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Sample records for arabidopsis zar1 resistance

  1. Allele-specific virulence attenuation of the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ1a type III effector via the Arabidopsis ZAR1 resistance protein.

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    Jennifer D Lewis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant resistance (R proteins provide a robust surveillance system to defend against potential pathogens. Despite their importance in plant innate immunity, relatively few of the approximately 170 R proteins in Arabidopsis have well-characterized resistance specificity. In order to identify the R protein responsible for recognition of the Pseudomonas syringae type III secreted effector (T3SE HopZ1a, we assembled an Arabidopsis R gene T-DNA Insertion Collection (ARTIC from publicly available Arabidopsis thaliana insertion lines and screened it for plants lacking HopZ1a-induced immunity. This reverse genetic screen revealed that the Arabidopsis R protein HOPZ-activated resistance 1 (ZAR1; At3g50950 is required for recognition of HopZ1a in Arabidopsis. ZAR1 belongs to the coiled-coil (CC class of nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR containing R proteins; however, the ZAR1 CC domain phylogenetically clusters in a clade distinct from other related Arabidopsis R proteins. ZAR1-mediated immunity is independent of several genes required by other R protein signaling pathways, including NDR1 and RAR1, suggesting that ZAR1 possesses distinct signaling requirements. The closely-related T3SE protein, HopZ1b, is still recognized by zar1 Arabidopsis plants indicating that Arabidopsis has evolved at least two independent R proteins to recognize the HopZ T3SE family. Also, in Arabidopsis zar1 plants HopZ1a promotes P. syringae growth indicative of an ancestral virulence function for this T3SE prior to the evolution of recognition by the host resistance protein ZAR1. Our results demonstrate that the Arabidopsis resistance protein ZAR1 confers allele-specific recognition and virulence attenuation of the Pseudomonas syringae T3SE protein HopZ1a.

  2. Zar1 represses translation in Xenopus oocytes and binds to the TCS in maternal mRNAs with different characteristics than Zar2.

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    Yamamoto, Tomomi M; Cook, Jonathan M; Kotter, Cassandra V; Khat, Terry; Silva, Kevin D; Ferreyros, Michael; Holt, Justin W; Knight, Jefferson D; Charlesworth, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    Maternal mRNAs are translationally regulated during early development. Zar1 and its closely related homolog, Zar2, are both crucial in early development. Xenopus laevis Zygote arrest 2 (Zar2) binds to the Translational Control Sequence (TCS) in maternal mRNAs and regulates translation. The molecular mechanism of Zar1 has not been described. Here we report similarities and differences between Xenopus Zar1 and Zar2. Analysis of Zar sequences in vertebrates revealed two Zar family members with conserved, characteristic amino acid differences in the C-terminal domain. The presence of only two vertebrate Zar proteins was supported by analyzing Zar1 synteny. We propose that the criteria for naming Zar sequences are based on the characteristic amino acids and the chromosomal context. We also propose reclassification of some Zar sequences. We found that Zar1 is expressed throughout oogenesis and is stable during oocyte maturation. The N-terminal domain of Zar1 repressed translation of a reporter construct in immature oocytes. Both Zar1 and Zar2 bound to the TCS in the Wee1 and Mos 3' UTRs using a zinc finger in the C-terminal domain. However, Zar1 had much higher affinity for RNA than Zar2. To show the functional significance of the conserved amino acid substitutions, these residues in Zar2 were mutated to those found in Zar1. We show that these residues contributed to the different RNA binding characteristics of Zar1 compared to Zar2. Our study shows that Zar proteins have generally similar molecular functions in the translational regulation of maternal mRNAs, but they may have different roles in early development. PMID:23827238

  3. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

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    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and rice to understand the mechanisms controlling drought resistance. Genetic mapping in a rice population revealed that around 30% of variation for grain yield under drought was controlled by a locus close to the dwarfing gene responsible for t...

  4. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.; Brodersen, P.; Naested, H.;

    2000-01-01

    Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) revels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern...... of NPR1. PDF1.2 and THI2.1 gene induction by jasmonate was blocked in mpk4 expressing NahG, suggesting that MPK4 is required for jasmonic acid-responsive gene expression....

  5. Arabidopsis map kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, P; Johansen, Bo; Petersen, M;

    2000-01-01

    Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) levels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern...... of NPR1. PDF1.2 and THI2.1 gene induction by jasmonate was blocked in mpk4 expressing NahG, suggesting that MPK4 is required for jasmonic acid-responsive gene expression....

  6. Arabidopsis YAK1 regulates abscisic acid response and drought resistance.

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    Kim, Dongjin; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Xiong, Liming

    2016-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that controls several plant processes such as seed germination, seedling growth, and abiotic stress response. Here, we report that AtYak1 plays an important role in ABA signaling and postgermination growth in Arabidopsis. AtYak1 knockout mutant plants were hyposensitive to ABA inhibition of seed germination, cotyledon greening, seedling growth, and stomatal movement. atyak1-1 mutant plants display reduced drought stress resistance, as evidenced by water loss rate and survival rate. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that AtYak1 deficiency led to elevated expression of stomatal-related gene, MYB60, and down-regulation of several stress-responsive genes. Altogether, these results indicate that AtYak1 plays a role as a positive regulator in ABA-mediated drought response in Arabidopsis. PMID:27264339

  7. Arabidopsis PED2 positively modulates plant drought stress resistance

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    Haitao Shi; Tiantian Ye; Fan Yang; Zhulong Chan

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that functions in seed germination, plant development, and multiple stress responses. Arabidopsis Peroxisome defective 2 (AtPED2) (also known as AtPEXOXIN14, AtPEX14), is involved in the intracellular transport of thiolase from the cytosol to glyoxysomes, and perosisomal matrix protein import in plants. In this study, we assigned a new role for AtPED2 in drought stress resistance. The transcript level of AtPED2 was down-regulated by ABA and abiotic stress treatments. AtPED2 knockout mutants were insensitive to ABA-mediated seed germination, primary root elongation, and stomatal response, while AtPED2 over-expressing plants were sensitive to ABA in comparison to wide type (WT). AtPED2 also positively regulated drought stress resistance, as evidenced by the changes of water loss rate, electrolyte leakage, and survival rate. Notably, AtPED2 positively modulated expression of several stress-responsive genes (RAB18, RD22, RD29A, and RD29B), positively affected underlying antioxidant enzyme activities and negatively regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level under drought stress conditions. Moreover, multiple carbon metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, and aromatic amines were also positively regulated by AtPED2. Taken together, these results indicated a positive role for AtPED2 in drought resistance, through modulation of stress-responsive genes expression, ROS metabolism, and metabolic homeostasis, at least partially.

  8. Evidence for a disease-resistance pathway in rice similar to the NPR1-mediated signaling pathway in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chern, M S; Fitzgerald, H A; YADAV, R. C.; Canlas, P E; Dong, X.; Ronald, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    The Arabidopsis NPR1/NIM1 gene is a key regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Over-expression of NPR1 leads to enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis. To investigate the role of NPR1 in monocots, we over-expressed the Arabidopsis NPR1 in rice and challenged the transgenic plants with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the rice bacterial blight pathogen. The transgenic plants displayed enhanced resistance to Xoo. RNA blot hybridization indicates that enhanced resistance requires expre...

  9. Use of Arabidopsis thaliana and Pseudomonas syringae in the Study of Plant Disease Resistance and Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, Andrew F.; Kunkel, Barbara N.; Innes, Roger W.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    The interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is being developed as a model experimental system for plant pathology research. Race-specific ("gene-for-gene") resistance has been demonstrated for this interaction, and pathogen genes that determine avirulence have been isolated and characterized. Because certain lines of both Arabidopsis and soybean are resistant to bacteria carrying the avirulence genes avrRpt2 and avrB, extremely similar pathogen recognit...

  10. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and

  11. Herbivore-induced resistance against microbial pathogens in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de M.; Zaanen, van W.; Koornneef, A.; Korzelius, J.P.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van L.C.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Caterpillars of the herbivore Pieris rapae stimulate the production of jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and trigger a defense response that affects insect performance on systemic tissues. To investigate the spectrum of effectiveness of P. rapae-induced resis

  12. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin.

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    John E McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin, a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1 contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater resistance to Tcin than AtLTP4.5 in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relative to wild type or vector transformed lines, suggesting a conserved protection mechanism. Tcin treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in Arabidopsis and ROS stain was associated with the chloroplast, the cell wall and the apoplast. ROS levels were attenuated in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls. Exogenous addition of glutathione and other antioxidants enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Tcin while the addition of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, increased sensitivity, suggesting that resistance was mediated by glutathione. Total glutathione content was significantly higher in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls, highlighting the importance of AtLTP4.4 in maintaining the redox state. These results demonstrate that trichothecenes cause ROS accumulation and overexpression of AtLTP4.4 protects against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione

  13. Transgenic Citrus Expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Resistance against Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus Greening)

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    Dutt, Manjul; Barthe, Gary; Irey, Michael; Grosser, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to Huanglongbing (HLB), a serious phloem limited bacterial disease that is usually fatal. In order to develop sustained disease resistance to HLB, transgenic sweet orange cultivars ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene under the control of a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or a phloem specific Arabidopsis SUC2 (AtSUC2) promoter were produced. Overexpression of AtNPR1 resulted in trees with normal phenotypes that e...

  14. Ethylmethanesulfonate saturation mutagenesis in Arabidopsis to determine frequency of herbicide resistance.

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    Jander, Georg; Baerson, Scott R; Hudak, Jebecka A; Gonzalez, Kathleen A; Gruys, Kenneth J; Last, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Plant resistance to glyphosate has been reported far less frequently than resistance to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides. However, these studies tend to be anecdotal, without side by side comparisons for a single species or natural isolate. In this study, we tested the frequencies of resistance of three herbicides in a controlled ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) saturation mutagenesis experiment, allowing a direct comparison of the frequencies at which resistant mutant plants arise. The 100% growth inhibition dose rates of glyphosate, chlorsulfuron (a sulfonylurea herbicide), and imazethapyr (an imidazolinone herbicide) were determined for Arabidopsis. Populations of EMS-mutagenized M(2) seedlings were sprayed with twice the 100% growth inhibition dose of glyphosate, chlorsulfuron, or imazethapyr, and herbicide-resistant mutants were identified. Although there were no glyphosate-resistant mutants among M(2) progeny of 125,000 Columbia and 125,000 Landsberg erecta M(1) lines, chlorsulfuron resistance and imazethapyr resistance each appeared at frequencies of 3.2 x 10(-5). Given the observed frequency of herbicide resistance mutations, we calculate that there are at least 700 mutations in each EMS-mutagenized Arabidopsis line and that fewer than 50,000 M(1) lines are needed to have a 95% chance of finding a mutation in any given G:C base pair in the genome. As part of this study, two previously unreported Arabidopsis mutations conferring resistance to imidazolinone herbicides, csr1-5 (Ala-122-Thr) and csr1-6 (Ala-205-Val), were discovered. Neither of these mutations caused enhanced resistance to chlorsulfuron in Arabidopsis. PMID:12529522

  15. Identification of a locus in Arabidopsis controlling both the expression of rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) and basal resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Selected nonpathogenic rhizobacteria with biological disease control activity are able to elicit an induced systemic resistance (ISR) response that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Ten ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana were screened for their potential

  16. Differential Costs of Two Distinct Resistance Mechanisms Induced by Different Herbivore Species in Arabidopsis.

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    Onkokesung, Nawaporn; Reichelt, Michael; van Doorn, Arjen; Schuurink, Robert C; Dicke, Marcel

    2016-02-01

    Plants respond to herbivory with the induction of resistance, mediated by distinct phytohormonal signaling pathways and their interactions. Phloem feeders are known to induce plant resistance via the salicylic acid pathway, whereas biting-chewing herbivores induce plant resistance mainly via the jasmonate pathway. Here, we show that a specialist caterpillar (biting-chewing herbivore) and a specialist aphid (phloem feeder) differentially induce resistance against Pieris brassicae caterpillars in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Caterpillar feeding induces resistance through the jasmonate signaling pathway that is associated with the induction of kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside, whereas aphid feeding induces resistance via a novel mechanism involving sinapoyl malate. The role of sinapoyl malate is confirmed through the use of a mutant compromised in the biosynthesis of this compound. Caterpillar-induced resistance is associated with a lower cost in terms of plant growth reduction than aphid-induced resistance. A strong constitutive resistance against P. brassicae caterpillars in combination with a strong growth attenuation in plants of a transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutant of WRKY70 (wrky70) suggest that the WRKY70 transcription factor, a regulator of downstream responses mediated by jasmonate-salicylic acid signaling cross talk, is involved in the negative regulation of caterpillar resistance and in the tradeoff between growth and defense. In conclusion, different mechanisms of herbivore-induced resistance come with different costs, and a functional WRKY70 transcription factor is required for the induction of low-cost resistance. PMID:26603653

  17. Overexpression of VOZ2 confers biotic stress tolerance but decreases abiotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis

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    Nakai, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Sumire; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Sato, Masa H.

    2013-01-01

    VOZ (vascular plant one zinc-finger protein) is a plant specific one-zinc finger type transcriptional activator, which is highly conserved through land plant evolution. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations in VOZ1 and VOZ2 showed increased cold and drought stress tolerances whereas decreased biotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that transgenic plants overexpressing VOZ2 impairs freezing and drought stress tolerances but increases resistance to a fu...

  18. The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in strawberry.

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    Silva, Katchen Julliany P; Brunings, Asha; Peres, Natalia A; Mou, Zhonglin; Folta, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    Although strawberry is an economically important fruit crop worldwide, production of strawberry is limited by its susceptibility to a wide range of pathogens and the lack of major commercial cultivars with high levels of resistance to multiple pathogens. The objective of this study is to ectopically express the Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene (AtNPR1) in the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca L. and to test transgenic plants for disease resistance. AtNPR1 is a key positive regulator of the long-lasting broad-spectrum resistance known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and has been shown to confer resistance to a number of pathogens when overexpressed in Arabidopsis or ectopically expressed in several crop species. We show that ectopic expression of AtNPR1 in strawberry increases resistance to anthracnose, powdery mildew, and angular leaf spot, which are caused by different fungal or bacterial pathogens. The increased resistance is related to the relative expression levels of AtNPR1 in the transgenic plants. In contrast to Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtNPR1, which grow normally and do not constitutively express defense genes, the strawberry transgenic plants are shorter than non-transformed controls, and most of them fail to produce runners and fruits. Consistently, most of the transgenic lines constitutively express the defense gene FvPR5, suggesting that the SAR activation mechanisms in strawberry and Arabidopsis are different. Nevertheless, our results indicate that overexpression of AtNPR1 holds the potential for generation of broad-spectrum disease resistance in strawberry. PMID:25812515

  19. The dominance of the herbicide resistance cost in several Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Fabrice; Gasquez, Jacques; Reboud, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Resistance evolution depends upon the balance between advantage and disadvantage (cost) conferred in treated and untreated areas. By analyzing morphological characters and simple fitness components, the cost associated with each of eight herbicide resistance alleles (acetolactate synthase, cellulose synthase, and auxin-induced target genes) was studied in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The use of allele-specific PCR to discriminate between heterozygous and homozygous plants was used to...

  20. Perception of soft mechanical stress in Arabidopsis leaves activates disease resistance

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    L. Benikhlef; F. L'Haridon; E. Abou-Mansour; Serrano, M.; Binda, M.; A. Costa; Lehmann, S.; Métraux, J P

    2013-01-01

    Background: in a previous study we have shown that wounding of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves induces a strong and transient immunity to Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed within minutes after wounding and are required for wound–induced resistance to B. cinerea.Results: in this study, we have further explored ROS and resistance to B. cinerea in leaves of A. thaliana exposed to a soft form of mechanical stimulation without overt tissue damag...

  1. Routine mapping of Fusarium wilt resistance in BC1 populations of Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C Diener

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease varies among wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Six RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM (RFO) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 to Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli (FOM) are detected in a recombinant population derived from a single backcross of the F1 hybrid (BC1). In particular, ...

  2. Auxin transport in an auxin-resistant mutant of arabidopsis thaliana

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    Lincoln, C.; Benning, C.; Estelle, M.

    1987-04-01

    The authors are studying a group of allelic recessive mutations in Arabidopsis called axr-1. Homozygous axr-1 plants are resistant to exogenously applied auxin. In addition, axr-1 mutations all confer a number of development abnormalities including an apparent reduction in apical dominance, loss of normal geotropic response, and a failure to self-fertilize due to a decrease in stamen elongation. In order to determine whether this pleiotropic phenotype is due to an alteration in auxin transport they have adapted the agar block transport assay for use in Arabidopsis stem segments. Their results indicate that as in other plant species, auxin transport is strongly polar in Arabidopsis stem segments. In addition transport is inhibited by the well characterized auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid and the artificial auxin 2,4-D. These results as well as the characterization of transport in axr-1 plants will be presented.

  3. A Mutation Causing Imidazolinone Resistance Maps to the Csr1 Locus of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughn, G W; Somerville, C R

    1990-04-01

    A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, two hundred times more resistant to the imidazolinone herbicide imazapyr than wild-type plants, was isolated by direct selection of seedlings from a mutagenized population. Genetic analysis showed that resistance is due to a single dominant nuclear mutation that could not be separated by recombination from a mutation in the CSR1 gene encoding acetohydroxy acid synthase. Acetohydroxy acid synthase activity in extracts isolated from the mutant was 1000-fold more resistant to inhibition by imazapyr than that of the wild type. The resistant enzyme activity cosegregated with whole plant resistance. These data strongly suggest that the mutation is an allele of CSR1 encoding an imazapyr-resistant AHAS. PMID:16667374

  4. Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistence in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Ton, J.

    2001-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate a diverse array of defense mechanisms at the site of primary infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance. Classic systemic acquired resistance (SAR) results from infection by a necrotizing pathogen and is dependent on endogenous accumulation of salicylic acid (SA). Root colonizatio...

  5. Induced Systemic Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana in Response to Root Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0

    OpenAIRE

    Iavicoli, Annalisa; Boutet, Emmanuel; Buchala, Antony; Métraux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Root inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r partially protected leaves from the oomycete Peronospora parasitica. The molecular determinants of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0r for this induced systemic resistance (ISR) were investigated, using mutants derived from strain CHA0: CHA400 (pyoverdine deficient), CHA805 (exoprotease deficient), CHA77 (HCN deficient), CHA660 (pyoluteorin deficient), CHA631 (2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol [DAPG] deficient), a...

  6. Systemic acquired resistance in soybean is regulated by two proteins, Orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1

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    Sandhu Devinder

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is induced in non-inoculated leaves following infection with certain pathogenic strains. SAR is effective against many pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA is a signaling molecule of the SAR pathway. The development of SAR is associated with the induction of pathogenesis related (PR genes. Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1 is a regulatory gene of the SA signal pathway 123. SAR in soybean was first reported following infection with Colletotrichum trancatum that causes anthracnose disease. We investigated if SAR in soybean is regulated by a pathway, similar to the one characterized in Arabidopsis. Results Pathogenesis-related gene GmPR1 is induced following treatment of soybean plants with the SAR inducer, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA or infection with the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. In P. sojae-infected plants, SAR was induced against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Soybean GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes showed high identities to Arabidopsis NPR1. They showed similar expression patterns among the organs, studied in this investigation. GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 are the only soybean homologues of NPR1and are located in homoeologous regions. In GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 transformed Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants, SAR markers: (i PR-1 was induced following INA treatment and (ii BGL2 following infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst, and SAR was induced following Pst infection. Of the five cysteine residues, Cys82, Cys150, Cys155, Cys160, and Cys216 involved in oligomer-monomer transition in NPR1, Cys216 in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 proteins was substituted to Ser and Leu, respectively. Conclusion Complementation analyses in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutants revealed that homoeologous GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1. Therefore, SAR pathway in soybean is most likely regulated by GmNPR1 genes. Substitution of Cys216 residue, essential

  7. Peroxidase-dependent apoplastic oxidative burst in Arabidopsis required for pathogen resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Dewdney, Julia; Blee, Kris A; Stone, Julie M; Asai, Tsuneaki; Plotnikov, Julia; Denoux, Carine; Hayes, Tezni; Gerrish, Chris; Davies, Dewi R; Ausubel, Frederick M; Bolwell, G Paul

    2006-09-01

    The oxidative burst is an early response to pathogen attack leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide. Two major mechanisms involving either NADPH oxidases or peroxidases that may exist singly or in combination in different plant species have been proposed for the generation of ROS. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana azide-sensitive but diphenylene iodonium-insensitive apoplastic oxidative burst that generates H(2)O(2) in response to a Fusarium oxysporum cell-wall preparation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing an anti-sense cDNA encoding a type III peroxidase, French bean peroxidase type 1 (FBP1) exhibited an impaired oxidative burst and were more susceptible than wild-type plants to both fungal and bacterial pathogens. Transcriptional profiling and RT-PCR analysis showed that the anti-sense (FBP1) transgenic plants had reduced levels of specific peroxidase-encoding mRNAs, including mRNAs corresponding to Arabidopsis genes At3g49120 (AtPCb) and At3g49110 (AtPCa) that encode two class III peroxidases with a high degree of homology to FBP1. These data indicate that peroxidases play a significant role in generating H(2)O(2) during the Arabidopsis defense response and in conferring resistance to a wide range of pathogens. PMID:16889645

  8. Multigenerational versus single generation studies to estimate herbicide resistance fitness cost in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Roux, Fabrice; Camilleri, Christine; Bérard, Aurélie; Reboud, Xavier

    2005-10-01

    The evolution of resistance in response to pesticide selection is expected to be delayed if fitness costs are associated with resistance genes. The estimate of fitness costs usually involves comparing major growth traits of resistant versus susceptible individuals in the absence of pesticide. Ideally, a measure of changes in resistance allele frequency over several generations would allow the best estimate of the overall fitness cost of a resistance gene. In greenhouse conditions, we monitored the dynamics of the evolution of the frequencies of six herbicide-resistant mutations (acetolactate synthase, cellulose synthase, and auxin-induced target genes) in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana in a multigenerational study covering five to seven nonoverlapping generations. The microevolutionary dynamics in experimental populations indicated a mean fitness cost of 38%, 73%, and 94% for the ixr1-2, axr1-3, and axr2-1 resistances, respectively; no fitness cost for the csr1-1, and ixr2-1 resistances; and a transient advantage for the aux1-7 resistance. The result for the csr1-1 resistance contrasts with a cost of 37% based on total seed number in a previous study, demonstrating that single generation studies could have limitation for detecting cost. A positive frequency dependence for the fitness cost was also detected for the ixr1-2 resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the maintenance of polymorphism at resistance loci. PMID:16405169

  9. Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants

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    Somerville, Chris R.; Scheible, Wolf

    2007-07-10

    Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  10. Roles of EDR1 in non-host resistance of Arabidopsis

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    Hiruma, Kei; Takano, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    Entry control of Arabidopsis thaliana against non-adapted powdery mildews largely depends on the PEN1 secretion pathway and the PEN2–PEN3 antifungal metabolite pathway, and is critical for non-host resistance. In a recent study, we reported that ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE 1 (EDR1) plays a role in entry control against a non-adapted anthracnose fungus, which exhibits an infection style distinct from that of powdery mildews. Results obtained using edr1 pen2 double mutants indicate that the ...

  11. Identification of prior candidate genes for Sclerotinia local resistance in Brassica napus using Arabidopsis cDNA microarray and Brassica-Arabidopsis comparative mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Renhu; ZHAO; Jianwei; XIAO; Yong; MENG; Jinling

    2005-01-01

    Arabidopsis cDNA arrays were used to screen the local-defense-associated genes in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) at the challenge of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. 61 genes with two-fold expression changes were screened out from the local tissue around the necrosis. Among them, 36 unique genes were up-regulated and 25 unique genes were down-regulated. RT-PCR and Northern blot results were consistent with the array results, suggesting Arabidopsis arrays were useful for transcriptional profiling of B. napus genes. Some of these genes were located in the interval of some QTLs for Sclerotinia resistance in B. napus by Brassica- Arabidopsis comparative mapping. These genes may have priority to be pursued for more intensive research.

  12. No role for bacterially produced salicylic Acid in rhizobacterial induction of systemic resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L X; van Loon, L C; Bakker, P A H M

    2005-11-01

    ABSTRACT The role of bacterially produced salicylic acid (SA) in the induction of systemic resistance in plants by rhizobacteria is far from clear. The strong SA producer Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r induces resistance in radish but not in Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas application of SA leads to induction of resistance in both plant species. In this study, we compared P. fluorescens WCS374r with three other SA-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, P. fluorescens WCS417r and CHA0r, and P. aeruginosa 7NSK2 for their abilities to produce SA under different growth conditions and to induce systemic resistance in A. thaliana against bacterial speck, caused by P. syringae pv. tomato. All strains produced SA in vitro, varying from 5 fg cell(-1) for WCS417r to >25 fg cell(-1) for WCS374r. Addition of 200 muM FeCl(3) to standard succinate medium abolished SA production in all strains. Whereas the incubation temperature did not affect SA production by WCS417r and 7NSK2, strains WCS374r and CHA0r produced more SA when grown at 33 instead of 28 degrees C. WCS417r, CHA0r, and 7NSK2 induced systemic resistance apparently associated with their ability to produce SA, but WCS374r did not. Conversely, a mutant of 7NSK2 unable to produce SA still triggered induced systemic resistance (ISR). The possible involvement of SA in the induction of resistance was evaluated using SA-nonaccumulating transgenic NahG plants. Strains WCS417r, CHA0r, and 7NSK2 induced resistance in NahG Arabidopsis. Also, WCS374r, when grown at 33 or 36 degrees C, triggered ISR in these plants, but not in ethylene-insensitive ein2 or in non-plant pathogenesis- related protein-expressing npr1 mutant plants, irrespective of the growth temperature of the bacteria. These results demonstrate that, whereas WCS374r can be manipulated to trigger ISR in Arabidopsis, SA is not the primary determinant for the induction of systemic resistance against bacterial speck disease by this bacterium. Also, for the other

  13. Genetic and Genomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Interactions with Arabidopsis; Evidence of Resistance Mediated through NADPH Oxidases

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Rhonda C.; Gleason, Cynthia A.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defe...

  14. Transgenic Citrus Expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Resistance against Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus Greening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjul Dutt

    Full Text Available Commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to Huanglongbing (HLB, a serious phloem limited bacterial disease that is usually fatal. In order to develop sustained disease resistance to HLB, transgenic sweet orange cultivars 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene under the control of a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or a phloem specific Arabidopsis SUC2 (AtSUC2 promoter were produced. Overexpression of AtNPR1 resulted in trees with normal phenotypes that exhibited enhanced resistance to HLB. Phloem specific expression of NPR1 was equally effective for enhancing disease resistance. Transgenic trees exhibited reduced diseased severity and a few lines remained disease-free even after 36 months of planting in a high-disease pressure field site. Expression of the NPR1 gene induced expression of several native genes involved in the plant defense signaling pathways. The AtNPR1 gene being plant derived can serve as a component for the development of an all plant T-DNA derived consumer friendly GM tree.

  15. Transgenic Citrus Expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Resistance against Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus Greening).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Manjul; Barthe, Gary; Irey, Michael; Grosser, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to Huanglongbing (HLB), a serious phloem limited bacterial disease that is usually fatal. In order to develop sustained disease resistance to HLB, transgenic sweet orange cultivars 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene under the control of a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or a phloem specific Arabidopsis SUC2 (AtSUC2) promoter were produced. Overexpression of AtNPR1 resulted in trees with normal phenotypes that exhibited enhanced resistance to HLB. Phloem specific expression of NPR1 was equally effective for enhancing disease resistance. Transgenic trees exhibited reduced diseased severity and a few lines remained disease-free even after 36 months of planting in a high-disease pressure field site. Expression of the NPR1 gene induced expression of several native genes involved in the plant defense signaling pathways. The AtNPR1 gene being plant derived can serve as a component for the development of an all plant T-DNA derived consumer friendly GM tree. PMID:26398891

  16. The Arabidopsis ISR1 locus is required for rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance against different pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, J.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, non-pathogenic, root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r bacteria trigger an induced systemic resistance (ISR) that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In contrast to SAR, WCS417r-mediated ISR is controlled by a salicylic

  17. HOPM1 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sheng Yang; Nomura, Kinya

    2011-11-15

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein HopM1.sub.1-300 mediated protection is enhanced, such as increased protection to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1 and/or there is an increase in activity of an ATMIN associated plant protection protein, such as ATMIN7. Reagents of the present invention further provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  18. Arabidopsis Heterotrimeric G-protein Regulates Cell Wall Defense and Resistance to Necrotrophic Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdalena Delcado-Cerezo; Paul Schulze-Lefert; Shauna Somerville; José Manuel Estevez; Staffan Persson; Antonio Molina; Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez; Viviana Escudero; Eva Miedes; Paula Virginia Fernández; Lucía Jordá; Camilo Hernández-Blanco; Andrea Sánchez-Vallet; Pawel Bednarek

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein controls defense responses to necrotrophic and vascular fungi.The agb1 mutant impaired in the Gβ subunit displays enhanced susceptibility to these pathogens.Gβ/AGB1 forms an obligate dimer with either one of the Arabidopsis Gγ subunits (γ1/AGG1 and γ2/AGG2).Accordingly,we now demonstrate that the agg1 agg2 double mutant is as susceptible as agb1 plants to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina.To elucidate the molecular basis of heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated resistance,we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of agb1-1 mutant and wild-type plants upon inoculation with P cucumerina.This analysis,together with metabolomic studies,demonstrated that G-protein-mediated resistance was independent of defensive pathways required for resistance to necrotrophic fungi,such as the salicylic acid,jasmonic acid,ethylene,abscisic acid,and tryptophan-derived metabolites signaling,as these pathways were not impaired in agb1 and agg1 agg2 mutants.Notably,many mis-regulated genes in agb1 plants were related with cell wall functions,which was also the case in agg1 agg2 mutant.Biochemical analyses and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy of cell walls from G-protein mutants revealed that the xylose content was lower in agb1 and agg1 agg2 mutants than in wild-type plants,and that mutant walls had similar FTIR spectratypes,which differed from that of wild-type plants.The data presented here suggest a canonical functionality of the Gβ and Gγ1/γ2 subunits in the control of Arabidopsis immune responses and the regulation of cell wall composition.

  19. Comparison of rhizosphere bacterial communities in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for systemic acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, John W; Wolfe, Gordon V; Blee, Kristopher A

    2008-02-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible systemic plant defense against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens, with the potential to secrete antimicrobial compounds into the soil. However, its impact on rhizosphere bacteria is not known. In this study, we examined fingerprints of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to determine the effect of SAR on bacterial community structure and diversity. We compared Arabidopsis mutants that are constitutive and non-inducible for SAR and verified SAR activation by measuring pathogenesis-related protein activity via a beta-glucoronidase (GUS) reporter construct driven by the beta-1-3 glucanase promoter. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of MspI- and HaeIII-digested 16S rDNA to estimate bacterial rhizosphere community diversity, with Lactobacillus sp. added as internal controls. T-RFLP analysis showed a clear rhizosphere effect on community structure, and diversity analysis of both rhizosphere and bulk soil operational taxonomic units (as defined by terminal restriction fragments) using richness, Shannon-Weiner, and Simpson's diversity indices and evenness confirmed that the presence of Arabidopsis roots significantly altered bacterial communities. This effect of altered soil microbial community structure by plants was also seen upon multivariate cluster analysis of the terminal restriction fragments. We also found visible differences in the rhizosphere community fingerprints of different Arabidopsis SAR mutants; however, there was no clear decrease of rhizosphere diversity because of constitutive SAR expression. Our study suggests that SAR can alter rhizosphere bacterial communities, opening the door to further understanding and application of inducible plant defense as a driving force in structuring soil bacterial assemblages. PMID:17619212

  20. Genetic and genomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani interactions with Arabidopsis; evidence of resistance mediated through NADPH oxidases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda C Foley

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani.

  1. Genetic and genomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani interactions with Arabidopsis; evidence of resistance mediated through NADPH oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Rhonda C; Gleason, Cynthia A; Anderson, Jonathan P; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani. PMID:23451091

  2. The dominance of the herbicide resistance cost in several Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Fabrice; Gasquez, Jacques; Reboud, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Resistance evolution depends upon the balance between advantage and disadvantage (cost) conferred in treated and untreated areas. By analyzing morphological characters and simple fitness components, the cost associated with each of eight herbicide resistance alleles (acetolactate synthase, cellulose synthase, and auxin-induced target genes) was studied in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The use of allele-specific PCR to discriminate between heterozygous and homozygous plants was used to provide insights into the dominance of the resistance cost, a parameter rarely described. Morphological characters appear more sensitive than fitness (seed production) because 6 vs. 4 differences between resistant and sensitive homozygous plants were detected, respectively. Dominance levels for the fitness cost ranged from recessivity (csr1-1, ixr1-2, and axr1-3) to dominance (axr2-1) to underdominance (aux1-7). Furthermore, the dominance level of the herbicide resistance trait did not predict the dominance level of the cost of resistance. The relationship of our results to theoretical predictions of dominance and the consequences of fitness cost and its dominance in resistance management are discussed. PMID:15020435

  3. Ectopic Expression of the Chinese Cabbage Malate Dehydrogenase Gene Promotes Growth and Aluminum Resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Dai, Zi-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) are key metabolic enzymes that play important roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated the full-length and coding sequences of BraMDH from Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson]. We conducted bioinformatics analysis and a subcellular localization assay, which revealed that the BraMDH gene sequence contained no introns and that BraMDH is localized to the chloroplast. In addition, the expression pattern of BraMDH in Chinese cabbage was investigated, which revealed that BraMDH was heavily expressed in inflorescence apical meristems, as well as the effect of BraMDH overexpression in two homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines, which resulted in early bolting and taller inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the fresh and dry weights of aerial tissue from the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher than those from the corresponding wild-type plants, as were plant height, the number of rosette leaves, and the number of siliques produced, and the transgenic plants also exhibited stronger aluminum resistance when treated with AlCl3. Therefore, our results suggest that BraMDH has a dramatic effect on plant growth and that the gene is involved in both plant growth and aluminum resistance. PMID:27536317

  4. A "Whirly" transcription factor is required for salicylic acid-dependent disease resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desveaux, Darrell; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Després, Charles; Mess, Jean-Nicholas; Lévesque, Caroline; Fobert, Pierre R; Dangl, Jeffery L; Brisson, Normand

    2004-02-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming is critical for plant disease resistance responses; its global control is not well understood. Salicylic acid (SA) can induce plant defense gene expression and a long-lasting disease resistance state called systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Plant-specific "Whirly" DNA binding proteins were previously implicated in defense gene regulation. We demonstrate that the potato StWhy1 protein is a transcriptional activator of genes containing the PBF2 binding PB promoter element. DNA binding activity of AtWhy1, the Arabidopsis StWhy1 ortholog, is induced by SA and is required for both SA-dependent disease resistance and SA-induced expression of an SAR response gene. AtWhy1 is required for both full basal and specific disease resistance responses. The transcription factor-associated protein NPR1 is also required for SAR. Surprisingly, AtWhy1 activation by SA is NPR1 independent, suggesting that AtWhy1 works in conjunction with NPR1 to transduce the SA signal. Our analysis of AtWhy1 adds a critical component to the SA-dependent plant disease resistance response. PMID:14960277

  5. Reporter-based screen for Arabidopsis mutants com-promised in nonhost resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN HuaMin; PAN JunSong; ZHAO XiuXiang; ZHOU JianMin; CAI Run

    2008-01-01

    Plants are exposed to many potentially pathogenic microbes in the environment, but each species is only susceptible to a limited number of pathogens. The broad resistance is referred to as nonhost re-sistance. To date, little is known about the underlying mechanism of nonhost resistance and the sig-naling transduction process. Here we describe a simple method for isolating Arabidopsis nonhost re-sistance mutants against a nonadapted bacterial pathogen. A RAP2.6 promoter-driven LUC reporter system was developed to replace the tedious bacterial growth assay during the primary screening. The RAP2.6-LUC reporter gone is normally induced by the virulent bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato but not the nonadapted bacterium P. syringae pv phaseolicola. By using this method we iso-lated 4 mutants displaying strong reporter activity in response to P. syringae pv phaseolicola, which were characterized in some details, ebsl, ebs2, ebs3, and ebs4 (enhanced bacterial susceptibility) were compromised in resistance against P. syringae pv phaseolicola and/or P. syringae pv tomato. In addi-tion, ebs4 showed enhanced hypersensitive response to the incompatible bacterium P. syringae pv tomato (avrB). These results demonstrated that the method is suited for large scale screening for nonhost resistance mutants.

  6. Epistatic interactions among herbicide resistances in Arabidopsis thaliana: the fitness cost of multiresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Fabrice; Camilleri, Christine; Giancola, Sandra; Brunel, Dominique; Reboud, Xavier

    2005-11-01

    The type of interactions among deleterious mutations is considered to be crucial in numerous areas of evolutionary biology, including the evolution of sex and recombination, the evolution of ploidy, the evolution of selfing, and the conservation of small populations. Because the herbicide resistance genes could be viewed as slightly deleterious mutations in the absence of the pesticide selection pressure, the epistatic interactions among three herbicide resistance genes (acetolactate synthase CSR, cellulose synthase IXR1, and auxin-induced AXR1 target genes) were estimated in both the homozygous and the heterozygous states, giving 27 genotype combinations in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By analyzing eight quantitative traits in a segregating population for the three herbicide resistances in the absence of herbicide, we found that most interactions in both the homozygous and the heterozygous states were best explained by multiplicative effects (each additional resistance gene causes a comparable reduction in fitness) rather than by synergistic effects (each additional resistance gene causes a disproportionate fitness reduction). Dominance coefficients of the herbicide resistance cost ranged from partial dominance to underdominance, with a mean dominance coefficient of 0.07. It was suggested that the csr1-1, ixr1-2, and axr1-3 resistance alleles are nearly fully recessive for the fitness cost. More interestingly, the dominance of a specific resistance gene in the absence of herbicide varied according to, first, the presence of the other resistance genes and, second, the quantitative trait analyzed. These results and their implications for multiresistance evolution are discussed in relation to the maintenance of polymorphism at resistance loci in a heterogeneous environment. PMID:16020787

  7. Modified cellulose synthase gene from 'Arabidopsis thaliana' confers herbicide resistance to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Chris R.; Scieble, Wolf

    2000-10-11

    Cellulose synthase ('CS'), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl) phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  8. Gene duplication and hypermutation of the pathogen Resistance gene SNC1 in the Arabidopsis bal variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hankuil; Richards, Eric J

    2009-12-01

    The bal defect in the Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia strain was spontaneously generated in an inbred ddm1 (decrease in DNA methylation 1) mutant background in which various genetic and epigenetic alterations accumulate. The bal variant displays short stature and curled leaves due to the constitutive activation of defense signaling. These bal phenotypes are metastable and phenotypic suppression is evident in more than one-third of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated bal M(1) plants. The semidominant bal allele maps to the RPP5 (recognition of Peronospora parasitica 5) locus, which includes a cluster of disease Resistance (R) genes, many of which show an increase in steady-state expression levels in the bal variant. Here, we report that activation of RPP5 locus R genes and dwarfing in the bal variant are caused by a 55-kb duplication within the RPP5 locus. Although many RPP5 locus R genes are duplicated in the bal variant, the duplication of SNC1 alone is necessary and sufficient for the phenotypic changes in the bal variant. Missense mutations in the SNC1 gene were identified in all three phenotypically suppressed EMS-treated bal lines investigated, indicating that the high-frequency phenotypic instability induced by EMS treatment is caused by a genetic mechanism. We propose that the high degree of variation in SNC1-related sequences among Arabidopsis natural accessions follows the two-step mechanism observed in the bal variant: gene duplication followed by hypermutation. PMID:19797048

  9. Roles of EDR1 in non-host resistance of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Kei; Takano, Yoshitaka

    2011-11-01

    Entry control of Arabidopsis thaliana against non-adapted powdery mildews largely depends on the PEN1 secretion pathway and the PEN2-PEN3 antifungal metabolite pathway, and is critical for non-host resistance. In a recent study, we reported that ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE 1 (EDR1) plays a role in entry control against a non-adapted anthracnose fungus, which exhibits an infection style distinct from that of powdery mildews. Results obtained using edr1 pen2 double mutants indicate that the contribution of EDR1 to non-host resistance is independent of that of the PEN2-mediated defence pathway. Comparative transcript profiling revealed that EDR1 is critical for expression of four plant defensin genes. The MYC2-encoded transcription factor represses defensin expression. Inactivation of MYC fully restored defensin expression in edr1 mutants, implying that EDR1 cancels MYC2 function to regulate defensin expression. These findings indicate that EDR1 exerts a critical role in non-host resistance, in part by inducing antifungal peptide expression via interference in MYC2-mediated repressor function. PMID:22057322

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to fusarium oxysporum 2 implicates tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling in susceptibility and resistance to root infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Shen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs, including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0 and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0 to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits.

  11. In silico comparison of transcript abundances during Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max resistance to Fusarium virguliforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal M Javed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. is an economically important disease, caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, recently renamed Fusarium virguliforme (Fv. Due to the complexity and length of the soybean-Fusarium interaction, the molecular mechanisms underlying plant resistance and susceptibility to the pathogen are not fully understood. F. virguliforme has a very wide host range for the ability to cause root rot and a very narrow host range for the ability to cause a leaf scorch. Arabidopsis thaliana is a host for many types of phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes. Deciphering the variations among transcript abundances (TAs of functional orthologous genes of soybean and A. thaliana involved in the interaction will provide insights into plant resistance to F. viguliforme. Results In this study, we reported the analyses of microarrays measuring TA in whole plants after A. thaliana cv 'Columbia' was challenged with fungal pathogen F. virguliforme. Infection caused significant variations in TAs. The total number of increased transcripts was nearly four times more than that of decreased transcripts in abundance. A putative resistance pathway involved in responding to the pathogen infection in A. thaliana was identified and compared to that reported in soybean. Conclusion Microarray experiments allow the interrogation of tens of thousands of transcripts simultaneously and thus, the identification of plant pathways is likely to be involved in plant resistance to Fusarial pathogens. Dissection of the set functional orthologous genes between soybean and A. thaliana enabled a broad view of the functional relationships and molecular interactions among plant genes involved in F. virguliforme resistance.

  12. Sulfonamides identified as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru eNoutoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from diseases by activating the plant immune system. To isolate lead compounds for use as practical plant activators, we screened 2 different chemical libraries composed of various bioactive substances by using an established screening procedure that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. We identified and characterized a group of sulfonamide compounds—sulfameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfabenzamide, and sulfachloropyridazine—among the various isolated candidate molecules. These sulfonamide compounds enhanced the avirulent Pseudomonas-induced cell death of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures and increased disease resistance in Arabidopsis plants against both avirulent and virulent strains of the bacterium. These compounds did not prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in minimal liquid media at 200 µM. They also did not induce the expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis seedlings, at least not at 24 and 48 h after treatment, suggesting that they do not act as salicylic acid analogs. In addition, although sulfonamides are known to be folate biosynthesis inhibitors, the application of folate did not restore the potentiation effects of the sulfonamides on pathogen-induced cell death. Our data suggest that sulfonamides potentiate Arabidopsis disease resistance by their novel chemical properties.

  13. Abscisic acid and ethylene in mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana differing in their resistance to ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ultraviolet irradiation (between 280 and 320 nm) on plant survival, ethylene evolution, and abscisic acid (ABA) content were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heunh. plants. Three genetic lines of Arabidopsis differing in their resistance to ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation stress were used. UV-B irradiation had detrimental effects on plant survival, enhanced ethylene evolution, and increased ABA content in the plants of all three lines. The higher ultraviolet dose was absorbed, the less was the number of surviving plants and the higher were the levels of both phytohormones. The maximum ethylene evolution occurred during the initial two to four hours after irradiation, but the ABA content peaked only after 24 h. The most resistant line showed the highest ABA content and the fastest ethylene evolution, whereas, in the susceptible line, both indices were the lowest. After UV-B treatment, the ABA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant evolved four to six times more ethylene than the plants with normal ABA content. Stress ethylene production evidently did not depend on the level of endogenous ABA as the kinetics of ethylene evolution was similar in the ABA-deficient mutant and in other studied Arabidopsis lines

  14. Comparability of imazapyr-resistant Arabidopsis created by transgenesis and mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jaimie; Labbé, Hélène; Kovinich, Nik; Manabe, Yuzuki; Miki, Brian

    2012-12-01

    The Arabidopsis CSR1 gene codes for the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6), also known as acetolactate synthase, which catalyzes the first step in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. It is inhibited by several classes of herbicides, including the imidazolinone herbicides, such as imazapyr; however, a substitution mutation in csr1-2 (Ser-653-Asn) confers selective resistance to the imidazolinones. The transcriptome of csr1-2 seedlings grown in the presence of imazapyr has been shown in a previous study (Manabe in Plant Cell Physiol 48:1340-1358, 2007) to be identical to that of wild-type seedlings indicating that AHAS is the sole target of imazapyr and that the mutation is not associated with pleiotropic effects detectable by transcriptome analysis. In this study, a lethal null mutant, csr1-7, created by a T-DNA insertion into the CSR1 gene was complemented with a randomly-inserted 35S/CSR1-2/NOS transgene in a subsequent genetic transformation event. A comparison of the csr1-2 substitution mutant with the transgenic lines revealed that all were resistant to imazapyr; however, the transgenic lines yielded significantly higher levels of resistance and greater biomass accumulation in the presence of imazapyr. Microarray analysis revealed few differences in their transcriptomes. The most notable was a sevenfold to tenfold elevation in the CSR1-2 transcript level. The data indicate that transgenesis did not create significant unintended pleiotropic effects on gene expression and that the mutant and transgenic lines were highly similar, except for the level of herbicide resistance. PMID:22430369

  15. Identification of Adenyl Cyclase Activity in a Disease Resistance Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Hussein, Rana

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide, cAMP, is an important signaling molecule in animals and plants. However, in plants the enzymes that synthesize this second messenger, adenyl cyclases (ACs), remain elusive. Given the physiological importance of cAMP in signaling, particularly in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, it is thus important to identify and characterize ACs in higher plants. Using computational approaches, a disease resistance protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, At3g04220 was found to have an AC catalytic center motif. In an attempt to prove that this candidate has adenyl cyclases activity in vitro, the coding sequence of the putative AC catalytic domain of this protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. The nucleotide cyclase activity of the recombinant protein was examined using cyclic nucleotide enzyme immunoassays. In parallel, the expression of At3g04220 was measured in leaves under three different stress conditions in order to determine under which conditions the disease resistance protein could function. Results show that the purified recombinant protein has Mn2+ dependent AC activity in vitro, and the expression analysis supports a role for At3g04220 and cAMP in plant defense.

  16. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium tumefacience with an endochitinase gene from Trichoderma, and enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fu-ming; XU Tong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important pathogen to many crops and is especially damaging to rape in China. As a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (ColO) was transformed by spraying Agrobacterium tumefacience with Trichoderma endochitinase gene ThEn-42 at initial bud stage. Eleven seedlings (corresponding to about 0.22 percent transformation) exhibited resistance to hygromycin. The DNA fragment unique to endochitinase ( ThEn-42 ) was amplified by Arabidopsis leaf-PCR or genomic DNA PCR. Unfertile, dwarf and normal phenotypes appeared in the T1 generation. In addition, an enhanced resistance to S. sclerotiorum was observed. The mortality percentage (7.7% to 33.3%) in transgenic plants was significantly lower than in non-transgenic plants (86. 7%) 10 days after inoculation with the pathogen.

  17. Yeast Cell Wall Extract Induces Disease Resistance against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated incre...

  18. Selection of valine-resistance in callus culture of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. derived from leaf explants

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata D. Gaj; Grzegorz Czaja; Małgorzata Nawrot

    2014-01-01

    The selection of valine-resistant mutants was carried out in leaf explant cultures of three Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotypes: C-24, RLD and Columbia. The valine concentration used for in vitro selection, lethal for seed-growing plants, has not affected callus formation and growth. However, strong inhibition of shoot regeneration ability of calli growing under selection pressure was noticed. In total, 1043 explants were cultured on valine medium and 18 shoots were regenerated with an ...

  19. Natural variation in partial resistance to Pseudomonas syringae is controlled by two major QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Perchepied

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-level, partial resistance is pre-eminent in natural populations, however, the mechanisms underlying this form of resistance are still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we used the model pathosystem Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst - Arabidopsis thaliana to study the genetic basis of this form of resistance. Phenotypic analysis of a set of Arabidopsis accessions, based on evaluation of in planta pathogen growth revealed extensive quantitative variation for partial resistance to Pst. It allowed choosing a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from a cross between the accessions Bayreuth and Shahdara for quantitative genetic analysis. Experiments performed under two different environmental conditions led to the detection of two major and two minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs governing partial resistance to Pst and called PRP-Ps1 to PRP-Ps4. The two major QTLs, PRP-Ps1 and PRP-Ps2, were confirmed in near isogenic lines (NILs, following the heterogeneous inbred families (HIFs strategy. Analysis of marker gene expression using these HIFs indicated a negative correlation between the induced amount of transcripts of SA-dependent genes PR1, ICS and PR5, and the in planta bacterial growth in the HIF segregating at PRP-Ps2 locus, suggesting an implication of PRP-Ps2 in the activation of SA dependent responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that variation in partial resistance to Pst in Arabidopsis is governed by relatively few loci, and the validation of two major loci opens the way for their fine mapping and their cloning, which will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying partial resistance.

  20. The Role of a Host Protein (TIP) in the Resistance Response of Arabidopsis to Turnip Crinkle Virus Infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Jack Morris, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0118

    2008-10-20

    Our research on Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) has shown that the viral capsid protein (CP) is both a virulence factor as well as the elicitor of a hypersensitive resistance response (HR) to the virus in Arabidopsis. Initially, we identified a protein from Arabidopsis that specifically interacted with the viral CP using a yeast two-hybrid screen. This protein, designated TIP for TCV-Interacting Protein, is a member of the NAC family of plant transcription factors implicated in the regulation of development and senescence. When TCV CP was mutated to eliminate its ability to interact with TIP, the corresponding virus mutants broke the HR-mediated resistance conferred by the HRT resistance (R) gene in Arabidopsis ecotype Dijon (Di)-17. This result suggested that TIP is a component of the signal transduction pathway that leads to the genetically specified TCV resistance. We next confirmed that TIP and the viral CP interact in plant cells and that this interaction prevents nuclear localization of this transcription factor. We demonstrated that TCV CP suppresses post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a newly discovered RNA-mediated defense system in plants. Together these results suggest that the CP is a virulence factor that could well be functioning through its interaction with TIP. We have proposed a model involving the role of TIP and CP in triggering HR mediated plant defense that fits with the current thinking about how gene-for-gene resistance may function. A unique component of our system is the opportunity to link R-gene function with the newly discovered RNA silencing pathway that is not only a potent defense against viral pathogens, but also regulates early development in plants. In the current funding period we made several significant findings: First, we completed an array analysis comparing gene expression in Arabidopsis infected with TCV and a mutant virus unable to bind TIP. Second, we produced transgenic lines that over-express and inducibly under

  1. Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds with an HSP90 inhibitor increases plant resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla

    2016-07-01

    Resistance of plants to unfavourable conditions is an important feature to use them as an autotrophic link of Life Support Systems in space exploration missions. It significantly depends on basic and stress-induced levels of heat shock proteins (HSP) in cells. It is known that HSP90 can bind and maintain heat shock transcription factors (HSF) as a monomer that lacks DNA binding activity and thereby regulate HSP expression. Modulation of activity of the HSP synthesis and resistance by HSP90 in plants is not well investigated. The objective of this study was to determine how treatment of seeds with an HSP90 inhibitor affects environmental responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana. Seed treatment with geldanamycin (GDA) was used to reduce HSP90 function. The affect of space flight stressors was simulated by gamma-irradiation and thermal upshift. Two series of experiments were carried out: 1) exposure of dry seeds to gamma-irradiation (1 kGy, ^{60}Co); 2) heat shock of seedlings. It was shown that GDA treatment of seeds stimulated the seedling growth after seed irradiation. It also increased both the basic thermotolerance (45°C for 45 min) and induced thermotolerance (45°C for 1,5-2,5 h after pretreatment at 37°C for 2 h) in seedlings. In addition, seed treatment with GDA had a prolonged effect on the HSP70 production in seedlings under normal and stressful conditions. It shows that the stimulatory effects of GDA may be caused by induction of HSP70 synthesis. The obtained data demonstrate that pre-treatment of seeds with GDA before planting allows inducing the stress resistance at least at early growth stages of plants.

  2. Plasmodesmata-located protein overexpression negatively impacts the manifestation of systemic acquired resistance and the long-distance movement of Defective in Induced Resistance1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carella, P; Isaacs, M; Cameron, R K

    2015-03-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant defence response that provides immunity to distant uninfected leaves after an initial localised infection. The lipid transfer protein (LTP) Defective in Induced Resistance1 (DIR1) is an essential component of SAR that moves from induced to distant leaves following a SAR-inducing local infection. To understand how DIR1 is transported to distant leaves during SAR, we analysed DIR1 movement in transgenic Arabidopsis lines with reduced cell-to-cell movement caused by the overexpression of Plasmodesmata-Located Proteins PDLP1 and PDLP5. These PDLP-overexpressing lines were defective for SAR, and DIR1 antibody signals were not observed in phloem sap-enriched petiole exudates collected from distant leaves. Our data support the idea that cell-to-cell movement of DIR1 through plasmodesmata is important during long-distance SAR signalling in Arabidopsis. PMID:25296648

  3. The F-box protein MAX2 contributes to resistance to bacterial phytopathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    PiisilÀ, Maria; Keceli, Mehmet A; Brader, GÌnter; Jakobson, Liina; Jõesaar, Indrek; Sipari, Nina; Kollist, Hannes; Palva, E. T.; Kariola, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) has previously been characterized for its role in plant development. MAX2 appears essential for the perception of the newly characterized phytohormone strigolactone, a negative regulator of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Results A reverse genetic screen for F-box protein ...

  4. Assessment of resistance pathways induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by hypovirulent Rhizoctonia spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Michal; Freeman, Stanley; Sneh, Baruch

    2011-07-01

    Certain hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates effectively protect plants against well-known important pathogens among Rhizoctonia isolates as well as against other pathogens. The modes of action involved in this protection include resistance induced in plants by colonization with hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates. The qualifications of hypovirulent isolates (efficient protection, rapid growth, effective colonization of the plants, and easy application in the field) provide a significant potential for the development of a commercial microbial preparation for application as biological control agents. Understanding of the modes of action involved in protection is important for improving the various aspects of development and application of such preparations. The hypothesis of the present study is that resistance pathways such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR), induced systemic resistance (ISR), and phytoalexins are induced in plants colonized by the protective hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates and are involved in the protection of these plants against pathogenic Rhizoctonia. Changes in protection levels of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in defense-related genes (npr1-1, npr1-2, ndr1-1, npr1-2/ndr1-1, cim6, wrky70.1, snc1, and pbs3-1) and colonized with the hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates compared with that of the wild type (wt) plants colonized with the same isolates confirmed the involvement of induced resistance in the protection of the plants against pathogenic Rhizoctonia spp., although protection levels of mutants constantly expressing SAR genes (snc1 and cim6) were lower than that of wt plants. Plant colonization by hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates induced elevated expression levels of the following genes: PR5 (SAR), PDF1.2, LOX2, LOX1, CORI3 (ISR), and PAD3 (phytoalexin production), which indicated that all of these pathways were induced in the hypovirulent-colonized plants. When SAR or ISR were induced separately in plants after application of the

  5. Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis Identifies Previously Known Flowering Time and Pathogen Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently tremendous interest in the possibility of using genome-wide association mapping to identify genes responsible for natural variation, particularly for human disease susceptibility. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is in many ways an ideal candidate for such studies, because it is a highly selfing hermaphrodite. As a result, the species largely exists as a collection of naturally occurring inbred lines, or accessions, which can be genotyped once and phenotyped repeatedly. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium in such a species will be much more extensive than in a comparable outcrossing species. We tested the feasibility of genome-wide association mapping in A. thaliana by searching for associations with flowering time and pathogen resistance in a sample of 95 accessions for which genome-wide polymorphism data were available. In spite of an extremely high rate of false positives due to population structure, we were able to identify known major genes for all phenotypes tested, thus demonstrating the potential of genome-wide association mapping in A. thaliana and other species with similar patterns of variation. The rate of false positives differed strongly between traits, with more clinal traits showing the highest rate. However, the false positive rates were always substantial regardless of the trait, highlighting the necessity of an appropriate genomic control in association studies.

  6. Genome-wide association mapping in Arabidopsis identifies previously known flowering time and pathogen resistance genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aranzana

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently tremendous interest in the possibility of using genome-wide association mapping to identify genes responsible for natural variation, particularly for human disease susceptibility. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is in many ways an ideal candidate for such studies, because it is a highly selfing hermaphrodite. As a result, the species largely exists as a collection of naturally occurring inbred lines, or accessions, which can be genotyped once and phenotyped repeatedly. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium in such a species will be much more extensive than in a comparable outcrossing species. We tested the feasibility of genome-wide association mapping in A. thaliana by searching for associations with flowering time and pathogen resistance in a sample of 95 accessions for which genome-wide polymorphism data were available. In spite of an extremely high rate of false positives due to population structure, we were able to identify known major genes for all phenotypes tested, thus demonstrating the potential of genome-wide association mapping in A. thaliana and other species with similar patterns of variation. The rate of false positives differed strongly between traits, with more clinal traits showing the highest rate. However, the false positive rates were always substantial regardless of the trait, highlighting the necessity of an appropriate genomic control in association studies.

  7. RTP1 encodes a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein in Arabidopsis and negatively regulates resistance against biotrophic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiaona; Cui, Beimi; Deng, Fengyan; Quan, Junli; Loake, Gary J; Shan, Weixing

    2016-03-01

    Oomycete pathogens cause serious damage to a wide spectrum of plants. Although host pathogen recognition via pathogen effectors and cognate plant resistance proteins is well established, the genetic basis of host factors that mediate plant susceptibility to oomycete pathogens is relatively unexplored. Here, we report on RTP1, a nodulin-related MtN21 family gene in Arabidopsis that mediates susceptibility to Phytophthora parasitica. RTP1 was identified by screening a T-DNA insertion mutant population and encoded an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein. Overexpression of RTP1 rendered Arabidopsis more susceptible, whereas RNA silencing of RTP1 led to enhanced resistance to P. parasitica. Moreover, an RTP1 mutant, rtp1-1, displayed localized cell death, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and accelerated PR1 expression, compared to the wild-type Col-0, in response to P. parasitica infection. rtp1-1 showed a similar disease response to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, including increased disease resistance, cell death and ROS production. Furthermore, rpt1-1 exhibited resistance to the fungal pathogen Golovinomyces cichoracearum, but not to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these results suggest that RTP1 negatively regulates plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens, possibly by regulating ROS production, cell death progression and PR1 expression. PMID:26484750

  8. A Sulfonylurea Herbicide Resistance Gene from Arabidopsis thaliana as a New Selectable Marker for Production of Fertile Transgenic Rice Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Hayashimoto, A; Murai, N

    1992-10-01

    A mutant acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene, csr1-1, isolated from sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana, was placed under control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S). Rice protoplasts were transformed with the 35S/ALS chimeric gene and regenerated into fertile transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The 35S/ALS gene was expressed effectively as demonstrated by northern blot hybridization analysis, and conferred to transformed calli at least 200-fold greater chlorsulfuron resistance than nontransformed control calli. Effective selection of 35S/ALS-transformed protoplasts was achieved at extremely low chlorsulfuron concentrations of 10 nm. The results demonstrated that the 35S/ALS gene is an alternative selectable marker for rice protoplast transformation and fertile transgenic rice production. The results also suggest that the mutant form of Arabidopsis ALS enzyme operates normally in rice cells. Thus, the mechanism of protein transport to chloroplast and ALS inhibition by chlorsulfuron is apparently conserved among plant species as diverse as Arabidopsis (dicotyledon) and rice (monocotyledon). PMID:16653044

  9. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Dawe, Adam; Pasqualini, Stefania; Quaglia, Mara; Xiong, Liming; Gehring, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens. PMID:25750645

  10. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens

    KAUST Repository

    Ederli, Luisa

    2015-02-20

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens.

  11. Agrobacterium mediated transfer of a mutant Arabidopsis acetolactate synthase gene confers resistance to chlorsulfuron in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, A; Vaucheret, H; Pautot, V; Chupeau, Y

    1992-06-01

    Leaf discs of C. intybus were inoculated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene for kanamycin resistance and a mutant acetolactate synthase gene (csr1-1) from Arabidopsis thaliana conferring resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides. A regeneration medium was optimized which permitted an efficient shoot regeneration from leaf discs. Transgenic shoots were selected on rooting medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin sulfate. Integration of the csr1-1 gene into genomic DNA of kanamycin resistant chicory plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridizations. Analysis of the selfed progenies (S1 and S2) of two independent transformed clones showed that kanamycin and chlorsulfuron resistances were inherited as dominant Mendelian traits. The method described here for producing transformed plants will allow new opportunities for chicory breeding. PMID:24203132

  12. EDS1 contributes to nonhost resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Manon; Degrave, Alexandre; Vedel, Régine; Bitton, Frédérique; Patrit, Oriane; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Barny, Marie-Anne; Fagard, Mathilde

    2012-03-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in rosaceous plants. In nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana, E. amylovora triggers necrotic symptoms associated with transient bacterial multiplication, suggesting either that A. thaliana lacks a susceptibility factor or that it actively restricts E. amylovora growth. Inhibiting plant protein synthesis at the time of infection led to an increase in necrosis and bacterial multiplication and reduced callose deposition, indicating that A. thaliana requires active protein synthesis to restrict E. amylovora growth. Analysis of the callose synthase-deficient pmr4-1 mutant indicated that lack of callose deposition alone did not lead to increased sensitivity to E. amylovora. Transcriptome analysis revealed that approximately 20% of the genes induced following E. amylovora infection are related to defense and signaling. Analysis of mutants affected in NDR1 and EDS1, two main components of the defense-gene activation observed, revealed that E. amylovora multiplied ten times more in the eds1-2 mutant than in the wild type but not in the ndr1-1 mutant. Analysis of mutants affected in three WRKY transcription factors showing EDS1-dependent activation identified WRKY46 and WRKY54 as positive regulators and WRKY70 as a negative regulator of defense against E. amylovora. Altogether, we show that EDS1 is a positive regulator of nonhost resistance against E. amylovora in A. thaliana and hypothesize that it controls the production of several effective defenses against E. amylovora through the action of WRKY46 and WRKY54, while WRKY70 acts as a negative regulator. PMID:22316300

  13. Foliar treatments with Gaultheria procumbens essential oil induce defense responses and resistance against a fungal pathogen in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Sophie; Ladouce, Nathalie; Fournier, Sylvie; Ferhout, Hicham; Attia, Faouzi; Dumas, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Gaultheria procumbens is mainly composed of methylsalicylate (MeSA) (>96%), a compound which can be metabolized in plant tissues to salicylic acid, a phytohormone inducing plant immunity against microbial pathogens. The potential use of G. procumbens essential oil as a biocontrol agent was evaluated on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of a selection of defense genes was detected 1, 6, and 24 h after essential oil treatment (0.1 ml/L) using a high-throughput qPCR-based microfluidic technology. Control treatments included methyl jasmonate and a commercialized salicylic acid (SA) analog, benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7carbothiolic acid (BTH). Strong induction of defense markers known to be regulated by the SA pathway was observed after the treatment with G. procumbens essential oil. Treatment induced the accumulation of total SA in the wild-type Arabidopsis line Col-0 and analysis of the Arabidopsis line sid2, mutated in a SA biosynthetic gene, revealed that approximately 30% of MeSA sprayed on the leaves penetrated inside plant tissues and was demethylated by endogenous esterases. Induction of plant resistance by G. procumbens essential oil was tested following inoculation with a GFP-expressing strain of the Arabidopsis fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. Fluorescence measurement of infected tissues revealed that treatments led to a strong reduction (60%) of pathogen development and that the efficacy of the G. procumbens essential oil was similar to the commercial product BION(®). Together, these results show that the G. procubens essential oil is a natural source of MeSA which can be formulated to develop new biocontrol products. PMID:25295045

  14. Foliar treatments with Gaultheria procumbens essential oil induce defence responses and resistance against a fungal pathogen in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eVergnes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from Gaultheria procumbens is mainly composed of methylsalicylate (>96%, a compound which can be metabolized in plant tissues to salicylic acid, a phytohormone inducing plant immunity against microbial pathogens. The potential use of G. procumbens essential oil as a biocontrol agent was evaluated on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of a selection of defence genes was detected 1, 6 and 24 hours after essential oil treatment (0.1 ml/L using a high-throughput qPCR-based microfluidic technology. Control treatments included methyl jasmonate and a commercialized salicylic acid analog, benzo(1,2,3-thiadiazole-7carbothiolic acid (BTH. Strong induction of defence markers known to be regulated by the salicylic acid pathway was observed after the treatment with G. procumbens essential oil. Treatment induced the accumulation of total salicylic acid in the wild -type Arabidopsis line Col-0 and analysis of the Arabidopsis line sid2, mutated in a salicylic acid biosynthetic gene, revealed that approximately 30% of methylsalicylate sprayed on the leaves penetrated inside plant tissues and was demethylated by endogenous esterases. Induction of plant resistance by G. procumbens essential oil was tested following inoculation with a GFP-expressing strain of the Arabidopsis fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. Flurorescence measurement of infected tissues revealed that treatments led to a strong reduction (60% of pathogen development and that the efficacy of the G. procumbens essential oil was similar to the commercial product BION®. Together, these results show that the G. procubens essential oil is a natural source of methylsalicylate which can be formulated to develop new biocontrol products.

  15. Arabidopsis TTR1 causes LRR-dependent lethal systemic necrosis, rather than systemic acquired resistance, to Tobacco ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Moon; Koh, Serry; Kim, Sung Uk; Domier, Leslie L; Jeon, Jae Heung; Kim, Hong Gi; Lee, Su-Heon; Bent, Andrew F; Moon, Jae Sun

    2011-11-01

    Most Arabidopsis ecotypes display tolerance to the Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), but a subset of Arabidopsis ecotypes, including Estland (Est), develop lethal systemic necrosis (LSN), which differs from the localized hypersensitive responses (HRs) or systemic acquired resistance (SAR) characteristic of incompatible reactions. Neither viral replication nor the systemic movement of TRSV was restricted in tolerant or sensitive Arabidopsis ecotypes; therefore, the LSN phenotype shown in the sensitive ecotypes might not be due to viral accumulation. In the present study, we identified the Est TTR1 gene (tolerance to Tobacco ringspot virus 1) encoding a TIR-NBS-LRR protein that controls the ecotype-dependent tolerant/sensitive phenotypes by a map-based cloning method. The tolerant Col-0 ecotype Arabidopsis transformed with the sensitive Est TTR1 allele developed an LSN phenotype upon TRSV infection, suggesting that the Est TTR1 allele is dominant over the tolerant ttr1 allele of Col-0. Multiple sequence alignments of 10 tolerant ecotypes from those of eight sensitive ecotypes showed that 10 LRR amino acid polymorphisms were consistently distributed across the TTR1/ttr1 alleles. Site-directed mutagenesis of these amino acids in the LRR region revealed that two sites, L956S and K1124Q, completely abolished the LSN phenotype. VIGS study revealed that TTR1 is dependent on SGT1, rather than EDS1. The LSN phenotype by TTR1 was shown to be transferred to Nicotiana benthamiana, demonstrating functional conservation of TTR1 across plant families, which are involved in SGT-dependent defense responses, rather than EDS1-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:22057987

  16. Metabolomic analysis reveals the relationship between AZI1 and sugar signaling in systemic acquired resistance of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Dian-Zhen; Li, Qi; Ma, Yan-Qin; Yao, Jing-Wen; Huang, Xuan; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2016-10-01

    The function of AZI1 in systemic acquired resistance of Arabidopsis was confirmed by investigation of the phenotypic features of wild-type Col-0, AZI1 T-DNA knockout and AZI1 overexpressing plants after infection with virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae. Real-time quantitative PCR and Northern blotting analyses showed that the transcript abundances of PR genes increased significantly in local and systemic leaves of wild-type Col-0 and AZI1 overexpressing plants challenged with avirulent P. syringae, whereas the mRNA accumulation of PR genes was obviously attenuated in local and systemic leaves of AZI1 T-DNA knockout plants after localized infiltration with avirulent Psm avrRpm1. The changes of metabolomic profiles in distal leaves of three types of materials infected with avirulent P. syringae were determined by (1)H NMR spectrometry and data mining showed that the soluble carbonhydrates might function as signal substances in the systemic immunity of Arabidopsis. At the same time, the expression of the sugar signaling genes in local and distal leaves after infection of avirulent P. syringae was compared. As a result, it was found that the transcript abundances of sugar signaling genes, including SUS1, SUS2, SUS3, SUS6, SUT1, HXK1, HXK2, SNRK1.2, ERD6, TPS1, TOR, SNRK1.1, SNRK1.3 and bZIP11, were obviously changed in distal leaves of different materials with the modulated AZI1 activities, indicating sugar-related genes are involved in regulation of the systemic immunity mediated by AZI1. These results also illustrated that the immune system associated with sugar molecules probably was an important part of the systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis. PMID:27337039

  17. Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein from Cynanchum komarovii That Confers Fungal Resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nana; Ma, Xiaowen; Zhou, Sihong; Wang, Ping; Sun, Yun; Li, Xiancai; Hou, Yuxia

    2016-01-01

    Compliance with ethical standards: This study did not involve human participants and animals, and the plant of interest is not an endangered species. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat proteins that plants produce against polygalacturonase, a key virulence agent in pathogens. In this paper, we cloned and purified CkPGIP1, a gene product from Cynanchum komarovii that effectively inhibits polygalacturonases from Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. We found the expression of CkPGIP1 to be induced in response to salicylic acid, wounding, and infection with B. cinerea and R. solani. In addition, transgenic overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced resistance against B. cinerea. Furthermore, CkPGIP1 obtained from transgenic Arabidopsis inhibited the activity of B. cinerea and R. solani polygalacturonases by 62.7-66.4% and 56.5-60.2%, respectively. Docking studies indicated that the protein interacts strongly with the B1-sheet at the N-terminus of the B. cinerea polygalacturonase, and with the C-terminus of the polygalacturonase from R. solani. This study highlights the significance of CkPGIP1 in plant disease resistance, and its possible application to manage fungal pathogens. PMID:26752638

  18. Functional Properties of a Cysteine Proteinase from Pineapple Fruit with Improved Resistance to Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Wei Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In plant cells, many cysteine proteinases (CPs are synthesized as precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then are subject to post-translational modifications to form the active mature proteinases. They participate in various cellular and physiological functions. Here, AcCP2, a CP from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus L. belonging to the C1A subfamily is analyzed based on the molecular modeling and homology alignment. Transcripts of AcCP2 can be detected in the different parts of fruits (particularly outer sarcocarps, and gradually increased during fruit development until maturity. To analyze the substrate specificity of AcCP2, the recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The precursor of purified AcCP2 can be processed to a 25 kDa active form after acid treatment (pH 4.3. Its optimum proteolytic activity to Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-NH-Mec is at neutral pH. In addition, the overexpression of AcCP2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana can improve the resistance to fungal pathogen of Botrytis cinerea. These data indicate that AcCP2 is a multifunctional proteinase, and its expression could cause fruit developmental characteristics of pineapple and resistance responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  19. Monoubiquitination of histone 2B at the disease resistance gene locus regulates its expression and impacts immune responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baohong; Yang, Dong-Lei; Shi, Zhenying; Dong, Hansong; Hua, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Disease resistance (R) genes are key components in plant immunity. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) E3 ubiquitin ligase genes HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1 (HUB1) and HUB2 regulate the expression of R genes SUPPRESSOR OF npr1-1, CONSTITUTIVE1 (SNC1) and RESISTANCE TO PERONOSPORA PARASITICA4. An increase of SNC1 expression induces constitutive immune responses in the bonzai1 (bon1) mutant, and the loss of HUB1 or HUB2 function reduces SNC1 up-regulation and suppresses the bon1 autoimmune phenotypes. HUB1 and HUB2 mediate histone 2B (H2B) monoubiquitination directly at the SNC1 R gene locus to regulate its expression. In addition, SNC1 and HUB1 transcripts are moderately up-regulated by pathogen infection, and H2B monoubiquitination at SNC1 is enhanced by pathogen infection. Together, this study indicates that H2B monoubiquitination at the R gene locus regulates its expression and that this histone modification at the R gene locus has an impact on immune responses in plants. PMID:24664204

  20. Phenotypic instability of Arabidopsis alleles affecting a disease Resistance gene cluster

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    Richards Eric J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana strain Columbia – cpr1, snc1, and bal – map to the RPP5 locus, which contains a cluster of disease Resistance genes. The similar phenotypes, gene expression patterns, and genetic interactions observed in these mutants are related to constitutive activation of pathogen defense signaling. However, these mutant alleles respond differently to various conditions. Exposure to mutagens, such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS and γ-irradiation, induce high frequency phenotypic instability of the bal allele. In addition, a fraction of the bal and cpr1 alleles segregated from bal × cpr1 F1 hybrids also show signs of phenotypic instability. To gain more insight into the mechanism of phenotypic instability of the bal and cpr1 mutations, we systematically compared the behavior of these unusual alleles with that of the missense gain-of-function snc1 allele in response to DNA damage or passage through F1 hybrids. Results We found that the cpr1 allele is similar to the bal allele in its unstable behavior after EMS mutagenesis. For both the bal and cpr1 mutants, destabilization of phenotypes was observed in more than 10% of EMS-treated plants in the M1 generation. In addition, exceptions to simple Mendelian inheritance were identified in the M2 generation. Like cpr1 × bal F1 hybrids, cpr1 × snc1 F1 hybrids and bal × snc1 F1 hybrids exhibited dwarf morphology. While only dwarf F2 plants were produced from bal × snc1 F1 hybrids, about 10% wild-type F2 progeny were produced from cpr1 × snc1 F1 hybrids, as well as from cpr1 × bal hybrids. Segregation analysis suggested that the cpr1 allele in cpr1 × snc1 crosses was destabilized during the late F1 generation to early F2 generation. Conclusion With exposure to EMS or different F1 hybrid contexts, phenotypic instability is induced for the bal and cpr1 alleles, but not for the snc1 allele. Our results suggest that the RPP5 locus can adopt different

  1. Riboflavin-Induced Disease Resistance Requires the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shengjun; Xu, Huilian

    2016-01-01

    As a resistance elicitor, riboflavin (vitamin B2) protects plants against a wide range of pathogens. At molecular biological levels, it is important to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying the disease resistance induced by riboflavin. Here, riboflavin was tested to induce resistance against virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis. Results showed that riboflavin induced disease resistance based on MAPK-dependent priming for the expression of PR1 gene. Riboflavin induced transient expression of PR1 gene. However, following Pst DC3000 inoculation, riboflavin potentiated stronger PR1 gene transcription. Further was suggested that the transcript levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, were primed under riboflavin. Upon infection by Pst DC3000, these two enzymes were more strongly activated. The elevated activation of both MPK3 and MPK6 was responsible for enhanced defense gene expression and resistance after riboflavin treatment. Moreover, riboflavin significantly reduced the transcript levels of MPK3 and MPK6 by application of AsA and BAPTA, an H2O2 scavenger and a calcium (Ca2+) scavenger, respectively. In conclusion, MPK3 and MPK6 were responsible for riboflavin-induced resistance, and played an important role in H2O2- and Ca2+-related signaling pathways, and this study could provide a new insight into the mechanistic study of riboflavin-induced defense responses. PMID:27054585

  2. Dominance variation across six herbicides of the Arabidopsis thaliana csr1-1 and csr1-2 resistance alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Fabrice; Matéjicek, Annick; Gasquez, Jacques; Reboud, Xavier

    2005-11-01

    Dominance of a resistance trait can be defined as a measure of the relative position of the phenotype of the heterozygote RS compared with the phenotype of the two corresponding homozygotes, SS and RR. This parameter has been shown to have primary importance in the dynamics of pesticide resistance evolution. Literature on insecticide resistance suggests that dominance levels in the presence of insecticide vary greatly from completely recessive to completely dominant. With insecticides, both the chemical applied and the dosages used have been demonstrated to affect the dominance. By contrast, almost all herbicide resistances have been found to be inherited as partially to totally dominant traits. This discrepancy between weeds and insects may partly result from the methodologies applied to measure the dominance, ie a single dose for herbicide versus several doses for insecticide. Using two well-known resistances (csr1-1 and csr1-2) to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in Arabidopsis thaliana (L) Heynh (mouse-ear cress), we used several herbicide doses to determine the dominance level to six ALS-inhibiting herbicides. The dominance level in the presence of herbicide varied from completely dominant to completely recessive, depending on the resistance allele and the herbicide tested. The dominance of the csr1-1 and csr1-2 resistance alleles ranged from 0 (completely recessive) to 1.1 (dominant) and from 0 to 0.3 (partially dominant), respectively. The recessivity of some resistance alleles in the presence of herbicide could lead to the development of improved resistance management in order to delay or avoid herbicide resistance evolution, especially in the control of outcrossing weed species. PMID:16007690

  3. Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis requires sensitivity to jasmonate and ethylene but is not accompanied by an increase in their production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pelt, J.A. van; Ton, J.; Parchmann, S.; Mueller, M.J.; Buchala, A.J.; Métraux, J.P.; Loon, L.C. van

    2000-01-01

    Plants develop an enhanced defensive capacity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens after colonization of the roots by selected strains of nonpathogenic biocontrol bacteria. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this induced systemic resistance (ISR) functions independently of salicylic acid but requires a

  4. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

  5. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Narusaka

    Full Text Available Housaku Monogatari (HM is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

  6. Expression of BvGLP-1 encoding a germin-like protein from sugar beet in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to resistance against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Katrin; Seyffarth, Monique; Desel, Christine; Thurau, Tim; Sherameti, Irena; Lou, Binggan; Oelmüller, Ralf; Cai, Daguang

    2010-04-01

    Nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is controlled by a single dominant resistance gene, Hs1(pro-1). BvGLP-1 was cloned from resistant sugar beet. The BvGLP-1 messenger (m)RNA is highly upregulated in the resistant plants after nematode infection, suggesting its role in the Hs1(pro-1) mediated resistance. BvGLP-1 exhibits sequence homology to a set of plant germin-like proteins (GLP), from which several have proved to be functional in plant basal or defense resistance against fungal pathogens. To test whether BvGLP-1 is also involved in the plant-fungus interaction, we transferred BvGLP-1 into Arabidopsis and challenged the transgenic plants with the pathogenic fungi Verticillium longisporum and Rhizoctonia solani as well as with the beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The expression of BvGLP-1 in Arabidopsis elevated the H(2)O(2) content and conferred significant resistance to V. longisporum and R. solani but did not affect the beneficial interaction with P. indica in seedlings. Microscopic observations revealed a dramatic reduction in the amount of hyphae of the pathogenic fungi on the root surface as well as of fungal mycelium developed inside the roots of transgenic Arabidopsis compared with wild-type plants. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the BvGLP-1 expression in Arabidopsis constitutively activates the expression of a subset of plant defense-related proteins such as PR-1 to PR-4 and PDF1.2 but not PDF2.1 and PDF2.3. In contrast, the PDF2.1 mRNA level was downregulated. These data suggest an important role of BvGLP-1 in establishment of plant defense responses, which follow specific signaling routes that diverge from those induced by the beneficial fungus. PMID:20192832

  7. A gain-of-function mutation in the Arabidopsis disease resistance gene RPP4 confers sensitivity to low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaozhen; Li, Jianyong; Bao, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shuhua

    2010-10-01

    How plants adapt to low temperature is not well understood. To identify components involved in low-temperature signaling, we characterized the previously isolated chilling-sensitive2 mutant (chs2) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This mutant grew normally at 22°C but showed phenotypes similar to activation of defense responses when shifted to temperatures below 16°C. These phenotypes include yellowish and collapsed leaves, increased electrolyte leakage, up-regulation of PATHOGENESIS RELATED genes, and accumulation of excess hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid (SA). Moreover, the chs2 mutant was seedling lethal when germinated at or shifted for more than 3 d to low temperatures of 4°C to 12°C. Map-based cloning revealed that a single amino acid substitution occurred in the TIR-NB-LRR (for Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor- nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich repeat)-type resistance (R) protein RPP4 (for Recognition of Peronospora parasitica4), which causes a deregulation of the R protein in a temperature-dependent manner. The chs2 mutation led to an increase in the mutated RPP4 mRNA transcript, activation of defense responses, and an induction of cell death at low temperatures. In addition, a chs2 intragenic suppressor, in which the mutation occurs in the conserved NB domain, abolished defense responses at lower temperatures. Genetic analyses of chs2 in combination with known SA pathway and immune signaling mutants indicate that the chs2-conferred temperature sensitivity requires ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1, REQUIRED FOR Mla12 RESISTANCE, and SUPPRESSOR OF G2 ALLELE OF skp1 but does not require PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4, NONEXPRESSOR OF PR GENES1, or SA. This study reveals that an activated TIR-NB-LRR protein has a large impact on temperature sensitivity in plant growth and survival. PMID:20699401

  8. Transcriptomics and knockout mutant analysis of rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, B.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    A classic example of induced resistance is triggered after infection by a necrotizing pathogen, rendering uninfected,distal parts more resistant to subsequent pathogen attack, and is often referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). A phenotypically comparable type of induced resistance is triggered after root colonization of plants by selected strains of non-pathogenic Pseudomonas spp., and is often called induced systemic resistance (ISR). In contrast to pathogen-induced SAR, rhizoba...

  9. Nitric oxide participates in the complex interplay of defense-related signaling pathways controlling disease resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchepied, Laure; Balagué, Claudine; Riou, Catherine; Claudel-Renard, Clotilde; Rivière, Nathalie; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Roby, Dominique

    2010-07-01

    Studies of the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been hampered by the extreme susceptibility of this model plant to the fungus. In addition, analyses of the plant defense response suggested the implication of a complex interplay of hormonal and signaling pathways. To get a deeper insight into this host-pathogen interaction, we first analyzed the natural variation in Arabidopsis for resistance to S. sclerotiorum. The results revealed a large variation of resistance and susceptibility in Arabidopsis, with some ecotypes, such as Ws-4, Col-0, and Rbz-1, being strongly resistant, and others, such as Shahdara, Ita-0, and Cvi-0, exhibiting an extreme susceptibility. The role of different signaling pathways in resistance was then determined by assessing the symptoms of mutants affected in the perception, production, or transduction of hormonal signals after inoculation with S. sclerotiorum. This analysis led to the conclusions that i) signaling of inducible defenses is predominantly mediated by jasmonic acid and abscisic acid, influenced by ethylene, and independent of salicylic acid; and ii) nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species are important signals required for plant resistance to S. sclerotiorum. Defense gene expression analysis supported the specific role of NO in defense activation. PMID:20521948

  10. [Antimicrobial activities of ant Ponericin W1 against plant pathogens in vitro and the disease resistance in its transgenic Arabidopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Fang; Sun, Peng-Wei; Tang, Ding-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a broad antimicrobial spectrum. The application of AMPs from non-plant organisms attracts considerable attention in plant disease resistance engineering. Ponericin W1, isolated from the venom of ant (Pachycondyla goeldii), shows antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however, it is not clear whether Ponericin W1 is effective against plant pathogens. The results of this study indicated synthesized Ponericin W1 inhibited mycelial growth of Magnaporthe oryzae and Botrytis cinerea, as well as hyphal growth and spore production of Fusarium graminearum. Besides, Ponericin W1 exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. After codon optimization, Ponericin W1 gene was constructed into plant expression vector, and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana by floral dip method. The Ponericin W1 was located in intercellular space of the transgenic plants as expected. Compared with the wild-type plants, there were ungerminated spores and less hyphal, conidia on the leaves of transgenic plants after innoculation with the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. After innoculation with the pathogenic bac-terium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the baceria in the leaves of transgenic plants was significantly less than the wild-type plants, indicating that the transgenic plants displayed enhanced disease resistance to pathogens. These results demonstrate a potential use of Ponericin W1 in genetic engineering for broad-spectrum plant disease resistance. PMID:23956091

  11. Transformation of Brassica napus canola cultivars with Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase genes and analysis of herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, B L; Labbé, H; Hattori, J; Ouellet, T; Gabard, J; Sunohara, G; Charest, P J; Iyer, V N

    1990-10-01

    A survey of selected crop species and weeds was conducted to evaluate the inhibition of the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and seedling growth in vitro by the sulfonylurea herbicides chlorsulfuron, DPX A7881, DPX L5300, DPX M6316 and the imidazolinone herbicides AC243,997, AC263,499, AC252,214. Particular attention was given to the Brassica species including canola cultivars and cruciferous weeds such as B. kaber (wild mustard) and Thlaspi arvense (stinkweed). Transgenic lines of B. napus cultivars Westar and Profit, which express the Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type AHAS gene or the mutant gene csr1-1 at levels similar to the resident AHAS genes, were generated and compared. The mutant gene was essential for resistance to the sulfonylurea chlorsulfuron but not to DPX A7881, which appeared to be tolerated by certain Brassica species. Cross-resistance to the imidazolinones did not occur. The level of resistance to chlorsulfuron in transgenic canola greatly exceeded the levels that were toxic to the Brassica species or cruciferous weeds. Direct selection of transgenic lines with chlorsulfuron sprayed at field levels under greenhouse conditions was achieved. PMID:24221001

  12. Ectopically expressed sweet pepper ferredoxin PFLP enhances disease resistance to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum affected by harpin and protease-mediated hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, Mang-Jye; Louh, Guan-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Feng, Teng-Yung; Huang, Hsiang-En

    2014-12-01

    Plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) is a photosynthesis-type ferredoxin (Fd) found in sweet pepper. It contains an iron-sulphur cluster that receives and delivers electrons between enzymes involved in many fundamental metabolic processes. It has been demonstrated that transgenic plants overexpressing PFLP show a high resistance to many bacterial pathogens, although the mechanism remains unclear. In this investigation, the PFLP gene was transferred into Arabidopsis and its defective derivatives, such as npr1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related gene 1) and eds1 (enhanced disease susceptibility 1) mutants and NAHG-transgenic plants. These transgenic plants were then infected with the soft-rot bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora, ECC) to investigate the mechanism behind PFLP-mediated resistance. The results revealed that, instead of showing soft-rot symptoms, ECC activated hypersensitive response (HR)-associated events, such as the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), electrical conductivity leakage and expression of the HR marker genes (ATHSR2 and ATHSR3) in PFLP-transgenic Arabidopsis. This PFLP-mediated resistance could be abolished by inhibitors, such as diphenylene iodonium (DPI), 1-l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)-butane (E64) and benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), but not by myriocin and fumonisin. The PFLP-transgenic plants were resistant to ECC, but not to its harpin mutant strain ECCAC5082. In the npr1 mutant and NAHG-transgenic Arabidopsis, but not in the eds1 mutant, overexpression of the PFLP gene increased resistance to ECC. Based on these results, we suggest that transgenic Arabidopsis contains high levels of ectopic PFLP; this may lead to the recognition of the harpin and to the activation of the HR and other resistance mechanisms, and is dependent on the protease-mediated pathway. PMID:24796566

  13. Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 positively contributes to resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Ding, Yezhang; Yao, Jin; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Colee, James; Mou, Zhonglin

    2015-09-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex functions in diverse biological processes including salicylic acid-mediated immune response. However, how Elongator functions in jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated defense is unknown. Here, we show that Elongator is required for full induction of the JA/ET defense pathway marker gene PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2) and for resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. A loss-of-function mutation in the Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 (ELP2) alters B. cinerea-induced transcriptome reprogramming. Interestingly, in elp2, expression of WRKY33, OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS AP2/ERF59 (ORA59), and PDF1.2 is inhibited, whereas transcription of MYC2 and its target genes is enhanced. However, overexpression of WRKY33 or ORA59 and mutation of MYC2 fail to restore PDF1.2 expression and B. cinerea resistance in elp2, suggesting that ELP2 is required for induction of not only WRKY33 and ORA59 but also PDF1.2. Moreover, elp2 is as susceptible as coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1) and ethylene-insensitive2 (ein2) to B. cinerea, indicating that ELP2 is an important player in B. cinerea resistance. Further analysis of the lesion sizes on the double mutants elp2 coi1 and elp2 ein2 and the corresponding single mutants revealed that the function of ELP2 overlaps with COI1 and is additive to EIN2 for B. cinerea resistance. Finally, basal histone acetylation levels in the coding regions of WRKY33, ORA59, and PDF1.2 are reduced in elp2 and a functional ELP2-GFP fusion protein binds to the chromatin of these genes, suggesting that constitutive ELP2-mediated histone acetylation may be required for full activation of the WRKY33/ORA59/PDF1.2 transcriptional cascade. PMID:26216741

  14. Systemic resistance induced by volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth-promoting fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kiyohara, Daigo; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF), Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp.) significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA) were identified as major active volatile compounds from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp., respectively, and found to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) against the pathogen. Molecular signaling for disease suppression by the VOC were investigated by treating different mutants and transgenic Arabidopsis plants impaired in salicylic acid (SA) or Jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways with m-cresol and MeBA followed by challenge inoculation with Pst. Results show that the level of protection was significantly lower when JA/ET-impaired mutants were treated with MeBA, and in SA-, and JA/ET-disrupted mutants after m-cresol treatment, indicating the involvement of these signal transduction pathways in the ISR primed by the volatiles. Analysis of defense-related genes by real-time qRT-PCR showed that both the SA-and JA-signaling pathways combine in the m-cresol signaling of ISR, whereas MeBA is mainly involved in the JA-signaling pathway with partial recruitment of SA-signals. The ET-signaling pathway was not employed in ISR by the volatiles. Therefore, this study identified two novel volatile components capable of eliciting ISR that may be promising candidates in biological control strategy to protect plants from diseases. PMID:24475190

  15. Systemic resistance induced by volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth-promoting fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hushna Ara Naznin

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOC were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF, Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst. Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA were identified as major active volatile compounds from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp., respectively, and found to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR against the pathogen. Molecular signaling for disease suppression by the VOC were investigated by treating different mutants and transgenic Arabidopsis plants impaired in salicylic acid (SA or Jasmonic acid (JA/ethylene (ET signaling pathways with m-cresol and MeBA followed by challenge inoculation with Pst. Results show that the level of protection was significantly lower when JA/ET-impaired mutants were treated with MeBA, and in SA-, and JA/ET-disrupted mutants after m-cresol treatment, indicating the involvement of these signal transduction pathways in the ISR primed by the volatiles. Analysis of defense-related genes by real-time qRT-PCR showed that both the SA-and JA-signaling pathways combine in the m-cresol signaling of ISR, whereas MeBA is mainly involved in the JA-signaling pathway with partial recruitment of SA-signals. The ET-signaling pathway was not employed in ISR by the volatiles. Therefore, this study identified two novel volatile components capable of eliciting ISR that may be promising candidates in biological control strategy to protect plants from diseases.

  16. ZmNAC55, a maize stress-responsive NAC transcription factor, confers drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hude; Yu, Lijuan; Han, Ran; Li, Zhanjie; Liu, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Abiotic stress has been shown to significantly limit the growth and productivity of crops. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, only little information regarding stress-related NAC genes is available in maize. Here, we cloned a maize NAC transcription factor ZmNAC55 and identified its function in drought stress. Transient expression and transactivation assay demonstrated that ZmNAC55 was localized in the nucleus and had transactivation activity. Expression analysis of ZmNAC55 in maize showed that this gene was induced by drought, high salinity and cold stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of ZmNAC55. Overexpression of ZmNAC55 in Arabidopsis led to hypersensitivity to ABA at the germination stage, but enhanced drought resistence compared to wild-type seedlings. Transcriptome analysis identified a number of differentially expressed genes between 35S::ZmNAC55 transgenic and wild-type plants, and many of which are involved in stress response, including twelve qRT-PCR confirmed well-known drought-responsive genes. These results highlight the important role of ZmNAC55 in positive regulates of drought resistence, and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding of drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27085597

  17. The overexpression of an Amaranthus hypochondriacus NF-YC gene modifies growth and confers water deficit stress resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeros-Suárez, Paola A; Massange-Sánchez, Julio A; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A; Montero-Vargas, Josaphat M; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F; Délano-Frier, John P

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y), is a plant heterotrimeric transcription factor constituted by NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits. The function of many NF-Y subunits, mostly of the A and B type, has been studied in plants, but knowledge regarding the C subunit remains fragmentary. Here, a water stress-induced NF-YC gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (AhNF-YC) was further characterized by its overexpression in transgenic Arabidospis thaliana plants. A role in development was inferred from modified growth rates in root, rosettes and inflorescences recorded in AhNF-YC overexpressing Arabidopsis plants, in addition to a delayed onset of flowering. Also, the overexpression of AhNF-YC caused increased seedling sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA), and influenced the expression of several genes involved in secondary metabolism, development and ABA-related responses. An altered expression of the latter in water stressed and recovered transgenic plants, together with the observed increase in ABA sensitivity, suggested that their increased water stress resistance was partly ABA-dependent. An untargeted metabolomic analysis also revealed an altered metabolite pattern, both in normal and water stress/recovery conditions. These results suggest that AhNF-YC may play an important regulatory role in both development and stress, and represents a candidate gene for the engineering of abiotic stress resistance in commercial crops. PMID:26475185

  18. Decreased abundance of type III secretion system-inducing signals in Arabidopsis mkp1 enhances resistance against Pseudomonas syringae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Wan, Ying; Kim, Young-Mo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Peck, Scott C.

    2014-04-21

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject defense-suppressing effector proteins into host cells. Genes encoding the T3SS are induced at the start of infection, yet host signals that initiate T3SS gene expression are poorly understood. Here we identify several plant-derived metabolites that induce the T3SS in the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. In addition, we report that mkp1 (mapk phosphatase 1), an Arabidopsis mutant that is more resistant to bacterial infection, produces decreased levels of these T3SS-inducing metabolites. Consistent with the observed decrease in these metabolites, T3SS effector delivery by DC3000 was impaired in mkp1. Addition of the bioactive metabolites to the mkp1-DC3000 interaction fully restored T3SS effector delivery and suppressed enhanced resistance in mkp1. Together, these results demonstrate that DC3000 perceives multiple signals derived from plants to initiate their virulence program, and reveal a new layer of molecular communication between plants and these pathogenic bacteria.

  19. An atypical kinase under balancing selection confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Huard-Chauveau

    Full Text Available The failure of gene-for-gene resistance traits to provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance in an agricultural context has led to the search for genes underlying quantitative resistance in plants. Such genes have been identified in only a few cases, all for fungal or nematode resistance, and encode diverse molecular functions. However, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of quantitative resistance variation to other enemies and the associated evolutionary forces shaping this variation remain largely unknown. We report the identification, map-based cloning and functional validation of QRX3 (RKS1, Resistance related KinaSe 1, conferring broad-spectrum resistance to Xanthomonas campestris (Xc, a devastating worldwide bacterial vascular pathogen of crucifers. RKS1 encodes an atypical kinase that mediates a quantitative resistance mechanism in plants by restricting bacterial spread from the infection site. Nested Genome-Wide Association mapping revealed a major locus corresponding to an allelic series at RKS1 at the species level. An association between variation in resistance and RKS1 transcription was found using various transgenic lines as well as in natural accessions, suggesting that regulation of RKS1 expression is a major component of quantitative resistance to Xc. The co-existence of long lived RKS1 haplotypes in A. thaliana is shared with a variety of genes involved in pathogen recognition, suggesting common selective pressures. The identification of RKS1 constitutes a starting point for deciphering the mechanisms underlying broad spectrum quantitative disease resistance that is effective against a devastating and vascular crop pathogen. Because putative RKS1 orthologous have been found in other Brassica species, RKS1 provides an exciting opportunity for plant breeders to improve resistance to black rot in crops.

  20. Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis: involvement of jasmonate and ethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Wees, A.C.M. van; Ton, J.; Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Pelt, J.A. van; Keurentjes, J. J. B.; Knoester, M.; van Loon, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of a plant to express a broad-spectrum systemic acquired resistance (SAR) after primary infection is well known and extensively studied. A relatively unknown form of induced disease resistance is triggered by nonpathogenic, root-colonizing rhizobacteria and is commonly referred to as rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR). Rhizosphere bacteria are present in large numbers on the root. Certain strains stimulate plant growth and are therefore called plant growth-p...

  1. Rhizobacterial volatiles and photosynthesis-related signals coordinate MYB72 expression in Arabidopsis roots during onset of induced systemic resistance and iron-deficiency responses

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis roots, the transcription factor MYB72 plays a dual role in the onset of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant survival under conditions of limited iron availability. Previously, it was shown that MYB72 coordinates the expression of a gene module that promotes synthesis and excretion of iron-mobilizing phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere, a process that is involved in both iron acquisition and ISR signaling. Here, we show that volatile organic compounds (VO...

  2. Increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens in the Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 mutant is EDS1 and PAD4-dependent and modulated by environmental temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryke Carstens

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis constitutive induced resistance 1 (cir1 mutant displays salicylic acid (SA-dependent constitutive expression of defence genes and enhanced resistance to biotrophic pathogens. To further characterise the role of CIR1 in plant immunity we conducted epistasis analyses with two key components of the SA-signalling branch of the defence network, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4. We demonstrate that the constitutive defence phenotypes of cir1 require both EDS1 and PAD4, indicating that CIR1 lies upstream of the EDS1-PAD4 regulatory node in the immune signalling network. In light of this finding we examined EDS1 expression in cir1 and observed increased protein, but not mRNA levels in this mutant, suggesting that CIR1 might act as a negative regulator of EDS1 via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Finally, as environmental temperature is known to influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions, we analysed cir1 plants grown at 18, 22 or 25°C. We found that susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 is modulated by temperature in cir1. Greatest resistance to this pathogen (relative to PR-1:LUC control plants was observed at 18°C, while at 25°C no difference in susceptibility between cir1 and control plants was apparent. The increase in resistance to Pst DC3000 at 18°C correlated with a stunted growth phenotype, suggesting that activation of defence responses may be enhanced at lower temperatures in the cir1 mutant.

  3. Non-host resistance to penetration and hyphal growth of Magnaporthe oryzae in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Misato Nakao; Ryotaro Nakamura; Kaori Kita; Ryuya Inukai; Atsushi Ishikawa

    2011-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a devastating disease of rice. Mechanisms of rice resistance to blast have been studied extensively, and the rice–M. oryzae pathosystem has become a model for plant–microbe interaction studies. However, the mechanisms of non-host resistance (NHR) to rice blast in other plants remain poorly understood. We found that penetration resistance to M. oryzae in multiple mutants, including pen2 NahG pmr5 agb1 and pen2 NahG pmr5 mlo2 plants, was severely compr...

  4. Arabidopsis phospholipase Dδ is involved in basal defense and nonhost resistance to powdery mildew fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinosa, Francesco; Buhot, Nathalie; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J;

    2013-01-01

    Plants have evolved a complex array of defensive responses against pathogenic microorganisms. Recognition of microbes initiates signaling cascades that activate plant defenses. The membrane lipid phosphatidic acid, produced by phospholipase D (PLD), has been shown to take part in both abiotic...... resistance against Bgh, and chemical inhibition of PLDs in plants mutated in PLDδ indicated that this isoform alone is involved in Bgh resistance. In addition, we confirmed the involvement of PLDδ in penetration resistance against another nonadapted pea powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe pisi. A green....... In conclusion, we propose that PLD is involved in defense signaling in nonhost resistance against powdery mildew fungi and put PLDδ forward as the main isoform participating in this process. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved....

  5. Epistatic Interactions Among Herbicide Resistances in Arabidopsis thaliana: The Fitness Cost of Multiresistance

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Fabrice; Camilleri, Christine; Giancola, Sandra; Brunel, Dominique; Reboud, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The type of interactions among deleterious mutations is considered to be crucial in numerous areas of evolutionary biology, including the evolution of sex and recombination, the evolution of ploidy, the evolution of selfing, and the conservation of small populations. Because the herbicide resistance genes could be viewed as slightly deleterious mutations in the absence of the pesticide selection pressure, the epistatic interactions among three herbicide resistance genes (acetolactate synthase...

  6. Complex Genetics Control Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Heather C.; Daniel J Kliebenstein

    2008-01-01

    The genetic architecture of plant defense against microbial pathogens may be influenced by pathogen lifestyle. While plant interactions with biotrophic pathogens are frequently controlled by the action of large-effect resistance genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that plant defense against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Few studies of quantitative resistance to necrotrophic pathogens have used larg...

  7. Ectopic Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of an NB-ARC Encoding Putative Disease Resistance Gene from Wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata Enhances Resistance to Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng eWen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw., a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084, increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine.

  8. Specific changes in the Arabidopsis proteome in response to bacterial challenge: differentiating basal and R-gene mediated resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra M E; Thomas, Vincent; Truman, Bill; Lilley, Kathryn; Mansfield, John; Grant, Murray

    2004-06-01

    Alterations in the proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves during early responses to challenge by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) were analysed using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Protein changes characteristic of the establishment of basal resistance and R-gene mediated resistance were examined by comparing responses to DC3000, a hrp mutant and DC3000 expressing avrRpm1 respectively. The abundance of selected transcripts was also analysed in GeneChip experiments. Here we present data from the soluble fraction of leaf protein, highlighting changes in two antioxidant enzyme groups; the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs F2, F6, F7 and F8) and peroxiredoxins (PrxA, B and IIE). Members of both enzyme groups showed signs of specific post-translational modifications, represented by multiple spots on gels. We suggest that oxidation of specific residues is responsible for some of the spot shifts. All forms of the GST proteins identified here increased following inoculation with bacteria. GSTF8 showed particularly dynamic responses to pathogen challenge, the corresponding transcript was significantly up-regulated by 2 h after inoculation, and the protein showed post-translational modifications specific to an incompatible interaction. Differential changes were observed with the peroxiredoxin proteins; PrxIIE and to a lesser extent PrxB, no change was observed with PrxA, but a truncated form PrxA-L was greatly reduced in abundance following bacterial challenges. Our data suggest that bacterial challenge generally induces Prxs and the antioxidants GSTs, however individual members of these families may be specifically modified dependent upon the virulence of the DC3000 strain and outcome of the interaction. Finally, proteomic and transcriptomic data derived from the same inoculation system are compared and the advantages offered by 2D gel analysis discussed in light of our results. PMID:15276439

  9. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. ► The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. ► The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. ► The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. ► OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  10. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hyun [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Boung-Jun [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ho Won, E-mail: hwjung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Soo, E-mail: chungys@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  11. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruoxue Liu; Beibei Lü; Xiaomeng Wang; Chunling Zhang; Shuping Zhang; Jun Qian; Lei Chen; Haojie Shi; Hansong Dong

    2010-09-01

    The harpin protein HrpNEa induces Arabidopsis resistance to the green peach aphid by activating the ethylene signalling pathway and by recruiting EIN2, an essential regulator of ethylene signalling, for a defence response in the plant. We investigated 37 ethylene-inducible Arabidopsis transcription factor genes for their effects on the activation of ethylene signalling and insect defence. Twenty-eight of the 37 genes responded to both ethylene and HrpNEa, and showed either increased or inhibited transcription, while 18 genes showed increased transcription not only by ethylene but also by HrpNEa. In response to HrpNEa, transcription levels of 22 genes increased, with AtMYB44 being the most inducible, six genes had decreased transcript levels, and nine remained unchanged. When Arabidopsis mutants previously generated by mutagenicity at the 37 genes were surveyed, 24 mutants were similar to the wild type plant while four mutants were more resistant and nine mutants were more susceptible than wild type to aphid infestation. Aphid-susceptible mutants showed a greater susceptibility for atmyb15, atmyb38 and atmyb44, which were generated previously by T-DNA insertion into the exon region of AtMYB15 and the promoter regions of AtMYB38 and AtMYB44. The atmyb44 mutant was the most susceptible to aphid infestation and most compromised in induced resistance. Resistance accompanied the expression of PDF1.2, an ethylene signalling marker gene that requires EIN2 for transcription in wild type but not in atmyb15, atmyb38, and atmyb44, suggesting a disruption of ethylene signalling in the mutants. However, only atmyb44 incurred an abrogation in induced EIN2 expression, suggesting a close relationship between AtMYB44 and EIN2.

  12. Enhanced chloroplastic generation of H2O2 in stress-resistant Thellungiella salsuginea in comparison to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiciarz, Monika; Gubernator, Beata; Kruk, Jerzy; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    In order to find some basis of salinity resistance in the chloroplastic metabolism, a halophytic Thellungiella salsuginea was compared with glycophytic Arabidopsis thaliana. In control T.s. plants the increased ratios of chlorophyll a/b and of fluorescence emission at 77 K (F730 /F685 ) were documented, in comparison to A.t.. This was accompanied by a higher YII and lower NPQ (non-photochemical quenching) values, and by a more active PSI (photosystem I). Another prominent feature of the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in T.s. was the intensive production of H2 O2 from PQ (plastoquinone) pool. Salinity treatment (0.15 and 0.30 M NaCl for A.t. and T.s., respectively) led to a decrease in ratios of chl a/b and F730 /F685 . In A.t., a salinity-driven enhancement of YII and NPQ was found, in association with the stimulation of H2 O2 production from PQ pool. In contrast, in salinity-treated T.s., these variables were similar as in controls. The intensive H2 O2 generation was accompanied by a high activity of PTOX (plastid terminal oxidase), whilst inhibition of this enzyme led to an increased H2 O2 formation. It is hypothesized, that the intensive H2 O2 generation from PQ pool might be an important element of stress preparedness in Thellungiella plants. In control T.s. plants, a higher activation state of carboxylase ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39) was also documented in concert with the attachment of Rubisco activase (RCA) to the thylakoid membranes. It is supposed, that a closer contact of RCA with PSI in T.s. enables a more efficient Rubisco activation than in A.t. PMID:24961163

  13. AtMIN7 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sheng Yang; Nomura, Kinya

    2011-07-26

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein AtMIN7 mediated protection is enhanced and/or there is a decrease in activity of an AtMIN7 associated virulence protein such as a Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1. Reagents of the present invention provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  14. Bacillus cereus AR156 primes induced systemic resistance by suppressing miR825/825* and activating defense-related genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dongdong; Xia, Jing; Jiang, Chunhao; Qi, Beibei; Ling, Xiaoyu; Lin, Siyuan; Zhang, Weixiong; Guo, Jianhua; Jin, Hailing; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    Small RNAs play an important role in plant immune responses. However, their regulatory function in induced systemic resistance (ISR) is nascent. Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces ISR in Arabidopsis against bacterial infection. Here, by comparing small RNA profiles of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000-infected Arabidopsis with and without AR156 pretreatment, we identified a group of Arabidopsis microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially regulated by AR156 pretreatment. miR825 and miR825* are two miRNA generated from a single miRNA gene. Northern blot analysis indicated that they were significantly downregulated in Pst DC3000-infected plants pretreated with AR156, in contrast to the plants without AR156 pretreatment. miR825 targets two ubiquitin-protein ligases, while miR825* targets toll-interleukin-like receptor (TIR)-nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) type resistance (R) genes. The expression of these target genes negatively correlated with the expression of miR825 and miR825*. Moreover, transgenic plants showing reduced expression of miR825 and miR825* displayed enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000 infection, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing miR825 and miR825* were more susceptible. Taken together, our data indicates that Bacillus cereus AR156 pretreatment primes ISR to Pst infection by suppressing miR825 and miR825* and activating the defense related genes they targeted. PMID:26526683

  15. Low-pH and aluminum resistance in arabidopsis correlates with high cytosolic magnesium content and increased magnesium uptake by plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Shabala, Sergey; Rengel, Zed

    2013-07-01

    Low-pH stress and Al(3+) toxicity affect root growth in acid soils. It was hypothesized that the capacity of genotypes to maintain Mg(2+) uptake in acidic environments may contribute to low-pH and Al resistance, but explicit evidence is lacking. In this work, an Al-resistant alr104 mutant and two Al-sensitive mutants (als5 and als3) of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared with the wild type (Col-0) for Mg(2+) uptake and intracellular Mg(2+) concentration under low-pH and combined low-pH/Al stresses. Magnesium accumulation in roots was measured in long-term (7 d) experiments. The Mg(2+) fluxes were measured using ion-sensitive microelectrodes at the distal elongation and the mature root zones in short-term (0-60 min) experiments. Intracellular Mg(2+) concentrations were measured in intact root cells at the distal elongation zone using magnesium-specific fluorescent dye and fluorescent lifetime imaging (FLIM) analysis. Under low-pH stress, Arabidopsis mutants als5 and alr104 maintained a higher Mg concentration in roots, and had greater Mg(2+) influx than the wild type and the als3 mutant. Under combined low-pH/Al treatment, Al-resistant genotypes (wild type and alr104) maintained a higher Mg(2+) accumulation, and had a higher Mg(2+) influx and higher intracellular Mg(2+) concentration than Al-sensitive genotypes (als3 and als5). Overall, these results show that increased Mg(2+) uptake correlates with an enhanced capacity of Arabidopsis genotypes to cope with low-pH and combined low-pH/Al stresses. PMID:23620479

  16. The Hv NAC6 transcription factor: a positive regulator of penetration resistance in barley and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Rung, Jesper Henrik; Gregersen, Per Langkjaer;

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens induce the expression of many genes encoding plant transcription factors, though specific knowledge of the biological function of individual transcription factors remains scarce. NAC transcription factors are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in both abiotic and...... biotic stress adaptation, as well as in developmental processes. In this paper, we provide convincing evidence that a barley NAC transcription factor has a direct role in regulating basal defence. The gene transcript was isolated by differential display from barley leaves infected with the biotrophic...... towards virulent Bgh. Complementing the effect of HvNAC6 gene silencing, transient overexpression of HvNAC6 increases the occurrence of penetration resistant cells towards Bgh attack. Quantitative RT-PCR shows the early and transient induction of HvNAC6 in barley epidermis upon Bgh infection. Additionally...

  17. Low Temperature-Induced 30 (LTI30) positively regulates drought stress resistance in Arabidopsis: effect on abscisic acid sensitivity and hydrogen peroxide accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Haitao; Chen, Yinhua; Qian, Yongqiang; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    As a dehydrin belonging to group II late embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA) family, Arabidopsis Low Temperature-Induced 30 (LTI30)/XERO2 has been shown to be involved in plant freezing stress resistance. However, the other roles of AtLTI30 remain unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of AtLTI30 was largely induced by drought stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Thereafter, AtLTI30 knockout mutants and overexpressing plants were isolated to investigate the possible invol...

  18. Suppression of phospholipase Dγs confers increased aluminum resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the major stress in acidic soil that comprises about 50% of the world's arable land. The complex molecular mechanisms of Al toxicity have yet to be fully determined. As a barrier to Al entrance, plant cell membranes play essential roles in plant interaction with Al, and lipid composition and membrane integrity change significantly under Al stress. Here, we show that phospholipase Dγs (PLDγs are induced by Al stress and contribute to Al-induced membrane lipid alterations. RNAi suppression of PLDγ resulted in a decrease in both PLDγ1 and PLDγ2 expression and an increase in Al resistance. Genetic disruption of PLDγ1 also led to an increased tolerance to Al while knockout of PLDγ2 did not. Both RNAi-suppressed and pldγ1-1 mutants displayed better root growth than wild-type under Al stress conditions, and PLDγ1-deficient plants had less accumulation of callose, less oxidative damage, and less lipid peroxidation compared to wild-type plants. Most phospholipids and glycolipids were altered in response to Al treatment of wild-type plants, whereas fewer changes in lipids occurred in response to Al stress in PLDγ mutant lines. Our results suggest that PLDγs play a role in membrane lipid modulation under Al stress and that high activities of PLDγs negatively modulate plant tolerance to Al.

  19. Transcription factors WRKY70 and WRKY11 served as regulators in rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus AR156-induced systemic resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Zi-Yang; Xie, Ping; Gu, Chun; Li, Ke; Wang, Da-Chen; Yu, Yi-Yang; Fan, Zhi-Hang; Wang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yun-Peng; Guo, Ya-Hui; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The activation of both the SA and JA/ETsignalling pathways may lead to more efficient general and broad resistance to Pst DC3000 by non-pathogenic rhizobacteria. However, the mechanisms that govern this simultaneous activation are unclear. Using Arabidopsis as a model system, two transcription factors, WRKY11 and WRKY70, were identified as important regulators involved in Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) triggered by Bacillus cereus AR156. The results revealed that AR156 treatment significantly stimulated the transcription of WRKY70, but suppressed that of WRKY11 in Arabidopsis leaves. Furthermore, they were shown to be required for AR156 enhancing the activation of cellular defence responses and the transcription level of the plant defence response gene. Overexpression of the two transcription factors in Arabidopsis also showed that they were essential for AR156 to elicit ISR. AR156-triggered ISR was completely abolished in the double mutant of the two transcription factors, but still partially retained in the single mutants, indicating that the regulation of the two transcription factors depend on two different pathways. The target genes of the two transcription factors and epistasis analysis suggested that WRKY11 regulated AR156-triggered ISR through activating the JA signalling pathway, and WRKY70 regulated the ISR through activating the SA signalling pathway. In addition, both WRKY11 and WRKY70 modulated AR156-triggered ISR in a NPR1-dependent manner. In conclusion, WRKY11 and WRKY70 played an important role in regulating the signalling transduction pathways involved in AR156-triggered ISR. This study is the first to illustrate the mechanism by which a single rhizobacterium elicits ISR by simultaneously activating both the SA and JA/ET signalling pathways. PMID:26433201

  20. Are bacterial volatile compounds poisonous odors to a fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, alarm signals to Arabidopsis seedlings for eliciting induced resistance, or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Min eRyu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological control (biocontrol agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR. Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Emerging data suggest that bacterial VOCs also can directly inhibit fungal and plant growth. The aim of the current study was to differentiate direct and indirect mechanisms of bacterial VOC effects against Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis. Volatile emissions from Bacillus subtilis GB03 successfully protected Arabidopsis seedlings against B. cinerea. First, we investigated the direct effects of bacterial VOCs on symptom development and different phenological stages of B. cinerea including spore germination, mycelial attachment to the leaf surface, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro and in planta. Volatile emissions inhibited hyphal growth in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and interfered with fungal attachment on the hydrophobic leaf surface. Second, the optimized bacterial concentration that did not directly inhibit fungal growth successfully protected Arabidopsis from fungal infection, which indicates that bacterial VOC-elicited plant ISR has a more important role in biocontrol than direct inhibition of fungal growth on Arabidopsis. We performed qRT-PCR to investigate the priming of the defense-related genes PR1, PDF1.2, and ChiB at 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours post-infection and 14 days after the start of plant exposure to bacterial VOCs. The results indicate that bacterial VOCs potentiate expression of PR1 and PDF1.2 but not ChiB, which stimulates SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways in plant ISR and protects plants against pathogen

  1. Are Bacterial Volatile Compounds Poisonous Odors to a Fungal Pathogen Botrytis cinerea, Alarm Signals to Arabidopsis Seedlings for Eliciting Induced Resistance, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Rouhallah; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Biological control (biocontrol) agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR). Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Emerging data suggest that bacterial VOCs also can directly inhibit fungal and plant growth. The aim of the current study was to differentiate direct and indirect mechanisms of bacterial VOC effects against Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis. Volatile emissions from Bacillus subtilis GB03 successfully protected Arabidopsis seedlings against B. cinerea. First, we investigated the direct effects of bacterial VOCs on symptom development and different phenological stages of B. cinerea including spore germination, mycelial attachment to the leaf surface, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro and in planta. Volatile emissions inhibited hyphal growth in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and interfered with fungal attachment on the hydrophobic leaf surface. Second, the optimized bacterial concentration that did not directly inhibit fungal growth successfully protected Arabidopsis from fungal infection, which indicates that bacterial VOC-elicited plant ISR has a more important role in biocontrol than direct inhibition of fungal growth on Arabidopsis. We performed qRT-PCR to investigate the priming of the defense-related genes PR1, PDF1.2, and ChiB at 0, 12, 24, and 36 h post-infection and 14 days after the start of plant exposure to bacterial VOCs. The results indicate that bacterial VOCs potentiate expression of PR1 and PDF1.2 but not ChiB, which stimulates SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways in plant ISR and protects plants against pathogen colonization. This study

  2. Arabidopsis and Brachypodium distachyon transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus nidulans acetylesterases have decreased degree of polysaccharide acetylation and increased resistance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Fursova, Oksana; Sundaram, Raman M; Qi, Mingsheng; Whitham, Steven A; Bogdanove, Adam J; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga A

    2013-05-01

    The plant cell wall has many significant structural and physiological roles, but the contributions of the various components to these roles remain unclear. Modification of cell wall properties can affect key agronomic traits such as disease resistance and plant growth. The plant cell wall is composed of diverse polysaccharides often decorated with methyl, acetyl, and feruloyl groups linked to the sugar subunits. In this study, we examined the effect of perturbing cell wall acetylation by making transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) plants expressing hemicellulose- and pectin-specific fungal acetylesterases. All transgenic plants carried highly expressed active Aspergillus nidulans acetylesterases localized to the apoplast and had significant reduction of cell wall acetylation compared with wild-type plants. Partial deacetylation of polysaccharides caused compensatory up-regulation of three known acetyltransferases and increased polysaccharide accessibility to glycosyl hydrolases. Transgenic plants showed increased resistance to the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Bipolaris sorokiniana but not to the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas oryzae. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of hemicellulose and pectin acetylation in plant defense against fungal pathogens. PMID:23463782

  3. Expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) peroxidase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances resistance to NaCl and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, K; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Yuan, J B; Li, J; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-01-01

    Peroxidases (PODs) are enzymes that play important roles in catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 and the oxidation of various substrates. They function in many different and important biological processes, such as defense mechanisms, immune responses, and pathogeny. The POD genes have been cloned and identified in many plants, but their function in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is not known, to date. Based on the POD gene sequence (GenBank accession No. L36157.1), we cloned the POD gene in alfalfa, which was named MsPOD. MsPOD expression increased with increasing H2O2. The gene was expressed in all of the tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, particularly in stems and leaves under light/dark conditions. A subcellular analysis showed that MsPOD was localized outside the cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis with MsPOD exhibited increased resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. Moreover, POD activity in the transgenic plants was significantly higher than that in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results show that MsPOD plays an important role in resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. PMID:27323080

  4. Activation of an Arabidopsis resistance protein is specified by the in planta association of its leucine-rich repeat domain with the cognate oomycete effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasileva, Ksenia V; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Staskawicz, Brian J

    2010-07-01

    Activation of plant immunity relies on recognition of pathogen effectors by several classes of plant resistance proteins. To discover the underlying molecular mechanisms of effector recognition by the Arabidopsis thaliana RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA1 (RPP1) resistance protein, we adopted an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient protein expression system in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which allowed us to perform coimmunoprecipitation experiments and mutational analyses. Herein, we demonstrate that RPP1 associates with its cognate effector ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA RECOGNIZED1 (ATR1) in a recognition-specific manner and that this association is a prerequisite step in the induction of the hypersensitive cell death response of host tissue. The leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of RPP1 mediates the interaction with ATR1, while the Toll/Interleukin1 Receptor (TIR) domain facilitates the induction of the hypersensitive cell death response. Additionally, we demonstrate that mutations in the TIR and nucleotide binding site domains, which exhibit loss of function for the induction of the hypersensitive response, are still able to associate with the effector in planta. Thus, our data suggest molecular epistasis between signaling activity of the TIR domain and the recognition function of the LRR and allow us to propose a model for ATR1 recognition by RPP1. PMID:20601497

  5. Multiple Patterns of Regulation and Overexpression of a Ribonuclease-Like Pathogenesis-Related Protein Gene, OsPR10a, Conferring Disease Resistance in Rice and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siou-Luan; Chen, Jyh-Lang; Jiang, Jian-Zhi; Chen, Bo-Hong; Hou, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Ruey-Shyang; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Ho, Shin-Lon

    2016-01-01

    An abundant 17 kDa RNase, encoded by OsPR10a (also known as PBZ1), was purified from Pi-starved rice suspension-cultured cells. Biochemical analysis showed that the range of optimal temperature for its RNase activity was 40–70°C and the optimum pH was 5.0. Disulfide bond formation and divalent metal ion Mg2+ were required for the RNase activity. The expression of OsPR10a::GUS in transgenic rice was induced upon phosphate (Pi) starvation, wounding, infection by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), leaf senescence, anther, style, the style-ovary junction, germinating embryo and shoot. We also provide first evidence in whole-plant system, demonstrated that OsPR10a-overexpressing in rice and Arabidopsis conferred significant level of enhanced resistance to infection by the pathogen Xoo and Xanthomona campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), respectively. Transgenic rice and Arabidopsis overexpressing OsPR10a significantly increased the length of primary root under phosphate deficiency (-Pi) condition. These results showed that OsPR10a might play multiple roles in phosphate recycling in phosphate-starved cells and senescing leaves, and could improve resistance to pathogen infection and/or against chewing insect pests. It is possible that Pi acquisition or homeostasis is associated with plant disease resistance. Our findings suggest that gene regulation of OsPR10a could act as a good model system to unravel the mechanisms behind the correlation between Pi starvation and plant-pathogen interactions, and also provides a potential application in crops disease resistance. PMID:27258121

  6. A Rice Gene Homologous to Arabidopsis AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE1 Participates in Disease Resistance Response against Infection with Magnaporthe oryzae

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    Ga Young Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ALD1 (ABERRANT GROWTH AND DEATH2 [AGD2]-LIKE DEFENSE1 is one of the key defense regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. In these model plants, ALD1 is responsible for triggering basal defense response and systemic resistance against bacterial infection. As well ALD1 is involved in the production of pipecolic acid and an unidentified compound(s for systemic resistance and priming syndrome, respectively. These previous studies proposed that ALD1 is a potential candidate for developing genetically modified (GM plants that may be resistant to pathogen infection. Here we introduce a role of ALD1-LIKE gene of Oryza sativa, named as OsALD1, during plant immunity. OsALD1 mRNA was strongly transcribed in the infected leaves of rice plants by Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast fungus. OsALD1 proteins predominantly localized at the chloroplast in the plant cells. GM rice plants over-expressing OsALD1 were resistant to the fungal infection. The stable expression of OsALD1 also triggered strong mRNA expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEIN1 genes in the leaves of rice plants during infection. Taken together, we conclude that OsALD1 plays a role in disease resistance response of rice against the infection with rice blast fungus.

  7. A Rice Gene Homologous to Arabidopsis AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE1 Participates in Disease Resistance Response against Infection with Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ga Young; Park, Ju Yeon; Choi, Hyo Ju; Yoo, Sung-Je; Park, Jung-Kwon; Jung, Ho Won

    2016-08-01

    ALD1 (ABERRANT GROWTH AND DEATH2 [AGD2]-LIKE DEFENSE1) is one of the key defense regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. In these model plants, ALD1 is responsible for triggering basal defense response and systemic resistance against bacterial infection. As well ALD1 is involved in the production of pipecolic acid and an unidentified compound(s) for systemic resistance and priming syndrome, respectively. These previous studies proposed that ALD1 is a potential candidate for developing genetically modified (GM) plants that may be resistant to pathogen infection. Here we introduce a role of ALD1-LIKE gene of Oryza sativa, named as OsALD1, during plant immunity. OsALD1 mRNA was strongly transcribed in the infected leaves of rice plants by Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast fungus. OsALD1 proteins predominantly localized at the chloroplast in the plant cells. GM rice plants over-expressing OsALD1 were resistant to the fungal infection. The stable expression of OsALD1 also triggered strong mRNA expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEIN1 genes in the leaves of rice plants during infection. Taken together, we conclude that OsALD1 plays a role in disease resistance response of rice against the infection with rice blast fungus. PMID:27493611

  8. Arabidopsis TAF1 is an MRE11-interacting protein required for resistance to genotoxic stress and viability of the male gametophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Drury, Georgina E; Blundell-Hunter, George; West, Christopher E

    2015-11-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by recombination pathways is essential for plant growth and fertility. The recombination endonuclease MRE11 plays important roles in sensing and repair of DNA DSBs. Here we demonstrate protein interaction between Arabidopsis MRE11 and the histone acetyltransferase TAF1, a TATA-binding protein Associated Factor (TAF) of the RNA polymerase II transcription initiation factor complex TFIID. Arabidopsis has two TAF1 homologues termed TAF1 and TAF1b and mutant taf1b lines are viable and fertile. In contrast, taf1 null mutations are lethal, demonstrating that TAF1 is an essential gene. Heterozygous taf1+/- plants display abnormal segregation of the mutant allele resulting from defects in pollen tube development, indicating that TAF1 is important for gamete viability. Characterization of an allelic series of taf1 lines revealed that hypomorphic mutants are viable but display developmental defects and reduced plant fertility. Hypersensitivity of taf1 mutants lacking the C-terminal bromodomain to X-rays and mitomycin C, but not to other forms of abiotic stress, established a specific role for TAF1 in plant DNA repair processes. Collectively these studies reveal a function for TAF1 in plant resistance to genotoxic stress, providing further insight into the molecular mechanisms of the DNA damage response in plants. PMID:26358508

  9. Systemic Resistance Induced by Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kiyohara, Daigo; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF), Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp.) significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA) were identified as major act...

  10. Foliar treatments with Gaultheria procumbens essential oil induce defense responses and resistance against a fungal pathogen in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnes, Sophie; Ladouce, Nathalie; Fournier, Sylvie; Ferhout, Hicham; ATTIA, Faouzi; Dumas, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Gaultheria procumbens is mainly composed of methylsalicylate (MeSA) (>96%), a compound which can be metabolized in plant tissues to salicylic acid, a phytohormone inducing plant immunity against microbial pathogens. The potential use of G. procumbens essential oil as a biocontrol agent was evaluated on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of a selection of defense genes was detected 1, 6, and 24 h after essential oil treatment (0.1 ml/L) using a high-throughput ...

  11. The Saharan isolate Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137 induces systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings against Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Muzammil, Saima; Graillon, Clotilde; Saria, Rayenne; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Compant, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137, isolated from a Saharan soil, has been described as a potential biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea and other phytopathogens. However, the plant protection mechanisms involved still need to be described. The aim of this study was to determine this protection phenomenon as well as parts of the mechanisms involved, using Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and B. cinerea. Methods The bacterial colonization process was evaluated on A. t...

  12. Localization of DIR1 at the tissue, cellular and subcellular levels during Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis using DIR1:GUS and DIR1:EGFP reporters

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    Thilmony Roger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR is an induced resistance response to pathogens, characterized by the translocation of a long-distance signal from induced leaves to distant tissues to prime them for increased resistance to future infection. DEFECTIVE in INDUCED RESISTANCE 1 (DIR1 has been hypothesized to chaperone a small signaling molecule to distant tissues during SAR in Arabidopsis. Results DIR1 promoter:DIR1-GUS/dir1-1 lines were constructed to examine DIR1 expression. DIR1 is expressed in seedlings, flowers and ubiquitously in untreated or mock-inoculated mature leaf cells, including phloem sieve elements and companion cells. Inoculation of leaves with SAR-inducing avirulent or virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst resulted in Type III Secretion System-dependent suppression of DIR1 expression in leaf cells. Transient expression of fluorescent fusion proteins in tobacco and intercellular washing fluid experiments indicated that DIR1's ER signal sequence targets it for secretion to the cell wall. However, DIR1 expressed without a signal sequence rescued the dir1-1 SAR defect, suggesting that a cytosolic pool of DIR1 is important for the SAR response. Conclusions Although expression of DIR1 decreases during SAR induction, the protein localizes to all living cell types of the vasculature, including companion cells and sieve elements, and therefore DIR1 is well situated to participate in long-distance signaling during SAR.

  13. Low Temperature-Induced 30 (LTI30 positively regulates drought stress resistance in Arabidopsis: effect on abscisic acid sensitivity and hydrogen peroxide accumulation

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    Haitao eShi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a dehydrin belonging to group II late embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA family, Arabidopsis Low Temperature-Induced 30 (LTI30/XERO2 has been shown to be involved in plant freezing stress resistance. However, the other roles of AtLTI30 remain unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of AtLTI30 was largely induced by drought stress and abscisic acid (ABA treatments. Thereafter, AtLTI30 knockout mutants and overexpressing plants were isolated to investigate the possible involvement of AtLTI30 in ABA and drought stress responses. AtLTI30 knockout mutants were less sensitive to ABA-mediated seed germination, while AtLTI30 overexpressing plants were more sensitive to ABA compared with wild type (WT. Consistently, the AtLTI30 knockout mutants displayed decreased drought stress resistance, while the AtLTI30 overexpressing plants showed improved drought stress resistance compared with WT, as evidenced by a higher survival rate and lower leaf water loss than WT after drought stress. Moreover, manipulation of AtLTI30 expression positively regulated the activities of catalases (CATs and endogenous proline content, as a result, negatively regulated drought stress-triggered hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 accumulation. All these results indicate that AtLTI30 is a positive regulator of plant drought stress resistance, partially through the modulation of ABA sensitivity, H2O2 and proline accumulation.

  14. Possible Involvement of MYB44-Mediated Stomatal Regulation in Systemic Resistance Induced by Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieno, Ayaka; Naznin, Hushna Ara; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Matsui, Minami; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y.

    2016-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF), Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 (GP17-2), induces systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The molecular mechanisms underlying induced systemic resistance (ISR) by GP17-2 were investigated in the present study. Microscopic observations revealed that stomatal reopening by Pst was restricted by elicitation with the culture filtrate (CF) from GP17-2. A gene expression analysis of MYB44, which enhances abscisic acid signaling and consequently closes stomata, revealed that the gene was activated by CF. CF-elicited myb44 mutant plants failed to restrict stomatal reopening and showed lower resistance to Pst than wild-type plants. These results indicate that stomatal resistance by GP17-2 is mediated by the gene activation of MYB44. We herein revealed that the MYB44-mediated prevention of penetration through the stomata is one of the components responsible for GP17-2-elicited ISR. PMID:27301421

  15. Limitation of nocturnal ATP import into chloroplasts seems to affect hormonal crosstalk, prime defense, and enhance disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gudrun; Reinhold, Thomas; Göbel, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Conrath, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    When grown under short-day conditions at low light, leaves of an Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Col-0) mutant with defects in the two genes encoding plastid ATP/ADP antiporters (so-called ntt1-2 null mutants) display a variety of physiological changes. These include the formation of necrotic lesions and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the leaves. Here, we show that, under short-day conditions, leaves of the ntt1-2 mutant display enhanced resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Botrytis cinerea, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Resistance to these pathogens was associated with constitutively elevated levels of the plant hormone salicylic acid and, eventually, jasmonic acid, and constitutive or primed activation after pathogen attack of various defense genes that are dependent on these hormones. In addition, the antagonistic crosstalk between the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathways seems to be affected in ntt1-2. Because the enhanced resistance of ntt1-2 to H. arabidopsidis was not seen when the mutant was grown under long-day conditions, our findings argue that nocturnal ATP import into chloroplasts is crucial to keep A. thaliana from runaway activation of pathogen resistance. PMID:21039274

  16. Overexpression of SAMDC1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana increases expression of defense-related genes as well as resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eMarco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously described that elevation of endogenous spermine levels in Arabidopsis could be achieved by transgenic overexpression of S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC or Spermine synthase (SPMS. In both cases, spermine accumulation had an impact on the plant transcriptome, with up-regulation of a set of genes enriched in functional categories involved in defense-related processes against both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the response of SAMDC1-overexpressing plants against bacterial and oomycete pathogens has been tested. The expression of several pathogen defense-related genes was induced in these plants as well as in wild type plants exposed to an exogenous supply of spermine. SAMDC1-overexpressing plants showed an increased tolerance to infection by Pseudomonas syringae and by Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Both results add more evidence to the hypothesis that spermine plays a key role in plant resistance to biotic stress.

  17. Ectopic expression of a grape aspartic protease gene, AP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana improves resistance to powdery mildew but increases susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Xianhang; Zhao, Jiao; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-07-01

    The grape aspartic protease gene, AP13 was previously reported to be responsive, in Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', to infection by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease, as well as to treatment with salicylic acid in V. labrusca×V. vinifera cv. 'Kyoho'. In the current study, we evaluated the expression levels of AP13 in 'Shang-24' in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET) treatments, as well as to infection by the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and the transcript levels of VqAP13 decreased after B. cinerea infection and MeJA treatment, but increased following ET and SA treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing VqAP13 under the control of a constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and accumulated more callose than wild type plants, while the resistance of transgenic A. thaliana lines to B. cinerea inoculation was reduced. In addition, the expression profiles of various disease resistance- related genes in the transgenic A. thaliana lines following infection by different pathogens were compared to the equivalent profiles in the wild type plants. The results suggest that VqAP13 action promotes the SA dependent signal transduction pathway, but suppresses the JA signal transduction pathway. PMID:27181943

  18. Overexpression of Poplar PtrWRKY89 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Leads to a Reduction of Disease Resistance by Regulating Defense-Related Genes in Salicylate- and Jasmonate-Dependent Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanzhong; Guo, Li; Liu, Rui; Jiao, Bo; Zhao, Xin; Ling, Zhengyi; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play key roles in plant defenses against pathogens and several WRKY transcription factors have been shown to have a role in SA/JA crosstalk. In a previous study, overexpression of the poplar WRKY gene PtrWRKY89 enhanced resistance to pathogens in transgenic poplars. In this study, the promoter of PtrWRKY89 (ProPtrWRKY89) was isolated and used to drive GUS reporter gene. High GUS activity was observed in old leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis containing ProPtrWRKY89-GUS construct and GUS expression was extremely induced by SA solution and SA+MeJA mixture but not by MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that PtrWRKY89 acted as a transcription activator in the nucleus. Constitutive expression of PtrWRKY89 in Arabidopsis resulted in more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea compared to wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that marker genes of SA and JA pathways were down-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis after pathogen inoculations. Overall, our results indicated that PtrWRKY89 modulates a cross talk in resistance to P. syringe and B. cinerea by negatively regulating both SA and JA pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27019084

  19. Overexpression of Poplar PtrWRKY89 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Leads to a Reduction of Disease Resistance by Regulating Defense-Related Genes in Salicylate- and Jasmonate-Dependent Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Jiao, Bo; Zhao, Xin; Ling, Zhengyi; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play key roles in plant defenses against pathogens and several WRKY transcription factors have been shown to have a role in SA/JA crosstalk. In a previous study, overexpression of the poplar WRKY gene PtrWRKY89 enhanced resistance to pathogens in transgenic poplars. In this study, the promoter of PtrWRKY89 (ProPtrWRKY89) was isolated and used to drive GUS reporter gene. High GUS activity was observed in old leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis containing ProPtrWRKY89-GUS construct and GUS expression was extremely induced by SA solution and SA+MeJA mixture but not by MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that PtrWRKY89 acted as a transcription activator in the nucleus. Constitutive expression of PtrWRKY89 in Arabidopsis resulted in more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea compared to wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that marker genes of SA and JA pathways were down-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis after pathogen inoculations. Overall, our results indicated that PtrWRKY89 modulates a cross talk in resistance to P. syringe and B. cinerea by negatively regulating both SA and JA pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27019084

  20. Rhizobacterial volatiles and photosynthesis-related signals coordinate MYB72 expression in Arabidopsis roots during onset of induced systemic resistance and iron-deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamioudis, Christos; Korteland, Jolanda; Van Pelt, Johan A; van Hamersveld, Muriël; Dombrowski, Nina; Bai, Yang; Hanson, Johannes; Van Verk, Marcel C; Ling, Hong-Qing; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2015-10-01

    In Arabidopsis roots, the transcription factor MYB72 plays a dual role in the onset of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant survival under conditions of limited iron availability. Previously, it was shown that MYB72 coordinates the expression of a gene module that promotes synthesis and excretion of iron-mobilizing phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere, a process that is involved in both iron acquisition and ISR signaling. Here, we show that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ISR-inducing Pseudomonas bacteria are important elicitors of MYB72. In response to VOC treatment, MYB72 is co-expressed with the iron uptake-related genes FERRIC REDUCTION OXIDASE 2 (FRO2) and IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) in a manner that is dependent on FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT), indicating that MYB72 is an intrinsic part of the plant's iron-acquisition response that is typically activated upon iron starvation. However, VOC-induced MYB72 expression is activated independently of iron availability in the root vicinity. Moreover, rhizobacterial VOC-mediated induction of MYB72 requires photosynthesis-related signals, while iron deficiency in the rhizosphere activates MYB72 in the absence of shoot-derived signals. Together, these results show that the ISR- and iron acquisition-related transcription factor MYB72 in Arabidopsis roots is activated by rhizobacterial volatiles and photosynthesis-related signals, and enhances the iron-acquisition capacity of roots independently of the iron availability in the rhizosphere. This work highlights the role of MYB72 in plant processes by which root microbiota simultaneously stimulate systemic immunity and activate the iron-uptake machinery in their host plants. PMID:26307542

  1. Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137: biocontrol properties, colonization and induced systemic resistance towards Botrytis cinerea on grapevine and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Muzammil, Saima

    2012-01-01

    Au cours de cette thèse, un isolat de sol de désert, Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137, a été évalué pour ses propriétés bioactives contre le champignon phytopathogène Botrytis cinerea, pour sa colonization sur Vitis vinifera L., et Arabidopsis thaliana ainsi qu’en vue d’étudier les méchanismes de résistance systémique induite (ISR) contre B. cinerea. Les résultats obtenus nous ont permis premièrement de montrer que Sa. algeriensis NRRL B-24137 peut présenter des activités antifongiques ...

  2. A wheat lipid transfer protein 3 could enhance the basal thermotolerance and oxidative stress resistance of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zang, Xin-shan; Kabir, Muhammad Rezaul; Liu, Ke-lu; Liu, Zhen-shan; Ni, Zhong-fu; Yao, Ying-yin; Hu, Zhao-rong; Sun, Qi-xin; Peng, Hui-ru

    2014-10-15

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major grain crops, and heat stress adversely affects wheat production in many regions of the world. Previously, we found a heat-responsive gene named Lipid Transfer Protein 3 (TaLTP3) in wheat. TaLTP3 was deduced to be regulated by cold, ABA, MeJA, Auxin and oxidative stress according to cis-acting motifs in its promoter sequences. In this study, we show that TaLTP3 is responsive to prolonged water deficit, salt or ABA treatment in wheat seedlings. Also, TaLTP3 accumulation was observed after the plant suffered from heat stress both at the seedling and the grain-filling stages. TaLTP3 protein was localized in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of tobacco epidermal cells. Overexpression of TaLTP3 in yeast imparted tolerance to heat stress compared to cells expressing the vector alone. Most importantly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered to overexpress TaLTP3 showed higher thermotolerance than control plants at the seedling stage. Further investigation indicated that transgenic lines decreased H₂O₂ accumulation and membrane injury under heat stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TaLTP3 confers heat stress tolerance possibly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging. PMID:25106859

  3. Heat Shock Factors HsfB 1 and HsfB2b Are Involved in the Regulation of Pdfl.2 Expression and Pathogen Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukesh Kumar; Wolfgang Busch; Hannah Birke; Birgit Kemmerling; Thorsten N(U)rnberger; Friedrich Sch(o)ffl

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfBl/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdfl.2a/b in mutant plants.The Pdfexpression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdfl.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdfgenes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  4. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Kambakam, Sekhar; Nolan, Trevor; Foudree, Andrew; Zabotina, Olga A.; Rodermel, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    The immutans (im) variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues) and sinks (white tissues) early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-to-nucleus) signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. We conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27050746

  5. IAA-Ala Resistant3, an evolutionarily conserved target of miR167, mediates Arabidopsis root architecture changes during high osmotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kinoshita, Natsuko

    2012-09-01

    The functions of microRNAs and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana development have been widely documented; however, roles of stress-responsive microRNAs and their targets are not as well understood. Using small RNA deep sequencing and ATH1 microarrays to profile mRNAs, we identified IAA-Ala Resistant3 (IAR3) as a new target of miR167a. As expected, IAR3 mRNA was cleaved at the miR167a complementary site and under high osmotic stress miR167a levels decreased, whereas IAR3 mRNA levels increased. IAR3 hydrolyzes an inactive form of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]-alanine) and releases bioactive auxin (IAA), a central phytohormone for root development. In contrast with the wild type, iar3 mutants accumulated reduced IAA levels and did not display high osmotic stress-induced root architecture changes. Transgenic plants expressing a cleavage-resistant form of IAR3 mRNA accumulated high levels of IAR3 mRNAs and showed increased lateral root development compared with transgenic plants expressing wild-type IAR3. Expression of an inducible noncoding RNA to sequester miR167a by target mimicry led to an increase in IAR3 mRNA levels, further confirming the inverse relationship between the two partners. Sequence comparison revealed the miR167 target site on IAR3 mRNA is conserved in evolutionarily distant plant species. Finally, we showed that IAR3 is required for drought tolerance. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana DM2h (R8) within the Landsberg RPP1-like Resistance Locus Underlies Three Different Cases of EDS1-Conditioned Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana V.; Wagner, Christine; Choudhury, Sayan R.; Wang, Yiming; James, Geo Velikkakam; Griebel, Thomas; Alcázar, Ruben; Tsuda, Kenichi; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Parker, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have a large panel of nucleotide-binding/leucine rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors which monitor host interference by diverse pathogen molecules (effectors) and trigger disease resistance pathways. NLR receptor systems are necessarily under tight control to mitigate the trade-off between induced defenses and growth. Hence, mis-regulated NLRs often cause autoimmunity associated with stunting and, in severe cases, necrosis. Nucleocytoplasmic ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) is indispensable for effector-triggered and autoimmune responses governed by a family of Toll-Interleukin1-Receptor-related NLR receptors (TNLs). EDS1 operates coincidently or immediately downstream of TNL activation to transcriptionally reprogram cells for defense. We show here that low levels of nuclear-enforced EDS1 are sufficient for pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana, without causing negative effects. Plants expressing higher nuclear EDS1 amounts have the genetic, phenotypic and transcriptional hallmarks of TNL autoimmunity. In a screen for genetic suppressors of nuclear EDS1 autoimmunity, we map multiple, independent mutations to one gene, DM2h, lying within the polymorphic DANGEROUS MIX2 cluster of TNL RPP1-like genes from A. thaliana accession Landsberg erecta (Ler). The DM2 locus is a known hotspot for deleterious epistatic interactions leading to immune-related incompatibilities between A. thaliana natural accessions. We find that DM2hLer underlies two further genetic incompatibilities involving the RPP1-likeLer locus and EDS1. We conclude that the DM2hLer TNL protein and nuclear EDS1 cooperate, directly or indirectly, to drive cells into an immune response at the expense of growth. A further conclusion is that regulating the available EDS1 nuclear pool is fundamental for maintaining homeostatic control of TNL immune pathways. PMID:27082651

  7. Cerato-platanin induces resistance in Arabidopsis leaves through stomatal perception, overexpression of salicylic acid- and ethylene-signalling genes and camalexin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baccelli

    Full Text Available Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs lead to the activation of the first line of plant defence. Few fungal molecules are universally qualified as MAMPs, and proteins belonging to the cerato-platanin protein (CPP family seem to possess these features. Cerato-platanin (CP is the name-giving protein of the CPP family and is produced by Ceratocystis platani, the causal agent of the canker stain disease of plane trees (Platanus spp.. On plane tree leaves, the biological activity of CP has been widely studied. Once applied on the leaf surface, CP acts as an elicitor of defence responses. The molecular mechanism by which CP elicits leaves is still unknown, and the protective effect of CP against virulent pathogens has not been clearly demonstrated. In the present study, we tried to address these questions in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results suggest that stomata rapidly sense CP since they responded to the treatment with ROS signalling and stomatal closure, and that CP triggers salicylic acid (SA- and ethylene (ET-signalling pathways, but not the jasmonic acid (JA-signalling pathway, as revealed by the expression pattern of 20 marker genes. Among these, EDS1, PAD4, NPR1, GRX480, WRKY70, ACS6, ERF1a/b, COI1, MYC2, PDF1.2a and the pathogenesis-related (PR genes 1-5. CP rapidly induced MAPK phosphorylation and induced the biosynthesis of camalexin within 12 hours following treatment. The induction of localised resistance was shown by a reduced susceptibility of the leaves to the infection with Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. These results contribute to elucidate the key steps of the signalling process underlying the resistance induction in plants by CP and point out the central role played by the stomata in this process.

  8. PAPP2C Interacts with the Atypical Disease Resistance Protein RPW8.2 and Negatively Regulates Salicylic Acid-Dependent Defense Responses in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ming Wang; Xian-Feng Ma; Yi Zhang; Ming-Cheng Luo; Guo-Liang Wang; Maria Bellizzi; Xing-Yao Xiong; Shun-Yuan Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Many fungal and oomycete pathogens differentiate a feeding structure named the haustorium to extract nutrition from the plant epidermal cell.The atypical resistance (R) protein RPW8.2 activates salicylic acid (SA)-dependent,haustorium-targeted defenses against Golovinomyces spp.,the causal agents of powdery mildew diseases on multiple plant species.How RPW8.2 activates defense remains uncharacterized.Here,we report that RPW8.2 interacts with the phytochrome-associated protein phosphatase type 2C (PAPP2C) in yeast and in planta as evidenced by coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays.Down-regulation of PAPP2C by RNA interference (RNAi) in Col-0 plants lacking RPW8.2 leads to leaf spontaneous cell death and enhanced disease resistance to powdery mildew via the SA-dependent signaling pathway.Moreover,down-regulation of PAPP2C by RNAi in the RPW8.2 background results in strong HR-like cell death,which correlates with elevated RPW8.2 expression.We further demonstrate that hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged PAPP2C prepared from tobacco leaf cells transiently transformed with HA-PAPP2C possesses phosphatase activity.In addition,silencing a rice gene (Os04g0452000) homologous to PAPP2C also results in spontaneous cell death in rice.Combined,our results suggest that RPW8.2 is functionally connected with PAPP2C and that PAPP2C negatively regulates SA-dependent basal defense against powdery mildew in Arabidopsis.

  9. The bHLH transcription factor bHLH104 interacts with IAA-LEUCINE RESISTANT3 and modulates iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Bing; Li, Mengshu; Feng, Dongru; Jin, Honglei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Xiong, Feng; Wang, Jinfa; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2015-03-01

    Iron (Fe) is an indispensable micronutrient for plant growth and development. The regulation of Fe homeostasis in plants is complex and involves a number of transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, bHLH104, belonging to the IVc subgroup of bHLH family, acts as a key component positively regulating Fe deficiency responses. Knockout of bHLH104 in Arabidopsis thaliana greatly reduced tolerance to Fe deficiency, whereas overexpression of bHLH104 had the opposite effect and led to accumulation of excess Fe in soil-grown conditions. The activation of Fe deficiency-inducible genes was substantially suppressed by loss of bHLH104. Further investigation showed that bHLH104 interacted with another IVc subgroup bHLH protein, IAA-LEUCINE RESISTANT3 (ILR3), which also plays an important role in Fe homeostasis. Moreover, bHLH104 and ILR3 could bind directly to the promoters of Ib subgroup bHLH genes and POPEYE (PYE) functioning in the regulation of Fe deficiency responses. Interestingly, genetic analysis showed that loss of bHLH104 could decrease the tolerance to Fe deficiency conferred by the lesion of BRUTUS, which encodes an E3 ligase and interacts with bHLH104. Collectively, our data support that bHLH104 and ILR3 play pivotal roles in the regulation of Fe deficiency responses via targeting Ib subgroup bHLH genes and PYE expression. PMID:25794933

  10. Redundancy among phospholipase D isoforms in resistance triggered by recognition of the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpm1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar N Johansson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants possess a highly sophisticated system for defense against microorganisms. So called MAMP (Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns triggered immunity (MTI prevents the majority of non-adapted pathogens from causing disease. Adapted plant pathogens use secreted effector proteins to interfere with such signaling. Recognition of microbial effectors or their activity by plant resistance (R-proteins triggers a second line of defense resulting in effector triggered immunity (ETI. The latter usually comprises the hypersensitive response (HR which includes programmed cell death at the site of infection. Phospholipase D (PLD mediated production of phosphatidic acid (PA has been linked to both MTI and ETI in plants. Inhibition of PLD activity has been shown to attenuate MTI as well as ETI. In this study, we systematically tested single and double knockouts in all 12 genes encoding PLDs in Arabidopsis thaliana for effects on ETI and MTI. No single PLD could be linked to ETI triggered by recognition of effectors secreted by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. However, repression of PLD dependent PA production by n-butanol strongly inhibited the HR following P. syringae effector recognition. In addition some pld mutants were more sensitive to n-butanol than wild type. Thus, the effect of mutations of PLDs could become detectable, and the corresponding genes can be proposed to be involved in the HR. Only knockout of PLDδ caused a loss of MTI-induced cell wall based defense against the non-host powdery mildew Erysiphe pisi. This is thus in stark contrast to the involvement of a multitude of PLD isoforms in the HR triggered by AvrRpm1 recognition.

  11. Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: Effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistance of seeds for ionizing radiation effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds were investigated by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement. Two types of free radicals, such as long-lived (LL) and super-long-lived (SL) radicals, were produced by the γ-irradiation in the seeds. More than 90% of the 1 kGy-irradiated-seeds can germinate probably by decreasing the LL radicals by absorbing water. 10 kGy-irradiated-seeds cannot germinate at all probably due to the existence of significant amounts of the SL radicals even after absorbing water. (author)

  12. Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: Effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Jun E-mail: kumagai@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiromi; Kumada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of seeds for ionizing radiation effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds were investigated by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement. Two types of free radicals, such as long-lived (LL) and super-long-lived (SL) radicals, were produced by the {gamma}-irradiation in the seeds. More than 90% of the 1 kGy-irradiated-seeds can germinate probably by decreasing the LL radicals by absorbing water. 10 kGy-irradiated-seeds cannot germinate at all probably due to the existence of significant amounts of the SL radicals even after absorbing water. (author)

  13. Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: Effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Jun; Katoh, Hiromi; Kumada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of seeds for ionizing radiation effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds were investigated by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement. Two types of free radicals, such as long-lived (LL) and super-long-lived (SL) radicals, were produced by the γ-irradiation in the seeds. More than 90% of the 1 kGy-irradiated-seeds can germinate probably by decreasing the LL radicals by absorbing water. 10 kGy-irradiated-seeds cannot germinate at all probably due to the existence of significant amounts of the SL radicals even after absorbing water.

  14. Rhamnolipids elicit defense responses and induce disease resistance against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic pathogens that require different signaling pathways in Arabidopsis and highlight a central role for salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lisa; Courteaux, Barbara; Hubert, Jane; Kauffmann, Serge; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan

    2012-11-01

    Plant resistance to phytopathogenic microorganisms mainly relies on the activation of an innate immune response usually launched after recognition by the plant cells of microbe-associated molecular patterns. The plant hormones, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and ethylene have emerged as key players in the signaling networks involved in plant immunity. Rhamnolipids (RLs) are glycolipids produced by bacteria and are involved in surface motility and biofilm development. Here we report that RLs trigger an immune response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) characterized by signaling molecules accumulation and defense gene activation. This immune response participates to resistance against the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We show that RL-mediated resistance involves different signaling pathways that depend on the type of pathogen. Ethylene is involved in RL-induced resistance to H. arabidopsidis and to P. syringae pv tomato whereas jasmonic acid is essential for the resistance to B. cinerea. SA participates to the restriction of all pathogens. We also show evidence that SA-dependent plant defenses are potentiated by RLs following challenge by B. cinerea or P. syringae pv tomato. These results highlight a central role for SA in RL-mediated resistance. In addition to the activation of plant defense responses, antimicrobial properties of RLs are thought to participate in the protection against the fungus and the oomycete. Our data highlight the intricate mechanisms involved in plant protection triggered by a new type of molecule that can be perceived by plant cells and that can also act directly onto pathogens. PMID:22968829

  15. Trichoderma-induced plant immunity likely involves both hormonal- and camalexin-dependent mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana and confers resistance against necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Beltrán-Peña, Elda; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; López-Bucio, José

    2011-10-01

    Filamentous fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma have long been recognized as agents for the biocontrol of plant diseases. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the defense responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings elicited by co-culture with Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride. Interaction of plant roots with fungal mycelium induced growth and defense responses, indicating that both processes are not inherently antagonist. Expression studies of the pathogenesis-related reporter markers pPr1a:uidA and pLox2:uidA in response to T. virens or T. atroviride provided evidence that the defense signaling pathway activated by these fungi involves salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA) depending on the amount of conidia inoculated. Moreover, we found that Arabidopsis seedlings colonized by Trichoderma accumulated hydrogen peroxide and camalexin in leaves. When grown under axenic conditions, T. virens produced indole-3-carboxaldehyde (ICAld) a tryptophan-derived compound with activity in plant development. In Arabidopsis seedlings whose roots are in contact with T. virens or T. atroviride, and challenged with Botrytis cinerea in leaves, disease severity was significantly reduced compared to axenically grown seedlings. Our results indicate that the defense responses elicited by Trichoderma in Arabidopsis are complex and involve the canonical defense hormones SA and JA as well as camalexin, which may be important factors in boosting plant immunity. PMID:21931272

  16. Trichoderma-induced plant immunity likely involves both hormonal- and camalexin-dependent mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana and confers resistance against necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Beltrán-Peña, Elda; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; López-Bucio, José

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma have long been recognized as agents for the biocontrol of plant diseases. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the defense responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings elicited by co-culture with Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride. Interaction of plant roots with fungal mycelium induced growth and defense responses, indicating that both processes are not inherently antagonist. Expression studies of the pathogen...

  17. Production of Salicylic Acid Precursors Is a Major Function of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in the Resistance of Arabidopsis to Peronospora parasitica

    OpenAIRE

    Slusarenko, A. J.; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col-0) seedlings, transformed with a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 promoter (PAL1)--glucuronidase (GUS) reporter construct, were inoculated with virulent and avirulent isolates of Peronospora parasitica. The PAL1 promoter was constitutively active in the light in vascular tissue but was induced only in the vicinity of fungal structures in the incompatible interaction. A double-staining procedure was developed to distinguish between GUS activity and fungal struct...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241202 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241202 J065122B10 At3g20600.1 68416.m02607 non-race specific disease resistance protein (NDR1) ... protein (NDR1) GB:AF021346 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Science ... 278 (5345), 1963-1965 (1997)) 2e-11 ...

  19. Effects of natural and synthetic auxins on the gravitropic growth habit of roots in two auxin-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis, axr1 and axr4: evidence for defects in the auxin influx mechanism of axr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, K. T.

    1999-01-01

    The partially agravitropic growth habit of roots of an auxin-resistant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, axr4, was restored by the addition of 30-300 nM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to the growth medium. Neither indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) nor 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed such an effect. Growth of axr4 roots was resistant to IAA and 2,4-D, but not at all to NAA. The differential effects of the three auxins suggest that the defects of axr4 result from a lower auxin influx into its cells. The partially agravitropic growth habit of axr1 roots, which was less severe than that of axr4 roots, was only slightly affected by the three auxins in the growth medium at concentrations up to 300 nM; growth of axr1 roots was resistant to all three of the auxins. These results suggest that the lesion of axrl mutants is different from that of axr4.

  20. Metabolic and transcriptomic changes induced in Arabidopsis by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Dekkers, E.; Pineda, A.; Guillod, L.; Bouwmeester, K.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic resistance induced in plants by nonpathogenic rhizobacteria is typically effective against multiple pathogens. Here, we show that root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 (Pf.SS101) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) against several bacterial pathogens, in

  1. Melatonin-induced CBF/DREB1s are essential for diurnal change of disease resistance and CCA1 expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wei, Yunxie; He, Chaozu

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an important regulator of circadian rhythms and immunity in animals. However, the diurnal changes of endogenous melatonin and melatonin-mediated diurnal change of downstream responses remain unclear in Arabidopsis. Using the publicly available microarray data, we found that the transcript levels of two melatonin synthesis genes (serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT)) and endogenous melatonin level were regulated by diurnal cycles, with different magnitudes of change. Moreover, the transcripts of C-repeat-binding factors (CBFs)/Drought response element Binding 1 factors (DREB1s) were co-regulated by exogenous melatonin and diurnal changes, indicating the possible correlation among clock, endogenous melatonin level and AtCBFs expressions. Interestingly, diurnal change of plant immunity against Pst DC3000 and CIRCADIANCLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) expression were largely lost in AtCBFs knockdown line-amiR-1. Taken together, this study identifies the molecular pathway underlying the diurnal changes of immunity in Arabidopsis. Notably, the diurnal changes of endogenous melatonin may regulate corresponding changes of AtCBF/DREB1s expression and their underlying diurnal cycle of plant immunity and AtCCA1. PMID:26828406

  2. Are Bacterial Volatile Compounds Poisonous Odors to a Fungal Pathogen Botrytis cinerea, Alarm Signals to Arabidopsis Seedlings for Eliciting Induced Resistance, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Rouhallah; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Biological control (biocontrol) agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR). Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Eme...

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant uncouples the constitutive activation of salicylic acid signalling from growth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swain, S.; Roy, S.; Shah, J.; Wees, S.C.M. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Nandi, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis genotypes with a hyperactive salicylic acidmediated signalling pathway exhibit enhanced disease resistance, which is often coupled with growth and developmental defects, such as dwarfing and spontaneous necrotic lesions on the leaves, resulting in reduced biomass yield. In this article,

  4. Diuretics prime plant immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Noutoshi

    Full Text Available Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application.

  5. Arabidopsis in Wageningen

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant species that in the past 25 years has developed into the major model species in plant biology research. This was due to its properties such as short generation time, its small genome and its easiness to be transformed. Wageningen University has played an important role in the development of this model, based on interdisciplinary collaborations using genetics as a major tool to investigate aspects of physiology, development, plant-microbe interactions and evol...

  6. Enhanced Expression and Activation of the Alternative Oxidase during Infection of Arabidopsis with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Bert H.; Millenaar, F.F.; Mulder, Lonneke; Loon, L.C. van; Lambers, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Cyanide-resistant ("alternative") respiration was studied in Arabidopsis during incompatible and compatible infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Total leaf respiration increased as the leaves became necrotic, as did the cyanideresistant component that was sensitive to salicylhydroxa

  7. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole;

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially......Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been...

  8. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  9. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    resistance. I attempt to determine how the basic resistance components contribute to resistance against powdery mildews. Furthermore, I propose an alternative strategy of achieving resistance to barley powdery mildew by application of peptide aptamers. Peptide aptamers are small proteins selected to...... specifically target conserved YxC motif of barley powdery mildew effectors. I present a proof-of-concept study in Arabidopsis, where overexpression of peptide aptamers significantly reduced the susceptibility to barley powdery mildew. Moreover, I set the discovery in a bigger context by summarizing genetic...

  10. Phosphoproteomic studies in Arabidopsis and tobacco male gametophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Fíla, J. (Jan); Čapková, V. (Věra); Honys, D. (David)

    2014-01-01

    Mature pollen represents an extremely resistant quiescent structure surrounded by a tough cell wall. After its hydration on stigma papillary cells, pollen tube growth starts rapidly. Massive metabolic changes are likely to be accompanied by changes in protein phosphorylation. Protein phosphorylation belongs among the most rapid post-translational modifications. To date, only Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) mature pollen have been subjected to phosphoproteomic studies in o...

  11. Protein kinase GCN2 mediates responses to glyphosate in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Faus, I.; ZABALZA OSTOS, ANA Mª; Santiago, J.; González Nebauer, Sergio; Royuela, M.; Serrano, R; J Gadea

    2015-01-01

    Background The increased selection pressure of the herbicide glyphosate has played a role in the evolution of glyphosate-resistance in weedy species, an issue that is becoming a threat to global agriculture. The molecular components involved in the cellular toxicity response to this herbicide at the expression level are still unidentified. Results In this study, we identify the protein kinase GCN2 as a cellular component that fosters the action of glyphosate in the model plant Arabidopsis tha...

  12. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  13. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  14. Phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis mutants: oomycete pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Joseph D

    2009-10-01

    Various fungal pathogens are used in Arabidopsis pathogen studies, including Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea, and others. The oomycete pathogen Peronospora parasitica has been used by several groups and is described in this protocol. Working with Peronospora is complicated by the fact that it is an obligate biotroph, and consequently cultures must be maintained on living plants. There is no central repository for Peronospora stocks, but most investigators who work with them are willing to provide samples of infected tissue. These can be used to initiate new stock cultures, or they can be maintained as live cultures on seedlings. One of the most important factors in maintaining Peronospora is the humidity of the growth chamber, which must be kept at a minimum of 80%. Various Peronospora isolates are available. These vary with respect to which Arabidopsis ecotypes they can infect, because some combinations trigger gene-for-gene resistance. Thus, it is important that the appropriate ecotype is inoculated with the appropriate strain of pathogen. The extent of infections can be rated or quantitatively measured as the number of spores produced per plant, and frozen tissue stocks can be prepared from heavily infected tissue. PMID:20147042

  15. The role of Arabidopsis transcription factors WRKY18 and WRKY40 in plant immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Schön, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Two related Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors, WRKY18 and WRKY40, are induced upon infection with the obligate biotrophic powdery mildew, Golovinomyces orontii (G. orontii), during early stages of infection. WRKY18 and WRKY40 negatively regulate host resistance as wrky18wrky40 double mutants are resistant towards this fungus. Differential expression of hormone biosynthesis and response genes between susceptible wildtype and resistant wrky18wrky40 plants suggested a crucial role of ho...

  16. Intragenic recombination in the CSR1 locus of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, G; Haughn, G; King, J

    1994-04-01

    Four classes of herbicides are known to inhibit plant acetolactate synthase (ALS). In Arabidopsis, ALS is encoded by a single gene, CSR1. The dominant csr1-1 allele encodes an ALS resistant to chlorsulfuron and triazolopyrimidine sulfonamide while the dominant csr1-2 allele encodes an ALS resistant to imazapyr and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoate. The molecular distance between the point mutations in csr1-1 and csr1-2 is 1369 bp. Here we used multiherbicide resistance as a stringent selection to measure the intragenic recombination frequency between these two point mutations. We found this frequency to be 0.008 +/- 0.0028. The recombinant multiherbicide-resistant allele, csr1-4, provides an ideal marker for plant genetic transformation. PMID:8177214

  17. Genomics of Disease Resistance Loci in Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine resistance (R) genes have been cloned in rice, barley, and maize out of three dozen R genes cloned in other crop plants including Arabidopsis. Two of the nine genes, mlo and Hml in barley and maize, respectively, do not belong to any characterized family of R genes. Many resistance gene analogs...

  18. Identification of genes affecting the response of tomato and Arabidopsis upon powdery mildew infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, D.

    2014-01-01

      Many plant species are hosts of powdery mildew fungi, including Arabidopsis and economically important crops such as wheat, barley and tomato. Resistance has been explored using induced mutagenesis and natural variation in the plant species. The isolated genes encompass loss-of-function susc

  19. Overexpression of the PointMutated Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Alters Resis-tance to Valine and Enhances Production of Valine inArabidopsis%过表达拟南芥点突变乙酰羟酸合成酶基因改变植物对缬氨酸的抗性及增强缬氨酸合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菲佚; 焦成瑾; 王太术; 田春芳; 谢尚强; 刘亚萍

    2015-01-01

    拟南芥乙酰羟酸合成酶(acetohydroxyacid synthase, AHAS)在支链氨基酸合成中具有重要的作用。为考察AHAS不同亚基关键位点突变对植物缬氨酸抗性与缬氨酸合成的影响,对AHAS大小亚基上特定位点进行体外突变,构建AHAS点突变过表达转基因植物,研究AHAS不同亚基点突变转基因植物对缬氨酸抗性及其合成的影响。研究结果表明: AHAS小亚基G88D突变解除了终端产物对该酶的反馈抑制作用,使转基因植物缬氨酸含量提高。大亚基E305D突变增强小亚基G88D突变效应,而大亚基E482D突变对G88D突变具有相反的作用。AHAS全酶E305DG88D双突变转基因植物较E482DG88D具有更强的缬氨酸抗性表型和更高的缬氨酸含量。这些结果提示AHAS大小亚基间存在着相互作用,大小亚基不同位点突变对AHAS全酶活性具有不同的影响。%Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of brahched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) inArabidopsis. To investigate effects of various speciifc mutated sites harboring in the large and small subunits of AHAS on resistance to valine and production of valine inArabidopsis, transgenic plants overexpressing the point mutated AHAS were generated by site-directed mutagenesis, and the phenotype of re-sistance to valine and production of valine of the transgenic plants were evaluatedin planta. The results showed that the G88D mutation in the small unit of AHAS abolished the feedback-resistant of valine to AHAS and this mutation resulted in increase of valine in the transgenic plants. The E305D mutation in the large unit of AHAS strengthens the effect of the G88D mutation. Interestingly, the E482D mutation in the large unit of AHAS acts antagonistically on the G88D mutation in resistance to valine and production of valine in transgenic plants. Compared with the combined double E482DG88D AHAS mutant transgenic plants, the E305DG88D AHAS transgenic plants exhibited the

  20. Genome-wide comparative analysis of NBS-encoding genes between Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Zhang, Fengqi; Tong, Chaobo; Huang, Junyan; Cheng, Xiaohui; Dong, Caihua; Zhou, Yanqiu; Qin, Rui; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant disease resistance (R) genes with the nucleotide binding site (NBS) play an important role in offering resistance to pathogens. The availability of complete genome sequences of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa provides an important opportunity for researchers to identify and characterize NBS-encoding R genes in Brassica species and to compare with analogues in Arabidopsis thaliana based on a comparative genomics approach. However, little is known about the evolutionary fat...

  1. The glutaredoxin ATGRXS13 is required to facilitate Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants

    OpenAIRE

    Camera, Sylvain La; L’Haridon, Floriane; Astier, Jérémy; Zander, Mark; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Page, Gonzague; Thurow, Corinna; Wendehenne, David; Gatz, Christiane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Lamotte, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a major pre- and post-harvest necrotrophic pathogen with a broad host range that causes substantial crop losses. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the basal resistance against this fungus. Despite basal resistance, virulent strains of B. cinerea can cause disease on Arabidopsis thaliana and virulent pathogens can interfere with the metabolism of the host in a way to facilitate infection of the plant. However, plant genes that are required by the pathogen ...

  2. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Hao Shi; Cheng Zhang; Xiao-Feng Xu; Jun Zhu; Que Zhou; Li-Juan Ma; Jin Niu; Zhong-Nan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Callose synthesis is critical for the formation of the pollen wall pattern. CalS5 is thought to be the major synthethase for the callose wall. In the Arabidopsis anther, ARF17 regulates the expression of CalS5 and is the target of miR160. Plants expressing miR160-resistant ARF17 (35S:5mARF17 lines) with increased ARF17 mRNA levels display male sterility. Here we report a zinc finger family gene, AtTTP, which is involved in miR160 maturation and callose synthesis in Arabidopsis. AtTTP is expre...

  3. Abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis overexpressing the multiprotein bridging factor 1a (MBF1a) transcriptional coactivator gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jung; Lim, Gah-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Seon; Ko, Chang-Beom; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Jeong, Jin-An; Lee, Myung-Chul; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a genetic yeast screen to identify salt tolerance (SAT) genes in a maize kernel cDNA library. During the screening, we identified a maize clone (SAT41) that seemed to confer elevated salt tolerance in comparison to control cells. SAT41 cDNA encodes a 16-kDa protein which is 82.4% identical to the Arabidopsis Multiprotein bridging factor 1a (MBF1a) transcriptional coactivator gene. To further examine salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis, we functionally characterized the MBF1a gene and found that dehydration as well as heightened glucose (Glc) induced MBF1a expression. Constitutive expression of MBF1a in Arabidopsis led to elevated salt tolerance in transgenic lines. Interestingly, plants overexpressing MBF1a exhibited insensitivity to Glc and resistance to fungal disease. Our results suggest that MBF1a is involved in stress tolerance as well as in ethylene and Glc signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:17234157

  4. Mapping moves on Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Kloth, K.J.

    2016-01-01

                    Aphids are pest insects in a wide variety of crops. They penetrate the host plant in order to feed on the sugar-rich phloem sap. Apart from the removal of nutrients from the host, they can transmit plant viruses. To control aphid populations and virus transmission in agriculture, insecticides are applied on a large scale with often negative effects on biodiversity. Improvement of crop resistance to aphids would be a more sustainable pes...

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay,; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide impor...

  6. Selenium Speciation in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoou

    2011-01-01

    Selenium has been proved as an essential micronutrient and is beneficial to animals and humans. It is a structural component of the important antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which catalyzes reactions to detoxify reactive oxygen species. However, the essentiality of Se in plants remains controversial and the protective role of Se in plants has rarely been investigated. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was grown in controlled environments having selenate or selenite enriched medi...

  7. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or meristems stay active throughout plant-life. Specification of stem cells occurs very early during development of the emrbyo and they are maintained during later stages. The Arabidopsis embryo is a hig...

  8. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK106750 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106750 002-115-C09 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104851 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104851 001-043-A10 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100909 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100909 J023132G24 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058950 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058950 001-020-A07 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059821 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059821 006-205-D11 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylu ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064944 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064944 J013000P14 At4g15560.1 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, putative / 1-deoxyxylul ... phate synthase, putative / DXP-synthase, putative (DEF ) (CLA1) identical to SP|Q38854 Probable 1-deoxy-D- ... (DXPS). [Mouse-ear cress] {Arabidopsis thaliana}, DEF ... (def icient in photosynthesis) protein [Arabidopsis ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068400 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068400 J013151M04 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066013 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066013 J013047I12 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100241 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100241 J023054P13 At3g45810.1 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component family protein sim ... ilar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318553 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318553 J075145A22 At3g45810.1 68416.m04958 ferric reductase-like transmembrane component famil ... y protein similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ... EMBL:AF055357 [gi:3242789], similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase protein D RbohD from Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

  19. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) genetic…

  20. The Quantitative Basis of the Arabidopsis Innate Immune System to Endemic Pathogens Depends on Pathogen Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Jason A; Copeland, Daniel; Feusier, Julie; Subedy, Anushriya; Eshbaugh, Robert; Palmer, Christine; Maloof, Julin; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    The most established model of the eukaryotic innate immune system is derived from examples of large effect monogenic quantitative resistance to pathogens. However, many host-pathogen interactions involve many genes of small to medium effect and exhibit quantitative resistance. We used the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B. cinerea, we identified a total of 2,982 genes associated with quantitative resistance using lesion area and 3,354 genes associated with camalexin production as measures of the interaction. Most genes were associated with resistance to a specific Botrytis isolate, which demonstrates the influence of pathogen genetic variation in analyzing host quantitative resistance. While known resistance genes, such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs), were found to be enriched among associated genes, they only account for a small fraction of the total genes associated with quantitative resistance. Using publically available co-expression data, we condensed the quantitative resistance associated genes into co-expressed gene networks. GO analysis of these networks implicated several biological processes commonly connected to disease resistance, including defense hormone signaling and ROS production, as well as novel processes, such as leaf development. Validation of single gene T-DNA knockouts in a Col-0 background demonstrate a high success rate (60%) when accounting for differences in environmental and Botrytis genetic variation. This study shows that the genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system is extremely complex and is likely able to sense and respond to differential virulence among pathogen genotypes. PMID:26866607

  1. Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation technique: a rapid and reliable assay for studying plant-bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppalapati Srinivasa R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem is one of the most widely used systems to understand the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis and plant innate immunity. Several inoculation methods have been used to study plant-pathogen interactions in this model system. However, none of the methods reported to date are similar to those occurring in nature and amicable to large-scale mutant screens. Results In this study, we developed a rapid and reliable seedling flood-inoculation method based on young Arabidopsis seedlings grown on MS medium. This method has several advantages over conventional soil-grown plant inoculation assays, including a shorter growth and incubation period, ease of inoculation and handling, uniform infection and disease development, requires less growth chamber space and is suitable for high-throughput screens. In this study we demonstrated the efficacy of the Arabidopsis seedling assay to study 1 the virulence factors of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, including type III protein secretion system (TTSS and phytotoxin coronatine (COR; 2 the effector-triggered immunity; and 3 Arabidopsis mutants affected in salicylic acid (SA- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs-mediated pathways. Furthermore, we applied this technique to study nonhost resistance (NHR responses in Arabidopsis using nonhost pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. tabaci, pv. glycinea and pv. tomato T1, and confirmed the functional role of FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 in NHR. Conclusions The Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation assay provides a rapid, efficient and economical method for studying Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas interactions with minimal growth chamber space and time. This assay could also provide an excellent system for investigating the virulence mechanisms of P. syringae. Using this method, we demonstrated that FLS2 plays a critical role in conferring NHR against nonhost pathovars of P. syringae, but not to

  2. New insights into the roles of ethylene and jasmonic acid in the acquisition of selenium resistance in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaoki, Masanori; Freeman, JL; Marqusè, L; Pilon-Smits, EAH

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper, we reported that both ethylene and jasmonic acid (JA) are important for selenium (Se) resistance in Arabidopsis.1 Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species were associated with ethylene and JA production in a Se-resistant Arabidopsis ecotype. Here, we further discuss the functions of these phytohormones, and their possible interactions, in plant Se resistance and -accumulation, placing our data in a broader perspective of other recently published papers.

  3. Colonization of Arabidopsis roots by Pseudomonas fluorescens primes the plant to produce higher levels of ethylene upon pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hase, S.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Plants develop an enhanced defensive capacity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens after colonization of the roots by selected strains of non-pathogenic, fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) functions independently of salic

  4. Transgenic expression of Lactoferrin imparts resistance to a soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Xanthi) and Arabidopsis (A. thaliana) plants expressing an antimicrobial bovine lactoferrin (BLF) gene were developed and evaluated for resistance against an economically important fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of damping off diseases....

  5. AtPIN: Arabidopsis thaliana Protein Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Filho Marcio C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs constitute one of the most crucial conditions to sustain life in living organisms. To study PPI in Arabidopsis thaliana we have developed AtPIN, a database and web interface for searching and building interaction networks based on publicly available protein-protein interaction datasets. Description All interactions were divided into experimentally demonstrated or predicted. The PPIs in the AtPIN database present a cellular compartment classification (C3 which divides the PPI into 4 classes according to its interaction evidence and subcellular localization. It has been shown in the literature that a pair of genuine interacting proteins are generally expected to have a common cellular role and proteins that have common interaction partners have a high chance of sharing a common function. In AtPIN, due to its integrative profile, the reliability index for a reported PPI can be postulated in terms of the proportion of interaction partners that two proteins have in common. For this, we implement the Functional Similarity Weight (FSW calculation for all first level interactions present in AtPIN database. In order to identify target proteins of cytosolic glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (Cyt-gluRS (AT5G26710 we combined two approaches, AtPIN search and yeast two-hybrid screening. Interestingly, the proteins glutamine synthetase (AT5G35630, a disease resistance protein (AT3G50950 and a zinc finger protein (AT5G24930, which has been predicted as target proteins for Cyt-gluRS by AtPIN, were also detected in the experimental screening. Conclusions AtPIN is a friendly and easy-to-use tool that aggregates information on Arabidopsis thaliana PPIs, ontology, and sub-cellular localization, and might be a useful and reliable strategy to map protein-protein interactions in Arabidopsis. AtPIN can be accessed at http://bioinfo.esalq.usp.br/atpin.

  6. The Arabidopsis NIMIN proteins affect NPR1 differentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike eHermann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1 is the central regulator of the pathogen defense reaction systemic acquired resistance (SAR. NPR1 acts by sensing the SAR signal molecule salicylic acid (SA to induce expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR genes. Mechanistically, NPR1 is the core of a transcription complex interacting with TGA transcription factors and NIM1 INTERACTING (NIMIN proteins. Arabidopsis NIMIN1 has been shown to suppress NPR1 activity in transgenic plants. The Arabidopsis NIMIN family comprises four structurally related, yet distinct members. Here, we show that NIMIN1, NIMIN2 and NIMIN3 are expressed differentially, and that the encoded proteins affect expression of the SAR marker PR-1 differentially. NIMIN3 is expressed constitutively at a low level, but NIMIN2 and NIMIN1 are both responsive to SA. While NIMIN2 is an immediate early SA-induced and NPR1-independent gene, NIMIN1 is activated after NIMIN2, but clearly before PR-1. Notably, NIMIN1, like PR-1, depends on NPR1. In a transient assay system, NIMIN3 suppresses SA-induced PR-1 expression, albeit to a lesser extent than NIMIN1, whereas NIMIN2 does not negatively affect PR-1 gene activation. Furthermore, although binding to the same domain in the C-terminus, NIMIN1 and NIMIN2 interact differentially with NPR1, thus providing a molecular basis for their opposing effects on NPR1. Together, our data suggest that the Arabidopsis NIMIN proteins are regulators of the SAR response. We propose that NIMINs act in a strictly consecutive and SA-regulated manner on the SA sensor protein NPR1, enabling NPR1 to monitor progressing threat by pathogens and to promote appropriate defense gene activation at distinct stages of SAR. In this scenario, the defense gene PR-1 is repressed at the onset of SAR by SA-induced, yet instable NIMIN1.

  7. A geographic cline in leaf salicylic acid with increasing elevation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nana; Tonsor, Stephen J; Traw, M. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) occupies a key role as a hormone central to both plant resistance to bacterial pathogens and tolerance of abiotic stresses. Plants at high elevation experience colder temperatures and elevated UV levels. While it has been predicted that SA concentrations will be higher in plants from high elevation populations, few studies have addressed this question. Here, we asked how concentrations of SA vary in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana collected across an elevationa...

  8. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Verica Joseph; Liu Yi; Maximova Siela N; Shi Zi; Guiltinan Mark J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1) that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theo...

  9. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshkhah, R.; Cabello, S.; Rozanska, E.; Sobczak, M.; Grundler, F. M. W.; Wieczorek, K.; Hofmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the...

  10. Bemisia tabaci B-Arabidopsis Interactions Examined by Electrical Penetration Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jaclyn Shuzhen

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of strong resistance mechanisms to control the world-wide pest Bemisia tabaci B, new methods for control must be derived from understanding the plant innate immune response to whiteflies. Using four Arabidopsis defense-signaling mutants, transcriptome and hormone treatment studies, it was shown that B. tabaci B activates SA-regulated defenses, suppresses JA-regulated defenses, and the JA-defenses are effective in slowing whitefly nymphal development. Here we used the Ele...

  11. Wounding of Arabidopsis leaves causes a powerful but transient protection against Botrytis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chassot, Céline; Buchala, Antony; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Lamotte, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Physical injury inflicted on living tissue makes it vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. Wounding of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, however, does not conform to this concept and leads to immunity to Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. In wounded leaves, hyphal growth was strongly inhibited compared to unwounded controls. Wound-induced resistance was not associated with salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid- or ethylene-dependent defence responses. The phytoalexin camalexin was found to b...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119708 002-157-E08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060981 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060981 006-202-H08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111736 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111736 J023047L09 At1g68370.1 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... protein ... (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070093 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070093 J023041M10 At2g39290.1 phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGS1) identical to phosphati...dylglycerolphosphate synthase GI:13365519 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-78 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060009 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060009 006-302-D03 At2g39290.1 phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGS1) identical to phosphati...dylglycerolphosphate synthase GI:13365519 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 8e-71 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058419 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058419 001-015-D06 At4g16280.3 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) identical to S ... P|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073225 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073225 J033023C04 At4g16280.3 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) identical to SP ... |O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102695 J033103F21 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102134 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102134 J033085F12 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066835 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066835 J013087I16 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-171 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065259 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065259 J013002J18 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100523 J023100P04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to sulfate tansporter Sultr1;3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:10716805; contains Pfam profile PF00916: Sulfate... transporter family; contains Pfam profile PF01740: STAS domain; contains TIGRfam profile TIGR00815: sulfate permease 1e-145 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288002 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288002 J075110B01 At1g68510.1 68414.m07826 LOB domain protein 42 ... / lateral organ boundaries do ... main protein 42 ... (LBD42 ) identical to LOB DOMAIN 42 ... [Arabidopsis th ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241043 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 2e-41 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243135 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upted by a stop codon, creating non-consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. 7e-43 ... ...tical to SP|P92997 Germin-like protein subfamily 1 member 13 precursor {Arabidopsis thaliana}; exon 2 interr

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111785 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111785 J023089N11 At5g62310.1 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kinase, putative ... nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243050 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243050 J100011E04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242758 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242758 J090051H03 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242717 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242717 J090043H19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288095 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288095 J075191E21 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242638 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242638 J090023J02 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242651 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242651 J090026B08 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287631 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287631 J065073J24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288923 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288923 J090081P06 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242271 J075187A19 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242681 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242681 J090032N04 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241519 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241519 J065170E12 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240655 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240655 J023135E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242733 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242733 J090047O22 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242859 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242859 J090073L24 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243187 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243187 J100039E11 At5g62310.1 68418.m07822 incomplete root hair ... elongation (IRE) / protein kin ... putative nearly identical to IRE (incomplete root hair ... elongation) [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|6729346|dbj| ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242550 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242550 J080319D10 At2g35630.1 68415.m04369 microtubule organization 1 protein (MO...R1) identical to microtubule organization 1 protein GI:14317953 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-44 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101368 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101368 J033035L13 At5g24270.1 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... homolog (S ... OS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111570 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111570 J013071C24 At5g24270.1 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... homolog (S ... OS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243065 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243065 J100015N03 At5g24270.1 68418.m02855 calcineurin B-like protein, putative / calcium sensor ... or homolog (SOS3) identical to calcium sensor ... homolog [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3309575; similar ...

  9. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070528 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070528 J023060D13 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... supe ... roxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119904 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119904 002-182-A05 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104030 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104030 001-020-C01 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104160 006-211-E09 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manganese ... sup ... eroxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese ... superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|327 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287459 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287459 J043019O07 At4g37000.1 68417.m05242 accelerated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) identical to accele ... rated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) GI:12484129 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288034 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288034 J075140H07 At4g37000.1 68417.m05242 accelerated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) identical to accele ... rated cell death ... 2 (ACD2) GI:12484129 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111576 J013075J23 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120838 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120838 J023022B11 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly id...entical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profile

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111921 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111921 001-013-A10 At1g01510.1 C-terminal binding protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) nearly i...dentical to C-terminal binding protein ANGUSTIFOLIA [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:15408535; contains Pfam profil

  19. Overexpression of Actinidia deliciosa pyruvate decarboxylase 1 gene enhances waterlogging stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Yu; Huang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Gang; Xuan, Ji-Ping; Guo, Zhong-Ren

    2016-09-01

    Ethanolic fermentation is classically associated with waterlogging tolerance when plant cells switch from respiration to anaerobic fermentation. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which catalyzes the first step in this pathway, is thought to be the main regulatory enzyme. Here, we cloned a full-length PDC cDNA sequence from kiwifruit, named AdPDC1. We determined the expression of the AdPDC1 gene in kiwifruit under different environmental stresses using qRT-PCR, and the results showed that the increase of AdPDC1 expression during waterlogging stress was much higher than that during salt, cold, heat and drought stresses. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced the resistance to waterlogging stress but could not enhance resistance to cold stress at five weeks old seedlings. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis could not enhance resistance to NaCl and mannitol stresses at the stage of seed germination and in early seedlings. These results suggested that the kiwifruit AdPDC1 gene is required during waterlogging but might not be required during other environmental stresses. Expression of the AdPDC1 gene was down-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in kiwifruit, and overexpression of the AdPDC1 gene in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and root length under ABA treatment, indicating that ABA might negatively regulate the AdPDC1 gene under waterlogging stress. PMID:27191596

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073140 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK073140 J033022I01 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-168 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120439 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK120439 J013098H20 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-154 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121378 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK121378 J023127F14 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozy... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-142 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains a Ser/Thr protein...AK063856 001-122-D05 At2g39840.1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein... phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 isoz... phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 6e-46 ...

  4. Terpene Specialized Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Tholl, Dorothea; Lee, Sungbeom

    2011-01-01

    Terpenes constitute the largest class of plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites, which are compounds of ecological function in plant defense or the attraction of beneficial organisms. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, nearly all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) enzymes of the core biosynthetic pathways producing the 5-carbon building blocks of terpenes have been characterized and closer insight has been gained into the transcriptional and posttranscriptional/translational mech...

  5. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1 that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theobroma cacao NPR1 cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR using degenerate primers based on homologous sequences from Brassica, Arabidopsis and Carica papaya. The cDNA was used to isolate a genomic clone from Theobroma cacao containing a putative TcNPR1 gene. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of a 4.5 kb coding region containing three introns and encoding a polypeptide of 591 amino acids. The predicted TcNPR1 protein shares 55% identity and 78% similarity to Arabidopsis NPR1, and contains each of the highly conserved functional domains indicative of this class of transcription factors (BTB/POZ and ankyrin repeat protein-protein interaction domains and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS. To functionally define the TcNPR1 gene, we transferred TcNPR1 into an Arabidopsis npr1 mutant that is highly susceptible to infection by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, the cacao TcNPR1 gene partially complemented the npr1 mutation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, resulting in 100 fold less bacterial growth in a leaf infection assay. Upon induction with SA, TcNPR1 was shown to translocate into the nucleus of leaf and root cells in a manner identical to Arabidopsis NPR1. Cacao NPR1 was also capable of participating in SA-JA signaling crosstalk, as evidenced by the suppression of JA responsive gene expression in TcNPR1 overexpressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Our data indicate that the TcNPR1 is a functional

  6. Biochemical and structural properties of cyanases from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Qian

    Full Text Available Cyanate is toxic to all organisms. Cyanase converts cyanate to CO₂ and NH₃ in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction. The biophysical functions and biochemical characteristics of plant cyanases are poorly studied, although it has been investigated in a variety of proteobacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi. In this study, we characterised plant cyanases from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (AtCYN and OsCYN. Prokaryotic-expressed AtCYN and OsCYN both showed cyanase activity in vitro. Temperature had a similar influence on the activity of both cyanases, but pH had a differential impact on AtCYN and OsCYN activity. Homology modelling provided models of monomers of AtCYN and OsCYN, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay and gel filtration indicated that AtCYN and OsCYN formed homodecamers. The analysis of single-residue mutants of AtCYN indicated that the conserved catalytic residues also contributed to the stability of the homodecamer. KCNO treatment inhibited Arabidopsis germination and early seedling growth. Plants containing AtCYN or OsCYN exhibited resistance to KCNO stress, which demonstrated that one role of cyanases in plants is detoxification. Transcription level of AtCYN was higher in the flower than in other organs of Arabidopsis. AtCYN transcription was not significantly affected by KCNO treatment in Arabidopsis, but was induced by salt stress. This research broadens our knowledge on plant detoxification of cyanate via cyanase.

  7. Phosphate availability alters architecture and causes changes in hormone sensitivity in the Arabidopsis root system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bucio, José; Hernández-Abreu, Esmeralda; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Nieto-Jacobo, María Fernanda; Simpson, June; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2002-05-01

    The postembryonic developmental program of the plant root system is plastic and allows changes in root architecture to adapt to environmental conditions such as water and nutrient availability. Among essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) often limits plant productivity because of its low mobility in soil. Therefore, the architecture of the root system may determine the capacity of the plant to acquire this nutrient. We studied the effect of P availability on the development of the root system in Arabidopsis. We found that at P-limiting conditions (increase in auxin sensitivity in the roots of P-deprived Arabidopsis seedlings. It was also found that the axr1-3, axr2-1, and axr4-1 Arabidopsis mutants have normal responses to low P availability conditions, whereas the iaa28-1 mutant shows resistance to the stimulatory effects of low P on root hair and lateral root formation. Analysis of ethylene signaling mutants and treatments with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid showed that ethylene does not promote lateral root formation under P deprivation. These results suggest that in Arabidopsis, auxin sensitivity may play a fundamental role in the modifications of root architecture by P availability. PMID:12011355

  8. The relationship between codon usage bias and cold resistant genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is based on synonymous codon usage which has been well-known as a feature that affects typical expression level of protein in an organism. Different organisms prefer different codons for same amino acid and this is called Codon Usage Bias (CUB). The codon usage directly affects the level or even direction of changes in protein expression in responses to environmental stimuli. Cold stress is a major abiotic factor that limits the agricultural productivity of plants. In the recent study CUB has been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana cold resistant and housekeeping genes and their homologs in rice (Oryza sativa) to understand the cold stress and housekeeping genes relation with CUB. Six cold resistant and three housekeeping genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and their homologs in rice, were subjected to CUB analysis. The three cold resistant genes (DREB1B, RCI and MYB15) showed more than 50% (52%, 61% and 66% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. On the other hand three cold resistant genes (MPK3, ICE1 and ZAT12) showed less than 50% (38%, 38% and 47% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. The three housekeeping genes (Actin, Tubulin and Ubiquitin) showed 76% similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. This study will help to manage the plant gene expression through codon optimization under the cold stress. (author)

  9. Advances in Arabidopsis research in China from 2006 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; ZUO JianRu; YANG WeiCai

    2007-01-01

    @@ Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant species, has a number of advantages over other plant species as an experimental organism due to many of its genetic and genomic features. The Chinese Arabidopsis community has made significant contributions to plant biology research in recent years[1,2]. In 2006, studies of plant biology in China received more attention than ever before, especially those pertaining to Arabidopsis research. Here we briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  10. Melatonin induces the transcripts of CBF/DREB1s and their involvement in both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Qian, Yongqiang; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a naturally occurring small molecule that acts as an important secondary messenger in plant stress responses. However, the mechanism underlying the melatonin-mediated signaling pathway in plant stress responses has not been established. C-repeat-binding factors (CBFs)/Drought response element Binding 1 factors (DREB1s) encode transcription factors that play important roles in plant stress responses. This study has determined that endogenous melatonin and transcripts level of CBFs (AtCBF1, AtCBF2, and AtCBF3) in Arabidopsis leaves were significantly induced by salt, drought, and cold stresses and by pathogen Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection. Moreover, both exogenous melatonin treatment and overexpression of CBFs conferred enhanced resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Notably, AtCBFs and exogenous melatonin treatment positively regulated the mRNA expression of several stress-responsive genes (COR15A, RD22, and KIN1) and accumulation of soluble sugars content such as sucrose in Arabidopsis under control and stress conditions. Additionally, exogenous sucrose also conferred improved resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Taken together, this study indicates that AtCBFs confer enhanced resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses, and AtCBF-mediated signaling pathway and sugar accumulation may be involved in melatonin-mediated stress response in Arabidopsis, at least partially. PMID:26182834

  11. A rapid and robust method of identifying transformed Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings following floral dip transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray John C

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral dip method of transformation by immersion of inflorescences in a suspension of Agrobacterium is the method of choice for Arabidopsis transformation. The presence of a marker, usually antibiotic- or herbicide-resistance, allows identification of transformed seedlings from untransformed seedlings. Seedling selection is a lengthy process which does not always lead to easily identifiable transformants. Selection for kanamycin-, phosphinothricin- and hygromycin B-resistance commonly takes 7–10 d and high seedling density and fungal contamination may result in failure to recover transformants. Results A method for identifying transformed seedlings in as little as 3.25 d has been developed. Arabidopsis T1 seeds obtained after floral dip transformation are plated on 1% agar containing MS medium and kanamycin, phosphinothricin or hygromycin B, as appropriate. After a 2-d stratification period, seeds are subjected to a regime of 4–6 h light, 48 h dark and 24 h light (3.25 d. Kanamycin-resistant and phosphinothricin-resistant seedlings are easily distinguished from non-resistant seedlings by green expanded cotyledons whereas non-resistant seedlings have pale unexpanded cotyledons. Seedlings grown on hygromycin B differ from those grown on kanamycin and phosphinothricin as both resistant and non-resistant seedlings are green. However, hygromycin B-resistant seedlings are easily identified as they have long hypocotyls (0.8–1.0 cm whereas non-resistant seedlings have short hypocotyls (0.2–0.4 cm. Conclusion The method presented here is an improvement on current selection methods as it allows quicker identification of transformed seedlings: transformed seedlings are easily discernable from non-transformants in as little as 3.25 d in comparison to the 7–10 d required for selection using current protocols.

  12. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  13. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3–67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. -- Highlights: ► Iron nanoparticles were synthesized and assessed for bioavailability to Arabidopsis. ► Arabidopsis grew better in the presence of EDTA-bound iron than nanoparticulate iron. ► Arabidopsis grew the same in the presence of nanoparticulate iron compared to no iron. -- Synthesized iron nanoparticles were not bioavailable to Arabidopsis thaliana in agar nutrient media

  14. Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jamison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.

  15. Defence responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to infection by Pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000, with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime.

  16. Isolation and Functional Analysis of ZmLTP3, a Homologue to Arabidopsis LTP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hui Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are encoded by multigene families and play important roles in plant physiology. One full-length cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis LTP3 homologue was isolated from maize by RT-PCR and named as ZmLTP3. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ZmLTP3 expression is induced by salicylic acid (SA, mannitol and salt. Furthermore, in different tissues the ZmLTP3 displayed different expression patterns, indicating that ZmLTP3 may play multiple roles in stress resistance. Over-expression of ZmLTP3 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the increased salt tolerance. Under salt stress condition, compared to wild-type (WT plants, transgenic Arabidopsis grew better, had higher seedling fresh (FW, dry weight (DW, seed yields, proline content and lower MDA content and relative electric conductivity level. Our results suggest that maize ZmLTP3 might encode a member of LTPs family and play roles in salt resistance.

  17. Isolation and Functional Analysis of ZmLTP3, a Homologue to Arabidopsis LTP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua-Wen; Tian, Xiao-Hai; Ma, Guo-Hui; Li, Zhi-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are encoded by multigene families and play important roles in plant physiology. One full-length cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis LTP3 homologue was isolated from maize by RT-PCR and named as ZmLTP3. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ZmLTP3 expression is induced by salicylic acid (SA), mannitol and salt. Furthermore, in different tissues the ZmLTP3 displayed different expression patterns, indicating that ZmLTP3 may play multiple roles in stress resistance. Over-expression of ZmLTP3 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the increased salt tolerance. Under salt stress condition, compared to wild-type (WT) plants, transgenic Arabidopsis grew better, had higher seedling fresh (FW), dry weight (DW), seed yields, proline content and lower MDA content and relative electric conductivity level. Our results suggest that maize ZmLTP3 might encode a member of LTPs family and play roles in salt resistance. PMID:23455470

  18. Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock

    KAUST Repository

    Bhardwaj, Vaibhav

    2011-10-31

    The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime. © 2011 Bhardwaj et al.

  19. Stabilization of Cytokinin Levels Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance Against Verticillium longisporum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reusche, M.; Klásková, J.; Thole, K.; Truskina, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Janz, D.; Strnad, Miroslav; Spíchal, L.; Lipka, V.; Teichmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2013), s. 850-860. ISSN 0894-0282 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : LEAF SENESCENCE * IPT GENE * BIOCHEMICAL-CHARACTERIZATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.455, year: 2013

  20. Recent Progress in Arabidopsis Research in China: A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2002, a workshop on Arabidopsis research in China was held in Shanghai, when a small group of Chinese plant scientists was working on this model species. Since then, we have witnessed the rapid growth of Arabidopsis research in China. This special issue of Journal of Integrative Plant Biology is dedicated exclusively to the Fourth Workshop on Arabidopsis Research in China, scheduled on November 30, 2005, in Beijing. In addition to reports collected in this special issue, the Chinese Arabidopsis community has been able to make significant contributions to many research fields. Here, I briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  1. Repression of the Auxin Response Pathway Increases Arabidopsis Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco Llorente; Paul Muskett; Andrea Sánchez-Vallet; Gemma López; Brisa Ramos; Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez; Lucia Jordá; Jane Parker; Antonio Molina

    2008-01-01

    In plants, resistance to necrotrophic pathogens depends on the interplay between different hormone systems, such as those regulated by salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene, and abscisic acid. Repression of auxin signaling by the SA pathway was recently shown to contribute to antibacterial resistance. Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis auxin signaling mutants axrl, axr2, and axr6 that have defects in the auxin-stimulated SCF (Skpl-Cullin-F-box) ubiquitination pathway exhibit increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungi Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Botrytis cinerea. Also, stabilization of the auxin transcriptional repressor AXR3 that is normally targeted for removal by the SCF-ubiquitin/proteasome machinery occurs upon P. cucumerina infection. Pharmacological inhibition of auxin transport or proteasome function each compromise necrotroph resistance of wild-type plants to a similar extent as in non-treated auxin response mutants. These results suggest that auxin signaling is important for resistance to the necrotrophic fungi P. cucumerina and B. cinerea. SGTlb (one of two Arabidopsis SGT1 genes encoding HSP90/HSC70 co-chaperones) promotes the functions of SCF E3-ubiquitin ligase complexes in auxin and JA responses and resistance conditioned by certain Resistance (R) genes to biotrophic pathogens. We find that sgtlb mutants are as resistant to P. cucumerina as wild-type plants. Conversely, auxin/SCF signaling mutants are uncompromised in RPP4-triggered resistance to the obligate biotrophic oomycete, Hyaloperonospora parasitica. Thus, the predominant action of SGTlb in R gene-conditioned resistance to oomycetes appears to be at a site other than assisting SCF E3-ubiquitin ligases. However, genetic additivity of sgtlb axr1 double mutants in susceptibility to H. parasitica suggests that SCF-mediated ubiquitination contributes to limiting biotrophic pathogen colonization once plant-pathogen compatibility is established.

  2. Riboflavin-induced Priming for Pathogen Defense in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujian Zhang; Xue Yang; Maowu Sun; Feng Sun; Sheng Deng; Hansong Dong

    2009-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) participates in a variety of redox processes that affect plant defense responses. Previously we have shown that riboflavin induces pathogen resistance in the absence of hypersensitive cell death (HCD) in plants. Herein, we report that riboflavin induces priming of defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana toward infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst). Induced resistance was mechanistically connected with the expression of defense response genes and cellular defense events, including H2O2 burst, HCD, and callose deposition in the plant. Riboflavin treatment and inoculation of plants with Pst were neither active but both synergized to induce defense responses. The priming process needed NPR1 (essential regulator of systemic acquired resistance) and maintenance of H2O2 burst but was independent of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that the role of riboflavin in priming defenses is subject to a signaling process distinct from the known pathways of hormone signal transduction.

  3. Generation of broad-spectrum disease resistance by overexpression of an essential regulatory gene in systemic acquired resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hui; Li, Xin; Dong, Xinnian

    1998-01-01

    The recently cloned NPR1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is a key regulator of acquired resistance responses. Upon induction, NPR1 expression is elevated and the NPR1 protein is activated, in turn inducing expression of a battery of downstream pathogenesis-related genes. In this study, we found that NPR1 confers resistance to the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Peronospora parasitica in a dosage-dependent fashion. Overexpression of NPR1 leads to enhanced resistance with no obvious detrimental...

  4. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  5. Elongator Plays a Positive Role in Exogenous NAD-Induced Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chuanfu; Ding, Yezhang; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Chenggang; Mou, Zhonglin

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular NAD is emerging as an important signal molecule in animal cells, but its role in plants has not been well-established. Although it has been shown that exogenous NAD(+) activates defense responses in Arabidopsis, components in the exogenous NAD(+)-activated defense pathway remain to be fully discovered. In a genetic screen for mutants insensitive to exogenous NAD(+) (ien), we isolated a mutant named ien2. Map-based cloning revealed that IEN2 encodes ELONGATA3 (ELO3)/AtELP3, a subunit of the Arabidopsis Elongator complex, which functions in multiple biological processes, including histone modification, DNA (de)methylation, and transfer RNA modification. Mutations in the ELO3/AtELP3 gene compromise exogenous NAD(+)-induced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326, and transgenic expression of the coding region of ELO3/AtELP3 in elo3/Atelp3 restores NAD(+) responsiveness to the mutant plants, demonstrating that ELO3/AtELP3 is required for exogenous NAD(+)-induced defense responses. Furthermore, mutations in genes encoding the other five Arabidopsis Elongator subunits (ELO2/AtELP1, AtELP2, ELO1/AtELP4, AtELP5, and AtELP6) also compromise exogenous NAD(+)-induced PR gene expression and resistance to P. syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. These results indicate that the Elongator complex functions as a whole in exogenous NAD(+)-activated defense signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:26926998

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243152 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase PP1 isozyme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains...P1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphat... a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 1e-154 ... ...AK243152 J100032N02 At2g39840.1 68415.m04893 serine/threonine protein phosphatase P

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288069 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase PP1 isozyme 4 (EC 3.1.3.16) {Arabidopsis thaliana}, phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 GI:166801 (Arabidopsis thaliana); contains...P1 isozyme 4 (TOPP4) / phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 identical to SP|P48484 Serine/threonine protein phosphat... a Ser/Thr protein phosphatase signature (PDOC00115); contains a metallo-phosphoesterase motif (QDOC50185) 6e-70 ... ...AK288069 J075158N05 At2g39840.1 68415.m04893 serine/threonine protein phosphatase P

  8. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  9. Characterization of a bifunctional O- and N-glucosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera in glucosylating phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline in Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Sheng Xu

    Full Text Available 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 3-methylcatechol, phenol, hydroquinone, catechol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline are present in the environment and are risky to humans and animals because of their wide applications in many industries. In this study, a putative uridine diphosphate glucose-dependent glycosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvUGT72B1 displayed high O-glucosyltransferase or N-glucosyltransferase activity toward all these xenbiotics and was able to enhance the resistance of P. pastoris to them. Compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, VvUGT72B1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed higher resistance to all the xenobiotics except for phenol and exhibited higher removal efficiencies against all xenobiotics. Glucosides of 3-methylcatechol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, phenol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline were exported to the surrounding media by Arabidopsis plants while transgenic Arabidopsis plants exported more glucosides than wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Our findings have the potential to provide a broader spectrum remediation strategy for the phytoremoval and degradation of phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline than previous works.

  10. Colonization of the Arabidopsis rhizosphere by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. activates a root-specific, ethylene-responsive PR-5 gene in the vascular bundle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Verhagen, B.W.M.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Pelt, J.A. van; Rep, M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Plants of which the roots are colonized by selected strains of non-pathogenic, fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. develop an enhanced defensive capacity against a broad spectrum of foliar pathogens. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) functions independently of sa

  11. Overexpression of OsWRKY72 gene interferes in the abscisic acid signal and auxin transport pathway of Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Song Yu; Chen Ligang; Zhang Liping; Yu Diqiu

    2010-09-01

    Through activating specific transcriptional programmes, plants can launch resistance mechanisms to stressful environments and acquire a new equilibrium between development and defence. To screen the rice WRKY transcription factor which functions in abiotic stress tolerance and modulates the abscisic acid (ABA) response, we generated a whole array of 35S-OsWRKY transgenic Arabidopsis. In this study, we report that 35S-OsWRKY72 transgenic Arabidopsis, whose seed germination was retarded under normal conditions, emerged more sensitive to mannitol, NaCl, ABA stresses and sugar starvation than vector plants. Meanwhile, 35S-OsWRKY72 transgenic Arabidopsis displayed early flowering, reduced apical dominance, lost high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation response, and enhanced gravitropism response, which were similar to the auxin-related gene mutants aux1, axr1 and bud1. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression patterns of three auxin-related genes AUX1, AXR1 and BUD1 were significantly altered in rosette leaves and inflorescences of 35S-OsWRKY72 plants compared with control Arabidopsis, and two ABA-related genes ABA2 and ABI4 were induced in 35S-OsWRKY72 seedlings. In addition, northern blot analysis indicated that, in rice, OsWRKY72 was inducible by polyethylene glycol (PEG), NaCl, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), ABA and 42°C, similar to its orthologue AtWRKY75 in Arabidopsis, implying that these two WRKY genes might be required for multiple physiological processes in their plants. Together, these results suggest that OsWRKY72 interferes in the signal cross-talk between the ABA signal and auxin transport pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066771 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066771 J013083K07 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative s...imilar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059353 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059353 001-026-D01 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 2e-29 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK059160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059160 001-023-D05 At1g01170.1 ozone-responsive stress-related protein, putative ...similar to stress-related ozone-induced protein AtOZI1 (GI:790583) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains 1 predicted transmembrane domain; 3e-28 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242849 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242849 J090072M15 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288959 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288959 J090084E19 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243008 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243008 J090097H12 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288072 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288072 J075161I05 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243178 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243178 J100036P15 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243505 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243505 J100074N19 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287577 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287577 J065037N08 At1g68370.1 68414.m07809 gravity -responsive protein / altered response to gravity ... ty protein (ARG1) identical to Altered Response to Gravity ... [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:4249662; contains Pfam p ...

  2. Protease gene families in Populus and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. Similarities and differences between the proteases expressed in different species may give valuable insights into their physiological roles and evolution. Results We have performed a comparative analysis of protease genes in the two sequenced dicot genomes, Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa by using genes coding for proteases in the MEROPS database 1 for Arabidopsis to identify homologous sequences in Populus. A multigene-based phylogenetic analysis was performed. Most protease families were found to be larger in Populus than in Arabidopsis, reflecting recent genome duplication. Detailed studies on e.g. the DegP, Clp, FtsH, Lon, rhomboid and papain-Like protease families showed the pattern of gene family expansion and gene loss was complex. We finally show that different Populus tissues express unique suites of protease genes and that the mRNA levels of different classes of proteases change along a developmental gradient. Conclusion Recent gene family expansion and contractions have made the Arabidopsis and Populus complements of proteases different and this, together with expression patterns, gives indications about the roles of the individual gene products or groups of proteases.

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241402 J065159A02 At4g19070.1 68417.m02810 cadmium-responsive protein / cadmium i...nduced protein (AS8) identical to cadmium induced protein AS8 SP:P42735 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-11 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242143 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 3e-12 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242143 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 6e-22 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to GI:6573119 from [Lycopersicon esculentum] (Plant Physiol. 122 (1), 292 (2000)) 1e-160 ... ... identical to SP|Q9C888 Phospholipase D epsilon (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDepsilon) (PLD epsilon) (PLDalpha3) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; simil

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.1 68417.m02148 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063585 001-118-A04 At4g13870.2 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX) contains Pf...am profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 6e-16 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242290 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242290 J075191E07 At4g13870.2 68417.m02149 Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease (WEX)... contains Pfam profile PF01612: 3'-5' exonuclease; identical to Werner Syndrome-like exonuclease [Arabidopsis thaliana] GP:28195109 gb:AAO33765 1e-20 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243230 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243230 J100044L04 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-65 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103452 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103452 J033129I11 At1g19850.1 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) / auxin-respon...sive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-166 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318617 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318617 J100090H20 At1g19850.1 68414.m02490 transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) /... auxin-responsive protein (IAA24) / auxin response factor 5 (ARF5) identical to transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP/IAA24/ARF5) SP:P93024 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-63 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287832 J065187F20 At1g30950.1 68414.m03790 unusual floral organ (UFO ) / F-box family protein ( ... ubunit; almost identical to unusual floral organs (UFO )GI:4376159 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] Landsberg-e ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241547 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241547 J065176G22 At1g30950.1 68414.m03790 unusual floral organ (UFO ) / F-box family protein ( ... ubunit; almost identical to unusual floral organs (UFO )GI:4376159 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] Landsberg-e ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242616 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-34 ... ...AK242616 J090017C19 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242846 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 9e-12 ... ...AK242846 J090071I10 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241162 J065116A05 At5g54800.1 68418.m06826 glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator, putative identic...al to glucose 6 phosphate/phosphate translocator [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|7229675|gb|AAF42936 2e-11 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242098 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-22 ... ...AK242098 J075143H11 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243041 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-31 ... ...AK243041 J100008G07 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243539 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 6e-34 ... ...AK243539 J100078G04 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242576 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-22 ... ...AK242576 J090009A15 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289111 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-20 ... ...AK289111 J090096N14 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289248 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289248 J100079D02 At5g54800.1 68418.m06826 glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator, putative identic...al to glucose 6 phosphate/phosphate translocator [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|7229675|gb|AAF42936 7e-19 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve contains PF00481: Protein phosphatase 2C domain; identical to protein phosphatase 2C (GI:4587992) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-81 ... ...AK287695 J065129B08 At2g40180.1 68415.m04941 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putati

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243048 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243048 J100010D20 At1g07370.1 68414.m00786 proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 1 (PCNA1) identi ... cal to SP|Q9M7Q7 Proliferating cellular nuclear ... antigen 1 (PCNA 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly ... identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam pro ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071591 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071591 J023105C08 At2g29570.1 proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA2) identical to SP|Q9Z ... W35 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly ... identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam pro ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243048 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243048 J100010D20 At2g29570.1 68415.m03591 proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA2) identi ... cal to SP|Q9ZW35 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen 2 (PCNA 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly ... identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam pro ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241265 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241265 J065132C02 At3g19450.1 68416.m02466 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to S ... 523 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-81 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105739 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105739 001-202-A05 At3g19450.1 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to SP|P48523 Cin ... namyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-46 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243022 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243022 J100001E20 At3g19450.1 68416.m02466 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to S ... 523 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-64 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287708 J065132C02 At3g19450.1 68416.m02466 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD ) identical to S ... 523 Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) (CAD ) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-81 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121261 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121261 J023104H13 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100867 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100867 J023124E13 At2g29640.1 josephin family protein contains Pfam domain PF02099: Jose...phin; similar to Josephin-like protein (Swiss-Prot:O82391) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-59 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065851 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065851 J013041L15 At1g79010.1 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 23 kDa subunit, mitochondrial (TY ... ursor (EC 1.6.5.3) (EC 1.6.99.3) (Complex I-23KD) (CI -23KD) (Complex I- 28.5KD) (CI -28.5KD) {Arabidopsis ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119532 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119532 001-203-F01 At1g79010.1 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 23 kDa subunit, mitochondrial (T ... ursor (EC 1.6.5.3) (EC 1.6.99.3) (Complex I-23KD) (CI -23KD) (Complex I- 28.5KD) (CI -28.5KD) {Arabidopsis ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243512 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243512 J100075C18 At4g16280.3 68417.m02471 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) id ... entical to SP|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243512 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243512 J100075C18 At4g16280.2 68417.m02470 flowering time ... control protein / FCA gamma (FCA) id ... entical to SP|O04425 Flowering time ... control protein FCA {Arabidopsis thaliana}; four a ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-130 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 2e-65 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110534 002-168-A07 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-114 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-24 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-45 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 3e-66 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069071 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069071 J023010H01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-124 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060286 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060286 001-006-C08 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 6e-78 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-29 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-25 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-28 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105393 001-123-B04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-25 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-126 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 8e-63 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 1e-125 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-26 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-47 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-98 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-98 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109812 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109812 002-147-H02 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 5e-90 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-31 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121003 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121003 J023045B21 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-48 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-45 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 4e-27 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061162 006-209-A01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-35 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-50 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066153 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287906 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available subunit / ClpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF028...61: Clp amino terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069552 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amino... terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058510 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lpC almost identical to ClpC GI:2921158 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF02861: Clp amin...o terminal domain; contains Pfam profile PF00004: ATPase, AAA family; contains Pfam profile PF02151: UvrB/uvrC motif 0.0 ...

  15. Shotgun Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two shotgun tandem mass spectrometry proteomics approaches, Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS, were used to identify Arabidopsis thaliana leaf proteins. These methods utilize different protein/peptide separation strategies. Detergents not compatible wit...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318553 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK318553 J075145A22 At4g11230.1 68417.m01819 respiratory burst ... oxidase, putative / NADPH oxidase ... , putative similar to respiratory burst ... oxidase homolog F [gi:3242456], RbohAp108 [gi:2654 ... 868] from Arabidopsis thaliana, respiratory burst ... oxidase homolog [GI:16549087] from Solanum tuberos ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110694 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110694 002-170-A08 At5g59560.2 sensitivity to red light reduced protein (SRR1) id...entical to sensitivity to red light reduced protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:25527089; supporting cDNA gi|25527088|gb|AY127047.1| 1e-18 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK099399 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 079; contains weak similarity to the SAPB protein (TR:E236624) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to seven transme...AK099399 J013000O17 At3g05010.1 transmembrane protein, putative similar to GB:AAB61...mbrane domain orphan receptor (GI:4321619) [Mus musculus] contains 7 transmembrane domains; 2e-89 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240830 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240830 J065014C16 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121431 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121431 J023138G19 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064987 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064987 J013001D03 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241627 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241627 J065187G05 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241568 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241568 J065179E12 At3g56700.1 68416.m06307 male ... sterility protein, putative similar to SP|Q088 ... 91 Male ... sterility protein 2 {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF03015: Male ... sterility protein 2e-70 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242888 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242888 J090079L06 At3g56700.1 68416.m06307 male ... sterility protein, putative similar to SP|Q088 ... 91 Male ... sterility protein 2 {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF03015: Male ... sterility protein 8e-81 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287630 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287630 J065073I15 At5g22260.1 68418.m02593 male ... sterility 1 protein, putative (MS1) identical ... to male ... sterility 1 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|1555 ... fam profile PF00628: PHD-finger; identical to cDNA male ... sterility 1 protein (ms1 gene) GI:15554514 3e-78 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058440 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 20S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-92 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119246 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119246 001-121-C04 At5g26570.1 glycoside hydrolase starch -binding domain-containing protein si ... milar to SEX1 (starch ... excess) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:12044358; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF00686: Starch ... binding domain 1e-116 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072331 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072331 J023039L19 At5g26570.1 glycoside hydrolase starch -binding domain-containing protein sim ... ilar to SEX1 (starch ... excess) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:12044358; contai ... ns Pfam profile PF00686: Starch ... binding domain 0.0 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK107208 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ala hydrolase, putative virtually identical to gr1-protein from [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3559811; similar t...AK107208 002-125-B11 At1g44350.1 IAA-amino acid hydrolase 6, putative (ILL6) / IAA-

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 1e-150 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287447 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287447 J043016O04 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-30 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-129 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243298 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243298 J100053J04 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 2e-44 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241385 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241385 J065156D02 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 1e-11 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241333 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241333 J065144I22 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 2e-35 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240730 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240730 J043030K09 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 6e-11 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241521 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241521 J065170L14 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 9e-32 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288402 J090030B22 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 7e-25 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241581 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241581 J065181K09 At3g30290.1 68416.m03825 cytochrome P450 family protein similar to Cytochrom ... similar to GB:C71417 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Nature ... 391 (6666), 485-488 (1998)) 7e-12 ...

  20. Engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plants accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Just how these crystals form remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating calcium oxalate crystal formation, a crystal engineering approach was initiated utilizing the non-crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis. The success of t...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288349 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288349 J090023P19 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-23 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241364 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241364 J065152E11 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-20 ...

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase in family GT14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins are abundant cell-surface proteoglycans in plants and are involved in many cellular processes including somatic embryogenesis, cell-cell interactions, and cell elongation. We reported a glucuronosyltransferase encoded by Arabidopsis AtGlcAT14A, which catalyzes an addition of glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans of arabinogalactan (Knoch et al. 2013). The knockout mutant of this gene resulted in the enhanced growth rate of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings, suggesting an involvement of AtGlcAT14A in cell elongation. AtGlcAt14A belongs to the family GT14 in the Carbohydrate Active Enzyme database (CAZy; www.cazy.org), in which a total of 11 proteins, including AtGLCAT14A, are classified from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report the enzyme activities for the rest of the Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, analyzed in the same way as for AtGlcAT14A. Evidently, two other Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, At5g15050 and At2g37585, also possess the glucuronosyltransferase activity adding glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans. Therefore, we named At5g15050 and At2g37585 as AtGlcAT14B and AtGlcAT14C, respectively. PMID:24739253

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242817 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242817 J090063G17 At3g48560.1 68416.m05302 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-a ... cid synthase (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 0.0 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058963 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058963 001-020-C04 At3g48560.1 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-acid synthase ... (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-15 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109628 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109628 002-138-C02 At3g48560.1 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-acid synthase ... (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242722 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242722 J090045F10 At3g16857.2 68416.m02153 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 2e-22 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111864 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111864 J033025G23 At3g16857.2 two-component responsive regulator family protein / response regulato...r family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 1e-92 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241362 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241362 J065151H17 At3g16857.1 68416.m02152 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 5e-13 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK112039 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112039 001-044-C11 At3g16857.2 two-component responsive regulator family protein / response regulato...r family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 4e-18 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111899 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111899 J023034P21 At3g16857.2 two-component responsive regulator family protein / response regulato...r family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 1e-92 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242722 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242722 J090045F10 At3g16857.1 68416.m02152 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 2e-22 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241362 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241362 J065151H17 At3g16857.2 68416.m02153 two-component responsive regulator fam...ily protein / response regulator family protein contains Pfam profile: PF00072 response regulator receiver domain; similar to... ARR1 protein GB:BAA74528 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant Cell Physiol. (1998) 39 (11), 1232-1239) 5e-13 ...

  14. HYDROPONIC METHOD FOR CULTURING POPULATIONS OF ARABIDOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A plant life-cycle bioassay using Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. was developed to detect potential chemical phytotoxicity. The bioassay requires large numbers of plants to maximize the probability of detecting deleterious effect and to avoid any bias that could occur if only a ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119521 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119521 001-202-D09 At3g57050.2 cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast / beta-cystathionase...thionase) (Cysteine lyase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-173 ... ... / cysteine lyase (CBL) identical to SP|P53780 Cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast precursor (EC 4.4.1.8) (CBL) (Beta-cysta

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108403 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108403 002-142-G06 At3g57050.2 cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast / beta-cystathionase...thionase) (Cysteine lyase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-36 ... ... / cysteine lyase (CBL) identical to SP|P53780 Cystathionine beta-lyase, chloroplast precursor (EC 4.4.1.8) (CBL) (Beta-cysta

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065345 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK065345 J013008D19 At1g19720.1 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-87 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243514 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243514 J100075D15 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 7e-40 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243585 J100082O14 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 5e-20 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287666 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287666 J065117E22 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 1e-41 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242010 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242010 J075106F03 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 7e-14 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243244 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243244 J100046N20 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 4e-29 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288271 J090017A22 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 3e-24 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242268 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242268 J075186C19 At1g33280.1 68414.m04116 no apical meristem (NAM) family protein similar to ... CUC1 (GP:12060422) {Arabidopsis thaliana} amd ... to NAM (GP:1279640) {Petunia x hybrida} 1e-45 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069545 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069545 J023025I06 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pro ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065420 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065420 J013022D10 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pro ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 1e-166 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062262 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062262 001-047-H04 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pr ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060612 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060612 001-025-F03 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pr ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067323 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067323 J013106B16 At5g13630.1 magnesium -chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, putative / Mg-pro ... IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium ... chelatase subunit GI:1154627 from [Arabidopsis tha ... liana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium ... chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  10. Genetic and environmental control of the Verticillium syndrome in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Diederichsen Elke; Karlovsky Petr; Häffner Eva

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Verticillium spp. are major pathogens of dicotyledonous plants such as cotton, tomato, olive or oilseed rape. Verticillium symptoms are often ambiguous and influenced by development and environment. The aim of the present study was to define disease and resistance traits of the complex Verticillium longisporum syndrome in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. A genetic approach was used to determine genetic, developmental and environmental factors controlling specific disease a...

  11. The IBR5 phosphatase promotes Arabidopsis auxin responses through a novel mechanism distinct from TIR1-mediated repressor degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel Bonnie; Monroe-Augustus Melanie; Strader Lucia C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In Arabidopsis, INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID RESPONSE5 (IBR5), a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase, is a positive regulator of auxin response. Mutations in IBR5 result in decreased plant height, defective vascular development, increased leaf serration, fewer lateral roots, and resistance to the phytohormones auxin and abscisic acid. However, the pathways through which IBR5 influences auxin responses are not fully understood. Results We analyzed double mutants of ibr5 ...

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana class-II TGA transcription factors are essential activators of jasmonic acid/ethylene-induced defense responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, Mark; Camera, Sylvain La; Lamotte, Olivier; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Gatz, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The three closely related Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors TGA2, TGA5 and TGA6 are required for the establishment of the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent plant defense response systemic acquired resistance, which is effective against biotrophic pathogens. Here we show that the same transcription factors are essential for the activation of jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-dependent defense mechanisms that counteract necrotrophic pathogens: the tga256 triple mutan...

  13. Arabidopsis Clade I TGA Factors Regulate Apoplastic Defences against the Bacterial Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae through Endoplasmic Reticulum-Based Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lipu; Fobert, Pierre R.

    2013-01-01

    During the plant immune response, large-scale transcriptional reprogramming is modulated by numerous transcription (co) factors. The Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper transcription factors TGA1 and TGA4, which comprise the clade I TGA factors, have been shown to positively contribute to disease resistance against virulent strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae . Despite physically interacting with the key immune regulator, NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1), f...

  14. Response of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots with Altered Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP) Gene Expression to the Clubroot Disease and Salt Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Jülke; Jutta Ludwig-Müller

    2015-01-01

    The clubroot disease of Brassicaceae is caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae. The disease is characterized by abnormal tumorous swellings of infected roots that result in reduced drought resistance and insufficient distribution of nutrients, leading to reduced crop yield. It is one of the most damaging diseases among cruciferous crops worldwide. The acquisition of nutrients by the protist is not well understood. Gene expression profiles in Arabidopsis thaliana cl...

  15. Plant hemoglobin gene expression adjusts Arabidopsis susceptibility to Pseudomonas synringae and Botrytis cinerea though scavenging of nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivakumaran, Anushen; Hebelstrup, Kim; Cristescu, Simona;

    2011-01-01

    NO has earlier been shown to influence ethylene production during Pseudomonas syringae elicited hypersensitive response in tobacco. In this work Arabidopsis plants with silencing or null mutation of hemoglobin genes (glb1 and glb2) and transgenic lines over-expressing Glb1 and Glb2 demonstrated a...... causal link between NO generation, hemoglobin-dependent NO scavenging, the production of ethylene and resistance to Botrytis or Pseudomonas....

  16. Global expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    St Clair Dina A; Morgante Michele; West Marilyn AL; Kozik Alexander; Meyers Blake C; Tan Xiaoping; Bent Andrew F; Michelmore Richard W

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-encoding genes comprise the largest class of plant disease resistance genes. The 149 NBS-LRR-encoding genes and the 58 related genes that do not encode LRRs represent approximately 0.8% of all ORFs so far annotated in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. Despite their prevalence in the genome and functional importance, there was little information regarding expression of these genes. Results We analyzed the expression patterns of...

  17. Arabidopsis non-specific phospholipase C1: Characterisation and its involvement in response to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana eKrčková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis non-specific phospholipase C (NPC protein family is encoded by the genes NPC1 – NPC6. It has been shown that NPC4 and NPC5 possess phospholipase C activity; NPC3 has lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase activity. NPC3, 4 and 5 play roles in the responses to hormones and abiotic stresses. NPC1, 2 and 6 has not been studied functionally yet.We found that Arabidopsis NPC1 expressed in E. coli possesses phospholipase C activity in vitro. This protein was able to hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine to diacylglycerol. NPC1-green fluorescent protein was localized to secretory pathway compartments in Arabidopsis roots. In the knock out T-DNA insertion line NPC1 (npc1 basal thermotolerance was impaired compared with wild-type; npc1 exhibited significant decreases in survival rate and chlorophyll content at the seventh day after heat stress. Conversely, plants overexpressing NPC1 (NPC1-OE were more resistant to heat stress compared with wild-type. These findings suggest that NPC1 is involved in the plant response to heat

  18. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina;

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  19. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of t...

  20. Physiological and molecular basis of Azospirillum-Arabidopsis Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeer, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at revealing the early signalling events during the interaction of the diazotrophic soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense with its host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, taking advantage of the micro array technique, a comprehensive overview of Arabidopsis genes has been undertaken which are affected upon association with A. brasilense The characterization of the early responses of Arabidopsis plants upon inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7 ...

  1. Characterization of Arabidopsis FPS isozymes and FPS gene expression analysis provide insight into the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors in seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Keim

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate (FPP synthase (FPS, the prenyl diphoshate synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of FPP from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP. In this study, we provide evidence that the two Arabidopsis short FPS isozymes FPS1S and FPS2 localize to the cytosol. Both enzymes were expressed in E. coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Despite FPS1S and FPS2 share more than 90% amino acid sequence identity, FPS2 was found to be more efficient as a catalyst, more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of NaCl, and more resistant to thermal inactivation than FPS1S. Homology modelling for FPS1S and FPS2 and analysis of the amino acid differences between the two enzymes revealed an increase in surface polarity and a greater capacity to form surface salt bridges of FPS2 compared to FPS1S. These factors most likely account for the enhanced thermostability of FPS2. Expression analysis of FPS::GUS genes in seeds showed that FPS1 and FPS2 display complementary patterns of expression particularly at late stages of seed development, which suggests that Arabidopsis seeds have two spatially segregated sources of FPP. Functional complementation studies of the Arabidopsis fps2 knockout mutant seed phenotypes demonstrated that under normal conditions FPS1S and FPS2 are functionally interchangeable. A putative role for FPS2 in maintaining seed germination capacity under adverse environmental conditions is discussed.

  2. Aphid-induced accumulation of trehalose in Arabidopsis thaliana is systemic and dependent upon aphid density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Simon; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Bennett, Mark; Mansfield, John W; Powell, Glen

    2013-04-01

    Trehalose is a disaccharide sugar that is now considered to be widely distributed among higher plants. Trehalose has been attributed a number of roles, including control of basic plant processes, such as photosynthesis, and conferring tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as desiccation and high salinity. Trehalose is also a common storage sugar used by insects. In this study, we used laboratory investigations to examine various aspects of trehalose dynamics in an aphid-host plant system (Arabidopsis and the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae). Trehalose concentrations were measured by [1-H]-NMR. Myzus persicae reared on Arabidopsis, but not on black mustard or spring cabbage, contained considerable quantities of trehalose (5 % w/w dry matter). In Arabidopsis foliage, feeding by aphids induced a density-dependent accumulation of trehalose up to 5 mg g(-1) dry weight. Leaves that were not challenged directly by aphids also exhibited increased trehalose concentrations, indicating that this accumulation was systemic. Trehalose was measured at high concentrations in the phloem sap of plants challenged by aphids, suggesting that aphid feeding induced the plant to produce significant quantities of trehalose, which moved through the plant and into the aphids via the phloem sap. Trehalose was also excreted in the aphid honeydew. Further work is required to clarify whether this trehalose accumulation in Arabidopsis has a direct role or a signalling function in plant tolerance of, or resistance to, aphid feeding, and if a similar accumulation of this sugar occurs when other species or genotypes of aphids are reared on this host plant. PMID:23242075

  3. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Cheol eSong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 M and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through SA, JA, and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  4. Redox regulation of the NPR1-TGA1 system of Arabidopsis thaliana by nitric oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Lindermayr, Christian; Sell, Simone; Müller, Bernd; Leister, Dario; Durner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in local and systemic defense reactions is well documented. NPR1 and TGA1 are key redox-controlled regulators of systemic acquired resistance in plants. NPR1 monomers interact with the reduced form of TGA1, which targets the activation sequence-1 (as-1) element of the promoter region of defense proteins. Here, we report the effect of the physiological nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione on the NPR1/TGA1 regulation system in Arabidopsis thal...

  5. Dissecting endophytic lifestyle along the parasitism/mutualism continuum in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesel, Philipp H; Zuccaro, Alga

    2016-08-01

    Mutualistic interactions between plants and fungi often occur in the rhizosphere, although examples exist where shoot-endophytes support host growth and increase resistance to pathogens and herbivores. Fungal endophytes which colonize their hosts without any visible disease symptoms have been recognized to be fundamental components of various ecosystems. Initial efforts have been taken to decipher the genetic basis of beneficial plant-fungus interactions and of lifestyle transitions. This review gives a short overview on well established experimental systems amenable to genetic manipulation and of known genome sequence for dissecting plant-fungal endophyte interactions with a special focus on Arabidopsis thaliana associations. PMID:27280851

  6. Aluminium-induced ion transport in Arabidopsis: the relationship between Al tolerance and root ion flux

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Shabala, Sergey; RENGEL, ZED

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) rhizotoxicity coincides with low pH; however, it is unclear whether plant tolerance to these two factors is controlled by the same mechanism. To address this question, the Al-resistant alr104 mutant, two Al-sensitive mutants (als3 and als5), and wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana were compared in long-term exposure (solution culture) and in short-term exposure experiments (H+ and K+ fluxes, rhizosphere pH, and plasma membrane potential, E m). Based on biomass accumulation, als5 and...

  7. Isolation and Functional Analysis of ZmLTP3, a Homologue to Arabidopsis LTP3

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Hui Ma; Xiao-Hai Tian; Hua-Wen Zou; Zhi-Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are encoded by multigene families and play important roles in plant physiology. One full-length cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis LTP3 homologue was isolated from maize by RT-PCR and named as ZmLTP3. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ZmLTP3 expression is induced by salicylic acid (SA), mannitol and salt. Furthermore, in different tissues the ZmLTP3 displayed different expression patterns, indicating that ZmLTP3 may play multiple roles in stress resistance. Ove...

  8. Expression and detection of the FMDV VP1 transgene and expressed structural protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Li; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Yonglu; Lv, Jianliang; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zhongwang

    2011-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of developing a new type of plantderived foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) oral vaccine, the plant seed-specific expression vector p7SBin438/VP1 carrying the VP1 gene of the FMDV strain O/China/99 was constructed and transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. This strain was used for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana via the floral-dip method. The kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were selected, and the VP1 gene and protein expressions were...

  9. Inducible and constitutive expression of an elicitor gene Hrip1 from Alternaria tenuissima enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue-Cong; Qiu, De-Wen; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Guo, Li-Hua; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Hrip1 is a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein secreted by Alternaria tenuissima that activates defense responses and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. This study investigates the role that Hrip1 plays in responses to abiotic and biotic stress using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the Hrip1 gene under the control of the stress-inducible rd29A promoter or constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Bioassays showed that inducible Hrip1 expression in rd29A∷Hrip1 transgenic lines had a significantly higher effect on plant height, silique length, plant dry weight, seed germination and root length under salt and drought stress compared to expression in 35S∷Hrip1 lines and wild type plants. The level of enhancement of resistance to Botrytis cinerea by the 35S∷Hrip1 lines was higher than in the rd29A∷Hrip1 lines. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly increased by 200 mM NaCl and 200 mM mannitol treatments, and defense genes in the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after Botrytis inoculation in the Hrip1 transgenic plants. Furthermore, the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and catalase increased after salt and drought stress and Botrytis infection. These results suggested that the Hrip1 protein contributes to abiotic and biotic resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and may be used as a useful gene for resistance breeding in crops. Although the constitutive expression of Hrip1 is suitable for biotic resistance, inducible Hrip1 expression is more responsive for abiotic resistance. PMID:25120219

  10. Root gravitropism in maize and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    Research during the period 1 March 1992 to 30 November 1993 focused on improvements in a video digitizer system designed to automate the recording of surface extension in plants responding to gravistimulation. The improvements included modification of software to allow detailed analysis of localized extension patterns in roots of Arabidopsis. We used the system to analyze the role of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone (a region between the meristem and the elongation zone) in the response of maize roots to auxin, calcium, touch and gravity. We also used the system to analyze short-term auxin and gravitropic responses in mutants of Arabidopsis with reduced auxin sensitivity. In a related project, we studied the relationship between growth rate and surface electrical currents in roots by examining the effects of gravity and thigmostimulation on surface potentials in maize roots.

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100975 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK100975 J023143J04 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240654 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphatase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha... 1) (Choline phosphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK240654 J023098I11 At3g15730.1 68416.m01993 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065102 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK065102 J013001N03 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...AK119523 001-202-E03 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066556 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-63 ... ...AK066556 J013073D11 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072121 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK072121 J013122J23 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119861 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...AK119861 002-178-H08 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121264 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK121264 J023105D06 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243041 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243041 J100008G07 At3g11410.1 68416.m01392 protein phosphatase 2C, putative / PP2C, putative identic...osphatase 2C; identical to cDNA protein phosphatase 2C GI:633027 2e-21 ... ...al to protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) GB:P49598 [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile PF00481: Protein ph

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK100278 J023073L15 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120459 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase 1 identical to SP:Q38882 Phospholipase D alpha 1 (EC 3.1.4.4) (AtPLDalpha1) (PLD alpha 1) (Choline ph...osphatase 1) (Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D 1) (PLDalpha) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 0.0 ... ...AK120459 J013106C05 At3g15730.1 phospholipase D alpha 1 / PLD alpha 1 (PLDALPHA1) (PLD1) / choline phosphat

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain famil...y cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  3. Flavonoid-specific staining of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, J J; Rechnitz, G A

    1992-12-01

    Crop yields may be threatened by increases in UV-B radiation resulting from depletion of the ozone layer. In higher plants, the presence of flavonols provides a protective mechanism, and we report a novel staining procedure for the visualization of such protectants in plant tissue. It is shown that the proposed technique provides sensitive and specific fluorescence of flavonoids in chlorophyll-bleached tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:1282347

  4. Unraveling the circadian clock in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous timing system responsible for coordinating an organism’s biological processes with its environment. Interlocked transcriptional feedback loops constitute the fundamental architecture of the circadian clock. In Arabidopsis, three feedback loops, the core loop, morning loop and evening loop, comprise a network that is the basis of the circadian clock. The components of these three loops are regulated in distinct ways, including transcriptional, post-transcri...

  5. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is now widely used as a model system in molecular and developmental biology, as well as in physiology and cell biology. However, ecologists and evolutionary biologists have turned their attention to the mouse ear cress only much more recently and almost reluctantly. The reason for this is the perception that A. thaliana is not particularly interesting ecologically and that it represents an oddity from an evolutionary standpoint. While there is some truth in both these att...

  6. Fluorescence-Activated Nucleolus Sorting in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Boyer-Clavel, Myriam; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar isolation allows exhaustive characterization of the nucleolar content. Centrifugation-based protocols are not adapted to isolation of nucleoli directly from a plant tissue because of copurification of cellular debris. We describe here a method that allows the purification of nucleoli using fluorescent-activated cell sorting from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. This approach requires the expression of a specific nucleolar protein such as fibrillarin fused to green fluorescent protein in planta. PMID:27576720

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071200 J023086K07 At1g64200.1 vacuolar ATP synthase ... subunit E , putative ... / V-ATPase ... E ... subunit, ... putative ... / vacuolar proton pump E ... subunit, putative ... similar ... to SP|Q39258 Vacuolar ATP synthase ... subunit E ... (E C 3.6.3.14) (V-ATPase ... E ... subunit) (Vacu ... olar proton pump E ... subunit) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; contains Pfam pro ... file ... PF01991: ATP synthase ... (E /31 kDa) subunit 1e -86 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100850 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100850 J023123I11 At4g11150.1 vacuolar ATP synthase ... subunit E ... / V-ATPase ... E ... subunit / vacuolar ... proton pump E ... subunit (VATE ) ide ntical to SP|Q39258 Vacuolar ATP ... synthase ... subunit E ... (E C 3.6.3.14) (V-ATPase ... E ... subunit) (Vacu ... olar proton pump E ... subunit) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e -79 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072778 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072778 J023139P14 At4g11150.1 vacuolar ATP synthase ... subunit E ... / V-ATPase ... E ... subunit / vacuolar ... proton pump E ... subunit (VATE ) ide ntical to SP|Q39258 Vacuolar ATP ... synthase ... subunit E ... (E C 3.6.3.14) (V-ATPase ... E ... subunit) (Vacu ... olar proton pump E ... subunit) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e -72 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241580 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241580 J065181H03 At4g23640.1 68417.m03404 potassium transporter / tiny root hair ... 1 protein (T ... RH1) identical to tiny root hair ... 1 protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|11181958|emb|C ... MID:11500563; identical to cDNA mRNA for tiny root hair ... 1 protein (trh1) GI:11181957 1e-139 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110331 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110331 002-164-D12 At2g31510.1 IBR domain-containing protein / ARIADNE-like prote...in ARI7 (ARI7) identical to ARIADNE-like protein ARI7 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:29125028; contains similarit...y to Swiss-Prot:Q94981 ariadne-1 protein (Ari-1) [Drosophila melanogaster]; contains Pfam profile PF01485: IBR domain 3e-59 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242789 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242789 J090057B20 At2g31510.1 68415.m03850 IBR domain-containing protein / ARIADN...E-like protein ARI7 (ARI7) identical to ARIADNE-like protein ARI7 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:29125028; contai...ns similarity to Swiss-Prot:Q94981 ariadne-1 protein (Ari-1) [Drosophila melanogaster]; contains Pfam profile PF01485: IBR domain 8e-12 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065950 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065950 J013049M07 At3g11820.1 syntaxin 121 (SYP121) / syntaxin-related protein (SYR1) conta...ins Pfam profiles: PF00804 syntaxin and PF05739: SNARE domain; identical to cDNA syntaxin-related ...protein At-SYR1 (At-Syr1) GI:4206788, SP|Q9ZSD4 Syntaxin 121 (AtSYP121) (Syntaxin-related protein At-Syr1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-88 ...

  14. A Superfamily of Arabidopsis Thaliana Retrotransposons

    OpenAIRE

    Konieczny, A; Voytas, D. F.; Cummings, M. P.; Ausubel, F M

    1991-01-01

    We describe a superfamily of Arabidopsis thaliana retrotransposable elements that consists of at least ten related families designated Ta1-Ta10. The Ta1 family has been described previously. Two genomic clones representing the Ta2 and Ta3 elements were isolated from an A. thaliana (race Landsberg erecta) λ library using sequences derived from the reverse transcriptase region of Ta1 as hybridization probes. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the Ta1, Ta2 and Ta3 families share >75% amino...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243366 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK243366 J100062A03 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 3e-33 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241693 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241693 J065195J20 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 4e-31 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240979 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK240979 J065049G14 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-40 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242723 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK242723 J090045G15 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 7e-31 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241693 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241693 J065195J20 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 4e-15 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289251 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK289251 J100081E23 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 9e-17 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK318555 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK318555 J075159J07 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 8e-83 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288980 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288980 J090085N06 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 4e-67 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288612 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288612 J090053J15 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 4e-34 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241656 J065191E22 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 3e-44 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288115 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288115 J080036I11 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 3e-15 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242521 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK242521 J080313L24 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 5e-27 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241784 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241784 J065206N09 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 5e-16 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240965 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK240965 J065046D15 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-30 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243366 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK243366 J100062A03 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 2e-16 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288938 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288938 J090082P07 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 5e-38 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242649 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK242649 J090025M16 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 2e-12 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287434 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK287434 J043012F24 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 4e-38 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240855 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK240855 J065021H02 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-16 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241009 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241009 J065053H11 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-105 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243366 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK243366 J100062A03 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 8e-45 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241102 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK241102 J065078J20 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-13 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242649 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK242649 J090025M16 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 3e-20 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288338 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288338 J090023E14 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 5e-26 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240965 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK240965 J065046D15 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 1e-49 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288738 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cal over 405 amino acids to DYW7 protein of unknown function GB:CAA06829 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Plant...AK288738 J090063N09 At1g19720.1 68414.m02463 pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein nearly identi... Mol. Biol. 42 (4), 603-613 (2000)); contains Pfam profile PF01535: PPR repeat 2e-50 ...