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Sample records for arachidonic acid liberation

  1. The Property and Application of Arachidonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相勤; 姚建铭; 袁成凌; 王纪; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most important PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in human body. A high-yield arachidonic acid-producing strain (mortierella alpina) was selected by ion implantation (the relative content of arachidonic acid is 70.2% among all fatty acids). This paper mainly introduced the structure, distribution, source, physiologic healthcare function and application of AA.

  2. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar lev...

  3. The discovery and early structural studies of arachidonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah A; Brash, Alan R; Murphy, Robert C

    2016-07-01

    Arachidonic acid and esterified arachidonate are ubiquitous components of every mammalian cell. This polyunsaturated fatty acid serves very important biochemical roles, including being the direct precursor of bioactive lipid mediators such as prostaglandin and leukotrienes. This 20 carbon fatty acid with four double bonds was first isolated and identified from mammalian tissues in 1909 by Percival Hartley. This was accomplished prior to the advent of chromatography or any spectroscopic methodology (MS, infrared, UV, or NMR). The name, arachidonic, was suggested in 1913 based on its relationship to the well-known arachidic acid (C20:0). It took until 1940 before the positions of the four double bonds were defined at 5,8,11,14 of the 20-carbon chain. Total synthesis was reported in 1961 and, finally, the configuration of the double bonds was confirmed as all-cis-5,8,11,14. By the 1930s, the relationship of arachidonic acid within the family of essential fatty acids helped cue an understanding of its structure and the biosynthetic pathway. Herein, we review the findings leading up to the discovery of arachidonic acid and the progress toward its complete structural elucidation. PMID:27142391

  4. Mechanism of arachidonic acid action on syntaxin-Munc18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Emma; Darios, Frédéric; Broersen, Kerensa; Gatsby, Naomi; Peak-Chew, Sew-Yeu; Rickman, Colin; Davletov, Bazbek

    2007-04-01

    Syntaxin and Munc18 are, in tandem, essential for exocytosis in all eukaryotes. Recently, it was shown that Munc18 inhibition of neuronal syntaxin 1 can be overcome by arachidonic acid, indicating that this common second messenger acts to disrupt the syntaxin-Munc18 interaction. Here, we show that arachidonic acid can stimulate syntaxin 1 alone, indicating that it is syntaxin 1 that undergoes a structural change in the syntaxin 1-Munc18 complex. Arachidonic acid is incapable of dissociating Munc18 from syntaxin 1 and, crucially, Munc18 remains associated with syntaxin 1 after arachidonic-acid-induced syntaxin 1 binding to synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP25). We also show that the same principle operates in the case of the ubiquitous syntaxin 3 isoform, highlighting the conserved nature of the mechanism of arachidonic acid action. Neuronal soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) can be isolated from brain membranes in a complex with endogenous Munc18, consistent with a proposed function of Munc18 in vesicle docking and fusion.

  5. Arachidonic acid assimilation by thrombocytes from white carneau pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid was investigated using thrombocyte-enriched-plasma from RBWC and WC-II white carneau pigeons, which differ genetically in their susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Thrombocytes were incubated at 42 C with [14C] arachidonate in Puck's solution. After a 1 hour labeling period the WC-II cells had taken up 69% and RBWC 77% of the [14C]arachidonate from the medium. When 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid or 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid were added to incubation media the [14C] uptake was reduced in each type cell, with WC-II exhibiting the greatest effect. Release of [14C]molecules from cells labeled with [14]Carachidonate was studied using calcium ionophore and indomethacin. Indomethacin inhibited [14C] molecule release similarly in both RBWC and WC-II cells. Calcium ionophore was twice as effective in stimulating [14C]molecule release from WC-II than RBWC cells. Therefore, the WE-II cells (from pigeons greater in susceptibility to atherosclerosis) are more sensitive to calcium ionophore than the REWC cells

  6. Preparation of oxygen-18-labeled lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, J Y; Clay, K L; Murphy, R C

    1985-12-01

    Plasma pseudocholinesterase and porcine liver esterase were used to catalyse the incorporation of the stable isotope oxygen-18 into the carboxyl moiety of lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid. This simple method produces eicosanoid products containing two oxygen-18 atoms; but the enzymes studied were found to display large substrate specificity in the efficiencies at which oxygen-18 could be incorporated into the lipoxygenase metabolites. Furthermore, [18O2]LTB4 was found not to back exchange during in vitro incubation with human neutrophils. The methods involved for stable isotope incorporation are simple, efficient and produce highly enriched species in a short time. By varying the type of esterase, the amount of esterase or the length of incubation highly enriched species of all eicosanoids tested could be prepared. PMID:3004615

  7. Role of arachidonic acid cascade in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Arias-Torres, Ana Josefina; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies that document the production of prostaglandins (PGs) or their role in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. In this study, we analysed the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandins (PGs) on maturation, activation and pronuclear formation in R. arenarum oocytes. Our results demonstrated that AA was capable of inducing maturation in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Arachidonic acid-induced maturation was inhibited by indomethacin. PGs from AA hydrolysis, such as prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and, to a lesser extent, PGE2, induced meiosis resumption. Oocyte maturation in response to PGF2α was similar to that produced by progesterone (P4). Oocyte response to PGE1 was scarce. Rhinella arenarum oocyte PGF2α-induced maturation showed seasonal variation. From February to June, oocytes presented low sensitivity to PGF2α. In following periods, this response increased until a maximum was reached during October to January, a close temporal correlation with oocyte response to P4 being observed. The effect of PGF2α on maturation was verified by analysing the capacity of oocytes to activate and form pronuclei after being injected with homologous sperm. The cytological analysis of activated oocytes demonstrated the absence of cortical granules in oocytes, suggesting that PGF2α induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and meiosis resumption up to metaphase II. In turn, oocytes matured by the action of PGF2α were able to form pronuclei after fertilization in a similar way to oocyte maturated by P4. In microinjection of mature cytoplasm experiments, the transformation of pre-maturation promoting factor (pre-MPF) to MPF was observed when oocytes were treated with PGF2α. In summary, our results illustrated the participation of the AA cascade and its metabolites in maturation, activation and pronuclei formation in R. arenarum. PMID:24964276

  8. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status

  9. Arachidonic acid is a chemoattractant for Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ralph H Schaloske; Dagmar Blaesius; Christina Schlatterer; Daniel F Lusche

    2007-12-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a natural chemoattractant of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. It is detected by cell surface cAMP receptors. Besides a signalling cascade involving phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), Ca2+ signalling has been shown to have a major role in chemotaxis. Previously, we have shown that arachidonic acid (AA) induces an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by causing the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and activating influx of extracellular Ca2+. Here we report that AA is a chemoattractant for D. discoideum cells differentiated for 8–9 h. Motility towards a glass capillary filled with an AA solution was dose-dependent and qualitatively comparable to cAMP-induced chemotaxis. Ca2+ played an important role in AA chemotaxis of wild-type Ax2 as ethyleneglycolbis(b-aminoethyl)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) added to the extracellular buffer strongly inhibited motility. In the HM1049 mutant whose iplA gene encoding a putative Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor had been knocked out, chemotaxis was only slightly affected by EGTA. Chemotaxis in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ was similar in both strains. Unlike cAMP, addition of AA to a cell suspension did not change cAMP or cGMP levels. A model for AA chemotaxis based on the findings in this and previous work is presented.

  10. Individual variation and intraclass correlation in arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in chicken muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen Ingrid; Haug Anna; Christophersen Olav A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chicken meat with reduced concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) and reduced ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids has potential health benefits because a reduction in AA intake dampens prostanoid signaling, and the proportion between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is too high in our diet. Analyses for fatty acid determination are expensive, and finding the optimal number of analyses to give reliable results is a challenge. The objective of the present study was i) to analys...

  11. Arachidonic Acid-metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Are Targets of ω-3 Fatty Acids*

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Cosima; Markovic, Marija; Blossey, Katrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Fischer, Robert; Dechend, Ralf; Konkel, Anne; von Schacky, Clemens; Luft, Friedrich C.; Muller, Dominik N.; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen

    2010-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protect against cardiovascular disease by largely unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that EPA and DHA may compete with arachidonic acid (AA) for the conversion by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, resulting in the formation of alternative, physiologically active, metabolites. Renal and hepatic microsomes, as well as various CYP isoforms, displayed equal or elevated activities when metabolizing EPA or DHA instead of AA. CYP2C/2J...

  12. Hyperglycemia-induced teratogenesis is mediated by a functional deficiency of arachidonic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, A S; Baker, L; Piddington, R; Marx, B; Herold, R; Egler, J

    1985-01-01

    Congenital malformations now represent the largest single cause of mortality in the infant of the diabetic mother. The mechanism by which diabetes exerts its teratogenic effects is not known. This study evaluated whether arachidonic acid might be involved, a possibility raised by the role of arachidonic acid in palatal elevation and fusion, processes analogous to neural tube folding and fusion. This hypothesis was tested in two animal models of diabetic embryopathy, the in vivo pregnant diabe...

  13. Correlation between arachidonic acid oxygenation and luminol-induced chemiluminescence in neutrophils: inhibition by diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabannes, B; Perraut, C; El Habib, R; Moliere, P; Pacheco, Y; Lagarde, M

    1997-04-01

    Neutrophils from allergic subjects were hypersensitive to stimulation by low calcium ionophore concentration (0.15 microM), resulting in an increased formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-(E,Z,Z,Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), and other arachidonic acid metabolites through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. In parallel, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was also higher in neutrophils from allergic patients at the basal state and after stimulation by calcium ionophore, revealing an enhancement of radical oxygen species and peroxide production. The activity of glutathione peroxidase, the main enzyme responsible for hydroperoxide reduction, was lowered in these cells. Diethyl-dithiocarbamate (DTC) induced a concentration-dependent decrease in chemiluminescence and arachidonic acid metabolism after neutrophil stimulation. These data show that the elevation of arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils from allergic patients is strongly correlated with oxidative status. This elevation may be the consequence of an increased cellular hydroperoxide known to activate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity and/or an increased arachidonic acid availability, due either to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation or inhibition of arachidonate reesterification into phospholipids. Lowering this oxidative status was associated with a concomitant decrease of this metabolism. Our results suggest that the effect of DTC may be the consequence of an inhibition of peroxyl radical and cellular lipid hydroperoxide production. Thus, DTC may modulate arachidonic acid metabolism in neutrophils by modulating the cellular hydroperoxide level.

  14. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  15. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  16. Apparent in vivo retroconversion of dietary arachidonic to linoleic acid in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; von Wettstein-Knowles, P.

    1986-01-01

    Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were fed ethyl [U-C]arachidonate (308 dpm/nmol) and when a decrease in the transepidermal water loss was seen, the epidermal sphingolipids, acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide were isolated. [C]Linoleic acid (approx. 130 dpm/nmol) was present in both lipid...... classes, while the substrate was only detected in the former. These results intimate that in vivo retroconversion of arachidonic to linoleic acid can be induced in the rat....

  17. Effects of the oestrous cycle on the metabolism of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Y S; Zakrzewski, J T

    1982-01-01

    1. The metabolism of exogenous arachidonic acid perfused through the pulmonary circulation was investigated in lungs taken from rats at different stages of the oestrous cycle. 2. Following perfusion with [14C]arachidonic acid there was more radioactivity associated with cyclo-oxygenase products in general at pro-oestrus than at any other stage of the cycle. 3. Production of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha and hence of prostacyclin (PGI2) was also highest at pro-oestrus. 4. Production of thromboxane B2 was highest at pro-oestrus although it was never greater than PGI2 production at any stage. 5. Radioactivity retained in lung tissue was mostly present in phospholipid and free fatty acid fractions with the distribution at pro-oestrus being different from the other stages. 6. Following perfusion with [14C]oleic acid (which is not a substrate for cyclooxygenase), variations in the distribution of label in radioactivity in lung were also observed. However, these were not related to the stages of the oestrous cycle in the same way as those associated with arachidonic acid. 7. We conclude that both pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism in lung--oxidation via cyclo-oxygenase and incorporation into phospholipid - are affected by the progress of the oestrous cycle. 8. Altered arachidonate metabolism appeared to be associated chiefly with pro-oestrus and may be linked to those hormones involved in this stage of the oestrous cycle. PMID:6809935

  18. DMPD: Regulation of arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10080535 Regulation of arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2activ...on of arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2activation. PubmedID 10080535 Title Regulation of arachidonic acid relea...ation. Gijon MA, Leslie CC. J Leukoc Biol. 1999 Mar;65(3):330-6. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulati...se and cytosolic phospholipase A2activation. Authors Gij

  19. Raloxifene and hormone replacement therapy increase arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic levels in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Duschek, E.J.J.; Katan, M.B.; Neele, S.J.; Netelenbos, J.C.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens may affect the essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3). Therefore, we investigated the long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy and raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, in two randomized, double-blin

  20. Arachidonic acid reduces the stress response of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van; Spanings, F.A.T.; Koven, W.M.; Nixon, O.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the influence of the dietary level of the fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) was determined on the acute stress response and osmoregulation of adult gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Seabream were fed a diet containing either 0.9% or 2.4% of total fatty acids as ArA for 18 day

  1. Arachidonic acid and calcium metabolism in rnelittin stimulated neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Ole H.; Bouchelouche, Pierre N.; Dag Berild

    1992-01-01

    Melittin, the predominant fraction of bee venom proteins, was studied in an experimental model of human neutrophil granulocytes to reveal its influence on eicosanoid release, metabolism and receptor function in relation to intracellular calcium metabolism. Melittin (2 μmol/l) was as potent as the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 μmol/l) for activation of 5-lipoxygenase, releasing arachidonate only from phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine of cellular membranes, as judged from the de...

  2. Research on Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Anabolic Metabolism in Diasporangium sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chuan-chao; XU Yu-fen; XIA Shun-xiang; ZHAO Mo; YE Yu-cheng

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acids of a strain of Diasporangium sp.had been analyzed by using GC-MS.The fatty acids of twenty mutants were determined.Based on these results,the producing of eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA)supposed via 18∶2,18∶3,20∶3,20∶4 which all belong to ω-6 fatty acids.The ω-3 desaturation was undertaken at arachidonic acid(AA).In addition,mutant strains resulted in enhanced content of AA which could get two times more than initial strain,but no compact on EPA.

  3. Dietary supplementation with arachidonic acid in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) reveals physiological effects not mediated by prostaglandins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, R.D. van; Spanings, F.A.T.; Koven, W.M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the role of the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ArA, 20:4n-6) in the stress response of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). ArA is converted into eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, which can influence the response to stressors. Tilapia, a species

  4. Evidence for lipoxin formation by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes via triple dioxygenation of arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Walstra, P.; Verhagen, J.; Vermeer, M.A.; Klerks, J.P.M.; Veldink, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Incubation of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with arachidonic acid leads to the formation of four lipoxins. The same lipoxins are also formed upon incubation of bovine PMNs with 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, 5-hydroxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic aci

  5. Arachidonic acid and calcium metabolism in rnelittin stimulated neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole H. Nielsen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Melittin, the predominant fraction of bee venom proteins, was studied in an experimental model of human neutrophil granulocytes to reveal its influence on eicosanoid release, metabolism and receptor function in relation to intracellular calcium metabolism. Melittin (2 μmol/l was as potent as the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 μmol/l for activation of 5-lipoxygenase, releasing arachidonate only from phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine of cellular membranes, as judged from the decreases in radioactivity by 15.4% and 30.5%, respectively. The mechanism responsible for the release of arachidonate from cellular membranes is closely coupled to cellular calcium metabolism, and melittin was found to promote calcium entry through receptor gated calcium channels, probably due to an activation of phospholipase A2. Furthermore, a down-regulation of leukotriene B4 receptors was seen. The maximal number of binding sites per cell was reduced from a median of 1520 to 950 with melittin (1 μmol/l. The study has revealed some factors important for the inflammatory mechanisms mediated by melittin.

  6. Unexpected depletion of plasma arachidonate and total protein in cats fed a low arachidonic acid diet due to peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Amy; Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Bigley, Karen; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    An opportunity to investigate a low-arachidonic acid (AA) feline diet possibly related to elevated peroxide value (PV) during storage on plasma phospholipid (PL) and reproductive tissue fatty acid (FA) profiles presented itself in the present study. Cats (nine animals per group) had been fed one of three dry extruded, complete and balanced diets for 300 d before spaying. The diets contained adequate AA (0.3 g/kg), similar concentration of antioxidants and were stored at ambient temperature, but differed in FA composition. The diets were designated as follows: diet A (high linoleic acid), diet B (high γ-linolenic acid) and diet C (adequate linoleic acid). Diet samples that were obtained the week before spaying revealed an elevated PV of diet A v. diets B and C (135 v. 5.80 and 2.12 meq/kg fat, respectively). Records revealed decreased food consumption of diet A cats beginning at 240 d but without weight loss; thus an opportunity presented to investigate diet PV effects. Total plasma protein and PL-AA concentrations in group A were significantly decreased at 140 and 300 d. Uterine and ovarian tissues collected at surgery revealed modest decrements of AA. Diet A was below minimum standards at 0.015 % (minimum 0.02 %), probably due to oxidation. The time at which diet A became unacceptable may have occurred between 60 and 140 d because plasma PL-AA was within our normal colony range (approximately 4-7 % relative) after 56 d of feeding. High-linoleic acid-containing diets may be more likely to be oxidised requiring additional antioxidants. The findings suggest that reduced plasma protein in combination with plasma AA concentrations may serve as biomarkers of diet peroxidation in cats before feed refusal, weight loss or tissue depletion. PMID:22005409

  7. Prenatal arachidonic acid exposure and selected immune-related variables in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Hogervorst, Janneke G. F.; Rump, Patrick; Hendriks, Johannes J. E.; Bruins, Maaike; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is considered essential in fetal development and some of its metabolites are thought to be important mediators of the immune responses. Therefore, we studied whether prenatal exposure to AA is associated with some immune-related clinical conditions and plasma markers in childho

  8. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA. PMID:27004948

  9. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in hamster lung microsomes is not completely inhibited by aspirin and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uotila, P.; Paajanen, H.; Schalin, M.; Simberg, N.

    1983-10-01

    Aspirin (100 microM or 1 mM) or indomethacin (10 microM or 100 microM) was incubated with a microsomal preparation of hamster lungs in the presence of NADPH for 10 min. Then 14C-arachidonic acid (20 microM) was added and the incubation was continued for an additional 20 min. The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate first at pH 7.4 and then at pH 3.5 and analysed by thin layer chromatography. Both aspirin and indomethacin inhibited dose dependently the formation of all identified prostaglandins, including PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, PGE2 and PGD2. The rate of formation of some unidentified metabolites extracted at pH 7.4 and 3.5 was, however, not changed by aspirin or indomethacin. We have earlier reported that in isolated perfused hamster lungs the formation of all arachidonate metabolites is inhibited by both aspirin and indomethacin. As the present study indicates that in the microsomes of hamster lungs all metabolic pathways of arachidonic acid are not inhibited by aspirin or indomethacin, it is possible that in isolated tissues and in vivo aspirin-like drugs have some other inhibitory effects on arachidonate metabolism than the inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme.

  10. Anti-inflammatory potential of 2-styrylchromones regarding their interference with arachidonic acid metabolic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Silva, Artur; Santos, Clementina M.M.; Pinto, Diana; Cavaleiro, José; Lima, José Costa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are the key enzymes in the biosynthesis of prostanoids. COX-1 is a constitutive enzyme while the expression of COX-2 is highly stimulated in the event of inflammatory processes, leading to the production of large amounts of prostaglandins (PGs), in particular PGE2 and PGI2, which are pro-inflammatory mediators. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are enzymes that produce hydroxy acids and leukotrienes (LTs). 5-LOX metabolizes arachidonic acid to yield, a...

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Arachidonic Acid against Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium▿

    OpenAIRE

    El Ridi, Rashika; Aboueldahab, Marwa; Tallima, Hatem; Salah, Mohamed; Mahana, Noha; Fawzi, Samia; Mohamed, Shadia H.; Fahmy, Omar M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of arachidonic acid (ARA) for treatment of schistosomiasis is an entirely novel approach based on a breakthrough discovery in schistosome biology revealing that activation of parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) by unsaturated fatty acids, such as ARA, induces exposure of parasite surface membrane antigens to antibody binding and eventual attrition of developing schistosomula and adult worms. Here, we demonstrate that 5 mM ARA leads to irreversible killing...

  12. The skeletal muscle arachidonic acid cascade in health and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Marina; Lundberg, Ingrid E

    2014-05-01

    Muscle atrophy and weakness are often observed in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, and are the major clinical features of the autoimmune myopathies, polymyositis and dermatomyositis. A general understanding of the pathogenesis of muscle atrophy and the impaired muscle function associated with chronic inflammatory diseases has not been clarified. In this context, arachidonic acid metabolites, such as the prostaglandin and leukotriene subfamilies, are of interest because they contribute to immune and nonimmune processes. Accumulating evidence suggests that prostaglandins and leukotrienes are involved in causing muscular pain and inflammation, and also in myogenesis and the repair of muscles. In this Review, we summarize novel findings that implicate prostaglandins and leukotrienes in the muscle atrophy and weakness that occur in inflammatory diseases of the muscles, with a focus on inflammatory myopathies. We discuss the role of the arachidonic acid cascade in skeletal muscle growth and function, and individual metabolites as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammatory muscle diseases.

  13. Arachidonic acid metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D. M.; Walsh, C E; DeChatelet, L R; Waite, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of the calcium ionophore A23187 on the release and metabolism of [3H]arachidonic acid was examined in normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes and those obtained from patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The ionophore A23187 which stimulates oxidative metabolism in normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes was ineffective in increasing oxidative metabolism (chemiluminescence) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease. However, the ionophore A2318...

  14. The effects of anaerobic training in serum lipids and arachidonic acid metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGIOS KIPREOS; ALEXANDRA TRIPOLITSIOTI; APOSTOLOS STERGIOULAS

    2010-01-01

    Coronary arteries are subjected daily in high shear stress and manifest atherosclerosis very early in life in comparison to other arteries in the human body. Some factors that are implicated in the evolution and progress of this process are the concentration of lipids and arachidonic acid metabolites, such prostacyclin and thromboxane. It has been reported that those who participate in aerobic activities such as walking, cycling, jogging or brisk walking might have normal values of the mentio...

  15. Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism and its implication on cell proliferation and tumour-angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, C. A. C.; Missailidis, S

    2009-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites have recently generated a heightened interest due to growing evidence of their significant role in cancer biology. Thus, inhibitors of the AA cascade, first and foremost COX inhibitors, which have originally been of interest in the treatment of inflammatory conditions and certain types of cardiovascular disease, are now attracting attention as an arsenal against cancer. An increasing number of investigations support their role in cancer chemopreventio...

  16. Effects of fluticasone propionate inhalation on levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert T. Verhoeven

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In smoking COPD patients the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid contains high numbers of inflammatory cells. These cells might produce arachidonic acid (AA metabolites, which contribute to inflammation and an increased bronchomotor tone.

  17. Targeted Chiral Analysis of Bioactive Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Using Liquid-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Mesaros

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is further complicated by the enantioselectivity of eicosanoid formation and the variety of regioisomers that arise. In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. Over the last several years this targeted approach has become more popular, although there are still relatively few examples where chiral targeted approaches have been employed to directly analyze complex enantiomeric mixtures. To efficiently conduct targeted eicosanoid analyses, LC separations are coupled with collision induced dissociation (CID and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Product ion profiles are often diagnostic for particular regioisomers. The highest sensitivity that can be achieved involves the use of selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SRM/MS; whereas the highest specificity is obtained with an SRM transitions between an intense parent ion, which contains the intact molecule (M and a structurally significant product ion. This review article provides an overview of arachidonic acid metabolism and targeted chiral methods that have been utilized for the analysis of the structurally diverse eicosanoids that arise.

  18. Arachidonic acid needed in infant formula when docosahexaenoic acid is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the European Food Safety Authority asserted that arachidonic acid (ARA) is an optional nutrient for the term infant even when docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is present. The brief rationale is based on an explicit, widespread misapplication of the concept of "essential fatty acids" to linoleic acid that implies it is uniquely required as a nutrient per se. Linoleic acid prevents acute clinical symptoms caused by polyunsaturated fatty acid-deficient diets and is the major precursor for ARA in most human diets. Experimental diets with ARA as the sole n-6 similarly prevent symptoms but at a lower energy percentage than linoleic acid and show ARA is a precursor for linoleic acid. The absence of consistent evidence of ARA benefit from randomized controlled trials is apparently an issue as well. This review highlights basic and clinical research relevant to ARA requirements as an adjunct to DHA in infancy. ARA is a major structural central nervous system component, where it rapidly accumulates perinatally and is required for signaling. Tracer studies show that ARA-fed infants derive about half of their total body ARA from dietary preformed ARA. Clinically, of the 3 cohorts of term infants studied with designs isolating the effects of ARA (DHA-only vs DHA+ARA), none considered ARA-specific outcomes such as vascular or immune function; the study with the highest ARA level showed significant neurocognitive benefit. All breastfed term infants of adequately nourished mothers consume both DHA and ARA. The burden of proof to substantially deviate from the composition of breastmilk is greater than that available from inherently empirical human randomized controlled trial evidence. Infant formulas with DHA but without ARA risk harm from suppression of ARA-mediated metabolism manifest among the many unstudied functions of ARA. PMID:27013482

  19. Deficits in docosahexaenoic acid and associated elevations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids in the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Stanford, Kevin E; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Richtand, Neil M

    2008-09-30

    Previous antemortem and postmortem tissue fatty acid composition studies have observed significant deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cell (RBC) and postmortem cortical membranes of patients with unipolar depression. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, Brodmann area 10) of patients with bipolar disorder (n=18) and age-matched normal controls (n=19) by gas chromatography. After correction for multiple comparisons, DHA (-24%), arachidonic acid (-14%), and stearic acid (C18:0) (-4.5%) compositions were significantly lower, and cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) (+12.5%) composition significantly higher, in the OFC of bipolar patients relative to normal controls. Based on metabolite:precursor ratios, significant elevations in arachidonic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid conversion/metabolism were observed in the OFC of bipolar patients, and were inversely correlated with DHA composition. Deficits in OFC DHA and arachidonic acid composition, and elevations in arachidonic acid metabolism, were numerically (but not significantly) greater in drug-free bipolar patients relative to patients treated with mood-stabilizer or antipsychotic medications. OFC DHA and arachidonic acid deficits were greater in patients plus normal controls with high vs. low alcohol abuse severity. These results add to a growing body of evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acid deficiency as well as the OFC in the pathoaetiology of bipolar disorder. PMID:18715653

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses arachidonic acid-induced proliferation of LS-174T human colon carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piet Habbel; Karsten H Weylandt; Katja Lichopoj; Johannes Nowak; Martin Purschke; Jing-Dong Wang; Cheng-Wei He; Daniel C Baumgart; Jing X Kang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and their combination on colon cancer cell growth.METHODS: The LS-174T colon cancer cell line was used to study the role of the prostaglandin precursor AA and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA on cell growth. Cell viability was assessed in XTT assays. For analysis of cell cycle and cell death, flow cytometry and DAPI staining were applied. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p21 and bcl-2 in cells incubated with AA or DHA was examined by real-time RT-PCR. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation in the presence of AA and DHA was measured using a PGE2ELISA.RESULTS: AA increased cell growth, whereas DHA reduced viability of LS 174T cells in a time- and dosedependent manner. Furthermore, DHA down- regulated mRNA of bcl-2 and up-regulated p21. Interestingly,DHA was able to suppress AA-induced cell proliferation and significantly lowered AA-derived PGE2 formation.DHA also down-regulated COX-2 expression. In addition to the effect on PGE2 formation, DHA directly reduced PGE2-induced cell proliferation in a dosedependent manner.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that DHA can inhibit the pro-proliferative effect of abundant AA or PGE2.

  1. Arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in bovine neutrophils and platelets: effect of calcium ionophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.M.; Laegreid, W.W.; Heidel, J.R.; Straub, K.M.; Liggitt, H.D.; Silflow, R.M.; Breeze, R.G.; Leid, R.W.

    1987-09-01

    Substitution of dietary fatty acids has potential for altering the inflammatory response. The purpose of the present study was to define the metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) secreted by bovine peripheral blood neutrophils and platelets. High performance liquid chromatography was used to characterize cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites secreted in response to the calcium ionophore A23187. Cells were prelabelled with /sup 3/H-AA or /sup 3/H-EPA prior to challenge with the calcium ionophore. Bovine neutrophils secreted leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) as the major metabolites of AA, as well as the corresponding leukotriene B5 (LTB5) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) metabolites of EPA. Peptidoleukotrienes derived from /sup 3/H-AA or /sup 3/H-EPA were not detected under these conditions. The major tritiated metabolites secreted from bovine platelets were: thromboxane A2, measured as the stable metabolite thromboxane B2 (TXB2); hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) and 12-HETE derived from /sup 3/H-AA; and the omega-3 analogs TXB3 and 12-HEPE, derived from /sup 3/H-EPA. Preferred substrate specificities existed amongst the AA- and EPA-derived metabolites for the intermediary enzymes involved in the arachidonic acid cascade. These findings support the hypothesis that substitution of membrane-bound AA by EPA has potential for modulation of the host inflammatory response following cellular phospholipid mobilization.

  2. Individual variation and intraclass correlation in arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in chicken muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesen Ingrid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chicken meat with reduced concentration of arachidonic acid (AA and reduced ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids has potential health benefits because a reduction in AA intake dampens prostanoid signaling, and the proportion between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is too high in our diet. Analyses for fatty acid determination are expensive, and finding the optimal number of analyses to give reliable results is a challenge. The objective of the present study was i to analyse the intraclass correlation of different fatty acids in five meat samples, of one gram each, within the same chicken thigh, and ii to study individual variations in the concentrations of a range of fatty acids and the ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations among fifteen chickens. Fifteen newly hatched broilers were fed a wheat-based diet containing 4% rapeseed oil and 1% linseed oil for three weeks. Five muscle samples from the mid location of the thigh of each chicken were analysed for fatty acid composition. The intraclass correlation (sample correlation within the same animal was 0.85-0.98 for the ratios of total omega-6 to total omega-3 fatty acids and of AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. This indicates that when studying these fatty acid ratios, one sample of one gram per animal is sufficient. However, due to the high individual variation between chicken for these ratios, a relatively high number of animals (minimum 15 are required to obtain a sufficiently high power to reveal significant effects of experimental factors (e.g. feeding regimes. The present experiment resulted in meat with a favorable concentration ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. The AA concentration varied from 1.5 to 2.8 g/100 g total fatty acids in thigh muscle in the fifteen broilers, and the ratio between AA and EPA concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 3.9. These differences among the birds may be due to genetic variance that can be exploited by

  3. Inability of murine peritoneal macrophages to convert linoleic acid into arachidonic acid. Evidence of chain elongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various murine macrophage populations synthesize and secrete large amounts of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) derived eicosanoids (cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase products). These metabolites are known to possess a wide variety of functions with regard to the initiation and regulation of inflammation and tumorigenesis. Because the dietary intake of 20:4n-6 is usually low, tissues are largely dependent upon dietary linoleic acid (18:2n-6) as an initial unsaturated precursor for the biosynthesis of 20:4n-6. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether resident or responsive murine macrophages possess desaturase and elongase activities capable of in vitro conversion of 18:2n-6 into 20:4n-6. Peritoneal exudate macrophages were purified by adherence and incubated in serum-free medium containing fatty acid-free BSA with [1-14C] 18:2n-6. Approximately 90 to 98% of the [14C]18:2n-6 at 4 and 16 h was recovered in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The metabolism of [14C]18:2n-6 was determined after transesterification and separation of the 14C-fatty acid methyl esters by argentation TLC, reverse phase HPLC, and electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resident and responsive macrophages lacked the capacity to transform [14C]18:2n-6 into 20:4n-6. In addition, prelabeled macrophages incubated with soluble, calcium ionophore A23187 or phorbol myristate, or particulate, zymosan, membrane perturbing agents also lacked delta 6 desaturase activity. All macrophages tested were capable of elongating [14C]18:2n-6 into [14C]20:2n-6. These observations suggest that 20:4n-6, present in macrophage phospholipids, is biosynthesized elsewhere and transported to the macrophage for esterification into the phospholipids. In addition, these findings demonstrate that elongase activity is present in both the resident and responsive peritoneal macrophage

  4. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL INHIBITORY EFFECT OF OCS IN ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE, CHLOROPHYTA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 张成武; ZviCohen; AmosRichmond

    2002-01-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main physiological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture supernatant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) were investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiological parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE were added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties were inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in this alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell mass, or culture volume, due to a prebable reduction of enzymes activities catalyzing chain elongation from C18:1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced that some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS, like auto-inhibitors, inhibited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of auto-inhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for maximal production of desired products like AA.

  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL INHIBITORY EFFECT OF OCS IN ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE,CHLOROPHYTA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main phy siological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid , protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture super natant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) wer e investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiol ogical parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE w ere added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties we re inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in th is alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell ma ss, or culture volume, due to a probable reduction of enzymes activities catalyz ing chain elongation from C18:1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced t hat some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS, like auto-inhibitors, inhi bited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of aut o-i nhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for max imal production of desired products like AA.

  7. Effect of amiloride on arachidonic acid and histamine release from rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnebjerg, H.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a putative Na/H exchange inhibition on histamine and [C]arachidonic acid ([C]AA) release has been examined in rat peritoneal mast cells, using either addition of amiloride or removal of extracellular Na. The cells were stimulated by non-immunological agents, i.e. calcium ionophore A......23187, nerve growth factor (NGF), thapsigargin and compound 48/80. On the basis of the results obtained, a possible role for Na/H exchange in rat mast cell secretion is discussed....

  8. The influence of supplemental docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment at eighteen months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. The effects of DHA (220 mg/day, n=41), DHA+AA (220 mg/day, n=39) or placebo (n=34) during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment at 18 months, and the relations between umbilical cord DHA, AA and Mead acid

  9. Effect of aspirin on the metabolism of exogenous arachidonic acid in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnonen, K.; Uotila, P.

    1984-08-01

    When human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were incubated with exogenous /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (/sup 14/C-AA), both lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase metabolites were detected. The amount of the 5-lipoxygenase metabolites formed, including 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), was small. The amount of other mono-HETE's (migrating in the vicinity of 12-HETE) was greater, but this was obviously mainly due to the small amount of contaminating platelets. In the presence of calcium ionophore A23187 the rate of formation of 5-HETE was increased, but the formation of other metabolites remained unchanged. When PMNL were incubated with aspirin in the presence of A23187 the formation of the cyclo-oxygenase products was decreased but that of 5-HETE was unchanged. The present study indicates that the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates specifically the 5-lipoxygenase in human PMNL and that aspirin has no effect on the formation of the 5-lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid in human PMNL.

  10. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, D A; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2011-11-01

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status that corresponded with no decrease in mRBC-DHA during pregnancy, or in infant (i) RBC-DHA or mRBC-DHA during the first 3 months postpartum (DHA-equilibrium) while exclusively breastfeeding. At delivery, iRBC-AA is uniformly high and independent of mRBC-AA. Infants born to mothers with low RBC-DHA exhibit higher, but infants born to mothers with high RBC-DHA exhibit lower RBC-DHA than their mothers. This switch from 'biomagnification' into 'bioattenuation' occurs at 6g% mRBC-DHA. At 6g%, mRBC-DHA is stable throughout pregnancy, corresponds with postpartum infant DHA-equilibrium of 6 and 0.4g% DHA in mature milk, but results in postpartum depletion of mRBC-DHA to 5g%. Postpartum maternal DHA-equilibrium is reached at 8g% mRBC-DHA, corresponding with 1g% DHA in mature milk and 7g% iRBC-DHA at delivery that increases to 8g% during lactation. This 8g% RBC-DHA concurs with the lowest risks of cardiovascular and psychiatric diseases in adults. RBC-data from 1866 infants, males and (non-)pregnant females indicated AA vs. DHA synergism at low RBC-DHA, but antagonism at high RBC-DHA. These data, together with high intakes of AA and DHA from our Paleolithic diet, suggest that bioattenuation of DHA during pregnancy and postnatal antagonism between AA and DHA are the physiological standard for humans across the life cycle. PMID:21561751

  11. Regulation of the arachidonic acid-stimulated respiratory burst in neutrophils by intra- cellular and extracellular calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The respiratory burst is an important physiological function ofthe neutrophils in killing the bacteria invading in human body. We used chemiluminescence method to measure the exogenous arachidonic acid-stimulated respiratory burst, and measured the cytosolic free calcium concentration in neutrophils by the fluorescence method. It was found that, on one hand, the arachidonic acid-stimulated respiratory burst was enhanced by elevating the cytosolic free calcium concentration in neutrophils with a potent endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, Thapsgargin; on the other hand, chelating the intracellular or extracellular calcium by EGTA or BAPTA inhibited the respiratory burst. Results showed that calcium plays an important regulatory role in the signaling pathway involved in the exogenous arachidonic acid-stimulated respiratory burst of neutrophils.

  12. Differential release of eicosanoids by bradykinin, arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore A23187 in guinea-pig isolated perfused lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhle, Y. S.; Moncada, S.; de Nucci, G.; Salmon, J A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of infusions of bradykinin (0.2 microM), calcium ionophore A23187 (0.5 microM) and arachidonic acid (13 microM) on the release of eicosanoids from the guinea-pig isolated perfused lung were investigated using radioimmunoassay for thromboxane B2 (TXB2), 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-oxo-PGF1 alpha), PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and LTC4 and bioassay using the superfusion cascade. Bradykinin released more 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha than TXB2, whereas arachidonic acid and ionophore released m...

  13. Roles of phospholipase A2 isoforms in swelling- and melittin-induced arachidonic acid release and taurine efflux in NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Poulsen, Kristian Arild; Lambert, Ian H.

    2006-01-01

    secretory sPLA2-V. Arachidonic acid release from swollen cells was partially inhibited by BEL and by the sPLA2-inhibitor manoalide. Cell swelling elicited BEL-sensitive arachidonic acid release from the nucleus, to which iPLA2-VIA localized. Exposure to the bee venom peptide melittin, to increase PLA2...

  14. In vitro and in vivo activities of arachidonic acid against Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ridi, Rashika; Aboueldahab, Marwa; Tallima, Hatem; Salah, Mohamed; Mahana, Noha; Fawzi, Samia; Mohamed, Shadia H; Fahmy, Omar M

    2010-08-01

    The development of arachidonic acid (ARA) for treatment of schistosomiasis is an entirely novel approach based on a breakthrough discovery in schistosome biology revealing that activation of parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) by unsaturated fatty acids, such as ARA, induces exposure of parasite surface membrane antigens to antibody binding and eventual attrition of developing schistosomula and adult worms. Here, we demonstrate that 5 mM ARA leads to irreversible killing of ex vivo 1-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old Schistosoma mansoni and 9-, 10-, and 12-week-old Schistosoma haematobium worms within 3 to 4 h, depending on the parasite age, even when the worms were maintained in up to 50% fetal calf serum. ARA-mediated worm attrition was prevented by nSMase inhibitors, such as CaCl(2) and GW4869. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that ARA-mediated worm killing was associated with spine destruction, membrane blebbing, and disorganization of the apical membrane structure. ARA-mediated S. mansoni and S. haematobium worm attrition was reproduced in vivo in a series of 6 independent experiments using BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice, indicating that ARA in a pure form (Sigma) or included in infant formula (Nestle) consistently led to 40 to 80% decrease in the total worm burden. Arachidonic acid is already marketed for human use in the United States and Canada for proper development of newborns and muscle growth of athletes; thus, ARA has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy. PMID:20479203

  15. Roles for nitric oxide and arachidonic acid in the induction of heterosynaptic cerebellar LTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T; Hartell, N A

    2001-01-22

    In cerebellar slices conjunctive pairing of parallel fibre (PF) stimulation with depolarization of Purkinje cells (PCs) induces a long-term depression (LTD) of PF synaptic transmission that spreads to unpaired PF inputs to the same cell. Inhibitors of NO synthase (7-nitro-indazole), soluble guanylate cyclase (ODQ) and PKG (KT5823) all prevented depression at each of two independent PF pathways to a single PC. Inhibition of NOS also unmasked a platelet activating factor (PAF)-mediated synaptic potentiation of possible presynaptic origin. LTD was also prevented by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor OBAA but was rescued by co-perfusion with arachidonic acid. We conclude that NO and diffusible products of phospholipase A2 metabolism are potential mediators of the spread of cerebellar plasticity at the single cell level. PMID:11201073

  16. Arachidonic Acid Derivatives and Their Role in Peripheral Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo Camara-Lemarroy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After peripheral nerve injury, a process of axonal degradation, debris clearance, and subsequent regeneration is initiated by complex local signaling, called Wallerian degeneration (WD. This process is in part mediated by neuroglia as well as infiltrating inflammatory cells and regulated by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and the activation of transcription factors also related to the inflammatory response. Part of this neuroimmune signaling is mediated by the innate immune system, including arachidonic acid (AA derivatives such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The enzymes responsible for their production, cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases, also participate in nerve degeneration and regeneration. The interactions between signals for nerve regeneration and neuroinflammation go all the way down to the molecular level. In this paper, we discuss the role that AA derivatives might play during WD and nerve regeneration, and the therapeutic possibilities that arise.

  17. Arachidonic Acid Derivatives and Their Role in Peripheral Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Moreno, Emmanuel Irineo; Guzman-de la Garza, Francisco Javier; Fernandez-Garza, Nancy Esthela

    2012-01-01

    After peripheral nerve injury, a process of axonal degradation, debris clearance, and subsequent regeneration is initiated by complex local signaling, called Wallerian degeneration (WD). This process is in part mediated by neuroglia as well as infiltrating inflammatory cells and regulated by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and the activation of transcription factors also related to the inflammatory response. Part of this neuroimmune signaling is mediated by the innate immune system, including arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The enzymes responsible for their production, cyclooxygenases and lipooxygenases, also participate in nerve degeneration and regeneration. The interactions between signals for nerve regeneration and neuroinflammation go all the way down to the molecular level. In this paper, we discuss the role that AA derivatives might play during WD and nerve regeneration, and the therapeutic possibilities that arise. PMID:22997489

  18. Phenylethanoids in the herb of Plantago lanceolata and inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, M; Tamayama, Y; Nishibe, S

    1995-10-01

    The five phenylethanoids, acteoside (1), cistanoside F (2), lavandulifolioside (3), plantamajoside (4) and isoacteoside (5) were isolated from the herb of Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Compounds 1, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. lanceolata L., and 4, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. asiatica L., showed inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

  19. Polymorphisms in the genes involved in the arachidonic acid-pathway, fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, Christine L E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Kram, Nicolien R; Doeselaar, Marina van; Kranen, Henk J van

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study on colorectal cancer was to investigate the associations between SNPs in the genes involved in the arachidonic acid (AA)-pathway, their haplotypes and colorectal cancer. Moreover, interactions between SNPs and fish consumption were considered. In this study, a total of 50

  20. Phenylethanoids in the herb of Plantago lanceolata and inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, M; Tamayama, Y; Nishibe, S

    1995-10-01

    The five phenylethanoids, acteoside (1), cistanoside F (2), lavandulifolioside (3), plantamajoside (4) and isoacteoside (5) were isolated from the herb of Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Compounds 1, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. lanceolata L., and 4, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. asiatica L., showed inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema. PMID:7480214

  1. Mechanism for release of arachidonic acid during guinea pig platelet aggregation: a role for the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC 80267

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids after the stimulation of guinea pig platelets with collagen, thrombin and platelet activating factor (PAF) was studied. RHC 80267, a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, were used. Various in vitro assays for enzymes involved in arachidonic acid release and metabolism were conducted. Platelet aggregation and simultaneous release of ADP from platelets were monitored using a Chrono-log Lumiaggregometer. Platelets were labeled with (14C)arachidonic acid to facilitate sensitive determination of small changes in platelet phospholipids during platelet aggregation. In the present investigation it is shown that collagen, thrombin and PAF increased phospholipase C activity. It was also discovered that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for further stimulation (a positive feed-back) of phospholipase C activity, while diacylglycerol provided a negative feed-back control over receptor-stimulated phospholipase C activity and inhibited ADP release. The guinea pig platelet is an ideal model to study phospholipase C-diacylglycerol lipase pathway for the release of arachidonic acid from platelet phospholipids because it does not have any phospholipase A2 activity. It was observed that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for collagen-induced guinea pig platelet aggregation. Indomethacin completely inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, was less effective against thrombin, and had no effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation. On the other hand, RHC 80267 was a powerful inhibitor of aggregation and ADP release induced by all three of these potent aggregating agents

  2. Colorectal adenoma risk is modified by the interplay between polymorphisms in arachidonic acid pathway genes and fish consumption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, C.L.; Leeuwen, A.I. van; Kram, N.R.; Luken, M.E.; Kranen, H.J. van; Kampman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Associations between polymorphisms in genes (SNPs) involved in the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway and colorectal adenomas have been investigated in a Dutch case control study including 384 cases and 403 polyp-free controls. Twenty-one polymorphisms in seven candidate genes were studied and a potentia

  3. Peroxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid in the course of Lyme arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Łuczaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Objective. The objective of the study was measurement of serum arachidonic acid level as well as the product of its peroxidation – 8-isoPGF[sub]2[/sub][sub]α[/sub], and the activity of phospholipase A[sub]2[/sub] and PAF-acetylhydrolase that participate in releasing 8-isoPGF[sub]2α[/sub] from glycerol skeleton, and the potential designation of their role in the pathomechanism of Lyme disease (LD. Material and methods. Changes in the phospholipid arachidonic acid level and the level of 8-isoPGF[sub]2α[/sub] were determined in the plasma and urine of patients with LA (n=57 and of healthy controls (n=41. The activity of phospholipase A[sub]2[/sub] and PAF acetylhydrolase were assayed. All examined parameters were also measured in the plasma of some LA patients (n=13 after antibiotics treatment. Results. An almost 3-fold higher level of the total plasma 8-isoPGF[sub]2α[/sub] was observed in LA patients compared to the controls, while in the urine it increased over 5-fold. The plasma PLA[sub]2[/sub] activity was more than 3-fold higher in LA patients than in the healthy subjects, while PAF acetylhydrolase activity was observed to be modestly, but not significantly lower. The total 8-isoPGF[sub]2α[/sub] level in the plasma and urine of LA patients was significantly lower after antibiotics treatment. The plasma activity of PAF-AH in the LA patients was increased, while the cPLA[sub]2[/sub] activity decreased after antibiotics treatment. Conclusions. It may be suggested that in the course of LA, the level of binding 8-isoPGF[sub]2α[/sub] is significantly enhanced, and it may also be suggested that uncontrolled changes in the lipid status of some patients may make their Lyme arthritis unresponsive to antibiotics.

  4. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  5. Calcium-dependent phospholipid catabolism and arachidonic acid mobilization in cerebral minces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral minces were used to investigate the role of calcium influx on trauma-induced alterations of brain lipid metabolism. Cerebral phospholipids, nonpolar lipids, and free fatty acids were radiolabeled in vivo with [3H]arachidonic acid. Tissue incubation stimulated the time-dependent catabolism of choline and inositol glycerophospholipids, and resulted in the accumulation of [3H]free fatty acids. These effects were attenuated in Ca2+-free incubations, and when EGTA or verapamil were present. The inhibition of calcium influx also reduced the labeling of diglycerides, whereas ethanolamine and serine glycerophospholipids were not affected by incubation or treatments. Replacing Ca2+ with other cations also attenuated the incubation-dependent alterations in lipid metabolism. However, only cadmium was able to compete with calcium and reduce the accumulation of [3H]free fatty acids. It appeared that about half of the observed phospholipid catabolism was dependent on Ca2+ influx and that at least 80% of the [3H]free fatty acid accumulation required calcium

  6. Calcium-dependent phospholipid catabolism and arachidonic acid mobilization in cerebral minces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damron, D.S.; Dorman, R.V. (Kent State Univ., OH (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Cerebral minces were used to investigate the role of calcium influx on trauma-induced alterations of brain lipid metabolism. Cerebral phospholipids, nonpolar lipids, and free fatty acids were radiolabeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid. Tissue incubation stimulated the time-dependent catabolism of choline and inositol glycerophospholipids, and resulted in the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. These effects were attenuated in Ca{sup 2}{sup +}-free incubations, and when EGTA or verapamil were present. The inhibition of calcium influx also reduced the labeling of diglycerides, whereas ethanolamine and serine glycerophospholipids were not affected by incubation or treatments. Replacing Ca{sup 2}{sup +} with other cations also attenuated the incubation-dependent alterations in lipid metabolism. However, only cadmium was able to compete with calcium and reduce the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. It appeared that about half of the observed phospholipid catabolism was dependent on Ca{sup 2}{sup +} influx and that at least 80% of the ({sup 3}H)free fatty acid accumulation required calcium.

  7. Lipid characterization of an arachidonic acid-rich oil producing fungus Mortierella alpina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjia Wu; Jiacheng Yan; Xiaojun Ji; Xin Zhang; Jingsheng Shang; Lina Sun; Lujing Ren; He Huang

    2015-01-01

    Mortierel a alpina has been considered as the most effective producer of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil. It was found that several methods could improve the percentage of ARA in total lipids successful y, as they activated the desaturation system on the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, in M. alpina the ARA exists in several forms, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), and diacylglycerol (DAG). These forms are caused by different acyltransferases and they determine the nutrient value of the microbial oil. However, few works revealed de-tailed fatty acid distribution among lipid classes, which to some extent impeded the accurate regulation in ARA accumulation. Herein, this paper gives information on the accumulation process of main lipid classes and the changes of fatty acid composition in these lipids during ARA accumulation period in M. alpina. The result dem-onstrates that TAG was the dominant component of the total lipids, and it is the main form for ARA storage. The ARA enrichment stage occurred during 168–192 h when the amount of total lipids maintained steady. Further analysis indicated that the newly formed ARA-TAG might come from the incorporation and modification of sat-urated and monounsaturated fatty acids in other lipid classes. This work could be helpful for further optimization of ARA-rich TAG production.

  8. Synergism between thapsigargin and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate on the release of [C]arachidonic acid and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Thapsigargin is a potent skin irritating sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the roots of Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae). In rat peritoneal mast cells thapsigargin induced a calcium-dependent non-cytotoxic [C]arachidonic acid and histamine release. A minor amount of the released [C]arachidonic a...

  9. [ANALYSIS OF ARACHIDONIC ACID RELATIVE CONTENT CHANGES IN ERYTHROCYTES AND PLATELETS PHOSPHOLIPIDS MEMBRANES FEATURES IN CORONARY HEART DISEASE WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizogub, V G; Zavalska, T V; Merkulova, I O; Bryuzgina, T S

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes and platelets phospholipid membranes fatty acid spectrum was detected in coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation patients and in patients with coronary heart disease without atrial fibrillation. 87 patients were investigated. Significant decrease in the arachidonic acid relative content in coronary heart disease patients compared with healthy individuals was related. As well as a significant decrease in the arachidonic acid relative content in coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation patients compared with coronary heart disease patients without atrial fibrillation was related too. These dates may indicate that decreasing relative content arachidonic acid can be possible pathogenetic link in the development of arrhythmias.

  10. Effects of arachidonic acid on ATP-sensitive K+ current in murine colonic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jae Yeoul; Yeum, Cheol Ho; Park, Yoo Whan; Jang, In Youb; Kong, In Deok; Sim, Jae Hoon; So, Insuk; Kim, Ki Whan; You, Ho Jin

    2002-09-01

    The effects of arachidonic acid (AA) and the mechanism through which it modulates ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) currents were examined in single smooth muscle cells of murine proximal colon. In the current-clamping mode, AA and glibenclamide induced depolarization of membrane potential. Using 0.1 mM ATP and 140 mM K+ solution in the pipette and 90 mM K+ in the bath solution at a -80 mV of holding potential, pinacidil activated the glibenclamide-sensitive inward current. The potential of these currents was reversed to near the equilibrium potential of K+ by 60 mM K+ in the bath solution. AA inhibited K(ATP) currents in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition was not changed when 1 mM GDPbetaS was present in the pipette. Chelerythrine, protein kinase C inhibitor, did not block the AA effects. Superoxide dismutase and metabolic inhibitors (indomethacin and nordihydroguaiacretic acid) of AA did not affect the AA-induced inhibition. Eicosatetraynoic acid, a nonmetabolizable analogue of AA, inhibited the K(ATP) currents. These results suggest that AA-induced inhibition of K(ATP) currents is not mediated by G-protein or protein kinase C activation. The inhibitory action is likely to be a possible mechanism of AA-induced membrane depolarization. PMID:12396031

  11. Myogenic and metabolic feedback in cerebral autoregulation: Putative involvement of arachidonic acid-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Ronan M G

    2016-07-01

    The present paper presents a mechanistic model of cerebral autoregulation, in which the dual effects of the arachidonic acid metabolites 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on vascular smooth muscle mediate the cerebrovascular adjustments to a change in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). 20-HETE signalling in vascular smooth muscle mediates myogenic feedback to changes in vessel wall stretch, which may be modulated by metabolic feedback through EETs released from astrocytes and endothelial cells in response to changes in brain tissue oxygen tension. The metabolic feedback pathway is much faster than 20-HETE-dependent myogenic feedback, and the former thus initiates the cerebral autoregulatory response, while myogenic feedback comprises a relatively slower mechanism that functions to set the basal cerebrovascular tone. Therefore, assessments of dynamic cerebral autoregulation, which may provide information on the response time of the cerebrovasculature, may specifically be used to yield information on metabolic feedback mechanisms, while data based on assessments of static cerebral autoregulation represent the integrated functionality of myogenic and metabolic feedback. PMID:27241246

  12. Age-related changes in retinoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid modulation in nuclear lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveglio, Virginia L; Pascual, Ana C; Giusto, Norma M; Pasquaré, Susana J

    2016-08-15

    The aim of this work was to study how age-related changes could modify several enzymatic activities that regulate lipid mediator levels in nuclei from rat cerebellum and how these changes are modulated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). The higher phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity and lower diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity observed in aged animals compared with adults could augment diacylglycerol (DAG) availability in the former. Additionally, monoacylglycerol (MAG) availability could be high due to an increase in lysophosphatidate phosphohydrolase (LPAPase) activity and a decrease in monocylglycerol lipase activity. Interestingly, RA, DHA and AA were observed to modulate these enzymatic activities and this modulation was found to change in aged rats. In adult nuclei, whereas RA led to high DAG and MAG production through inhibition of their hydrolytic enzymes, DHA and AA promoted high MAG production by LPAPase and DAGL stimulation. In contrast, in aged nuclei RA caused high MAG generation whereas DHA and AA diminished it through LPAPase activity modulation. These results demonstrate that aging promotes a different nuclear lipid metabolism as well as a different type of non-genomic regulation by RA, DHA and AA, which could be involved in nuclear signaling events. PMID:27355428

  13. Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism and its implication on cell proliferation and tumour-angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, C A C; Missailidis, S

    2009-06-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites have recently generated a heightened interest due to growing evidence of their significant role in cancer biology. Thus, inhibitors of the AA cascade, first and foremost COX inhibitors, which have originally been of interest in the treatment of inflammatory conditions and certain types of cardiovascular disease, are now attracting attention as an arsenal against cancer. An increasing number of investigations support their role in cancer chemoprevention, although the precise molecular mechanisms that link levels of AA, and its metabolites, with cancer progression have still to be elucidated. This article provides an overview of the AA cascade and focuses on the roles of its inhibitors and their implication in cancer treatment. In particular, emphasis is placed on the inhibition of cell proliferation and neo-angiogenesis through inhibition of the enzymes COX-2, 5-LOX and CYP450. Downstream effects of inhibition of AA metabolites are analysed and the molecular mechanisms of action of a selected number of inhibitors of catalytic pathways reviewed. Lastly, the benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids and their mechanisms of action leading to reduced cancer risk and impeded cancer cell growth are mentioned. Finally, a proposal is put forward, suggesting a novel and integrated approach in viewing the molecular mechanisms and complex interactions responsible for the involvement of AA metabolites in carcinogenesis and the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and tumour prevention. PMID:19239926

  14. Differential effect of arachidonic acid on the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor/effector system in rat prostatic epithelium during sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmena, M J; Hueso, C; Solano, R M; Prieto, J C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of alterations in the membrane lipid environment on vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding and VIP-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation have been analyzed by arachidonic acid treatment of prostatic epithelial cells from rats at puberty and maturity, two critical developmental periods with characteristic lipidic and androgenic statuses. Treating cells with 0.1 mM arachidonic acid for 15 min at 37 degrees C increased the affinity of VIP receptors and the potency of the neuropeptide (up to five times) in the formation of cyclic AMP at maturity, but not at puberty. The average plasma membrane fluidity (as measured by fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene) remained unmodified after arachidonic acid treatment of cells. The modifications observed in mature rats were specific for the VIP receptor/effector system, since cyclic AMP stimulation by isoproterenol or forskolin was not affected by cell treatment with arachidonic acid. These results are compatible with the existence of a particular lipidic microdomain surrounding the VIP receptor in the cell membrane that would be altered by exposure to arachidonic acid (either directly or through conversion of arachidonic acid to its metabolites, as suggested by experiments on inhibition of the arachidonic acid cascade). This would make it possible for the activation of protein kinase C to phosphorylate VIP receptors in cells from mature rats, but not in those from pubertal animals with a very different membrane lipid composition (as suggested by the corresponding values of membrane fluidity and transition temperature).

  15. Synergy by secretory phospholipase A2 and glutamate on inducing cell death and sustained arachidonic acid metabolic changes in primary cortical neuronal cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, M; DeCoster, M A; de Turco, E B;

    1996-01-01

    glutamate and sPLA2 from bee venom. sPLA2, at concentrations eliciting low neurotoxicity (arachidonate-phospholipids and preferential reesterification of the fatty acid into triacylglycerols. Free [3H]arachidonic acid accumulated at higher enzyme concentrations......, from Taipan snake venom. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 blocked glutamate effects and partially inhibited sPLA2 OS2 but not sPLA2 from bee venom-induced arachidonic acid release. Thus, the synergy with glutamate and very low concentrations of exogenously added sPLA2 suggests a potential role for...

  16. A New Model to Study the Role of Arachidonic Acid in Colon Cancer Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn; M Monk, Jennifer; S Goldsby, Jennifer; Yang, Peiying; Vincent, Logan; S Chapkin, Robert

    2016-09-01

    A significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) gene expression has been shown to promote cylcooxygenase-dependent colon cancer development. Controversy associated with the role of COX2 inhibitors indicates that additional work is needed to elucidate the effects of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase) eicosanoids in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. We have recently developed a novel Fads1 knockout mouse model that allows for the investigation of AA-dependent eicosanoid deficiency without the complication of essential fatty acid deficiency. Interestingly, the survival rate of Fads1-null mice is severely compromised after 2 months on a semi-purified AA-free diet, which precludes long-term chemoprevention studies. Therefore, in this study, dietary AA levels were titrated to determine the minimal level required for survival, while maintaining a distinct AA-deficient phenotype. Null mice supplemented with AA (0.1%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 2.0%, w/w) in the diet exhibited a dose-dependent increase (P colon. In subsequent experiments, null mice supplemented with 0.6% AA diet were injected with a colon-specific carcinogen (azoxymethane) in order to assess cancer susceptibility. Null mice exhibited significantly (P cancer prevention studies and (ii) that AA content in the colonic epithelium modulates colon cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 750-7. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27339171

  17. Culture media optimization of Porphyridium purpureum: production potential of biomass, total lipids, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Mysore Doddaiah; Kathiresan, Shanmugam; Bhattacharya, Sila; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Porphyridium purpureum a red marine microalga is known for phycobiliproteins (PB), polyunsaturated fatty acids and sulphated exopolysaccharides. In the present study, effects of media constituents for the production of different polyunsaturated fatty acids from P. purpureum were considered using a response surface methodology (RSM). A second order polynomial was used to predict the response functions in terms of the independent variables such as the concentrations of sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium nitrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The response functions were production of biomass yield, total lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids like arachidonic acid (AA 20:4) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5). Results corroborated that maximum Biomass (0.95 gL(-1)) yield was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (14.89 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (3.93 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (0.96 gL(-1)) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.09 gL(-1)). Optimum total lipid (17.9 % w/w) and EPA (34.6 % w/w) content was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (29.98 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (9.34 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (1.86 gL(-1)). Variation in concentration of potassium dihydrogen phosphate for both lipid (0.01gL(-1)) and EPA content (0.20 gL(-1)) was observed. The optimum conditions for biomass, total lipid, AA and EPA varied indicating their batch mode of growth and interaction effect of the salt. PMID:27407193

  18. The effects of xanthoangelol E on arachidonic acid metabolism in the gastric antral mucosa and platelet of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T; Sakuma, S; Sumiya, T; Nishida, H; Fujimoto, Y; Baba, K; Kozawa, M

    1992-08-01

    The effects of a new chalcone derivative, xanthoangelol E, isolated from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi, on arachidonic acid metabolism in the gastric antral mucosa and platelet of the rabbit were examined. When gastric antral mucosal slices were incubated with xanthoangelol E (0.05-1.0 mM), there was no significant effect on the production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2 alpha and their metabolites. On the other hand, this compound inhibited effectively the production of thromboxane B2 and 12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid from exogenous arachidonic acid in platelets, and the concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC50) was approximately 5 microM. The formation of 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid was also reduced by this drug (IC50, 50 microM). These results suggest that xanthoangelol E has the potential to modulate arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets and that this action may participate in some pharmacological effect of the plant.

  19. 2-hydroxy arachidonic acid: a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Lopez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a family of COX1 and COX2 inhibitors used to reduce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators. In addition, inflammation often leads to a harmful generation of nitric oxide. Efforts are being done in discovering safer NSAIDs molecules capable of inhibiting the synthesis of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators and nitric oxide to reduce the side effects associated with long term therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analogue of arachidonic acid (AA, 2-hydroxy-arachidonic acid (2OAA, was designed to inhibit the activities of COX1 and COX2 and it was predicted to have similar binding energies as AA for the catalytic sites of COX1 and COX2. The interaction of AA and 2OAA with COX1 and COX2 was investigated calculating the free energy of binding and the Fukui function. Toxicity was determined in mouse microglial BV-2 cells. COX1 and COX2 (PGH2 production activities were measured in vitro. COX1 and COX2 expression in human macrophage-like U937 cells were carried out by Western blot, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. NO production (Griess method and iNOS (Western blot were determined in mouse microglial BV-2 cells. The comparative efficacy of 2OAA, ibuprofen and cortisone in lowering TNF-α serum levels was determined in C57BL6/J mice challenged with LPS. We show that the presence of the -OH group reduces the likelihood of 2OAA being subjected to H* abstraction in COX, without altering significantly the free energy of binding. The 2OAA inhibited COX1 and COX2 activities and the expression of COX2 in human U937 derived macrophages challenged with LPS. In addition, 2OAA inhibited iNOS expression and the production of NO in BV-2 microglial cells. Finally, oral administration of 2OAA decreased the plasma TNF-α levels in vivo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate the potential of 2OAA as a NSAID.

  20. In vitro release of arachidonic acid metabolites, glutathione peroxidase, and oxygen-free radicals from platelets of asthmatic patients with and without aspirin intolerance.

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, V.; J. Prat; Rosellò, J.; Ballester, E; Ramis, I; Mullol, J; Gelpí, E; Vives-Corrons, J. L.; Picado, C.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--An abnormal platelet release of oxygen-free radicals has been described in acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)-induced asthma, a finding which might suggest the existence of an intrinsic, specific platelet abnormality of arachidonic acid metabolism in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate platelet arachidonic acid metabolism in asthmatic patients with or without intolerance to aspirin. METHODS--Thirty subjects distributed into three groups were studied: group 1, 1...

  1. Pregnancy duration and the ratio of long-chain n-3 fatty acids to arachidonic acid in erythrocytes from Faroese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.;

    1989-01-01

    Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) may prolong gestation by inhibiting formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. FA were quantified in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and total lipids (TL) of red cells sampled during pregnancy from 29 Faroese women. The ratio...

  2. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions.

  3. The effects of anaerobic training in serum lipids and arachidonic acid metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIOS KIPREOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary arteries are subjected daily in high shear stress and manifest atherosclerosis very early in life in comparison to other arteries in the human body. Some factors that are implicated in the evolution and progress of this process are the concentration of lipids and arachidonic acid metabolites, such prostacyclin and thromboxane. It has been reported that those who participate in aerobic activities such as walking, cycling, jogging or brisk walking might have normal values of the mentioned chemical substances. On the other hand, it is reported that the effects of anaerobic and strength activities has negative effects on the vascular endothelium, which is essential for the maintenance of hemostatic balance and the local regulation of vascular tone.Therefore, even although extensive research has been conducted in this field, there are crucial gaps in our knowledge. Consequently, the purpose of this brief review is to describe what is known about the effects of anaerobic activities in which the competitive athletes have participated on the following blood parameters: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL - C, low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL - C, prostacyclin & thromboxane.

  4. Intestinal zinc transport: influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin and arachidonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, M.K.; Mooradian, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of arachidonic acid (AA) on the zinc flux rates of jejunal segments, isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats injected with saline or with insulin, was investigated using an Ussing chamber technique. Although the zinc flux rates from mucose-to-serosa (J/sub ms/) of normal rats were inhibited by addition of 5 ..mu..M AA to the jejunal segment bathing medium, AA had no effect on the J/sub ms/ of diabetic rats either with or without insulin treatment. Induction of diabetes also significantly reduces J/sub ms/, but 3 day insulin treatment did not reverse this effect. Addition of AA to the serosal side did not significantly alter the zinc flux rate from serosa-to-mucosa (J/sub sm/) in either control, diabetic or diabetic rats treated with insulin. The net zinc absorption rate (J/sub net/) of jejunal segments was decreased in diabetic rats compared to controls, but normalization of blood glucose with 3 day insulin treatment did not increase J/sub net/. Addition of AA was associated with a tendency to increase zinc uptake capacity. This change reached statistical significance in insulin treated diabetic rats. Short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) for diabetic rats was increased compared to controls but addition of AA to the mucosal side bathing medium decreased I/sub sc/ in all groups. 32 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  5. Combination Therapy of PPAR Ligands and Inhibitors of Arachidonic Acid in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Tauler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States and five-year survival remains low. Numerous studies have shown that chronic inflammation may lead to progression of carcinogenesis. As a result of inflammatory stimulation, arachidonic acid (AA metabolism produces proliferation mediators through complex and dynamic interactions of the products of the LOX/COX enzymes. One important mediator in the activation of the AA pathways is the nuclear protein PPAR. Targeting LOX/COX enzymes and inducing activation of PPAR have resulted in significant reduction of cell growth in lung cancer cell lines. However, specific COX-inhibitors have been correlated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Clinical applications are still being explored with a novel generation of dual LOX/COX inhibitors. PPAR activation through synthetic ligands (TZDs has revealed a great mechanistic complexity since effects are produced through PPAR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Furthermore, PPAR could also be involved in regulation of COX-2. Overexpression of PPAR has reported to play a role in control of invasion and differentiation. Exploring the function of PPAR, in this new context, may provide a better mechanistic model of its role in cancer and give an opportunity to design a more efficient therapeutic approach in combination with LOX/COX inhibitors.

  6. Improving arachidonic acid fermentation by Mortierella alpina through multistage temperature and aeration rate control in bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Jie; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2016-05-18

    Effective production of arachidonic acid (ARA) using Mortierella alpina was conducted in a 30-L airlift bioreactor. Varying the aeration rate and temperature significantly influenced cell morphology, cell growth, and ARA production, while the optimal aeration rate and temperature for cell growth and product formation were quite different. As a result, a two-stage aeration rate control strategy was constructed based on monitoring of cell morphology and ARA production under various aeration rate control levels (0.6-1.8 vvm). Using this strategy, ARA yield reached 4.7 g/L, an increase of 38.2% compared with the control (constant aeration rate control at 1.0 vvm). Dynamic temperature-control strategy was implemented based on the fermentation performance at various temperatures (13-28°C), with ARA level in total cellular lipid increased by 37.1% comparing to a constant-temperature control (25°C). On that basis, the combinatorial fermentation strategy of two-stage aeration rate control and dynamic temperature control was applied and ARA production achieved the highest level of 5.8 g/L.

  7. The metabolism of arachidonic acid in isolated perfused fetal and neonatal rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developmental pattern of fetal and neonatal rabbit lungs to metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to different cyclo-oxygenase products was studied in isolated rabbit lungs, which were perfused with Krebs bicarbonate buffer. 14C-AA (66 nmol) was injected into the pulmonary circulation and the nonrecirculating perfusion effluent was collected for four minutes. About ten per cent of the injected radioactivity was found in the 0-4 min perfusion effluent. The metabolites of AA in the effluent were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The major metabolites of AA were PGE2 and its 15-keto-derivates, but also PGF2 alpha and its 15-keto-derivates, TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were found in the effluent. The most drastic developmental change was the increase in the amount of 15-keto-metabolites of PGE2 from late fetal period to the lungs of one day old rabbits (1.8 fold increase between birth and first postnatal day). Smaller changes were detected in the amounts of other cyclo-oxygenase products

  8. Shuffling the cards in signal transduction: Calcium, arachidonic acid and mechanosensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca; Munaron

    2011-01-01

    Cell signaling is a very complex network of biochemical reactions triggered by a huge number of stimuli coming from the external medium. The function of any single signaling component depends not only on its own structure but also on its connections with other biomolecules. During prokaryotic-eukaryotic transition, the rearrangement of cell organization in terms of diffusional compartmentalization exerts a deep change in cell signaling functional potentiality. In this review I briefly introduce an intriguing ancient relationship between pathways involved in cell responses to chemical agonists (growth factors, nutrients, hormones) as well as to mechanical forces (stretch, osmotic changes). Some biomolecules (ion channels and enzymes) act as "hubs", thanks to their ability to be directly or indirectly chemically/mechanically co-regulated. In particular calcium signaling machinery and arachidonic acid metabolism are very ancient networks, already present before eukaryotic appearance. A number of molecular "hubs", including phospholipase A2 and some calcium channels, appear tightly interconnected in a cross regulation leading to the cellular response to chemical and mechanical stimulations.

  9. Effects of a low birthweight infant formula containing human milk levels of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, B; Edenhofer, S; Lipowsky, G; Reinhardt, D

    1995-08-01

    Long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (LCP) are considered conditionally essential nutrients for low birth weight infants (LBWI). Therefore, enrichment of LBWI formulae with metabolites both linoleic (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic (omega-3) acids at levels typical for human milk has been recommended. However, previous feeding trials with LCP-enriched formulae evaluated only a dietary supplementation with omega-3 LCP from fish oils alone or with both omega-3 and omega-6 LCP at levels considerably lower than usual human milk contents. We studied the effects of an LBWI formula providing the major omega-3 and omega-6 LCP, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids, in amounts similar to those in average human milk. Twenty-seven LBWIs were enrolled in this study when they tolerated full enteral feeding (> or = 130 ml milk/kg/day). Infants either received their own mother's milk (n = 8, birthweight 1218 +/- 146 g, gestational age 30.2 +/- 1.5 weeks, mean +/- SD) fortified with protein and minerals (FM-85, Nestle Ag, Munchen, Germany; dosage 5 g/100 ml milk) or were randomly assigned to blinded batches of an LBWI formula (Prematil, Milupa AG, Friedrichsdorf, Germany) without LCP (n = 10, 1280 +/- 229 g, 31.1 +/- 3.1 weeks) or with LCP (n = 9, 1253 +/- 334 g, 30.4 +/- 3.3 wks.). During the study period of 21 days, the three feeding groups did not differ in growth and feeding tolerances as assessed by occurrence of gastric residuals, spitting, or abdominal distention; however, firms stools were noted more frequently in the two formula groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Effect of Arachidonic Acid on the Rate of Oxygen Consumption in Isolated Cardiomyocytes from Intact Rats and Animals with Ischemic or Diabetic Injury to the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, M V; Kutsykova, T V; Afanas'ev, S A; Popov, S V

    2015-12-01

    We studied the rate of oxygen consumption by isolated cardiomyocytes from intact rats and animals with experimental myocardial infarction or streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The measurements were performed in standard incubation medium under various conditions of oxygenation and after addition of arachidonic acid (20 μmol/liter). Under normoxic conditions, arachidonic acid improves respiration of cardiomyocytes from intact animals, but reduces this parameter in cells isolated from animals with pathologies. The intensity of O2 consumption by cardiomyocytes from intact rats and animals with pathologies was shown to decrease during hypoxia. Addition of arachidonic acid aggravated inhibition of respiration for cardiomyocytes from intact rats and specimens with myocardial infarction, but had no effect in diabetes mellitus. The effect of arachidonic acid on oxygen consumption rate is probably mediated by a nonspecific mechanism realized at the mitochondrial level.

  11. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure adversely alters 14C-arachidonic acid metabolism in rat lungs, aortas and platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily, 5 times a week for 10 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated carboxyhemoglobin in blood sampled immediately after smoke exposure and by increased lung aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity 24 hours after the last smoke exposure. Aortic rings isolated from smoke-exposed rats synthesized less prostacyclin (PGI2) from 14C-arachidonic acid than rings from sham rats. Platelets from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more thromboxane (TXA2) from 14C-arachidonic acid than platelets from room controls but not those from sham rats. Lung microsomes from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more TXA2 and had a lower PGI2/TXA2 ratio than lung microsomes from room controls and shams. It is concluded that chronic cigarette smoke exposure alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas, platelets and lungs in a manner resulting in decreased PGI2 and increased TXA2, thereby creating a condition favoring platelet aggregation and a variety of cardiovascular diseases

  12. Effect of dietary arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and pigmentation in larvae of common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence confirms that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA are involved in growth as well in pigmentation of marine fish larvae. In the present study we examined the performance of common sole larvae reared...... to increased dietary ARA content. However, pigmentation was not affected by inclusion levels of EPA or DHA when ARA was high. This, and no relation between DHA: EPA or ARA: EPA ratios and pigmentation and only a weak relation to ARA: DHA ratio, advocate for that it is the absolute concentration of ARA...

  13. Eugenol: a dual inhibitor of platelet-activating factor and arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, S A; Simjee, R U; Shamim, G; Gilani, A H

    1995-07-01

    Eugenol is an active principal and responsible for several pharmacological activities of clove oil. We studied the effects of eugenol on human platelet aggregation, arachidonic acid (AA) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) metabolism and in vivo effects on AA and PAF-induced shock in rabbits. Eugenol strongly inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation with lesser effect against AA and collegen. The IC(50) values were against AA: 31 ± 0.5; collagen: 64 ± 0.7 and PAF 7 ± 0.2 μM (n=9) respectively. In addition, eugenol stimulated PAF-acetylhydrolase activity suggesting that inhibition of PAF could be due to its inactivation to lyso-PAF. Pretreatment of rabbits with eugenol (50-100 mg/kg) prevented the lethal effects of intravenous PAF (11 μgg/kg) or AA (2 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent fashion. The protective effects of eugenol in the rabbits, however, were more pronounced against PAF-induced mortality (100% protection). In addition, eugenol also inhibited AA metabolism via cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in human platelets. Both the production of thromboxane-A(2) and 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by eugenol in a concentration-related manner (30-120 μM). In vivo, eugenol (50-100 mg/kg; i.p.) inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (P < 0.001). In this test, eugenol was 5 times more potent than aspirin. These results provide evidence that eugenol acts as a dual antagonist of AA and PAF. PMID:23196096

  14. Fatty acid transfer in the food web of a coastal Mediterranean lagoon: Evidence for high arachidonic acid retention in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Bec, Alexandre; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Bourdier, Gilles; Desvilettes, Christian

    2011-02-01

    The transfer of fatty acids (FAs) in the food web of a Mediterranean lagoon was studied using FA compositional patterns across several trophic levels. The structure of the food web was inferred from C and N stable isotopes values and an isotope mixing model was used in order to estimate the relative contribution of the different potential food sources to the biomass of consumers. Bidimensional plots of FA composition of food web components against their δ 15N values indicated a general trend of increasing proportions of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) with increasing trophic levels while the proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) and 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decreased. Using the relative contributions of food sources to consumers and their FA compositions, a model was built in order to estimate the PUFA composition of consumer mixed diets which was compared to consumer PUFA profiles. The latter allowed the identification of the PUFAs which were mostly enriched/retained in consumer lipids. There was a surprisingly high retention of arachidonic acid (ARA), a trend which challenges the idea of low ARA needs in marine fish and suggests the important physiological role of this essential FA for fish in estuarine environments.

  15. Extract of a spice--omum (Trachyspermum ammi)-shows antiaggregatory effects and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K C

    1988-07-01

    An ethereal extract of omum (Trachyspermum ammi; Hindustani: ajwan)--a frequently consumed spice--was found to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), epinephrine and collagen; in this respect it was most effective against AA-induced aggregation. Inhibition of aggregation by omum could be explained by its effect on platelet thromboxane production as suggested by the following experimental observation. (i) Omum reduced TxB2 formation in intact platelet preparations from added arachidonate, and (ii) it reduced the formation of TxB2 from AA-labelled platelets after stimulation with Ca2+-ionophore A23187 by a direct action on cyclooxygenase as it did not affect the release of AA from labelled platelets. An increased formation of lipoxygenase-derived products from exogenous AA in omum-treated platelets was apparently due to redirection of AA from cyclooxygenase to the lipoxygenase pathway.

  16. Lipid Body Organelles within the Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi: A Role for Intracellular Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Daniel A. M.; Roque, Natália R.; Teixeira, Lívia; Milán-Garcés, Erix A.; Carneiro, Alan B.; Almeida, Mariana R.; Andrade, Gustavo F. S.; Martins, Jefferson S.; Pinho, Roberto R.; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; D’Avila, Heloisa

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells contain varying amounts of cytosolic lipidic inclusions termed lipid bodies (LBs) or lipid droplets (LDs). In mammalian cells, such as macrophages, these lipid-rich organelles are formed in response to host-pathogen interaction during infectious diseases and are sites for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). Less clear are the functions of LBs in pathogenic lower eukaryotes. In this study, we demonstrated that LBs, visualized by light microscopy with different probes and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), are produced in trypomastigote forms of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas’ disease, after both host interaction and exogenous AA stimulation. Quantitative TEM revealed that LBs from amastigotes, the intracellular forms of the parasite, growing in vivo have increased size and electron-density compared to LBs from amastigotes living in vitro. AA-stimulated trypomastigotes released high amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and showed PGE2 synthase expression. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated increased unsaturated lipid content and AA incorporation in stimulated parasites. Moreover, both Raman and MALDI mass spectroscopy revealed increased AA content in LBs purified from AA-stimulated parasites compared to LBs from unstimulated group. By using a specific technique for eicosanoid detection, we immunolocalized PGE2 within LBs from AA-stimulated trypomastigotes. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LBs from the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi are not just lipid storage inclusions but dynamic organelles, able to respond to host interaction and inflammatory events and involved in the AA metabolism. Acting as sources of PGE2, a potent immunomodulatory lipid mediator that inhibits many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, newly-formed parasite LBs may be implicated with the pathogen survival in its host. PMID:27490663

  17. Influence of dietary linoleic acid intake with different fat intakes on arachidonic acid concentrations in plasma and platelet lipids and eicosanoid biosynthesis in female volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Olaf; Wolfram, G.; Zöllner, N.

    2003-01-01

    Background/Aim: N-6 fatty acids are considered to promote diseases prevalent in industrialized countries and characterized by an increased eicosanoid biosynthesis from arachidonic acid (AA). We investigated the impact of the linoleic acid (LA) intake on AA levels in humans. Methods: Six healthy female volunteers (age range 2334 years) were given liquid formula diets (LFD) devoid of AA for 6 weeks, providing a constant intake of zero energy% (LFD 0: protein 15%, carbohydrates 85%) or 20 energy...

  18. Anti-Inflammation Effects and Potential Mechanism of Saikosaponins by Regulating Nicotinate and Nicotinamide Metabolism and Arachidonic Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu; Bao, Yongrui; Wang, Shuai; Li, Tianjiao; Chang, Xin; Yang, Guanlin; Meng, Xiansheng

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation is an important immune response; however, excessive inflammation causes severe tissue damages and secondary inflammatory injuries. The long-term and ongoing uses of routinely used drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are associated with serious adverse reactions, and not all patients have a well response to them. Consequently, therapeutic products with more safer and less adverse reaction are constantly being sought. Radix Bupleuri, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, saikosaponins (SS) as the main pharmacodynamic active ingredient, their pharmacological effects and action mechanism in anti-inflammation have not been reported frequently. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of SS and clarify the potential mechanism in acute inflammatory mice induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin in hind paws. Paw edema was detected as an index to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of SS. Then, a metabolomic method was used to investigate the changed metabolites and potential mechanism of SS. Metabolite profiling was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The detection and identification of the changed metabolites were systematically analyzed by multivariate data and pathway analysis. As a result, 12 different potential biomarkers associated with SS in anti-inflammation were identified, including nicotinate, niacinamide, arachidonic acid (AA), and 20-carboxy-leukotriene B4, which are associated with nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. The expression levels of biomarkers were effectively modulated towards the normal range by SS. It indicated that SS show their effective anti-inflammatory effects through regulating nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. PMID:27251379

  19. Arachidonic Acid and Cerebral Ischemia Risk: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Sakai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arachidonic acid (ARA is a precursor of various lipid mediators. ARA metabolites such as thromboxane A2 cause platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction, thus may lead to atherosclerotic disease. It is unclear whether dietary ARA influences the ARA-derived lipid mediator balance and the risk for atherosclerotic diseases, such as cerebral ischemia. Considering the function of ARA in atherosclerosis, it is reasonable to focus on the atherothrombotic type of cerebral ischemia risk. However, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses have been conducted to evaluate the effect of habitual ARA exposure on cerebral ischemia risk. We aimed to systematically evaluate observational studies available on the relationship between ARA exposure and the atherothrombotic type of cerebral ischemia risk in free-living populations. Summary: The PubMed database was searched for articles registered up to June 24, 2014. We designed a PubMed search formula as follows: key words for humans AND brain ischemia AND study designs AND ARA exposure. Thirty-three articles were reviewed against predefined criteria. There were 695 bibliographies assessed from the articles that included both ARA and cerebral ischemia descriptions. Finally, we identified 11 eligible articles and categorized them according to their reporting and methodological quality. We used the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement (STROBE checklist to score the reporting quality. The methodological quality was qualitatively assessed based on the following aspects: subject selection, ARA exposure assessment, outcome diagnosis, methods for controlling confounders, and statistical analysis. We did not conduct a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity among the studies. All eligible studies measured blood ARA levels as an indicator of exposure. Our literature search did not identify any articles that evaluated dietary ARA intake and tissue ARA as assessments of

  20. The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkadi-Nagy Eszter A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity on CNS DHA and ARA concentrations. Methods Baboons were randomized into a breastfed (B and four formula-fed groups: term, no DHA/ARA (T-; term, DHA/ARA supplemented (T+; preterm, no DHA/ARA (P-; preterm and DHA/ARA supplemented (P+. At four weeks adjusted age, brains were dissected and total fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results DHA and ARA are rich in many more structures than previously reported. They are most concentrated in structures local to the brain stem and diencephalon, particularly the basal ganglia, limbic regions, thalamus and midbrain, and comparatively lower in white matter. Dietary supplementation increased DHA in all structures but had little influence on ARA concentrations. Supplementation restored DHA concentrations to levels of breastfed neonates in all regions except the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Prematurity per se did not exert a strong influence on DHA or ARA concentrations. Conclusion 1 DHA and ARA are found in high concentration throughout the primate CNS, particularly in gray matter such as basal ganglia; 2 DHA concentrations drop across most CNS structures in neonates consuming formulas with no DHA, but ARA levels are relatively immune to ARA in the diet; 3 supplementation of infant formula is effective at restoring DHA concentration in structures other than the cerebral cortex. These results will be useful as a guide to future investigations of CNS function in the absence of dietary DHA and ARA.

  1. Altered Arachidonic Acid Cascade Enzymes in Postmortem Brain from Bipolar Disorder Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyung-Wook; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Rao, Jagadeesh S.

    2009-01-01

    Mood stabilizers that are approved for treating bipolar disorder (BD), when given chronically to rats, decrease expression of markers of the brain arachidonic metabolic cascade, and reduce excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation-induced upregulation of these markers. These observations, plus evidence for neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity in BD, suggest that AA cascade markers are upregulated in the BD brain. To test this hypothesis, these markers were measured in postmortem frontal cortex fro...

  2. Plasmenylethanolamine is the major storage depot for arachidonic acid in rabbit vascular smooth muscle and is rapidly hydrolyzed after angiotensin II stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study demonstrates that rabbit aortic intimal smooth muscle cells contain the majority of their endogenous arachidonic acid mass in plasmenylethanolamine molecular species. To demonstrate the potential significance of these plasmenylethanolamines as substrates for the smooth muscle cell phospholipases that are activated during agonist stimulation, aortic rings were prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid and stimulated with angiotensin II. Although the specific activities of the choline and inositol glycerophospholipid pools were similar after the labeling interval, ethanolamine glycerophospholipids had a specific activity of only 20% of the specific activity of choline and inositol glycerophospholipids. Despite the marked disparity in the specific activities of these three phospholipid classes, angiotensin II stimulation resulted in similar fractional losses (35-41%) of [3H]arachidonic acid from vascular smooth muscle choline, ethanolamine, and inositol glycerophospholipid classes. Reverse-phase HPLC demonstrated that >60% of the [3H]arachidonic acid released from ethanolamine glycerophospholipids after angiotensin II stimulation originated from plasmenylethanolamine molecular species. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the major phospholipid storage depot for arachidonic acid in vascular smooth muscle cells are plasmenylethanolamine molecular species which are important substrates for the phospholipase(s) that are activated during agonist stimulation

  3. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bufalo, Aurélia; Bernad, José; Dardenne, Christophe; Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Françoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Pipy, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE(2,) TxB(2) and PGD(2)), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1β and TNF-α. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE(2) inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. PMID:21807015

  4. Dietary fatty acids and the stress response of fish : arachidonic acid in seabream and tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, Rogier Daniël van

    2004-01-01

    A key factor in the production of fish in commercial aquaculture is the optimization of the artificial diets, not only to achieve optimal growth, but also to maximize fish health. Evidence is accumulating that dietary lipids, particularly the fatty acid composition, can have a direct effect on the f

  5. Diverse ways of perturbing the human arachidonic acid metabolic network to control inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hu; Liu, Ying; Lai, Luhua

    2015-08-18

    Inflammation and other common disorders including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are often the result of several molecular abnormalities and are not likely to be resolved by a traditional single-target drug discovery approach. Though inflammation is a normal bodily reaction, uncontrolled and misdirected inflammation can cause inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, or celecoxib are commonly used to relieve aches and pains, but often these drugs have undesirable and sometimes even fatal side effects. To facilitate safer and more effective anti-inflammatory drug discovery, a balanced treatment strategy should be developed at the biological network level. In this Account, we focus on our recent progress in modeling the inflammation-related arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic network and subsequent multiple drug design. We first constructed a mathematical model of inflammation based on experimental data and then applied the model to simulate the effects of commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs. Our results indicated that the model correctly reproduced the established bleeding and cardiovascular side effects. Multitarget optimal intervention (MTOI), a Monte Carlo simulated annealing based computational scheme, was then developed to identify key targets and optimal solutions for controlling inflammation. A number of optimal multitarget strategies were discovered that were both effective and safe and had minimal associated side effects. Experimental studies were performed to evaluate these multitarget control solutions further using different combinations of inhibitors to perturb the network. Consequently, simultaneous control of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase, as well as 5-lipoxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthase were found to be among the best solutions. A single compound that can bind multiple targets presents advantages including low

  6. Modulation of voltage-dependent Ca channel current by arachidonic acid and other long-chain fatty acids in rabbit intestinal smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The effects of arachidonic acid (AA) and other long-chain fatty acids on voltage-dependent Ca channel current (ICa) were investigated, with the whole cell patch clamp method, in longitudinal smooth muscle cells of rabbit ileum. 10-30 microM AA caused a gradual depression of ICa. The inhibitory effect of AA was not prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) (an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase) or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (10 microM) (an inhibitor of lipoxygenase). 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)- 2-methylp...

  7. Decreased arachidonic acid content and metabolism in tissues of NZB/W F1 females fed a diet containing 0. 45% dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, A.; Cottam, G.L.

    1987-05-01

    A diet containing 0.45% DHA fed to NZB/W mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, delays the time of onset, improves survival and decreases the formation of antibodies to ds-DNA. Essential fatty acid-deficient diets or inclusion of eicosapentaenoic acid have similar beneficial effects and led them to investigate arachidonic acid metabolism in response to feeding DHA. The arachidonic acid content of plasma cholesteryl ester decreased from 37.4 +/- 2.2 to 28.2 +/- 1.3 mg%. In total liver phospholipid the value decreased from 18.1 +/- 0.52 to 13.7 +/- 1.3 mg%, in total kidney phospholipid the value decreased from 24.10 +/- 0.87 to 20.7 +/- 0.32 mg% and in resident peritoneal macrophages the value decreased from 15.4 +/- 4.6 to 3.6 +/- 1.4 mg%. The metabolism of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to Zymosan stimulation for 2 hr was examined by extraction of metabolites and separation by HPLC. Cells isolated from DHA-fed animals produced less PGE2 than controls, yet similar amounts of 6-keto PGF1..cap alpha.. were produced. Arachidonic acid metabolites have significant effects on the immune system and may be a mechanism involved in the benefits obtained by inclusion of DHA in the diet.

  8. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Dietary intake of lipids and their fatty acids profile influence many aspects of health. Thermal processing changes the properties of edible oils and can also modify their metabolism, for example, eicosanoids formation. The aim of our study was to verify whether the activity of desaturases can be modified by lipids intake, especially by the fatty acids content. The experimental diets contained rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and olive oil, both unheated and heated (for 10 minutes at 200 °C each time before administration), and influenced the fatty acids composition in serum and the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid (AA) formation. The activity of desaturases was determined by measuring the amounts of AA formed in vitro derived from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Wistar rats. In addition, the indices of ∆(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ∆(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined. To realize this aim, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography has been used with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection. Diet supplementation with the oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the fatty acids profile in blood serum and the activity of D6D and ∆(5)-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the above activities being dependent on the kind of oil applied. Diet supplementation with heated oils has been found to increase the amount of AA produced in hepatic microsomes; and in the case of rapeseed oil and sunflower oil, it has also increased D6D activity.

  9. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE2, TxB2 and PGD2), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1β and TNF-α. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE2 inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. - Highlights: → We investigated how contact sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response. → We used macrophage-differentiated cell line, U-937 treated with PMA/LPS. → Sensitizers specifically inhibit the production of COX metabolites (PGE2, TxB2). → Several mechanisms of inhibition: COX-2 expression/enzymatic activity, isomerases. → New insight in the biochemical properties of sensitizers.

  10. Biochemical and pharmacological effects of dipyrone and its metabolites in model systems related to arachidonic acid cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weithmann, K U; Alpermann, H G

    1985-01-01

    The metabolites of dipyrone (metamizol, Novalgin) were compared with appropriate standard drugs for their influences on the pathways of the arachidonic acid metabolism. The drugs in this study had no significant effects on the lipoxygenase pathway in human neutrophils in vitro. The dipyrone metabolites 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAAP) and 4-aminoantipyrine (AAP) inhibited prostaglandin synthesis in the 10(-3) to 10(-4) mol/l range thus being comparable to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), whereas the two additional metabolites 4-acetylaminoantipyrine (AAAP) and 4-formylaminoantipyrine (FAAP) were practically inactive. This result is in accordance with the effects of the metabolites on the formation of oedema in the arthritis rat model, and supports published data showing that MAAP and AAP are the metabolites responsible for the clinical effects of dipyrone. Further systems in our study depending at least partially on the prostaglandin pathway were the release of antiaggregatory activity from rat aortae in vitro and the aggregation of human platelets induced by arachidonic acid in vitro. MAAP exhibits antiaggregatory activity (IC50 5 x 10(-6) mol/l), whereas the inhibitory effect on the vascular antiaggregatory release is much weaker. Compared to normals platelet aggregability ex vivo is enhanced in arthritic rats, but could significantly be lowered again by treatment of the rats with MAAP. A further system studied was the release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha from rat mucosa in vitro and ex vivo. In vitro there is inhibition to be found with MAAP as well as with ASA. Ex vivo, however, dipyrone or MAAP slightly stimulates mucosal 6-keto-PGF1 alpha rather than inhibiting it, whereas ASA exerts inhibition, as expected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Effects of arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine on prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoratto, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The role of two lipids, arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, as modulators or prolactin secretion has been examined. Stimulators of phospholipase A{sub 2} activity, melittin and mastoparan, were found to increase prolactin release. Melittin also caused release of previously incorporated {sup 3}H-arachidonic acid and this effect was associated with loss of radiolabel from the phospholipid fraction. Exogenous arachidonic acid also stimulated prolactin secretion. Conversely, inhibitors of phospholipase A{sub 2} activity, dibromoacetophenone and U10029A, decreased basal and stimulated prolactin release. Prolactin release could also be lowered by ETYA, BW755C and NDGA, inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. In the second series of experiments the effects of the biologically active phospholipid 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor, PAF) on prolactin release were examined. PAF is an ether-linked phospholipid known to stimulate granule release in a variety of cell types including both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. PAF increased release of prolactin from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells; stimulation was not due to cell lysis. PAF-induced prolactin release could be blocked by the dopaminergic agonists apomorphine and bromocriptine as well as by two PAF receptor antagonists, SRI 63-072 and L-652-731.

  12. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm, 15,

  13. The relation between the omega-3 index and arachidonic acid is bell shaped : Synergistic at low EPA plus DHA status and antagonistic at high EPA plus DHA status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Smit, Ella N.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The relation between docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. arachidonic acid (AA) seems characterized by both synergism and antagonism. Materials and methods: Investigate the relation between EPA + DHA and AA in populations with a wide range of EPA + DHA status and across

  14. High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri (Tanzania) : targets for infant formulae close to our ancient diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, RS; Fokkema, MR; Smit, EN; van der Meulen, J; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2005-01-01

    Current recommendations for arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in infant formulae are based on milk of Western mothers. Validity may be questioned in view of the profound dietary changes in the past 100 years, as opposed to our slowly adapting genome. Hominin evolution occurred in the

  15. Stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in primary cultures of osteoblast-like cells by hormones and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH), dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2 D3), thrombin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA) on the biosynthesis and release of arachidonic acid metabolites were studied in primary cultures of osteoblast-like cells isolated from 18-day-old chick embryo calvaria. Cells were labelled with (14C)-arachidonic acid for 30 h. The radioactive eicosanoids were extracted from the cell culture media after a further 30 h stimulation period and analysed on a PRP-1 column by HPLC. The radioactive products were characterized by co-elution of (3H) standard prostanoids. Osteoblasts showed a basal release of the prostanoids 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, TXB2, PGF2 alpha, PGE2, PGD2 and PGB2, the latter being the most abundant one. Indomethacin (10(-5) M) effectively inhibited the basal release, but not that of an as yet unidentified compound. The release of prostanoids was stimulated by PTH (2 U/ml), thrombin (0.4 NIH/ml), EGF (50 ng/ml) and PMA (25 ng/ml), the latter being by far the most potent one. 1,25-(OH)2D3 was found to slightly inhibit the prostanoid release. These results indicate: (1) primary cultures of osteoblasts synthesize several prostaglandins, thromboxane B2 and one unidentified product. (2) the action on bone of PTH and the various drugs tested may be, at least partly, mediated by an increased prostaglandin production by osteoblasts. Clearly this does not apply to 1,25-(OH)2D3

  16. Arachidonic acid metabolism in TNS-induced chronic and immunologic enteritis in rats, and the effect of 5-ASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Zijlstra

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the rat distal intestine was induced by intradermal sensitization and subsequent multiple intrajejunal challenge with the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS via an implanted catheter. The time course of the inflammatory reaction was followed by determination of the enteritis score and measurement of in vitro eicosanoid formation of homogenates of the gut after 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days of local daily challenge with 0.08% TNBS. There was a small initial increase of eicosanoid formation, reached at days 1 and 2, followed by a significant increase in metabolism of arachidonic acid on day 21. Although at day 1 a four-fold increase in inflammation score was reached, no further significant changes were observed during the following 3 weeks. The greatest increase in metabolite formation was observed in prostanoids TxB2, PGE2. and PGD2 and the 5-lipoxygenase product LTC4, whereas minor changes were found for LTB4 and other lipoxygenase products such as 12- and 15-HETE. The formation of these metabolites was already inhibited by low-dose 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, given orally twice daily during the 3 weeks challenge period, while the enteritis score was affected dosedependently.

  17. Determination of Eicosapentaenoic, Docosahexaenoic, and Arachidonic Acids in Human Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Akira; Watanabe, Mizuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kusu, Fumiyo; Hakamata, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) system was developed for the simultaneous determination of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) in human plasma. In the present HPLC-ECD system, EPA, DHA, and AA were separated using a reverse-phase C30 column and detected based on the voltammetric reduction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone (DBBQ). Chromatographic peak areas were proportional to the concentration of EPA, DHA, and AA from 0.75 μM to 0.1 mM (r > 0.998). The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and AA in plasma from healthy human subjects after overnight fasting were determined, and the ratio of EPA to AA was obtained by the present HPLC-ECD method, which required 40 μL of human plasma and a simple procedure of sample preparation using diethyl ether extraction. Moreover, changes in EPA, DHA, and AA concentrations in a human subject were monitored before and after fish oil supplement administration by the present HPLC-ECD system. PMID:27682409

  18. Phospholipid, arachidonate and eicosanoid signaling in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messamore Erik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the potential role of arachidonic acid in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We discuss how abnormal levels of arachidonic acid may arise, and how dysregulation of signaling molecules derived from it have the potential to disrupt not only dopamine signaling, but numerous other physiological processes associated with the illness. Pharmacological doses of niacin stimulate the release of arachidonic acid; and arachidonic acid-derived molecules in turn dilate blood vessels in the skin. A blunted skin flush response to niacin is reliably observed among patients with schizophrenia. The niacin response abnormality may thus serve as a biomarker to identify a physiological subtype of schizophrenia associated with defective arachidonic acid-derived signaling.

  19. Aureispira marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a gliding, arachidonic acid-containing bacterium isolated from the southern coastline of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Shoichi; Arunpairojana, Vullapa; Suwannachart, Chatrudee; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit; Yokota, Akira

    2006-12-01

    Three strains of gliding bacteria, 24(T), 62 and 71, isolated from a marine sponge and algae from the southern coastline of Thailand, were studied using a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic positions. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the three isolates formed a distinct lineage within the family 'Saprospiraceae' of the phylum Bacteroidetes and were related to members of the genus Saprospira. The G+C contents of the isolates were in the range 38-39 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The predominant cellular fatty acids were 20 : 4omega6c (arachidonic acid), 16 : 0 and iso-17 : 0. On the basis of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization data and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates represent a novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Aureispira marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aureispira marina is 24(T) (=IAM 15389(T)=TISTR 1719(T)).

  20. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway. PMID:26767978

  1. Mechanism of angiotensin II-induced arachidonic acid metabolite release in aortic smooth muscle cells: involvement of phospholipase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, J; Kozawa, O; Suzuki, A; Watanabe-Tomita, Y; Oiso, Y; Uematsu, T

    1997-02-01

    In a previous study, we have shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) activates phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D due to Ang II-induced Ca2+ influx from extracellular space in subcultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we have investigated the role of phospholipase D in Ang II-induced arachidonic acid (AA) metabolite release and prostacyclin synthesis in subcultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Ang II significantly stimulated AA metabolite release in a concentration-dependent manner in the range between 1 nmol/I and 0.1 mumol/I. D.L.-Propranolol hydrochloride (propranolol), an inhibitor of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced release of AA metabolites. The Ang II-induced AA metabolite release was reduced by chelating extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA. Genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases, significantly suppressed the Ang II-induced AA metabolite release. 1,6-Bis-(cyclohexyloximinocarbonylamino)-hexane (RHC-80267), a potent and selective inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced AA metabolite release. Both propranolol and RHC-80267 inhibited the Ang II-induced synthesis of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin. The synthesis was suppressed by genistein. These results strongly suggest that the AA metabolite release induced by Ang II is mediated, at least in part, through phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase D activation in aortic smooth muscle cells.

  2. Arachidonic acid drives postnatal neurogenesis and elicits a beneficial effect on prepulse inhibition, a biological trait of psychiatric illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Maekawa

    Full Text Available Prepulse inhibition (PPI is a compelling endophenotype (biological markers for mental disorders including schizophrenia. In a previous study, we identified Fabp7, a fatty acid binding protein 7 as one of the genes controlling PPI in mice and showed that this gene was associated with schizophrenia. We also demonstrated that disrupting Fabp7 dampened hippocampal neurogenesis. In this study, we examined a link between neurogenesis and PPI using different animal models and exploring the possibility of postnatal manipulation of neurogenesis affecting PPI, since gene-deficient mice show biological disturbances from prenatal stages. In parallel, we tested the potential for dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, arachidonic acid (ARA and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, to promote neurogenesis and improve PPI. PUFAs are ligands for Fabp members and are abundantly expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus. Our results are: (1 an independent model animal, Pax6 (+/- rats, exhibited PPI deficits along with impaired postnatal neurogenesis; (2 methylazoxymethanol acetate (an anti-proliferative drug elicited decreased neurogenesis even in postnatal period, and PPI defects in young adult rats (10 weeks when the drug was given at the juvenile stage (4-5 weeks; (3 administering ARA for 4 weeks after birth promoted neurogenesis in wild type rats; (4 raising Pax6 (+/- pups on an ARA-containing diet enhanced neurogenesis and partially improved PPI in adult animals. These results suggest the potential benefit of ARA in ameliorating PPI deficits relevant to psychiatric disorders and suggest that the effect may be correlated with augmented postnatal neurogenesis.

  3. COX-2, aspirin and metabolism of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and their physiological and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorani, R; Bhatt, Anant N; Dwarakanath, B S; Das, Undurti N

    2016-08-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are vital for normal growth and development and physiological function of various tissues in humans. PUFAs have immunomodulatory actions in addition to their ability to modulate inflammation, vascular reactivity, neurotransmission and stem cell biology. PUFAs and their metabolites possess both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties that underlie their actions and involvement in several diseases. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory action and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 {(called as epi-lipoxin A4, aspirin-triggered lipoxins (ATLs))}. In addition, at low doses aspirin may not interfere with the production of prostacyclin (PGI2). Both lipoxin A4 and PGI2 have vasodilator, platelet anti-aggregator and anti-inflammatory actions that may underlie the beneficial actions of aspirin. Paradoxically, other NSAIDs may not have the same actions as that of aspirin on PUFA metabolism. Similar anti-inflammatory compounds are formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by the action of aspirin termed as resolvins (from EPA and DHA) and protectins and maresins from DHA. PUFAs: arachidonic acid (AA), EPA and DHA and their various products modulate not only inflammation and immune response but also possess actions on various genes, nuclear factors, cyclic AMP and GMP, G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs), hypothalamic neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines and enzymes, and interact with nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide to regulate their formation and action and to form new compounds that have several biological actions. These pleiotropic actions of PUFAs and their metabolites may explain their ability to play a role in several physiological actions and diseases. The big challenge is to harness these actions to prevent and manage clinical conditions. PMID:26335394

  4. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in 1 yr old New Zealand white (NZW) and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to characterize the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Segments of aortas were obtained from 1 yr old NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits, a genetic model of athero-sclerosis resembling familial hypercholesterolemia. Aortas were incubated at 370C for 15 min with 14C-AA (5 x 10-5M) during stimulation by A23187. The media was extracted using octadecylsilica columns and resolved into metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC. Prostaglandins (PGs) were identified by comigration of 14C-metabolites with standards. The monoxygenated metabolites of AA (HETEs) were resolved by normal-phase HPLC, and their structures confirmed by GC-MS. In extracts from NZW and WHHL aortas, approximately 14% and 6% of the total radioactivity was converted to PGs and HETEs, respectively. The major PG produced by NZW and WHHL aortas was 6-keto PGF/sub 1α/ with lesser amounts of PGE2. Similarly, NZW and WHHL aortas produced primarily 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11-, 9-, 8-, and 5-HETE. There were no qualitative differences between NZW and WHHL aortas in PG and HETE production. Therefore, despite extensive atherosclerosis in aortas of WHHL rabbits, the vessels maintain the ability to synthesize PGs and HETEs

  5. Nitro-Arachidonic Acid Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cell Line of Kidney Proximal Tubular Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez-Calvo

    Full Text Available Nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA is a cell signaling nitroalkene that exerts anti-inflammatory activities during macrophage activation. While angiotensin II (ANG II produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells, little is known regarding the potential protective effects of NO2-AA in ANG II-mediated kidney injury. As such, this study examines the impact of NO2-AA on ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in an immortalized renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells. Treatment of HK-2 cells with ANG II increases the production of superoxide (O2●-, nitric oxide (●NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 expression, peroxynitrite (ONOO- and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using high-resolution respirometry, it was observed that the presence of NO2-AA prevented ANG II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempting to address mechanism, we treated isolated rat kidney mitochondria with ONOO-, a key mediator of ANG II-induced mitochondrial damage, in the presence or absence of NO2-AA. Whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH and ATP synthase (ATPase were diminished upon exposure to ONOO-, they were restored by pre-incubating the mitochondria with NO2-AA. Moreover, NO2-AA prevents oxidation and nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Combined, these data demonstrate that ANG II-mediated oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction is abrogated by NO2-AA, identifying this compound as a promising pharmacological tool to prevent ANG II-induced renal disease.

  6. Coordination of gene expression of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascade enzymes during human brain development and aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica H Ryan

    Full Text Available The polyunsaturated arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (AA and DHA participate in cell membrane synthesis during neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity, and neurotransmission throughout life. Each is metabolized via coupled enzymatic reactions within separate but interacting metabolic cascades.AA and DHA pathway genes are coordinately expressed and underlie cascade interactions during human brain development and aging.The BrainCloud database for human non-pathological prefrontal cortex gene expression was used to quantify postnatal age changes in mRNA expression of 34 genes involved in AA and DHA metabolism.Expression patterns were split into Development (0 to 20 years and Aging (21 to 78 years intervals. Expression of genes for cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2, and other AA cascade enzymes, correlated closely with age during Development, less so during Aging. Expression of DHA cascade enzymes was less inter-correlated in each period, but often changed in the opposite direction to expression of AA cascade genes. Except for the PLA2G4A (cPLA2 IVA and PTGS2 (COX-2 genes at 1q25, highly inter-correlated genes were at distant chromosomal loci.Coordinated age-related gene expression during the brain Development and Aging intervals likely underlies coupled changes in enzymes of the AA and DHA cascades and largely occur through distant transcriptional regulation. Healthy brain aging does not show upregulation of PLA2G4 or PTGS2 expression, which was found in Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Oxygen metabolites stimulate release of high-molecular-weight glycoconjugates by cell and organ cultures of rodent respiratory epithelium via an arachidonic acid-dependent mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, K B; Holden-Stauffer, W J; Repine, J E

    1990-01-01

    Several common pulmonary disorders characterized by mucus hypersecretion and airway obstruction may relate to increased levels of inhaled or endogenously generated oxidants (O2 metabolites) in the respiratory tract. We found that O2 metabolites stimulated release of high-molecular-weight glycoconjugates (HMG) by respiratory epithelial cells in vitro through a mechanism involving cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid. Noncytolytic concentrations of chemically generated O2 metabolites (...

  8. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Oliveros

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet, or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group. The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w. Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL + VLDL-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [³H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [³H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [³H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [³H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress.

  9. Role of arachidonic acid in hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in calcium-activated potassium currents in gastric myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng YANG; Wen-xie XU; Xing-lan LI; Hui-ying XU; Jia-bin SUN; Bin MEI; Hai-feng ZHENG; Lian-hua PIAO; De-gang XING; Zhai-liu LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study effects of arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites on the hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in calcium-activated potassium currents (IKCa) in gastric myocytes. Methods: Membrane currents were recorded by using a conventional whole cell patch-clamp technique in gastric myocytes isolated with collagenase. Results: Hyposmotic membrane stretch and AA increased both IK(Ca) and spontaneous transient outward currents significantly.Exogenous AA could potentiate the hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in IK(Ca). The hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in IK(Ca) was significantly suppressed by dimethyleicosadienoic acid (100 μmol/L in pipette solution), an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, significantly suppressed AA and hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increases in IK(Ca). External calcium-free or gadolinium chloride, a blocker of stretch-activated channels, blocked the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca) significantly, but it was not blocked by nicardipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker. Ryanodine, a calcium-induced calcium release agonist, completely blocked the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca); however, heparin, a potent inhibitor of inositol triphosphate receptor, did not block the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca). Conclusion:Hyposmotic membrane stretch may activate phospholipase A2, which hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to ultimately produce AA; AA as a second messenger mediates Ca2+ influx, which triggers Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and elicits activation of IK(Ca) in gastric antral circular myocytes of the guinea pig.

  10. Positive Selection on a Regulatory Insertion-Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Ye, Kaixiong; Gadgil, Maithili S; Carlson, Susan E; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Zhang, Ji Yao; Park, Hui Gyu; Ojukwu, Kinsley; Zou, James; Hyon, Stephanie S; Joshi, Kalpana S; Gu, Zhenglong; Keinan, Alon; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are bioactive components of membrane phospholipids and serve as substrates for signaling molecules. LCPUFA can be obtained directly from animal foods or synthesized endogenously from 18 carbon precursors via the FADS2 coded enzyme. Vegans rely almost exclusively on endogenous synthesis to generate LCPUFA and we hypothesized that an adaptive genetic polymorphism would confer advantage. The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-bp insertion-deletion within FADS2, is associated with basal FADS1 expression, and coordinated induction of FADS1 and FADS2 in vitro. Here, we determined rs66698963 genotype frequencies from 234 individuals of a primarily vegetarian Indian population and 311 individuals from the US. A much higher I/I genotype frequency was found in Indians (68%) than in the US (18%). Analysis using 1000 Genomes Project data confirmed our observation, revealing a global I/I genotype of 70% in South Asians, 53% in Africans, 29% in East Asians, and 17% in Europeans. Tests based on population divergence, site frequency spectrum, and long-range haplotype consistently point to positive selection encompassing rs66698963 in South Asian, African, and some East Asian populations. Basal plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid (ARA) status was 8% greater in I/I compared with D/D individuals. The biochemical pathway product-precursor difference, ARA minus linoleic acid, was 31% and 13% greater for I/I and I/D compared with D/D, respectively. This study is consistent with previous in vitro data suggesting that the insertion allele enhances n-6 LCPUFA synthesis and may confer an adaptive advantage in South Asians because of the traditional plant-based diet practice. PMID:27188529

  11. Hydroxyurea Therapy Mobilises Arachidonic Acid from Inner Cell Membrane Aminophospholipids in Patients with Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Daak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic compound hydroxyurea (HU is effective therapy for sickle cell disease. However, its effect on unsaturated membrane lipids is unknown. Red cell fatty acids were investigated in HU-treated (n=19 and HU-untreated (n=17 sickle cell patients and controls (n=20. The HU-treated compared with the HU-untreated patients had lower arachidonic (AA acid level in ethanolamine, physphoglycerids (EPG (22.9±1.2   versus   24.0±1.1%,  P<0.05 serine SPG (22.13±2.2   versus   24.9±2.3%,  P<0.01 phosphoglycerides. The treated patients and controls had comparable levels of docosahexaenoic (DHA and total n-3 fatty acids in EPG and choline phosphoglycerides (CPG. In contrast, the untreated group had significantly (P<0.05 lower DHA and total n-3 compared with the controls in EPG (2.7±0.4   versus   3.2±0.6% and 4.6±0.5   versus   5.2±0.7% and CPG (0.7±0.2   versus   1.0±0.2% and 1.2±0.2   versus   1.4±0.3. HU is known to activate cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase 2, and from this study, it appears to induce mobilisation of AA from the inner cell membrane EPG and SPG. Hence, eicosanoids generated from the released AA may play a role in clinical improvements which occur in HU-treated patients.

  12. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  13. Effect of the antipsoriatic drug metabolite etretin (Ro 10-1670) on UVB irradiation induced changes in the metabolism of arachidonic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnonen, K.; Jansen, C.T.; Puustinen, T.

    1986-11-01

    (/sup 14/C)Arachidonic acid was avidly incorporated into human keratinocytes in culture and following exposure to UVB irradiation of 9 mJ/cm/sup 2/ (erythemally effective, EE) substantial amounts of /sup 14/C-radiolabel were released from the cells. The release of radiolabel was accompanied by a decrease in the labelling of phosphatidylethanolamine whereas the labelling of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters was increased. Keratinocytes produced significant amounts of prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) and following UVB irradiation of 9 mJ/cm/sup 2/ (EE) the formation of prostaglandin E/sub 2/ was increased. Etretin (Ro 10-1670), the active metabolite of the antipsoriatic drug etretinate (Ro 10-9359), affected significantly neither the total release of radiolabel induced by UVB nor the formation of prostaglandin E/sub 2/. However, in the presence of etretin the UVB irradiation induced transfer of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid into triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters was not increased as much as in the corresponding experiments without etretin. On the basis of the present study it appears that etretin dose not interfere with the release of arachidonic acid in amounts which could be related to the therapeutic effects of the combination of retinoids with UVB irradiation (Re-UVB) in the treatment of psoriasis.

  14. The influence of dietary concentrations of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid at various stages of larval ontogeny on eye migration, pigmentation and prostaglandin content of common sole larvae ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Banta, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Dietary manipulations of arachidonic acid, ARA and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA may have an influence on pigmentation in common sole larvae (Solea solea L., Linnaeus 1758) which may be related to a "pigmentation window". This is a specific period in the larval ontogeny where nutritional factors...

  15. Effect of some saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on prostaglandin biosynthesis in washed human blood platelets from (1-/sup 14/ C)arachidonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, K.C.; Awasthi, K.K.; Lindegard, P.; Tiwari, K.P.

    1982-03-01

    The effects of some saturated (lauric, palmitic and stearic) an unsaturated (linoleic, gamma-linolenic, alpha-linolenic and oleic) fatty acids at 0.1. 0.25 and 0.5 mM concentrations on the in vitro metabolization of (1-14 C) arachidonic acid by washed human blood platelets have been studied. Effects of these fatty acids were studied with intact as well as lysed platelet preparations. With intact platelet preparations it was found that (i) all unsaturated fatty acids enhanced the biosynthesis of TxB2, PGE2, PGD2 and PGF2 alpha, (ii) unsaturated fatty acids reduced the formation of HHT and HETE with the exception of oleic acid which showed very little effect, (iii) unsaturated fatty acids reduced the formation of MDA, whereas palmitic and stearic acids increased its formation and (iv) all unsaturated fatty acids reduced the synthesis of prostaglandin endoperoxides. These results support our previous observations where effects of fatty acids were examined at higher concentrations (10). At 0.1 mM FA concentration, inconsistent results were obtained. With lysed platelet preparations all cyclooxygenase products were reduced in presence of unsaturated fatty acids, whereas HETE formation was reduced only in presence of linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids. Electron micrographs of washed platelet suspensions were obtained with untreated platelet preparations and platelet preparations treated with 0.25 and 0.5 mM linoleic acid concentrations. The results are discussed in the light of a possible soap-like effect of FA salt on platelets.

  16. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  17. Effects of Arachidonic Acid Supplementation on Acute Anabolic Signaling and Chronic Functional Performance and Body Composition Adaptations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo O De Souza

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA supplementation on functional performance and body composition in trained males. In addition, we performed a secondary study looking at molecular responses of ARA supplementation following an acute exercise bout in rodents.Thirty strength-trained males (age: 20.4 ± 2.1 yrs were randomly divided into two groups: ARA or placebo (i.e. CTL. Then, both groups underwent an 8-week, 3-day per week, non-periodized training protocol. Quadriceps muscle thickness, whole-body composition scan (DEXA, muscle strength, and power were assessed at baseline and post-test. In the rodent model, male Wistar rats (~250 g, ~8 weeks old were pre-fed with either ARA or water (CTL for 8 days and were fed the final dose of ARA prior to being acutely strength trained via electrical stimulation on unilateral plantar flexions. A mixed muscle sample was removed from the exercised and non-exercised leg 3 hours post-exercise.Lean body mass (2.9%, p<0.0005, upper-body strength (8.7%, p<0.0001, and peak power (12.7%, p<0.0001 increased only in the ARA group. For the animal trial, GSK-β (Ser9 phosphorylation (p<0.001 independent of exercise and AMPK phosphorylation after exercise (p-AMPK less in ARA, p = 0.041 were different in ARA-fed versus CTL rats.Our findings suggest that ARA supplementation can positively augment strength-training induced adaptations in resistance-trained males. However, chronic studies at the molecular level are required to further elucidate how ARA combined with strength training affect muscle adaptation.

  18. Ethanol Promotes Chemically Induced Oral Cancer in Mice through Activation of the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yizhu; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xinyan; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a known risk factor for oral cancer in humans. However, previous animal studies on the promoting effect of ethanol on oral carcinogenesis were inconclusive. It is necessary to develop an animal model with which the molecular mechanism of ethanol-related oral carcinogenesis may be elucidated in order to develop effective prevention strategies. In this study, mice were first treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 100μg/ml in drinking water) for 8 weeks, and then given water or ethanol (8%) as the sole drink for another 16 weeks. During the experiment, 8% ethanol was well tolerated by mice. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) increased from 20% (8/41) to 43% (17/40; p<0.05). Expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) was increased in dysplasia and SCC of 4NQO-treated tongues, and further enhanced by ethanol. Using this mouse model, we further demonstrated that fewer cancers were induced in Alox5−/− mice, as were cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis in the tongue, as compared with Alox5+/+ mice. Interestingly, Cox-2 expression was induced by ethanol in knockout mice, while 5-Lox and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) expression and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis were dramatically reduced. Moreover, ethanol enhanced expression and nuclear localization of 5-Lox and stimulated LTB4 biosynthesis in human tongue SCC cells (SCC-15 and SCC-4) in vitro. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated that ethanol promoted 4NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis, at least in part, through further activation of the 5-Lox pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. PMID:21881027

  19. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Matthew A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we expand our previous work on the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA on the murine hepatic transcriptome using novel statistical and bioinformatic approaches for evaluating microarray data. The analyses focuses on key differences in the transcriptomic response that will influence metabolism following consumption of FUNG (rich in 20:4n6, FISH (rich in 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 and COMB, the combination of the two. Results Using a variance-stabilized F-statistic, 371 probe sets (out of 13 K probe sets in the Affymetrix Mu11K chip set were changed by dietary treatment (P Conclusion Distinct transcriptomic, signaling cascades, and predicted affects on murine liver metabolism have been elucidated for 20:4n6-rich dietary oils, 22:6n3-rich oils, and a surprisingly distinct set of genes were affected by the combination of the two. Our results emphasize that the balance of dietary n6 and n3 LC-PUFA provided for infants and in nutritional and neutraceutical applications could have profoundly different affects on metabolism and cell signaling, beyond that previously recognized.

  20. Arachidonic acid has a dominant effect to regulate lipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Vaidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on the regulation of adipocytes metabolism are well known. These fatty acids are generally consumed together in our diets; however, the metabolic regulation of adipocytes in the presence of these fatty acids when given together is not known. Objective: To investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA and arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 PUFA, on the regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the presence or absence of 100 µM of eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; docosapentaenoic acid, DPA and AA, either alone or AA+n-3 PUFA; control cells received bovine serum albumin alone. The mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was measured. The fatty acid composition of adipocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography. Results: Individual n-3 PUFA or AA had no effect on the mRNA expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ; however, AA+EPA and AA+DPA significantly increased (P<0.05 the expression compared to control cells (38 and 42%, respectively. AA and AA+EPA increased the mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (P<0.05. AA treatment decreased the mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 (P<0.01, while n-3 PUFA, except EPA, had no effect compared to control cells. AA+DHA and AA+DPA inhibited SCD1 gene expression (P<0.05 suggesting a dominant effect of AA. Fatty acids analysis of adipocytes revealed a higher accretion of AA compared to n-3 PUFA. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that AA has a dominant effect on the regulation of lipogenic genes in adipocytes.

  1. Long-term modifications of blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats by gene delivery of rAAV-mediated cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid hydroxylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Arachidonic acid cytochrome P-450 (CYP) hydroxylase 4A isoforms, including 4A1, 4A2, 4A3 and 4A8 in the rat kidney, catalyze arachidonic acid to produce 19/20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (20-HETE), a biologically active metabolite, which plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. However, controversial results have been reported regarding the exact role of 20-HETE on blood pressure. In the present study, we used recombinant adenoassociated viral vector (rAAV) to deliver CYP 4A1 cDNA and antisense 4A1 cDNA into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), respectively, to investigate the effects of long-term modifications of blood pressure and the potential for gene therapy of hypertension. The mean systolic pressure increased by 14.2±2.5 mm Hg in rAAV.4A1-treated SD rats and decreased by 13.7±2.2 mm Hg in rAAV.anti4A1-treated SHR rats 5 weeks after the injection compared with controls and these changes in blood pressure were maintained until the experiments ended at 24weeks. In 4A1 treated animals CYP4A was overexpressed in various tissues, but preferentially in the kidney at both mRNA and protein levels. In anti-4A1-treated SHR, CYP4A mRNA in various tissues was probed, especially in kidneys,but 4A1 protein expression was almost completely inhibited. These results suggest that arachidonic acid CYP hydroxylases contribute not only to the maintenance of normal blood pressure but also to the development of hypertension.rAAV-mediated anti4A administration strategy has the potential to be used as targeted gene therapy in human hypertension by blocking expression of CYP 4A in kidneys.

  2. The combined impact of plant-derived dietary ingredients and acute stress on the intestinal arachidonic acid cascade in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Oxley, Anthony; Jolly, Cecile; Eide, Torunn; Jordal, Ann-Elise O.; Svardal, Asbjørn Martin; Olsen, Rolf Erik

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of substituting high levels of dietary fish oil (FO) and fishmeal (FM) for vegetable oil (VO) and plant protein (PP) on the intestinal arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in the carnivorous fish species Atlantic salmon. Four diets were fed to salmon over a period of 12 months, including a control FMFO diet, with varying replacements of plant-derived ingredients: 80 % PP and 35 % VO; 40 % PP and 70 % VO; 80 % PP and 70 %VO. Subsequently, fish were examined ...

  3. cPLA2alpha-evoked formation of arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids is required for exocytosis in mouse pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Kirstine; Høy, Marianne; Olsen, Hervør L;

    2003-01-01

    Using capacitance measurements, we investigated the effects of intracellularly applied recombinant human cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2alpha) and its lipolytic products arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in single mouse pancreatic beta-cells. cPLA2alpha...... dose dependently (EC50 = 86 nM) stimulated depolarization-evoked exocytosis by 450% without affecting the whole cell Ca2+ current or cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. The stimulatory effect involved priming of secretory granules as reflected by an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool of granules...

  4. cPLA2a-evoked formation of arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids is required for exocytosis in mouse pancreatic ß-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Kirstine; Høy, Marianne; Olsen, Hervør L.;

    2003-01-01

    Using capacitance measurements, we investigated the effects of intracellularly applied recombinant human cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) and its lipolytic products arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in single mouse pancreatic -cells. cPLA2 dose dependently...... (EC50 = 86 nM) stimulated depolarization-evoked exocytosis by 450% without affecting the whole cell Ca2+ current or cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. The stimulatory effect involved priming of secretory granules as reflected by an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool of granules from 70...

  5. FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN A HIGH CELL DENSITY CULTURE OF ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE,CHLOROPHYTA) EXPOSED TO HIGH PFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The changes in arachidonic acid (AA) and fatty acids profiles along the growth curve of Parietochloris incisa, a coccoid snow green alga, were studied in a 2.8 cm light-path flat photobioreactor, exposed to strong photon flux density [PFD, 2400 μEmol/(m2*s)]. Sixteen fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography showing that AA was the dominant fatty acid (33%-41%) followedby linoleic acid (17%-21%). AA content was closely investigated with respect tototal fatty acids (TFA), ash free dry weight (AFDW) of cell mass as well as total culture content. These parameters were influenced significantly in a similar manner by culture growth phase, i.e., slightly decreasing in the lag period, gradually increasing in the logarithmic phase, becoming maximal at the early stationary phase, starting to decrease at the late stationary phase, sharply dropping at the decline phase. The increase in AA per culture volume during the logarithmic phase was not only associated with the increase in AFDW but also connected with a corresponding increase in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW as well as AA/AFDW. The sharp decrease in AA content of the culture during the decline phase was mainly due to the decrease in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW and AA/AFDW, although AFDW declined only a smallextent. Maximal AA concentration, obtained at the early stationary phase, was 900 mg/L culture volume, and the average daily net increase of AA during 9 days logarithmic growth was 1.7 g/(m2*day). Therefore, harvesting prior to the declinephase in a batch culture, or at steady state in continuous culture mode seems best for high AA production. The latter possibility was also further confirmed bycontinuous culture with 5 gradients of harvesting rate. ``

  6. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the metabolism of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid by human gingival tissue in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elattar, T.M.; Lin, H.S.; Tira, D.E.

    1983-09-01

    We investigated the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on prostaglandins (PGs) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) formation by inflamed human gingival tissues. Gingival tissue homogenates were incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in the presence of indomethacin, piroxicam, or ibuprofen, and the organic solvent extracts were chromatographed on silica gel plates with standards for radiometric assay. There was a significant negative trend between the doses (10(-7)-10(-3) M) of each of indomethacin, piroxicam, and ibuprofen, and the amounts of PGF2 alpha, PGE2, PGD2, and 15-keto-PGE2 produced. All three drugs have a significant inhibitory effect on PGs and 12-HETE production at 10(-3) M when compared with the control. The rank order effectiveness of the drugs, at 10(-3) M, on PG inhibition was indomethacin greater than piroxicam greater than ibuprofen, and on 12-HETE inhibition was indomethacin greater than ibuprofen greater than piroxicam.

  7. Role of arachidonic acid metabolism on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-release induced by interleukin-1 from superfused rat hypothalami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero, J C; Rivas, F J; Borrell, J; Guaza, C

    1992-07-01

    The present work shows that the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-releasing activity of interleukin-1 (IL-1) is partially inhibited by a phospholipase A2 (mepacrine) or a cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) inhibitor, but is not affected by inhibition of the lypoxygenase pathway with norhydroguaiaretic acid. These results indicate that the metabolism of arachidonic acid plays an important role as mediator of the effects of IL-1 on CRF release. It is also shown that products of the cyclooxygenase activity such as prostaglandins can stimulate CRF secretion by a direct action on the hypothalamus. Whereas PGE2 failed to induce increases on CRF release, PGF2 alpha stimulated in a dose-dependent manner (21-340 nM), the CRF release from continuous perifused hypothalami. It is suggested that PGF2 alpha could be involved as a messenger in the hypothalamic CRF secretion induced by IL-1. PMID:1619039

  8. Arachidonic acid production from cane molasses by Mortierella alpina%利用甘蔗糖蜜发酵生产花生四烯酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭超; 黄和; 纪晓俊; 刘欣; 聂志奎; 邓中涛

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) fermentation by Mortierella alpina was carried out using cane molasses.Several different preparation methods were investigated to evaluate the optimal process of cane molasses method.The results indicated that sulfuric acid process was the best method.The cultivation parameters were as follows:reducing sugar concentration 80 g/L,nitrogen resource concentration 6 g/L,inoculum density 20%,initial pH 6.0,and cultivation temperature 25 ℃.The resultant dry cell weight,total lipid content,arachidonic acid yield,and sugar utilization were 28.5 g/L,11.7 g/L,3.68 g/L,and 94.5%,respectively.%通过培养高山被孢霉利用糖蜜来发酵生产花生四烯酸(ARA),研究了不同甘蔗糖蜜预处理方法对ARA发酵生产的影响.研究表明:H2S04法是最利于ARA发酵生产的糖蜜预处理方法.利用预处理的甘蔗糖蜜发酵生产ARA,通过单因素实验设计,确定了最优的培养条件,包括初始还原糖80 g/L,N源6g/L,接种量20%,初始pH6.0和培养t温度25℃,在此条件下发酵,干细胞质量、油脂含量、ARA产量和糖利用率分别达到28.5 g/L、11.7g/L、3.68 g/L和94.5%.

  9. Influence of dietary arachidonic acid combined with light intensity and tank colour on pigmentation of common sole (Solea solea L.) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) is known to cause hypopigmentation in common sole larvae (Solea solea L.). This study examined a possible link between dietary ARA supplementation - light intensity and tank colour on pigment defects in common sole larvae. Larval tissue ARA and...... prostaglandin PGE(2) content increased significantly when fed Artemia enriched by a fish oil emulsion supplemented with 24% dietary ARA during premetamorphosis (until 11 days post hatch, dph) as compared to larvae fed on Artemia enriched by a fish oil based emulsion. More than 90% of all larvae in groups...... treated with the ARA supplemented emulsion during premetamorphosis showed partly or complete dorsal hypopigmentation. There were no significant effects of light intensity or tank background colour in combination with ARA on malpigmentation. Larval hypopigmentation was below 10% in the groups not treated...

  10. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  11. Isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating arachidonic acid metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Yuzhong [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zheng, Hao; Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Jing [Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390,USA (United States); Guo, Austin M. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Yue, Jiang; Peng, Renxiu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and its downstream pathways have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in growth control of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen from licorice, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating multiple key enzymes in AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer. Isoliquiritigenin diminished cell viability, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and clonogenic ability in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells, and induced apoptosis as evidenced by an analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and hoechst staining. Furthermore, isoliquiritigenin inhibited mRNA expression of multiple forms of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and decreased secretion of their products, including prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), without affecting COX-1, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}). In addition, it downregulated the levels of phospho-PI3K, phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}), phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}), phospho-Bad (Ser{sup 136}), and Bcl-x{sub L} expression, thereby activating caspase cascades and eventually cleaving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Conversely, the addition of exogenous eicosanoids, including PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} and a 20-HETE analog (WIT003), and caspase inhibitors, or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. Notably, isoliquiritigenin induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice, together with decreased intratumoral levels of eicosanoids and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Collectively, these data suggest that isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating AA metabolic

  12. Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant's immune system early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Field, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the balance between arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are known to have important immunomodulatory roles during the postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. AA and DHA are required in infant formula in many countries but are optional in North America. The rationale for adding these LCPUFA to full-term formula is based on their presence in breast milk and randomized controlled studies that suggest improved cognitive function in preterm infants, but results are more variable in full-term infants. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority has proposed, based on a lack of functional evidence, that AA is not required in infant formula for full-term infants during the first year of life but DHA should remain mandatory. The purpose of this review is to review the evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies regarding the essentiality of AA and DHA in the postnatal infant and maternal diet (breast-feeding) for the immune system development early in life. Although studies support the essentiality of DHA for the immune system development, more research is needed to rule out the essentiality of AA. Nevertheless, intervention studies have demonstrated improvement in many markers of immune function in infants fed formula supplemented with AA and DHA compared with unsupplemented formula, which appears to consistently result in beneficial health outcomes including reduction in the risk of developing allergic and atopic disease early in life. PMID:27138971

  13. Increased arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine is associated with reactive microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongmin; Omura, Takao; Masaki, Noritaka; Arima, Hideyuki; Banno, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Ayako; Hanada, Mitsuru; Takei, Shiro; Matsushita, Shoko; Sugiyama, Eiji; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) triggers cellular and molecular changes in the spinal cord. However, little is known about how the polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylcholines (PUFA-PCs) are regulated in the spinal cord after PNI and the association of PUFA-PCs with the non-neuronal cells within in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we found that arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine (AA-PC), [PC(16:0/20:4)+K](+), was significantly increased in the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection, and the increased expression of [PC(16:0/20:4)+K](+) spatiotemporally resembled the increase of reactive microglia and the astrocytes. From the lipidomics point of view, we conclude that [PC(16:0/20:4)+K](+) could be the main phospholipid in the spinal cord influenced by PNI, and the regulation of specific phospholipid molecule in the CNS after PNI is associated with the reactive microglia and astrocytes. PMID:27210057

  14. 内皮源性缩血管因子花生四烯酸代谢物的作用多样性%Diversity of endothelium-derived vasocontracting factors--arachidonic acid metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KURAHASHI Kazuyoshi; NISHIHASHI Tsuyoshi; TRANDAFIR Cristina Corina; WANG Ai-Min; MURAKAMI Shizuka; JI Xu

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelium releases vasocontracting and/or vasorelaxing substances. Here, we report the diversity of endothelium-derived vasocontracting factors (EDCFs), arachidonic acid metabolites, and discuss the pathophysiological significance. In the canine basilar artery and the rabbit intrapulmonary artery, acetylcholine-induced contractions (Ach-induced EDC) are due to endothelial thromboxane A2 (TXA2) (TXA2-type). The Ach-induced EDC in the rabbit coronary artery is due to endothelial leukotrienes (LTs) (LTs-type). In addition, in the rat coronary artery, nicotine and noradrenaline (Nad)-induced EDCs are due to endothelial COX-metabolites (COX metabolite-type). These arachidonic acid metabolites derived from endothelium (activation by vasoactive substances including Ach, Nad and nicotine) cause a contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells and may disturb the local circulation. These EDCFs (TXA2, LTs and COX-metabolites) may be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular immuno-inflammatory diseases.

  15. Melittin stimulates phosphoinositide hydrolysis and placental lactogen release: Arachidonic acid as a link between phospholipase A sub 2 and phospholipase C signal-transduction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, P.; Handwerger, S. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA)); Wu, Y.Q. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Previous investigations from this laboratory have implicated both phospholipase A{sub 2} and phospholipase C in the regulation of human placental lactogen release from human trophoblast. To study further the role of endogenous phospholipase A{sub 2} and the relationship between phospholipase A{sub 2} activation and phosphoinositide metabolism, the authors examined hPL and ({sup 3}H)-inositol release from trophoblast cells in response to agents that stimulate or inhibit the endogenous enzyme. Melittin stimulated rapid, dose-dependent, and reversible increases in the release of hPL, prostaglandin E, and ({sup 3}H)-inositol. Mepacrine inhibited this stimulation. However, mepacrine had no effect on the stimulation of hPL and ({sup 3}H)-inositol release by exogenous arachidonic acid (AA). These results indicate that the stimulation by melittin of phosphoionsitide metabolism and hPL release is mediated by initial activation of phospholipase A{sub 2}. Furthermore, the results support the possibility that AA, released as a consequence of phospholipase A{sub 2} activation, can act as a second messenger linking the two phospholipase pathways.

  16. Arachidonic acid alters tomato HMG expression and fruit growth and induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-independent lycopene accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Concepcion, M.; Gruissem, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, the authors manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Their results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

  17. Identification of a cyclooxygenase gene from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla and bioconversion of arachidonic acid to PGF(2α) in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Takemura, Miho; Ohyama, Kanji

    2011-08-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important local messenger molecules in many tissues and organs of animals including human. For applications in medicine and animal care, PGs are mostly purified from animal tissues or chemically synthesized. To generate a clean, reliable, and inexpensive source for PGs, we have now engineered expression of a suitable cyclooxygenase gene in Escherichia coli and achieved production levels of up to 2.7 mg l(-1) PGF(2α). The cyclooxygenase gene cloned from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla appears to be fully functional without any eukaryotic modifications in E. coli. A crude extract of the recombinant E. coli cells is able to convert in vitro the substrate arachidonic acid (AA) to PGF(2α). Furthermore, these E. coli cells produced PGF(2α) in a medium supplemented with AA and secreted the PGF(2α) product. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the functional expression of a cyclooxygenase gene and concomitant production of PGF(2α) in E. coli. The successful microbial synthesis of PGs with reliable yields promises a novel pharmaceutical tool to produce PGF(2α) at significantly reduced prices and greater purity.

  18. Menopause-induced uterine epithelium atrophy results from arachidonic acid/prostaglandin E2 axis inhibition-mediated autophagic cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengtao; Zhao, Linjie; Yi, Tao; Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Women experience menopause later in life. Menopause is characterized by dramatically decreased circulating estrogen level secondary to loss of ovarian function and atrophic state of genital organs. However, the molecular mechanisms for this process are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms that underlie menopause-induced uterine endometrial atrophy. Our data showed that autophagy was activated in the uterine epithelial cells of both ovariectomized rats and peri-menopausal females. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurred even prior to autophagy induction. Integrated bioinformatics analysis revealed that ER stress induced downstream decreased release of arachidonic acid (AA) and downregulation of AA/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) axis, which led to Akt/mTOR signaling pathway inactivation. Consequently, autophagosomes were recruited and LC3-dependent autophagy was induced in uterine epithelial cells. Treatment with exogenous E2, PGE2, salubrinal or RNAi-mediated silencing of key autophagy genes could effectively counteract estrogen depletion-induced autophagy. Collectively, autophagy is a critical regulator of the uterine epithelium that accounts for endometrial atrophy after menopause. PMID:27506466

  19. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  20. Dose-dependent changes in neuroinflammatory and arachidonic acid cascade markers with synaptic marker loss in rat lipopolysaccharide infusion model of neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellom Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation, caused by six days of intracerebroventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, stimulates rat brain arachidonic acid (AA metabolism. The molecular changes associated with increased AA metabolism are not clear. We examined effects of a six-day infusion of a low-dose (0.5 ng/h and a high-dose (250 ng/h of LPS on neuroinflammatory, AA cascade, and pre- and post-synaptic markers in rat brain. We used artificial cerebrospinal fluid-infused brains as controls. Results Infusion of low- or high-dose LPS increased brain protein levels of TNFα, and iNOS, without significantly changing GFAP. High-dose LPS infusion upregulated brain protein and mRNA levels of AA cascade markers (cytosolic cPLA2-IVA, secretory sPLA2-V, cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase, and of transcription factor NF-κB p50 DNA binding activity. Both LPS doses increased cPLA2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase levels, while reducing protein levels of the pre-synaptic marker, synaptophysin. Post-synaptic markers drebrin and PSD95 protein levels were decreased with high- but not low-dose LPS. Conclusions Chronic LPS infusion has differential effects, depending on dose, on inflammatory, AA and synaptic markers in rat brain. Neuroinflammation associated with upregulated brain AA metabolism can lead to synaptic dysfunction.

  1. The role of the arachidonic acid cascade in the species-specific X-ray-induced inflammation of the rabbit eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bito, L.Z.; Klein, E.M.

    1982-05-01

    To identify the mediator(s) of the apparently species-specific X-ray-induced inflammation of the rabbit eye, inhibitors of the synthesis and/or release of known or putative mediators of ocular inflammation were administered prior to irradiation. The X-ray-induced ocular inflammation, particularly the rise in intraocular pressure, was found to be inhibited by intravenous pretreatment of rabbits with flurbiprofen, indomethacin, or imidazole (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg i.v., respectively), or by combined intravitreal and topical administration of flurbiprofen. Systemic, intravitreal, and/or topical pretreatment with prednisolone or disodium cromoglycate or the retrobulbar injection of ethyl alcohol or capsaicin failed to block the inflammatory response, whereas vitamin E apparently exerted some protective effect. These findings show that the X-ray-induced inflammation of the rabbit eye is mediated, at least in part, by prostaglandins (PGs) and/or related autacoids. In addition, these results suggest that the unique sensitivity of the rabbit eye to X-ray-induced inflammation is due either to the presence in this species of a unique or uniquely effective triggering mechanism for the release of PG precursors or to the greater sensitivity of this species to the ocular inflammatory effects of PGs. Thus the rabbit eye may provide a unique model for studying some aspects of arachidonic acid release or ocular PG effects, but extreme caution must be exercised in generalizing such findings to other species.

  2. Menopause-induced uterine epithelium atrophy results from arachidonic acid/prostaglandin E2 axis inhibition-mediated autophagic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengtao; Zhao, Linjie; Yi, Tao; Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Women experience menopause later in life. Menopause is characterized by dramatically decreased circulating estrogen level secondary to loss of ovarian function and atrophic state of genital organs. However, the molecular mechanisms for this process are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms that underlie menopause-induced uterine endometrial atrophy. Our data showed that autophagy was activated in the uterine epithelial cells of both ovariectomized rats and peri-menopausal females. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurred even prior to autophagy induction. Integrated bioinformatics analysis revealed that ER stress induced downstream decreased release of arachidonic acid (AA) and downregulation of AA/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) axis, which led to Akt/mTOR signaling pathway inactivation. Consequently, autophagosomes were recruited and LC3-dependent autophagy was induced in uterine epithelial cells. Treatment with exogenous E2, PGE2, salubrinal or RNAi-mediated silencing of key autophagy genes could effectively counteract estrogen depletion-induced autophagy. Collectively, autophagy is a critical regulator of the uterine epithelium that accounts for endometrial atrophy after menopause. PMID:27506466

  3. Inhibition of protein kinase B by Palmitate in the insulin signaling of HepG2 cells and the preventive effect of Arachidonic acid on insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yanzhi; WAN Xuedong; DUAN Qiuhong; HE Shansu; WANG Ximing

    2007-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids(FFAs)may contribute to insulin resistance (IR)that is characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus.In this study,we investigated the effects of two fatty acids,palmitate(PA)and arachidonic acid (AA)on glycogenesis under insulin signaling in HepG2cells,a transformed hepatic carcinoma cell line.In the presence of 200 μmol of palmitate,insulin(10-7 mol/L)stimulation of glycogenesis was inhibited,as evidenced by increased glucose in the medium and decreased intracellular glycogen.Wortmannin(WM),a specific inhibitor of PI3K,dramatically decreased the amount of intracellular glycogen in cells without PA incubation.However,glycogen in PA treated cells was not significantly changed by WM,indicating that PA may also act on PI3K.Interestingly,AA restored the effects of WM inhibition on glycogenesis in PA cells.Western blot analysis demonstrated that PA in the absence of WM increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase(inactive form of GS)and decreased phosphorylated protein kinase B(active form of PKB),causing a reduction of intracellular glycogen.AA,however,reversed the effects of PA on GS and PKB.Furthermore,inhibition of protein kinase C(PKC)by a specific inhibitor chelerythrine chloride (CC)abolished the inhibitory efrect of PA on glycogen synthesis by decreasing phosphorylated GS and increasing phosphorylated PKB.However,the effect of CC in the presence of PA disappeared when AA was also present.Our results suggest that there is a disruption of the insulin signaling pathway between PKB and GS when the cells were exposed to PA,contributing to IR.PA may also interrupt the PKC signaling pathway.In contrast,AA could rescue glycogenesis impaired by PA.

  4. High extracellular Ca2+ stimulates Ca2+-activated Cl- currents in frog parathyroid cells through the mediation of arachidonic acid cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Okada

    Full Text Available Elevation of extracellular Ca(2+ concentration induces intracellular Ca(2+ signaling in parathyroid cells. The response is due to stimulation of the phospholipase C/Ca(2+ pathways, but the direct mechanism responsible for the rise of intracellular Ca(2+ concentration has remained elusive. Here, we describe the electrophysiological property associated with intracellular Ca(2+ signaling in frog parathyroid cells and show that Ca(2+-activated Cl(- channels are activated by intracellular Ca(2+ increase through an inositol 1,4,5-trisphophate (IP(3-independent pathway. High extracellular Ca(2+ induced an outwardly-rectifying conductance in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50 ∼6 mM. The conductance was composed of an instantaneous time-independent component and a slowly activating time-dependent component and displayed a deactivating inward tail current. Extracellular Ca(2+-induced and Ca(2+ dialysis-induced currents reversed at the equilibrium potential of Cl(- and were inhibited by niflumic acid (a specific blocker of Ca(2+-activated Cl(- channel. Gramicidin-perforated whole-cell recording displayed the shift of the reversal potential in extracellular Ca(2+-induced current, suggesting the change of intracellular Cl(- concentration in a few minutes. Extracellular Ca(2+-induced currents displayed a moderate dependency on guanosine triphosphate (GTP. All blockers for phospholipase C, diacylglycerol (DAG lipase, monoacylglycerol (MAG lipase and lipoxygenase inhibited extracellular Ca(2+-induced current. IP(3 dialysis failed to induce conductance increase, but 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, arachidonic acid and 12S-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (12(S-HPETE dialysis increased the conductance identical to extracellular Ca(2+-induced conductance. These results indicate that high extracellular Ca(2+ raises intracellular Ca(2+ concentration through the DAG lipase/lipoxygenase pathway, resulting in the activation of Cl(- conductance.

  5. Vitamin A and arachidonic acid altered the skeletal mineralization in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae without any interactions on the transcriptional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Kai Kristoffer; Kvalheim, Karen; Rasinger, Josef Daniel; Harboe, Torstein; Nordgreen, Andreas; Moren, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The main object of this study was to evaluate the impact of different levels of vitamin A (VA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in relation to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on mineralization and gene expression in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). First-feeding larvae were fed enriched rotifers from start-feeding until 29 days post hatch (dph). Larvae in four tanks were fed one of the following diets: control (EPA/ARA ratio: 15.8, 0.9μg VA g(-1)), control+VA (EPA/ARA ratio: 15.8, 7.8μg VA g(-1)), High ARA (EPA/ARA ratio: 0.9, 1.5μg VA g(-1)) or High ARA+VA (EPA/ARA ratio: 0.9, 12.0μg VA g(-1)). Larvae fed High ARA+VA were shorter at 29dph compared to the other groups and had significantly less mineralized bones when comparing larvae of similar size, showing interaction effects between VA and ARA. Although transcriptomic analysis did not reveal any interaction effects, a higher number of genes were differentially expressed in the high ARA fed larvae compared to control+VA fed larvae. Furthermore, bglap1, bglap2 and col10a1 were all down-regulated in larvae fed High ARA-diets and to a greater extent than larvae fed VA supplemented diet, indicating an additive effect on mineralization. In conclusion, this study showed that the dietary increase in ARA and VA altered the skeletal metabolism during larval development, most likely through signaling pathways specific for each nutrient rather than an interaction. The present study also demonstrates that VA could affect the larval response to ARA, even within the accepted non-toxic/non-deficient range.

  6. Antagonizing Arachidonic Acid-Derived Eicosanoids Reduces Inflammatory Th17 and Th1 Cell-Mediated Inflammation and Colitis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Monk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA- derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ω3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted Δ5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, RORγτ, and IL-23, decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P≤0.05. Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.

  7. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  8. Mildly abnormal general movement quality in infants is associated with higher Mead acid and lower arachidonic acid and shows a U-shaped relation with the DHA/AA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Goor, S A; Schaafsma, A; Erwich, J J H M; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2010-01-01

    We showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation was associated with more mildly abnormal (MA) general movements (GMs) in the infants. Since this finding was unexpected and inter-individual DHA intakes are highly variable, we explored the relationship between GM quality and erythrocyte DHA, arachidonic acid (AA), DHA/AA and Mead acid in 57 infants of this trial. MA GMs were inversely related to AA, associated with Mead acid, and associated with DHA/AA in a U-shaped manner. These relationships may indicate dependence of newborn AA status on synthesis from linoleic acid. This becomes restricted during the intrauterine period by abundant de novo synthesis of oleic and Mead acids from glucose, consistent with reduced insulin sensitivity during the third trimester. The descending part of the U-shaped relation between MA GMs and DHA/AA probably indicates DHA shortage next to AA shortage. The ascending part may reflect a different developmental trajectory that is not necessarily unfavorable. PMID:20022733

  9. Role of arachidonic acid and protein kinase C during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption and ovulation in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Bolamba, D.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    The roles of arachidonic acid (AA) and protein kinase C (PKC) during in vitro maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-dependent meiotic resumption (maturation) and ovulation were studied in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus). The requirement for cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites of AA was examined using a nonspecific COX inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), as well as two COX products, prostaglandin (PG) F2?? and PGE2, whereas the role of lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a specific LOX inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). The involvement of PKC was examined using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, as well as GF109203X (GF), a specific inhibitor of PKC and 1-(5-isoquin- olinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), nonspecific inhibitor of protein kinases. Genomic mechanisms were examined with the transcription-inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) and the functionality of heterologous (oocyte-granulosa) gap junctions (GJ) with a dye transfer assay. The AA (100 ??M) and PGF2?? (5 ??M) did not induce maturation, and NDGA (10 ??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation. However, IM (100 ??M) partially inhibited MIH-dependent maturation. Conversely, AA and both PGs induced, and IM and NDGA inhibited, MIH-dependent ovulation in matured follicles. The PMA (1 ??g/ml) did not induce maturation but caused ovulation in matured follicles, whereas PKC inhibitors (GF, 5 ??M; H7, 50??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation but inhibited MIH- and PMA-dependent ovulation. The PMA-dependent ovulation was inhibited by IM but not by NDGA. In addition, ActD (5 ??M) blocked MIH-dependent, but not PMA-dependent, ovulation, and PGF2?? restored MIH-dependent ovulation in ActD-blocked follicles. The AA and PGs did not induce, and GF did not inhibit, MIH-dependent heterologous GJ uncoupling. In conclusion, AA and PKC mediate MIH-dependent ovulation but not meiotic resumption or heterologous GJ uncoupling in croaker follicles, but a permissive role

  10. The application of arachidonic acid in dairy products%花生四烯酸在乳制品中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹现璞; 吕银德; 赵俊芳

    2009-01-01

    花生四烯酸(AA)是一种人体必需的多不饱和脂肪酸,是人体生长因子,影响婴幼儿大脑和神经发育.AA具有改善记忆力和视力、调节血脂和血糖、降低血清胆固醇、预防心血管疾病、辅助抑制肿瘤、预防癌变、神经功能调节等作用.人体自身不能合成AA,必需从食物补充才能满足机体代谢的需要,牛乳是人体补充营养物质的载体,而AA在牛乳中几乎不存在,所以在牛乳中强化AA已显得非常必要.本文介绍了AA添加带配方奶粉中的工艺流程和操作要点;AA应用于纯牛奶中的工艺流程和操作要点;开发富含AA酸牛奶的生产工艺和操作要点;开发富含AA乳饮料的工艺流程和操作要点.研究发现,AA在酸牛奶和乳饮料中的应用将是新的发展趋势,富含AA的乳制品将会给企业带来巨大的经济效益和社会效益.%Arachidonic acid(AA)is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acids for human.It is a human growth factor,which can greatly affect infant brain and neurological development.AA can improve the memory and vision,regulate blood lipids and blood sugar,reduce cholesterol,and prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer.AA can not be synthesized by human body,it can only be obtained through food.Milk contains rich nutrients except AA,so AA fortified milk has become necessary.In this paper,the formula and process for adding AA into milk has been studied.It is found that AA in the acidophilus milk and milk drinks will be the new trend of dairy products.AA enrichment products will bring enormous economic and social benefits.

  11. Essential function of linoleic acid esterified in acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide in maintaining the epidermal water permeability barrier. Evidence from feeding studies with oleate, linoleate, arachidonate, columbinate and a-linolenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1985-01-01

    Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg per day of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 days. During this period, the rats in groups L, A, and C all showed a decrease in their initially high trans-epidermal water...... loss, a classical essential fatty acid-deficiency symptom, to a level seen in non-deficient rats (group N). The trans-epidermal water loss in rats of group O was unaffected by the supplementation. Fatty acid composition of two epidermal sphingolipids, acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide, from...... the skin were determined. The results indicate that re-establishment of a low trans-epidermal water loss was associated with incorporation of linolenate into the two epidermal sphingolipids. Supplementation with columbinate resulted in relatively high amounts of this fatty acid in the investigated...

  12. Enrichment of Arachidonic Acid from Microbial Oil by Molecular Distillation%分子蒸馏技术富集微生物油脂中花生四烯酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宏祯; 夏金梅; 汤培平; 许建中; 许晨

    2012-01-01

    对分子蒸馏富集微生物油脂中花生四烯酸进行了研究.实验过程中微生物油脂预先进行皂化和甲酯化反应,制得混脂肪酸甲酯,作为分子蒸馏原料,考察了多种分离工艺参数对花生四烯酸纯度和产率的影响.结果表明,操作压力1.0 Pa,蒸馏温度80℃,刮膜器转速150 r/min,冷凝温度10℃,进料速度1.5 mL/min条件下,产品的纯度和产率分别达到67.48%和85.86%.%The enrichment of arachidonic acid from microbial oil by molecular distillation was studied. The molecular distillation feed was prepared by saponifioation of microbial oil,followed by the methyl esterification. The effects of operation pressure,distillation temperature,agitated speed,cool temperature and feed flow rate on the refining of arachidonic acid were investigated. The results showed that the mass fraction and the yield of arachidonic acid could reach 67. 48% and 85. 86%,respectively,under the operation pressure of 1. 0 Pa,distillation temperature of 80 ℃,agitated speed of 150 r/min,cool temperature of 10℃ and feed flow rate of 1. 5 mL/min.

  13. Understanding the Mechanism of the Hydrogen Abstraction from Arachidonic Acid Catalyzed by the Human Enzyme 15-Lipoxygenase-2. A Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Free Energy Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardíaz, Reynier; Jambrina, Pablo G; Masgrau, Laura; González-Lafont, Àngels; Rosta, Edina; Lluch, José M

    2016-04-12

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a family of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of several lipid mediators. In the case of human 15-LOX, the 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 isoforms show slightly different reaction regiospecificity and substrate specificity, indicating that substrate binding and recognition may be different, a fact that could be related to their different biological role. Here, we have used long molecular dynamics simulations, QM(DFT)/MM potential energy and free energy calculations (using the newly developed DHAM method), to investigate the binding mode of the arachidonic acid (AA) substrate into 15-LOX-2 and the rate-limiting hydrogen-abstraction reaction 15-LOX-2 catalyzes. Our results strongly indicate that hydrogen abstraction from C13 in 15-LOX-2 is only consistent with the "tail-first" orientation of AA, with its carboxylate group interacting with Arg429, and that only the pro-S H13 hydrogen will be abstracted (being the pro-R H13 and H10 too far from the acceptor oxygen atom). At the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level the potential and free energy barriers for the pro-S H13 abstraction of AA by 15-LOX-2 are 18.0 and 18.6 kcal/mol, respectively. To analyze the kinetics of the hydrogen abstraction process, we determined a Markov model corresponding to the unbiased simulations along the state-discretized reaction coordinate. The calculated rates based on the second largest eigenvalue of the Markov matrices agree well with experimental measurements, and also provide the means to directly determine the pre-exponential factor for the reaction by comparing with the free energy barrier height. Our calculated pre-exponential factor is close to the value of kBT/h. On the other hand, our results suggest that the spin inversion of the complete system (including the O2 molecule) that is required to happen at some point along the full process to lead to the final hydroperoxide product, is likely to take place during the hydrogen transfer, which is a proton coupled electron transfer

  14. The combined impact of plant-derived dietary ingredients and acute stress on the intestinal arachidonic acid cascade in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Anthony; Jolly, Cecile; Eide, Torunn; Jordal, Ann-Elise O; Svardal, Asbjørn; Olsen, Rolf-Erik

    2010-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of substituting high levels of dietary fish oil (FO) and fishmeal (FM) for vegetable oil (VO) and plant protein (PP) on the intestinal arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in the carnivorous fish species Atlantic salmon. Four diets were fed to salmon over a period of 12 months, including a control FMFO diet, with varying replacements of plant-derived ingredients: 80 % PP and 35 % VO; 40 % PP and 70 % VO; 80 % PP and 70 %VO. Subsequently, fish were examined pre- (0 h) and post- (1 h) acute stress for blood parameters and intestinal bioactive lipidic mediators of inflammation (prostaglandins). Plasma cortisol responses were greatest in the FMFO group, while 80 % PP and 70 % VO fish exhibited increased plasma chloride concentrations. The n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in intestinal glycerophospholipids from 70 % VO groups significantly decreased in both proximal and distal regions due to elevated levels of 18 : 2n-6 and the elongation/desaturation products 20 : 2n-6 and 20 : 3n-6. Increases in n-6 PUFA were not concomitant with increased AA, although the AA:EPA ratio did vary significantly. The 40 % PP and 70 % VO diet produced the highest intestinal AA:EPA ratio proximally, which coincided with a trend in elevated levels of PGF2alpha, PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha in response to stress. PGE2 predominated over PGF2alpha and 6-keto-PGF1alpha (stable metabolite of PGI2) with comparable concentrations in both intestinal regions. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression was an order of magnitude higher in distal intestine, compared with proximal, and was significantly up-regulated following stress. Furthermore, the 80 % PP and 70 % VO diet significantly amplified proximal COX-2 induction post-stress. Results demonstrate that high replacements with plant-derived dietary ingredients can enhance COX-2 induction and synthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in the intestine of salmon in response to acute physiological stress. PMID:19943982

  15. Irradiation of human skin by short wavelength ultraviolet radiation (100--290 nm) (u.v.C): increased concentrations of arachidonic acid and prostaglandines E2 and F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, R D; Greaves, M W; Hensby, C N; Plummer, N A; Warin, A P

    1978-08-01

    1. Human abdominal skin was irradiated with six times the minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet C (100--290 nm) radiation. Erythema appeared at 3 h, was of moderate degree by 6 h and was maximal at 12--24 h. It was reduced at 48 h and by 72 h had disappeared. 2. A suction bulla technique was used for the recovery of exudate from normal and inflamed skin at 6, 18, 24 and 48 h after irradiation. 3. Prostaglandin-like activity, estimated by bioassay, showed maximum increase at 18 h, when erythema was also maximum. PGF 2alpha, measured by both radioimmunoassay and by combined gas-liquid chromatography--gas spectrometry, followed a similar time course then fell to normal, or near normal, levels at 48 h. 4. Prostaglandin E2 and arachidonic acid concentrations, measured by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry, were maximally raised at 18--24 h. At 48 h, when some erythema was still present, though reduced, prostaglandin E2 concentrations were still raised above control values. 5. The results provide direct evidence in support of the view that the erythma following irradiation of human skin by u.v.C involves activation of arachidonic acid metabolism. However, the relationship between the erythema and increased prostaglandin activity is not fully understood.

  16. Effects of large doses of arachidonic acid added to docosahexaenoic acid on social impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Kunio; Koshiba, Mamiko; Nakamura, Shun; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a neurodevelopmental disorders with reduced cortical functional connectivity relating to social cognition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may have key role in brain network maturation. In particularly, ARA is important in signal transduction related to neuronal maturation. Supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA may therefore mitigate social impairment. In a 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of supplementation with large doses of ARA added to DHA (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) in 13 participants (mean age, 14.6 [SD, 5.9] years). To examine underlying mechanisms underlying the effect of our supplementation regimen, we examined plasma levels of antioxidants transferrin and superoxide dismutase, which are useful markers of signal transduction. The outcome measures were the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that our supplementation regimen significantly improved Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community-measured social withdrawal and Social Responsiveness Scale-measured communication. Treatment effect sizes were more favorable for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (communication: treatment groups, 0.87 vs, placebo, 0.44; social withdrawal: treatment groups, 0.88, vs placebo, 0.54). There was a significant difference in the change in plasma transferrin levels and a trend toward a significant difference in the change in plasma superoxide dismutase levels between the 2 groups. This preliminary study suggests that supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA improves impaired social interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder by up-regulating signal transduction.

  17. [Therapeutic effects of larger doses of arachidonic acid added to DHA on social impairment and its relation to alterations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in individuals with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Kunio; Koshiba, Mamiko; Nakamura, Shun; Onishi, Masako

    2011-06-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may play key roles in brain network maturation. ARA plays an important role in signal transduction related to neuronal maturation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of supplementing with larger doses of ARA added to DHA in a double-blind, placebo-controlled 16-week trial. To confirm findings observed in the placebo-controlled trial, an additional 16-week open-label study was further conducted. To examine the relationship between the efficacy of the supplementation regimen and alterations in PUFAs levels, we examined plasma levels of PUFAs. We used the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC) to estimate psychotic symptoms. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that this supplementation significantly improved SRS-measured communication as well as ABC-measured social withdrawal during the placebo-controlled trial. The treatment effect sizes were more favorable for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (communication: 0.87 vs. 0.44; social withdrawal: 0.88 vs. 0.54). At the end of the placebo-controlled trial, there was a significant difference in the change in plasma ARA levels from the baseline and a trend towards a significant difference in plasma ARA levels between the two groups. The open-label study was not powered to detect significant improvements in the outcome measures or significant differences in plasma ARA levels. The present clinical trials suggest that supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA improves social impairment in individuals with ASD via ARA-induced upregulation of neuronal functioning. PMID:21800702

  18. Effects of large doses of arachidonic acid added to docosahexaenoic acid on social impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Kunio; Koshiba, Mamiko; Nakamura, Shun; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a neurodevelopmental disorders with reduced cortical functional connectivity relating to social cognition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may have key role in brain network maturation. In particularly, ARA is important in signal transduction related to neuronal maturation. Supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA may therefore mitigate social impairment. In a 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of supplementation with large doses of ARA added to DHA (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) in 13 participants (mean age, 14.6 [SD, 5.9] years). To examine underlying mechanisms underlying the effect of our supplementation regimen, we examined plasma levels of antioxidants transferrin and superoxide dismutase, which are useful markers of signal transduction. The outcome measures were the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that our supplementation regimen significantly improved Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community-measured social withdrawal and Social Responsiveness Scale-measured communication. Treatment effect sizes were more favorable for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (communication: treatment groups, 0.87 vs, placebo, 0.44; social withdrawal: treatment groups, 0.88, vs placebo, 0.54). There was a significant difference in the change in plasma transferrin levels and a trend toward a significant difference in the change in plasma superoxide dismutase levels between the 2 groups. This preliminary study suggests that supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA improves impaired social interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder by up-regulating signal transduction. PMID:22370992

  19. beta-oxidation modulates metabolic competition between eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid regulating prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat hepatocytes-Kupffer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Tao; Winterthun, Synnøve;

    2010-01-01

    and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for PGE(2) synthesis in a rat hepatocyte-Kupffer cell (HPC/KC) co-culture system when the cellular oxidation capacity was enhanced by exogenous l-carnitine. We demonstrate that in the absence of l-carnitine, 1) beta-oxidation rates of EPA and AA were comparable in HPCs and in KCs; 2) AA......) significantly increased beta-oxidation of EPA in HPCs, but only marginally elevated the oxidation of AA in HPCs and the oxidation of both fatty acids in KCs; 2) decreased the esterification, but did not alter the preferential incorporation of AA into glycerolipids; and 3) alleviated the significant competitive...... and not EPA was preferentially incorporated into glycerolipids; and 3) addition of EPA significantly decreased AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis in HPCs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in co-cultured HPCs/KCs. However, enhancing the cellular oxidation capacity by the addition of l-carnitine 1...

  20. Synthesis of (9Z, 12E-, (9E, 12Z-[1-14C]-linoleic acid, (9Z, 12Z, 15E-, (9E, 12Z, 15Z-[1-14C]-linolenic acid and (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14E-[1-14C]-arachidonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enard, Thierry

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Trans polyunsaturated fatty acids are produced in vegetable oils during heat treatment (240-250 °C.ln order to study the metabolic pathway of 9c, 12t and 9t, 12c linoleic acid and 9c, 12c, 15t and 9t, 12c, 15c linolenic acid, these products were prepared labelled with carbon 14 in the carboxylic position. 5c, 8c, 11c, 14t-Arachidonic acid was also labelled on the carboxylic position with carbon 14 in order to study its physiological effects. To introduce the labelling (E-bromo precursors with a 17 carbons chain or a 19 carbon chain were needed. The different syntheses were done by elongation steps and creation of cis double bonds via highly stereospecific Wittig reactions. The radioactive carbon atom was introduced from [14C]-potassium cyanide. The final radioactive fatty acids had a specific activity greater than 50 mCi/mmol and a radioactive purity better than 99 % for linoleic and linolenic and better than 98.6 % for arachidonic acid.

  1. Acetyl eugenol, a component of oil of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) inhibits aggregation and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K C; Malhotra, N

    1991-01-01

    In continuation of our studies with the oil of cloves--a common kitchen spice and a crude drug for home medicine--we have isolated yet another active component identified as acetyl eugenol (AE); the earlier reported active component being eugenol. The isolated material (IM) was found to be a potent platelet inhibitor; IM abolished arachidonate (AA)-induced aggregation at ca. 12 microM, a concentration needed to abolish the second phase of adrenaline-induced aggregation. Chemically synthesized acetyl eugenol showed similar effects on AA- and adrenaline-induced aggregation. A dose-dependent inhibition of collagen-induced aggregation was also observed. AE did not inhibit either calcium ionophore A23187- or thrombin-induced aggregation. Studies on aggregation and ATP release were done using whole blood (WB). AA-induced aggregation in WB was abolished at 3 micrograms/ml (14.6 microM) which persisted even after doubling the concentration of AA. ATP release was inhibited. Inhibition of aggregation appeared to be mediated by a combination of two effects: reduced formation of thromboxane and increased generation of 12-lipoxygenase product (12-HPETE). These effects were observed by exposing washed platelets to (14C)AA or by stimulating AA-labelled platelets with ionophore A23187. Acetyl eugenol inhibited (14C)TxB2 formation in AA-labelled platelets on stimulation with thrombin. AE showed no effect on the incorporation of AA into platelet phospholipids. PMID:2011614

  2. Developmental Liberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2006-01-01

    In this essay, Randall Curren identifies a type of liberalism that incorporates empirical claims about the development of agency and rationality, and responds to the criticism that liberalism rests on an incoherent conception of "autonomous agency." He argues that moral agents did indeed "become ghosts" somewhere en route from Aristotle to Kant,…

  3. Liberal multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Gabor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiculturalism is the most recent member of political theory family and also the most contested across Western Europe. Four prime ministers publicly acknowledged the failure of „multikulti” and this contrast with the initially broad consensus in political theory on multicultural policies. Usually multiculturalism is associated with the communitarianism but there are three distinct types of justification for multiculturalism, namely the postcolonial, the communitarian and the liberal one. The article deals only with the evolution of liberal defense of multiculturalism in the political theory of William Kymlicka. Although his „liberal culturalism” became gradually more sophisticated, historic and specific circumstances of Eastern and Central Europe limit the scope of multicultural policies in this area.

  4. Rat brain slices produce and liberate kynurenic acid upon exposure to L-kynurenine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turski, W A; Gramsbergen, J B; Traitler, H;

    1989-01-01

    The incorporation of L-kynurenine (L-KYN) into kynurenic acid (KYNA) was examined in rat brain slices. KYNA was measured in the slices and in the incubation medium after purification by ion-exchange and HPLC chromatography. In pilot experiments, the formation of KYNA was confirmed by gas chromato......The incorporation of L-kynurenine (L-KYN) into kynurenic acid (KYNA) was examined in rat brain slices. KYNA was measured in the slices and in the incubation medium after purification by ion-exchange and HPLC chromatography. In pilot experiments, the formation of KYNA was confirmed by gas....... Neither deletion of Ca2+ or Mg2+ nor addition of 20 mM Mg2+ had any effect. However, KYNA production was significantly attenuated in the absence of Cl- or in the presence of 50 mM K+ in the incubation medium. In Na+-free medium, the production of KYNA from L-KYN was increased by 30%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED...

  5. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid-derived oxylipins and ceramides in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction of vegetable ingredients in fish feed has affected the fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Here we investigated how changes in fish feed affected the metabolism of mice fed diets containing fillets from such farmed salmon. We demonstrate that replacement of...

  6. Persistent circulating unmetabolised folic acid in a setting of liberal voluntary folic acid fortification. Implications for further mandatory fortification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Steven W

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ireland is an example of a country that has extensive voluntary fortification with folic acid. After a public consultation process, in 2006, the Food Safety Authority in Ireland FSAI 1 recommended mandatory fortification. However due to safety considerations this decision is now on hold. Before mandatory fortification goes ahead, existing levels of unmetabolised folic acid and their anticipated increase after fortification needs investigation because of the potential of folic acid to mask pernicious anaemia and possibly accelerate the growth of existing cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulatory unmetabolised folic acid in Irish adults (both fasted and un-fasted and new-born infants (fasted before the proposed implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification. A secondary aim was to predict the increase in circulatory unmetabolised folic acid levels after fortification. Methods Study 1. Setting: Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS. Whole blood samples were collected from blood donors (n = 50 attending for routine blood donation sessions (representing the general population. Subjects were not fasted prior to sampling. Study 2. Setting: Coombe Women's and Infant's University Hospital, Dublin. Whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture from mothers (n = 20, and from their infant's umbilical-cords (n = 20 immediately after caesarean section. All women had been fasted for at least 8 hours prior to the surgery. A questionnaire on habitual and recent dietary intakes of folic acid was administered by an interviewer to all subjects. The data collection period was February to April 2006. Serum samples were analysed for plasma folate, plasma folic acid and red cell folate. Results Blood Donor Group: Circulatory unmetabolised folic acid was present in 18 out of 20 mothers (fasted (CI: 68.3%–99.8% comprising 1.31% of total plasma folate, 17 out of 20 babies (fasted (CI: 62.1%–96.8%, and 49 out

  7. Persistent circulating unmetabolised folic acid in a setting of liberal voluntary folic acid fortification. Implications for further mandatory fortification?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Mary R

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ireland is an example of a country that has extensive voluntary fortification with folic acid. After a public consultation process, in 2006, the Food Safety Authority in Ireland FSAI 1 recommended mandatory fortification. However due to safety considerations this decision is now on hold. Before mandatory fortification goes ahead, existing levels of unmetabolised folic acid and their anticipated increase after fortification needs investigation because of the potential of folic acid to mask pernicious anaemia and possibly accelerate the growth of existing cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulatory unmetabolised folic acid in Irish adults (both fasted and un-fasted) and new-born infants (fasted) before the proposed implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification. A secondary aim was to predict the increase in circulatory unmetabolised folic acid levels after fortification. METHODS: Study 1. Setting: Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS). Whole blood samples were collected from blood donors (n=50) attending for routine blood donation sessions (representing the general population). Subjects were not fasted prior to sampling. Study 2. Setting: Coombe Women\\'s and Infant\\'s University Hospital, Dublin. Whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture from mothers (n=20), and from their infant\\'s umbilical-cords (n=20) immediately after caesarean section. All women had been fasted for at least 8 hours prior to the surgery. A questionnaire on habitual and recent dietary intakes of folic acid was administered by an interviewer to all subjects. The data collection period was February to April 2006. Serum samples were analysed for plasma folate, plasma folic acid and red cell folate. RESULTS: Blood Donor Group: Circulatory unmetabolised folic acid was present in 18 out of 20 mothers (fasted) (CI: 68.3%-99.8%) comprising 1.31% of total plasma folate, 17 out of 20 babies (fasted) (CI: 62.1%-96.8%), and 49 out of 50 blood donors

  8. Persistent circulating unmetabolised folic acid in a setting of liberal voluntary folic acid fortification. Implications for further mandatory fortification?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Mary R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Ireland is an example of a country that has extensive voluntary fortification with folic acid. After a public consultation process, in 2006, the Food Safety Authority in Ireland FSAI 1 recommended mandatory fortification. However due to safety considerations this decision is now on hold. Before mandatory fortification goes ahead, existing levels of unmetabolised folic acid and their anticipated increase after fortification needs investigation because of the potential of folic acid to mask pernicious anaemia and possibly accelerate the growth of existing cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulatory unmetabolised folic acid in Irish adults (both fasted and un-fasted) and new-born infants (fasted) before the proposed implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification. A secondary aim was to predict the increase in circulatory unmetabolised folic acid levels after fortification. METHODS: Study 1. Setting: Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS). Whole blood samples were collected from blood donors (n=50) attending for routine blood donation sessions (representing the general population). Subjects were not fasted prior to sampling. Study 2. Setting: Coombe Women\\'s and Infant\\'s University Hospital, Dublin. Whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture from mothers (n=20), and from their infant\\'s umbilical-cords (n=20) immediately after caesarean section. All women had been fasted for at least 8 hours prior to the surgery. A questionnaire on habitual and recent dietary intakes of folic acid was administered by an interviewer to all subjects. The data collection period was February to April 2006. Serum samples were analysed for plasma folate, plasma folic acid and red cell folate. RESULTS: Blood Donor Group: Circulatory unmetabolised folic acid was present in 18 out of 20 mothers (fasted) (CI: 68.3%-99.8%) comprising 1.31% of total plasma folate, 17 out of 20 babies (fasted) (CI: 62.1%-96.8%), and 49 out of 50 blood donors

  9. Ion-beam-mutation breeding of an arachidonic acid biosynthesis microorganism and its industrial fermentation control%微生物油脂花生四烯酸产生菌离子束诱变和发酵调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余增亮; 王纪; 袁成凌; 黄青; 冯慧云; 贡国鸿; 郑之明; 姚建铭

    2012-01-01

    某些微生物是高质量油脂的生产者.微生物油脂不仅有益健康,而且是生物柴油潜在的油脂来源.中国是个油脂资源缺乏的国家,开发微生物源油脂具有重要的意义.本文以产油微生物——高山被孢霉菌为出发菌,以单细胞油脂多不饱和脂肪酸产率为筛选目标,采用二步离子束诱变-筛选的策略,获得了高产菌株.研究了高产菌株的营养需求,创建了重复利用提油后的残体(菌粕)合成微生物油脂的技术.针对丝状真菌高密度发酵的传能和传质问题,研制了6×50和4×200m3大容量专用反应器组,单位发酵容积生物量达38.2g/L(发酵液)、油脂20.67g/L.其中具有重要生理活性的花生四烯酸产率最高达9.89 g/L,平均为8.97g/L.花生四烯酸提取和精炼后的残油转化为生物柴油,主要指标达到国家生物柴油标准.%Some microorganisms in nature produce high-quality oils. These oils provide nutritional benefits to human health, and can be potential sources of biodiesel. Developing microorganism-derived oils, also known as single-cell oils, is particularly important for China because of the shortage of oil resources. We have bred a high-yielding, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFCs)-producing strain from the fungi Mortierelia alpine by using a two-step strategy of ion-beam-mutation breeding and PUFCs productivity screening. We further studied the nutritional requirements of this new strain, and developed a technique that recycles the fungi residues, after oil extraction, into fermentation substrates. A biomass of 38.2 g/L, 20.67 g/L of which were oils, was reached in the 6x50 m3 and 4x200 m3 high-capacity reactors, designed for mycelial fungus fermentation at high-density, with optimized energy and mass transmission efficiency. Among the oils, the content of the physiologically active arachidonic acid reached 9.89 g/L at the highest level and 8.97 g/L on average. Residual oils, after arachidonic acid

  10. Maitotoxin: Effects on calcium channels, phosphoinositide breakdown, and arachidonate release in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitotoxin (MTX) increases formation of [3H]inositol phosphates from phosphoinositides and release of [3H]arachidonic acid from phospholipids in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Formation of [3H]inositol phosphates is detected within 1 min of incubation even with concentrations as low as 0.3 ng/ml (90 pm) MTX, whereas release of [3H]arachidonic acid is not detected until 20 min even with concentrations as high as 1 ng/ml (300 pm) MTX. Stimulation of arachidonic acid release can be detected at 0.03 ng/ml (9 pm) MTX, whereas 0.1 ng/ml (30 pm) MTX is the threshold for detection of phosphoinositide breakdown. Organic and inorganic calcium channel blockers, except Cd2+ and a high concentration of Mn2+, have no effect on MTX-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown, whereas inorganic blockers (e.g., Co2+, Mn2+, Cd2+), but not organic blockers (nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem), inhibit MTX-stimulated arachidonic acid release. All calcium channel blockers, however, inhibited MTX-elicited influx of 45Ca2+ and the MTX-elicited increase in internal Ca2+ measured with fura-2 was markedly reduced by nifedipine. MTX-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown and arachidonic acid release are abolished or reduced, respectively, in the absence of extracellular calcium plus chelating agent. The calcium ionophore A23187 has little or no effect alone but, in combination with MTX, A23187 inhibits MTX-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown and enhances arachidonic acid release, the latter even in the absence of extracellular calcium. The results suggest that different sites and/or mechanisms are involved in stimulation of calcium influx, breakdown of phosphoinositides, and release of arachidonic acid by MTX

  11. Economic liberalism and crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Michel De Vroey

    2009-01-01

    In the many debates concerning economic liberalism, this appears as a monolithic reality. The aim of this paper is to show that this is not the case and that different degrees of liberalism must be distinguished: total liberalism, mitigated liberalism and mitigated anti-liberalism, with subdistinctions within the first two categories. In the first part of the paper, the characteristics of economic liberalism overall are recalled. Subsequently, Adam Smith's justification of liberalism is intro...

  12. Dexamethasone blocks arachidonate biosynthesis in isolated hepatocytes and cultured hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dexamethasone on the incorporation and conversion of [1-14C]eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid to arachidonic acid in isolated hepatocytes and in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells was studied. In both kinds of cells, no changes in the exogenous acid incorporation were found when the hormone was added to the incubation media at 0.1 or 0.2 mM concentration, while the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid was significantly depressed. The effect on the biosynthesis was faster in isolated normal liver cells (60 min) than in tumoral cells (120 min) and reached an inhibition of ca. 50% after 3 hr of treatment. The addition of cycloheximide (10(-6) M) also caused a marked decrease in the biosynthesis of this polyunsaturated fatty acid, but when dexamethasone was added to the media simultaneously with cycloheximide, a synergistic action was not observed. The results obtained show that protein synthesis would be involved in the modulation of the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid by glucocorticoids. The changes in the delta 5 desaturation of labeled 20:3 omega 6 to arachidonic acid correlated with changes in the fatty acid composition in isolated cells

  13. Authoritarian Liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Somek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: In light of the reforms undertaken for the sake of the Euro, the article revisits the concept authoritarian liberalism that was introduced in 1933 by the German public law scholar Hermann Heller. This notion seeks to capture the liaison between the “strong state” and economic liberalism. The article suggests that this notion can be fruitfully used to designate the new governance of economic and monetary union. It argues, particularly, that it makes sense to speak of an authoritarian style of governance even if the latter does not wear vestiges of outright repression. Two different faces of authoritarian liberalism can be distinguished: one that looks more towards authoritarianism and another one that views authoritarian rule as a managerial strategy that is good for the economy. The article then speculates whether the European Union has been, indeed, successful because it shifts between the two. Disturbingly, there may be something deeply as well as more accidentally authoritarian about European integration. DEUTSCH: Angesichts der Reformen in der Eurozone greift dieser Beitrag den Begriff des „Autoritären Liberalismus“ wieder auf. Er wurde von Hermann Heller im Jahre 1933 verwendet, um die internen Zusammenhang zwischen dem ökonomischen Liberalismus und einem „starken Staat“ zu beschreiben. Dieser Begriff ist zur Erlangung eines angemessenen Verständnisses des neuen Regierens in der Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion heuristisch fruchtbar. Es ist sinnvoll von autoritärem Regieren auch dann zu sprechen, wenn diese nicht die äußeren Anzeichen staatlicher Repression trägt. Zwei Seiten des autoritären Liberalismus lassen sich unterscheiden. Während die eine Seite viel von Autorität an sich hält, sieht die andere Seite das autoritäre Regieren als etwas an, das gut für die Wirtschaft ist. Der Beitrag spekuliert abschließend darüber, ob die europäische Integration deswegen erfolgreich gewesen sein mag, weil sie

  14. Keeping the Liberal in Liberal Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelsen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The word "liberal" derives from the Latin "liber," meaning "free," and describes a mind unencumbered by either prejudice or indoctrination. The adjective "liberal," however, has become, at least in some circles, synonymous with anti-capitalism, anti-business, and therefore anti-American. This author has…

  15. Domestication of the high-sugar-tolerant Mortierella alpina on arachidonic acid (ARA) production%花生四烯酸产生菌高山被孢霉的高糖驯化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾思钰; 凌雪萍; 张长杰; 卢英华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]提高花生四烯酸(Arachidonic acid,ARA)产量,克服ARA产生菌高山被孢霉(Mortierella alpina)在长期的保存及使用过程中易受到外界条件影响发生退化,从而导致菌种耗糖量降低、影响菌种摄入营养的能力和不利于工业化生产的缺点.[方法]首先采用固体培养基驯化,将菌种逐级涂布于梯度高糖PDA平板(含糖量分别为2%、5%、7%、10%和15%)培养,挑选经固体驯化后能耐受10%高糖浓度平板的菌种,转接到两种含不同氮源的梯度高糖(含糖量分别为3%、4%、5%和6%)液体培养基中进行驯化,最后对驯化后的菌种进行2L发酵罐放大实验.[结果]当培养基中以酵母粉为氮源时,驯化后菌体的最高耗糖量由3 g/(L·d)提高到12 g/(L·d);当培养基中以玉米浆为氮源时,驯化后菌体的最高耗糖量由7 g/(L·d)提高到12 g/(L·d).摇瓶驯化实验结果表明以玉米浆为氮源驯化的菌种发酵效果较好,发酵罐实验结果显示菌体生物量为50 g/L,总油脂为18 g/L,目的产物ARA产量为8g/L.相比未驯化之前的发酵结果,生物量和总油脂含量提高了近3倍,ARA产量提高了近4倍.[结论]经过高糖驯化,菌种的耗糖能力得到提高,生物量、总油脂及ARA的产量也都有所增加,从而可以使菌种在保存和使用过程中不易退化,保持稳定.%[Objective] In order to improve arachidonia acid (ARA) production, and prevent the degeneration of ARA-producing strain Mortierella alpina in long-term culture preservation and cultivation, which could lead to low consumption rate of substrates like carbon source. [Methods] Mortierella alpina strain was first domesticated in high-sugar PDA plate with gradient sugar content (2%, 5%, 7%, 10% and 15%). The strain which grew better in the solid medium containing 10% sugar was then selected and transferred to two liquid high-sugar media with different nitrogen sources to domesticate. The gradient sugar

  16. Milk in the island of Chole [Tanzania] is high in lauric, myristic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and low in linoleic acid - Reconstructed diet of infants born to our ancestors living in tropical coastal regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Smit, Ella N.; van der Meulen, Jan; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Boersma, E. Rudy; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We need information on the diet on which our genes evolved. Objective: We studied the milk fatty acid [FA] composition of mothers living in the island of Chole [Tanzania, Indian Ocean]. These mothers have high intakes of boiled marine fish and coconut, and consume plenty amount of fruits

  17. Lithium modifies brain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic metabolism in rat lipopolysaccharide model of neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Basselin, Mireille; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Chen, Mei; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Robert C. Murphy; Farias, Santiago E.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroinflammation, caused by 6 days of intracerebroventricular infusion of a low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.5 ng/h), stimulates brain arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in rats, but 6 weeks of lithium pretreatment reduces this effect. To further understand this action of lithium, we measured concentrations of eicosanoids and docosanoids generated from AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, in high-energy microwaved rat brain using LC/MS/MS and two doses of LPS. In rats fed a l...

  18. LIBERALISM AND GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the close connection that exists between liberalism and globalization. In the first part wemake a presentation of the historical evolution of liberalism, starting with the classical economic liberalism continuingwith the neo-classical liberalism emphasizing neo-liberalism and within the latter one, the monetarism. In the secondpart of the paper we present the concept of globalization considered both from an economic and from a social point ofview. Among the winners of globalization we notice the transnational companies and among the losers, the underqualifiedworkers. As a main conclusion we consider that globalization has brought about an increase in the social –economic inequities

  19. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  20. Subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonate-enriched triglyceride oil (SUNTGA40S) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Suwa, Y.; Fujikawa, S.; Ishikura, Y.; Tsuda, S.; Dohnalek, M.

    2006-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are natural constituents found in human milk, fish oil or egg yolk. Until recently, infant formulas, though providing the essential fatty acid precursors for these PUFAs, did not contain preformed ARA

  1. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  2. The Boutique Liberal Arts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The structure of higher education today, in conjunction with those actively trying to devalue a liberal arts degree in the public sphere, has set the table for what seems like a completely rational solution: finding a "niche." Broadly speaking, colleges offering a liberal arts education identify their "niche market" in terms of…

  3. Essays on financial liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of financial liberalization on economic growth, income inequality and financial instability. Chapter 1 describes aim and scope of the thesis. Chapter 2 provides a meta-analysis of the literature on financial liberalization and economic growth. It is found that fin

  4. After liber novus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamdasani, Sonu

    2012-06-01

    This paper reflects on the conference question concerning the clinical and theoretical significance of Jung's Liber Novus, two years after its initial publication, and looks at how Jung himself reflected upon it and how it informed his turn to alchemy, with particular attention to the theme of opposites and their reconciliation in Liber Novus, later taken up in Mysterium Coniunctionis. PMID:22724599

  5. Liberal nationalism on immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...

  6. Sheep erythrocyte membrane binding and transfer of long-chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants......Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants...

  7. Effects of in vitro UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment on membrane fatty acids and activities of antioxidant enzymes in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were exposed to either plain ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation or to 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment. Lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid in various cellular lipid subclasses and in the culture medium were measured. Both UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induced significant changes in the distribution of arachidonic acid and increased the liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. At 24 h after either UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive material was significantly increased, whereas the amount of conjugated dienes was unaffected. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, were already significantly decreased at 0.5 h after UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment. The enzyme activities were partially restored during the following 24 h incubation. From the present study, we suggest that in keratinocytes both plain UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induce changes in the distribution of membrane fatty acids and cause an impairment in the enzymic defense system against oxidative stress

  8. The Paradoxes of Liberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    2011-01-01

    Jakob Vestergaard has produced one of the most telling analyses of the international financial architecture by deploying a broadly Foucauldian framework that invokes a novel description of neo-liberal governance, one organized around discipline, conditional exceptions and the pursuit of a ‘proper...

  9. Millian Liberal Feminism Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Gail

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that John Stuart Mill's principles on liberal feminism are still relevant and have not yet been fully implemented. A Millian account of equality of opportunity and discrimination is developed, and current measures in the field of sexual equality are critiqued. (Author/MSE)

  10. LIBER 2010 / Mihkel Volt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volt, Mihkel

    2010-01-01

    LIBER-i 2010. aasta konverentsi pealkirjaks oli "Taasavastades raamatukogu - uue infokeskkonna väljakutsed". Århusis toimunud konverentsil käsitleti nii teadusraamatukogu rolli e-teaduses ja e-õppes, teavikute massilist digiteerimist ja kollektsioonide säilitamist kui ka "taasavastatud raamatukogu" juhtimist, arutleti nende teemade kombineerimisvõimaluste üle

  11. When Liberal Peacebuilding Fails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    peacebuilding agenda in fragile states means politically. Contrasting the purpose of peacebuilding with the practices through which it is carried out, the article argues that the implementation of a unified peacebuilding agenda to a large extent undermines the liberal pretences of peacebuilding. While...

  12. Liberalism, Perfectionism, and Civic Virtue

    OpenAIRE

    Pauer-Studer, Herlinde

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the question whether perfectionism amounts to a political doctrine that is more attractive than liberalism. I try to show that an egalitarian liberalism that is open to questions of value and that holds a conception of limited neutrality can meet the perfectionist challenge. My thesis is that liberalism can be reconciled easily with perfectionism read as a moral doctrine. Perfectionism as a political doctrine equall stays within the value framework of liberalism. Fina...

  13. Defending Liberalism in Education Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry; Swift, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Defends the liberal approach to education by diagnosing and correcting the most common reasons people have for rejecting it. Argues that in some cases those reasons are based on a misunderstanding of liberalism, while in others the understanding of liberalism is accurate, but the evaluation of the objection is mistaken. Focus is on the…

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Calder Philip C

    2004-01-01

    The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites) and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and ...

  15. Liberating Exotic Slaves

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczek, Frank

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of confined, ``slave'' fields is frequently useful as a formal device in models of condensed matter physics; it becomes a conceptual necessity for describing possible phases of matter where the slaves are liberated. Here I discuss some aspects of the fractional quantum Hall effect from this point of view, emphasizing analogies with phenomena in other areas of physics, particularly to the Meissner and Higgs mechanisms, and to confinement-deconfinement transitions. In this appl...

  16. Reciprocal Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle Bagwell; Staiger, Robert W.

    1996-01-01

    Why have governments found reciprocal trade agreements such as GATT to be a more effective means of facilitating trade liberalization than unilateral initiatives? We provide in this paper an analytic framework for the study of reciprocal trade agreements. We use this framework to establish three main results. First, we argue that political-economy factors are important for explaining the range of trade policies observed, but that these factors can not explain why governments seek reciprocal t...

  17. Sociology and Classical Liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    KLEIN, Daniel; Stern, Lotta

    2005-01-01

    We advocate the development of a classical-liberal character within professional sociology. The American Sociological Association (ASA) is taken as representative of professional sociology in the United States. We review the ASA’s activities and organizational statements, to show the association’s leftist character. Internal criticism is often very uneasy about leftist domination of the field. We present survey results establishing that, in voting and in policy views, the ASA membership is mo...

  18. Association between polymorphisms of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12 and schizophrenia in a Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arachidonic acid (AA, an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, is one of the major components of neural membranes, which show an altered phospholipid composition in schizophrenia. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12, an important enzyme, metabolizes AA to 12-HPETE, which affects catecholamine synthesis. However, research has yet to show the genetic association between ALOX12 and schizophrenia. Therefore, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of the ALOX12 gene in schizophrenia, recruiting patients with schizophrenia (n = 289 and normal controls (n = 306 from a Korean population. We selected three SNPs (rs1126667, rs434473, and rs1042357 of the ALOX12 gene and genotyped them by direct sequencing. We reviewed the schizophrenic patients' medical records and assessed them clinically using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and the Operational Criteria Checklist (OPCRIT. Then we statistically analyzed the genetic associations between the SNPs and schizophrenia, finding a genetic association between both rs1126667 and rs1042357 and schizophrenia, in the recessive model (p = 0.015 and 0.015, respectively. We also found an association between rs434473 and negative symptoms, defined through a factor analysis of the OPCRIT data (p = 0.040. Consequently, we suggest that SNPs of the ALOX12 gene might be associated with schizophrenia and negative symptoms in this Korean population. These weak positives require additional study.

  19. Effect of arachidonic acid supplementation and cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibition on the development of early bovine embryos Influência do ácido araquidónico e da inibição da ciclo-oxigenase ou lipo-oxigenase no desenvolvimento inicial de embriões bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of arachidonic acid (AA cascade on bovine embryo development in a granulosa cell co-culture system was studied. Arachidonic acid (100 µM was supplemented from 1-cell to 8-16 cell block stage (first three days of co-culture and from 1-cell to hatching. Specific cyclooxygenase (indomethacin, 28 µM and lipoxygenase (nordihydroguaiaretic acid - NDGA, 28 µM inhibitors were used from 1-cell to 8-16 cell block stage with AA. Embryo development was assessed by cleavage, day 7-day 8 and hatched embryo rates and by measuring growth rates through development stages found in days 7-10 of culture (day 0 = insemination day. Embryo quality was scored at day 8. A 6.5-10.4% increase on cleavage rate after AA supplementation was found. This AA supplementation from 1-cell to hatching delayed embryo growth rate beyond day 7 and a reduction on hatching rate was detected. When AA supplementation was restricted to the first three days of co-culture those negative effects were overcome. Also, indomethacin and NDGA prevented the positive effect of AA and induced a significant reduction on cleavage, respectively. NDGA further decreased day 7 embryo rate and quality. Results suggest that AA has a two-phase action on bovine embryos, promoting early development and impairing embryo growth from day 7 onwards and hatching rates. Both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase were found to be important pathways to promote cleavage.Estudou-se a influência da cascata do ácido araquidónico (AA no desenvolvimento de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro em co-cultura com células da granulosa. Os embriões foram suplementados com AA (100 µM desde o estádio de 1 célula até 8-16 células (primeiros três dias de co-cultura ou até a eclosão. Introduziram-se inibidores específicos da ciclo-oxigenase (indometacina, 28 µM e da lipo-oxigenase (ácido nordihidroguaiarético - NDGA, 28 µM, juntamente com o ácido araquidónico, desde o estádio de 1 célula até 8-16 c

  20. Financial Liberalization and Financial Fragility

    OpenAIRE

    Demirguc-Kent, Asli; Detragiache, Enrica

    1998-01-01

    The authors study the empirical relationship between banking crises and financial liberalization using a panel of data for 53 countries for 1980-95. They find that banking crises are more likely to occur in liberalized financial systems. But financial liberalization's impact on a fragile banking sector is weaker where the institutional environment is strong--especially where there is respect for the rule of law, a low level of corruption, and good contract enforcement. They examine evidence o...

  1. Trade Liberalization and Trade Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi

    2003-01-01

    This note discusses trade liberalization and trade taxes. The main issue should not be the reduction of trade taxes but of total tax revenue. By potentially changing the structure of the economy, trade liberalization will affect not just tax revenue but also the role of the state in the economy and, thus, also public spending. In this discussion the author focuses on taxation and ignores the potential impact of trade liberalization on public spending. This note was prepared for the meeting of...

  2. States of Liberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    2015-01-01

    When Hamas won the 2006 Palestinian Legislative Council elections it was a critical juncture in the life of a Palestinian faction that had, over the years, garnered the status of an iconic armed resistance. Was it viable, scholars asked, for the organization to maintain its position of resistance...... in the context of the Palestinian quest for liberation. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel and Egypt, this dissertation argues that resistance and governance serve as means of emboldening the signature of Palestinian existence – as a cause and as a people. Hamas’ resistance...

  3. Liberalism Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    What happens to the liberal democratic ideals of human security and peacebuilding when they travel to the radically different post-conflict setting of Sierra Leone? Through its peacebuilding strategy the UN has been able to establish new grounds for exercising power. By aiming to secure the peace......, rather than just maintaining it, the claim of neutrality has been replaced with a claim of how to build a state. Based on fieldwork in the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Leone, I argue that when human security travels to the field, it gets reinvented in ways that essentially...

  4. Una democracia liberal sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Wissenburg, Marcel

    1999-01-01

    Entre los círculos de los teóricos políticos verdes, el liberalismo, en cuanto teoría política, es visto a menudo como un factor que contribuye a la persistencia de los problemas medioambientales. Frente a esta extendida ¡dea, el autor mantiene que existen formas mediante las que la filosofía política liberal dominante puede enriquecerse con el tipo de premisas que permiten discutir sensatamente cuestiones medioambientales. En este sentido, considera siete posibilidades: mejorar el ...

  5. Arachidonate metabolism increases as rat alveolar type II cells differentiate in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat type II alveolar epithelial cells are known to undergo morphological and functional changes when maintained in culture for several days. Having previously demonstrated that these cells can deacylate free arachidonic acid (AA) and metabolize it to products of the cyclooxygenase pathway, the present study was undertaken to determine whether in vitro differentiation was accompanied by alterations in the availability and metabolism of AA. We assessed the constitutive and ionophore A23187-induced deacylation and metabolism of endogenous AA, as well as the metabolism of exogenously supplied AA, in primary cultures of rat type II cells at days 2, 4, and 7 after isolation. Levels of free endogenous AA were increased at day 4, whereas eicosanoid synthesis, predominantly prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin, increased markedly only at day 7. A similar time course of augmentation of prostanoid release was seen in response to exogenous AA. Type II cells cultured on fibronectin, intended to hasten cell flattening and spreading, demonstrated accelerated increases in available free AA in response to A23187; cells cultured on basement membrane derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse sarcoma, known to maintain the type II phenotype, exhibited diminished levels of available free AA. From these findings, we conclude that alterations in arachidonate metabolism are linked to alterations in cellular phenotype. The potentiation of eicosanoid synthesis accompanying in vitro differentiation suggests a possible role for the alveolar epithelium in the modulation of inflammation and fibrosis in the distal lung

  6. Enhancement of mononuclear procoagulant activity by platelet 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzet, R; Niemetz, J; Marcus, A J; Broekman, M J

    1986-01-01

    Platelets induce generation of procoagulant tissue factor activity (TFa) by mononuclear leukocytes, and also enhance the TFa induced by endotoxin. Our present investigation demonstrated that arachidonic acid, which by itself had no effect on mononuclear TFa, greatly enhanced platelet-induced TFa. The effect was concentration dependent for both platelets and arachidonate (1-20 microM); other fatty acids tested were inactive. The enhancing effect of arachidonate was more pronounced if platelets...

  7. The Landscape of the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a rationale for the value of a liberal arts education, addressing briefly the recent history of the liberal arts, explaining the value of the liberal arts in diverse educational settings as opposed to simply residential liberal arts colleges, and exploring a contemporary rationale for the liberal arts.

  8. Liberal Values at a Time of Neo-Liberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Critical responses to changes in UK higher education have emerged from various quarters. This article suggests that some of these responses are collusive with neo-liberalism and that a greater attention might be paid to the possibilities of the word "liberal" and to the more democratic implications of certain US initiatives.

  9. Cultural Rights and Liberal Multiculturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler forskellige former for kritik af såkaldt liberal multikulturalisme, som fx forfægtet af Will Kymlicka.......Artiklen omhandler forskellige former for kritik af såkaldt liberal multikulturalisme, som fx forfægtet af Will Kymlicka....

  10. Marxism, Liberalism, and Educational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margonis, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Examines educational theory, Marxism, and liberalism, discussing Kenneth Strike's "Liberal Justice and the Marxist Critique of Education" and Daniel Liston's "Capitalist Schools: Explanation and Ethics in Radical Studies of Schooling." Suggests that both authors are too hasty in abandoning Marxism and that Marxism is the philosophy of our age. (SM)

  11. Denmark between liberalism and nationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents; Mouritsen, Per

    2013-01-01

    What explains the restrictive turn towards immigrants in European countries like Denmark? Are countries returning to nationalism, or are they following a general European trend towards a perfectionist, even ‘repressive’ liberalism that seeks to create ‘liberal people’ out of immigrants? Recent...... national culture that immigrantsmust acquire in order to become full citizens...

  12. Liberal Nationalism and the Nationalisation of Liberal Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    This article considers whether appeals to ‘national values' in public discourse and political debate might be a form of nationalism. This theoretical question about the applicability of the category of nationalism faces the objections that political values cannot constitute nationality...... features of nationalism. This feature of the nationalisation of liberal values carries both normative and explanatory implications, which relate to the concerns of ‘liberal nationalism'....

  13. Politisk liberalism och skolans religionsundervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Rosenquist

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available POLITICAL LIBERALISM AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. Based on John Rawls’ latertheory of political liberalism, this article critically analyses what religiouseducation could mean in times of increasing societal pluralism and a world-wide revival of religion. Important elements of political liberalism – such asthe notions of reasonable persons and public reason – are elaborated onand related to religious individuals and perspectives. It is argued that polit-ical liberalism supports mandatory religious education, but of a certainkind. Schools have an obligation to provide students with knowledge aboutreligions, and to foster a spirit of tolerance and respect for the demands ofpublic reason. But they cannot legitimately give students the impression thatall religions are equally true or false. This makes for a problematic situation:how is it possible to teach students about religion without crossing the lineand teaching religious relativism? If it is not possible, then political liberalismseems to be more controversial than Rawls would admit.

  14. Ethical Liberalism, Education and the "New Right."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Examines the philosophical tradition of ethical liberalism from its emergence as a coherent response to 19th century classical liberal individualism through contemporary formulations. Pursues origins in John Stuart Mills's writings and assesses ethical liberalism's relevance for understanding current neo-liberal policy restructuring in education.…

  15. An Historical Review of Liberal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerner, James L.

    Section I of this paper presents a brief history of liberal education and reviews some of the ideas that have been expressed about its origin, and some of the ideas that have influenced liberal education throughout history. The definition of the purpose of liberal education is Woodring's: "It is the education that liberates men from the bondage of…

  16. Justification of Galston's liberal pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Golam

    2016-01-01

    Liberal multicultural theories developed in late twenty-first century aims to ensure the rights of the minorities, social justice and harmony in liberal societies. Will Kymlicka is the leading philosopher in this field. He advocates minority rights, their autonomy and the way minority groups can be accommodated in a liberal society with their distinct cultural identity. Besides him, there are other political theorists on the track and Galston is one of them. He disagrees with Kymlicka on some crucial points, particularly regarding the scope of civil rights of the minority groups and the responsibilities of both majority and minority groups for the sake of social harmony and justice. He tries to develop a moral theory of mutualism based on inter-community toleration and constitutionalism. Considering toleration as one of the fundamental liberal virtues he contends that the majority government has the responsibility to make arrangement both for the members of majority and minority groups so that they can build inter personal relation and learn toleration. The paper critically justifies the feasibility of his theory in a liberal society and claims that although Galston's theory has a higher possibility to be accommodated in liberal societies, it eventually fails.

  17. Justification of Galston's liberal pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Golam

    2016-01-01

    Liberal multicultural theories developed in late twenty-first century aims to ensure the rights of the minorities, social justice and harmony in liberal societies. Will Kymlicka is the leading philosopher in this field. He advocates minority rights, their autonomy and the way minority groups can be accommodated in a liberal society with their distinct cultural identity. Besides him, there are other political theorists on the track and Galston is one of them. He disagrees with Kymlicka on some crucial points, particularly regarding the scope of civil rights of the minority groups and the responsibilities of both majority and minority groups for the sake of social harmony and justice. He tries to develop a moral theory of mutualism based on inter-community toleration and constitutionalism. Considering toleration as one of the fundamental liberal virtues he contends that the majority government has the responsibility to make arrangement both for the members of majority and minority groups so that they can build inter personal relation and learn toleration. The paper critically justifies the feasibility of his theory in a liberal society and claims that although Galston's theory has a higher possibility to be accommodated in liberal societies, it eventually fails. PMID:27547665

  18. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  19. Melittin stimulates fatty acid release through non-phospholipase-mediated mechanisms and interacts with the dopamine transporter and other membrane spanning proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Keith, Dove J; Eshleman, Amy J; Janowsky, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 releases the fatty acid arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. We used the purported phospholipase A2 stimulator, melittin, to examine the effects of endogenous arachidonic acid signaling on dopamine transporter function and trafficking. In HEK-293 cells stably transfected with the dopamine transporter, melittin reduced uptake of [3H]dopamine. Additionally, measurements of fatty acid content demonstrated a melittin-induced release of membrane-incorporated arachidonic a...

  20. Association of arachidonic acid level in gastric cancer tissue with gender and tumor differentiation%胃癌组织中花生四烯酸水平与肿瘤分化程度及性别关系的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋虎; 彭俊生; 李初俊; 向军; 刘中辉; 王华摄; 杜艳平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of arachidonic acid (AA) level in gastric cancer (GC) tissue with tumor differentiation and patients' gender.Methods The contents of AA in GC tissue and adjacent matched normal mucosa were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.The relationships of AA with GC differentiation and patients' gender were analyzed.Results The level of AA significantly decreased in GC tissue (0.190% ± 0.255 %) compared with normal tissue (0.274% ± 0.254%,n =30,P =0.011 ),while the level of AA had no significant difference in the tissues of matched normal mucosa and different TNM stages or among different TNM stages ( all P > 0.05).The AA levels in well and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (0.173% ±0.244% ) and in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (0.195% ±0.264%) were significantly decreased when compared with those in the paired normal mucosa (0.334% ± 0.170%,P =0.018; 0.256% ± 0.275%,P =0.043,respectively),while no significant difference was observed between the different differentiated grades (P =0.895).The level of AA significantly decreased in male patients (0.137% ± 0.209% ) as compared with paired normal mucosa (0.275%:± 0.238%,P =0.010),while no positive correlation was observed in female patients as compared with normal group (P=0.477) or in the comparison between male and female groups (P =0.139).Conclusions The AA level remarkably decreases in GC tissue,which may be associated with differentiated grades and patients'gender.In addition,more AA is utilized in male GC patients than female patients.%目的 探讨胃癌组织中花生四烯酸(AA)含量及其与肿瘤分化程度及性别的关系.方法 采用气相色谱联合质谱分析技术对从胃癌组织中提取的花生四烯酸进行定量分析并与周围配对的正常黏膜进行对照.分析AA水平与胃癌分化程度及性别的关系.结果 胃癌组织中AA含量(0.190%±0.255%)显著少

  1. Characterization of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene A4 synthetase from RBL-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-lipoxygenase (LO) and leukotriene (LT) A4 synthetase from RBL-1 high speed (105,000 x g for 60 min) supernatants were partially purified by protein-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized in detail. The partially purified preparation contained only 5-LO and LTA4 synthetase and was isolated from 12-LO, peroxidase and LTA4 hydrolase activities. Reaction products were separated by reversed phase HPLC and quantitated by absorption spectrophotometry and radiochemical detection. The enzyme preparation rapidly converted [14C]arachidonate to [14C]5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HPETE) and [14C]5,12-dihydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (diHETEs). The 5,12-diHETEs were primarily non-enzymatic breakdown products of LTA4 (e.g., 6-trans-LTB4 and 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4). Both the 5-LO and LTA4 synthetase activities were Ca2+- and ATP-dependent. For both enzyme activities, the CA2+ stimulation required the presence of ATP. The fatty acid hydroperoxides, 5-,12-, and 15-HPETE, both stimulated ([ 3 μM]) 5-LO and LTA4 synthetase activities. The rapid isolation and subsequent characterization of 5-LO and LTA4 synthetase provide the bases for the further understanding of the role of the LO pathway in biological processes

  2. Mathematics for the liberal arts

    CERN Document Server

    Bindner, Donald; Hemmeter, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Presents a clear bridge between mathematics and the liberal arts Mathematics for the Liberal Arts provides a comprehensible and precise introduction to modern mathematics intertwined with the history of mathematical discoveries. The book discusses mathematical ideas in the context of the unfolding story of human thought and highlights the application of mathematics in everyday life. Divided into two parts, Mathematics for the Liberal Arts first traces the history of mathematics from the ancient world to the Middle Ages, then moves on to the Renaissance and finishes with the development of modern mathematics. In the second part, the book explores major topics of calculus and number theory, including problem-solving techniques and real-world applications. This book emphasizes learning through doing, presents a practical approach, and features: A detailed explanation of why mathematical principles are true and how the mathematical processes workNumerous figures and diagrams as well as hundreds of worked example...

  3. New Approaches to Classical Liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Maloberti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the following three novel and original philosophical approaches to classical liberalism: Den Uyl and Rasmussen's perfectionist argument from meta-norms, Gaus's justificatory model, and Kukathas's conscience-based theory of authority. None of these three approaches are utilitarian or consequentialist in character. Neither do they appeal to the notion of a rational bargain as it is typical within contractarianism. Furthermore, each of these theories rejects the idea that classical liberalism should be grounded on considerations of interpersonal justice such as those that are central to the Lockean tradition. It is argued that these three theories, despite their many attractive features, fail to articulate in a convincing manner some central classical liberal concerns.

  4. Detection of monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and F2-isoprostanes in microdialysis samples of human UV-irradiated skin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, J-U; Wiswedel, I; Hirsch, D; Gollnick, H P M

    2004-01-01

    UV irradiation of the human skin leads to induction of oxidative stress and inflammation mediated by reactive oxygen radicals, lipid peroxidation, liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids and formation of prostaglandins and leucotrienes. We investigated "lipid mediators", such as F(2)-isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF(2alpha), 9alpha,11alpha-PGF(2alpha)) and monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) in the dermal interstitial fluid obtained by a cutaneous microdialysis technique. Defined areas on the volar forearm of 10 healthy volunteers were exposed to UVB irradiation (20-60 mJ/cm(2)). Microdialysis membranes were cutaneously inserted beneath the irradiated area. The probes were perfused with isotonic saline solution, and microdialysate samples were collected at 20-min intervals up to 4-5 h. Oxidized arachidonic acid derivatives (2-, 3-, 5-, 8-12- and 15-HETEs, 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) and 9alpha,11alpha-PGF(2alpha)) could be detected and quantified in microdialysates of normal skin in the picomole (HETEs) and femtomole (isoprostanes) range and after UVB irradiation using sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/negative ion chemical ionization. UVB irradiation enhanced the levels of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) after 24 h significantly, whereas the HETE levels were slightly increased within shorter time intervals (3 h after UVB irradiation). Further investigations have to show whether these new findings are relevant to validate therapeutic strategies for topical and systemic UV prevention agents or for monitoring of specific therapeutic strategies in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:14755126

  5. Liberal Nationalism, Pluralism and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    Emnet for denne PhD afhandling er nationalisme og multikulturalisme med særlig henblik på spørgsmål om indvandring til etablerede liberale nationalstater. Liberal nationalisme forstås som baseret på et hensyn til at sikre liberale politiske idealers stabilitet, og diskuteres i forhold til spørgsmål...

  6. Retrenchment at Liberal Arts Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Data on current retrenchment policies and practices of liberal arts colleges are reported and analyzed, including information on the existence of a retrenchment policy, retrenchment between 1974-75 and 1977-78, the retrenchment process, and the impact of retrenchment on affirmative action and employment rights and benefits. (MLW)

  7. The Questions of Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, Rene V.

    2007-01-01

    There is a certain kind of liberal educator who bases his or her practice on a particular attitude toward the "Big Questions." The questions of fundamental literacy in K-12 education, or of expertise in vocational and professional education, may be just as important, but they are seen as quite different in kind. Indeed, the questions of liberal…

  8. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  9. Liberal Education and Its Enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    References to Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, and Marx illustrate essential characteristics of liberal education; central concern with the educationally valuable; development of mind as a whole; and acceptance of hierarchy within knowledge. Criticizes contemporary groups (primitivists, multiculturalists, reductionists, indoctrinators, vocationalists,…

  10. Pragmatic Liberalism and President Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon A. Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to examine the foreign policy of President Obama with special reference to Bangladesh from the point of pragmatic liberalism. Pragmatism means understanding the realities of the situation and making decisions based on thorough research of these realities. Pragmatism opposes strict adherence to ideological beliefs in pursuing foreign policy. President Obama came into power amid one of the most volatile and dangerous times in the history of the United States occupied with two foreign wars, and inherited an economy on the brink of collapse. The key features of Obama’s pragmatic liberalism in foreign policy are to promote liberal ideas as long as it does not threaten the national security interests, emphasize diplomacy in solving the conflicts, foster humanitarian issues, develop alliances and multilateral agreements, uphold the major national interests, and strengthen national security defined in terms of economic well-being. The article will analyze U.S. foreign policy toward Bangladesh based on pragmatic liberalism of President Obama.

  11. The Future of Feminist Liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Feminists have sometimes argued that philosophical theories of justice deriving from the liberal tradition cannot deal adequately with the concerns of women. I argue that in many ways this contention is mistaken: the best liberal theories of justice provide a very strong basis for thinking about what respect for human dignity requires. There are, however, two areas pertinent to sex equality in which even the strongest liberal theories have grave difficulty. First is the area of need and dependency. All theories of justice and morality deriving from the European social contract tradition fail to build into the basic social structure concern for care in times of asymmetrical dependency. The second problem I investigate is the problem of just distribution within the family. Focusing on the theory of John Rawls, I argue that his liberal commitment to seeing the family as a sphere of protected personal choice is in tension with his admission that the family is part of the "basic structure" of society. Moreover, the family does not exist by nature: it is always a construct of state action. The state should therefore make sure that this constructing is done well, compatibly with justice for women and children.

  12. Liberal Education and Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2004-01-01

    As the ninetieth anniversary is celebrated, the idea of liberal education is more important than ever in the interdependent world. An education based on the idea of an inclusive global citizenship and on the possibilities of the compassionate imagination has the potential to transcend divisions created by distance, cultural difference, and…

  13. The Counselor and Gay Liberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Raymond R.

    1971-01-01

    Counselors who accept the gay liberation struggle for acceptance and equality, must first rid themselves of their own narrow or destructive attitudes toward homosexuals. It is only after acceptance of persons with different sexual preferences that the counselor can begin to think of himself as a helping person in this area. (Author/BY)

  14. Carboxylic Acid Ionophores as Probes of the Role of Calcium in Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. W.

    1983-01-01

    The biological effects of calcium ionophores are described, focusing on arachidonic acid oxygenation, and the formation of a number of oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid. These metabolites are involved in a number of bodily functions, and their production may be regulated by calcium.

  15. Economic liberalism: fall, revival and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Quiggin, John

    2005-01-01

    The chapter is organised as follows. Section 1 is a historical survey of the fluctuating fortunes of economic liberalism from its eclipse after 1914, to its resurgence in the 1990s, and ending with evidence that economic liberalism has lost ground since the late 1990s, particularly in the English-speaking countries. Section 2 describes the ideology and rhetoric of economic liberalism. Sections 3, 4 and 5 deal with specific aspects of the policy framework of economic liberalism. Section 6 prov...

  16. Malaysia: Financial Liberalization in the Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Loke, Lee Lian

    2011-01-01

    In this globalised era, financial liberalization is indeed crucial to support the functioning of the worldwide economies. As a developing country which is striving to achieve the developed nation status by year 2020, Malaysia too has liberalized the financial industry, particularly the banking sector. However, the liberalization strategy was more conservative and gradual, focusing primarily on building strong fundamentals in the industry before further liberalizing the sector. The Governor of...

  17. Computer Science and the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Computer science and the liberal arts have much to offer each other. Yet liberal arts colleges, in particular, have been slow to recognize the opportunity that the study of computer science provides for achieving the goals of a liberal education. After the precipitous drop in computer science enrollments during the first decade of this century,…

  18. Library Support for Liberal Arts Data

    OpenAIRE

    French, AL

    2015-01-01

    A presentation given at an Open Access Week panel titled "Data and digitization for the liberal arts and human sciences" on the subject of collecting, curating, preserving, and publishing liberal arts "data," despite the unfamiliarity of that term in the liberal arts. false (Invited?) Final version as presented

  19. Discussing Problems of Chinese Interest Rate liberalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝民; 陈金贤

    2002-01-01

    The level of Chinese interest rate liberalization is very low. The interest rate liberalization reform is an inevitable choice under the general trend of economic globalization in the world. Meanwhile, interest rate liberalization is indispensable for Chinese economic development and financial stabilization. The interest rate liberalization reform should follow a certain principles and satisfy a certain requirements, otherwise the financial order will be in a state of chaos and the negative influence on economy will appear. The interest rate liberalization reform needs a good economic environment and a series of relative reforms.

  20. Liberal intolerance in European education debates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2016-01-01

    The reaction against non-western immigrants and especially Muslims has been analysed both in terms of an exclusionary civic nationalism and in terms of an assertive liberalism. Similar to exclusionary civic nationalism, assertive liberalism purports to defend liberal democratic principles...... by subdividing it into four categories of liberal intolerance and demonstrates this by analysing six national debates on the accommodation of cultural and religious diversity in education. The analysis indicates that the nature of liberal intolerance understood as the combination of the four categories...

  1. Financial Liberalization: The African Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen; Tokatlidis, Ioannis

    2000-01-01

    Almost a decade after their initiation, financial reforms appear to have had little effect on the economies of Sub-Sahara Africa. Whether the blame is to fall on their initial design itself, or on the partial nature of their implementation, liberalization policies have not mobilized savings, deepened intermediation or raised investment. Yet, Africa needs properly functioning financial markets for a more efficient allocation of resources for growth and risk diversification. How can African go...

  2. Trade Liberalization and Organizational Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Conconi; Patrick Legros; Andrew F. Newman

    2008-01-01

    We embed a simple incomplete-contracts model of organization design in a standard two-country, perfectly-competitive trade model to examine how the liberalization of product and factor markets affects the ownership structure of firms. In our model, managers decide whether or not to integrate their firms, trading off the pecuniary benefits of coordinating production decisions with the private benefits of operating in their preferred ways. The price of output is a crucial determinant of this ch...

  3. Trade liberalization and gender inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Women consistently work less in the labor market and earn lower wages than men. While economic empowerment of women is an important objective in itself, women's economic activity also matters as a condition for sustained economic growth. The political debate on the labor market impacts of international trade typically differentiates workers by their educational attainment or skills. Gender is a further dimension in which the impacts of trade liberalization can differ. In a globalizing world i...

  4. Systematic Analysis Reveals that Cancer Mutations Converge on Deregulated Metabolism of Arachidonate and Xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Francesco; Schulze, Almut; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-07-19

    Mutations are the basis of the clonal evolution of most cancers. Nevertheless, a systematic analysis of whether mutations are selected in cancer because they lead to the deregulation of specific biological processes independent of the type of cancer is still lacking. In this study, we correlated the genome and transcriptome of 1,082 tumors. We found that nine commonly mutated genes correlated with substantial changes in gene expression, which primarily converged on metabolism. Further network analyses circumscribed the convergence to a network of reactions, termed AraX, that involves the glutathione- and oxygen-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid and xenobiotics. In an independent cohort of 4,462 samples, all nine mutated genes were consistently correlated with the deregulation of AraX. Among all of the metabolic pathways, AraX deregulation represented the strongest predictor of patient survival. These findings suggest that oncogenic mutations drive a selection process that converges on the deregulation of the AraX network. PMID:27396332

  5. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene polymorphism is associated with Alzheimer's disease and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerý, Omar; Hlinecká, Lýdia; Povová, Jana; Bonczek, Ondřej; Zeman, Tomáš; Janout, Vladimír; Ambroz, Petr; Khan, Naim A; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-03-15

    Dementias of old age, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD), pose a growing threat to the longevity and quality of life of individuals as well as whole societies world-wide. The risk factors are both genetic and environmental (life-style) and there is an overlap with similar factors predisposing to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Using a case-control genetic approach, we have identified a SNP (rs10507391) in ALOX5 gene, previously associated with an increased risk of stroke, as a novel genetic risk factor for AD. ALOX5 gene encodes a 5'-lipoxygenase (5'-LO) activating protein (FLAP), a crucial component of the arachidonic acid/leukotriene inflammatory cascade. A-allele of rs4769874 polymorphism increases the risk of AD 1.41-fold (p<0.0001), while AA genotype does so 1.79-fold (p<0.0001). In addition, GG genotype of rs4769874 polymorphism is associated with a modest increase in body mass index (BMI). We discuss potential biochemical mechanisms linking the SNP to AD and suggest possible preventive pharmacotherapies some of which are based on commonly available natural products. Finally, we set the newly identified AD risk factors into a broader context of similar CVD risk factors to generate a more comprehensive picture of interacting genetics and life-style habits potentially leading to the deteriorating mental health in the old age. PMID:26944113

  6. Systematic Analysis Reveals that Cancer Mutations Converge on Deregulated Metabolism of Arachidonate and Xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gatto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations are the basis of the clonal evolution of most cancers. Nevertheless, a systematic analysis of whether mutations are selected in cancer because they lead to the deregulation of specific biological processes independent of the type of cancer is still lacking. In this study, we correlated the genome and transcriptome of 1,082 tumors. We found that nine commonly mutated genes correlated with substantial changes in gene expression, which primarily converged on metabolism. Further network analyses circumscribed the convergence to a network of reactions, termed AraX, that involves the glutathione- and oxygen-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid and xenobiotics. In an independent cohort of 4,462 samples, all nine mutated genes were consistently correlated with the deregulation of AraX. Among all of the metabolic pathways, AraX deregulation represented the strongest predictor of patient survival. These findings suggest that oncogenic mutations drive a selection process that converges on the deregulation of the AraX network.

  7. Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type B knockdown leads to reduced lipid accumulation and inflammation in atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa U Magnusson

    Full Text Available Inflammation in the vascular wall is important for development of atherosclerosis. We have shown previously that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type B (ALOX15B is more highly expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions than in healthy arteries. This enzyme oxidizes fatty acids to substances that promote local inflammation and is expressed in lipid-loaded macrophages (foam cells present in the atherosclerotic lesions. Here, we investigated the role of ALOX15B in foam cell formation in human primary macrophages and found that silencing of human ALOX15B decreased cellular lipid accumulation as well as proinflammatory cytokine secretion from macrophages. To investigate the role of ALOX15B in promoting the development of atherosclerosis in vivo, we used lentiviral shRNA silencing and bone marrow transplantation to knockdown mouse Alox15b gene expression in LDL-receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/- mice. Knockdown of mouse Alox15b in vivo decreased plaque lipid content and markers of inflammation. In summary, we have shown that ALOX15B influences progression of atherosclerosis, indicating that this enzyme has an active proatherogenic role.

  8. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciupac-Ulici Maria-Lenuta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial liberalization process and its implications on financial emerging markets have been multidisciplinary research since 1970. Reform of financial liberalization is a complex and long phenomena. This implies that the impact of this reform on financial markets should not be immediate, but rather gradually during a long time period. It is also important to note that liberalization does not occur in the same way on all financial markets. Each country, according to his specification regarding the economic climate and the specificity of financial markets, has differently set its progress of liberalization process. It is generally accepted that the process of financial liberalization is not composed of a single event, but a series of events. The idea is that market reform is a gradual process where the data identified above only refers to the most significant events. Regarding the effect of liberalization reform on emerging markets has been shown; on the one hand, that liberalization helps to reduce the cost of capital, helps to integrate the emerging markets in the global market, enhances economic growth and allows emerging markets to become more mature. On the other hand, financial liberalization process has a very ambiguous and inconclusive impact on informational efficiency and volatility in emerging markets. Launching liberalization reforms provided an analytical framework for studies that attempt to investigate the effectiveness of emerging markets and empirical links between liberalization and efficiency. The first reason is that with liberalization, the authors believe that emerging markets have become more speculative and more competitive. So there is a chance to see if the weak form market efficiency is verified. The second reason is that the authors explore the relationship between liberalization and efficiency. Researchers and regulators seek an answer to the fundamental question: financial liberalization helps the stock market

  9. Essential fatty acid nutrition of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, M A; Edwards, H M; Brisbin, I L; Joanen, T; McNease, L

    1990-07-01

    The essential fatty acid (EFA) nutrition of young American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) was examined by feeding a variety of fats/oils with potential EFA activity. Over a 12-wk period, alligators fed diets containing 2.5 or 5.0% chicken liver oil grew longer and heavier and converted feed to body mass more efficiently than alligators fed other fat/oil combinations that lacked or contained only trace amounts of arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)]. Alligators fed an EFA-deficient diet (containing only coconut fat as the dietary fat) were the slowest-growing animals and converted feed to body mass least efficiently. However, over a 41-wk feeding period, alligators fed this diet showed no obvious external signs of deficiency other than being reduced in size and unthrifty. Fatty acid composition of heart, liver, muscle, skin and adipose tissue lipids was influenced markedly by dietary fat composition. Tissues varied significantly in response to dietary fat composition. Heart lipids contained the lowest levels of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and the highest levels of arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid levels were less influenced by diet than were levels of other 20- and 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids. Radiotracer studies indicated that linoleic acid was converted to arachidonic acid in the liver. Nevertheless, tissue arachidonic acid levels also appeared to be maintained by concentration from dietary sources and selective conservation. It appears that a dietary source of arachidonic acid may be required for a maximum rate of growth.

  10. Effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on prostaglandin E-2 and arachidonic acid in rats with senile dementia%ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸对老年痴呆大鼠前列腺素E2、花生四烯酸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀娟; 冯亚青; 李文景; 刘月欣; 张振凤; 吕佩源

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in senile dementi-a. Methods The normal 15 months old Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control,model group andre-cape latency time and mistaken times were evaluated by using the step down test. The content of serum PGE2 and urachidonic acid(AA),EPA and DHA of cerebral tissue in rats were detected. Results The lingeringly latency and error times were ( 264.83±16.99) s and (4.8±1.7) times in control group, ( 189.26±31.42)s and ( 9.6± 2.2) times in model group, (230.88±29.35) s and (7.3±2.2) times in treatment group, respectively. Differences in three groups were very significantly by analyses of variance(F=20.114, F=13.638, P=0.000). Compared with model group, control group and treatment group had lingeringly latency(LSD-t=6.332,P=0.000 and LSD-t =3.987, P=0.002, respectively) and less error times (LSD-t=5.221, P=0.000 and LSD-t=3.502, P= 0.019,respectively). Serum PGE2 were in control group, model group and treatment group were very significantly by analyses of variance(F=6.851 , P=0.004). Compared with model group,control group had less serum PGE2 (LSD-t=3.684, P=0.001 ). Compared with model group,ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids chould decrease serum PGE2( LSD-t=2.152, P=0.041 ). AA, EPA and DHA of cerebral tissue in control group, in model group, in treatment group, respectively. Differences in three groups were very significantly by analyses of variance (F=5.538, P=0.010, F=4.240, P=0.025, F=4.633, P=0.019). Compared with model group,ω-3 polyunsaturat-ed fatty acids could decrease A A(LSD-t=2.273, P=0.031) and increase EPA and D HA (LSD-t=2.428, P= 0.022,LSD-t=2.520, P=0.018,respectively). Conclusions ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can improve learning-memory function in rats,change the proportion of AA,EPA and DHA in cerebral tissue and prevent senile dementia.%目的 探讨ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸治疗老年痴呆的可能机制.方法 将15月龄雌性健

  11. Tensions in liberalism: the troubled path to liberal world order

    OpenAIRE

    Sörensen, Georg

    2007-01-01

    "The lack of a general consensus on the major characteristics of world order has led to a considerable amount of confusion among scholars as well as among policymakers. What kind of order is emerging now? Is it the 'liberal moment'; a renewed balance of power competition; a 'clash of civilizations', 'Jihad vs. McWorld'; or something else entirely? These analyses make valid points but they are misleading as versions of world order, because they fail to capture what is the most decisive charact...

  12. Liberal values and political stabilization in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Đorđe M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an expanded version of the project proposal 'Liberal values and political stabilization in Serbia'. The idea of the proposal is to explore the possibilities of acceptance and stabilization of liberal patterns of distribution of social goods in transitional countries, keeping in mind peculiarities of the Serbian case. Liberalization of these countries is usually an uneasy and uncertain process. There are two kind paradoxes of liberalization. The first concerns the necessity of political incentives for depoliticization of several social spheres. The second is related to possible self-destructive performances of liberal institutions in the process of transition. The stabilization of liberal-democracy in transitional countries is dependent on the capacity of institutions to build within themselves the mechanisms for alleviating these uneasiness. Two of them I find especially important: the system of social responsibilities and public reason.

  13. The European Food Safety Authority recommendation for polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of infant formula overrules breast milk, puts infants at risk, and should be revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michael A; Wang, Yiqun; Forsyth, Stewart; Brenna, J Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded from a limited review of the literature that although docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is required for infant formula, arachidonic acid is not required "even in the presence of DHA" (EFSA Journal, 12 (2014) 3760). This flawed opinion is grounded in human trials which tested functionality of DHA in neural outcomes and included arachidonic acid ostensibly to support growth. The EFSA report mistakes a nutrient ubiquitous in the diets of newborn infants, through breast milk and with wide-ranging health and neurodevelopmental effects, for an optional drug targeted to a particular outcome that is properly excluded when no benefit is found for that particular outcome. Arachidonic acid has very different biological functions compared to DHA, for example, arachidonic acid has unique functions in the vasculature and in specific aspects of immunity. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of trials include both DHA and arachidonic acid, and test development specific to DHA such as neural and visual development. DHA suppresses membrane arachidonic acid concentrations and its function. An infant formula with DHA and no arachidonic acid runs the risk of cardio and cerebrovascular morbidity and even mortality through suppression of the favorable oxylipin derivatives of arachidonic acid. The EFSA recommendation overruling breast milk composition should be revised forthwith, otherwise being unsafe, ungrounded in most of the evidence, and risking lifelong disability.

  14. On the Complementarity of Liberalism and Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of the democratic welfare state has been accompanied by significant restrictions on individual liberty, raising doubts about the sustainability of the ideals of liberalism in democratic polities. The principal claim of this paper is that, adequately understood, liberalism and democracy represent complementary ideals. The argument in support of this claim is based on a distinction between three levels at which liberalism and democracy can be compared, namely the level of their ?inst...

  15. Indigenous identity: burden or liberation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people, or is it a prom...... promising means toward their liberation? As Luisa Steur’s fieldwork on the Adivasi Gothra Maha Sabha (AGMS), the main adivasi movement in Kerala, demonstrates, answers to this question can be of immediate political consequence....

  16. Cultural Effects of Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Suranovic; Robert Winthrop

    2005-01-01

    We incorporate culture into a standard trade model in two distinct ways. In the ¡°cultural affinity from work¡± model, workers receive a non- pecuniary cultural benefit from work in a particular industry. In the ¡°cultural externality¡± model, consumers of a product receive utility from other consumer¡¯s consumption of a domestic good. We show that resistance to change due to cultural concerns can reduce the national benefits from trade liberalization. Complete movements to free trade will ha...

  17. IS EDUCATION DETERMINANT? The Formation of Liberal and Anti-liberal Islamic Legal Thinking in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Akh. Muzakki

    2007-01-01

    Liberalism and anti-liberalism are two increasing­ly prominent but staunchly opposing streams of Islamic legal thinking in Indonesia. This article analyses the formation of each of the two through an examination of the role of formal education. It focuses on organic intellectuals during two periods, the New Order and the reformasi. Challenging the strongly-held thesis of the determinant role of education, this article argues that both liberal and anti-liberal Islamic legal thinking in Indones...

  18. Liberal perfectionism and Quong’s internal conception of political liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Billingham, P

    2016-01-01

    Debates between political liberals and liberal perfectionists have been reinvigorated by Jonathan Quong’s Liberalism Without Perfection. In this paper I argue that certain forms of perfectionism can rebut or evade Quong’s three central objections – that perfectionism is manipulative, paternalistic, and illegitimate. I then argue that perfectionists can defend an ‘internal conception’ of perfectionism, parallel in structure to Quong’s ’internal conception’ of political liberalism, but with a d...

  19. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  20. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia, identifying geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers, from 1993 to 2002. The results suggest that increased exposure to trade liberalization is associated with a decrease in child work…

  1. Language Maintenance: A Liberal-Egalitarian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Huw

    2013-01-01

    This paper will seek to determine what types of legislative or policy measures should be considered as morally acceptable ones for the state to implement as part of a language maintenance effort. It will approach the issue from a liberal-egalitarian perspective. As a first step, a series of normative constraints that liberal-egalitarians would…

  2. The Liberal Arts College and Humanist Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, René V.

    2014-01-01

    What is liberal education? How do its aims differ from those of either grammar or vocational education? Does it truly deserve its own supporting institution? In response to these questions, Arcilla develops a defense of the liberal arts college. He observes that all projects of formal learning presuppose that the learner possesses answers to three…

  3. Renewing the Spirit of the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2013-01-01

    The spirit of the liberal arts has been undermined by overspecialization, and it has been further damaged by the increase in emphasis on the economic purpose of education. The spirit might be renewed by using the aims of the liberal arts to develop every course we teach.

  4. The Liberal Arts and the Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Donald N.

    1984-01-01

    Liberal arts and the martial arts are compared from the perspective that courses of training in the martial arts often constitute exemplary educational programs and are worth examining closely. Program characteristics, individual characteristics fostered by them, the relationship between liberal and utilitarian learning, and the moral…

  5. Sources and legitimacy of financial liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Burgoon; P. Demetriades; G.R.D. Underhill

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to clarify how we understand domestic and international sources of globalization and specifically how we explain financial liberalization across countries. The article also develops our understanding of the underlying legitimacy of financial liberalization. We debate e.g. Abiad an

  6. The Liberal Arts in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ruth

    1975-01-01

    The author reviews the history of liberal arts study and concludes that such study should be salvaged and freed from the tyranny of demands for relevancy. The liberal arts should be used to free men from bondage to whatever consciousness is in vogue at the moment. (DC)

  7. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  8. Desert, Liberalism and Justice in Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Olafur Pall

    2012-01-01

    Liberal democratic education, as advocated in recent accounts of citizenship education or civic education, is often seen as incompatible with moral education or character education rooted in specific views regarding the virtues. This contrast relies on well established philosophical differences between liberal views of justice and democracy, on…

  9. 49 CFR 1100.3 - Liberal construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liberal construction. 1100.3 Section 1100.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1100.3 Liberal construction. The rules...

  10. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power may

  11. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-07-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power

  12. Bonaparte libertador Bonaparte, the liberator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Canfora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio procura analisar as ambigüidades presentes na guerra de libertação conduzida pelos revolucionários franceses nos vários países europeus, seguindo os limites nem sempre claros entre as tentativas de "exportação da revolução" e a realização de uma "guerra de conquista". Considera-se a diferente posição assumida a esse propósito pelos jacobinos e pelos girondinos, e a reação à presença francesa no interior das populações "libertadas" ou "dominadas" por Napoleão.This essay aims to analyze the ambiguities in the liberation war conducted by the French revolutionaries in several European countries. It follows the limits, which are not always so clear, between the attempts of "exporting the revolution" and the rea-lization of a "war of conquest". The different positions taken by the Jacobins and the Girondists regarding this matter and the reaction to the French presence of the populations that were "freed" or "dominated" by Napoleon are also considered.

  13. Self-Actualization, Liberalism, and Humanistic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Charles Mack

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between personality factors and political orientation has long been of interest to psychologists. This study tests the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between self-actualization and liberalism-conservatism. The hypothesis is supported. (Author)

  14. Capital Account Liberalization as a Signal

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    We present a model in which a government's current capital controls policy signals future policies. Controls on capital outflows evolve in response to news on technology, conditional on government attitudes towards taxation of capital. When there is uncertainty over government types, a policy of liberal capital outflows sends a favorable signal that may trigger a capital inflow. This prediction is consistent with the experience of several countries that have liberalized their capital account

  15. Liberal coercion? Prostitution, human trafficking and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-Young

    2013-01-01

    Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...

  16. Questioning and critical thinking in liberal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, Wing-sum; 幸穎沁

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relations between questioning and critical thinking in Liberal Studies. In particular, it introduces the use of Questioning Cycle to investigate the effectiveness of questioning in cultivating students’ critical thinking skills and dispositions. By identifying difficulties and constrains in teaching critical thinking, it is hope to offer insights to improving questioning skills, in hope of developing questioning as an effective teaching strategy in Liberal Studi...

  17. Liberalization-Privatization Paths: Policies and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Belloc, Filippo; Nicita, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We empirically investigate the political determinants of deregulation policies in six network industries of 30 OECD countries over 1975-2007. We unbundle privatization and liberalization and propose an econometric study in which we allow for the joint adoption of the two policies by governments. We find, contrary to conventional wisdom, that right-wing executives tend to privatize more and to liberalize less, relative to left-wing governments. Thus, we show that ideological cleavages affect t...

  18. Economic liberalization and globalization vs. India's poor

    OpenAIRE

    Oschinski, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Today, many in the national and international NGO community perceive globalization and economic liberalization as a threat claiming that it widens inequalities and increases overall poverty. While it is true that inequality is on the rise in a rapidly globalizing world the real culprit is not globalization itself but rather a lack of economic reforms and economic liberalization. This paper aims to show that many in the international NGO community confuse cause and effect. The root cause of po...

  19. John Porter Lecture: Liberal Nationalisms Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James

    2016-02-01

    Liberal Nationalisms: Empire, State and Civil Society in Scotland and Quebec argues that the emergence and character of nationalism are directly related to changes in patterns of political rule and the liberal settlements that underlay that rule. The focus is on the emergence of two nationalist groups in Scotland and Quebec at the beginning of the twentieth century: the Young Scots' Society and Ligue nationaliste canadienne. They exhibited liberal nationalisms differently (1) in response to the British Empire's predatory imperial policies, (2) in the perception that their states had failed to effectively accommodate the Scottish and French Canadian nations, and more problematically (3) on the place of organized religion in civil society. Their responses suggest the emergence of two quite distinct liberal nationalisms: one in which the emphasis was on universal individual rights, and the other in which particular group rights were more clearly favored. The article offers some further reflection on the relationship between nationalism and liberalism, specifically on the existence of a symbiotic relationship and more generally that liberalism is successful when embedded in nationalism.

  20. John Porter Lecture: Liberal Nationalisms Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James

    2016-02-01

    Liberal Nationalisms: Empire, State and Civil Society in Scotland and Quebec argues that the emergence and character of nationalism are directly related to changes in patterns of political rule and the liberal settlements that underlay that rule. The focus is on the emergence of two nationalist groups in Scotland and Quebec at the beginning of the twentieth century: the Young Scots' Society and Ligue nationaliste canadienne. They exhibited liberal nationalisms differently (1) in response to the British Empire's predatory imperial policies, (2) in the perception that their states had failed to effectively accommodate the Scottish and French Canadian nations, and more problematically (3) on the place of organized religion in civil society. Their responses suggest the emergence of two quite distinct liberal nationalisms: one in which the emphasis was on universal individual rights, and the other in which particular group rights were more clearly favored. The article offers some further reflection on the relationship between nationalism and liberalism, specifically on the existence of a symbiotic relationship and more generally that liberalism is successful when embedded in nationalism. PMID:26890445

  1. Chemical analysis of the liberation of calcium and hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide pastes in connective tissue in the dog--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, C; Pesce, H F

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to chemically analyze calcium hydroxide pastes added to three hydrosoluble vehicles having different acid-base characteristics using polyethylene tubes implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue in a dog, evaluating the liberation of calcium and hydroxyl ions over a period of 7, 30, 45 and 60 days. The three vehicles were saline, anesthetic, and polyethylene glycol 400. Chemical analysis of the liberated calcium ions was done by means of conductimetry using EDTA for titration. Liberation of hydroxyl ions was determined by analogy of calcium ions liberated, which are in direct proportion to the molecular weight of calcium hydroxide.

  2. Liberty Challenge or Dangers of Liberal Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Eidukienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses dialectics of a modern democracy and liberalism through the new (from the quality point of view subsistence of liberty, the priority element of democracy, in liberal democracies. The significance of such discourse is determined by the existing social inequality and its conversion into political domain. Particular attention is paid to the social issue, which was treated by Max Weber already as the reason of death of the old, fanatic German “national liberalism”, since it has not managed to belong to the German environment. Even today, it still lies in the principles of life and reality of “young” democratic post­soviet states. Conversion of a social issue into political domain disorganises the society, and it is hardly capable to socialise its norms and values in order to be obligated with regard to civic goals. In other words, the social issue significantly adjusts the pace and direction of transformation of the society. Therefore, an immature “young” liberal democracy may become “less liberal” or no longer conform to the “strict” definition of liberal democracy. Referring to the above, we conclude that social composition should become the medium of political reconstruction for “young” democracies. This does not mean, however, the change of the genetic code of liberalism. This is a striving to vest it, as an ideology, additional powers for rationalisation of democracy by delivering to it the content and the meaning, which would answer the challenges and problems of the time. Liberalism should create a new, from the quality point of view, hierarchy of values and become a new context for both political thinking and democracy. This would render new impulses to economic and public politics, meanwhile developing new premises for a new, from the quality point of view, democracy that would help to consolidate the society for the becoming of liberal democracy.  

  3. Electricity market liberalization - opportunities and threats, the role of IS/IT in the liberalization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annotation sums up the opportunities and threats arising from the process of the electricity power market liberalization with the focus on problematic of base power and supporting services. The annotation points out the role of information systems in support of planning, management and balance sheet work processes of the consumption and production of electricity power on the liberalized market. (author)

  4. Reforming the World Bank: From Social-Liberalism to Neo-Liberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdwood, John

    2007-01-01

    Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo-liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions…

  5. Do Liberal Arts Colleges Make Students More Liberal? Some Initial Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jana M.; Weeden, Dustin D.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Blaich, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The effect of attending college on students' political ideology has been a controversial topic for many decades. In this study, we explored the relationship between attending a liberal arts college and students' political views. Compared to their counterparts at other 4-year institutions, liberal arts college students began postsecondary education…

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and so available for eicosanoid production. Thus, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids act as arachidonic acid antagonists. Components of both natural and acquired immunity, including the production of key inflammatory cytokines, can be affected by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although some of the effects of n-3 fatty acids may be brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, it is possible that these fatty acids might elicit some of their effects by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms. Such n-3 fatty acid-induced effects may be of use as a therapy for acute and chronic inflammation, and for disorders that involve an inappropriately-activated immune response.

  7. Determination of the Relative Atomic Masses of Metals by Liberation of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorne, W. Earle; Rous, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Students determine the relative atomic masses of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum by reaction with hydrochloric acid and measurement of the volume of hydrogen gas liberated. The experiment demonstrates stoichiometry and illustrates clearly that mass of the reagent is not the determinant of the amounts in chemical reactions. The experiment is…

  8. The liberal battlefields of global business regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Macdonald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The global justice movement has often been associated with opposition to the broad programme of ‘neoliberalism’ and associated patterns of ‘corporate globalisation’, creating a widespread impression that this movement is opposed to liberalism more broadly conceived. Our goal in this article is to challenge this widespread view. By engaging in critical interpretive analysis of the contemporary ‘corporate accountability’ movement, we argue that the corporate accountability agenda is not opposed to the core values of a liberal project. Rather, it is seeking to reconfigure the design of liberal institutions of individual rights-protection, adjusting these for new material conditions associated with economic globalisation, under which powerful corporations alongside states now pose direct and significant threats to individual rights. This activist agenda is, therefore, much less radical in its challenge to the prevailing liberal global order than it may initially appear, since it functions to buttress rather than corrode many core normative commitments underpinning the liberal political project.

  9. Acyl-CoA synthetase activity links wild-type but not mutant a-Synuclein to brain arachidonate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Mikhail; Rosenberger, Thad; Færgeman, Nils J.;

    2006-01-01

    Because alpha-synuclein (Snca) has a role in brain lipid metabolism, we determined the impact that the loss of alpha-synuclein had on brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) metabolism in vivo using Snca-/- mice. We measured [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 incorporation and turnover kinetics in brain phospholipids using...... an established steady-state kinetic model. Liver was used as a negative control, and no changes were observed between groups. In Snca-/- brains, there was a marked reduction in 20:4n-6-CoA mass and in microsomal acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl) activity toward 20:4n-6. Microsomal Acsl activity was completely restored...... after the addition of exogenous wild-type mouse or human alpha-synuclein, but not by A30P, E46K, and A53T forms of alpha-synuclein. Acsl and acyl-CoA hydrolase expression was not different between groups. The incorporation and turnover of 20:4n-6 into brain phospholipid pools were markedly reduced...

  10. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports.

  11. School religious education in a liberating perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Meza Rueda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Religious education in Colombia, according to Law 115 of 1994, is an area of fundamental training. However, its purpose of promoting the religious dimension of human beings and understanding the role of religion in culture is far from being achieved, because, in practice, it is considered as an area of second order, is disjointed from the curriculum and is still working as the “religion lesson” of the past. What to do against this? Could it be another way of thinking about religious education? We estimate that, as presuppositions and motivations of both liberation theology and liberating pedagogy are still valid today, they may provide clues in this respect. Consequently, this paper not only makes a detailed reading of this reality in some official educational institutions in Colombia, but also sheds light for the school religious education (ERE to be liberating.

  12. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports. PMID:25766233

  13. European municipalities and the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Municipalities are directly affected by the liberalization of the energy markets. Because they all consume or even produce energy, whether it be for their own consumption or to resell it, they often distribute gas, electricity or heat, they plan urban areas and organize the energy networks on their territory, while in addition citizens expect municipalities to inform them and even protect them against the possible excesses of energy salesmen. Elected representatives administrations, local agencies, municipal companies, citizens' associations etc., all have to innovate. This supplement to Energie-Cites INFO is intended to provide you with practical information and further analyses of the liberalization process. (authors)

  14. Employing Liberative Pedagogies in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Donna

    Many educators in the humanities and social sciences employ pedagogies of liberation, including feminist and/or critical or radical pedagogies based on the works of bell hooks, Paulo Freire, and others, to engage students in collectively creating democratic classrooms that encourage all voices. This article motivates the use of these pedagogies in engineering education and presents their application in an engineering thermodynamics course. Implementation areas include relating course material to students' experiences, facilitating students' responsibility for learning and authority in the classroom, incorporating ethics and policy issues, and decentering Western civilization. Assessment approaches are discussed, as well as limitations of liberative pedagogies in an engineering context.

  15. LA APERTURA LIBERAL: CHOQUE DE PARADIGMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Calderón B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se discuten los alcances de la estrategia liberal en el caso de la economía costarricense, principalmente desde la perspectiva de su paradoja de realización; es decir, la conformación de condiciones implica imposibilidad de objetivos. Como argumento de fondo se explora el hecho de que la vigencia del paradigma de la competencia imperfecta (con un claro dominio de monopolios y oligopolios, fortalecida con el proceso aperturista, no crea condiciones para el advenimiento del paradigma de la competencia perfecta, condición esencial para el logro de objetivos de la propuesta liberal.

  16. Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Calder

    1998-01-01

    1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6), the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune...

  17. Growth Factor Liberation and DPSC Response Following Dentine Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghiani, L; Gleeson, H B; Youde, S; Waddington, R J; Lynch, C D; Sloan, A J

    2016-10-01

    Liberation of the sequestrated bioactive molecules from dentine by the action of applied dental materials has been proposed as an important mechanism in inducing a dentinogenic response in teeth with viable pulps. Although adhesive restorations and dentine-bonding procedures are routinely practiced, clinical protocols to improve pulp protection and dentine regeneration are not currently driven by biological knowledge. This study investigated the effect of dentine (powder and slice) conditioning by etchants/conditioners relevant to adhesive restorative systems on growth factor solubilization and odontoblast-like cell differentiation of human dental pulp progenitor cells (DPSCs). The agents included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; 10%, pH 7.2), phosphoric acid (37%, pH pulps is concerned. PMID:27307049

  18. Liberal Arts: Leadership Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kathy L.; Callahan, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on strategies and processes that integrate leadership learning across institutions. It discusses how leadership education fits a liberal education in various institutional types and operationalizes leadership and liberal arts curricula with five competencies.

  19. Sexism in English Language and Women' s Liberation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the origin and history of sexism in English language and the cause of it,and analysizes the history and development of Women' s Liberation and the effects of Women's Liberation movement in English language.

  20. Daniel Thorp named director of Curriculum for Liberal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Daniel Thorp, associate professor of history in the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences at Virginia Tech, and has been named the university's director of Curriculum for Liberal Education in the Division of Undergraduate Education.

  1. Specific high-affinity binding of fatty acids to epidermal cytosolic proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H.; Chung, W.L.; Mukhtar, H. (Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, OH (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Cytosol from rat, mouse, and human skin or rat epidermis was incubated with (3H)arachidonic acid, (14C)retinoic acid, (14C)oleic acid, (3H)leukotriene A4, (3H)prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or (3H) 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), and protein-bound ligands were separated using Lipidex-1000 at 4C to assess the binding specificity. The binding of oleic acid and arachidonic acid with rat epidermal cytosol was rapid, saturable, and reversible. Binding of oleic acid was competed out with the simultaneous addition of other ligands and found to be in the following order: arachidonic acid greater than oleic acid greater than linoleic acid greater than lauric acid greater than leukotriene A4 greater than 15-HETE = PGE1 greater than PGE2 = PGF2. Scatchard analysis of the binding with arachidonic acid, oleic acid, and retinoic acid revealed high-affinity binding sites with the dissociation constant in the nM range. SDS-PAGE analysis of the oleic acid-bound epidermal cytosolic protein(s) revealed maximum binding at the 14.5 kDa region. The presence of the fatty acid-binding protein in epidermal cytosol and its binding to fatty acids and retinoic acid may be of significance both in the trafficking and the metabolism of fatty acids and retinoids across the skin.

  2. "Humanitas", Metaphysics and Modern Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    There is a new myth of the heterogeneous that is reducing the concept of humanity to a sinful enlightenment. In this article I investigate the contribution that a renewed understanding of liberal arts education might offer for the idea of a humanist education and for the concept of humanity; and this at a time when not only the concept of humanity…

  3. Education and Liberalism: Pursuing the Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surridge, Paula

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study in the UK to explore the well-established link between "liberal" social values and education. Whilst the link itself is well-established, the underlying mechanism is not; the paper explores empirically mechanisms that have been proposed for this link. In particular it considers the…

  4. Musical Palindromes for Liberal Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Renesse, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows how to teach a mathematics for liberal arts class in an inquiry-based way using ideas from music to launch the mathematical activities. No musical knowledge is required to understand and teach the material. The main activity is analyzing the differences between two kinds of rhythmic palindromes. The content is mathematically…

  5. Structural Liberalism and Anti-Bullying Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the legal, semantic, and material implications of Massachusetts' anti-bullying law through an analytic framework of structural liberalism. Specifically, this article asks how the law produces categories of fit and unfit subjects of the state through raced and gendered practices of individualism, paternalism,…

  6. [Neo-Malthusianism in liberal propaganda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, J; Lousada, M A

    1982-01-01

    The authors describe the development of neo-Malthusianism in Portugal from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present day. Consideration is given to the relationship between the growing use of birth control and the development of liberal attitudes toward education, sexuality, social behavior, militancy, and religion. PMID:12179870

  7. A Spinozist Synthesis of the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Three faculty members of Concordia University in Montreal, who played integral roles in the formation of a highly successful core curriculum as part of their institution, discuss the logistics, the politics, and the philosophy behind the founding and growth of their Liberal Arts College. For Geoffrey Fidler, their program echoes Spinoza's…

  8. Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that universities are pervasively and necessarily engaged in regulation of speech, which complicates many existing claims about hate speech codes on campus. The ultimate test is whether the restriction on speech is a legitimate part of the institution's mission, commitment to liberal education. (MSE)

  9. Isaiah Berlin, Diversity Liberalism, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtonwood, Neil

    2003-01-01

    Discusses William Galston's view that Isaiah Berlin's moral and political philosophy is foundational for diversity liberalism. Argues that a more balanced view of Berlin is less helpful than Galston proposes, because Berlin's work is permeated by a tension between the importance of belonging to a community and the importance of individual liberty.…

  10. On the Practicality of a Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Rudolph H.

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, liberal education did not need to be justified. It was simply the way one came to be educated. However, the curriculum has evolved with the growth of knowledge and changing intellectual fashions over the very long stretch of time from the Middle Ages to the early twentieth century. Now, with the progressive increases in the cost of…

  11. Preference Erosion and Multilateral Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); B. Hoekman; M. Manchin

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBecause of concern that OECD tariff reductions will translate into worsening export performance for the least developed countries, trade preferences have proven a stumbling block to developing country support for multilateral liberalization. We examine the actual scope for preference ero

  12. Evaluating Liberal Learning: Doubts and Explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    In current evaluation practice, the implicit philosophy of value, appraisal, and action is seen as a form of Benthamite utilitarianism. A domain of value called "educational worth" is described. Ways of detecting the presence of educational worth in liberal learning programs are identified. (MLW)

  13. Liberal Arts Catch-Up Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyder, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper replicates the work of Giles and Drewes from the 1990s. They showed a catch-up effect whereby graduates of liberal arts undergraduate programs, although at an early-career disadvantage compared with graduates of applied programs, had higher incomes by mid-career. Working with the Panel 5 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (2005-2010),…

  14. The Learning Sciences and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budwig, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This article makes the case for a new framing of liberal education based on several decades of research emerging from the learning and developmental sciences. This work suggests that general knowledge stems from acquiring both the habits of mind and repertoires of practice that develop from participation in knowledge-building communities. Such…

  15. Decolonizing Liberation: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Kurtiş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the theme of “decolonizing psychological science” in the context of a perspective on psychological theory and research—namely, feminist psychology—that shares an emphasis on broad liberation. Although conceived as a universal theory and practice of liberation, scholars across diverse sites have suggested that feminism—perhaps especially as it manifests in psychological science—is not always compatible with and at times is even contradictory to global struggles for decolonization. The liberatory impulse of feminist psychology falls short of its potential not only because of its grounding in neocolonial legacies of hegemonic feminisms, but also because of its complicity with neocolonial tendencies of hegemonic psychological science. In response to these concerns, we draw upon on perspectives of transnational feminisms and cultural psychology as tools to decolonize (feminist psychology. We then propose the possibility of a (transnational feminist psychology that takes the epistemological position of people in various marginalized majority-world settings as a resource to rethink conventional scientific wisdom and liberate “liberation”. Rather than freeing some women to better participate in global domination, a transnational feminist psychology illuminates sustainable ways of being that are consistent with broader liberation of humanity in general.

  16. In Defense of Japanese Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Liberal education has been a target of political discourse in many countries, and Japan is no exception. In Japanese higher education, there are three types of institutions: national public, local public, and private. In June 2015, Japan's minister of education, Hakubun Shimomura, called upon the country's national universities to take…

  17. Call for Change in Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Rosemary M.

    2010-01-01

    The national initiative that undergraduate students receive education in public health is well-aligned with the philosophy of liberal education which recommends that baccalaureate students receive a wide breadth of knowledge, adaptable skills, principled values, and a sense of societal responsibility. This article explores this new application of…

  18. Liberal Education in an Interdependent World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Al

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a keynote address delivered by Al Gini, Professor of Business Ethics in the School of Business Administration at Loyola University in Chicago, at the University Continuing Education Association (UCEA) 93rd Annual Conference, March 26, 2008, New Orleans, Louisiana, on the topic of "Liberal Education in an Interdependent…

  19. An Internship Program in the Liberal Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Richard D.

    1980-01-01

    A liberal arts institution, it is argued, should provide for an off-campus experience wherein a full semester of credit can be earned through work with a corporation, governmental agency, or school system. The thrust of an internship program is seen as preparing individuals for entry into middle management positions. (MLW)

  20. Product development in a liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a liberalized energy market energy companies will try to offer new products and services to distinguish themselves from other companies. The availability of new products and services can have consequences for the purchasing behavior of customers and their usage of the products and services. Possible consequences for households are outlined in this report. 20 refs

  1. World History, Liberal Arts, and Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Carey A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the role that world history might play in reshaping the liberal arts to better serve a twenty-first-century world that is increasingly interconnected, plural, and "globalized." While "Western civ" courses and perspectives are much less influential today than they were in the first seven decades of the…

  2. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the disto

  3. The Double Dividend Hypothesis and Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, P.; Smulders, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies how simultaneously liberalizing trade and tightening environmental policy affect welfare in a second-best world. We consider a three-good two-factor small open economy. We allow for non-tradables and for market power in the export market. The government is constrained to balance i

  4. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the dist

  5. Welfare Effect of Mergers and Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.; Benchekroun, H.

    2008-01-01

    In a two-country model where firms behave à la Cournot, we show that marginal and non-marginal trade liberalization have different effects on the social desirability of horizontal mergers. Marginal tariff reductions increase (decrease) the desirability of merger at sufficiently low (high) tariff lev

  6. Norway in a liberalized European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the short-term effects of a comprehensive liberalization of the gas and power markets in Europe. The analysis is based on a statically applied general equilibrium model which gives an overall and consistent treatment of the energy markets in Europe. The model preserves the structural features in the production, transport and consumption of gas and electricity in Europe, as well as the new competitive situation arising from the liberalization. It is found that the liberalization leads to a strong fall in the price of electricity. The fall in price reflects increased competition and that idle capacity in the power sector is used to increase the production of electricity. In comparison with the real observations in 1996 (the basis year of the model) the price to the end-user is cut in half. The liberalization also leads to a fall in the price of gas. The price fall reflects in part increased competition, in part the fact that falling prise of electricity reduces the demand for gas. However, the price reduction (in per cent) is not as great as for electricity. The model is also used to study the effects in Norway of increased gas production when the gas is either used in increased gas power production in Norway, or is exported. The main conclusion is that (1) the total emission of carbon dioxide goes down in Western Europe, (2) the reduction is greatest if the gas is burned as gas power in Norway

  7. Approaching Political Philosophy through the Critique of Liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    Understanding political philosophy as practical implies reflecting on principles as well as on material matters, on justice as well as on government. Liberalism is the main challenge to political philosophy, since its optimistic laissez faire attitude denies the legitimacy of political government. Even the modern political liberalism reflects these basic traits of liberalism. However, liberalism returns again and again, since it makes sense for human beings, who need to trust and have a capac...

  8. LIBER/OCLC Fund for Central and East European Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ligue des Bibliotheques Europeennes de Recherche (LIBER is delighted to announce the LIBER/OCLC Fund for Central and East European Libraries, which is generously supported by OCLC. The Fund will offer membership of LIBER to individual libraries in Central and Eastern Europe for a period of years in order to assist them to support their membership of LIBER from their own resources at the end of the period of support from the Fund.

  9. Glutamate signalling and secretory phospholipase A2 modulate the release of arachidonic acid from neuronal membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez De Turco, Elena B; Jackson, Fannie R; DeCoster, Mark A;

    2002-01-01

    secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) from bee venom (bv sPLA(2)) and Taipan snake venom (OS2) elicit synergy in inducing neuronal cell death. Low concentrations of sPLA(2) are selective ligands of cell-surface sPLA(2) receptors. We investigated which neuronal arachidonoyl phospholipids are targeted by glutamate...

  10. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Mike

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the impact of AA supplementation during resistance training on body composition, training adaptations, and markers of muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained males. Methods In a randomized and double blind manner, 31 resistance-trained male subjects (22.1 ± 5.0 years, 180 ± 0.1 cm, 86.1 ± 13.0 kg, 18.1 ± 6.4% body fat ingested either a placebo (PLA: 1 g·day-1 corn oil, n = 16 or AA (AA: 1 g·day-1 AA, n = 15 while participating in a standardized 4 day·week-1 resistance training regimen. Fasting blood samples, body composition, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM, leg press 1RM and Wingate anaerobic capacity sprint tests were completed after 0, 25, and 50 days of supplementation. Percutaneous muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis on days 0 and 50. Results Wingate relative peak power was significantly greater after 50 days of supplementation while the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was significantly lower after 25 days of supplementation in the AA group. PGE2 levels tended to be greater in the AA group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups in body composition, strength, anabolic and catabolic hormones, or markers of muscle hypertrophy (i.e. total protein content or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx protein content and other intramuscular markers (i.e. FP and EP3 receptor density or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx mRNA expression. Conclusion AA supplementation during resistance-training may enhance anaerobic capacity and lessen the inflammatory response to training. However, AA supplementation did not promote statistically greater gains in strength, muscle mass, or influence markers of muscle hypertrophy.

  11. LysoPC and PAF Trigger Arachidonic Acid Release by Divergent Signaling Mechanisms in Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Oestvang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs play an important role during the development of atherosclerosis characterized by intimal inflammation and macrophage accumulation. A key component of LDL is lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC. LysoPC is a strong proinflammatory mediator, and its mechanism is uncertain, but it has been suggested to be mediated via the platelet activating factor (PAF receptor. Here, we report that PAF triggers a pertussis toxin- (PTX- sensitive intracellular signaling pathway leading to sequential activation of sPLA2, PLD, cPLA2, and AA release in human-derived monocytes. In contrast, lysoPC initiates two signaling pathways, one sequentially activating PLD and cPLA2, and a second parallel PTX-sensitive pathway activating cPLA2 with concomitant activation of sPLA2, all leading to AA release. In conclusion, lysoPC and PAF stimulate AA release by divergent pathways suggesting involvement of independent receptors. Elucidation of monocyte lysoPC-specific signaling mechanisms will aid in the development of novel strategies for atherosclerosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

  12. Creating Green Citizens? Political Liberalism and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Derek R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers whether the promotion of an environmental ethic in schools is compatible with the political liberal's commitment to neutrality. A new account of the implications of John Rawls's political liberalism for the basic structure of education is developed. The prima facie incompatibility of political liberalism and the promotion of…

  13. A Liberal Account of Self-limiting Individualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H.H.A.; Harskamp, Anton van; Musschenga, Albert W.

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I aim to show that a doctrine of self-limiting individualism is presupposed by the most influential account of liberalism today, political liberalism. My argument is that political liberalism can admit that it is based on a rather comprehensive normative ideal of individualism, without

  14. Case Studies of Liberal Arts Computer Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D.; Brady, A.; Danyluk, A.; Adams, J.; Lawrence, A.

    2010-01-01

    Many undergraduate liberal arts institutions offer computer science majors. This article illustrates how quality computer science programs can be realized in a wide variety of liberal arts settings by describing and contrasting the actual programs at five liberal arts colleges: Williams College, Kalamazoo College, the State University of New York…

  15. Computer Science and the Liberal Arts: A Philosophical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Henry M.; Kelemen, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the philosophy and position of the discipline of computer science within the liberal arts, based upon a discussion of the nature of computer science and a review of the characteristics of the liberal arts. A liberal arts environment provides important opportunities for undergraduate programs, but also presents important…

  16. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Abyor Handayani; Dessy Ariyanti; Hady Hadiyanto

    2011-01-01

    Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%). Biotechnology market of Polyunsat...

  17. Integration models: multicultural and liberal approaches confronted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    European societies have been shaped by their Christian past, upsurge of international migration, democratic rule and liberal tradition rooted in religious tolerance. Boosting globalization processes impose new challenges on European societies, striving to protect their diversity. This struggle is especially clearly visible in case of minorities trying to resist melting into mainstream culture. European countries' legal systems and cultural policies respond to these efforts in many ways. Respecting identity politics-driven group rights seems to be the most common approach, resulting in creation of a multicultural society. However, the outcome of respecting group rights may be remarkably contradictory to both individual rights growing out from liberal tradition, and to reinforced concept of integration of immigrants into host societies. The hereby paper discusses identity politics upturn in the context of both individual rights and integration of European societies.

  18. Teaching Programming to Liberal Arts Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Bennedsen, Jens; Brandorff, Steffen;

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a new learning environment to be used in an introductory programming course for studentsthat are non-majors in computer science, more precisely formultimedia students with a liberal arts background. Media-oriented programming adds new requirements to thecraft of programming...... important differences which give rise to extra competences needed by multimediadesigners as opposed to traditional media productdesigners. We analyze the development process of multimediaproducts in order to incorporate this in the learningprocess, and based on this we present our vision for a new learning...... environment for an introductory programmingcourse for multimedia students.We have designed a learning environment called Lingoland with the new skills of media programming in mind thathopefully can help alleviate the problems we have experiencedin teaching programming to liberal arts students....

  19. The transformative value of liberating Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Humanity has the knowledge to solve its problems but lacks the moral insight to implement these ideas on a global scale. New moral insight can be obtained through transformative experiences that allow us to examine and refine our underlying preferences, and the eventual landing of humans on Mars will be of tremendous transformative value. Before such an event, I propose that we liberate Mars from any controlling interests of Earth and allow Martian settlements to develop into a second independent instance of human civilization. Such a designation is consistent with the Outer Space Treaty and allows Mars to serve as a test bed and point of comparison by which to learn new information about the phenomenon of civilization. Rather than develop Mars through a series of government and corporate colonies, let us steer the future by liberating Mars and embracing the concept of planetary citizenship.

  20. RETHINKING LIBERAL DEMOCRACY: PRELUDE TO TOTALITARIANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel David

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the long course of human evolution and political experimentation, liberal democracy, especially after the events of 1989, has come to be seen as the best political system. In fact, we seemed to have reached the only system compatible with liberty, after the dreadful experiences of Communist and Nazi totalitarianism, and its twin in the economic realm - capitalism. But is liberalism really conducive to freedom? I argue that evil – or totalitarianism – arises from the combination of both the Platonic and Augustinian views: ignorance of values and the pursuit of one’s egotistic desires. Evil has an essentially private nature. In this sense, totalitarianism may arise from a utilitarian culture that sees people – or some forms of knowledge – as worthless and disposable objects.

  1. Liberal CSR and New Marxist Criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2014-01-01

    The term ‘corporate social responsibility’ (CSR) is considered by the new Marxist left to be a self-defeating oxymoron. In this chapter, the new Marxist challenge to CSR as a meaningful, coherent concept and practice is discussed. In the wake of the financial crisis the critique from the Marxist......-inspired left tends to replace the scepticism of the libertarian right (Friedman 1970). The legitimacy of business in society is at stake, and the critical left is well placed to debunk the integrity of business’s claim to social responsibility. To provide an overview of current Marxist inspired CSR thinking......, this chapter introduces the Hegelian inspired critique of a New Spirit of Capitalism (Chiapello 2013) as well as the critique of ideology targeted at the neo-liberal project of corporate responsibility (Žižek 2008; Fleming and Jones 2013). Subsequently, two possible liberal ‘revisions’ to the Marxist inspired...

  2. Does liberalizing cannabis laws increase cannabis use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenny; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2014-07-01

    A key question in the ongoing policy debate over cannabis' legal status is whether liberalizing cannabis laws leads to an increase in cannabis use. This paper provides new evidence on the impact of a specific type of liberalization, decriminalization, on initiation into cannabis use. Our identification strategy exploits variation in the timing of cannabis policy reforms and our estimation framework marries a difference-in-difference approach with a discrete time duration model. Our results reveal evidence of both heterogeneity and dynamics in the response of cannabis uptake to decriminalization. Overall, we find that the impact of decriminalization is concentrated amongst minors, who have a higher rate of uptake in the first five years following its introduction. PMID:24727348

  3. Tariff Liberalization and Trade Specialization in India

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandrini, Michele; Fattouh, Bassam; Ferrarini, Benno; Scaramozzino, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, India has embarked on economic reforms that have progressively opened up the country to international trade. This paper analyzes the effects of reform on India’s trading structure from 1990 to 2006. It computes comparative advantage indicators on the basis of disaggregated trade flow data, and assesses the effects of trade liberalization on the evolution of India’s pattern of trade specialization. From dynamic panel regression analysis, evidence is found that those indu...

  4. Antara Pluralisme Liberal danToleransi Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Ryandi Ryandi

    2013-01-01

    Religious plurality is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the reality of life. In the midst of the diversity of ideological differences and truth claim, indeed every believer is required to tolerate all sorts of concepts conceived by the ideology and truth claim. It is obvioulys become a logical implication because each ideology and truth will lead followers too surely believe all the religion dogma; including claim of salvation. However, in view of liberalism, tolerance alone is not enough....

  5. LIBERALIZATION OF THE TAIWAN WHEAT MILLING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Stiegert, Kyle W.; Peng, Hsing Ming

    1998-01-01

    Taiwan, in just the past two years, lifted quoto restrictions on wheat imports and lowered tariff barriers. These changes along with the antitrust movement and severe overcapacity will be the catalysts for tremendous structural changes in the way wheat millers compete for domestic market share and contracts for flour. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of liberalization on the Taiwan milling industry.

  6. Financial liberalization and contagion with unobservable savings

    OpenAIRE

    Panetti, Ettore

    2011-01-01

    How do market-based channels for the provision of liquidity affect financial liberalization and contagion? In order to answer this question, I extend the Diamond and Dybvig (1983) model of financial intermediation to a two-country environment with unobservable markets for borrowing and lending and comparative advantages in the investment technologies. I demonstrate that the role of hidden markets crucially depends on the level of financial integration of the economy. Despite always imposing a...

  7. Trade Liberalization, Democratization and Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Cervellati, Matteo; Naghavi, Alireza; Toubal, Farid

    2014-01-01

    We study the role of trade liberalization, democratization and their interaction for technology adoption. A general equilibrium theory with heterogeneous skills predicts a complementarity between trade and political regimes. Openness should accelerate technology adoption if coupled with democratization but may lead to a slow down if these regime changes are imbalanced. We use panel data on technology adoption at the sectoral level for the period 1980-2000 by exploiting within country variatio...

  8. Impacts of Liberalizing the Japanese Pork Market

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Thomas I.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Johnson, Stanley R.

    1991-01-01

    The Japanese pork market is protected by a complex set of restrictions, including a variable levy and an import tariff. The combination of these policies distorts the quantity, price, and form of Japanese pork imports. An important issue relevant to the liberalization of the Japanese pork market is the accurate measurement of the price wedge between Japanese and world pork prices. The analysis indicates that the tariff equivalent of the price wedge over the 1986-88 period was 44%. If the tari...

  9. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pol- lution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently sma...

  10. Trade Liberalization and Trade Adjustment Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, K. C.; Staiger, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the relationship between trade adjustment subsidies and successful reciprocal trade liberalization. We consider economies that are faced with a periodic need to move resources out of a declining import-competing sector, and that are attempting to sustain cooperative but self-enforcing trade agreements in the face of these adjustment needs. If the limitations associated with enforcement of international trade agreements are sufficiently severe, trade adjustment assistance can facili...

  11. Clinical review: Liberation from mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    El-Khatib, Mohamad F; Bou-Khalil, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the defining event of intensive care unit (ICU) management. Although it is a life saving intervention in patients with acute respiratory failure and other disease entities, a major goal of critical care clinicians should be to liberate patients from mechanical ventilation as early as possible to avoid the multitude of complications and risks associated with prolonged unnecessary mechanical ventilation, including ventilator induced lung injury, ventilator associated p...

  12. Vertical and Horizontal Dimensions of Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Claro

    2004-01-01

    FDI introduces competition between foreign and domestic firms at the factor market level. If the latter are technology backward, cost pressures render them uncompetitive, and absolute advantage determine the pattern of foreign and domestic firms' production. To compensate for technology deficiencies, countries introduce distortions in product and factor markets. Trade liberalization, i.e., the removal of these distortions, have important implications for production and employment patterns, wa...

  13. Trade Liberalization, Natural Resources and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie Hall

    2006-01-01

    Governments have committed to halve world poverty by 2015 and also collectively acknowledged that millions of the world's poorest people, especially women, are completely reliant on access to natural resources for their livelihoods. But there is also evidence to show that liberalizing natural resource sectors is likely to deplete those resources and restrict women's and men's access to them. Ronnie Hall suggests that integrated policy-making requires that natural resources be removed from tra...

  14. Quark liberation and coalescence at CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Zimányi, J; Csörgö, T; Lévai, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The linear coalescence approach to hadronization of quark matter is shown to have problems with strangeness conservation in a baryon rich environment. The simplest correct quark counting is shown to coincide with the non-linear algebraic coalescence rehadronization model, ALCOR. We argue that experimental facts agree with the assumption that quark degrees of freedom are liberated before hadron formation in 158 AGeV central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS. (13 refs).

  15. Indirect Network Effects and Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Kazumichi; Kikuchi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Indirect network effects exist when the utility of consumers is increasing in the variety of complementary products available for use with an electronic hardware device. In this paper, we examine how trade liberalization affects production structure in the presence of indirect network effects. For these purposes we construct a simple two-country model of trade with incompatible country-specific hardware technologies. It is shown that, given that both countries' hardware devices remain in the ...

  16. Technological innovation and liberal theories of justice

    OpenAIRE

    Papaioannou, Theo

    2008-01-01

    The acceleration of technological innovation in Western liberal societies has in recent years offered the prospect of applications with crucial impact on social and economic life. For instance, in the area of new life sciences, the successful decoding of human genome and subsequent advances of genomics-based technologies (including biotechnology) have enabled the development of cheaper and safer drugs, the introduction of new gene-based diagnostics and biomedical therapies. However, these new...

  17. The transformative value of liberating Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Humanity has the knowledge to solve its problems but lacks the moral insight to implement these ideas on a global scale. New moral insight can be obtained through transformative experiences that allow us to examine and refine our underlying preferences, and the eventual landing of humans on Mars will be of tremendous transformative value. Before such an event, I propose that we liberate Mars from any controlling interests of Earth and allow Martian settlements to develop into a second indepen...

  18. The process of services liberalization in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Argentati Anna

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the great difficulties and uncertainties that have characterizedthe process of services liberalization in Italy in recent years. After having analyzed the implementation of directive 2006/123/Ce, including the limits of the discipline introduced by legislative decree n. 59/2010, the paper explores the content of recent new regulations which, after the economic crisis, have again modified the existing legislation: First, law decree n. 138/2011 introduced only marginal chang...

  19. Gestational age in relation to marine n-3 fatty acids in maternal erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sommer, S.;

    1991-01-01

    Gestation is longer in Faroese than Danish women, possibly because of the high intake of marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids that down regulates formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were quantified in erythrocytes obtained within 2 days of delivery from...... randomly selected groups of 62 Faroese and 37 Danish women with an assessable gestational age. Average ratio of long-chain n-3 fatty acids to arachidonic acid [(3/6) ratio] was 0.73 (SD = 0.11) in Faroese women and 0.61 (SD = 0.12) in Danish women (p marine n...

  20. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis: changes in serum lipids and fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Jäntti, J; Nikkari, T.; Solakivi, T; Vapaatalo, H.; Isomäki, H

    1989-01-01

    The serum concentration of lipids and composition of fatty acids after overnight fasting were studied in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for 12 weeks with either 20 ml of evening primrose oil containing 9% of gamma-linolenic acid or olive oil. The serum concentrations of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and apolipoprotein B decreased and those of linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid increased during treatment with evening primr...

  1. Liberalism, Liberalization and Their Impacts of Muslim Education (Special Case of Indonesian Intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at elucidating the liberalization of Muslim world and its impact on education. For  that  purpose  the  author  traces  at  the  outset  the  origin  and  the  basic  concept  of liberalism, which  is of  postmodern Western worldview, including  the concept of  religious liberalism. The impact of  liberalism in general is as wider as the meaning of  liberalism in Western sense of the words. However,  this paper  confines only on  the study of  their  impact  on Muslim education with special emphasis on national education policy and on religious thought which in turn would affect curriculum development. Liberalization of religious thought appears, inter alia, through the introduction  of  the  doctrine  of  relativity  of  truth,  religious  pluralism,  gender  equality  and deconstruction  of  shari’ah  and  the  likes. All  those  religious  discourse  conceptually  hinder  the development of  curriculum and  the teaching strategy of  moral  inculcation  to the students.

  2. The Regional Impact of Discriminatory Trade Liberalization on Colombian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Arguello, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an assessment of the potential impact of trade liberalization on the regional structure of Colombian agriculture. For this, a two-step methodology is imple-mented. First, the effects of discriminatory trade liberalization are estimated by means of a multi-region general equilibrium model. Second, relevant price and quantity changes are transmitted to a simple transportation model that simulates the likely changes that trade libe-ralization will bring upon the spatial struc...

  3. Neoliberal economists and capital account liberalization in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    CHWIEROTH, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important developments in the world economy during the past three decades has been the willingness of governments in emerging markets to liberalize controls over international capital movements—a process known as capital account liberalization+ What accounts for this trend? While existing research highlights a number of important factors, it neglects the role played by the rise and spread of neoliberal ideas that prioritized liberalization as a policy choice+ Extending the lit...

  4. The intergenerational mobility of liberal professions: nepotism versus abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Aina, Carmen; NICOLETTI, Cheti

    2014-01-01

    By using university administrative and survey data on Italian graduates, we analyze the transmission of liberal professions from fathers to children. We assess the effect of nepotism and family networking, separately from other transmission channels, on the probability of choosing a degree that gives access to liberal professions, of obtaining a licensing and of starting a liberal profession. The results suggest that the effect of nepotism and networking is irrelevant on the degree choice, mo...

  5. The intergenerational transmission of liberal professions: nepotism versus abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Aina; Cheti Nicoletti

    2014-01-01

    By using university administrative and survey data on Italian graduates, we analyse the transmission of liberal professions from fathers to children. We assess the effect of nepotism and family networking, separately from other transmission channels, on the probability of choosing a degree that gives access to liberal professions, of obtaining a licensing and of starting a liberal profession. The results suggest that the effect of nepotism and networking is irrelevant on the degree choice, mo...

  6. The Performance of Indian Banks During Financial Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Petya Koeva Brooks

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical evidence on the impact of financial liberalization on the performance of Indian commercial banks. The analysis focuses on examining the behavior and determinants of bank intermediation costs and profitability during the liberalization period. The empirical results suggest that ownership type has a significant effect on some performance indicators and that the observed increase in competition during financial liberalization has been associated with lower inter...

  7. The reconstitution of postwar Europe: lineages of authoritarian liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The historical conjuncture reached in the European Union recalls the spectre of authoritarian liberalism, with politically authoritarian forms of government emerging in defence of practices and ideas associated with economic liberalism. Offering a long view of this formation, the paper traces its relation to the project of European integration from the interwar breakdown of liberal democracy to the ongoing Euro-crisis, by way of its postwar and post-Maastricht reconstitution. Postwar Europe w...

  8. Liberating energy from carbon introduction to decarbonization

    CERN Document Server

    Muradov, Nazim

    2014-01-01

    Liberating Energy from Carbon analyzes energy options in a carbon-constrained world. Major strategies and pathways to decarbonizing the carbon-intensive economy are laid out with a special emphasis on the prospects of achieving low-risk atmospheric CO2 levels. The opportunities and challenges in developing and bringing to market novel low and zero-carbon technologies are highlighted from technical, economic and environmental viewpoints. This book takes a unique approach by treating carbon in a holistic manner?tracking its complete transformation chain from fossil fuel sources to the unique pro

  9. The Strange Birth of Liberal Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ingrid; Lampe, Markus; Sharp, Paul Richard

    into decline, in fact flourished. Key to the success of Danish agriculture was an early diversification towards dairy production. We dispute this simple story which sees Denmark as something of a liberal paragon. Denmark's success owed much to a prudent use of trade policy which favoured dairy production....... Moreover, this favouritism continued even after a more general movement to free trade in the 1860s. Using micro-level data from individual dairies, we quantify the implied subsidy to dairy production from the tariffs, and demonstrate that this in many cases ensured the profitability of individual dairies....

  10. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-round in Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2015-01-01

    acids with a maximum in July (52.3%-54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA's, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables...

  11. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of eicosapentaenoic acid, using a novel δ5-desaturase from Paramecium tetraurelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Andrade Pereira Tavares, Sabina; Grotkjær, Thomas; Obsen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have well-documented importance in human health and nutrition. Sustainable production in robust host organisms that do not synthesize them naturally requires t...... Society for Microbiology. All rights reserved....

  12. Legitimacy, democracy and public justification: Rawls' political liberalism versus Gaus' justificatory liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Public justification-based accounts of liberal legitimacy rely on the idea that a polity’s basic structure should, in some sense, be acceptable to its citizens. In this paper I discuss the prospects of that approach through the lens of Gerald Gaus’ critique of John Rawls’ paradigmatic account of dem

  13. The Liberal Arts at Work: Marketing the Liberal Arts to Employers in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kate S.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the formation of a new framework for marketing the liberal arts, supported by the marketing successes of the past and strengthened by a renewed recognition of the specific educational value and relevance of the curriculum. Highlighted are four components in developing a new marketing plan. (GCP)

  14. Feminism and liberalism: a not-so-unhappy marriag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Saen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It seems that political liberalism and feminism constitute an “unhappy marriage.” I shall argue that it should be a happy one.  Liberalism does more feminist work than feminist theorists acknowledge. Feminist theorists raise both internal and external critiques.  Some of the internal critiques are ungrounded and based on misinterpretation of key liberal concepts, while others can be accommodated by revisingthe liberal framework.  In contrast, the external criticisms, which are presented as a definitive challenge to liberalism, are unsuccessful.  They themselves implicitly rely on some key liberal assumptions, which shows that they are ultimately internal critiques. My primary aim in this paper is to show that the feminist critiques remain within a liberal framework.  Feminists also claim that liberal theory is incompatible with current facts about gender.  I shall call these “inefficacy critiques.”  As my secondary aim I shall show that this  critique of liberalism relies on a misunderstanding of the distinction between normative and descriptive claims

  15. LIBER's Involvement in Supporting Digital Preservation in Member Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ayris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital curation and preservation represent new challenges for universities. LIBER has invested considerable effort to engage with the new agendas of digital preservation and digital curation. Through two successful phases of the LIFE project, LIBER is breaking new ground in identifying innovative models for costing digital curation and preservation. Through LIFE’s input into the US-UK Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, LIBER is aligned with major international work in the economics of digital preservation. In its emerging new strategy and structures, LIBER will continue to make substantial contributions in this area, mindful of the needs of European research libraries.

  16. Arginine-vasopressin stimulates the formation of phosphatidic acid in rat Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulated the formation of labelled phosphatidic acid (PA) in [C]arachidonic acid-prelabelled rat Leydig cells. After addition of 10 M AVP [C]arachidonoylphosphatidic acid reached a maximum within 2 min. The increase was dose-dependent (10-10 M). No change in labelling...

  17. Modification of essential fatty acid composition in broodstock of cultured European eel Anguilla anguilla L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna;

    2013-01-01

    Farmed eels had lower levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) (ARA) and higher ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) (EPA):ARA compared to wild European eels collected from the Baltic Sea and southern Norwegian coast. Eels fed a formulated feed (JD) with a distribution of essential fatty acids...

  18. Antara Pluralisme Liberal danToleransi Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryandi Ryandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Religious plurality is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the reality of life. In the midst of the diversity of ideological differences and truth claim, indeed every believer is required to tolerate all sorts of concepts conceived by the ideology and truth claim. It is obvioulys become a logical implication because each ideology and truth will lead followers too surely believe all the religion dogma; including claim of salvation. However, in view of liberalism, tolerance alone is not enough. Religious Pluralism needs to be propagated as a solution to religious harmony. In the other words, Religious Tolerance in the view of Liberal is Religious Pluralism. Religious Pluralism, as part of Western postmodern discourses attempt to relativize truth claims of religions, so there is no truth can be acknowledged. Islam was included. This concept indeed is in contradiction to the concept of tolerance in slam that acknowledges religious plurality in society without coercing to believe religions truth claim. Islam is conceptually recognized Plurality, but firmly reject Pluralism.

  19. Frontline: the liberal arts of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradenburg, Aranye

    2011-01-01

    In terms of process, psychoanalysis is more closely related to the disciplines of the arts and humanities than those of the sciences, however much the latter have contributed to our knowledge of the mind and our discussions of technique. Will we, accordingly, assert our support for liberal arts education, at a time when it is under unprecedented attack? Neuroscience has made remarkable strides in establishing the importance of artistic and humanist training to the plasticity and connectedness of mental functioning. But these discoveries have sadly done nothing to protect the academic disciplines of the arts and humanities from budget cuts and closings. It is as if contemporary boosters of technical and scientific education had no interest in, or knew nothing about, the new knowledge of the brain that scientists are actually producing. Will psychiatrists and psychoanalysts, for the sake of the arts and the sciences, support liberal arts education, or will we distance ourselves from it, and thus abandon the well-being of the very minds we will later be trying to tend in our offices? Is it not our responsibility to speak for the importance of thriving, since surviving depends on it? PMID:22168627

  20. Translation as Liberal Art: Four Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Gewaily

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper delivers to the reader something of the drama that was at the centre of the colonized countries, from beginning to end. It seeks to conceive the individual art of the indomitable Martinican poet and dramatist Aimé Césaire (1913-2008, for writing one of the classics of Caribbean writing -- A Tempest (AT. A strong social and political conscience informs the play, hoping to liberate the literary mind of Césaire against the classical colonial ambition of the disturbing work of Shakespeare-- The Tempest (TT. The key question to this paper is: how each of these two texts, in a feasible dialogic way, shades into one another, and if this new version one adapted with some distance from the original for more imaginative work? Thus, my take has been to deploy the dialogic ideas of the language philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin, specifically the art of answerability. I argue here that Cesaire’s call for a reclaiming of a self-other duality marks as a force for social change and liberation.

  1. Dietary Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentanoic Acid, Dramatically Alters Cardiac Mitochondrial Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Prevents Permeability Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Khairallah, Ramzi J.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Khanna, Nishanth; O’Shea, Karen M.; Hecker, Peter A; Kristian, Tibor; Fiskum, Gary; Rosiers, Christine Des; Polster, Brian M.; Stanley, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) exerts cardioprotective effects, and suppresses Ca2+-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). These effects are associated with increased DHA and EPA, and lower arachidonic acid (ARA) in cardiac phospholipids. While clinical studies suggest the triglyceride lowering effects of DHA and EPA are equivalent, little is known about the independent effe...

  2. Effects of a Liberalized European Gas Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-07-01

    After World War II a position that for some time was called ''left-liberal'' tried to reconcile the values of individual freedom with social justice and a more egalitarian distribution of income. According to this perception, the government should let markets work if they satisfy social goals. However, if markets are non-competitive, either by nature or cartelization, often a public authority or a regulator must intervene in order to secure social goals, such as the provision of important goods and services, to avoid excessive pricing practices etc. If the results from competitive markets achieved either by actual competition or by public regulations bring about unacceptable injustice or inequality between persons, groups or regions, governments should intervene to correct this by redistributing income through taxes and subsidies, partnership schemes with the industry, and so on. For the functioning of natural gas markets, the most crucial element is the cost of, and access to, transportation. Cost of gas transportation is often characterized by strong elements of scale and scope economies, making transporting firms natural monopolies in the markets in which they operate. In Europe, many public utilities operating as natural monopolies were nationalized in the aftermath of World War II. Being monopolists by nature (but sometimes only by law) they were considered bottlenecks in the development of each nation's competitiveness. Probably the most frequently used argument explaining these firms' inefficient use of resources, has been the lack of competition. Liberalization of a market represents a departure from the ''one management'' approach. However, the particular aspect of by-nature non-competitive markets, such as major parts of the European gas market, is that the goals of competition cannot be achieved only by removal of trade barriers. If the most efficient operation of a market is done by one, or only a few

  3. Effects of a Liberalized European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After World War II a position that for some time was called ''left-liberal'' tried to reconcile the values of individual freedom with social justice and a more egalitarian distribution of income. According to this perception, the government should let markets work if they satisfy social goals. However, if markets are non-competitive, either by nature or cartelization, often a public authority or a regulator must intervene in order to secure social goals, such as the provision of important goods and services, to avoid excessive pricing practices etc. If the results from competitive markets achieved either by actual competition or by public regulations bring about unacceptable injustice or inequality between persons, groups or regions, governments should intervene to correct this by redistributing income through taxes and subsidies, partnership schemes with the industry, and so on. For the functioning of natural gas markets, the most crucial element is the cost of, and access to, transportation. Cost of gas transportation is often characterized by strong elements of scale and scope economies, making transporting firms natural monopolies in the markets in which they operate. In Europe, many public utilities operating as natural monopolies were nationalized in the aftermath of World War II. Being monopolists by nature (but sometimes only by law) they were considered bottlenecks in the development of each nation's competitiveness. Probably the most frequently used argument explaining these firms' inefficient use of resources, has been the lack of competition. Liberalization of a market represents a departure from the ''one management'' approach. However, the particular aspect of by-nature non-competitive markets, such as major parts of the European gas market, is that the goals of competition cannot be achieved only by removal of trade barriers. If the most efficient operation of a market is done by one, or only a few, firms, these must be made to behave in a way that

  4. Changes in plasma and erythrocyte omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in response to intravenous supply of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with hepatic colorectal metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Taan, Omer; Stephenson, James A; Spencer, Laura; Pollard, Cristina; West, Annette L.; Calder, Philip C.; Metcalfe, Matthew; Dennison, Ashley R

    2013-01-01

    Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are functionally the most important omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Oral supply of these fatty acids increases their levels in plasma and cell membranes, often at the expense of the omega-6 PUFAs arachidonic acid (ARA) and linoleic acid. This results in an altered pattern of lipid mediator production to one which is less pro-inflammatory. We investigated whether short term intravenous supply of omega-3 PUFAs co...

  5. Process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Fraunholcz, O.N.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet, wherein a mixture of said liberated ferrous and not liberated ferrous fragments is fed onto a continuous conveyor belt whic

  6. Liberal Arts, Civic Life, and the Practicality Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Hyperspecialization in the disciplines and the rewards for that combined with the growing mantra for first job preparation are double threats to liberal teaching and learning. Given that circumstance, the sorts of synthetic lecture classes in the humanities and social sciences that once provided the foundations of liberal learning have evaporated.…

  7. What Future for Student Engagement in Neo-Liberal Times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepke, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The paper first examines the context that has given student engagement a very strong profile in higher education. It identifies neo-liberalism as the driving force in the present higher education context and argues that student engagement enjoys an elective affinity with it. While neo-liberalism is dominant, student engagement will be strong. But…

  8. Ideology Spotting: An Exercise in Teaching Conservatism and Liberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    It has long been lamented that Americans do not comprehend conservative and liberal ideologies and the associated policy preferences for each perspective (and the reasoning behind the associations). This research seeks to contribute to the teaching of conservatism and liberalism by creating a heuristic outlining six general characteristics for…

  9. Liberalism: Notes on a Concept for Educators and Educational Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the history and concept of liberalism from its first uses to its most modern incarnations. The paper aims to serve as a primer for educators and educational researchers to better understand liberalism and its place as a foundational and controversial discourse in politics, social science, and education. Through reference to…

  10. A Clashing of Symbols: Method and Meaning in Liberal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Phyllis, Ed.

    Thirteen essays describe the interdisciplinary approach of the graduate liberal studies program from the point of view of each of the disciplines involved: philosophy, history, art, literature, social science, psychology, science, and theology. The following are included: "Graduate Liberal Studies Programs: Origin and Aims" (Phyllis O'Callaghan);…

  11. "A Liberal Account of Self-Limiting Individualism"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H.H.A.; Harskamp, Anton van; Musschenga, Albert W.

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I aim to show that a doctrine of self-limiting individualism, understood as a formal yet fairly comprehensive conception of how a person should lead her life and relate to others, is presupposed by the most influential account of liberalism today, political liberalism.

  12. Higher Education and Religious Liberalization among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrl, Damon; Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    Going to college has long been assumed to liberalize students' religious beliefs. Using longitudinal data from the National Study of Youth and Religion, we compare change in the content of religious beliefs of those who do and do not attend college. We find that, in general, college students are no more likely to develop liberal religious beliefs…

  13. 21st-century liberal democracy and its contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This brief paper intends to highlight the contradictions in which liberal democracy struggles within the process of globalisation, influenced as it is by the new connecting technologies. In particular, the difficult relationship between liberalism and democracy is analysed in light of the latest communitarist theories and new trends that interpret them socially. 

  14. Financial Liberalization, Savings and the Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); I.A. Robin (Iftekhar Ahmed)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores the consequences of financial liberalization policy on the banking sector in Bangladesh. Following a motivating portfolio selection theor-etical model on the impact of liberalization, it applies time series techniques with annual banking sector data for the period 1

  15. Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in Malaysia: Commodity Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Ahmad, Tengku Mohd Ariff; Tawang, Ariffin

    1999-01-01

    This book analyzes commodity aspects of the effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in Malaysia. The study describes the effects of trade liberalization on selected commodities namely palm oil, rice, and tobacco at the national level and farm level. The analysis included ex-ante and ex-post welfare gain and loss at the national level and profitability at the farm level.

  16. The Compatibility of Liberalism and Mandatory Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkany, Matt; Whyte, Kyle Powys

    2013-01-01

    Recently scholars have wondered whether liberals can promote mandatory programs of formal environmental education, including education for the environment or sustainable development. Critics maintain that they cannot on grounds that environmental education is a threat to student autonomy or cannot be justified using liberal principles. We argue…

  17. Approaching Political Philosophy through the Critique of Liberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    Understanding political philosophy as practical implies reflecting on principles as well as on material matters, on justice as well as on government. Liberalism is the main challenge to political philosophy, since its optimistic laissez faire attitude denies the legitimacy of political government...... overcome liberalism to be able to practice politics and political philosophy in the way presented here....

  18. Neo-Liberalism, Irish Society and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Fergal

    2008-01-01

    This article offers an overview of recent international scholarship on neo-liberalism in particular the work of the geographer and historian David Harvey and the recent books of the educationalist Henry Giroux. It begins with a brief historical account of neo-liberalism and outlines the main characteristics of the free market era. Irish society…

  19. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  20. Neoconservatism and Leo Strauss: The Place of a Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the work of Leo Strauss, specifically his two essays on liberal education. Strauss is often claimed to be a founding thinker of neoconservatism and while much scholarship has been produced analyzing his work, very little discusses his essays on liberal education and how these fit within his larger project. This essay…

  1. The Rhetoric of the Women's Liberation Movement: Consciousness-Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Linda Sternberg; Roberts, Anne

    Consciousness-raising as a prime rhetorical strategy of the women's liberation movement is examined. One goal of the women's liberation movement is to persuade women that they live in a state of oppression and, bringing them to this realization, to provide them with the means of breaking out of their psychological bondage. The…

  2. Right and Goods: Procedural Liberalism and Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James Scott

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, James Scott Johnston asks what sort of liberalism is best for the educational systems of early twenty-first century, late capitalistic democratic nations, looking at the procedural liberalism extant. Two major models are John Rawls's Justice as Fairness and Jurgen Habermas's Communicative Action. Both owe their foundational…

  3. Artes Illiberales? The Four Myths of Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    The phrase "liberal education" has begun obliterating more precise and meaningful terms. At first the author assumed that in using it, those public intellectuals who regularly gather to redefine higher education or set benchmarks for it had merely found an abbreviated way of describing a liberal-arts education. After Jeffrey Nesteruk took the…

  4. Promoting Liberal Learning in a Capstone Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlawat, Sunita; Miller, Gerald; Shahid, Abdus

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts to integrate liberal learning principles in a capstone course within the overwhelmingly career-focused discipline of accountancy. Our approach was based on the belief that business and liberal learning courses are complementary, rather than competitive, elements of a well-rounded education. The ability to deal with…

  5. Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M L; Anderson, B C; Rogers, Q R; Buffington, C A; Morris, J G

    1984-07-01

    The pathologic changes of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency were studied in specific-pathogen-free, domestic shorthair cats which were fed purified diets for 1.5 to 2.5 years. Cats fed an EFA-deficient diet exhibited signs of deficiency: severe fatty degeneration of the liver, excessive fat in the kidneys, dystrophic mineralization of the adrenal glands, degeneration of the testes, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. Minor clinical pathologic changes were consistent with liver damage. Fatty acid analyses of plasma lipids revealed low concentrations of linoleate and other n6-fatty acids, and high concentrations of n7- and n9-fatty acids, consistent with EFA deficiency. These signs of deficiency were prevented by including safflower seed oil in the diet at a concentration to supply linoleate at 6.7% of dietary energy. Therefore, linoleate is an EFA for the cat, despite negligible conversion of linoleate to arachidonate in cat liver. However, in cats fed a diet containing linoleate, but lacking arachidonate, there was mild mineralization of the kidneys, and the neutral fat content of the liver was slightly higher than that of cats fed a diet containing arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Also, 2 of the 19 cats fed arachidonate-deficient diets developed unusual inflammatory skin lesions. In cats fed a diet containing hydrogenated coconut oil, safflower seed oil, and chicken fat, fatty livers developed despite the presence of high levels of linoleate. The fatty livers appeared to result from a specific deleterious effect of the medium-chain triglycerides in hydrogenated coconut oil. Most of the organ pathologic changes of EFA deficiency in the cat can be prevented by feeding dietary linoleate. Linoleate meets the EFA requirement for functions which depend on proper membrane structure: growth, lipid transport, normal skin and coat condition, and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier. However, dietary arachidonate is required by the

  6. Fay Weldon, liberal feminism and the praxis of Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Foley

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Fay Weldon’s novel, “Praxis”, as a means of exploring the concept of “liberal feminism”. “Praxis” charts the development of the eponymous main protagonist from a woman complicit in her own patriarchal oppression to a radical feminist activist and finally to the point where she comes to a liberal realisation of the nuances of individual women’s experiences and the complexity of emancipation. The novel may be regarded as a liberal feminist text in its emphasis on both gender equality and individual liberty, and in its insistence that society may be positively reformed within the paradigm of the liberal state and without resorting to radical extremism. Published in 1978, the novel anticipates the later shift in feminist thinking from an exclusive concern with women’s rights to a more inclusive liberal vision of human rights.

  7. Liberating exomoons in white dwarf planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew J; Gaensicke, Boris T

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that more than a quarter of all white dwarf (WD) atmospheres are polluted by remnant planetary material, with some WDs being observed to accrete the mass of Pluto in 10^6 years. The short sinking timescale for the pollutants indicate that the material must be frequently replenished. Moons may contribute decisively to this pollution process if they are liberated from their parent planets during the post-main-sequence evolution of the planetary systems. Here, we demonstrate that gravitational scattering events among planets in WD systems easily triggers moon ejection. Repeated close encounters within tenths of a planetary Hill radii are highly destructive to even the most massive, close-in moons. Consequently, scattering increases both the frequency of perturbing agents in WD systems, as well as the available mass of polluting material in those systems, thereby enhancing opportunities for collision and fragmentation and providing more dynamical pathways for smaller bodies to reach the ...

  8. Risks Associated With Romanian Capital Account Liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The compulsory full liberalization of the capital account of Romania has been undertaken with EU Accession Treaty and put into practice since September 2006. This allowed free entry of capital in the Romanian economy, the financial sector being the main beneficiary. Moreover, the central bank decided to stop using the lever prudential and administrative measures employed to mitigate the growth of private sector credit (reserve level policy. The effect of these measures was the excessive growth of the private sector credit volume in Romania. The objective of this paper is to present the consequences of these actions, the ultimate goal being to identify induced risks to the stability of the financial system.

  9. Liberalism in foreign trade versus liberalism in air transportation - is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grancay Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a statistically significant link between regulation of international civil aviation and protectionism against foreign trade. We use weighted air liberalization index (WALI as a proxy for the level of regulation in a country’s foreign aviation relations; trade tariff restrictiveness index (TTRI and overall trade restrictiveness index (OTRI as proxies for the level of protectionism in a country’s foreign trade. Correlation analysis shows that there is no statistically significant link between the indicators. Hence, our research confirms the view that air transportation is a specific sector and it is subject to a different kind of policies than trade in goods. We also demonstrate that large high-income countries tend to have a more liberal approach to international civil aviation than small low-income countries.

  10. Developmentally dependent and different roles of fatty acids OMEGA-6 and OMEGA-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourek, J

    2011-01-01

    The developmentally-dependent differences in the biological significances and effects of PUFA-OMEGA-6 (namely of arachidonic acid) and PUFA-OMEGA-3 (namely of docosahexaenoic acid) are discussed. The clinical results as well as developmental experiences are indicating a hypothesis of the evolution...... that created mutual relationship between those two substances (with immunological basis and following recuperation). The anti-inflammatory actions of PUFA-OMEGA-3 are the most visible (and significant) contrasts as compared with the large affects of namely arachidonic acid and its metabolites....

  11. Liberalism in foreign trade versus liberalism in air transportation - is there a link?

    OpenAIRE

    Grancay Martin; Szikorova Nora

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a statistically significant link between regulation of international civil aviation and protectionism against foreign trade. We use weighted air liberalization index (WALI) as a proxy for the level of regulation in a country’s foreign aviation relations; trade tariff restrictiveness index (TTRI) and overall trade restrictiveness index (OTRI) as proxies for the level of protectionism in a country’s forei...

  12. Effects of an accelerated liberalization. Consequences of accelerated liberalization for the competitiveness of Dutch energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the conclusions of the Dutch Energy Report, published at the end of 1999, was that it would be feasible to speed up the pace of liberalization in the Netherlands. This conclusion will lead to the liberalization of the retail customers in 2004 and the market for renewable energy in 2001. This will be an incentive to more competition and put a greater pressure on energy companies to concentrate in order to benefit from economies of scale. Less preparation time implies also that there will be less layers of isolation against cost leaders and hence a more intense (price-based) competition. The central question in this report is whether and to what extent the effects of policy, in particular the accelerated liberalization, affect the strategic behavior and competitiveness of the Dutch Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). To address this question four face-to-face interviews have been held with experts from the four major RECs. In these interviews the experts gave their opinion about the Dutch policy regarding the accelerated liberalization and the rate and extent of the privatization. Subsequently, their perspective on the impact of the policy on their competitiveness and their analysis of the Dutch energy market was recorded. After that, the experts exposed their outlook on the future energy market and the ambition and most likely direction of their companies. The data collection was complemented with numerous relevant public interviews of experts derived from various newspapers and energy magazines. The data thus collected were analyzed by means of a theoretical framework consisting of the insights of Porter, Prahalad and Hamel and at a more detailed level marketing theories regarding positioning and branding. This resulted in an overview of the current market position of the Dutch RECs and an outlook for the years to come. 27 refs

  13. Leadership in the Liberal Arts: A Study of the Concerns and Job Experiences of Chief Liberal Arts Academic Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David M.; And Others

    Through a 1984 nationwide random sample of 371 chief liberal arts academic officers, this study examines respondents' careers and administrative behavior and their reports about the condition of the liberal arts in their institutions. The study describes grants administration, evaluation mechanisms, satisfactions and frustrations, and career…

  14. Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s)?

    OpenAIRE

    Das Undurti N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions that are a severe burden on health care resources. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) and their products: prostaglandin E1, pr...

  15. Effect of dietary fatty acid intake on prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi; Linseisen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between fatty acid (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, DHA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) intake and prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN...... only. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest differential effects of single dietary fatty acids on prospective weight gain in adults....

  16. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.; Grunnet, N.;

    1993-01-01

    by the peroxidized PUFA. Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Two other antioxidants: 50 µM a-tocopherol acid succinate and 1 µM N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, both proved more efficient than a-tocopherol phosphate. There was a significant correlation......Rat hepatocyte long-term cultures were utilized to investigate the impact of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro. The addition of 0.5 mM albumin-complexed oleic, linoleic, columbinic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic...... or docosahexaenoic acid resulted in a marked suppression of fatty acid synthesis. By evaluation of cell viability (determined as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) it turned our, that the antioxidant used (50 µM a-tocopherol phosphate) had a low antioxidant activity, resulting in cytotoxic effects...

  17. Investment under Financial Liberalization: Post 1980 Turkey Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the history of the modern state of Turkey many policies have been developed and applied in order to transform ineffective economy to a dynamic and steady one. The liberal policies have been effectively applied except for war periods. The main activity of liberal policies in Turkey’s economy was conducted on January 24, 1980 with some important structural adjustment decisions. These decisions aimed to integrate the economy with the global system by applying global economic order that widely adopted all over the world. The decisions aimed also to activate a financial liberalization in the country. Financial liberalization generally includes the principles related to the removing the pressure on the interest rate, currency control and investment mobility. More liberalization steps came in 1989 aiming to increase the investment and growth. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI was seen important for that purposes. However, short term capital flows, having been more effective in real investments than FDI, have led to several negative effects in this period. In the study some of the drawbacks of that process of financial liberalization have been discussed. The relation between FDI and Gross Domestic Product in the financial liberalization process has been tested with econometric implementation. Econometric estimation has been applied for this purpose to test this relationship for post 1980 era for Turkey as a developing country.

  18. The new Liberal Party from dawn to downfall 1906 - 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. Morgan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From 1906 to 1914The Liberal Party and Liberal government, particularly from 1906, is a very important period of British history, often compared with the Labour government after 1945, another great phase of reform. But there is of course one big difference: the Liberal government of 1906 was pre-war, the Attlee government post-war. The Labour government in 1945 set the tone for post-war British development, politically and socially, down, perhaps, to the regime of Mrs Thatcher in the 1980s. B...

  19. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers.......Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...

  20. Contesting the Dominant Paradigm: Feminist Critiques of Liberal Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ‘liberal legalism’ refers to a set of assumptions found within law in societies and regimes (such as the international legal order) in which liberalism is the dominant political philosophy. These assumptions broadly concern: (a) the nature of the legal person; and (b) the role of law. This chapter will provide an account of both of these aspects of liberal legalism, and the feminist critiques to which they have been subject. Feminist critiques have been mounted from a variety o...

  1. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  2. Astronomy, Visual Literacy, and Liberal Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    With the exponentially growing amount of visual content that twenty-first century students will face throughout their lives, teaching them to respond to it with visual and information literacy skills should be a clear priority for liberal arts education. While visual literacy is more commonly covered within humanities curricula, I will argue that because astronomy is inherently a visual science, it is a fertile academic discipline for the teaching and learning of visual literacy. Astronomers, like many scientists, rely on three basic types of visuals to convey information: images, qualitative diagrams, and quantitative plots. In this talk, I will highlight classroom methods that can be used to teach students to "read" and "write" these three separate visuals. Examples of "reading" exercises include questioning the authorship and veracity of images, confronting the distorted scales of many diagrams published in astronomy textbooks, and extracting quantitative information from published plots. Examples of "writing" exercises include capturing astronomical images with smartphones, re-sketching textbook diagrams on whiteboards, and plotting data with Google Motion Charts or iPython notebooks. Students can be further pushed to synthesize these skills with end-of-semester slide presentations that incorporate relevant images, diagrams, and plots rather than relying solely on bulleted lists.

  3. The Liberal Arts, Antidote for Atheism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Joel D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available C. S. Lewis once stated that the decline of classical learning was a contributory cause of atheism. This article explores why he made this very unusual statement, describing how Lewis saw the Classics as a literature full of gods and goddesses, providing hints of truth, giving us things to write about, and preparing for the Christian faith. Using some remarkable quotations from Virgil and Plato, Lewis demonstrated how those writers anticipated both the birth and the death of Christ. Lewis’s concept of myth, powerfully present in the Classics, shows how the Gospel story itself is a “true myth,” one with a pattern that is similar to many of the pagan myths. The personal story of Lewis himself demonstrates how the Classics, and, more broadly, the liberal arts were a testimony to the truth of God and how the Greek plays of Euripides, the philosophy of Samuel Alexander, the imagination of writer William Morris, the poetry of George Herbert, and the historical sensibility of G. K. Chesterton combined (with many other similar influences to convince Lewis that the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ were especially a “true myth,” one that happened in history, demonstrating him to be the Son of God.

  4. Are households better off in liberalized electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Pakkanen, Merja

    economic efficiency without sacrificing important public values such as universal service obligations, quality of service and high environmental standards. Liberalization and the introduction of competition are often considered synonymous with deregulation, which is a misunderstanding. Before the electric...

  5. Does a liberalized postal market need a sector specific regulator?

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, M; Trinkner, U

    2008-01-01

    For different reasons, most actors in liberalized postal markets call for sector specific regulatory bodies. However those should disappear over time along with an increasingly market-oriented definition of universal services.

  6. The Jurisprudence of "Brown" and the Dilemmas of Liberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Morton J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines several dilemmas of liberal jurisprudence stemming from "Brown," and concludes that they stem, ultimately, from our uncertain commitment to equality. Available from William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 1285 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14209. (IRT)

  7. Explicit Sex--Liberation or Exploitation: Danish "Permissiveness" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Victor

    1976-01-01

    Reviews various Danish legislative actions leading up to the lifting of the ban on pornography, and discusses possible consequences of such liberalization by analyzing police statistics from a five year period. (MH)

  8. Liberalization of the Swiss electricity and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss government intends to liberalize the electricity and gas market. Competition is to be introduced in the electricity sector first because the European Union is also giving priority to this industry. Moreover, electricity prices in Switzerland are too high. The principle of market liberalization is not contested, but the route to be taken to achieve this goal is a matter of heated controversy. Opinions on the power line network, non-amortizable investments, hydropower plants or the pace of market liberalization still differ too widely. Liberalization of the gas market is also in preparation, but the problems here are less complex. This is because competition already exists on the heating market. In addition, domestic gas prices are not much higher than those charged in other countries. (author)

  9. Reflections on Scholarship from the Liberal Arts Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G.; Waller, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on "Scholarship in Psychology" from the perspective of liberal arts college professors. Applauds features of the report's multidimensional understanding of scholarship, suggests clarifications and criticisms, and outlines ways to define faculty priorities and rewards. (SLD)

  10. Review Article: Kneeling at the Altar of (Il-)liberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    erstwhile post-communist 'transition laggards' such as Georgia, Ukraine, and Croatia, many first-stage 'transition leaders' have experienced a turn in distinctly illiberal directions. Post-communism's economically liberal elites have achieved remarkable successes - peaceful democratic consolidation, fast...

  11. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species

    OpenAIRE

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Key message Mosses have high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tissue-specific differences in fatty acid contents and fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding gene expression exist. The arachidonic acid-synthesizing FADS operate in the ER. Abstract Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chai...

  12. Stock Market Liberalizations and Efficiency: The Case of Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vieito, João Paulo; Wong, Wing-Keung; Chow, Sheung Chi

    2016-01-01

    This investigation is among the first to examine the impact of stock market liberalization on the efficiency of Latin American stock markets. It is also among the first to apply the martingale hypothesis test and a stochastic dominance approach to study the issue of efficient markets. Daily stock indices from Latin American countries, including Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Peru, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago, are used in our analysis. To examine the impact of stock market liberalization on effic...

  13. Rockerne bør takke Liberal Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Andreas Hagedorn

    2014-01-01

    Liberal Alliances Simon Emil Ammitzbøll blæser til kamp mod banderne. Problemet er blot, at han hverken forstår, hvem han kæmper med, eller hvordan kampen kan vindes.......Liberal Alliances Simon Emil Ammitzbøll blæser til kamp mod banderne. Problemet er blot, at han hverken forstår, hvem han kæmper med, eller hvordan kampen kan vindes....

  14. MODERN LIBERALISM AND ITS INFLUENCE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    IGNATKIN OLEG

    2014-01-01

    The article dwells on two distinct forms of modern liberalism that one can encounter in modern international relations. The first one is called neoliberal institutionalism, justly relying on the idea of global political and economic institutions, governing world society, whereas the latter bears the sound title of new liberalism that in its turn evokes the grandiloquent and complex ideas of global justice, being an indispensable commodity of the global political system.

  15. The role of computational physics in the liberal arts curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Rachele; Huff, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    The role of computational physics education varies dramatically from department to department. We will discuss a new computational physics course at Randolph-Macon College and our attempt to identify where it fits (or should fit) into the larger liberal arts curriculum and why. In doing so, we will describe the goals of the course, and how the liberal arts curriculum conditions the exploration of computational physics.

  16. Platform for the acceleration of energy liberalization (PVE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title platform was founded to support a smooth transition to a liberalized energy market. Representatives of the Dutch government, the energy sector, business and industry and other relevant parties are members of the platform. The platform was officially initiated June 22, 2000. The site contains many documents from the PVE working groups on the liberalization process of the energy market in the Netherlands and Europe in pdf-format

  17. Trade Liberalization and Wage Inequality; Evidence From India

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Mishra; Utsav Kumar

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate empirically the impact of the dramatic 1991 trade liberalization in India on the industry wage structure. The empirical strategy uses variation in industry wage premiums and trade policy across industries and over time. In contrast to earlier studies on developing countries, we find a strong, negative, and robust relationship between changes in trade policy and changes in industry wage premiums over time. The results are consistent with liberalization-induced productivity increase...

  18. The Impact of Financial Liberalization Policies: The Case of Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi Dahir Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Financial liberalization enables market forces to play a greater role in mobiliz- ing resources, allocating credit, setting financial asset prices and improving financial intermediation. Many studies have claimed that these changes enhance savings, and improve efficiency of investment, which ultimately ameliorate economic growth. This paper attempts to analyse the Botswana experience, where despite having an open economy for many decades, financial liberalization was a major policy in the rec...

  19. Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in China: Commodity Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jikun; Chen, Chunlai

    1999-01-01

    This book analyzes commodity aspects of the effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in China. The study describes the effects of trade liberalization on selected commodities namely rice, wheat, maize, soybean, sweet potato, potato, other grains, pork, beef, mutton, poultry, egg, milk and fish at the national level and farm level. The analysis included ex-ante and ex-post welfare gain and loss at the national level and profitability at the farm level.

  20. Extending the limits of neo-liberal capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Ursula Murray

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the voluntary sector’s new role as a sub contactor to global corporates and the extent to which parts of the voluntary sector have been colonised by neo liberal thinking. As privatisation mutates, the corporate sector is rapidly extending its role as a provider of public services in health, education and social services. In pursuing neo liberal policies to dismantle the social state, post 2010 Coalition Government legislation constantly refers to the role of the ‘volun...

  1. Liberation of Materials by Electrical Disintegration for Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimi, Isao; SHIBAYAMA, Atsushi; Fujita, Toyohisa; Abe, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Toshio; Sato, Masashi; Yen, Wan Tai

    2002-01-01

    Liberation is very important to separate different materials from the wasted composites for recycling the components. It is necessary to develop the new crushing method to tear off the composites along the boundary of different materials. As the waste materials include many kinds of inorganic and organic components, it is difficult to liberate them by conventional crushing and grinding methods. In this study, the exfoliations along the boundary of materials, such as, concrete, silicon with si...

  2. Crisis and Innovation of Liberal Democracy: Can Deliberation Be Institutionalised?

    OpenAIRE

    Offe, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the possible contributions of deliberative procedures of political will formation to solving the problems encountered by liberal democracies today. To begin with, four functions of liberal democracy are distinguished: securing international peace, guaranteeing legal as well as political peace domestically, and producing good active citizens. The following part of the argument distinguishes four structural features characteristic of democratic regimes: stateness, rule of law...

  3. A Survey of the Foundations of Liberalism Axiology and Its Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Hamid; Golestani, Hashem; Jafari, Seyed Ebrahim Mirshah

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to survey the foundation of liberalism axiology and its implications for education. To this end, educational viewpoints of liberal scholars including Locke, Smith, Hume, Kant, and Russell are examined along with an introduction to liberalism axiology. Additionally, the implications of liberalism for education from…

  4. The Limits of Civic Education: The Divergent Implications of Political and Comprehensive Liberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Education has become one of the foremost arenas in which political liberals attempt to differentiate their account from that of comprehensive liberals. Rawls posits that the requirements of his theory, as laid out in "Political Liberalism," will be far less stringent than those of liberals such as Kant, Mill or Joseph Raz. However, a number of…

  5. Post Neo-Liberalism and the Humanities: What the Repressive State Apparatus Means for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Leonard, Hugh A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how neo-liberal and post neo-liberal policies threaten the humanities in post-secondary education as a potential site of democratic dialogue and social transformation. We distinguish between neo-liberalism and post neo-liberalism on the basis of the latter's increased police suppression of democratic dissent. We are…

  6. Speech to Liberal Democrat Conference in Birmingham made on 19th September 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Ed J.

    2011-01-01

    Response to the Liberal Democrat policy paper: Facing the Future and the Liberal Democrat Federal Policy Motion commending acceptance of the policy paper to the Liberal Democrat Conference. The speech urges Liberal Democrat representatives and party members in government to reconsider their commitment to accelerated deficit reduction as a means of improving economic prospects in the UK.

  7. High expression of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and proinflammatory markers in human ischemic heart tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We found a 17-fold upregulation of ALOX15 in the ischemic heart. ► Incubation of human muscle cells in hypoxia showed a 22-fold upregulation of ALOX15. ► We observed increased levels of proinflammatory markers in ischemic heart tissue. ► Suggesting a link between ischemia and inflammation in ischemic heart biopsies. -- Abstract: A common feature of the ischemic heart and atherosclerotic plaques is the presence of hypoxia (insufficient levels of oxygen in the tissue). Hypoxia has pronounced effects on almost every aspect of cell physiology, and the nuclear transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulates adaptive responses to low concentrations of oxygen in mammalian cells. In our recent work, we observed that hypoxia increases the proinflammatory enzyme arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15B) in human carotid plaques. ALOX15 has recently been shown to be present in the human myocardium, but the effect of ischemia on its expression has not been investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that ischemia of the heart leads to increased expression of ALOX15, and found an almost 2-fold increase in HIF-1α mRNA expression and a 17-fold upregulation of ALOX15 mRNA expression in the ischemic heart biopsies from patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery compared with non ischemic heart tissue. To investigate the effect of low oxygen concentration on ALOX15 we incubated human vascular muscle cells in hypoxia and showed that expression of ALOX15 increased 22-fold compared with cells incubated in normoxic conditions. We also observed increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in ischemic heart tissue compared with non-ischemic controls. In summary, we demonstrate increased ALOX15 in human ischemic heart biopsies. Furthermore we demonstrate that hypoxia increases ALOX15 in human muscle cells. Our results yield important insights into the underlying association between hypoxia and inflammation in the human ischemic heart disease.

  8. Growth and development of term infants fed with milk with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Xiao-ming 贲晓明; ZHOU Xiao-yu 周晓玉; ZHAO Wei-hua 赵卫华; YU Wen-liang 喻文亮; PAN Wei 潘伟; ZHANG Wei-li 张伟利; WU Sheng-mei 吴圣楣; Christien M. Van Beusekom; Anne Schaafsma

    2004-01-01

    @@ Presently, there is growing interest in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), which are considered a major determinant of growth, visual and neural development, and long-term health.1 Two groups of LCPUFAs have received special interest: homologues of linoleic acid (LA) of the n-6 series, which are precursors of arachidonic acid (AA), and homologues of α-linolenic acid (ALA) of the n-3 series, which are precursors of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  9. Comparison of the fatty-acid compositions of prey items and yolks of Australian insectivorous scincid lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Brian K; Herbert, Jacquie F; Thompson, Michael B

    2004-07-01

    The yolk fatty-acid profiles of a range of species of insectivorous scincid lizards generally conform to a common pattern, typified by high proportions of linoleic acid (13.5-18.5% of total fatty acids), substantial proportions of alpha-linolenic acid (2.4-8.2%), and significant amounts of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (1.6-3.3%), eicosapentaenoic (0.7-1.2%) and docosahexaenoic (0.7-1.6%) acids. We characterised the fatty-acid compositions of ten prey taxa that are eaten by female skinks during vitellogenesis. Linoleic acid is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in all prey, excepting Orthoptera where alpha-linolenic acid predominates. To varying extents, alpha-linolenic acid is present in all the prey items. Arachidonic acid forms over 1% of total fatty acids for six of the prey items. Four of the prey items contain eicosapentaenoic acid at over 1%. Most notably, docosahexaenoic acid is essentially absent from all the prey items. There is a general similarity between the fatty-acid profiles of prey and yolk, suggesting that the linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids required for egg formation can be supplied directly from the maternal diet. However, the docosahexaenoic acid of the egg lipids cannot derive from the diet and must, therefore, be formed by biosynthesis in the maternal liver, using dietary alpha-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids as precursors. PMID:15085383

  10. Para além da paz liberal? respostas ao "retrocesso" Beyond liberal peace? responses to "backsliding"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver P Richmond

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A ortodoxia familiar de construção da paz liberal depende da transplantação e da exportação de condicionalidade e dependência, com vistas a consolidar um contrato social entre populações, seus governos e o Estado, em que repouse uma paz liberal legítima e consensual. O que, com frequência, ocorre, é uma forma híbrida de paz liberal, sujeita a críticas locais poderosas, à resistência, por vezes, e à percepção de que a construção da paz internacional está fracassando em corresponder às expectativas. Em termos kantianos, os problemas com que a paz liberal tem se deparado e a crise pela qual está hoje passando podem ser denominados "retrocesso". Tem sido particularmente notável que a construção da paz liberal não vem sendo capaz de construir políticas unidas a partir de fragmentos territoriais no Kosovo, na Bósnia, no Afeganistão, no Iraque, no Sri Lanka e mesmo na Irlanda do Norte, onde alguns ou todos de seus elementos estão em desenvolvimento. Isso indica uma necessidade ou de reforma do modelo liberal para a paz, ou de estabelecimento de uma capacidade de coexistência desse modelo com alternativas, ou de substituição do modelo. Este artigo examina uma gama de questões inerentes ao paradigma de construção da paz liberal, algumas causas de "retrocesso" e o que pode ser feito no que tange a tais causas, no sentido de utilizar a construção da paz para criar um novo contrato social e atingir o que se poderia muito bem ser uma forma "híbrida liberal-local" de paz.The familiar orthodoxy of liberal peacebuilding depends upon transplanting and exporting conditionality and dependency in order to cement a social contract between populations, their governments and the state, on which rests a legitimate and consensual liberal peace. What often emerges is a hybrid form of the liberal peace, subject to powerful local critiques, sometimes resistance, and to the perception that international peacebuilding is failing to

  11. Ethics in the liberal democracy from the perspective of liberalism egalitarian of John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alexander Solórzano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study of ethics in liberal democracy from the analysis of the «most important moral philosopher of the last century», John Rawls, cataloged by his followers and neo-Kantian, is seen the thin line that crosses the threshold of democracy as a form of government and its purely procedimental, as human actions are reviewed framed in his critique of the dominant ethical currents in American culture of his time, to show their moral and political thought the idea of a well-ordered society «and peaceful society expansionist» lawful and respectful of Human Rights. Rawls comes from its main tenets solve the traditional conflict between equality and freedom democratic from the merely political not metaphysical.Received: 22/07/2013 / Accepted: 08/09/2013How to reference this articleSolórzano, G. A. (2014. La ética en la democracia liberal desde la perspectiva de liberalismo igualitario de John Rawls. Foro de Educación, 12(17, pp. 109-145. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2014.012.017.006

  12. CURRENT DEBATES IN THE POSTSOEHARTO INDONESIAN ISLAM: Examining the Intellectual Base of Liberal and Anti-liberal Islamic Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Akh. Muzakki

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses intensively the current debate between those who support and against liberalism within pluralized Indonesian Muslims.  The two groups are represented by JIL (Jaringan Islam Liberal) and MD (Media Dakwah). The author compares three fundamental aspects of religious interpretations: epistemological assumptions, methodological framework, and subject-matter. Epistemological assumptions deal with philosophical foundations that are employed by JIL and MD as principles to under...

  13. Bernard Williams, republicanism, and the liberalism of fear : problems and prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Thom

    2013-01-01

    Bernard Williams speaks approvingly of “the liberalism of fear” (2005). The liberalism of fear is an idea first found in the writings of Judith Shklar (1989). This chapter offers a brief presentation of what is the liberalism of fear and focusses on why Williams finds this idea attractive. My argument will be that the liberalism of fear has a close affinity with the theory of republicanism, challenging the distinctiveness of the liberalism of fear. Furthermore, I will argue that republicanis...

  14. Taylor’s Critique of Procedural Liberalism and Modern Practical Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Jair Cuchumbé H.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Charles Taylor’s critique of the model of procedural liberalism and the modern conception of practical rationality. The starting point is that Taylor’s critique is based on contributions of the substantive philosophical tradition, which makes possible an alternative liberalism project different from procedural liberalism. To prove this point of view, in first place, it presents Taylor’s approach to the debate between alternative liberalism and procedural liberalism. Seco...

  15. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Lien, Eric; Agostoni, Carlo;

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines...

  16. Dietary supplementation of essential fatty acids in larval pikeperch (Sander lucioperca); short and long term effects on stress tolerance and metabolic physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of feeding pike perch larvae Artemia, enriched with either docosahexanoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (ARA), oleic acid (OA), olive oil (OO) or a commercial enrichment DHA Selco (DS) on tissue lipid deposition, stress tolerance, growth and development...

  17. Determination of essential fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in complimentary infant foods in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Loughrill, Emma; Zand, Nazanin

    2014-01-01

    The study reported herein was conducted to establish the concentration of two essential fatty acids; linoleic acid (LA) 18:2 n-6 and α-linolenic acid (ALA) 18:3 n-3; and three long chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 20:5 n-3, decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6 n-3 and arachidonic acid (AA) 20:4 n-6 in fish based commercial infant foods in the UK. Quantitative analyses were conducted on four different products using charged aerosol detection HPLC. The total ...

  18. Mechanistic Perspectives of Maslinic Acid in Targeting Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hsum Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation drives the development of various pathological diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. The arachidonic acid pathway represents one of the major mechanisms for inflammation. Prostaglandins (PGs are lipid products generated from arachidonic acid by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX enzymes and their activity is blocked by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. The use of natural compounds in regulation of COX activity/prostaglandins production is receiving increasing attention. In Mediterranean diet, olive oil and table olives contain significant dietary sources of maslinic acid. Maslinic acid is arising as a safe and novel natural pentacyclic triterpene which has protective effects against chronic inflammatory diseases in various in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Understanding the anti-inflammatory mechanism of maslinic acid is crucial for its development as a potential dietary nutraceutical. This review focuses on the mechanistic action of maslinic acid in regulating the inflammation pathways through modulation of the arachidonic acid metabolism including the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB/COX-2 expression, upstream protein kinase signaling, and phospholipase A2 enzyme activity. Further investigations may provide insight into the mechanism of maslinic acid in regulating the molecular targets and their associated pathways in response to specific inflammatory stimuli.

  19. THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION ON ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciupac-Ulici Maria-Lenuta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, many emerging countries have moved away from a system of restrictive monetary and financial controls to a more liberalized financial sector. The restrictive imposed policies were expected to contribute to industrialization of the economy and to the stability of the banking sector. However, financial liberalization had big costs on the banking system's competitiveness and efficiency. Financial liberalization has a different impact on banking markets. Thus, there is no size that fits all policies concerning banking liberalization process. For highly efficient banks, competition is improving their efficiency standard, while less efficient banks can`t compete with foreign banks and further are decreasing in efficiency or are driven out of the market. Overall, the average efficiency of domestic banking markets should be an important variable in deciding to open up their banking market. Banks that are operating close to the frontier, in general are improving their efficiency following financial liberalization process. Banks that are operating in a further distance can`t manage to compete with foreign market entrants, so, they are losing from liberalization process. In this article we propose to measure the impact of financial liberalization process on Romanian banking system. We used the panel regression to study the informational efficiency of three Romanian banks during 2004 - 2012. The dependent variable of the model was the price of stock bank, and the independent variables were the financial indicators (return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin. In the second regression we introduce a dummy variable for crisis period. Our results show that the financial indicators choose do not affect the efficiency of Romanian bank, but the crisis had a negative impact on them. International context, credit risk, the implementation of Basel III and reducing exposures in the absence of investment alternatives remains key

  20. Different roles for non-receptor tyrosine kinases in arachidonate release induced by zymosan and Staphylococcus aureus in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundler Roger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast and bacteria elicit arachidonate release in macrophages, leading to the formation of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, important mediators of inflammation. Receptors recognising various microbes have been identified, but the signalling pathways are not entirely understood. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is a major down-stream target and this enzyme is regulated by both phosphorylation and an increase in intracellular Ca2+. Potential signal components are MAP kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase Cγ2. The latter can undergo tyrosine phosphorylation, and Src family kinases might carry out this phosphorylation. Btk, a Tec family kinase, could also be important. Our aim was to further elucidate the role of Src family kinases and Btk. Methods Arachidonate release from murine peritoneal macrophages was measured by prior radiolabeling. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting were used to monitor changes in activity/phosphorylation of intermediate signal components. To determine the role of Src family kinases two different inhibitors with broad specificity (PP2 and the Src kinase inhibitor 1, SKI-1 were used as well as the Btk inhibitor LFM-A13. Results Arachidonate release initiated by either Staphylococcus aureus or yeast-derived zymosan beads was shown to depend on members of the Src kinase family as well as Btk. Src kinases were found to act upstream of Btk, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase Cγ2 and the MAP kinases ERK and p38, thereby affecting all branches of the signalling investigated. In contrast, Btk was not involved in the activation of the MAP-kinases. Since the cytosolic phospholipase A2 in macrophages is regulated by both phosphorylation (via ERK and p38 and an increase in intracellular Ca2+, we propose that members of the Src kinase family are involved in both types of regulation, while the role of Btk may be restricted to the latter type. Conclusion Arachidonate release

  1. High expression of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and proinflammatory markers in human ischemic heart tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Lisa U.; Lundqvist, Annika [Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Asp, Julia [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Synnergren, Jane [Systems Biology Research Center, School of Life Sciences, University of Skoevde, Skoevde (Sweden); Johansson, Cecilia Thalen [Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Palmqvist, Lars [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jeppsson, Anders [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hulten, Lillemor Mattsson, E-mail: Lillemor.Mattsson@wlab.gu.se [Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found a 17-fold upregulation of ALOX15 in the ischemic heart. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incubation of human muscle cells in hypoxia showed a 22-fold upregulation of ALOX15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed increased levels of proinflammatory markers in ischemic heart tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suggesting a link between ischemia and inflammation in ischemic heart biopsies. -- Abstract: A common feature of the ischemic heart and atherosclerotic plaques is the presence of hypoxia (insufficient levels of oxygen in the tissue). Hypoxia has pronounced effects on almost every aspect of cell physiology, and the nuclear transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) regulates adaptive responses to low concentrations of oxygen in mammalian cells. In our recent work, we observed that hypoxia increases the proinflammatory enzyme arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15B) in human carotid plaques. ALOX15 has recently been shown to be present in the human myocardium, but the effect of ischemia on its expression has not been investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that ischemia of the heart leads to increased expression of ALOX15, and found an almost 2-fold increase in HIF-1{alpha} mRNA expression and a 17-fold upregulation of ALOX15 mRNA expression in the ischemic heart biopsies from patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery compared with non ischemic heart tissue. To investigate the effect of low oxygen concentration on ALOX15 we incubated human vascular muscle cells in hypoxia and showed that expression of ALOX15 increased 22-fold compared with cells incubated in normoxic conditions. We also observed increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in ischemic heart tissue compared with non-ischemic controls. In summary, we demonstrate increased ALOX15 in human ischemic heart biopsies. Furthermore we demonstrate that hypoxia increases ALOX15 in human muscle cells. Our results yield

  2. The internet in universities: Liberation or desensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, John

    1997-06-01

    The compression of space and time that accompanies cultural evolution is being accelerated by digital communications technology. The rapid transmission of information and computer-mediated communication are key factors in economic and geopolitical development. Networks such as the Internet are now able to handle images, sounds, texts and virtual objects. These can be stored, reproduced, combined and distributed. This digital miscegenation creates a virtual, recombinant culture that signifies how human society is evolving in the postmodern era. In universities, the Internet is already an important medium of communication, a way of enhancing access to educational resources and a means of creating interactive communities of learning. This will not merely enhance educational practice as it is now. Like technological developments before them, it will also change our view of what education is, or needs to be. This, in turn, will influence the values and the sensitivities that are implicitly transmitted in the educational process. Over and above its practical effects on education, the Internet is bound up in wider geopolitical movements and pressures. As a backdrop to considering the Internet as a medium for education, this article considers some of these geopolitical movements. The conclusion will be that the often rosy image created by advocates of digital communications technology may need balancing by consideration of some darker possibilities. As a matter of social geography, it enhances uniformity, urban concentration and the commodification of cultural practices, including education. Two themes are considered here. On the one hand, following the more optimistic views of educationalists, such as Illich and Wells, there is the hope that the Internet will act as a liberating, democratizing force that will make knowledge more freely and widely available. On the other hand, following the more pessimistic concerns of geographers and cultural theorists, such as Harvey and

  3. Liberation as a Paradigm for Full Humanity in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshuma Ephraim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is a response to the call for papers that focuses on African issues and discusses the issue of liberation. This paper seeks to explore the theme of liberation beginning with its definition. It will then proceed by looking at the history of Israel discussing the Egyptian bondage. The identity and role of Moses will also be explored in light of the prominent role that the Hebrew Bible gives him in the exodus motifs. It also highlights the life and role of Jesus of Nazareth in human liberation. In addition it will also highlight the importance of liberation and will pay attention to the fight for freedom and independence in Africa. Finally it looks at the quest for liberation among marginalized women and children in Africa looking at their struggles in the 21st century. The essay will use examples from both theological and secular sources. The Biblical/theological examples will be drawn from the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament and commentaries. Since Africa is very big although sharing related issues, I will use specific examples from Zimbabwe and also use general information from across the continent.

  4. Liberation of electric power and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, as the Rule on Electric Business was revised after an interval of 35 years in 1995, and a competitive bid on new electric source was adopted after 1996 fiscal year, investigation on further competition introduction to electric power market was begun by establishment of the Basic Group of the Electric Business Council in 1997. By a report proposed on January, 1999 by the Group, the Rule was revised again on March, 1999 to start a partial liberation or retail of the electric power from March, 2000. From a viewpoint of energy security and for solution of global environmental problem in Japan it has been decided to positively promote nuclear power in future. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how the competition introduction affects to development of nuclear power generation and what is a market liberation model capable of harmonizing with the development on liberation of electric power market. Here was elucidated on effect of the introduction on previous and future nuclear power generation, after introducing new aspects of nuclear power problems and investigating characteristic points and investment risks specific to the nuclear power generation. And, by investigating some possibilities to development of nuclear power generation under liberation models of each market, an implication was shown on how to be future liberation on electric power market in Japan. (G.K.)

  5. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  6. THE UK ELECTRICITY MARKET EVOLUTION DURING THE LIBERALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Vasilica Rotaru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an insight on the liberalization process that took place in the United Kingdom starting with 1990 until now. The electricity market in the United Kingdom made incredible progress in the road to reaching a full level of liberalization where customers are free to choose between suppliers and services. An analysis of the most important indicators for the electricity market evolution such as electricity price, the market share of the largest generator, the energy efficiency indicator shows that the liberalization process brought many advantages starting with 2001. Also, UK has to face new challenges in order to keep the development of the industry on the right path, challenges that are presented in the final part of the paper.

  7. Indian Carpet Industry after Trade Liberalization. Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rashid Malik, Rekha Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the constraints and opportunities emerged for the Micro, small and medium enterprises in carpet industry after trade liberalization. The survey method was selected for this study. A structured questionnaire, containing both close and open ended questions was used for data collection. 65 carpet firms of Bhadohi District of Uttar Pradesh registered with All India Carpet Manufacture Association (AICMA were surveyed. Liberalization has brought many opportunities for carpet industry apart from challenges. Findings of the present study show that liberalization gave access to new markets and increased demand of products. Increased cost of raw material, difficulty in ‘export facilitation’ and ‘legal-regulatory framework and difficulty in procuring funds from local financial institutions were identified as the major constraints for the carpet industry.

  8. Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bocheol

    2010-01-01

    Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors. PMID:21404760

  9. A long view of liberal peace and its crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Rampton, David; Nadarajah, Suthaharan

    2016-01-01

    The ‘crisis’ of liberal peace has generated considerable debate in International Relations. However, analysis is inhibited by a shared set of spatial, cultural and temporal assumptions that rest on and reproduce a problematic separation between self-evident ‘liberal’ and ‘non-liberal’ worlds, and locates the crisis in presentist terms of the latter’s resistance to the former’s expansion. By contrast, this article argues that efforts to advance liberal rule have always been interwoven with pro...

  10. Sujeto liberal y patologías sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available “Liberal Subject and Social Pathologies”. This work presents thelimits of the idealization of the liberal subject. Its distinctive characteristics, which make this subject one that is scarcely vulnerable to circumstances and assume the possibility to evaluate ends and preferences, limit the awareness of phenomena of colonization of the world of life. Only by modifying such idealizationthrough deep self-reflection shall these colonizing phenomena be overcome. On the other hand, this new type of subject shall be able to participate in the relevance of personal behaviour as regards consumerism and the applicability of principles of justice.

  11. Juridical consequences of liberalization. Part 2. Legal protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalization of the natural gas market in Europe has all kinds of juridical aspects. Not only with respect to new legislation (Natural Gas Law and Mining Law), but also changes in juridical structures of natural gas companies, caused by privatization or splitting up in a mains management company and a distribution company. In a series of articles lawyers of the Energy Working Group of Houthoff Buruma in The Hague, Netherlands, discuss the developments at the natural gas market. In this second part, attention will be paid to how gas utilities can fight decisions of Dutch ministries and other representative bodies involved in the liberalized energy market

  12. Regulatory challenges for nuclear energy in liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the liberalization of the national electricity markets in the European Union, the nuclear energy sector faces new challenges. The rise of renewable energy sources and their participation in the wholesale markets through power exchanges and bilateral contracts lead to lower prices and intermittency of the system loads. Liberalized markets tend to discriminate capital-intensive generation technologies such as nuclear energy and some of the renewables. This report explores the current challenges and outlines some new regulatory mechanisms for ensuring the availability of nuclear power through “contracts for differences” for new nuclear units as well as for existing nuclear power plants.

  13. Liberal or Conservative? Genetic Rhetoric, Disability, and Human Species Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F. Goodey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A certain political rhetoric is implicit and sometimes explicit in the advocacy of human genetic modification (indicating here both the enhancement and the prevention of disability. The main claim is that it belongs to a liberal tradition. From a perspective supplied by the history and philosophy of science rather than by ethics, the content of that claim is examined to see if such a self-description is justified. The techniques are analyzed by which apparently liberal arguments get to be presented as “reasonable” in a juridical sense that draws on theories of law and rhetoric.

  14. Liberating the NHS: a brave new world, or litigation nightmare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Jean

    The coalition Government, in its White Paper Equity and Excellence: Liberating the NHS and in the subsequent paper Liberating the NHS: the new Legislative Framework has advanced its proposals for NHS restructuring. These proposals are intended to provide much enhanced roles for GPs in relation to the commissioning of NHS services in the future. This article explores these proposals and considers whether they can be seen as a return to the 1990s and the approach of the NHS Community Care Act 1990. It also explores the nature of these greater responsibilities and some of the problems that this may give rise to in the future.

  15. Theory of Patronized Goods. Liberal Evolution of Paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinstein Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The neo-classical principles of rational behavior are considered in the context of the nature of paternalism as the basis of the Theory of patronized goods. The formation of society’s normative interests is discussed in concern of political aspects. The article illustrates the theoretical and the practical aspects of the concept of consociation democracy, providing liberalization of the institutions for making political and economic decisions. The results of analysis reveal a pattern of paternalism drifting towards institutional liberalization. Proposed a hypothesis explaining why the economic policy in modern Russia still remains somewhere between archaic and merit paternalism.

  16. Mill’s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism

    OpenAIRE

    MARIANA SZAPUOVÁ

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights John Stuart Mill’s views on the problem of gender equality as expressed in The Subjection of Women, which is commonly regarded as one of the core texts of Enlightenment liberal feminism of the 19th century. In this paper, the author outlines the historical context of both Mill’s views and his personal biography, which influenced his argumentation for the emancipation of women, and considers Mill’s utilitarianism and liberalism, as the main philosophical background for hi...

  17. Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Pathway and Eosinophilic Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis/ Nasal Polyposis. Potential Role of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Novo, C

    2006-01-01

    linked to inflammation. Furthermore, EP2 and EP4 receptor expression was increased in chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyp subjects in contrast to EP1 and EP3, which were down regulated in the polyp group, suggesting a distinctive role of these receptors in the pathophysiology of nasal polyposis. Finally, based on our previous findings and parallel work of our group, we studied the influence of S. aureus enterotoxins in the regulation of both eosinophilic inflammatory and eicosanoid pathway...

  18. Calcium ionophore (A-23187) induced peritoneal eicosanoid biosynthesis: a rapid method to evaluate inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, T S; Currie, J. L.; A. F. Shaffer; Isakson, P C

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation characterizes calcium ionophore (A-23187) induced peritoneal eicosanoid biosynthesis in the rat. Intraperitoneal injection of A-23187 (20 μg/rat) stimulated marked biosynthesis of 6-keto-PGF1α (6-KPA), TxB2, LTC4 and LTB4, with no detectable changes on levels of PGE2. Levels of all eicosanoids decreased rapidly after a peak which was seen as early as 5 min. Enzyme markers of cellular contents of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, MPO and NAG respectively, decreased r...

  19. Metabolism of arachidonic acid derivatives (prostaglandins and related compounds). Radioimmunological methods to measure certain of these compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of prostaglandins, present in tissues at concentrations of about 10-7 to 10-11 g/g and able to induce physiological effects at concentrations of the picomole order, sets the analyst a particularly difficult problem. Owing to the complexity of their metabolism, the existence of many structurally similar compounds and the low concentrations present, it is necessary to develop highly specific and sensitive methods. Suitable techniques are: the biological activity test or biotest; gas-liquid chromatogaphy combined with mass spectrometry; the radioimmunological method. The radioimmunological analysis procedure is developed: preparation of immunogens and immunisation; preparation of tracers; treatment of biological samples. The different radioimmunological systems are presented: determination of antiserum affinity constants; dose-response curves and sensitivities; specificities; applications to biological measurements. Some remarks are called for concerning the RIA of prostaglandins: the difficulty of obtaining antisera seems to depend on the nature of the PG, a good anti-PGB or PGFα is easier to get than an anti-PGA or PGE. The analysis of each compound implies the use of a corresponding immunoserum and it is therefore essential to have a range of immunosera in order to study as large a number of biosynthesis derivatives as possible; too many physiological investigations are still viewed in relation to one PG only (often a primary PG) at the expense of other derivatives

  20. The change of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and the indices of arachidonic acid in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), 6-keto-prostaglandin 1α(6-keto-6-PGF1α), 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α) and 11-dehydrothromboxane B2(DH-TXB2) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: The plasma VEGF, 6-keto-PGF1α, 8-epi-PGF2α and DH-TXB2 levels in 68 DN patients and 20 normal controls were assayed. The relationship of these indices with the urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) was discussed. Results: The results showed that the concentrations of plasma VEGF, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α and DH-TXB2 in DN patients were significantly increased than that in the normal controls. Those indices in CDN patients increased that that in EDN. Plasma 6-keto-PEF1α level in patients with DN was lower than that in the normal controls. While it was lower in CDN than that in EDN. The levels of plasma VEGF, 8-epi-PGF2α and DH-TXB2 were positively correlated with UAER, while the concentrations of plasma 6-keto-PGF1α were negatively correlated with UAER. Conclusion: Overexpression of the VEGF, injury of endothelial cell, oxidative stress and platelet activation may be the one of the mechanism of the progress in DN. (authors)