, Poonam K

    2011-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand's successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.

  2. Improved regional sea-level estimates from Ice Sheets, Glaciers and land water storage using GRACE time series and other data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.; Velicogna, I.; Hsu, C. W.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ice sheets, glaciers and ice caps (GIC) and land water mass cause regional sea level variations that differ significantly from a uniform re-distribution of mass over the ocean, with a decrease in sea level compared to the global mean sea level contribution (GMSL) near the sources of mass added to the ocean and an increase up to 30% larger than the GMSL in the far field. The corresponding sea level fingerprints (SLF) are difficult to separate from ocean dynamics on short time and spatial scales but as ice melt continues, the SLF signal will become increasingly dominant in the pattern of regional sea level rise. It has been anticipated that it will be another few decades before the land ice SLF could be identified in the pattern of regional sea level rise. Here, we combine 40 years of observations of ice sheet mass balance for Antarctica (1975-present) and Greenland (1978-present), along with surface mass balance reconstructions of glacier and ice caps mass balance (GIC) from 1970s to present to determine the contribution to the SLF from melting land ice (MAR and RACMO). We compare the results with observations from GRACE for the time period 2002 to present for evaluation of our approach. Land hydrology is constrained by GRACE data for the period 2002-present and by the GLDAS-NOAH land hydrology model for the longer time period. Over the long time period, we find that the contribution from land ice dominates. We quantify the contribution to the total SLF from Greenland and Antarctica in various parts of the world over the past 40 years. More important, we compare the cumulative signal from SLF with tide gauge records around the world, corrected for earth dynamics, to determine whether the land ice SLF can be detected in that record. Early results will be reported at the meeting. This work was performed at UC Irvine and at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with NASA's Cryospheric Science Program.

  3. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  4. The Role of Atmospheric Heating over the South China Sea and Western Pacific Regions in Modulating Asian Summer Climate under the Global Warming Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface. However, the responses of monsoon precipitation to global warming show very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and surrounding regions during boreal summer. To understand the possible dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, the changes in atmospheric latent heating and their possible influences on global climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical sensitivity simulations. Results indicate that summertime latent heating has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, lower-tropospheric convergence, and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS-western Pacific and South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia and leading to a warm and dry climate. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The results highlight the important role of latent heating in adjusting the changes in sea surface temperature through atmospheric dynamics.

  5. GIS-modelling of the spatial variability of flash flood hazard in Abu Dabbab catchment, Red Sea Region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Abou El-Magd

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mountainous area of the Red Sea region in southeastern Egypt, the development of new mining activities or/and domestic infrastructures require reliable and accurate information about natural hazards particularly flash flood. This paper presents the assessment of flash flood hazards in the Abu Dabbab drainage basin. Remotely sensed data were used to delineate the alluvial active channels, which were integrated with morphometric parameters extracted from digital elevation models (DEM into geographical information systems (GIS to construct a hydrological model that provides estimates about the amount of surface runoff as well as the magnitude of flash floods. The peak discharge is randomly varied at different cross-sections along the main channel. Under consistent 10 mm rainfall event, the selected cross-section in middle of the main channel is prone to maximum water depth at 80 cm, which decreases to nearly 30 cm at the outlet due to transmission loss. The estimation of spatial variability of flow parameters within the catchment at different confluences of the constituting sub-catchments can be considered and used in planning for engineering foundations and linear infrastructures with the least flash flood hazard. Such information would, indeed, help decision makers and planning to minimize such hazards.

  6. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Parham, James F.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M.; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M.; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A.; Suárez, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities. PMID:24573855

  7. THE EFFECT OF BUSINESS FIRMS’ INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES ON THE FIRM PERFORMANCE: A CENTRAL BLACK SEA REGION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkut ALTINDAG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of business firms carrying on business in Central Black Sea Region of Turkey on the performance of these firms. Especially how it affected SMEs (Small and Medium Sized Enterprises was analyzed. When particularly considering the effects of business that have SME quality on economy of Turkey, such kind of researches are noticed to have a basis in recent years. The research depended upon the data obtained from enterprises through original qualified questionnaire. The questionnaire question forms were scaled benefiting from the studies in the literature based upon international activities and business performance measurement. For all variables, the scales in the literature were taken and included into research questionnaire. The questionnaires were performed to SMEs and large-scale enterprises. In the research factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis were included as analysis methods. According to the obtained results, it was determined that international activities had a positive effect on the performance of enterprises. The results were interpreted, and various suggestions were offered to academicians, and administrators.

  8. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Gutstein, Carolina S; Parham, James F; Le Roux, Jacobus P; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A; Suárez, Mario E

    2014-04-22

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities.

  9. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  10. Investigating the influence of anthropogenic forcing on observed mean and extreme sea level pressure trends over the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordarian, Armineh

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether the observed mean sea level pressure (SLP) trends over the Mediterranean region in the period from 1975 to 2004 are significantly consistent with what 17 models projected as response of SLP to anthropogenic forcing (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, GS). Obtained results indicate that the observed trends in mean SLP cannot be explained by natural (internal) variability. Externally forced changes are detectable in all seasons, except spring. The large-scale component (spatial mean) of the GS signal is detectable in all the 17 models in winter and in 12 of the 17 models in summer. However, the small-scale component (spatial anomalies about the spatial mean) of GS signal is only detectable in winter within 11 of the 17 models. We also show that GS signal has a detectable influence on observed decreasing (increasing) tendency in the frequencies of extremely low (high) SLP days in winter and that these changes cannot be explained by internal climate variability. While the detection of GS forcing is robust in winter and summer, there are striking inconsistencies in autumn, where analysis points to the presence of an external forcing, which is not GS forcing.

  11. Seasonal Variation of Submesoscale Flow Features in a Mesoscale Eddy-dominant Region in the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yeon S.; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Park, Young-Gyu

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal changes in the distribution of submesoscale (SM) flow features were examined using a fine-resolution numerical simulation. The SM flows are expected to be strong where mesoscale (MS) eddies actively develop and also when the mixed layer depth (MLD) is deep due to enhanced baroclinic instability. In the East Sea (ES), MS eddies more actively develop in summer while the MLD is deeper in winter, which provided the motivation to conduct this study to test the effects of MLD and MS eddies on the SM activity in this region. Finite-scale Liapunov exponents and the vertical velocity components were employed to analyze the SM activities. It was found that the SM intensity was marked by seasonality: it is stronger in winter when the mixed layer is deep but weaker in summer - despite the greater eddy kinetic energy. This is because in summer the mixed layer is so thin that there is not enough available potential energy. When the SM activity was quantified based on parameterization, (MLD × density gradient), it was determined that the seasonal variation of MLD plays a more important role than the lateral density gradient variation on SM flow motion in the ES.

  12. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in soil and sediment from the Yellow Sea region of China and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naile, Jonathan E.; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang Tieyu; Wan Yi; Luo Wei; Hu Wenyou; Jiao Wentao; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Jones, Paul D.; Lu Yonglong

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in soils and sediments from the Yellow Sea region. Korean soils and sediments mostly contained detectable PCDD/Fs and showed a widespread distribution among locations. Soil and sedimentary PCDD/Fs from China were comparable to or less than those in Korea. The patterns of relative concentrations of individual congeners in soils were different between the two countries, but similar in sediments. Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were found to be independent of each other and their distributions reflected matrix-dependent accumulation. Spatial distribution indicated some point sources in Korea while Chinese sources were more widespread and diffuse. PCDD/Fs measured in the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea were comparable to or less than those previously reported in for eastern Asia. However, ΣTEQs in soils and sediments were near to or, in some cases exceeded environmental quality guidelines. - Research highlights: → PCDDs were comparable or greater than PCDFs for Yellow Sea soils and sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns in soils were different but similar in sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns varied among regions reflecting regional activities. → Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were mainly independent of each other. → ΣTEQs in Yellow Sea soils and sediments often exceeded corresponding guidelines. - PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments along the Yellow Sea indicated both point and non-point sources and their contribution to total TEQs differed among land uses and by regional activities.

  13. INFLUENCE OF KNOWLEDGE WORKERS ON THE PROCESS OF CREATING OF INNOVATIVE SERVICES IN ENTERPRISES FROM THE BALTIC SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Igielski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century systematic processes should be a basic task of contemporary enterprises aiming at raising the competitive edge on the global market. It is effect of functioning in the era of the forming oneself of the economy based on the knowledge. It is extorting on all participants being functional on the market, pointing main reserves to such immaterial sources, which cooperating with the economy will be answering too faster their economic development. It means that still the changing market is putting new requirements before enterprises in delivering to customers new services. Without appropri-ately of qualified and appropriate employees the enterprise isn't able even to initiate of the implementation of strategies based on such a destination. Companies would become more competing and have provided better services every now and then, for the worker I must perform my work still more creatively. Features and capacities to work of crucial employees constitute most important and most valuable capital of every company however which is often undervalued, not to say wasted. Additionally the economic policy in various parts is pointing world oneself with own laws, like for example in the sea region Baltic, where is extorting on entrepreneurs additional pressure - this region is supposed to constitute the antidote extending to the dominance of area from south-eastern coasts of Great Britain until north Italy in the nearest years. Therefore showing the role they are performing which, in studied subjects is a main purpose of the present article identified knowledge workers, in the process creating and delivering innovative services to the market.

  14. Strategic and Operational Implications of Access to the South China Sea to Maintain Regional Peace and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Robert

    2003-01-01

    .... China currently claims all of the South China Sea and is in dispute with other Southeast Asian nation claimants. China's maritime claim Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapons Free Zone, and People's Liberation Army's Navy modernization are aimed at excluding the U.S. Navy for the South China Sea.

  15. Energy policy strategies of the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period - focusing on electricity and district heating generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    This study presents a comprehensive analysis of energy policy strategies for the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period. To this aim, the study provides scenarios for the region in order to develop a both secure and climate-compatible energy system for the year 2020 and beyond. The long-term development of the energy systems in the Baltic Sea Region is analysed, i.e. in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the north western part of Russia. The study focuses on the electricity and district heating sectors. The Baltic Sea Region is comprised of countries with very different economies and characteristics. Hydropower is an important source of electricity generation in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Latvia. Biomass resources are significant throughout the region, deriving from both agricultural residues and large forested areas. Wind power already contributes considerably to electricity generation in countries such as Denmark and Germany, and is likely to play a much greater role in the region in the years to come, both onshore and offshore. In the longer term (2030 and beyond), solar power and geothermal energy could also provide notable contributions to the overall energy supply. The study shows that it is technically possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity and district heating sectors of the Baltic Sea Region by close to 100% using mainly renewable energy sources. The results indicate that this is a challenging, but manageable task. The associated costs are moderate and can be further decreased through regional cooperation. Once the various production technologies have the possibility to interact with district heating and flexible electricity consumption, and transmission connections are optimally utilised, it becomes realistic to integrate e.g. large volumes of wind power into the energy system as a whole. Furthermore, the hydro power reservoirs, particularly in Norway, play a key role in

  16. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the authors’ Agencies. MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR...COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT 2-20 contingent probabilities given their dependence on non-probabilistic emissions futures, have extended the ranges of...flood risk provides confidence in the associated projection as a true minimum value for risk management purposes. The contemporary rate observed by

  17. Assessment of contaminant concentrations in sediments, fish and mussels sampled from the North Atlantic and European regional seas within the ICON project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Burgeot, Thierry; Gubbins, Matthew J; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; McIntosh, Alistair D; Hylland, Ketil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the status of contaminants in the marine environment is a requirement of European Union Directives and the Regional Seas Conventions, so that measures to reduce pollution can be identified and their efficacy assessed. The international ICON workshop (Hylland et al., in this issue) was developed in order to test an integrated approach to assessing both contaminant concentrations and their effects. This paper describes and assesses the concentrations of trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments, mussels, and fish collected from estuarine, coastal and offshore waters from Iceland to the Mediterranean Sea. For organic contaminants, concentrations progressively increased from Iceland, to the offshore North Sea, to the coastal seas, and were highest in estuaries. Metals had a more complex distribution, reflecting local anthropogenic inputs, natural sources and hydrological conditions. Use of internationally recognised assessment criteria indicated that at no site were concentrations of all contaminants at background and that concentrations of some contaminants were of significant concern in all areas, except the central North Sea. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Griffith, Kereen T; Larriviere, Jack C; Feher, Laura C; Cahoon, Donald R; Enwright, Nicholas M; Oster, David A; Tirpak, John M; Woodrey, Mark S; Collini, Renee C; Baustian, Joseph J; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Cherry, Julia A; Conrad, Jeremy R; Cormier, Nicole; Coronado-Molina, Carlos A; Donoghue, Joseph F; Graham, Sean A; Harper, Jennifer W; Hester, Mark W; Howard, Rebecca J; Krauss, Ken W; Kroes, Daniel E; Lane, Robert R; McKee, Karen L; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Middleton, Beth A; Moon, Jena A; Piazza, Sarai C; Rankin, Nicole M; Sklar, Fred H; Steyer, Greg D; Swanson, Kathleen M; Swarzenski, Christopher M; Vervaeke, William C; Willis, Jonathan M; Wilson, K Van

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) across political boundaries (states), wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise). Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our analyses can be used

  19. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Osland

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA across political boundaries (states, wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise. Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our

  20. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  1. Perception of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) by loggerhead sea turtles: a possible mechanism for locating high-productivity oceanic regions for foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Courtney S; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2012-10-15

    During their long-distance migrations, sea turtles of several species feed on jellyfish and other invertebrates that are particularly abundant in ocean regions characterized by high productivity. An ability to distinguish productive oceanic regions from other areas, and to concentrate foraging activities in locations where prey density is highest, might therefore be adaptive. The volatile compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS) accumulates in the air above productive ocean areas such as upwelling and frontal zones. In principle, DMS might therefore serve as an indicator of high prey density for turtles. To determine whether turtles perceive DMS, juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) were placed into a water-filled arena in which DMS and other odorants could be introduced to the air above the water surface. Turtles exposed to air that had passed over a cup containing 10 nmol l(-1) DMS spent more time at the surface with their noses out of the water than control turtles, which were exposed to air that had passed over a cup containing distilled water. Odors that do not occur in the sea (cinnamon, jasmine and lemon) did not elicit increased surface time, implying that the response to DMS is unlikely to reflect a generalized response to any novel odor. The results demonstrate for the first time that sea turtles can detect DMS, an ability that might enable the identification of favorable foraging areas.

  2. Clusters of community exposure to coastal flooding hazards based on storm and sea level rise scenarios—implications for adaptation networks in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle; Wood, Nathan J.; Schweikert, Amy; Stacey, Mark T.; Jones, Jeanne; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.

    2018-01-01

    Sea level is projected to rise over the coming decades, further increasing the extent of flooding hazards in coastal communities. Efforts to address potential impacts from climate-driven coastal hazards have called for collaboration among communities to strengthen the application of best practices. However, communities currently lack practical tools for identifying potential partner communities based on similar hazard exposure characteristics. This study uses statistical cluster analysis to identify similarities in community exposure to flooding hazards for a suite of sea level rise and storm scenarios. We demonstrate this approach using 63 jurisdictions in the San Francisco Bay region of California (USA) and compare 21 distinct exposure variables related to residents, employees, and structures for six hazard scenario combinations of sea level rise and storms. Results indicate that cluster analysis can provide an effective mechanism for identifying community groupings. Cluster compositions changed based on the selected societal variables and sea level rise scenarios, suggesting that a community could participate in multiple networks to target specific issues or policy interventions. The proposed clustering approach can serve as a data-driven foundation to help communities identify other communities with similar adaptation challenges and to enhance regional efforts that aim to facilitate adaptation planning and investment prioritization.

  3. Phylogeography of the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus along the Sea of Japan: Paleogeographical signatures of cryptic regional divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshitake; Sakuma, Kay; Fujii, Tetsuo; Kojima, Shigeaki

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings of genetic breaks within apparently continuous marine populations challenge the traditional vicariance paradigm in population genetics. Such "invisible" boundaries are sometimes associated with potential geographic barriers that have forced divergence of an ancestral population, habitat discontinuities, biogeographic disjunctions due to environmental gradients, or a combination of these factors. To explore the factors that influence the genetic population structure of apparently continuous populations along the Sea of Japan, the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus was examined. We sampled a total of 300 individuals of H. japonicus from the coast of Japan, and obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene. The sequences from 19 local populations were clustered into five groups (Northwestern Pacific, Northern, Central, Southern Sea of Japan, and East China Sea) based on a spatial genetic mixture analysis and a minimum-spanning network. AMOVA